WorldWideScience

Sample records for eastern english channel

  1. The impact of turbulence and phytoplankton dynamics on foam formation, seawater viscosity and chlorophyll concentration in the eastern English Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Kesaulya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The space-time dynamics of chlorophyll a concentration and seawater excess viscosity has been investigated in the hydrographically contrasting inshore and offshore water masses of the eastern English Channel. This was done during the phytoplankton spring bloom dominated by Phaeocystis globosa before and after the very large-scale formation of foam induced by an increase in wind-driven turbulence and the related wave breakings. The results suggest that the dynamics of chlorophyll a concentration and seawater excess viscosity are differentially controlled by the formation of foam through the intensity of the spring bloom and wind-generated turbulence.

  2. Multiscale bloom dynamics from a high frequency autonomous measurement system in the Eastern English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derot, Jonathan; Schmitt, François; Gentilhomme, Valérie

    2014-05-01

    We consider here a dataset from an Eulerian automated system, located on the coastal area of the French side of the English Channel (Boulogne-sur-Mer), called MAREL Carnot, operated by IFREMER (France). This system records more than 15 physico-chemical parameters at 20 minutes intervals, and at the constant depth of -1,5m whatever the tidal range. Our study focuses on the period 2004 to 2011. The objective of this study is to have a better understanding of the bloom fluorescence multiscale dynamics, as regards the coastal area of English Channel and possible influence of temperature on this dynamics. Annual blooms are visible, superposed to multiscale fluctuations. The probability density function (PDF) of the fluorescence time series very nicely obeys a power law with slope -2. The PDF for annual portions obeys also power laws, with slopes which are related to the annual average. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is used to study the dynamics and display the power spectrum, which will be linked with these dynamics. EMD method is also used to extract a trend and isolate the blooms from the high frequency dynamics. We show that the high frequency part of the fluorescence dynamics has a very large variance during bloom events, compared to normal conditions. We also show that there is a link between the mean winter temperature and the strength of bloom next spring. These results contribute to statistically characterize the bloom dynamics and extract some possible universal relations. Keywords: English Channel; Autonomous monitoring; Power spectra; EMD method; Probability density functions; Power laws.

  3. Fish composition and assemblage structure in three Eastern English Channel macrotidal estuaries: A comparison with other French estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleslagh, Jonathan; Amara, Rachid; Laffargue, Pascal; Lesourd, Sandric; Lepage, Mario; Girardin, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This study has analysed for the first time fish composition and assemblage structures of three small macrotidal estuaries of the Eastern English Channel (EEC) and has explored the influences of 19 biotic and abiotic variables on the fish assemblages. Fish from Canche, Authie and Somme estuaries were collected during spring (June 2006 and May 2007) and autumn (September 2006) along the estuarine gradients using a 1.5 m beam trawl. Using identical sampling protocols, the study also analysed and compared for the first time taxonomic and functional aspects of the fish assemblages in 15 estuaries located along the Atlantic and English Channel coasts. SIMPER analysis showed high similarities in fish assemblages in the three EEC estuaries and during either spring or autumn periods. However, intra-estuary similarities were relatively low, indicating that fish assemblage structures (species richnesses or abundances) were more variable within the estuary (salinity gradient) than between estuaries and/or seasons (spring vs autumn). Although numerous environmental variables were included in the study, only 47% of the variability observed in the fish distribution was explained. Fish spatial variations in the EEC estuaries are mostly driven by abiotic variables as opposed to biological interactions. As indicated by CCA, salinity and muddy sediments were the two most important factors structuring the fish assemblages. The macrobenthos being very abundant in the EEC estuaries (580-1121 ind. m -2), the availability of potential prey is probably not a limiting factor in the utilization of estuaries by fish. Contrary to the majority of French estuaries dominated by estuarine species (ES), the fish assemblages of the EEC estuaries are clearly dominated by marine migrant (MM) species (65% on average) with high abundance of juveniles (mostly young-of-the-year). Cluster and SIMPROF's analyses distinguished the functional structure of the 15 estuarine fish assemblages into different

  4. Identification of the main processes underlying ecosystem functioning in the Eastern English Channel, with a focus on flatfish species, as revealed through the application of the Atlantis end-to-end model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, Raphaël; Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Lehuta, Sigrid; Rolland, Marie; Thébaud, Olivier; Travers-Trolet, Morgane; Vermard, Youen; Marchal, Paul

    2018-02-01

    The ecosystem model Atlantis was used to investigate the key dynamics and processes that structure the Eastern English Channel ecosystem, with a particular focus on two commercial flatfish species, sole (Solea solea) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). This complex model was parameterized with data collected from diverse sources (a literature review, survey data, as well as landings and stock assessment information) and tuned so both simulated biomass and catch fit 2002-2011 observations. Here, the outputs are mainly presented for the two focus species and for some other vertebrates found to be important in the trophic network. The calibration process revealed the importance of coastal areas in the Eastern English Channel and of nutrient inputs from estuaries: a lack of river nutrients decreases the productivity of nursery grounds and adversely affects the production of sole and plaice. The role of discards in the trophic network is also highlighted. While sole and plaice did not have a strong influence on the trophic network of vertebrates, they are important predators for benthic invertebrates and compete for food with crustaceans, whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and other demersal fish. We also found that two key species, cod (Gadus morhua) and whiting, thoroughly structured the Eastern English Channel trophic network.

  5. A new hybrid model for filling gaps and forecast in sea level: application to the eastern English Channel and the North Atlantic Sea (western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Imen; Laignel, Benoit; Kakeh, Nabil; Chevalier, Laetitia; Costa, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    This research is carried out in the framework of the program Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) which is a partnership between NASA and CNES. Here, a new hybrid model is implemented for filling gaps and forecasting the hourly sea level variability by combining classical harmonic analyses to high statistical methods to reproduce the deterministic and stochastic processes, respectively. After simulating the mean trend sea level and astronomical tides, the nontidal residual surges are investigated using an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) methods by two ways: (1) applying a purely statistical approach and (2) introducing the SLP in ARMA as a main physical process driving the residual sea level. The new hybrid model is applied to the western Atlantic sea and the eastern English Channel. Using ARMA model and considering the SLP, results show that the hourly sea level observations of gauges with are well reproduced with a root mean square error (RMSE) ranging between 4.5 and 7 cm for 1 to 30 days of gaps and an explained variance more than 80 %. For larger gaps of months, the RMSE reaches 9 cm. The negative and the positive extreme values of sea levels are also well reproduced with a mean explained variance between 70 and 85 %. The statistical behavior of 1-year modeled residual components shows good agreements with observations. The frequency analysis using the discrete wavelet transform illustrate strong correlations between observed and modeled energy spectrum and the bands of variability. Accordingly, the proposed model presents a coherent, simple, and easy tool to estimate the total sea level at timescales from days to months. The ARMA model seems to be more promising for filling gaps and estimating the sea level at larger scales of years by introducing more physical processes driving its stochastic variability.

  6. Effect of variable winds on current structure and Reynolds stresses in a tidal flow: analysis of experimental data in the eastern English Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Korotenko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind and wave effects on tidal current structure and turbulence throughout the water column are examined using an upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP. The instrument has been deployed on the seafloor of 18-m mean depth, off the north-eastern French coast in the eastern English Channel, over 12 tidal cycles, and covered the period of the transition from mean spring to neap tide, and forcing regimes varied from calm to moderate storm conditions. During storms, we observed gusty winds with magnitudes reaching 15 m s−1 and wave heights reaching up to 1.3 m. Analysis of velocity spectra revealed a noticeable contribution of wind-induced waves to spectral structure of velocity fluctuations within the subsurface layer. Near the surface, stormy winds and waves produced a significant intensification of velocity fluctuations, particularly when the sustained wind blew against the ebb tide flow. As during wavy periods, the variance-derived Reynolds stress estimates might include a wave-induced contamination, we applied the Variance Fit method to obtain unbiased stresses and other turbulent quantities. Over calm periods, the turbulent quantities usually decreased with height above the seabed. The stresses were found to vary regularly with the predominantly semidiurnal tidal flow. The along-shore stress being generally greater during the flood flow (~2.7 Pa than during the ebb flow (~−0.6 Pa. The turbulent kinetic energy production rate, P, and eddy viscosity, Az, followed a nearly regular cycle with close to a quarter-diurnal period. As for the stresses, near the seabed, we found the maximum values of estimated quantities of P and Az to be 0.1 Wm−3 and 0.5 m2 s−1, respectively, during the flood flow. Over the storm periods, we found the highest unbiased stress values (~−2.6 Pa during ebb when tidal currents were opposite to the

  7. Morphological evolution of intertidal dunes during a spring-neap cycle, in macrotidal estuarine environment (Baie de Somme, Eastern English Channel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Charlotte; Le Bot, Sophie; Lafite, Robert; Julien, Deloffre; Stéphane, Costa; Arnaud, Héquette; Vincent, Sipka; Adrien, Cartier

    2015-04-01

    Like many estuaries in the Eastern English Channel, the Baie de Somme is currently infill by marine sands. Among the morphological figures characteristics of this estuarine bay, many fields of dunes emerge on the intertidal area, and their dynamic contributes largely to sediment transfer. The aim of this study, performed on 25 consecutive neap and spring tides, is to quantify the morphological evolution of dunes, their migration rates and associated sedimentary fluxes associated, for various meteorological (wind, storm) and hydrodynamic (tide, wave, surge) conditions. In January and February 2014, took place in situ measurements (topography using a 3D laser scanner, altimetry, currents, turbidity, superficial sediment samples, water samples and cores) during a semi-lunar cycle (neap-spring-neap), and including storm conditions. Medium to large dunes (H: 0.3 to 0.6 m; λ: 8 to 13 m), with superimposed ripples, are present on the dunes field studied. During the lunar cycle, dune morphology is changing from asymmetrical (neap) to symmetrical (spring) shapes, and even flattening (high spring tides), depending on marine hydrodynamic forcing. The asymmetry is changing seaward shortly, but the residual migration is mainly landward in the direction of the strongest current (flood during periods of high agitation or ebb during periods of low agitation). Dunes are immobile in neap conditions, and migrate with rates up to 0.88 m/h in spring conditions, in accordance with their polarity. The residual sediment transport, measured or calculated was carried landward to the inner area of the Baie de Somme, with sedimentary flow by bedload and suspended transport. A size distinction between sand and silt/mud was made on the bed (during low water) and in the water column (during flow) using laser grain size analysis. This huge data set of hydrodynamics and morphological observation permit to distinguish precisely the transport period of spring tide, associated with morphological

  8. Tide-surge interaction in the English Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Idier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The English Channel is characterised by strong tidal currents and a wide tidal range, such that their influence on surges is expected to be non-negligible. In order to better assess storm surges in this zone, tide-surge interactions are investigated. A preliminary data analysis on hourly surges indicates some preferential times of occurrence of large storm surges at rising tide, especially in Dunkerque. To examine this further, a numerical modelling approach is chosen, based on the 2DH shallow-water model (MARS. The surges are computed both with and without tide interaction. For the two selected events (the November 2007 North Sea and March 2008 Atlantic storms, it appears that the instantaneous tide-surge interaction is seen to be non-negligible in the eastern half of the English Channel, reaching values of 74 cm (i.e. 50% of the same event maximal storm surge in the Dover Strait for the studied cases. This interaction decreases in westerly direction. In the risk-analysis community in France, extreme water levels have been determined assuming skew surges and tide as independent. The same hydrodynamic model is used to investigate this dependence in the English Channel. Simple computations are performed with the same meteorological forcing, while varying the tidal amplitude, and the skew surge differences DSS are analysed. Skew surges appear to be tide-dependent, with negligible values of DSS (<0.05 m over a large portion of the English Channel, although reaching several tens of centimetres in some locations (e.g. the Isle of Wight and Dover Strait.

  9. The Eastern Origin of English Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Şekerci

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Etymology is a branch of linguistics describing the origin of words, their changeand development. To-day the far reaching advances in linguistics and in ELT and EFLoblige us, teachers of English to know well not only the language itself but about thelanguage as well. So are they for the English vocabulary. This paper explains thereasons for the percentage of borrowings in the English language. Explanations for thisshould be sought in the eventful history of England. If to summarize the origin of theEnglish vocabulary, it can be roughly called Anglo-Saxon, Norman, Scandinavian andFrench. However, the borrowings are not confined only to these languages. There areborrowings from Arabic, Turkish, Indian and many others. Some of the borrowingshave been fully adapted to the phonetic system of the English language, while otherslook and sound as loan words. The English language can be regarded as the mosthospitable language in the world.

  10. TEACHING ENGLISH IN SEVERAL CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Central and Eastern European countries find themselves at present, following a period of transition in all domains, education included. One of the greatest challenges is providing sufficient foreign language education so as to meet the growing demand especially after along period of time when foreign languages were seriously and damagingly neglected. This paper is an attempt to briefly present the way English language is taught in several Central and Eastern European Countries as well as to underline the importance of this educational process and maybe to offer some applicable solutions to teaching English in Romania

  11. Impact of industrial nuclear releases into the English Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, P.; Guegueniat, P.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague is the main source of releases of weakly radioactive waste into the English Channel; there are also some contributions from nuclear power stations along the coast. Indicator species, seawater samples and sediments are used to study the distribution and transfer mechanisms of radionuclides in Channel waters. The observed pattern of radiolabelled zones is in good agreement with an hydrodynamic model for the Channel. The variations of activity with time are discussed in relation to releases from La Hague

  12. Microplastic ingestion in fish larvae in the western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Madeleine; Cole, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2017-07-01

    Microplastics have been documented in marine environments worldwide, where they pose a potential risk to biota. Environmental interactions between microplastics and lower trophic organisms are poorly understood. Coastal shelf seas are rich in productivity but also experience high levels of microplastic pollution. In these habitats, fish have an important ecological and economic role. In their early life stages, planktonic fish larvae are vulnerable to pollution, environmental stress and predation. Here we assess the occurrence of microplastic ingestion in wild fish larvae. Fish larvae and water samples were taken across three sites (10, 19 and 35 km from shore) in the western English Channel from April to June 2016. We identified 2.9% of fish larvae (n = 347) had ingested microplastics, of which 66% were blue fibres; ingested microfibers closely resembled those identified within water samples. With distance from the coast, larval fish density increased significantly (P microplastic concentrations (P microplastics and the incidence of ingestion in fish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting seasonal variations in coastal seabird habitats in the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgili, A.; Lambert, C.; Pettex, E.; Dorémus, G.; Van Canneyt, O.; Ridoux, V.

    2017-07-01

    Seabirds, like all animals, have to live in suitable habitats to fulfil their energetic needs for both somatic and reproductive growth and maintenance. Apart from migration trips, all coastal seabirds are linked to the coast, because they need to return daily to land for resting or breeding. Their use of marine habitats strongly depends on their biology, but also on environmental conditions, and can be described using habitat models. This study aimed to: (1) identify the processes that mostly influence seabird distributions along the coasts of the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay; (2) determine seasonal variations of these processes, (3) provide prediction maps that describe the species distributions. We collected data of coastal seabird sightings from aerial surveys carried out in the English Channel and the eastern North Atlantic in the winter 2011-2012 and summer 2012. We classified seabirds into morphological groups and described their habitats using physiographic and oceanographic variables in Generalised Additive Models (GAMs). Finally, we produced maps of predicted distributions by season for each group. The distributions of coastal seabirds were essentially determined by the distance to the nearest coast, with a weaker influence of oceanographic variables. The nature of the substrate, sand or rock, combined with the timing of reproduction, also contributed to determine seasonal at-sea distributions for some species. The highest densities were predicted near the coast, particularly in bays and estuaries for strictly coastal species with possible variations depending on the season. From this study, we were able to predict the seasonal distribution of the studied species according to varying environmental parameters that changed over time, allowing us to understand better their behaviour and ecology.

  14. English in Eastern Ethiopia Is Learnt; Not Mastered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Sanjay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    English Language Teaching (ELT) has undergone immense changes over the years in terms of using different methods, but none of the methods till this date have proved what they had proclaimed. The paper believes in the hypothesis that learning is "understanding" the linguistic components of a language, whereas mastering is the part of…

  15. The Influence of Cultural Bias on Motivation to Learn English: The Case of Khoe Primary School Students in Eastern Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magogwe, Joel Mokuedi

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of cultural bias in the teaching of English and in the books used to teach English in primary schools attended by Khoe students in eastern Botswana. The study also explored the link between cultural bias and the attitudes and motivation of Khoe students learning English. One hundred and thirty-seven students…

  16. Understanding the distribution of marine megafauna in the English channel region: identifying key habitats for conservation within the busiest seaway on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Catherine M; Brereton, Tom; Dell'Amico, Florence; Johns, David G; Cucknell, Anna-C; Patrick, Samantha C; Penrose, Rod; Ridoux, Vincent; Solandt, Jean-Luc; Stephan, Eric; Votier, Stephen C; Williams, Ruth; Godley, Brendan J

    2014-01-01

    The temperate waters of the North-Eastern Atlantic have a long history of maritime resource richness and, as a result, the European Union is endeavouring to maintain regional productivity and biodiversity. At the intersection of these aims lies potential conflict, signalling the need for integrated, cross-border management approaches. This paper focuses on the marine megafauna of the region. This guild of consumers was formerly abundant, but is now depleted and protected under various national and international legislative structures. We present a meta-analysis of available megafauna datasets using presence-only distribution models to characterise suitable habitat and identify spatially-important regions within the English Channel and southern bight of the North Sea. The integration of studies from dedicated and opportunistic observer programmes in the United Kingdom and France provide a valuable perspective on the spatial and seasonal distribution of various taxonomic groups, including large pelagic fishes and sharks, marine mammals, seabirds and marine turtles. The Western English Channel emerged as a hotspot of biodiversity for megafauna, while species richness was low in the Eastern English Channel. Spatial conservation planning is complicated by the highly mobile nature of marine megafauna, however they are important components of the marine environment and understanding their distribution is a first crucial step toward their inclusion into marine ecosystem management.

  17. Size graded sediment dynamics: from the processes characterization to the transport modelling in the English Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanpain, O.

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of a sediment transport model in the English Channel. The design of such a model requires the identification of the physical processes, their modelling and their in-situ validation. Because of the sedimentary particularities of the study area, modelling of the mechanical behaviour of a non uniform mixture of sediments and particularly of the fine grains within a coarse matrix is required. This study focused on the characterization of the relevant processes by acquisition of experimental and in-situ data. Data acquired in hydro-sedimentary conditions comparable to those found in the English Channel are scarce. A new instrument and image processing technique were specifically conceived and implemented in-situ to observe and measure, with a high temporal resolution, the dynamics of a strongly heterogeneous mixture of particles in a grain-size scale. The data collected compared well with several existing formulations. One of these formulations was chosen to be adapted. The transfer dynamics of fine grains in coarse sediments and their depth of penetration were acquired from stratigraphic samples. The sediment transport model deals with multi-size grains and multi sedimentary layers, it is forced by swell and currents, and accounts for bead load and suspended load transports. It was applied to realistic scenarios for the English Channel. (author)

  18. Seasonal distribution and abundance of cetaceans within French waters- Part II: The Bay of Biscay and the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laran, Sophie; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; Doremus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Monestiez, Pascal; Pettex, Emeline; Stephan, Eric; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    From the Habitat Directive to the recent Marine Strategy Framework Directive, the conservation status of cetaceans in European water has been of concern for over two decades. In this study, a seasonal comparison of the abundance and distribution of cetaceans was carried out in two contrasted regions of the Eastern North Atlantic, the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel. Estimates were obtained in the two sub-regions (375,000 km²) from large aerial surveys conducted in the winter (November 2011 to February 2012) and in the summer (May to August 2012). The most abundant species encountered in the Channel, the harbour porpoise, displayed strong seasonal variations in its distribution but a stable abundance (18,000 individuals, CV=30%). In the Bay of Biscay, abundance and distribution patterns of common / striped dolphins varied from 285,000 individuals (95% CI: 174,000-481,000) in the winter, preferentially distributed close to the shelf break, to 494,000 individuals (95% CI: 342,000-719,000) distributed beyond the shelf break in summer. Baleen whales also exhibited an increase of their density in summer. Seasonal abundances of bottlenose dolphins were quite stable, with a large number of 'pelagic' encounters offshore in winter. No significant seasonal difference was estimated for pilot whales and sperm whale. These surveys provided baseline estimates to inform policies to be developed, or for existing conservation instruments such as the Habitats Directive. In addition, our results supported the hypothesis of a shift in the summer distributions of some species such as harbour porpoise and minke whale in European waters.

  19. Progressive changes in the Western English Channel foster a reorganization in the plankton food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Coombs, Steve; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Bonnet, Delphine

    2015-09-01

    Growing evidence has shown a profound modification of plankton communities of the North East Atlantic and adjacent seas over the past decades. This drastic change has been attributed to a modification of the environmental conditions that regulate the dynamics and the spatial distribution of ectothermic species in the ocean. Recently, several studies have highlighted modifications of the regional climate station L4 (50° 15.00‧N, 4° 13.02‧W) in the Western English Channel. We here focus on the modification of the plankton community by studying the long-term, annual and seasonal changes of five zooplankton groups and eight copepod genera. We detail the main composition and the phenology of the plankton communities during four climatic periods identified at the L4 station: 1988-1994, 1995-2000, 2001-2007 and 2008-2012. Our results show that long-term environmental changes underlined by Molinero et al. (2013) drive a profound restructuration of the plankton community modifying the phenology and the dominance of key planktonic groups including fish larvae. Consequently, the slow but deep modifications detected in the plankton community highlight a climate driven ecosystem shift in the Western English Channel.

  20. Transfer of tritium released into the marine environment by French nuclear facilities bordering the English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiévet, Bruno; Pommier, Julien; Voiseux, Claire; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Laguionie, Philippe; Cossonnet, Catherine; Solier, Luc

    2013-06-18

    Controlled amounts of liquid tritium are discharged as tritiated water (HTO) by the nuclear industry into the English Channel. Because the isotopic discrimination between 3H and H is small, organically bound tritium (OBT) and HTO should show the same T/H ratio under steady-state conditions. We report data collected from the environment in the English Channel. Tritium concentrations measured in seawater HTO, as well as in biota HTO and OBT, confirm that tritium transfers from HTO to OBT result in conservation of the T/H ratio (ca. 1 × 10(-16)). The kinetics of the turnover of tritium between seawater HTO, biota HTO, and OBT was investigated. HTO in two algae and a mollusk is shown to exchange rapidly with seawater HTO. However, the overall tritium turnover between HTO and the whole-organism OBT is a slow process with a tritium biological half-life on the order of months. Nonsteady-state conditions exist where there are sharp changes in seawater HTO. As a consequence, for kinetic reasons, the T/H ratio in OBT may deviate transiently from that observed in HTO of samples from the marine ecosystem. Dynamic modeling is thus more realistic for predicting tritium transfers to biota OBT under nonsteady-state conditions.

  1. Overfishing and the replacement of demersal finfish by shellfish: an example from the English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfese, Carlotta; Beare, Doug; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide depletion of major fish stocks through intensive industrial fishing is thought to have profoundly altered the trophic structure of marine ecosystems. Here we assess changes in the trophic structure of the English Channel marine ecosystem using a 90-year time-series (1920-2010) of commercial fishery landings. Our analysis was based on estimates of the mean trophic level (mTL) of annual landings and the Fishing-in-Balance index (FiB). Food webs of the Channel ecosystem have been altered, as shown by a significant decline in the mTL of fishery landings whilst increases in the FiB index suggest increased fishing effort and fishery expansion. Large, high trophic level species (e.g. spurdog, cod, ling) have been increasingly replaced by smaller, low trophic level fish (e.g. small spotted catsharks) and invertebrates (e.g. scallops, crabs and lobster). Declining trophic levels in fisheries catches have occurred worldwide, with fish catches progressively being replaced by invertebrates. We argue that a network of fisheries closures would help rebalance the trophic status of the Channel and allow regeneration of marine ecosystems.

  2. Channel and island change in the lower Platte River, Eastern Nebraska, USA: 1855 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Henebry, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    The lower Platte River has undergone considerable change in channel and bar characteristics since the mid-1850s in four 20-25 km-long study stretches. The same net effect of historical channel shrinkage that was detected upstream from Grand Island, Nebraska, can also be detected in the lower river but differences in the behaviors of study stretches upstream and downstream from major tributaries are striking. The least relative decrease occurred downstream from the Loup River confluence, and the stretch downstream from the Elkhorn River confluence actually showed an increase in channel area during the 1940s. Bank erosion was also greater downstream of the tributaries between ca. 1860 and 1938/1941, particularly in stretch RG, which showed more lateral migration. The cumulative island area and the ratio of island area to channel area relative to the 1938/1941 baseline data showed comparatively great fluctuations in median island size in both downstream stretches. The erratic behavior of island size distributions over time indicates that large islands were accreted to the banks at different times, and that some small, newly-stabilized islands were episodically "flushed" out of the system. In the upstream stretches the stabilization of mobile bars to create new, small islands had a more consistent impact over time. Channel decrease by the abandonment of large, long-lived anabranches and by the in-place narrowing resulting from island accretion were more prominent in these upstream stretches. Across all of the study area, channel area appears to be stabilizing gradually as the rate of decrease lessens. This trend began earliest in stretch RG in the late 1950s and was accompanied by shifts in the size distributions of stabilized islands in that stretch into the 1960s. Elsewhere, even in the easternmost study stretch, stabilizing was occurring by the late 1960s, the same time frame documented by investigations of the Platte system upstream of the study area. Comprehensive

  3. PRAGMATICS ANALYSIS OF ILLOCUTIONARY ACTS PRESENTED IN ‗ENGLISH TIVI‘ CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirudin Amirudin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ‗English Tivi‘ channel is a learning medium on Youtube which provides materials for learning English through stories. This paper is aimed to analyze the use of illocutionary acts in the stories presented. Three different stories are chosen as the subject of this study, namely: A Police TV, The Dangerous Journey, and Rich man Poor man. The data of this paper are all the utterances conveyed by the characters in the stories that are assumed employing the principles of illocutionary acts. The data were taken by observing the whole stories and transcribing all the utterances produced which have characteristics of illocutionary acts. The data are analyzed and classified based on the functions of illocutionary acts. The functions are inferred based on the five kinds of illocutionary acts proposed by Searle (1969, namely: assertives, directives, commissives, expressives, and declaratives. This paper is expected to be beneficial for Teacher Language Awareness (TLA: how the principles of Pragmatics used in language learning process, in case of constructing and deconstructing text (spoken or written by language learners for communicating in real life contexts.

  4. The lending channel and budget balance: empirical evidences from Central and Eastern European economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Gabriel MOINESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to deepen the analysis on the indirect dependence of government budget balance on private sector credit flow in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The added value of this approach consists of two elements. First, the analysis suggests developing the traditional analytical framework of assessing risks to public finance stability by including second round effects of negative fiscal impulses on credit to private sector during recession periods. Second, the study provides empirical evidence on the importance of economic growth transmission channel for the impact of credit accelerator effects on primary deficit. At the same time, nonperforming loans channel proved to be insignificant, especially in relation to the persistency of last year’s budget deficit and the effects of budget allocations pro-cyclicality. However, loan portfolio quality seems to be more relevant in the case of public debt service, through its influence on the evolution of the yield on long-term government securities that is closely related to sovereign risk premium. Nevertheless, strengthening the financial safety net by the introduction of resolution funds will most probably break the link investors saw between credit portfolio quality and the impending increase in budget spending. This expected development across not only CEE countries, but at the EU level also, will facilitate the isolation of sovereign risk premium from non-performing loans’ dynamics.

  5. English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    To a dubious critical salvation: Etienne Leroux and the canons of South African English criticism. This article presents a case study in cross-cultural literary reception following the act of literary translation—in this instance, of author Etienne Leroux—from Afrikaans into English. It describes the literary reception of Leroux in ...

  6. English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The article exemplifies and presents the characteristics of linguistic imperialism, linguistic capital accumulation following the same pattern as capitalist economic dominance. The text summarizes the way English was established in the colonial period. Many of the mechanisms of linguistic hierarc...... of the English iceberg....

  7. Recovery from TBT pollution in English Channel environments: A problem solved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, W J; Pope, N D; Davey, M; Langston, K M; O' Hara, S C M; Gibbs, P E; Pascoe, P L

    2015-06-30

    Following recognition of effects in the 1980s, tributyltin (TBT) has been monitored at sites in the English Channel to evaluate the prognosis for biota - spanning the introduction of restrictions on TBT use on small boats and the recent phase-out on the global fleet. We describe how persistence and impact of TBT in clams Scrobicularia plana has changed during this period in Southampton Water and Poole Harbour. TBT contamination (and loss) in water, sediment and clams reflects the abundance and type of vessel activity: half-times in sediment (up to 8y in Poole, 33y in Southampton) are longest near commercial shipping. Recovery of clam populations - slowest in TBT-contaminated deposits - provides a useful biological measure of legislative efficacy in estuaries. On rocky shores, recovery from imposex in Nucella lapillus is evident at many sites but, near ports, is prolonged by shipping impacts, including sediment legacy, for example, in the Fal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristic times in the English Channel from numerical modelling: supporting decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perianez, R [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada 1, Universidad de Sevilla, EUITA, Carretera Utrera km 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Miro, C [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)], E-mail: rperianez@us.es, E-mail: cmiro@unex.es

    2009-06-15

    A numerical model that simulates the dispersion of radionuclides in the English Channel has been applied to study the dispersion of conservative and non-conservative radionuclides released from the La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The model is based upon previous work and now is able to simulate dispersion over long timescales (decades), explicitly including transport by instantaneous tidal currents and variable wind conditions. Wind conditions are obtained from meteorological statistics using a stochastic method. Outputs from the model are treated using time-series analysis techniques. These techniques allow the determination of characteristic times of the system, transport velocities and dispersion factors. This information may be very useful to support the decision-making process after an emergency situation. Thus, we are proposing that time-series analysis can be integrated with numerical modelling for helping decision-making in response to an accident. The model is first validated through its application to actual releases of {sup 99}Tc and {sup 125}Sb, comparing measured and computed concentrations, and characteristic times for three radionuclides are given next: a perfectly conservative one, a very reactive one ({sup 239,240}Pu) and {sup 137}Cs, which has an intermediate behaviour. Characteristic transport velocities and dispersion factors have been calculated as well. Model results are supported by experimental evidence.

  9. A coupled biophysical model for the distribution of the great scallop Pecten maximus in the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Clément; Lavaud, Romain; Cugier, Philippe; Jean, Fred; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Foucher, Eric; Desroy, Nicolas; Fifas, Spyros; Foveau, Aurélie

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we used a modelling approach integrating both physical and biological constraints to understand the biogeographical distribution of the great scallop Pecten maximus in the English Channel during its whole life cycle. A 3D bio-hydrodynamical model (ECO-MARS3D) providing environmental conditions was coupled to (i) a population dynamics model and (ii) an individual ecophysiological model (Dynamic Energy Budget model). We performed the coupling sequentially, which underlined the respective role of biological and physical factors in defining P. maximus distribution in the English Channel. Results show that larval dispersion by hydrodynamics explains most of the scallop distribution and enlighten the main known hotspots for the population, basically corresponding to the main fishing areas. The mechanistic description of individual bioenergetics shows that food availability and temperature control growth and reproduction and explain how populations may maintain themselves in particular locations. This last coupling leads to more realistic densities and distributions of adults in the English Channel. The results of this study improves our knowledge on the stock and distribution dynamics of P. maximus, and provides grounds for useful tools to support management strategies.

  10. Effect of protein supplementation on forage utilization by cattle in annual grass-dominated rangelands in the Channel Scablands of Eastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) has become a major component replacing vegetation on the Channeled Scablands of eastern Washington. Livestock typically avoid grazing medusahead and forage alternatives are becoming limited in the region. We hypothesized that protein supplementat...

  11. Observations and modelling of a meteotsunami across the English Channel on 23rd June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David; Horsburgh, Kevin; Schultz, David; Hughes, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Meteotsunami are shallow water waves in the tsunami frequency band, which are generated by sub-mesoscale pressure and wind velocity fluctuations. Whilst documented meteotsunami on the north-western European shelf have not been hazardous, around the world they have caused fatalities and significant economic losses. Previous observational studies suggest that across Western Europe strongly convective storms are meteotsunami-generating. We give evidence for a meteotsunami on 23rd June 2016 along the northern coastline of France, following strongly convective storms. This includes 1-minute temporal resolution tide gauge data, in situ pressure and wind velocities, and infrared satellite images. With an estimated wave height of 0.8 m at Boulogne, this meteotsunami is particularly large compared to previous observations in Western Europe. The tsunami travel times have been estimated using the wavefront method, showing that a single, instantaneous source for the waves is highly unlikely. Using the ocean model Telemac2D, idealised models of pressure and wind have been used to simulate the meteotsunami. The model supports that across the English Channel thunderstorms with north-easterly tracks, moving at the shallow water wave speed, can generate wave amplification through Proudman resonance. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used to produce numerically simulated thunderstorms, which have been used to force the Telemac2D ocean model with idealised bathymetries. The WRF-Telemac2D model results also support meteotsunami generation by thunderstorms. To the author's knowledge this is the first time a thunderstorm simulation has been used to produce a meteotsunami-like wave, and indicates that non-hydrostatic, convective atmospheric processes are important for meteotsunami generation. This suggests that with combined high resolution observations and modelling, a meteotsunami forecasting system may become possible in Western Europe.

  12. A numerical model of artificial radionuclides transfers in the English Channel. (Hydrodynamical, biological and sedimentary processes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Fur, J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper examines a method of evaluation, using numerical techniques, of the fate of radioelements released by chronic or accidental discharge into the ecosystem of the English Channel. In areas close to the reprocessing center at La Hague, a statistical study is used to establish a direct relation between quantities of ruthenium-106 released by the discharge source and concentrations of the radioelement in marine algae. A multidisciplinary model is developed for general case. The constituents studied are the liquid environment (radioelement vector), particulate matter (radioelement trap) and live macroorganisms (radioelement receptors). Dispersion of radioelements in the liquid environment is calculated using different models for estimating tidal currents (resolution of the Saint-Venant system), the transport of bodies of water and radioelement diffusion. Radioelement fixing in particulate matter is formalized using and adjustment coefficient integrated into the diffusion equation. Transfers of radioelements between the liquid phase and the organisms are modelized using a system of compartments; fluctuations in the discharge source are taken into account in the formulation. All the models are integrated into a calculation system which enables them to be used automatically in sequence. Estimates for currents and trajectories are in agreement with observations and enable short term applications of the system to be contemplated. The model of radioelement transfer to organisms is validated using a pair of experiments carried out in situ. Points remaining to be specified mainly concern the transfer to particulate matter, the calibration of the system for long term studies and certain factors to be included in the model of radioelement transfer to organisms [fr

  13. English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The article exemplifies and presents the characteristics of linguistic imperialism, linguistic capital accumulation following the same pattern as capitalist economic dominance. The text summarizes the way English was established in the colonial period. Many of the mechanisms of linguistic hierarchy...... to the present-day world ‘order’, as the postcolonial is subsumed under global empire, assisted by English linguistic neoimperialism. Some scholars who deny the existence of linguistic imperialism are reported on, and the complexity of language policy in European integration is demonstrated. The article...

  14. Phylogeographic analysis of the red seaweed Palmaria palmata reveals a Pleistocene marine glacial refugium in the English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provan, Jim; Wattier, Remi A; Maggs, Christine A

    2005-03-01

    Phylogeography has provided a new approach to the analysis of the postglacial history of a wide range of taxa but, to date, little is known about the effect of glacial periods on the marine biota of Europe. We have utilized a combination of nuclear, plastid and mitochondrial genetic markers to study the biogeographic history of the red seaweed Palmaria palmata in the North Atlantic. Analysis of the nuclear rDNA operon (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), the plastid 16S-trnI-trnA-23S-5S, rbcL-rbcS and rpl12-rps31-rpl9 regions and the mitochondrial cox2-3 spacer has revealed the existence of a previously unidentified marine refugium in the English Channel, along with possible secondary refugia off the southwest coast of Ireland and in northeast North America and/or Iceland. Coalescent and mismatch analyses date the expansion of European populations from approximately 128,000 BP and suggest a continued period of exponential growth since then. Consequently, we postulate that the penultimate (Saale) glacial maximum was the main event in shaping the biogeographic history of European P. palmata populations which persisted throughout the last (Weichselian) glacial maximum (c. 20,000 BP) in the Hurd Deep, an enigmatic trench in the English Channel.

  15. Progressive changes in the Western English Channel foster a reorganization in the plankton food web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Molinero, J.C.; Coombs, S.

    2015-01-01

    . (2013) drive a profound restructuration of the plankton community modifying the phenology and the dominance of key planktonic groups including fish larvae. Consequently, the slow but deep modifications detected in the plankton community highlight a climate driven ecosystem shift in the Western English...

  16. A multi-species multi-fleet bioeconomic simulation model for the English Channel artisanal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Le Gallic, B.; Dunn, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    of the model is to study the long-term consequences of various management alternatives on the economic situation of the English and French fleets fishing in the area and on exploited resources. The model describes this feature through the links between three entities on the one hand (stocks, fleets...

  17. Effects of streamflows on stream-channel morphology in the eastern Niobrara National Scenic River, Nebraska, 1988–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaepe, Nathaniel J.; Alexander, Jason S.; Folz-Donahue, Kiernan

    2016-03-09

    The Niobrara River is an important and valuable economic and ecological resource in northern Nebraska that supports ecotourism, recreational boating, wildlife, fisheries, agriculture, and hydroelectric power. Because of its uniquely rich resources, a 122-kilometer reach of the Niobrara River was designated as a National Scenic River in 1991, which has been jointly managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Park Service. To assess how the remarkable qualities of the National Scenic River may change if consumptive uses of water are increased above current levels, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, initiated an investigation of how stream-channel morphology might be affected by potential decreases in summer streamflows. The study included a 65-kilometer segment in the wide, braided eastern stretch of the Niobrara National Scenic River that provides important nesting habitat for migratory bird species of concern to the Nation.

  18. Using large scale surveys to investigate seasonal variations in seabird distribution and abundance. Part II: The Bay of Biscay and the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettex, Emeline; Laran, Sophie; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Lambert, Charlotte; Monestiez, Pascal; Stéfan, Eric; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Seabird distributions and the associated seasonal variations remain challenging to investigate, especially in oceanic areas. Recent advances in telemetry have provided considerable information on seabird ecology, but still exclude small species, non-breeding birds and individuals from inaccessible colonies from any scientific survey. To overcome this issue and investigate seabird distribution and abundance in the eastern North Atlantic (ENA), large-scale aerial surveys were conducted in winter 2011-12 and summer 2012 over a 375,000 km2 area encompassing the English Channel (EC) and the Bay of Biscay (BoB). Seabird sightings, from 15 taxonomic groups, added up to 17,506 and 8263 sightings in winter and summer respectively, along 66,307 km. Using geostatistical methods, density maps were provided for both seasons. Abundance was estimated by strip transect sampling. Most taxa showed marked seasonal variations in their density and distribution. The highest densities were recorded during winter for most groups except shearwaters, storm-petrels, terns and large-sized gulls. Subsequently, the abundance in winter nearly reached one million individuals and was 2.5 times larger than in summer. The continental shelf and the slope in the BoB and the EC were identified as key areas for seabird conservation, especially during winter, as birds from northern Europe migrate southward after breeding. This large-scale study provided a synoptic view of the seabird community in the ENA, over two contrasting seasons. Our results highlight that oceanic areas harbour an abundant avifauna. Since most of the existing marine protected areas are restricted to the coastal fringe, the importance of oceanic areas in winter should be considered in future conservation plans. Our work will provide a baseline for the monitoring of seabird distribution at sea, and could inform the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-05-08 to 2013-05-28 (NCEI Accession 0157373)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157373 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2012-09-13 to 2012-09-25 (NCEI Accession 0157385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157385 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2012-09-27 to 2012-10-04 (NCEI Accession 0157267)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157267 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-04-19 to 2013-05-08 (NCEI Accession 0157305)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157305 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-09-10 to 2013-10-02 (NCEI Accession 0157366)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157366 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-02-03 to 2013-02-13 (NCEI Accession 0157382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157382 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2012-10-23 to 2012-11-09 (NCEI Accession 0157241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157241 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  6. Continental basalts record the crust-mantle interaction in oceanic subduction channel: A geochemical case study from eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2017-09-01

    the crustal metasomatism through melt-peridotite reaction at the slab-mantle interface in oceanic subduction channels. Continental basalts of Mesozoic to Cenozoic ages from eastern China are used as a case example to illustrate the above petrogenetic mechanism. Subduction of the paleo-Pacific oceanic slab beneath the eastern edge of Eurasian continent in the Early Mesozoic would have transferred the crustal signatures into the mantle sources of these basalts. This process would be associated with rollback of the subducting slab at that time, whereas the partial melting of metasomatites takes place mainly in the Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic to produce the continental basalts. Therefore, OIB-like continental basalts are also the product of subduction-zone magmatism though they occur in intraplate settings.

  7. Eastern Gondwana breakup and the Lord Howe Rise continental ribbon from multi-channel seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Brian; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Kodaira, Shuichi; Miura, Seiichi; Gallais, Flora; Fujie, Gou; Kaiho, Yuka; Hackney, Ron; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Saito, Saneatsu; Shiraishi, Kazuya; Nichol, Scott; Bernardel, George; Mitchell, Cameron

    2017-04-01

    The eastern Australian margin of Gondwana rifted during the Late Cretaceous, forming the Lord Howe Rise continental ribbon. This breakup is still poorly understood with only a few regional studies and suggested formation processes that range from a plume impinging on the lithosphere to upper-plate extension associated with slab rollback. This project uses data collected on a multi-leg geophysical cruise undertaken in 2016 to study the rifting processes at the Lord Howe Rise. This project uses a regional 900 km long east-west oriented profile at 27.2°S with both multi-channel seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetry datasets. We present processed pre-stack depth migrated seismic reflection images and interpretations to show the structure and evolution of this margin from the oceanic Tasman Basin in the west to the extended continental crust of the Lord Howe Rise in the east. The Tasman Basin contains buried basins only on its eastern side. These basins may be related to early transform faulting. The Lord Howe Rise contains both syn-rift and post-rift sedimentary sequences in multiple basins that record the breakup of the margin. Between these two regions are the Dampier Ridge and Middleton Basin. The boundary between the Dampier Ridge and Tasman Basin is a very sharp feature that is unlike any other boundary in the area. This sharp boundary may represent a transform segment. Within the Dampier Ridge, there are multiple rift basins up to 3 km deep that are similar to those on the Lord Howe Rise. In contrast, the Middleton Basin that separates the Dampier Ridge and the Lord Howe Rise is a broad, well-stratified sedimentary basin of up to 3.5 km thick and contains an unconformity that separates deeper sedimentary strata that are conformable with the basement and younger strata that filled the basin post-rifting. These new results indicate a dynamic process and history during the breakup of eastern Gondwana that led to the opening of the Tasman Basin and formation

  8. History of benthic research in the English Channel: From general patterns of communities to habitat mosaic description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2015-06-01

    Benthic studies in the English Channel (EC), a shallow megatidal and epicontinental sea, began in the 1960s and 1970s with the work of teams led by Norman Holme (UK) and Louis Cabioch (F). During this period, benthic sampling was mainly qualitative, i.e. using a device such as the 'Rallier du Baty' dredge in the case of the French team and a modified anchor dredge in the case of the British team. Studies were focused on acquiring knowledge of the main distributions of benthic communities and species. Surveys on the scale of the whole EC led to the recognition of general features and two main patterns were identified: 1) the role of hydrodynamics on the spatial distribution of sediment, benthic species and communities; 2) the presence of a west-east climatic gradient of faunal impoverishment. Benthic studies in the 1980s-1990s were focused on the beginning of the implementation of long-term survey at a limited number of sites to identify seasonal and multi-annual changes. In the first decade of the 2000s, the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive to define the Ecological Quality Status of marine environments increased the need to acquire better information of the structure and functioning of benthic communities, since benthic species and habitats were recognised as good indicators of human pressure on marine ecosystems. Faced with the increase of human maritime activities, the appearance of invasive species and the need to preserve sensitive marine habitats, benthic studies have been focused on developing a 'toolkit' to help in the decision-making and planning for both sound governance and sustainable management of marine resources and human activities in the English Channel. Multidisciplinary approaches were used to differentiate habitats in a more precise detail. Both indirect (side-scan sonar, ROV) and direct (grab sampling with benthos identification and grain-size analyses) approaches were used and

  9. Assessment of the European flounder responses to chemical stress in the English Channel, considering biomarkers and life history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Célie; Galland, Claire; Pichereau, Vianney; Sanchez, Wilfried; Riso, Ricardo; Labonne, Maylis; Amara, Rachid; Charrier, Grégory; Fournier, Michel; Laroche, Jean

    2015-06-30

    A multi-biomarker approach was developed to evaluate responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) in three contrasted estuaries over the English Channel: the Canche (pristine site), Tamar (heavy metals and PAHs contamination) and Seine (heavily pollution with a complex cocktail of contaminants). The condition factor and several biomarkers of the immune system, antioxidant enzymes, energetic metabolism and detoxification processes were investigated in young-of-the-year (0+) and one-year-old (1+) flounder. Results underlined the difference between the pristine site and the Seine estuary which showed a lower condition factor, a modulation of the immune system, a higher Cytochrome C oxidase activity, and an up-regulation of BHMT expression. The moderate biomarker responses in the Tamar fish could be linked to the specific contamination context of this estuary. Flounder life history traits were analyzed by otolith microchemistry, in order to depict how the fish use their habitat and thus respond to chemical stress in estuaries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Paleo-coastline of the Central Eastern Adriatic Sea, and Paleo-Channels of the Cetina and Neretva rivers during the last glacial maximum

    OpenAIRE

    SIKORA, Marjan; MIHANOVIĆ, Hrvoje; VILIBIĆ, Ivica

    2014-01-01

    he paper documents the use of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) method to reconstruct paleo-channels and the paleo-coastline during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Central Eastern Adriatic area. We focused on the paleo-coastline and paleo-channels of the Neretva and the Cetina rivers, which were estimated from the 15’’ bathymetry available for the Adriatic Sea. While being aware of the limitations of the method and the resolution of the bathymetry grid, we successfully reproduced th...

  11. The structural elements and tectonics of the Lake Van basin (Eastern Anatolia) from multi-channel seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Mustafa; Sengor, A. M. Celal; Demirel Schluter, Filiz; Demirbag, Emin; Cukur, Deniz; Imren, Caner; Niessen, Frank; PaleoVan-Working Group

    2017-05-01

    This study analyzed multi-channel seismic reflection data from Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, to provide key information on the structural elements, deformational patterns and overall tectonic structure of the Lake Van basin. The seismic data reveal three subbasins (the Tatvan, northern and Ahlat subbasins) separated by structural ridges (the northern and Ahlat ridges). The Tatvan basin is a tilted wedge-block in the west, it is a relatively undeformed and flat-lying deep basin, forming a typical example of strike-slip sedimentation. Seismic sections reveal that the deeper sedimentary sections of the Tatvan basin are locally folded, gently in the south and more intensely further north, suggesting a probable gravitational "wedge-block" instability, oblique to the northern margin. The northern subbasin, bounded by normal oblique faults, forms a basin-margin graben structure that is elongated in a northeast-southwest direction. The east-west trending Ahlat ridge forms a fault-wedged sedimentary ridge and appears to offset by reverse oblique faults forming as a push-up rhomb horst structure. The Ahlat subbasin is a fault-wedged trough fill that is elongated in the west-east direction and appears as a horst-foot graben formed by the normal oblique faults. The northeast-southwest directed northern ridge is a faulted crestal terrace of a sublacustrine basement block. Its step-like morphology, in response to the downfaulting of the Tatvan basin, as well as its backthrusted appearance, indicates the normal oblique nature of the bounding faults. The lacustrine shelf and slope show distinctive stratigraphic features; progradational deltas, submerged fluvial channels, distorted and collapsed beddings and soft sediment deformation structures, characterizing a highly unstable nature of shelf caused by strong oblique faulting and related earthquakes. The faulting caused uplift of the Çarpanak spur zone, together with the northeastern Erek delta, deformation of deltaic structures

  12. Long-term variability of the siphonophores Muggiaea atlantica and M. kochi in the Western English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, Michael; Licandro, Priscilla; Coombs, Steve H.; Lucas, Cathy H.

    2014-11-01

    We investigated long-term variability of the calycophoran siphonophores Muggiaea atlantica and Muggiaea kochi in the Western English Channel (WEC) between 1930 and 2011. Our aims were to describe long-term changes in abundance and temporal distribution in relation to local environmental dynamics. In order to better understand mechanisms that regulate the species' populations, we identified periods that were characteristic of in situ population growth and the environmental optima associated with these events. Our results show that between 1930 and the 1960s both M. atlantica and M. kochi were transient components of the WEC ecosystem. In the late 1960s M. atlantica, successfully established a resident population in the WEC, while the occurrence of M. kochi became increasingly sporadic. Once established as a resident species, the seasonal abundance and distribution of M. atlantica increased. Analysis of environmental conditions associated with in situ population growth revealed that temperature and prey were key determinants of the seasonal distribution and abundance of M. atlantica. Salinity was shown to have an indirect effect, likely representing a proxy for water circulation in the WEC. Anomalies in the seasonal cycle of salinity, indicating deviation from the usual circulation pattern in the WEC, were negatively associated with in situ growth, suggesting dispersal of the locally developing M. atlantica population. However, our findings identified complexity in the relationship between characteristics of the environment and M. atlantica variability. The transition from a period of transiency (1930-1968) to residency (1969-2011) was tentatively attributed to structural changes in the WEC ecosystem that occurred under the forcing of wider-scale hydroclimatic changes.

  13. Quaternary tectonic control on channel morphology over sedimentary low land: A case study in the Ajay-Damodar interfluve of Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvendu Roy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The style of active tectonic on the deformation and characterization of fluvial landscape has been investigated on three typical skrike-slip fault zones of the Ajay-Damodar Interfluve (ADI in Eastern India through field mapping, structural analysis and examination of digital topography (ASTER-30 m, multi-spectral imageries, and Google Earth images. Channel morphology in Quaternary sediment is more deformed than Cenozoic lateritic tract and igneous rock system by the neotectonic activities. The structural and lithological controls on the river system in ADI region are reflected by distinct drainage patterns, abrupt change in flow direction, offset river channels, straight river lines, ponded river channel, marshy lands, sag ponds, palaeo-channels, alluvial fans, meander cutoffs, multi-terrace river valley, incised compressed meander, convexity of channel bed slope and knick points in longitudinal profile. Seven morphotectonic indices have been used to infer the role of neotectonic on the modification of channel morphology. A tectonic index map for the ADI region has been prepared by the integration of used morphotectonic indices, which is also calibrated by Bouguer gravity anomaly data and field investigation.

  14. Modeling of depth to base of Last Glacial Maximum and seafloor sediment thickness for the California State Waters Map Series, eastern Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Florence L.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Sliter, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    Models of the depth to the base of Last Glacial Maximum and sediment thickness over the base of Last Glacial Maximum for the eastern Santa Barbara Channel are a key part of the maps of shallow subsurface geology and structure for offshore Refugio to Hueneme Canyon, California, in the California State Waters Map Series. A satisfactory interpolation of the two datasets that accounted for regional geologic structure was developed using geographic information systems modeling and graphics software tools. Regional sediment volumes were determined from the model. Source data files suitable for geographic information systems mapping applications are provided.

  15. Rebuilding natural coastlines after sediment mining: the example of the Brittany coasts (English Channel and Atlantic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnauld, Herve

    2016-04-01

    Rebuilding natural coastlines after sediment mining: the example of the Brittany coasts (English Channel and Atlantic Ocean). H.Regnauld (1) , J.N. Proust (2) and H.Mahmoud (1) (1) University of Rennes 2, (2) CNRS-University of Rennes 1, France A large part of the coasts of Brittany (western France) have been very heavily impacted by sand mining for the building of military equipments and of a large tidal power station. In some places more then 90 % of the sediment has been extracted during the late 40ies up to the 60ies. The mined site were all sink sites, were sediment had been accumulating for centuries. After the sand and or gravel extraction was stopped the coastal sites were largely used for tourism and most of the eroded dune fields were turned into car parks. Storms produced large floods inland as most of the gravel or sand barrier didn't exist any more. Some local outcrops of inherited Holocene periglacial material with archaeological remains were eroded, some disappeared. During the 80ies a complete shift in planning policies took place and these sites were progressively changed into nature preserves. The aim was to make them behave in a "natural" way again. The "natural" behaviour was intended in a very precise way: barriers should be able to withstand storms again and to protect inland fields from floods. In order to allow for dune re building wooden fences were erected and marram grass was artificially planted. As, from a sedimentological point of view, these sites were sink sites, accumulation was rather rapid (up to 0.25m a year behind wooden fences) and new barrier began to build. The only problem is that they did not always build-up exactly in the same place or with the same material. Some parts of the coasts were left "unprotected" by these new barriers, ancient exposed sites became protected. Today the system as a whole may be considered as having been able to reach some level of equilibrium with the average wave conditions. It has been able to

  16. Television, Language, and Literacy Practices in Sudanese Refugee Families: "I Learned How to Spell English on Channel 18"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kristen H.; Moses, Annie M.

    2011-01-01

    This ethnographic study explored the ways in which media, particularly television, connected with English language and literacy practices among Sudanese refugees in Michigan. Three families with young children participated in this study. Data collection included participant observation, interviews, and collection of artifacts over 18 months, with…

  17. Modelling larval dispersal of the king scallop ( Pecten maximus) in the English Channel: examples from the bay of Saint-Brieuc and the bay of Seine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Amandine; Dumas, Franck; Foveau, Aurélie; Foucher, Eric; Thiébaut, Eric

    2013-06-01

    The king scallop ( Pecten maximus) is one of the most important benthic species of the English Channel as it constitutes the first fishery in terms of landings in this area. To support strategies of spatial fishery management, we develop a high-resolution biophysical model to study scallop dispersal in two bays along the French coasts of the English Channel (i.e. the bay of Saint-Brieuc and the bay of Seine) and to quantify the relative roles of local hydrodynamic processes, temperature-dependent planktonic larval duration (PLD) and active swimming behaviour (SB). The two bays are chosen for three reasons: (1) the distribution of the scallop stocks in these areas is well known from annual scallop stock surveys, (2) these two bays harbour important fisheries and (3) scallops in these two areas present some differences in terms of reproductive cycle and spawning duration. The English Channel currents and temperature are simulated for 10 years (2000-2010) with the MARS-3D code and then used by the Lagrangian module of MARS-3D to model the transport. Results were analysed in terms of larval distribution at settlement and connectivity rates. While larval transport in the two bays depended both on the tidal residual circulation and the wind-induced currents, the relative role of these two hydrodynamic processes varied among bays. In the bay of Saint-Brieuc, the main patterns of larval dispersal were due to tides, the wind being only a source of variability in the extent of larval patch and the local retention rate. Conversely, in the bay of Seine, wind-induced currents altered both the direction and the extent of larval transport. The main effect of a variable PLD in relation to the thermal history of each larva was to reduce the spread of dispersal and consequently increase the local retention by about 10 % on average. Although swimming behaviour could influence larval dispersal during the first days of the PLD when larvae are mainly located in surface waters, it has a

  18. Influence of grazing and land use on stream-channel characteristics among small dairy farms in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Genevieve; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Rotational grazing (RG) is a livestock management practice that rotates grazing cattle on a scale of hours to days among small pastures termed paddocks. It may beneficially affect stream channels, relative to other livestock management practices. Such effects and other beneficial effects on hydrology are important to RG's potential to provide a highly multifunctional mode of livestock farming. Previous comparisons of effects of RG and confinement dairy (CD) on adjoining streams have been restricted in scale and scope. We examined 11 stream-channel characteristics on a representative sample of 37 small dairy farms that used either RG or CD production methods. Our objectives were: (1) to compare channel characteristics on RG and CD farms, as these production methods are implemented in practice, in New York, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, USA; and (2) to examine land use on these farms that may affect stream-channel characteristics. To help interpret channel characteristic findings, we examined on-farm land use in riparian areas 50 m in width along both sides of stream reaches and whole-farm land use. In all states, stream-channel characteristics on RG and CD farms did not differ. Whole-farm land use differed significantly between farm types; CD farms allocated more land to annual row crops, whereas RG farms allocated more land to pasture and grassland. However, land cover in 50 m riparian areas was not different between farm types within states; in particular, many RG and CD farms had continuously grazed pastures in riparian areas, typically occupied by juvenile and non-lactating cows, which may have contributed sediment and nutrients to streams. This similarity in riparian management practices may explain the observed similarity of farm types with respect to stream-channel characteristics. To realize the potential benefits of RG on streams, best management practices that affect stream-channel characteristics, such as protection of riparian areas, may improve aggregate

  19. An Alternative to Channel-Centered Views of the Landscape for Understanding Modern Streams in the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont Region, Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritts, D. J.; Walter, R. C.; Rahnis, M. A.; Oberholtzer, W.

    2008-12-01

    Stream channels generally are the focus of conceptual models of valley bottom geomorphology. The channel-centered model prevalent in the tectonically inactive eastern U. S. invokes meandering stream channels migrating laterally across valley floors, eroding one bank while depositing relatively coarse sediment in point bars on the other. According to this model, overbank deposition during flooding deposits a veneer of fine sediment over the gravel substrate. Erosion is considered normal, and the net volume of sediment is relatively constant with time. A dramatic change in conditions-land-clearing during European settlement--led to widespread aggradation on valley bottoms. This historic sedimentation was incorporated in the channel-centered view by assuming that meandering streams were overwhelmed by the increased sediment load and rapidly aggraded vertically. Later, elevated stream channels cut through these deposits because of decreased sediment supply and increased stormwater runoff accompanying urbanization. This view can be traced to early ideas of stream equilibrium in which incoming sediment supply and runoff determine stream-channel form. We propose a different conceptual model. Our trenching and field work along hundreds of km of stream length in the mid-Atlantic Piedmont reveal no point bars prior to European settlement. Instead, a polygenetic valley-bottom landscape underlies the drape of historic sediment. The planar surface of this veneer gives the appearance of a broad floodplain generated by long-term meandering and overbank deposition, but the "floodplain" is a recent aggradational surface from regional base-level rise due to thousands of early American dams that spanned valley bottoms. As modern streams incise into the historic fine-grained slackwater sediment, they expose organic-rich hydric soils along original valley bottom centers; talus, colluvium, bedrock, and saprolite with forest soils along valley margins; and weathered Pleistocene (and

  20. Optimizing Observation Networks Combining Ships of Opportunity, Gliders, Moored Buoys and FerryBox in the Bay of Biscay and English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charria, G.; Lamouroux, J.; De Mey, P. J.; Raynaud, S.; Heyraud, C.; Craneguy, P.; Dumas, F.; Le Henaff, M.

    2016-02-01

    Designing optimal observation networks in coastal oceans remains one of the major challenges towards the implementation of future Integrated Ocean Observing Systems to monitor the coastal environment. In the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel, the diversity of involved processes requires to adapt observing systems to the specific targeted environments. Also important is the requirement for those systems to sustain coastal applications. An efficient way to measure the hydrological content of the water column over the continental shelf is to consider ships of opportunity. In the French observation strategy, the RECOPESCA program, as a component of the High frequency Observation network for the environment in coastal SEAs (HOSEA), aims to collect environmental observations from sensors attached to fishing nets. In the present study, we assess that network performances using the ArM method (Le Hénaff et al., 2009). A reference network, based on fishing vessels observations in 2008, is assessed using that method. Moreover, three scenarios, based on the reference network, a denser network in 2010 and a fictive network aggregated from a pluri-annual collection of profiles, are also analyzed. Two other observational network design experiments have been implemented for the spring season in two regions: 1) the Loire River plume (northern part of the Bay of Biscay) to explore different possible glider endurance lines combined with a fixed mooring to monitor temperature and salinity and 2) the Western English Channel using a glider below FerryBox measurements. These experiments combining existing and future observing systems, as well as numerical ensemble simulations, highlight the key issue of monitoring the whole water column in and close to river plumes (e.g. using gliders), the efficiency of the surface high frequency sampling from FerryBoxes in macrotidal regions and the importance of sampling key regions instead of increasing the number of Voluntary Observing Ships.

  1. The effects of a local moderate tsunami in the Dover Strait on the French and English main harbors of the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Cécile; Gailler, Audrey; Heinrich, Philippe; Hélène, Hébert; Loevenbruck, Anne

    2017-04-01

    The Dover Strait is regularly shaken by small to moderate earthquakes which can be felt in the nearby cities Boulogne-Sur-Mer, Calais, Dover and Folkestone. Three destructive events have been documented during the Middle Ages including 1580 Dover Strait earthquake which has been largely felt in London. The isoseimal map of this main event shows a maximum MSK paleointensity of VIII in Calais and VII in Dover [Neilson et al 1984; Melville et al. 1996]. The Dover Strait has been studied using seismic-reflection method [Garcia-Moreno et al. 2014], seafloor sampling, boreholes and gravity anomaly [Everaerts and Mansy 2001], yet the actual tectonic context of the area stays hard to understand because of the lack of recent seafloor deformation and of large recent seismic events. Among other things the occurrence of a tsunamigenic earthquake is not totally impossible [Roger and Gunnell 2011]. We propose several numerical simulations of tsunamis where the seismic scenari are chosen according to the latest fault activity study of the area [Garcia-Moreno et al. 2014]. We used strike-slip and normal mechanisms for magnitudes ranging from 6.0 to 7.0. The propagation of the tsunamis from the source to the French an English coasts is made using a bathymetry with a grid step of 20m realized by the SHOM (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine) within the TANDEM project. Using synthetic gauges, we measure the water elevation prediction at the entrance of the main harbours. We push the investigation further for the case of Boulogne-Sur-Mer where the available topography-bathymetry map has a grid step of 10m. This fine bathymetry map enables to modelize the bassins and the embankments inside the harbor and thus to study the resonance of the site. Moreover Boulogne harbor is equipped with a maregraph that we use to compare the synthetic data with real water height registration. Using maregraph recording of rough sea or storm, we are able to evaluate the relevance of

  2. Barriers Associated with the Use of English in the Teaching of Technology in Grade 9 at Some Schools in Eastern Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makgato, Moses

    2015-01-01

    English is the language of learning and teaching in most schools in South Africa. The ability of teachers and students to understand and communicate with each other in English contributes to better performance in Science and Technology subjects. This article explores the challenges posed by the use of English in the teaching and learning of…

  3. Reconstruction of the Late Holocene river channel shifts in the North-Eastern part of the Lower Danube Plain based on historical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț-Alexandru CRISTEA

    2014-11-01

    s floodplain (until the confluence with Buzău it is larger by a couple of kilometers than Danube’s, despite the anastomosed character of the last one. This can indicate a progressive Holocene shift of the Siret’s river course from the Carpathians to the eastern edge of the floodplain or a transformation from a multi-channel to a single channel pattern. The instability was also specific to main tributaries, as is confirmed by the presence of multiple abandoned sinuous courses and relict meander belts in the area. An important shift of the Siret River’s lower course to a more eastern position during medieval times was briefly discussed, for the first time, by Antonovici (1929 based on couple of historical documents. The few questions we will try to answer to in this study are: When was formed the actual configuration of the river network in the study region? What was the impact of the LIA? How relevant can be the analysis of the historical data in the assessment of the river channel shifts?

  4. Preliminary Interpretations of Multi-Channel Seismic Reflection and Magnetic Data on North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in the Eastern Marmara Region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözde Okut Toksoy, Nigar; Kurt, Hülya; İşseven, Turgay

    2017-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is 1600 km long, right lateral strike-slip fault nearly E-W elongated between Karlıova in the east and Saros Gulf in the west. NAF splays into two major strands near the west of Bolu city as Northern and Southern strands. Northern strand passes Sapanca Lake and extends towards west and reaches Marmara Sea through the Gulf of Izmit. The area has high seismicity; 1999 Kocaeli (Mw=7.4) and 1999 Düzce (Mw=7.2) earthquakes caused approximately 150 km long surface rupture between the Gulf of Izmit and Bolu. The rupture has four distinct fault segments as Gölcük, Sapanca, Sakarya, and Karadere from west to east. In this study multi-channel seismic and magnetic data are collected for the first time on the Sapanca Segment to investigate the surficial and deeper geometry of the NAF. Previously, the NAF in the eastern Marmara region is investigated using by paleo-seismological data from trenches on the surface rupture of fault or the geomorphological data (Lettis et al., 2000; Dikbaş and Akyüz, 2010) which have shallower depth targets. Crustal structure and seismic velocities for Central Anatolia and eastern Marmara regions are obtained from deeper targeted refraction data (Gürbüz et al., 1992). However, their velocity models do not have the spatial resolution to determine details of the fault zone structure. Multi-channel seismic and magnetic data in this study were acquired on two N-S directed profiles crossing NAF perpendicularly near Kartepe on the western part of the Sapanca Lake in October 2016. The receiver interval is 5 m, shot interval is 5-10 m, and the total length of the profiles are approximately 1400 m. Buffalo Gun is used as a seismic source for deeper penetration. Conventional seismic reflection processing steps are applied to the data. These are geometry definition, editing, filtering, static correction, velocity analysis and deconvolution, stacking and migration. Echos seismic software package in Geophysical Department

  5. The Impact of the Collapse of Communism and EU Accession on Language Education Policy and Practice in Central and Eastern Europe: Two Case-Studies Focussing on English and Russian as Foreign Languages in Hungary and Eastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sheridan, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of geopolitical factors, and in particular the collapse of Communism and EU accession, on language education policy and practice in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CEE is understood here as referring to the former soviet-controlled, eastern bloc counties of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,…

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-02-16 to 2013-03-13 (NCEI Accession 0157256)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157256 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, Irish Sea and St....

  7. Chronic Exposure of Early Stages of Development of Japanese Oyster to Contaminants from the Industry in the English Channel. Stress Markers at Integrated and Molecular Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devos, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the effects of pollutants from the industry in the English Channel, in particular radionuclides, on the early stages of development of the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas. Original experimental devices were designed to study in laboratory controlled conditions the growth of a large number of larvae and spats. Emphasis was given to a joint use of stress markers at integrated and molecular levels. First exposures to non-radioactive pollutants revealed a highly sensitive response of the growth of juveniles exposed to a metal (zinc). Thereafter, juveniles were exposed for several weeks to dose rates of ionizing radiation and radionuclide activities several orders of magnitude higher than the levels likely to be encountered in the marine environment. An eco-geno-toxicological approach contributed to the understanding of the effects of ionizing radiations on DNA. The results strongly suggest that biochemical mechanisms act efficiently against radio-induced damages as early as the first days of life of the Japanese oyster. It still remains a lack of information about the long-term effects of DNA damages to higher level of biological organization. (author) [fr

  8. Size graded sediment dynamics: from the processes characterization to the transport modelling in the English Channel; Dynamique sedimentaire multiclasse: de l'etude des processus a la modelisation en Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanpain, O.

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of a sediment transport model in the English Channel. The design of such a model requires the identification of the physical processes, their modelling and their in-situ validation. Because of the sedimentary particularities of the study area, modelling of the mechanical behaviour of a non uniform mixture of sediments and particularly of the fine grains within a coarse matrix is required. This study focused on the characterization of the relevant processes by acquisition of experimental and in-situ data. Data acquired in hydro-sedimentary conditions comparable to those found in the English Channel are scarce. A new instrument and image processing technique were specifically conceived and implemented in-situ to observe and measure, with a high temporal resolution, the dynamics of a strongly heterogeneous mixture of particles in a grain-size scale. The data collected compared well with several existing formulations. One of these formulations was chosen to be adapted. The transfer dynamics of fine grains in coarse sediments and their depth of penetration were acquired from stratigraphic samples. The sediment transport model deals with multi-size grains and multi sedimentary layers, it is forced by swell and currents, and accounts for bead load and suspended load transports. It was applied to realistic scenarios for the English Channel. (author)

  9. Objective assessment of the contribution of the RECOPESCA network to the monitoring of 3D coastal ocean variables in the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamouroux, Julien; Charria, Guillaume; De Mey, Pierre; Raynaud, Stéphane; Heyraud, Catherine; Craneguy, Philippe; Dumas, Franck; Le Hénaff, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    In the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel, in situ observations represent a key element to monitor and to understand the wide range of processes in the coastal ocean and their direct impacts on human activities. An efficient way to measure the hydrological content of the water column over the main part of the continental shelf is to consider ships of opportunity as the surface to cover is wide and could be far from the coast. In the French observation strategy, the RECOPESCA programme, as a component of the High frequency Observation network for the environment in coastal SEAs (HOSEA), aims to collect environmental observations from sensors attached to fishing nets. In the present study, we assess that network using the Array Modes (ArM) method (a stochastic implementation of Le Hénaff et al. Ocean Dyn 59: 3-20. doi: 10.1007/s10236-008-0144-7, 2009). That model ensemble-based method is used here to compare model and observation errors and to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the observation network at detecting prior (model) uncertainties, based on hypotheses on error sources. A reference network, based on fishing vessel observations in 2008, is assessed using that method. Considering the various seasons, we show the efficiency of the network at detecting the main model uncertainties. Moreover, three scenarios, based on the reference network, a denser network in 2010 and a fictive network aggregated from a pluri-annual collection of profiles, are also analysed. Our sensitivity study shows the importance of the profile positions with respect to the sheer number of profiles for ensuring the ability of the network to describe the main error modes. More generally, we demonstrate the capacity of this method, with a low computational cost, to assess and to design new in situ observation networks.

  10. Archigregarines of the English Channel revisited: New molecular data on Selenidium species including early described and new species and the uncertainties of phylogenetic relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Rueckert

    Full Text Available Gregarines represent an important transition step from free-living predatory (colpodellids s.l. and/or photosynthetic (Chromera and Vitrella apicomplexan lineages to the most important pathogens, obligate intracellular parasites of humans and domestic animals such as coccidians and haemosporidians (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Babesia, etc.. While dozens of genomes of other apicomplexan groups are available, gregarines are barely entering the molecular age. Among the gregarines, archigregarines possess a unique mixture of ancestral (myzocytosis and derived (lack of apicoplast, presence of subpellicular microtubules features.In this study we revisited five of the early-described species of the genus Selenidium including the type species Selenidium pendula, with special focus on surface ultrastructure and molecular data. We were also able to describe three new species within this genus. All species were characterized at morphological (light and scanning electron microscopy data and molecular (SSU rDNA sequence data levels. Gregarine specimens were isolated from polychaete hosts collected from the English Channel near the Station Biologique de Roscoff, France: Selenidium pendula from Scolelepis squamata, S. hollandei and S. sabellariae from Sabellaria alveolata, S. sabellae from Sabella pavonina, Selenidium fallax from Cirriformia tentaculata, S. spiralis sp. n. and S. antevariabilis sp. n. from Amphitritides gracilis, and S. opheliae sp. n. from Ophelia roscoffensis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of these data showed archigregarines clustering into five separate clades and support previous doubts about their monophyly.Our phylogenies using the extended gregarine sampling show that the archigregarines are indeed not monophyletic with one strongly supported clade of Selenidium sequences around the type species S. pendula. We suggest the revision of the whole archigregarine taxonomy with only the species within this clade remaining in the genus

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and others from 2010-01-31 to 2010-11-25 (NCEI Accession 0157388)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157388 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel, North...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2009-01-09 to 2010-01-25 (NCEI Accession 0157325)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157325 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean,...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and salinity collected from surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2014-03-18 to 2014-10-09 (NCEI Accession 0163193)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163193 includes chemical, physical and surface underway data collected from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2014-03-18 to 2014-10-09. These...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and salinity collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2013-03-15 to 2013-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0157444)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157444 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2013-03-15 to 2013-12-22. These...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and salinity collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2012-04-25 to 2013-01-03 (NCEI Accession 0157472)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157472 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2012-04-25 to 2013-01-03. These...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-01-07 to 2016-05-30 (NCEI Accession 0160554)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160554 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2016-01-29 to 2016-07-27 (NCEI Accession 0160551)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160551 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, North Atlantic...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the PRIDE OF BILBAO in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-09-26 to 2010-09-16 (NODC Accession 0108092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108092 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from PRIDE OF BILBAO in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and North...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Sea from 2013-07-11 to 2013-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0157281)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157281 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Sea from...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-07 (NCEI Accession 0157273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157273 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Atlantic...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and North Sea from 2013-10-12 to 2013-10-22 (NCEI Accession 0157304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157304 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and North Sea from 2012-02-18 to 2012-02-29 (NCEI Accession 0157300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157300 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-03-20 to 2014-10-31 (NCEI Accession 0157462)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157462 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from DISCOVERY in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from RIO BLANCO in the English Channel, Mediterranean Sea and others from 2009-12-13 to 2010-12-14 (NODC Accession 0117291)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117291 includes Surface underway data collected from RIO BLANCO in the English Channel, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-01-08 to 2015-08-27 (NCEI Accession 0160490)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160490 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from PRINCE OF SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and others from 1994-06-03 to 1995-08-04 (NCEI Accession 0157050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157050 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from PRINCE OF SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel,...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the PELAGIA in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2001-08-18 to 2002-05-25 (NODC Accession 0112843)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112843 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from PELAGIA in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean, North Sea,...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the PELAGIA in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2001-08-18 to 2002-05-25 (NODC Accession 0112844)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112844 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from PELAGIA in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean, North Sea,...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and others from 2011-06-06 to 2011-07-09 (NCEI Accession 0157451)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157451 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-07-04 to 2014-11-04 (NCEI Accession 0157355)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157355 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean Sea and others from 2015-02-28 to 2015-12-16 (NCEI Accession 0157377)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157377 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean Sea and others from 2014-11-15 to 2014-11-19 (NCEI Accession 0157277)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157277 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Santa Cruz in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2014-01-17 to 2014-02-28 (NCEI Accession 0157404)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157404 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Santa Cruz in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean,...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-01-07 to 2011-01-17 (NCEI Accession 0157367)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157367 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MN COLIBRI in the Alboran Sea, English Channel and others from 2010-03-30 to 2011-01-02 (NCEI Accession 0157320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157320 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MN COLIBRI in the Alboran Sea, English Channel, Ligurian...

  16. Middle Eastern Christians in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Hunter, Alistair; Jørgensen, Anne Rosenlund

    This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience.......This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience....

  17. Beyond the Culture of Exclusion: Using Critical Race Theory to Examine the Perceptions of British "Minority Ethnic" and Eastern European "Immigrant" Young People in English Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emel

    2012-01-01

    In England there are minority ethnic students with past family connections to the former British Empire, as well as recent Eastern European students, economic migrants, asylum seekers and refugees. One may wish to ask, do newly emerging racial identities conceptualise race and race relations in similar ways to existing minority ethnic communities?…

  18. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....

  19. Spatio-temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Western English Channel based on two years of FerryBox deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Latimier, M.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Vernet, M.; Bozec, Y.

    2014-12-01

    From January 2011 to January 2013, a FerryBox system was installed on a Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS), which crossed the Western English Channel (WEC) between Roscoff (France) and Plymouth (UK) up to 3 times a day. The FerryBox continuously measured sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), fluorescence and partial pressure of CO2 (from April 2012) along the ferry track. Sensors were calibrated based on 714 bimonthly surface samplings with precisions of 0.016 for SSS, 3.3 μM for DO, 0.40 μg L- 1 for Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) (based on fluorescence measurements) and 5.2 μatm for pCO2. Over the 2 years of deployment (900 crossings), we reported 9% of data lost due to technical issues and quality checked data was obtained to allow investigation of the dynamics of biogeochemical processes related to air-sea CO2 fluxes in the WEC. Based on this unprecedented high-frequency dataset, the physical structure of the WEC was assessed using SST anomalies and the presence of a thermal front was observed around the latitude 49.5°N, which divided the WEC in two main provinces: the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the all-year well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC). These hydrographical properties strongly influenced the spatial and inter-annual distributions of phytoplankton blooms, which were mainly limited by nutrients and light availability in the nWEC and the sWEC, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes were also highly related to hydrographical properties of the WEC between late April and early September 2012, with the sWEC a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.9 mmol m- 2 d- 1, whereas the nWEC acted as a sink for atmospheric CO2 of 6.9 mmol m- 2 d- 1. The study of short time-scale dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes revealed that an intense and short (less than 10 days) summer bloom in the nWEC contributed to 29% of the CO2 sink during the productive period, highlighting the necessity for high frequency observations in coastal

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and others from 2011-06-06 to 2011-07-09 (NCEI Accession 0157465)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157465 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from DISCOVERY in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1995-10-02 to 1998-10-16 (NCEI Accession 0157101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157101 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1991-12-04 to 1994-06-12 (NODC Accession 0117725)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117725 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the MONTE OLIVIA and Rio Blanco in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2009-01-18 to 2009-12-23 (NODC Accession 0117337)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117337 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MONTE OLIVIA and Rio Blanco in the English Channel, North...

  4. Crystallographic preferred orientations of exhumed subduction channel rocks from the Eclogite Zone of the Tauern Window (Eastern Alps, Austria), and implications on rock elastic anisotropies at great depths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keppler, R.; Ullemeyer, K.; Behrmann, J. H.; Stipp, M.; Kurzawski, R. M.; Lokajíček, Tomáš

    647/648, April (2015), s. 89-104 ISSN 0040-1951 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : crystallographic preferred orientation * eclogite Zone * elastic properties * P-wave anisotropy * retrogression of eclogites * subduction channel Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.650, year: 2015

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution (1987-91) of 125Sb used to trace pathways and transit times of waters entering the North Sea from the English Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegueniat, P.; Du Bois, P.B.; Gandon, R.; Leon, R.

    1994-01-01

    The labelling of marine waters off north-western Europe by artificial radionuclides discharged by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at Sellafield and La Hague provides a potentially useful tool for the study of hydrodynamic processes. In this context, the present investigation introduces a tracer, 125 Sb, which is conservative within the watermass and which is characteristic of releases from la Hague. Analysis of the data collected between 1987 and 1991 shows that a large part of the channel waters entering the North Sea follow a route along the Belgian, Dutch, German and Danish coasts, while undergoing a low degree of dilution with other marine waters circulating in the central North Sea. The westward extension of the channel plume is variable with time, but the general distribution is in good agreement with the ICES box model. Estimates are given for the transit times from Cap de la Hague to various sectors of the North Sea; it takes 15-17 months for labelled waters to reach the Norwegian Channel. (Author)

  6. China English and ELT for English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a general study of one of varieties of English--China English and its influence on English Language Teaching (ELT) for English majors. The status of English as an International language breaks the situation in which British English or American English is the sole standard. English becomes World Englishes, taking on a plural form,…

  7. Suri-English basic vocabulary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Suri, also known as Surma, are agropastoralists living in the semiarid lowland area of the Kafa Administrative Region of Ethiopia. The Suri language belongs to the South-East Surmic (SES) language group within the Eastern Sudanic family of Nilo-Saharan. The Suri-English vocabulary presented here

  8. Earphone English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Francisca

    2002-01-01

    Describes Earphone English, a student club sponsored through a partnership between Berkeley High School and the Berkeley Public Library that offers students whose primary language is not English to practice their spoken and aural English skills. Discusses the audiobooks used in the program and the importance of multicultural content and age…

  9. Plankton blooms, ocean circulation and the European slope current: Response to weather and climate in the Bay of Biscay and W English Channel (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Robin D.; Garcia-Soto, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    The flow of upper-layer surface water and circulation for the Bay of Biscay, continental slope and in the wider region of the NE Atlantic is presented, as well as the seasonality of flow and internal tides. The marine plankton environments of Biscay Ocean, Biscay Eddies, Biscay Slope and Biscay Shelf are defined. The Shelf region (Armorican and Celtic) is further divided into Stratified Shelf, Frontal and Tidally Mixed. Seasonal distributions of chlorophyll a are given for all environment from in situ measurements and remote sensing data. Mixing and stabilisation of surface water in the euphotic layer for the start of the spring bloom using in situ profiling measurements is examined. Some regional responses for the slope current, dinoflagellate blooms and interannual variations in spring diatom numbers with respect to weather and climate in the Bay of Biscay and around the British Isles are suggested and discussed. An example of the Eastern European Ocean Margin continental slope response to winter weather (sea level atmospheric pressure forcing) resulting in warm winter water in the southern Bay of Biscay (Navidad, with eddy production) and off the Shetland continental slopes (the warm-water supply route to the Arctic) is given from the slope climate observation series.

  10. The Effects of the Use of English in Polish Product Advertisements: Implications for English for Business Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planken, Brigitte; van Meurs, Frank; Radlinska, Ania

    2010-01-01

    English has come to be widely used for the specific purpose of advertising to reach international target groups in various countries. However, few studies to date have investigated the use--and effects of--English in advertising in Eastern European countries. This study investigated the effect of English in advertisements from Polish glossy…

  11. Channelling and channelling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, A.H.; Uggerhoej, E.

    1987-01-01

    The study of channelling phenomena has developed rapidly since the early 1960s and today channelling has found many applications. The radiation emitted by channelled megaelectronvolt and gigaelectronvolt electrons and positrons has been investigated extensively and the possibility of, for example, constructing intense tunable X- and γ-ray sources is being explored. Multi-gigaelectronvolt radiation and pair-creation processes in single crystals show similarities with strong-field effects and are of particular interest because of high production rates that persist far beyond the channelling regime. (author)

  12. Extramural English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Hannibal

    activities are more supportive of language learning than others, i.e. gaming, watching television, music, etc. Finally, a qualitative gaming study will be carried out to explore what goes on linguistically when very young children game in English together: type of interaction between players...... and with the game and if this interaction can be seen to support their English language learning. Preliminary results indicate that although children use / are exposed to English in a range of different contexts and through a variety of modalities (internet, console/PC games, music etc.), the one activity...... that seems to have the most impact on children’s English learning is gaming....

  13. CALL English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlach, Else

    This multimedia program of English grammar caters specifically for Danish students at Bachelor level. The handbook introduces students to well-established grammatical terminology within the traditional areas of English grammar, and the CD-ROM, which contains about 120 exercises, offers students...

  14. Project TANDEM (Tsunamis in the Atlantic and the English ChaNnel: Definition of the Effects through numerical Modeling) (2014-2018): a French initiative to draw lessons from the Tohoku-oki tsunami on French coastal nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Hélène; Abadie, Stéphane; Benoit, Michel; Créach, Ronan; Frère, Antoine; Gailler, Audrey; Garzaglia, Sébastien; Hayashi, Yutaka; Loevenbruck, Anne; Macary, Olivier; Marcer, Richard; Morichon, Denis; Pedreros, Rodrigo; Rebour, Vincent; Ricchiuto, Mario; Silva Jacinto, Ricardo; Terrier, Monique; Toucanne, Samuel; Traversa, Paola; Violeau, Damien

    2014-05-01

    TANDEM (Tsunamis in the Atlantic and the English ChaNnel: Definition of the Effects through numerical Modeling) is a French research project dedicated to the appraisal of coastal effects due to tsunami waves on the French coastlines, with a special focus on the Atlantic and Channel coastlines, where French civil nuclear facilities have been operating since about 30 years. This project aims at drawing conclusions from the 2011 catastrophic tsunami, and will allow, together with a Japanese research partner, to design, adapt and validate numerical methods of tsunami hazard assessment, using the outstanding database of the 2011 tsunami. Then the validated methods will be applied to estimate, as accurately as possible, the tsunami hazard for the French Atlantic and Channel coastlines, in order to provide guidance for risk assessment on the nuclear facilities. The project TANDEM follows the recommendations of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to analyse the tsunami exposure of the nuclear facilities, as well as the recommendations of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire, ASN) in the aftermath of the 2011 catastrophe, which required the licensee of nuclear facilities to conduct complementary safety assessments (CSA), also including "the robustness beyond their design basis". The tsunami hazard deserves an appraisal in the light of the 2011 catastrophe, to check whether any unforeseen tsunami impact can be expected for these facilities. TANDEM aims at defining the tsunami effects expected for the French Atlantic and Channel coastlines, basically from numerical modeling methods, through adaptation and improvement of numerical methods, in order to study tsunami impacts down to the interaction with coastal structures (thus sometimes using 3D approaches) (WP1). Then the methods will be tested to better characterize and quantify the associated uncertainties (in the source, the propagation, and the coastal impact) (WP2). The project will

  15. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  16. The Englishness of English Sedilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Alexander Cameron

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedilia are the ceremonial seats of the priest, deacon, and subdeacon placed to the south of the altar. In Gothic church architecture, they typically take the form of three deep niches, recessed into the thickness of the wall, surmounted by arches and separated by shafts. These types of sedilia are most well-known from English churches of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. This essay looks to explain why sedilia became so popular in England, through a consideration of trends in English architecture. With the help of Nikolaus Pevsner’s characterization of the country’s art from The Englishness of English Art, it will argue that the basic decorative language of sedilia is entrenched in trends first developed in the Anglo-Norman Romanesque. It will also suggest, however, that regional variations in the distribution of sedilia complicate the idea of a single “national style”.

  17. The Ecology of Language in Classrooms at a University in Eastern Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolsky, Oleg B.; Goodman, Bridget A.

    2014-01-01

    Using an ecology of language framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which English as a medium of instruction (EMI) at a private university in eastern Ukraine allows for the use of Ukrainian, the state language, or Russian, the predominantly spoken language, in large cities in eastern Ukraine. Uses of English and Russian…

  18. ENGLISH TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch PLACES AVAILABLE Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English who need to improve their professional writing (administrative, scientific, technical). Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their sp...

  19. English Graphic

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    English Graphic is a book of essays on the subject of illustration, with the focus entirely on English artists using graphic media; drawings, prints and watercolours. As editor, I built on a schedule Tom drew up. It contains essays drawn from a variety of sources: the Great Works column, reviews, catalogue essays, and previously unpublished material. The historical span of the book is broad – from the Winchester Psalter Hellmouth to Harry Beck’s London Underground Map and Dom Sylvester Houéda...

  20. Dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes based on FerryBox measurements and satellite-based prediction of pCO2 in the Western English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrec, Pierre; Thierry, Cariou; Eric, Mace; Pascal, Morin; Marc, Vernet; Yann, Bozec

    2014-05-01

    Since April 2012, we installed an autonomous FerryBox system on a Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS), which crosses the Western English Channel (WEC) between Roscoff and Plymouth on a daily basis. High-frequency data of sea surface temperature (SST), salinity (SSS), fluorescence, dissolved oxygen (DO) and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were recorded for two years across the all-year mixed southern WEC (sWEC) and the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC). These contrasting hydrographical provinces strongly influenced the spatio-temporal distributions of pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes. During the productive period (from May to September), the nWEC acted as a sink for atmospheric CO2 of -5.6 mmolC m-2 d-1 and -4.6 mmolC m-2 d-1, in 2012 and 2013, respectively. During the same period, the sWEC showed significant inter-annual variability degassing CO2 to the atmosphere in 2012 (1.4 mmolC m-2 d-1) and absorbing atmospheric CO2 in 2013 (-1.6 mmolC m-2 d-1). In 2012, high-frequency data revealed that an intense and short (less than 10 days) summer phytoplankton bloom in the nWEC contributed to 31% of the total CO2 drawdown during the productive period, highlighting the necessity of pCO2 high-frequency measurements in coastal ecosystems. Based on this multi-annual dataset, we developed pCO2 algorithms using multiple linear regression (MLR) based on SST, SSS, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, time, latitude and mixed layer depth to predict pCO2 in the two hydrographical provinces of the WEC. MLR were performed based on more than 200,000 underway observations spanning the range from 150 to 480 µatm. The root mean square errors (RMSE) of the MLR fit to the data were 17.2 µatm and 21.5 µatm for the s WEC and the nWEC with correlation coefficient (r²) of 0.71 and 0.79, respectively. We applied these algorithms to satellite SST and Chl-a products and to modeled SSS estimates in the entire WEC. Based on these high-frequency and satellite approaches, we will discuss the main

  1. eastern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eastern Uganda. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study sites and experimcntal design. The study was conducted in thrce hi ghland districts ofeastern. Uganda, namely; Kapchorwa, Mbale and Sironko, for three consecutivr: seasons bcginning with thc second (September [0 December) season of2001, and during thc first (April ...

  2. English Downfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theamishaugur

    2009-01-01

    In a remix of the infamous Hitler meme--taking a scene from the movie, "Downfall" (2005), and adding subtitles appropriate (in this case) for "Kairos" readers--theamishaugur makes a pointed, humorous (to some) commentary on the status of multimodal composition scholars in English departments during job market season.

  3. English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 03 March to 28 June 2003 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel.73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel.72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, rol...

  4. English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 03 March to 28 June 2003 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel.73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel.72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-p...

  5. English Phonetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for phoneticians, phonologists, and other linguists to locate and use, English Phonetics: Twentieth-Century Developments is a veritable treasure-trove. The gathered works are reproduced in facsimile, giving users a strong sense of immediacy to the texts and permitting citation to the original pagination...

  6. English courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    New courses University of Cambridge ESOL examination course We will be starting two new courses in October leading to the Cambridge First Certificate in English (level B2 of the European Framework) and the Cambridge Advanced English (level C1) examinations. These courses will consist of two semesters of 15 weeks with two two-hourly classes per week. There will be an average of eight students per class. Normally the examination will be taken in June 2011 but strong participants could take it earlier. People wishing to take these courses should enrol: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9:1927376177842004::NO::X_COURSE_ID,X_STATUS:4133%2CD and they will then be required to take a placement test to check that their level of English is of an appropriate level. Please note that we need a minimum of seven students enrolled to open a session. For further information please contact Tessa Osborne 72957. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: From 4th October 2010 to 5th Feb...

  7. Making out in English (English phrasebook)

    CERN Document Server

    Crownover, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Making Out in English is a fun, accessible and thorough English phrase book and guide to the English language as it's really spoken. If you are a student, businessman or tourist traveling to the English speaking world and would like to have an authentic and meaningful experience, the key is being able to speak like a local. This friendly and easy-to-use English phrasebook makes this possible. Making Out in English has been revised and redesigned to act as a guide to modern colloquial English for use in everyday informal interactions—giving access to the sort of catchy English expressions that

  8. English training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    You have a good level of English BUT... You still need to improve your speaking or You have problems writing professional documents Would you like to work in a small group on either of these areas? Then, the following courses are for you! Writing Professional Documents in English The aim of the course is for students to improve their professional writing. Participants will work on technical, scientific or administrative documents depending on the needs of the group. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Oral Expression The emphasis will be on oral expression with necessary feed-back. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 / Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern.ch.

  9. English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    You have a good level of English BUT... You still need to improve your speaking or You have problems writing professional documents Would you like to work in a small group on either of these areas? Then, the following courses are for you! Writing Professional Documents in English The aim of the course is for students to improve their professional writing. Participants will work on technical, scientific or administrative documents depending on the needs of the group. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Oral Expression The emphasis will be on oral expression with necessary feed-back. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 / Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern.ch.

  10. English courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Cours d'anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 4 mars jusqu’au 21 juin 2013. Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 4 March to 21 June 2013. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. More information here. Writing Professional Documents in English - Administrative Writing Professional Documents in English - Technical The next sessions will take place from 4 March to 21 June 2013. These courses are designed for people with a goo...

  11. English course

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next sessions will take place: From 3rd October 2011 to beginning of February 2012 (break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. 70896. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 3rd October 2011 to beginning of February 2012 (break at Christmas). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. 70896. Writing Professional Documents in English - Administrative Wr...

  12. In English

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-15

    Sep 15, 2017 ... Sathyamurthy describe the effect of hydration on cation-π .... The book is available in digital format and is housed on the Academy ..... between quantum information protocols and quantum correlation in multipartite quantum systems. Quantum channels reduce the required number of dimension states, as ...

  13. Anguished English

    CERN Document Server

    Lederer, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Anguished English is the impossibly funny anthology of accidental assaults upon our common language. From bloopers and blunders to Signs of the Times to Mixed-Up Metaphors . . . from Two-Headed Headlines to Mangling Modifiers . . . it's a collection that will leave you roaring with delight and laughter.Help wanteds:Wanted: Unmarried girls to pick fresh fruit and produce at night.Two-Headed Headlines:Grandmother of eight makes hole in one!Doctor testifies in horse suit.Modern-Day Malapropisms:I suffer from a deviant septum.

  14. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  15. English Course

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    Cours d'anglais général et professionnel : La prochaine session se déroulera : du 27 février au 22 juin 2012. Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages Web: http://cern.ch/Training Vous pouvez aussi contacter Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tél. 70896. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 27 February to 22 June, 2012.  This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web page: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. ...

  16. Japanese Media in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  17. The Ownership of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdowson, H. G.

    1994-01-01

    A plenary address from the 1993 Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) Convention discusses the question of how English teachers delimit and design their world. Issues of standard English are raised, and it is noted that, if English serves the communicative and communal needs of different communities, it must be diverse. (One…

  18. English as "Tyrannosaurus Rex."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swales, John M.

    1997-01-01

    The increasing domination of English as the world's leading medium of international professional communication has begun to impact English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programs, specifically the question of whether English is becoming too successful. The article argues that resistance to the "triumphalism" of English is a responsibility of EAP…

  19. English Teaching Profile: Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Poland begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, adult, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language…

  20. On Observing World English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdang, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the current state of World English. Subjects addressed include standard accents and dialects, prejudicial attitudes toward nonstandard "local" usages, the use of English as the language of diplomacy, American influences on the language, and the fracturing of English in non-English-speaking countries around the world. (17 references) (JL)

  1. Conversational English Program, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This first book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  2. Conversational English Program, 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This second book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  3. Introducing Business English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickerson, C.; Planken, B.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing Business English provides a comprehensive overview of this topic, situating the concepts of Business English and English for Specific Business Purposes within the wider field of English for Special Purposes. This book draws on contemporary teaching and research contexts to demonstrate

  4. Late Quaternary stratigraphy of an alluvial valley along an active convergence front: Interactions of fluvial processes, tectonic channel steering, and sea level in the eastern Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L.; Goodbred, S. L.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Spiess, V.; Schwenk, T.; Palamenghi, L.; Akhter, S. H.; Mondal, D.; Hossain, S.

    2012-12-01

    Insights into how tectonics, alluvial channels, and sediment interact to build the stratigraphy in a tectonically active depositional basin can be discovered by studying the sediment record and the current geomorphology of a system. Tectonics is an influence on basins that often gets overlooked due to overriding controls such as sea level, climate, and sediment load. The area for this study is in the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta (GBMD) in close proximity to an active convergent thrust front. To investigate the stratigraphy, we drilled 48 cores along two approximately longitudinal transects, 25-60 km apart, each spanning ~100 km. The boreholes were drilled every 3-4 km to a maximum depth of 100 m. The transects are situated across an alluvial valley and are bounded to the west by a Pleistocene terrace (Madhupur Terrace) and to the east by a fold belt (Indo-Burman Fold Belt) that continues to deform due to active tectonics at the thrust front. A seismic cruise using a mini-GI gun was conducted in conjunction with this study along the current river channel and has shown evidence of folded sediment at depth, and field studies in the area have found outcropping anticlines thus aiding in the determination of transect location. Through analysis of aerial imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs) of the transects, abandoned channels once occupied by the alluvial channel are evidence of migration and avulsion occurring recently enough to be recorded on the land surface. Initial analysis of the sediment cores shows a dramatic contrast in the stratigraphy between the two transects despite lying along the same morphological reach of the GBMD. The northern transect is dominated by fine to medium sands throughout indicating a strong fluvial influence, while the southern transect is dominated by muds and finer sands at depth indicating a tidal estuarine influence. The stratigraphy and land surface are a consequence of the controls on the system and reflect channel behavior

  5. Web English --the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, A. I. C.

    1998-01-01

    Electronic communication, and particularly the World Wide Web, is becoming increasingly indispensable in our daily lives. The vast majority of the information currently exchanged electronically is in English, and it might be assumed that this will promote the use of English. Rarely is the contrary view presented, that the adoption of English as a general-purpose medium for global communication will change the English language and perhaps even lead to the creation of a «Web English» which repl...

  6. The Channel Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Channel Tunnel is a 50.5 km-long rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover. It connects Dover, Kent in England with Calais, northern France. The undersea section of the tunnel is unsurpassed in length in the world. A proposal for a Channel tunnel was first put forward by a French engineer in 1802. In 1881, a first attempt was made at boring a tunnel from the English side; the work was halted after 800 m. Again in 1922, English workers started boring a tunnel, and advanced 120 m before it too was halted for political reasons. The most recent attempt was begun in 1987, and the tunnel was officially opened in 1994. At completion it was estimated that the project cost around $18 billion. It has been operating at a significant loss since its opening, despite trips by over 7 million passengers per year on the Eurostar train, and over 3 million vehicles per year. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The

  7. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Eastern Equine Encephalitis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Eastern Equine Encephalitis Home Frequently Asked Questions Prevention Virus Transmission ...

  8. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  9. A Mende-English Dictionary. West African Language Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Gordon

    This Mende dictionary is based on the eastern (up-country) dialect and uses the standard spelling of the Sierra Leone Provincial Literature Bureau. Each entry consists of the Mende word, an indication of its tone and part of speech, the English gloss, and examples of usage in short phrases or sentences. A short Introduction provides notes on the…

  10. REVIEWING TRANSFERABILITY in ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS ORIGINATING from EASTERN EUROPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Mandrik (Olena); S. Knies (Saskia); Z. Kaló (Zoltán); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objectives:__ The aim of this study is to analyze the quality and transferability issues reported in published peer-reviewed English-language economic evaluations based in healthcare settings of the Central and Eastern European (CEE) and former Soviet countries. __Methods:__ A

  11. Calculating Mean Length of Utterance for Eastern Canadian Inuktitut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Shanley E. M.; Dench, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Although virtually all Inuit children in eastern Arctic Canada learn Inuktitut as their native language, there is a critical lack of tools to assess their level of language ability. This article investigates how mean length of utterance (MLU), a widely-used assessment measure in English and other languages, can be best applied in Inuktitut. The…

  12. Teaching College English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    College instructors of English need to use selected strands from the educational psychology arena in teaching so that students may achieve more optimally. Each student needs to experience a quality English curriculum. A quality English class emphasizes instructional procedures which are conducive to achieving, growing, and learning on the part of…

  13. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  14. English in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing use of English in Vietnam is reviewed, along with the nation's linguistic history that exemplifies the close relationship between language and politics. The English curriculum in Vietnamese schools is described, and the future role of Outer Circle countries in English language teaching is considered. (19 references) (Author/LB)

  15. Moodling English Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah; Arslan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to emphasize the importance of using Moodle in foreign language learning and teaching by reviewing relevant literature and introducing a Moodle-based environment aiming to help English learners to practice their English by themselves. Firstly, the use of Moodle in education and more specifically in English Language Teaching is…

  16. English in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    Traces the history of English in Fiji, especially in relation to education. The role of English in interethnic communication and as a language of wider communication with the outside world is discussed, and features of Fiji English, a local language variety, are described. (Author/CB)

  17. Noch Einmal:American English - British English (Once More: American English -- British English).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, M.

    1980-01-01

    Replies critically to the article by D. K. Stevenson and R. J. Brunt, "Living English: Seeing the Forest in Spite of the Trees -- On Differences between American English and British English," in this journal, issue 1979/2. A reply by Stevenson and Brunt continues the controversy. (IFS/WGA)

  18. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  19. English Language Teaching in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthafa, Bachrudin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the education system in Indonesia, the development of a national English syllabus, English in elementary and secondary schools and in higher education, private sector English courses, teacher preparation and professional development, and expatriate English teachers. (Author/VWL)

  20. Highlights for the 6th International Ion Channel Conference: ion channel structure, function, disease and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To foster communication and interactions amongst international scholars and scientists in the field of ion channel research, the 6th International Ion Channel Conference (IICC-2017 was held between June 23–27, 2017 in the eastern coastal city of Qingdao, China. The meeting consisted of 450 attendees and 130 speakers and poster presenters. The program consisted of research progress, new findings and ongoing studies that were focused on (1 Ion channel structure and function; (2 Ion channel physiology and human diseases; (3 Ion channels as targets for drug discovery; (4 Technological advances in ion channel research. An insightful overview was presented on the structure and function of the mechanotransduction channel Drosophila NOMPC (No mechanoreceptor potential C, a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP channel family. Recent studies on Transmembrane protein 16 or Anoctamin-1 (TMEM16A, a member of the calcium-activated chloride channel [CaCC] family were summarized as well. In addition, topics for ion channel regulation, homeostatic feedback and brain disorders were thoroughly discussed. The presentations at the IICC-2017 offer new insights into our understanding of ion channel structures and functions, and ion channels as targets for drug discovery.

  1. English Language Teaching Profile: Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    A profile of English language teaching in Poland is provided in outline form. The following topics are dealt with: the role of English in the country, teaching hours per week in English at each educational level, English language versus English literature, public examinations, syllabuses and textbooks, specialized English programs, adult English…

  2. Teacher of primary English

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Part-time teacher of primary English needed for September 2003 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply see http://enpferney.org/staff_vacancies.htm English National Programme, Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire (http://enpferney.org/)

  3. TEACHER OF ENGLISH NEEDED

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Part-time teacher of primary English needed for September 2002 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply: engnat@hotmail.com or 04 50 40 82 66. Apply as soon as possible, and in any case before 8 July. English National Programme, Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire.

  4. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  5. What is English?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrikke Rindal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the developing status of English in Norway, both as a language and as a school subject, making predictions about which ontological and epistemological perspectives will influence English language teaching (ELT in Norway towards 2030. Status quo and predictions for English in Norway is approached from two angles; the development of presiding language beliefs in linguistic science and in ELT practices from the 16th century to the present, and the more recent and rapid development of English as the foremost global language of communication. The article shows how English language beliefs and the status of English are made visible in the national subject curriculum and in the English language practices among Norwegian adolescent learners. The discussion suggests that English is increasingly characterised by those who use it as a second or later language, including Norwegians who negotiate the meanings of English in the ELT classroom. The article predicts that a logical development for Norwegian ELT is increased influence from social constructionist perspectives, in combination with the existing focus on communicative competence. The study shows that global circumstances related to the status of English are reciprocally related to local language beliefs among educational authorities, teachers and students, and that these have major implications for English as a discipline in lower and higher education.

  6. Starburst Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Translucent carbon dioxide ice covers the polar regions of Mars seasonally. It is warmed and sublimates (evaporates) from below, and escaping gas carves a numerous channel morphologies. In this example (figure 1) the channels form a 'starburst' pattern, radiating out into feathery extensions. The center of the pattern is being buried with dust and new darker dust fans ring the outer edges. This may be an example of an expanding morphology, where new channels are formed as the older ones fill and are no longer efficiently channeling the subliming gas out. Observation Geometry Image PSP_003443_0980 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 21-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -81.8 degrees latitude, 76.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 247.1 km (154.4 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.7 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 74 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 04:52 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 71 degrees, thus the sun was about 19 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 223.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  7. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  8. Bilingual Education and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, California instituted a statewide test measuring English proficiency for English learners, students who are not proficient in English. In 2003 and 2004, nearly 500,000 English learners in grades 1-5 took this test each year. The relationship between bilingual education receipt and English proficiency is estimated using value-added…

  9. English I. [Revised].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Margaret; And Others

    This manual for language arts instructors contains a basic core of instruction in English that provides updated and extensive vocationally related application of such basic English skills as reading, writing, and practical usage. Attention is also focused on assisting students with life and study skills. The material should be adapted to…

  10. Exploring Affixation in English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unique firstlady

    One of the keys to mastering English spellings is mastering the processes of word formation. The mode of word formation can influence the spelling. The study of the meaningful parts of a word is known as morphology. Linguists have identified many ways in which English form its words which include borrowing from Latin ...

  11. English for Business Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…

  12. Nineteenth-Century English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...

  13. Abbreviations in Maritime English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhirong

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the phenomena that more and more abbreviations occur in maritime English correspondences, the composing laws of the abbreviations in maritime English correspondence are analyzed, and the correct methods to answer the abbreviations are pointed out, and the translation method of abbreviations are summarized in this article, and the…

  14. English for Global Peacekeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossey, Mark

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the work of the British Council's Peacekeeping English Project: why the British Council is undertaking this work, why is it being sponsored, what exactly is being done and what are the key issues in English for peacekeeping and other security forces.

  15. Learning English, Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Using science notebooks effectively in the classroom can encourage students who are learning English to keep up and keep interested. English language proficiency might head the list of content areas that schools can teach properly and effectively through science. Amaral, Garrison, and Klentschy (2002) reported that a successful inquiry-based…

  16. Mechanisms of Vowel Variation in African American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster

    2018-02-15

    This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n = 16) lifelong residents of cities in eastern and western North Carolina produced heed,hid,heyd,head,had,hod,hawed,whod,hood,hoed,hide,howed,hoyd, and heard 3 times each in random order. Formant frequency, duration, and acoustic analyses were completed for the vowels /i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ, ɑ, ɔ, u, ʊ, o, aɪ, aʊ, oɪ, ɝ/ produced in the listed words. African American English speakers show vowel variation. In the west, the African American English speakers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift and hod fronting of the African American Shift. In the east, neither the African American English speakers nor their White peers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift. The African American English speakers show limited participation in the African American Shift. The results provide evidence of regional and socio-ethnic variation in African American English in North Carolina.

  17. Dynamic Channel Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    21 9. Beowulf Ethernet Channel Bonding.................................................22 F. SUMMARY...on demand, hybrid channel allocation in wireless networks, and 3 Beowulf Ethernet channel bonding. The background information presented in this...channels are available for dynamic allocation [Ref 32]. 9. Beowulf Ethernet Channel Bonding A by-product of using older computers in a NASA research lab

  18. English Grammar For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Lesley J

    2009-01-01

    If you're confused by commas, perplexed by pronouns, and plain terrified by tenses, English Grammar For Dummies will put your fears to rest. Packed with expert guidance, it covers everything from sentence basics to rules even your English teacher didn't know - if you want to brush up on your grammar, this is the only guide you'll ever need. Discover how to: avoid common grammatical errors; get to grips with apostrophes; structure sentences correctly; use verbs and find the right tense; and decide when to use slang or formal English.  

  19. Learner Views on English and English Language Teaching in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Lin, Chih-Kai; Wiley, Terrence G.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, China has represented one of the major growth areas in the world for English language education, and studying English has been a priority among its foreign language educational policies. As English has gained more popularity in China, some have noted the potential value of English as a means to greater educational access and…

  20. Teaching English through English: Proficiency, Pedagogy and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the world's English language teachers speak English as a second or third language rather than as their first language. For many, their level of proficiency in English may not reach benchmarks established by their employers, raising the issue that is the focus of this article, namely, what kind of proficiency in English is necessary to be…

  1. Variations in Written English

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    .... The implication is that these five dimensions mark fundamental rhetorical "cut points" in written English, functioning as a heretofore hidden meso-layer linking micro-level linguistic decisions...

  2. A Study of Vowel Nasalization and Vowel Epenthesis Processes in Cameroon Francophone English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Tagne Safotso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike Cameroon English and Received Pronunciation, Cameroon Francophone English has a number of nasal  and epenthetic vowels. Those nasal vowels are generally French ones, as Cameroon Francophone English is heavily influenced by that language. The epenthetic vowels found in Cameroon Francophone English as in many other non-native Englishes are difficult to explain. Part of the data analysed is drawn from past studies (Safotso 2001, 2006, 2012 & 2015; Kouega 2008. This is complemented by the oral reading of some test words by French-speaking Cameroonian undergraduate/postgraduate students and some speech gathered from debates and interventions on various national TV channels and radio stations. Results show that in Cameroon Francophone English, vowel nasalization and vowel epenthesis occur in specific positions. This paper attempts to show how they operate in that variety of English.

  3. Secondary predicates in Eastern European languages and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Christoph; Hentschel, Gerd; Boeder, Winfried

    2008-01-01

    This volume offers descriptive and theoretical studies on depictive secondary predicates in a wide variety of languages. While the focus is on the Middle and Eastern European area, including Slavonic, Baltic, Finno-Ugric, Turkic and Caucasian languages, and on languages of the Balkan Area, the scope of the collection is widened to studies of secondary predication in German and English, in the languages of Morocco and in Classical Aztec. The chapters deal with typological issues of secondary p...

  4. Teaching English through Movies

    OpenAIRE

    Groger, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I will offer some techniques on how to add stimulation and enjoyment to the study of English through watching movies. The reader will have a chance to examine how teachers can utilize movies in the classroom to generate significant language production. This paper will further demonstrate how movies provide a plethora of opportunities for learners to reinforce and integrate all four English language skills, while improving their ability to engage in discussions that elicit and en...

  5. My Hesitation to Speak English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Naruha

    2015-01-01

    Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…

  6. Attitudes Toward English in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismore, Avon; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A 16-item Likert Scale questionnaire was used to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of Malaysian teachers and students at the university level toward Malaysian English. The functionality of Malaysian English was accepted, but respondents were determined to learn Standard English because they viewed Malaysian English as "wrong…

  7. English Language Teaching Profile: Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Cyprus discusses the role of English within the Greek Cypriot community and within the educational system. Areas covered include English language requirements and English within the curriculum, teaching personnel and teacher training, instructional materials, English…

  8. English made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This is a fun and user–friendly way to learn English English Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learning—imaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Self–guided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text to discover for themselves how English works. The pictorial method used in this book is based on a thorough understanding of language structure and how language is successfully learned.English Made Easy, Volume 1 consists of a total of 20 units arranged in groups of five. The first four units presents language and provide learners the opportunities to practice as they learn. The first page of each unit has a list of all the word...

  9. English made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This is a fun and user–friendly way to learn EnglishEnglish Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learning—imaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Self–guided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text to discover for themselves how English works. The pictorial method used in this book is based on a thorough understanding of language structure and how language is successfully learned.English Made Easy, Volume 2 consists of a total of 20 units arranged in groups of five. The first four units presents language and provide learners the opportunities to practice as they learn. The first page of each unit has a list of all the words...

  10. English Tsunami in Indonesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sadtono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available English has successfully overwhelmed Indonesian like tsunami as an imperialistic language. The meaning of imperialism here, however, differs from the conventional meaning as it is invited imperialism, not coerced imperialism.The influence of English in Indonesian is discussed in terms of modernization, globalization, economy, and history. The linguistic tsunami effects are overwhelming, staggering, and unstoppable. The data for this article were collected from various sources, and it was found that the number of English words (pure and modified is indeed confounding. Virtually English words have penetrated all walks of life. Unfortunately, there is no way we can prevent English influence on Indonesian, it is simply inevitable and we cannot do anything about it. Seen from linguistic purism, we have lost the battle in fighting off English influence; but seen from the eye of a descriptive linguist, it is an unpreventable historical phenomenon. It is a lingusitic dynamism in which language is altered and enriched by a continuous input from other languages, the most influential language being the major donor of loanwords of the receiving language. If it is considered a problem, the solution is to change our attitude to realize that any living language continues undergoing modifications and we should be willing to accommodate them. It is the dialectics of world history.

  11. NEGATION AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Subandowo -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech.  The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.

  12. School of Juridical English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Fedotova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Department of English Language № 8 works with students of the Faculty of International Law. The unique school of teaching legal aspects of the English language is one of the most significant achievements of the department. Associate Professor V.F. Nazarov was one of professionals, was at the origin of this school. In 1992 the textbook "The course of the legal interpretation of Anglo-American Commercial Law" was published, which was the result of work of group of specialists in legal translation since early 1970s. The book laid foundation for the further development of the school of teaching legal aspects of the English language. After1990stheteaching of the legal aspects of English language was brought to the next level, marked of the by the creation of the educational complex "Legal concepts and categories in the English language" by I.G. Fedotova and G.P. Tolstopyatenko, based on the new competence-based concept of educating professional international lawyers.

  13. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  14. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the Ea......P essentially replicated the main weaknesses of the European Neighbourhood Policy, by offering too little incentive and support to the partners, rendering both conditionality and soft power ineffective as tools for milieu shaping. In promoting the EaP as a policy of soft power, the EU has once again forgotten...... that soft power can never be separated from the 'harder' policies that would meet the expectations of those wishing to align with it. This failure of policy continues to largely negate the EU's actually considerable reservoir of potential soft power in Eastern Europe....

  15. English for international journalists

    CERN Document Server

    Gandon, Mike

    2013-01-01

    English for International Journalists is a clear and engaging step-by-step guide for non-native speakers using English in journalism across all forms of media. In-depth language analysis is provided in the specialised context of journalism, as well as a comprehensive approach to the rules and guidelines necessary for avoiding the pitfalls and errors that undermine accuracy and clarity. The book, written by Mike Gandon and edited by Heather Purdey, covers a broad range of vital subjects, including: Making contact Interviewing Grammar and journalistic writing Sensitive issues The language of argument The language of impartial and accurate reporting Bloggers and broadcasters Reporting economy, health and the environment. The book is closely supported by online resources concentrating on the spoken word, intonation and pronunciation, and also features an expansive range of exercises and tests, suitable for self-study or to be set as coursework. English for International Journalists presents readers with ...

  16. English Book Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN English Book Club

    2010-01-01

    AGM  --  AGM  -- 2010 --  AGM  --  AGM The CERN ENGLISH BOOK CLUB will hold its 2010 AGM at 18h00 on Monday November 22nd in the club rooms (club barrack 564). Club members are invited to attend. Any members wishing to add points on to the agenda should contact one of the committee before November 12th. AGM  --  AGM  -- 2010 --  AGM  --  AGM The English Book Club has a collection of over 4500 English language books, mostly general fiction with a sprinkling of nonfiction and children’s books. New books are purchased regularly and the books are shelved in our club room which is accessible to members at all times. Membership is open to all (staff and external) and there is a special tariff for short term students. See the club’s website at http://cern.ch/englishbookclub for more details.  

  17. English Book Club

    CERN Multimedia

    English Book Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN English Book Club will hold its 2012 AGM at 17h30 on Monday 5th March in the club rooms (club barrack 564). Club members are invited to attend. Any members wishing to add points on to the agenda should contact one of the committee before February 27th. The English Book Club has a collection of over 4500 English language books, mostly general fiction with a sprinkling of nonfiction and children’s books. New books are purchased regularly and the books are shelved in our club room which is accessible to members at all times. Membership is open to all (staff and external) and there is a special tariff for short term students. See the club’s website at http://cern.ch/englishbookclub for more details.

  18. SPOTLIGHTING ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kovács

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phrasal verbs or multi-word verbs, such as call off, go into and run up against, etc. represent a very interesting and challenging aspect of the English language. In ELT there is a widespread view that familiarity with a wide range of phrasal verbs and the ability to use them appropriately in context are among the distinguishing marks of a native-like command of English. However, it is also generally recognised that these verb+particle combinations pose special difficulties for both learners and teachers of English partly because there are so many of them, partly because they have special semantic, syntactic and stylistic properties. Besides, quite many of them can be used as nouns, e.g. a hideaway, a stowaway and a write-off, etc. and adjectives, e.g. a broken-down car and a knockdown price, etc. What is more, again quite many of them have a single word equivalent of Romance origin, which, however, often differs from them in terms of style, collocation and meaning, e.g. blow up ~ explode, do away with ~ eliminate and put out ~ extinguish, etc. Furthermore, it is a misconception that phrasal verbs are mainly used in informal style and in spoken English. In fact, they can be found in many styles of writing, ranging from highly formal texts to slang, e.g. call forth vs. gobble up, etc. This paper sets out to explore the unique and complex nature of English verb+particle constructions in order to make them a more manageable part of the vocabulary of English.

  19. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  20. Gimson's pronunciation of English

    CERN Document Server

    Cruttenden, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Since its first publication in 1962, Gimson's Pronunciation of English has been the essential reference book for anyone studying or teaching the pronunciation of English.This eighth edition has been updated to describe General British (GB) as the principal accent, rather than RP, and the accompanying transcriptions have been brought into line with recent changes in pronunciation. This latest edition also includes completely rewritten chapters on the history of the language and the emergence of a standard, alongside a justification for the change from RP to GB.

  1. Telephoning in English

    CERN Document Server

    Naterop, B Jean

    1994-01-01

    Many people have to use English on the telephone in the course of their work, either at the level of taking a simple message or involving more complex tasks such as requesting information. Telephoning in English provides an up-to-date and relevant context in which students from lower-intermediate level upwards can develop practical telephone skills. The course principally develops spoken interactive skills, but also includes reading material on telephone systems and techniques. As the material is not restricted to particular job functions, it is suitable for students in a wide range of business and administration fields.

  2. A National Study of Spanish/English Bilingualism in Young Hispanic Children of the United States. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 4, No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene E.; And Others

    Six hundred, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old bilingual, rural, and urban children from southwestern, midwestern, eastern, and southern United States participated in a national study of Spanish/English bilingual development. Half of these children completed the English version of CIRCO (1980) sub-test 10-C, a productive language measure that requires…

  3. New Channels, New Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieterson, Willem; Ebbers, Wolfgang; Østergaard Madsen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of what we call the fourth generation of public sector service channels: social robots. Based on a review of relevant literature we discuss their characteristics and place into multi-channel models of service delivery. We argue that social robots...... is not one homogenous type of channels, but rather breaks down in different (sub)types of channels, each with different characteristics and possibilities to supplement and/or replace existing channels. Given the variety of channels, we foresee challenges in incorporating these new channels in multi-channel...... models of service delivery. This is especially relevant given the current lack of evaluations of such models, the broad range of channels available, and their different stages of deployment at governments around the world. Nevertheless, social robots offer an potentially very relevant addition...

  4. Importance of English and Different Methods of Teaching English

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Dr. P. Sreenivasulu

    2013-01-01

    Todays world considers English as a global language. The present article explains how the teaching of English started with Grammar-Translation Method and secured a strong hold in the field of teaching English, though its basic assumptions were questionable. It also examines the principles of Direct Method and its insistence on establishing a bond between the experience and expression. In an effort to meet the needs of the Indian students of English, we learn that Michael West proposed the Rea...

  5. Teaching English to Engineers: Between English Language Teaching and Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Ana Drobot

    2016-01-01

    Teaching English to Engineers is part of English for Specific Purposes, a domain which is under the attention of English students especially under the current conditions of finding jobs and establishing partnerships outside Romania. The paper will analyse the existing textbooks together with the teaching strategies they adopt. Teaching English to Engineering students can intersect with domains such as psychology and cultural studies in order to teach them efficiently. Textbooks for students o...

  6. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  7. Eastern Spruce Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Baker; Joseph O' Brien; R. Mathiasen; Mike Ostry

    2006-01-01

    Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) is a parasitic flowering plant that causes the most serious disease of black spruce (Picea mariana) throughout its range. The parasite occurs in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; in the Lake States of Minnesota,...

  8. English Verb Accuracy of Bilingual Cantonese-English Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Stefano; Goldberg, Ahuva; Milburn, Trelani; Belletti, Adriana; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-07-26

    Knowledge of verb development in typically developing bilingual preschoolers may inform clinicians about verb accuracy rates during the 1st 2 years of English instruction. This study aimed to investigate tensed verb accuracy in 2 assessment contexts in 4- and 5-year-old Cantonese-English bilingual preschoolers. The sample included 47 Cantonese-English bilinguals enrolled in English preschools. Half of the children were in their 1st 4 months of English language exposure, and half had completed 1 year and 4 months of exposure to English. Data were obtained from the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (Rice & Wexler, 2001) and from a narrative generated in English. By the 2nd year of formal exposure to English, children in the present study approximated 33% accuracy of tensed verbs in a formal testing context versus 61% in a narrative context. The use of the English verb BE approximated mastery. Predictors of English third-person singular verb accuracy were task, grade, English expressive vocabulary, and lemma frequency. Verb tense accuracy was low across both groups, but a precocious mastery of BE was observed. The results of the present study suggest that speech-language pathologists may consider, in addition to an elicitation task, evaluating the use of verbs during narratives in bilingual Cantonese-English bilingual children.

  9. Practices That Promote English Reading for English Learners (Els)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rebecca S.; Harris, Bryn; McClain, Maryellen Brunson

    2014-01-01

    Schools are becoming increasingly diversified; however, training and professional development related to working with English language learners (ELs), especially in the area of English reading, is limited. In this article, we identify three "Big Ideas" of effective and collaborative practices that promote English reading achievement for…

  10. Japanese College Students' Attitudes towards Japan English and American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated contemporary Japanese college students' attitudes towards Japan English (JE) and American English (AE) through a verbal guise test (VGT) as well as a questionnaire. Forty-four Japanese college students listened to four Japanese and four North Americans reading a text in English, rated them in terms of solidarity-related…

  11. Why Do Primary School English Teachers Decide to Teach English?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual-Pizarro, Marian; Garcia Laborda, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the nature of L2 teachers' motivation towards English language learning and their decision to become English teachers. A total of 45 third-year prospective Primary school English teachers at the University of the Balearic Islands completed a small-scale survey adapted from Gardner's Attitude/Motivation Test…

  12. World Englishes, English as an International Language and Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses World Englishes (WEs) in relation to English as an International Language (EIL) and Applied Linguistics. Taking into account Kachru's interesting but at the same time controversial debate about the status of English in its varieties, which are commonly called WEs and the opposing ideas presented by Quirk, it is aimed to present…

  13. On Differences between General English Teaching and Business English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Liao, Fang

    2008-01-01

    With the accelerating rate of globalization, business exchanges are carried out cross the border, as a result there is a growing demand for talents professional both in English and Business. We can see that at present Business English courses are offered by many language schools in the aim of meeting the need for Business English talent. Many…

  14. English II. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Margaret; And Others

    This manual is intended to enable academically disadvantaged and disabled youth to acquire basic communications and English skills while also acquiring a salable vocational skill. The following topics are covered in the individual units: related vocational information (abbreviations); related vocational skills (job search, job application forms,…

  15. HAIKU IN ENGLISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HENDERSON, HAROLD G.

    CONVENTIONS FOR CLASSICAL JAPANESE HAIKU USUALLY INCLUDE--17 JAPANESE SYLLABLES IN A 5-7-5 LINE PATTERN, AND SOME SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO AN ASPECT OF NATURE AND TO A PARTICULAR EVENT, PRESENTED AS IF IT WERE HAPPENING IN THE IMMEDIATE PRESENT TO ALLOW THE READER TO EXPERIENCE THE POET'S EMOTION. HAIKU IN ENGLISH, A FORM OF POETRY WHICH HAS BECOME…

  16. Choosing Tense in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Halliday) have emphasized deixis as a temporal as well as a spatial category. Halliday’s account of tense is the foundation for the present account...Longman, 1981. [Huddleston 69] Huddleston, R. Some Observations on Tense and Deixis in English. Language 45:777 - 806, 1969. [Hudson 76] Hudson, R. A

  17. English 3135: Visual Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Oriana

    2013-01-01

    As an advanced rhetoric and composition doctoral student, I taught Engl 3135: Visual Rhetoric, a three-credit upper-level course offered by the Department of English at Georgia State University. Mary E. Hocks originally designed this course in 2000 to, in her words, "introduce visual information design theories and practices for writers [and]…

  18. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    John Considine, Department of English, University of Alberta,. Edmonton, Canada .... this sort of negative attention to it. Wordlists appeared sporadically, but on a very modest scale. So, for instance, Julian Moreton's Life and Work in Newfound- ..... sort of scale as the Dictionary of Americanisms on which Lovell had worked.

  19. English Leadership Quarterly, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1993. Articles in number 1 deal with parent involvement and participation, and include: "Opening the Doors to Open House" (Jolene A. Borgese); "Parent/Teacher Conferences: Avoiding the Collision Course" (Robert Perrin); "Expanding Human…

  20. English-Cinyanja Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambesi Mission, Mitsidi (Malawi).

    This English-Chinyanja (Cinyanja) dictionary was prepared and published by the Zambesi Mission for use in Africa. Compilers of this volume were aided by Africans of Southern Angoniland and a Yao tribesman from the Blantyre district knowledgeable in Chinyanja. Spelling rules used are those of the United Translation Board, which has adopted…

  1. Oxford English Dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and supremacist attitudes, which caused entries for words of this kind to be shorter and less detailed, and affected ... kinds should receive the same degree of attention, which implies that data collection from the reading of primary ... this paper, African languages have contributed a great many vocabulary items to the English ...

  2. Overcoming Fossilized English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Janet G.

    Causes of language fossilization and ways to overcome it are considered. Fossilization is the relatively permanent incorporation of incorrect linguistic forms into a person's second language competence. The discussion is focused on fossilization of incorrect syntactical rules, based on experiences with learners of English as a second language at…

  3. Fostering English Learners' Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondie, Rhonda; Gaughran, Laurie; Zusho, Akane

    2014-01-01

    A teacher is doing something right when his high school students--kids with limited English, no less--form groups and begin discussing a lesson on quadratic equations at the start of class, without any teacher direction. Bondie, Gaughran, and Zusho describe "discussion routines" that teachers at International Community High School in the…

  4. English Only JAMAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, Juan

    1989-01-01

    Puerto Ricans have been largely ignored in the current debate over English as a national language. Once the rhetoric of language restrictionists is discarded, the real issue becomes that of the political empowerment of Puerto Ricans. The history of language policy in relation to Puerto Ricans is also reviewed. (SLD)

  5. English in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English in Africa is listed in the Journal of Commonwealth Literature Annual Bibliography, the Modern Language Association MLA International Bibliography, Institute for Scientific Information Arts and Humanities Citation Index, and accredited by the South African Department of Education. The journal has its own website at.

  6. Measuring Growth in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Paul B.

    The monograph is a complete outline for a program designed to help English departments institute logical and fair procedures for grading student essays. The contents in this monograph include "Factors in Judgments of Writing Ability,""The Effect of Bias,""Measuring Improvement in Writing,""Personal vs Staff Grading,""Standard Scores for Test…

  7. English Language Teaching Through Literature : An Application of English Poetry in the High School English Textbook to the Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    濵口, 脩

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this present paper is to review the present state of English poetry in the high school English textbooks in Japan and to propose some practical application of English poems to the English language classroom. Several cases in which English poems are found in actual English high school textbooks are discussed, and then, since there seems to be no explanation of teaching English poems, with some notes of them and of reading English poems in general, some practical suggetions for impro...

  8. An English-Igbo Translation of Palm Oil Production and Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the recent technological advancement in the method of production and processing of palm oil, more English terms that do not exist in the Igbo language create communication problems. It is expected that Igbo farmers of South Eastern Nigeria be equipped with the Igbo equivalents of both the new and old terms ...

  9. Visual Literacy Development through the Mediation of Grade 4 English Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Jabulani; Sibanda, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    The multimodal world learners inhabit demands visual literacy among other literacies if learners are to effectively navigate its terrain. In this study, we sought to understand the extent to which five Grade 4 English textbooks currently used in some schools in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa facilitated the development of visual…

  10. Overcoming Low Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Teaching English to Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on data from observations and interviews, this article presents a case study of one teacher's efforts to overcome low self-efficacy beliefs in teaching English to young learners in a Middle Eastern context. It provides insights into the growth processes involved, highlighting how the teacher drew reflectively upon her experiences to…

  11. Standard English and Language Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    ソランキ, ネイディン

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the attitudes and opinions surrounding Standard English (SE) within the United Kingdom. The definition of SE, for the purposes of this study, is standard grammar and standard pronunciation of southern English, commonly referred to as 'BBC English'. The subject of SE and attitudes towards different accents and dialects of British English is emotive and attracts strong opinions. The main issues discussed here are the place of language in society, the social implications ...

  12. The reading preferences of Grade 11 ESL learners in the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey investigates learners' reading preferences in selected Eastern Cape secondary schools where English is taught as a second language. It seeks to understand the reading patterns and interests of Grade 11 learners. Focus group interviews and questionnaires were used to gather data over a period of six weeks.

  13. Hadamard quantum broadcast channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingle; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-10-01

    We consider three different communication tasks for quantum broadcast channels, and we determine the capacity region of a Hadamard broadcast channel for these various tasks. We define a Hadamard broadcast channel to be such that the channel from the sender to one of the receivers is entanglement-breaking and the channel from the sender to the other receiver is complementary to this one. As such, this channel is a quantum generalization of a degraded broadcast channel, which is well known in classical information theory. The first communication task we consider is classical communication to both receivers, the second is quantum communication to the stronger receiver and classical communication to other, and the third is entanglement-assisted classical communication to the stronger receiver and unassisted classical communication to the other. The structure of a Hadamard broadcast channel plays a critical role in our analysis: The channel to the weaker receiver can be simulated by performing a measurement channel on the stronger receiver's system, followed by a preparation channel. As such, we can incorporate the classical output of the measurement channel as an auxiliary variable and solve all three of the above capacities for Hadamard broadcast channels, in this way avoiding known difficulties associated with quantum auxiliary variables.

  14. Symposium: What Is College English?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Lynn Z.; White, Edward M.; Enoch, Jessica; Hawk, Byron

    2013-01-01

    This symposium explores the role(s) College English has (or has not) had in the scholarly work of four scholars. Lynn Bloom explores the many ways College English influenced her work and the work of others throughout their scholarly lives. Edward M. White examines four articles he has published in College English and draws connections between…

  15. Brunei English: A Developing Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara-Davies, Breda

    2010-01-01

    A considerable amount of time has elapsed since the existence of a distinct variety of English, Brunei English (BNE), was mooted in the early 1990s. A subsequent study conducted by Svalberg in 1998 suggested that BNE was then in its infancy and that its speakers were largely unaware of the differences between it and Standard British English (STE).…

  16. Prescriptivism, Creativity, and World Englishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Rakesh M.

    1995-01-01

    Critiques the idea that standard British or American English is the only model for second language instruction, arguing that successful English language teaching in nonnative contexts, such as in India, must address the relationship between the forms that English manifests and its speakers' perception of reality and the nature of their cultural…

  17. The Zanzibar English Reading Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Roger.

    1991-01-01

    The Zanzibar Ministry of Education instituted an English reading program into all secondary schools in 1989 to raise the levels of English teaching and learning (English being the medium of instruction and testing from secondary level and beyond). The program description and conclusions include implications for program design and implementation.…

  18. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  19. English as an African Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Gaurav

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  20. Teachers' Habitus for Teaching English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    In this examination of monolingual and multilingual pedagogies I draw on literature that explores the position of English globally and in the curriculum for English. I amplify the discussion with data from a project exploring how teachers responded to the arrival of Polish children in their English classrooms following Poland's entry to the…

  1. English Language Teaching Profile: Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This is a summary in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Cameroon. Cameroon is officially a French/English bilingual state but English at present plays the minor part. There are five francophone and two anglophone provinces with populations of five million and one and a half million respectively. In the anglophone provinces…

  2. Intercultural Processes in Accented English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Damian J.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the attitudinal responses of 48 Japanese university students towards 10 accented English speech samples across nine evaluative criteria. Of the 10 samples, one was a Japanese-English speech sample (the intracultural familiar), seven were non-native-English samples originating from a variety of Asian countries (intercultural…

  3. The Passive in Singapore English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhiming; Wee, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the two passive (or passive-like) constructions in Singapore English which exhibit substrate influence from Malay and Chinese. The paper shows that while substrate languages contribute to the grammar of Singapore English, the continued prestige of standard English exerts normative pressure and mitigates the effect of…

  4. Correct English for Modern Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Reprints an article originally published in 1932. Discusses the development of S. Leonard's book "Current English Usage." Suggests that the monograph stands as a symbol of a spirit and attitude in the teaching of English which will have far-reaching influence in determining the course of study and content of English instruction in the future. (RS)

  5. Calcium Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions, such as Raynaud's disease For people of African heritage and older people, calcium channel blockers might ... high-blood-pressure/in-depth/calcium-channel-blockers/ART-20047605 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  6. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  7. Quantum Channels With Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeat ably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then. (author)

  8. Channel morphology [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Alvin L. Medina; Daniel G. Neary

    2012-01-01

    Channel morphology has become an increasingly important subject for analyzing the health of rivers and associated fish populations, particularly since the popularization of channel classification and assessment methods. Morphological data can help to evaluate the flows of sediment and water that influence aquatic and riparian habitat. Channel classification systems,...

  9. What did we learn from PEGASEAS forum “Science and Governance of the Channel Marine Ecosystem”?

    OpenAIRE

    Evariste, Emmanuelle; Claquin, Pascal; Robin, Jean-pierre; Auber, Arnaud; Mcquatters-gollop, Abigail; Fletcher, Stephen; Glegg, Gillian; Dauvin, Jean-claude

    2015-01-01

    As one of the busiest marine ecosystems in the world, the English Channel is subjected to strong pressures due to the human activities occurring within it. Effective governance is required to improve the combined management of different activities and so secure the benefits provided by the Channel ecosystem. In July 2014, a Cross-Channel Forum, entitled "Science and Governance of the Channel Marine Ecosystem", was held in Caen (France) as part of the INTERREG project "Promoting Effective Gove...

  10. Attitudes towards English in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Dako

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers official and individual attitudes towards bilingualism in English and a Ghanaian language. We ask whether bilingualism in English and Ghanaian languages is a social handicap, without merit, or an important indicator of ethnic identity. Ghana has about 50 non-mutually intelligible languages, yet there are no statistics on who speaks what language(s where in the country. We consider attitudes to English against the current Ghanaian language policy in education as practised in the school system. Our data reveal that parents believe early exposure to English enhances academic performance; English is therefore becoming the language of the home.

  11. Reconsidering English Grammar Teaching for Improving Non-English Majors' English Writing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuru

    2012-01-01

    With the globalization of world economy, English learners' writing ability has been attached less and less importance. As a result, many college students in China, especially the non-English majors, cannot express themselves effectively in written English. They make various kinds of mistakes, mostly grammar mistakes, such as writing sentence…

  12. Language Training: English

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise benz

    2005-01-01

    Oral Expression The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Timetable: Tuesday 11.30 to 13.30 Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registration and further information on these courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 langu...

  13. Language Training: English

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    Oral Expression The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Timetable: Tuesday 11.30 to 13.30 Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registration and further information on these courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 langua...

  14. Language Training: English Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 28 February to 24 June 2005 (2/3 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Oral Expression The next session will take place from March to June 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from March to June 2005. T...

  15. Language Training: English Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 28 February to 24 June 2005 (2/3 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Oral Expression The next session will take place from March to June 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from March to June 2005. Th...

  16. Language Training - English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people w...

  17. Language Training - English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants per class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc., depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people ...

  18. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Considine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The lexicographical record of English in Canada began with wordlists of the late eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries. From the beginning of the twentieth century onwards, the general vocabulary of English in Canada has been represented in bilingual and monolingual dictionaries, often adapted from American or British dictionaries. In the 1950s, several important projects were initiated, resulting in the publication of general dictionaries of English in Canada, and of dictionaries of Canadianisms and of the vocabulary of particular regions of Can-ada. This article gives an overview of these dictionaries and of their reception, contextualizing them in the larger picture of the lexicography of Canada's other official language, French, and of a number of its non-official languages. It concludes by looking at the future of English-language lexicography in Canada, and by observing that although it has, at its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken.

    Keywords: DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHY, CANADIAN ENGLISH, CANADIANISMS, NATIONAL DICTIONARIES, CANADIAN FRENCH, CANADIAN FIRST NATIONS LAN-GUAGES, BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES, REGIONAL DICTIONARIES, UNFINISHED DICTIONARY PROJECTS

    Opsomming: Woordeboeke van Kanadese Engels. Die leksikografiese optekening van Engels in Kanada begin met woordelyste van die laat agtiende, neëntiende en vroeë twintigste eeue. Van die begin van die twintigste eeu af en verder, is die algemene woordeskat van Engels weergegee in tweetalige en eentalige woordeboeke, dikwels met wysiginge ontleen aan Ameri-kaanse en Britse woordeboeke. In die 1950's is verskeie belangrike projekte onderneem wat gelei het tot die publikasie van algemene woordeboeke van Engels in Kanada, en van woordeboeke van Kanadeïsmes en van die woordeskat van bepaalde streke van Kanada. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van dié woordeboeke, en van hul ontvangs, deur

  19. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  20. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... for Eastern Jutland.  This process relies on the municipalities in Eastern Jutland reaching consensus on a common vision for the city region.   The key issue in spatial planning in Eastern Jutland is a conflict between preserving the high quality of landscape and maintaining the divide between the countryside...

  1. Broadening the perspectives of South African English and Afrikaans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    colored english, caribbean dutch, counting-out rimes, diglossia, dutch, english, ethnolects, etymology, family names, french, german, jewish afrikaans, jewish american english, jewish british english, jewish english, jewish irish english, jewish ...

  2. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  3. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background

  4. Phonological Nativization of Arabic, Portuguese and English Loanwords in Odia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikanta Tarai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Languages come into contact through invasion, war, colonization, migration, trade and commerce between different communities. In India, for example, the Arab invasion of Sindh brought in the languages of the Arab world, such as Arabic, Turkish and Persian. Later, Portuguese, Dutch and English trading companies dominated the field of trade and commerce and successfully spread their languages in the Indian sub-continent. As a result, almost all Indian languages have borrowed words from these foreign languages and enriched their vocabularies. Like other languages in India, Odia, an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, which is spoken in the Indian territory of Odisha, came into contact with Arabic, Persian, Portuguese and English, and has borrowed several words from these languages.

  5. Ion Channels in Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    be fitted to a Hodgkin - conductance. K (1.0) > Rb (0.77) > NH4 (0.10) > Cs Huxley type n4j model (17, 38). However, the rate of K0 (0.02) > Na (ɘ.01...15, 25 activated) T- and B-cells, murine B-cells? SCG, single-channel conductance under physiological ionic gradient- tfor ructif~ y ig ehannel, largest...the channel induces a confor- kat T-cell line (52). Fina:! y , single-channel recordings of mational change that ina.-tix ates the channel rather human T

  6. A channel profile analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbur, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    It is well understood that due to the wide band noise present in a nuclear analog-to-digital converter, events at the boundaries of adjacent channels are shared. It is a difficult and laborious process to exactly find out the shape of the channels at the boundaries. A simple scheme has been developed for the direct display of channel shape of any type of ADC on a cathode ray oscilliscope display. This has been accomplished by sequentially incrementing the reference voltage of a precision pulse generator by a fraction of a channel and storing ADC data in alternative memory locations of a multichannel pulse height analyser. Alternative channels are needed due to the sharing at the boundaries of channels. In the flat region of the profile alternate memory locations are channels with zero counts and channels with the full scale counts. At the boundaries all memory locations will have counts. The shape of this is a direct display of the channel boundaries. (orig.)

  7. A communicative grammar of English

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    A Communicative Grammar of English has long been established as a grammar innovative in approach, reliable in coverage, and clear in its explanations. This fully revised and redesigned third edition provides up-to-date and accessible help to teachers, advanced learners and undergraduate students of English. Part One looks at the way English grammar varies in different types of English, such as 'formal' and 'informal', 'spoken' and 'written'; Part Two focuses on the uses of grammar rather than on grammatical structure and Part Three provides a handy alphabetically arranged guide to

  8. Meaning and the English verb

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Every language has its peculiar problems of meaning for the foreign learner. In the English language, some of the biggest yet most fascinating problems are concentrated in the area of the finite verb phrase: in particular, tense, aspect, mood and modality. Meaning and the English Verb describes these fields in detail for teachers and advanced students of English as a foreign or second language. This new third edition uses up-to-date examples to show differences and similarities between American and British english, reflecting a great deal of recent research in this area. It also takes account

  9. GLOBALIZATION, ANGLICISMS AND BUSINESS ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Pop Anamaria-Mirabela; Sim Monica-Ariana

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, people have felt the need for a common language in order to communicate faster and better and English has become the global language, spreading across the world. Nowadays, more and more people learn and speak English for different reasons. The effect of it is that English started influencing the native languages of the speakers who use a great variety of words and expressions from English while speaking their respective languages. The aim of this paper is to analyze the influ...

  10. AP English language & composition

    CERN Document Server

    Bureau, Susan; Allen, John; Nesselrode, Katherine A; McGauley, Kristi R; Nesselrode, Katherine A; McGauley, Kristi R

    2013-01-01

    All Access for the AP® English Language and Composition Exam Book + Web + Mobile Everything you need to prepare for the Advanced Placement® exam, in a study system built around you! There are many different ways to prepare for an Advanced Placement® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge. This book, and the online tools that come with it, will help you personalize your AP® English Language and Composition prep by testing your understanding, pinpointing your weaknesses, and delivering flashcard study materials unique to you. The REA AP® All Access system allows you to create a personalized study plan through three simple steps: targeted review of exam content, assessment of your knowledge, and focused study in the topics where you need the most help. Here's how it works: Review ...

  11. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For further information, please contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 langua...

  12. Language Training: English

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Oral Expression The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Timetable: Tuesday 11.30 to 13.30 Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from Januar...

  13. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    La prochaine session se déroulera du 04 octobre 2004 au 11 février 2005 (interruption de 3 semaines à Noël). Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages Web : http://cern.ch/Training Vous pouvez aussi contacter M. Liptow, tél. 72957. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants ...

  14. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in...

  15. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For further information, please contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 languag...

  16. English and French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars au 27 juin 2014. Ces cours s’adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu’à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web : http://cern.ch/Training. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 3 March to 27 June 2014. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Writing Profe...

  17. English Book Club

    CERN Multimedia

    English Book Club

    The minutes of the AGM held on Tuesday November 17th can now be found on the club web-site: http://club-englishbookclub.web.cern.ch. A new version of the club’s book data-base is also available on the web: http://club-englishbookclub.web.cern.ch/club-englishbookclub/Export/index.html The last book selection for 2009 is done and the order for the new books has been placed, with luck they will be on the shelves before the end of year break. The English Book Club has a growing collection of over 4500 English language books, mostly general fiction with a sprinkling of nonfiction and children’s books. New books are purchased regularly and the books are shelved in our club room which is accessible to members at all times. Membership is open to all (staff and external) and there is a special tariff for short term students. See the club’s website at http://cern.ch/englishbookclub for more details.

  18. ENGLISH BOOK CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    English Book Club

    2009-01-01

    http://club-englishbookclub.web.cern.ch A note to our members Dear Members, Many thanks to all of you who have paid up now. However, there are still some late payers and Morna would appreciate knowing if they will pay for 2009/2010 or if they have left the club. At the AGM on 17 November it was decided that a 3 month delay for key reimbursement will be given to all present and past members, BUT after 31.3.2010 no reimbursement will be given out. We are in the process of making changes to the access to the club for paid-up, active members only. Some of you have told Morna you will pay on your next visit to CERN, that is ok but please try to do this by 15 December if possible. A new version of the club’s book data-base is available on the web: http://club-englishbookclub.web.cern.ch/club-englishbookclub/Export/index.html The English Book Club has a growing collection of over 4500 English language books, mostly general fiction with a sprinkling of nonfiction and children’s books. New books...

  19. Homework Practices of English and Non-English-Speaking Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelamour, Barbara; Jacobs, D'Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the homework practices of English-speaking and non-English-speaking parents. Using a national data set of 7,992 students across ages and ethnicities, the frequency and type of homework practices were investigated. Statistical analysis revealed significant (though small) differences between the overall homework practices between…

  20. Botswana English: Implications for English Language Teaching and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Modupe

    2011-01-01

    Concerted efforts to characterise Botswana English (BE), though still referred to as "a variety in development", have validated its existence. However, the teaching and assessment of English in the high schools do not seem to have responded to the development of this variety. This paper discusses the viability of using Standard British…

  1. Non-Native English Varieties: Thainess in English Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhasak, Piyahathai; Methitham, Phongsakorn

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at examining Thainess as a writing strategy used in non-literary texts written by non-professional bilingual writers. These writers are advanced language learners who are pursuing their Master's degree in English. Seven English narratives of their language learning experiences were analyzed based on Kachruvian's framework of…

  2. Subclassification of English Adjectives for French to English Machine Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Mary A.

    1990-01-01

    Advances the hypothesis that, when translating French personal constructions involving an adjective and a verb infinitive into English, the property of the English adjective determines whether the verb will be translated as an infinitive or as a gerund. Alternatives for handling such translations in machine translation systems are explored. (five…

  3. Orientations towards English among English-Medium Instruction Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Based on the empirical data of my PhD research, this paper analyses the perceptions of 351 undergraduate students enrolled at English-medium universities towards English in terms of the language ideology framework. The students were purposively sampled from three programs at three Turkish universities. The data were drawn from student opinion…

  4. English Verb Accuracy of Bilingual Cantonese-English Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Stefano; Goldberg, Ahuva; Milburn, Trelani; Belletti, Adriana; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge of verb development in typically developing bilingual preschoolers may inform clinicians about verb accuracy rates during the 1st 2 years of English instruction. This study aimed to investigate tensed verb accuracy in 2 assessment contexts in 4- and 5-year-old Cantonese-English bilingual preschoolers. Method: The sample included…

  5. Perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Sang-Hee

    2003-04-01

    This study aimed at looking at perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English to determine if perception problems are the source of production problems. In particular, first, this study looked at the possible first language effect on the perception of English palatal codas. Second, a possible perceptual source of vowel epenthesis after English palatal codas was investigated. In addition, individual factors, such as length of residence, TOEFL score, gender and academic status, were compared to determine if those affected the varying degree of the perception accuracy. Eleven adult Korean speakers of English as well as three native speakers of English participated in the study. Three sets of a perception test including identification of minimally different English pseudo- or real words were carried out. The results showed that, first, the Korean speakers perceived the English codas significantly worse than the Americans. Second, the study supported the idea that Koreans perceived an extra /i/ after the final affricates due to final release. Finally, none of the individual factors explained the varying degree of the perceptional accuracy. In particular, TOEFL scores and the perception test scores did not have any statistically significant association.

  6. An Introduction to English Teaching, A Textbook for English Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin; Chien, Paul Shih-chieh

    2010-01-01

    Teaching English became a professional and academic field from a half century ago. Many researches for teacher education and teacher training have been conducted in order to raise the English as well as the foreign language trainers' knowledge and capabilities in carrying out effective lessons in classroom. During second millennium of speedily…

  7. Axiological Role of English Adjectives in English Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerkina, Natalya N.; Kostina, Nataliia N.; Urazayeva, Nailya R.; Lomakina, Yekaterina A.; Emets, Tatiana V.; Gallyamova, Maria S.; Melnikova, Elena P.; Trutnev, Alexey Yu.; Lukina, Oksana A.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on peculiarities of English adjective teaching as one of main and important lexicological basis. As the English language nowadays is important and universal as a native language of worldwide society, exactly that's why process of learning must include wide range of techniques not only as a process of learning theories but also…

  8. Perception of "English" and Motivation in Learning English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Seçer, Sule Y. E.; Erisen, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to present high school students' perception of "English" through the impressions and images and the effect of these perceptions on their motivation in learning English. This qualitative study is based on the data about students' metaphors and the focus group interview to determine their effect on the students' motivation.…

  9. The impact of teachers' limited English proficiency on English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of teacher and learner written errors was made. Based on the findings, a questionnaire was designed to determine the extent of the impact of teachers' limited English proficiency on learners' English proficiency. The findings of the questionnaire responses are presented. Recommendations are made on how ...

  10. A linearization of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  11. Researching awareness and attitudes : a study of world Englishes and English teachers in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Hyejeong

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the awareness and attitudes of English teachers in South Korea (ETSK) toward eight selected varieties of English: American English (AmE), British English (BrE), Canadian English (CaE), Singaporean English (SiE), Indian English (InE), Chinese English (ChE), Japanese English (JaE) and Korean English (KoE). Data, consisting of 204 questionnaires and 63 interviews, is collected from both Korean and non-Korean English teachers, from two major regions, Busan Gyeongnam and Seoul ...

  12. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...

  13. DESIGN OF PARABOLIC CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Alibekov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the apparent location of the hydraulic parameters of parabolic channels in earthen channel and volume of dredging required in their design and construction, on the basis of conditions to ensure the stability of the slope at the maximum water flow rate. 

  14. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this ... vary. However, the main ingredient is called a calcium-channel antagonist. It helps decrease the heart's pumping strength, which ...

  15. CHANNEL ESTIMATION TECHNIQUE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    the communication channel. The method further includes determining a sequence of second coefficient estimates of the communication channel based on a decomposition of the first coefficient estimates in a dictionary matrix and a sparse vector of the second coefficient estimates, the dictionary matrix including...

  16. Channel systems and lobe construction in the Mississippi Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, L. E.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Bouma, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Morphological features on the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were mapped using GLORIA II, a long-range side-scan sonar system. Prominent is a sinuous channel flanked by well-developed levees and occasional crevasse splays. The channel follows the axis and thickest part of the youngest fan lobe; seismic-reflection profiles offer evidence that its course has remained essentially constant throughout lobe development. Local modification and possible erosion of levees by currents indicates a present state of inactivity. Superficial sliding has affected part of the fan lobe, but does not appear to have been a factor in lobe construction. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  17. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.

    2013-09-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  18. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    . The underlying posttranscriptional and posttranslational remodeling of the individual K(+) channels changes their activity and significance relative to each other, and they must be viewed together to understand their role in keeping a stable heart rhythm, also under menacing conditions like attacks of reentry......About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  19. Muon cooling channels

    CERN Document Server

    Eberhard-K-Kei

    2003-01-01

    A procedure uses the equations that govern ionization cooling, and leads to the most important parameters of a muon cooling channel that achieves assumed performance parameters. First, purely transverse cooling is considered, followed by both transverse and longitudinal cooling in quadrupole and solenoid channels. Similarities and differences in the results are discussed in detail, and a common notation is developed. Procedure and notation are applied to a few published cooling channels. The parameters of the cooling channels are derived step by step, starting from assumed values of the initial, final and equilibrium emittances, both transverse and longitudinal, the length of the cooling channel, and the material properties of the absorber. The results obtained include cooling lengths and partition numbers, amplitude functions and limits on the dispersion at the absorber, length, aperture and spacing of the absorber, parameters of the RF system that achieve the longitudinal amplitude function and bucket area ...

  20. 7 CFR 247.13 - Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers... § 247.13 Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers. (a) What must State and local agencies do to ensure that non-English or limited-English speaking persons are aware of their rights and...

  1. English RP: Ancient or Modern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimson, Alfred C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses changes in the pronunciation of colloquial Brltish English, reflecting changing social attitudes toward traditional Received Pronunciation. Finds that a study is needed to determine a new standard for the use of future foreign students of English. A pilot study is described. (IFS/WGA) i

  2. How is English "A" Pronounced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakelin, Martyn F.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses, from both historical and sociolinguistic viewpoints, the changing of the phoneme /a/ in colloquial English. The rather "bright, moderately open" sound, once considered standard English, has been and is moving toward a more open and back articulation. (IFS/WGA)

  3. Electronic Learning of Business English

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Danica

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with one approach to organising electronic learning of a Business English language course. The paper will explain the basic structure of electronic learning, explore its principles and focus on the effects of this type of learning, trying to make English language teachers aware of the possibilities that this system has to offer to its users.

  4. Electronic Learning of Business English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Danica

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with one approach to organising electronic learning of a Business English language course. The paper will explain the basic structure of electronic learning, explore its principles and focus on the effects of this type of learning, trying to make English language teachers aware of the possibilities that this system has to offer to its users.

  5. English Teaching at Lilydale High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Valerie; Matcott, Mark; Lyons, Janet; Flessa, Demi; Hayman, Anna; Hough, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Presents six narratives from teachers including: "VCE English at Lilydale High School" (Valerie Mayer); "Should 'I' Be Their Teacher" (Mark Matcott); "Teaching Poetry to Year 7 English Students" (Janet Lyons); "Creative Art Therapy and Mandalas" (Demi Flessa); "Would the 'Real' Teacher Please Stand…

  6. Cultural Identity in Korean English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

  7. Instructional Materials Vocational Related English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This preliminary draft of instructional materials for an English curriculum offering vocational preparation focuses on grammar concepts, selected vocational English topics, and the use of resource materials. The unit plans contain general and specific behavioral objectives, student activities, and teaching procedures. Information sheets, student…

  8. ACCA College English Teaching Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Renlun

    2008-01-01

    This paper elucidates a new college English teaching mode--"ACCA" (Autonomous Cooperative Class-teaching All-round College English Teaching Mode). Integrated theories such as autonomous learning and cooperative learning into one teaching mode, "ACCA", which is being developed and advanced in practice as well, is the achievement…

  9. Japanese Attitudes toward English Accents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Reiko; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the attitudes of 169 Japanese university students toward varieties of spoken English. Results found that the students with more instrumental motivation were more positive toward nonnative English accents than those with less instrumental motivation, and that the students' familiarity with accents had an influence on their acceptance of…

  10. What Matters in English Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Fred

    2005-01-01

    The article talks about how--and whether--"English" can justify itself as an academic discipline, and about the pressures on it to do so. In the search for justification, is it the creative writer or the critic who provides the crucial element of value? Particular reference is made to the tradition of English at Cambridge, where the…

  11. Evaluating Workplace English Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Kristin; Winke, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Companies across the United States provide workplace English classes to non-native-English-speaking employees to increase productivity, retention, and on-the-job safety. Institutions that financially support the programs often require evidence of learning through standardized tests as a prerequisite for continued funding. However, the tests…

  12. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  13. Aerosols over Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of eastern Asia from October 14, 2001, shows large amounts of aerosol in the air. A few possible point sources of smoke, probably fires, are visible north of the Amur River at the very top of the image. One of the larger of these plumes can be seen down river of the confluence of the Songhua and Amur rivers. At lower left, the Yangtze River plume in the East China Sea is also very prominent. Sediment suspended in the ocean water is quite brown near the shore, but becomes much greener as it diffuses into the water. The increasing greenness of the river plume is probably an indication of enhanced phytoplankton growth driven by the nutrients in the river runoff. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. GLOBALIZATION, ANGLICISMS AND BUSINESS ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Anamaria-Mirabela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, people have felt the need for a common language in order to communicate faster and better and English has become the global language, spreading across the world. Nowadays, more and more people learn and speak English for different reasons. The effect of it is that English started influencing the native languages of the speakers who use a great variety of words and expressions from English while speaking their respective languages. The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of Anglicisms on the Romanian vocabulary, especially on the business vocabulary. Our paper focuses on English for Business and Economics, as we have been teaching business English to students from the Department of International Business for several years. The research undertaken in this paper is a theoretical research, concentrating on the controversies that surrounded this highly debated subject by the linguists: should Anglicisms be used in Romanian or not? In this regard, there are two sides: on one hand those who are rather supportive of the trend and those (and here we mention highly reputed Romanian linguists like George Pruteanu or Eugen Simion who were categorically against it. The paper provides the results of a survey conducted by “Special Eurobarometer 243” showing that English is the most widely spoken language in Europe with a score of 51%. The concept of “romgleza” tends to replace the Romanian language in large corporations and not only and this is a natural trend, considering the “invasion” of the English language. A conversation in “romgleza” combines Romanian and English elements, thus resulting a technical jargon, the English words being used especially in areas like IT, marketing, management. This is due to the fact that in these areas the daily exposure to English is higher because everything people in these fields do is connected to English. Romgleza appeared because in Romanian there are no words to express the

  15. Transformations in the English Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica L. Diptoadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years English has been taught at the elementary school level. However, many schools in Surabaya have introduced English in their curriculum at the pre-school level. In this paper the writer describes a Semi-International School in Surabaya as a model, because English is given since the play group level where students are about 2-3 years old. Thus, the focus of this paper is on be the reasons why English is taught at such an early age, constructivism as the theoretical base of the school curriculum, the English program based on topic-centered learning and activity-based approach and the facilities needed to support the whole teaching-learning process at the school

  16. Prepositions in MSA and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Nasser Aldwayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial scenes are identical in the world languages. However, cultures may diverge in profiling spatial scenes (Levinson 2003. This paper selects for study the prepositions in and on in English and their Modern Standard Arabic (MSA counterparts fi and 3ala, arguing that MSA and English seem to diverge in the spatial configurations and meanings of these prepositions. The sub-schemas of CONTAINMENT (in-ness in MSA are found to partially overlap with those of English, with the other sub-schemas being taken care of by SUPPORT (on-ness and PUNCTUALITY (point-ness. Such differences classify MSA more as a CONTAINMENT-based language than English, which seems to prefer SUPPORT and PUNCTUALITY. However, English and MSA seem to converge in their metaphoric conceptualizations of states owing to conceptual embodiment (Lakoff 1987. The article discusses the implications of such findings for spatial cognition and cultural cognition and EFL/ESL writing and translating.

  17. Life after oral English certification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka

    2017-01-01

    Internationalization of higher education has resulted in rapid developments of English-medium instruction (EMI) courses in non-Anglophone countries in Europe and Asia. Due to the growing concerns about lecturers' ability to teach in English, several European universities have implemented policies...... for internal assessment of lecturers' English proficiency to ensure the quality of teaching in EMI programs. However, research on the measured construct and the reliability and the validity of these assessments remains scarce. Based on interviews with tested university lecturers and formative feedback analysis......, this study discusses the consequences resulting from score and feedback interpretations and uses as part of the validation process of TOEPAS (Test of Oral English Proficiency for Academic Staff), which is a performance-based test used for oral English certification of lecturers at the University...

  18. Nordic Journal of English Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    In difficult economic times, the place of education in the economy comes to the forefront with questions about how effective our programs are in preparing students to become contributing members of the workforce and society. As the discipline of English studies sits at the cross-roads of humanities...... and education for a global society, it has traditionally enjoyed high enrollments and unquestioned value. However, two trends are affecting the position of English studies in the academy: 1) the emergence of communication studies as a discipline and 2) the movement towards education in English as a global...... language across many disciplines in Scandinavia. Because of these movements, the place and purpose for English studies is being called into question. In addition, the ability of an English studies degree in preparing students for the global workforce is also being examined. To address these emergent trends...

  19. Teaching the Dutch how to pronounce English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Frans; Sloep, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Dutch overestimate their English speaking skills. Their pronunciation is not always convincing, and certain pronunciation mistakes are easily recognised as being typical for Dutch speakers of English. Although intelligibility cannot exist without adequate pronunciation, teaching English

  20. Teaching the Dutch how to pronounce English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans Hermans; Peter Sloep

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch overestimate their English speaking skills. Their pronunciation is not always convincing and certain pronunciation mistakes are easily recognised as being typical for Dutch speakers of English. Although intelligibility cannot exist without adequate pronunciation, teaching English

  1. More Danish, More English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chopin, Kimberly Renée

    Universities in Denmark are becoming increasingly internationalized, and areincreasingly using English as a language of research, teaching, and administration. At the same time, the Danish language is seen by some as being under threat, and Danish public discourse has focused on what role.......This study investigated the decision making process over time in order to reveal how such language policies would be received in one affected department. Interviews with department teaching staff were carried out both before and after the implementation of the decisions, along with interviews of department...... and faculty level leadership, classroom observations and analysis of written documents. Data was organized using the model provided by Innovation Theory (Henrichsen, 1989), and interpreted using the discursive framework of Nexus Analysis (Scollon & Scollon, 2004).Analysis showed how case department teaching...

  2. Coherifying quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzekwa, Kamil; Czachórski, Stanisław; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol

    2018-04-01

    Is it always possible to explain random stochastic transitions between states of a finite-dimensional system as arising from the deterministic quantum evolution of the system? If not, then what is the minimal amount of randomness required by quantum theory to explain a given stochastic process? Here, we address this problem by studying possible coherifications of a quantum channel Φ, i.e., we look for channels {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } that induce the same classical transitions T, but are ‘more coherent’. To quantify the coherence of a channel Φ we measure the coherence of the corresponding Jamiołkowski state J Φ. We show that the classical transition matrix T can be coherified to reversible unitary dynamics if and only if T is unistochastic. Otherwise the Jamiołkowski state {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C } of the optimally coherified channel is mixed, and the dynamics must necessarily be irreversible. To assess the extent to which an optimal process {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } is indeterministic we find explicit bounds on the entropy and purity of {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C }, and relate the latter to the unitarity of {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C }. We also find optimal coherifications for several classes of channels, including all one-qubit channels. Finally, we provide a non-optimal coherification procedure that works for an arbitrary channel Φ and reduces its rank (the minimal number of required Kraus operators) from {d}2 to d.

  3. English Teachers, Angels & Poverty: Writing on English Curriculum and Pedagogy (Reflections on Editing "English in Australia").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, Brenton

    2002-01-01

    Explores the cultural politics of writing about English curriculum and pedagogy, focusing on the author's role as the editor of this journal. Describes his role as editor as one of providing a discursive space in which English teachers and literacy educators can begin to write about their work. (SG)

  4. Evaluation channel performance in multichannel environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Dekimpe, M.; Skiera, B.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluating channel performance is crucial for actively managing multiple sales channels, and requires understanding the customers' channel preferences. Two key components of channel performance are (i) the existing customers' intrinsic loyalty to a particular channel and (ii) the channel's ability

  5. Effective instruction for English learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes

  6. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  7. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida

    2016-01-01

    A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin......, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also...

  8. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  9. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  10. Eastern Han's Cunning Depiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, B. C.

    1998-09-01

    It is still only speculation, but an earlier visit to a Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) tomb has started the idea, and a recently found study of another Han tomb has convinced me it is worth pursuing. What it is is that the ancient Chinese Sky Animal which represents North was not the turtle or tortoise until about the time of Han. My own visit was to an Eastern (later period) Han tomb which had been moved to a museum near the ancient capital of Luoyang. The ceiling of the inner chamber was rounded, made of brick. Drawings of a tiger and a red bird were clear to the west and south. A rounded object was at the north. Outside the tomb was a sign which said it was 'cun,' which means village. Chinese characters often have homonyms, but 'cun' has few. I have also visited the neolithic village of Banpo, near the Yellow River in the north. It has noticeably large and deep trenches to keep out wild animals, and one separates the residential area from the business area. This village is dated earlier than 4000 BC. The trenches definitely remind me of later depictions of the turtle with a snake wound about it. The recent findings of a tomb at Puyang with shapes of tiger and dragon have dated it to 3000 BC. Nothing was placed at the south side. Something was at the north, but one might argue about that. Finally, I found this article in Chinese Studies in Archaeology (1979), translated by S. Cahill of UC, Berkeley, called "Analysis of the Western Han Murals in the Luouyang Tomb of Bo Qianqiu" by Sun Zuoyun. Although Western Han is earlier than Eastern, the pictures in the tomb were well preserved. There were tiger, dragon, vermilion bird, and other animals, but no tortoise. Instead, there was a sun with a bird inside, and the moon with a frog. Several hundred miles north of the Yellow River, there is the Amur River. The natives there had robes decorated with snakes, lizards, and frogs, and other animals, but no turtle. Later reasons for having the turtle or tortoise is a separate

  11. Students’ Motivation in Speaking English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas Darul Ihsan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the English teacher in the classroom, there will be some problems or conditions need to be accomplished. Teacher will see some of the students are very motivated, motivated or even feeling ignored in studying English. The learners who have contacted with English will find that some features are quite easy and extremely difficult. One of the more complicated problems of second or foreign languages learning and  teaching has been to define and apply the construct of motivation in the classroom. Motivation is a concept without physical reality, we cannot see motivation; we see effort, interest, attitude and desire. For speaking, it is important first to give competence and then performance. Competence is more likely to the extent a communicator is motivated to be so. Motivation is the extent to which a communicator is drawn towards or pushed away from communicating competently in a given context then performed. This is a descriptive  quantitative research. The data obtained from the questionnaire distributed and analyzed to get the result.  The date taken from the students of Muhammadiyah 1 Senior High School Gresik in Easy-Speaking course. The researcher wanted to know the students’ motivation in practicing speaking English in Easy-Speaking course. The results show that 1 the learners effort in practicing speaking English is 56.1 %. 2 The learners’ interest in practicing speaking English is 49.7 %. 3 The learners’ attitude towards practicing speaking English is 59.9 %. 4 The learners’ desire in practicing speaking English is 71.43 %. Then, some suggestions are made: 1 Using media is very important both to increase the learners’ motivation and to give a big opportunity to learners to explore their idea. 2 Giving more variations techniques in teaching and learning process in order do not monotonous. 3 Giving prizes, encouraging and giving extra points for learners who can express their idea by speaking English well. 4 Creating

  12. Is English a dyslexic language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, K

    2000-01-01

    McGuinness has suggested that there 'is no diagnosis and no evidence for any special type of reading disorder like dyslexia', and that poor teaching accounts for low levels of English literacy performance, rather than inherent personal deficits. Implicit in this is the assumption that some languages have simple grapheme-phoneme codes in which there is a one-to-one mapping, making them easy to teach and learn, while others have more complicated structures and are more difficult for teachers and students. There is now an increasing number of studies which demonstrate that readers in more transparent orthographies such as Italian, Spanish, Turkish, Greek and German have little difficulty in decoding written words, while English children have many more problems. Increasingly, lack of orthographic transparency in English is seen as having a powerful negative effect on the development of reading skills in English-speaking children. There is evidence that English-speaking children who fail to acquire reading skills may fall into two distinct categories: those who would succeed in languages, other than English, that have greater orthographic consistency; and those who would still have problems even with perfect orthographic transparency. The first, larger, group is let down by the interaction of poor teaching methods and an incomprehensible system of orthography. The present study examines word factors associated with poor spelling and reading that have been identified. Three factors account for the relative ease with which pupils can spell words: frequency of the word in the English language; length of the word; and the presence of 'tricky' letters or letter combinations. Data are presented illustrating the predictive model of spelling and reading which enables word difficulty to be calculated from the characteristics of English words. The implications the model has for teaching and learning English are elaborated, with reference to the possible benefits to be derived

  13. Temporal variability of mass transport across Canary Islands Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; José Machín, Francisco; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    The equatorward flowing Canary Current (CC) is the main feature of the circulation in the Canary Islands region. The CC flow perturbation by the Canary Islands originate the Canary Eddy Corridor which is the major pathway for long lived eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic (Sangrà et al., 2009, DSR). Therefore the variability of the CC passing through the Canary Archipelago will have both local and regional importance. Past studies on the CC variability trough the Canary Islands point out a clearly seasonal variability (Fraile-Nuez et al, 2010 (JGR); Hernández-Guerra et al, 2002 (DSR)). However those studies where focused on the eastern islands channels missing the variability through the western island channels which are the main source of long lived eddies. In order to fill this gap from November 2012 until September 2013 we conducted trimonthly surveys crossing the whole islands channels using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). XBT and XCTD where launched along the cross channels transects. Additionally a closed box circling the Archipelago was performed on October 2013 as part of the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) using also XBT and XCTD. Dynamical variables where derived inferring salinity from S(T,p) analytical relationships for the region updated with new XCTD data. High resolution, vertical sections of temperature, potential density, geostrophic velocity and transport where obtained. Our preliminary results suggest that the CC suffer a noticeable acceleration in those islands channels where eddy shedding is more frequent. They also indicate a clearly seasonal variability of the flows passing the islands channels. With this regard we observed significant differences on the obtained seasonal variability with respect the cited past studies on the eastern islands channel (Lanzarote / Fuerteventura - Africa coast). This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092) and the European Union (FEDER).

  14. Análise faciológica e estratigráfica da planície costeira de Soure (margem leste da ilha de Marajó-PA, no trecho compreendido entre o canal do Cajuúna e o estuário Paracauari Faciological and stratigraphical analysis of Soure's coastal plain (eastern Marajó island-Pará, between Cajuúna channel and Paracauari estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmena Ferreira de França

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A planície costeira de Soure, na margem leste da ilha de Marajó (Pará, é constituída por áreas de acumulação lamosa e arenosa, de baixo gradiente, sujeitas a processos gerados por marés e ondas. Suas feições morfológicas são caracterizadas por planícies de maré, estuários, canais de maré e praias-barreiras. A análise faciológica e estratigráfica de seis testemunhos a vibração, com profundidade média de 4 m, e de afloramentos de campo permitiu a caracterização dos ambientes deposicionais, sua sucessão temporal e sua correlação lateral, a elaboração de seções estratigráficas e a definição de uma coluna estratigráfica. Foram identificadas cinco associações de facies: (1 facies de planície de maré, (2 facies de manguezal, (3 facies de barra de canal de maré, (4 facies de praia e (5 facies de duna. A história sedimentar da planície costeira de Soure é representada por duas sucessões estratigráficas: (1 a sucessão progradacional, constituída pelas associações de facies de planície de maré, manguezal e barra de canal de maré; e (2 a sucessão retrogradacional, formada pelas associações de facies de praia e de duna. Essas sucessões retratam uma fase de expansão das planícies de maré e manguezais, com progradação da linha de costa (Holoceno médio a superior, e uma posterior fase de retrogradação, com migração dos ambientes de praias e dunas sobre depósitos lamosos de manguezal e planície de maré, no Holoceno atual. A história deposicional da planície costeira de Soure é condizente com o modelo de evolução holocênica das planícies costeiras do nordeste paraense.Soures's coastal plain, eastern Marajó island (Pará, is formed by muddy and sandy deposits, low gradient areas submitted to tidal and wave processes. The morphological features are tidal flats, estuaries, tidal channels and barrier-beach ridges . The faciological and stratigraphical analysis of six vibra-core with medium

  15. Non-Native & Native English Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Tosuncuoglu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the primary (mother tongue language is not English but there is a great demand for English language teachers all over the world. The demand in this field is try to be filled largely by non-native English speaking teachers who have learned English in the country or abroad, or from another non native English peaking teachers. In some countries, particularly those where English speaking is a a sign of status, the students prefer to learn English from a native English speaker. The perception is that a non-native English speaking teacher is a less authentic teacher than a native English speaker and their instruction is not satifactory in some ways. This paper will try to examine the literature to explore whether there is a difference in instructional effectiveness between NNESTs and native English teachers.

  16. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    , controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl...... understood. Potential agonist binding sites have been proposed in transmembrane domains 3 and 4, in congruence with agonist binding sites of TRPV1. However, the functional relationship between TRPV4 and agonist binding is not yet understood. In this thesis is further elaborate the structure...

  17. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris

    2008-01-01

    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  18. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  19. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  20. English Grammar Workbook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, Nuala

    2010-01-01

    English Grammar Workbook For Dummies, UK Edition is grammar First Aid for anyone wanting to perfect their English and develop the practical skills needed to write and speak correctly. Each chapter focuses on key grammatical principles, with easy-to-follow theory and examples as well as practice questions and explanations. From verbs, prepositions and tenses, to style, expressions and tricky word traps, this hands-on workbook is essential for both beginners looking to learn and practise the basics of English grammar, and those who want to brush up skills they already have - quickly, easily, and

  1. Life after oral English certification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka

    2017-01-01

    Internationalization of higher education has resulted in rapid developments of English-medium instruction (EMI) courses in non-Anglophone countries in Europe and Asia. Due to the growing concerns about lecturers' ability to teach in English, several European universities have implemented policies...... for internal assessment of lecturers' English proficiency to ensure the quality of teaching in EMI programs. However, research on the measured construct and the reliability and the validity of these assessments remains scarce. Based on interviews with tested university lecturers and formative feedback analysis...

  2. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer from 20 August to 29 September.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  3. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between 25 June and 28 September. The exact dates will be decided according to the preferences of the students.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  4. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between August 19 and October 4.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch.

  5. Working in English student's book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Leo

    2001-01-01

    Working In English is a comprehensive course for Business English learners from Leo Jones, co-author of the successful New International Business English course. The core course comprises 40 one-hour units, focusing on thye practical day-to-day activities that all business people are involved in, and organised into seven modules. It is supplemented by extra activities from the Teacher's Book to offer maximum flexibility. The accompanying Video contains specially filmed documentary sequences, made in Europe and the USA, that relate to the themes of the modules and provide authentic input to the course.

  6. International English teachers' perceptions of English as an international language

    OpenAIRE

    Altun-Evci, Hatice

    2010-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 117-126. English as an International Language (EIL) and its implications for ELT have been keenly debated throughout the last two decades. Many researchers have in some depth elaborated on the issues of identity and voice, linguistic imperialism, and the importance of non-native speakers and the...

  7. NEEDS ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE STUDENTS IN ENGLISH ORAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Maulana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factual information about the needs of students of English Literature in the activities and supporting factors of oral communication by using English, whether linguistic and non-linguistic, and analyzing the difficulties of the situation of oral communication of English Literature students using English. This research uses descriptive method. Data collection is done through two stages: the questionnaire and the interview, followed by the review of someliteratures. The results of this study indicate that in general the students of English Literature feel that participating in a formal discussion is more important than the informal. While in terms of ability in the oral communication activity, generally students mastered informal communication activities. In terms of linguistic factors, the choice of vocabularies, and good and correct sentences are considered very important, although they only feel quite capable in it. It is also found that talking with self-confidence, having proper English pronunciation and mastering the topic of conversation become the important non-linguistic factors. The same thing does not happen on loudness and facial mimic. In general, students feel it is not important enough to master. Regarding situations that facilitate students in oral communication in English, they generally feel that well preparation, self-confidence, and mastery over vocabulary and what is being discussed becomes an easier factor. Different things revealed by most students about the difficult vocabulary and the lack of preparation in oral communication. It is difficult. As for things that require improvement, students generally feel that the confidence and the amount of vocabulary that is mastered should be improved in order to improve the quality of oral communication in English.

  8. English-language learners’ problem solving in Spanish versus English

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrose, Rebecca; Molina, Marta

    2010-01-01

    To explore the role of language in English Language Learners (ELLs)´ problem solving, we compare the performance of a group of Latino first graders when working in Spanish and in English on two equivalent sets of story problems. We contrast our results with others from previous studies with bilingual and monolinguals children by focusing on students´ performance in problems with the same semantic structure. This comparison leads us to discuss some factors influencing students´ problem solving...

  9. Tritium in the Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, M.; Fievet, B.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P.; Olivier, A.; Tenailleau, L.

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled that sea waters entering the Channel exhibit a natural concentration of tritium, the authors outline that spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are now the main sources of tritium for marine ecosystems as some oceanographic campaigns showed it. If data about the presence of tritium in water are numerous, data concerning the presence of tritiated water and of organically bound tritium in organisms are much less frequent. However, some surveys have been performed along the Channel French coasts

  10. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  11. Learning Strategies in Alleviating English Writing Anxiety for English Language Learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Pei; Lin, Huey-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This study utilized the Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English writing anxiety scale to examine the relationship between learning strategies and English writing anxiety in 102 university-level English language learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in a university in Taiwan. Kruskal Wallis Test…

  12. English romantic verse drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejević Ana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the nature of drama and particularly the historical decline of drama as a literary form, in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries correspond directly to the crisis of social class, which involved the transition - in England - from an aristocratic to a middle - class social order. In the framework of those social and also historical changes in Europe, English romantic verse drama gives the answer to the social reality through the vision of free and individualized characters. The pain, intensive sensitivity of the romantics, irrationality of the sublime ideas and the poetic style of the blank verse are the main characteristics of these dramas which diachronically influenced this genre in Victorian and modern era. Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Byron and others put the passionate individualist with his ideas of freedom and love in the center of dramatic action. Byron's dramas stand as the greatest and most articulate voice of Romantic drama. Whatever its aesthetic merits or shortcomings, and however traditional scholars may situate it within the frames of literary history Romantic drama occupies a critically important position in the social history of Romanticism but it also represents an important link in the development of verse drama from the Shakespeare to the modern age.

  13. Teaching English Through Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Hişmanoğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at emphasizing the use of literature as a popular technique for teaching both basiclanguage skills (i.e. reading, writing, listening and speaking and language areas (i.e. vocabulary,grammar and pronunciation in our times. Reasons for using literary texts in foreign language classroomand main criteria for selecting suitable literary texts in foreign language classes are stressed so as tomake the reader familiar with the underlying reasons and criteria for language teachers’ using andselecting literary texts. Moreover, literature and the teaching of language skills, benefits of differentgenres of literature (i.e. poetry, short fiction, drama and novel to language teaching and some problemsencountered by language teachers within the area of teaching English through literature (i.e. lack ofpreparation in the area of literature teaching in TESL / TEFL programs, absence of clear-cut objectivesdefining the role of literature in ESL / EFL, language teachers’ not having the background and trainingin literature, lack of pedagogically-designed appropriate materials that can be used by language teachersin a classroom context are taken into account.

  14. English and French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars a...

  15. adequacy of drainage channels f drainage channels in a small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    carried out and data obtain from drainage channels. The time of concentratio version of version of Kirpich equation (new equation of time new equation of time from the drainage channels were determined using results showed that most of the drainage channels h. All the drainage channels of basin A had velocities ra.

  16. Business Writing in Freshman English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmouth, Donald W.

    1980-01-01

    Suggests incorporating business writing into a freshman English course. Outlines three writing and research assignments: a financial status memorandum, a management analysis report, and an evaluation of applicants for a position at a university. (TJ)

  17. Ion channelling in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    1978-06-01

    Diamond is one of the most extreme cases from a channelling point of view, having the smallest thermal vibration amplitude and the lowest atomic number of commonly-encountered crystals. These are the two parameters most important for determining channelling behaviour. It is of consiberable interest therefore to see how well the theories explaining and predicting the channeling properties of other substance, succeed with diamond. Natural diamond, although the best available form for these experiments, is rather variable in its physical properties. Part of the project was devoted to considering and solving the problem of obtaining reproducible results representative of the ideal crystal. Channelling studies were performed on several good crystals, using the Rutherford backscattering method. Critical angles for proton channelling were measured for incident energies from 0.6 to 4.5 MeV, in the three most open axes and three most open planes of the diamond structure, and for α-particle channelling at 0.7 and 1.0 MeV (He + ) in the same axes and planes. For 1.0 MeV protons, the crystal temperature was varied from 20 degrees Celsius to 700 degrees Celsius. The results are presented as curves of backscattered yield versus angle in the region of each axis or plane, and summarised in the form of tables and graphs. Generally the critical angles, axial minimum yields, and temperature dependence are well predicted by the accepted theories. The most valuable overall conclusion is that the mean thermal vibration amplitude of the atoms in a crytical determines the critical approach distance to the channel walls at which an ion can remain channelled, even when this distance is much smaller than the Thomas-Fermi screening distance of the atomic potential, as is the case in diamond. A brief study was made of the radiation damage caused by α-particle bombardment, via its effect on the channelling phenomenon. It was possible to hold damage down to negligible levels during the

  18. Information Models of Acupuncture Analgesia and Meridian Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hua Zou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture and meridian channels have been major components of Chinese and Eastern Asian medicine—especially for analgesia—for over 2000 years. In recent decades, electroacupuncture (EA analgesia has been applied clinically and experimentally. However, there were controversial results between different treatment frequencies, or between the active and the placebo treatments; and the mechanisms of the treatments and the related meridian channels are still unknown. In this study, we propose a new term of infophysics therapy and develop information models of acupuncture (or EA analgesia and meridian channels, to understand the mechanisms and to explain the controversial results, based on Western theories of information, trigonometry and Fourier series, and physics, as well as published biomedical data. We are trying to build a bridge between Chinese medicine and Western medicine by investigating the Eastern acupuncture analgesia and meridian channels with Western sciences; we model the meridians as a physiological system that is mostly constructed with interstices in or between other physiological systems; we consider frequencies, amplitudes and wave numbers of electric field intensity (EFI as information data. Our modeling results demonstrate that information regulated with acupuncture (or EA is different from pain information, we provide answers to explain the controversial published results, and suggest that mechanisms of acupuncture (or EA analgesia could be mostly involved in information regulation of frequencies and amplitudes of EFI as well as neuronal transmitters such as endorphins.

  19. Summer Oral Expression English Course

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place between 15 August and 30 September 2011. Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enrol here. Or contact: Kerstin FUHRMEISTER (70896) Tessa OSBORNE (72957)  

  20. Humor and Satire in the English Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, Kenneth, Ed.

    1973-01-01

    According to the "Arizona English Bulletin" (AEB), not enough attention is given to humor or satire in high school English classes. AEB suggests that if the English class is a place for bringing reality into the curriculum, humor must become a part of the total English program. Featured in this issue are 25 essays on various aspects of…

  1. Teaching English as an International Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, A. F.; Yazan, B.

    2013-01-01

    English has unquestionably become a global phenomenon, generating a fundamental discussion of EIL pedagogy for English language teaching practitioners around the world. Teaching English as an International Language captures this important moment in the history of English language teaching. Readers will find an accessible introduction to the past,…

  2. English Teaching Profile: Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A description of the role and status of the English language in the Yemen Arab Republic begins with a general statement concerning the distribution of English speakers and the use of English language materials. Subsequent sections outline: (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education;…

  3. Globalization and English in Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junyue

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets China's education of English majors within the changing global and national context. It examines the impact of accelerating globalisation and the rise of global English, the adjustment of China's English language policy, the growth of the education of English majors and the challenges faced by this sector of education. To adapt to…

  4. Future English Teachers' Attitudes towards EIL Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    English has become the world's international language, used for international communication mostly among non-native speakers of other languages and 80 percent of all the English teachers around the world are nonnative English-speaking (NNES) teachers (Canagarajah, 1999). Therefore, there is a growing need to investigate the EIL (English as an…

  5. English Teaching Profile: Sabah--Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Sabah, Malaysia, provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English use and instruction in both the Chinese and government educational systems at all levels. Topics covered are: the characteristics and training of English language…

  6. English Activation through Art: Tensions and Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tat Heung

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a unit of work framed by a rationale for activating English language learning through arts-based practices that are suitable for preservice teachers who are nonnative speakers of English (seeking certification for teaching English as a second language). Because teachers of English are expected to use language arts to promote…

  7. English Around the World, Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, John I. B., Ed.

    This newsletter discusses the teaching and role of English around the world. Articles also cover English-language media in a given country, and the opportunity and need for understanding and speaking English in that country. This particular issue contains items on English-language education and use in Belgium, Poland, Afghanistan, Hungary,…

  8. On the Practice Teaching of English Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonghong

    2009-01-01

    The main task of practice teaching of English Reading is to train students' independent reading ability and good reading habits. Extra-curricular reading of English literature and English newspapers and magazines plays an active role in improving English reading ability. The principle of selecting reading materials, the scope of selection and the…

  9. Hindsight of an English Language Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Phap

    This keynote address by a native Vietnamese speaker who did not learn English until he was college-age, through the now obsolete "grammar-translation" method, recounts his difficulties in learning to converse orally in English. He stresses the need to teach conversational English to English Language Learners (ELLs) in addition to…

  10. The Mental Lexicon and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaqing; Deng, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    In China, English as a foreign language (EFL) learning mainly occurs in the classroom, and the resultant lack of practice using English in authentic settings makes it quite difficult for many Chinese learners to learn English words. They may often feel that English words are "difficult to learn and easy to forget." As such, how to…

  11. English Around the World, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, John I. B., Ed.

    This newsletter discusses the teaching and role of English around the world. Articles also cover English-language media in a given country, and the opportunity and need for understanding and speaking English in that country. This particular issue contains items on English-language education and use in Malaysia, Singapore, Israel, Jordan, Tunisia,…

  12. Negotiated Syllabus in EAP Business English Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Erlinda R.

    Negotiation of syllabus design and content in college-level business English is discussed, looking at three types: negotiation between teachers of business English, between teachers and students of business English, and between business English and content-area business teachers. Examples of practice from the Chinese University of Hong Kong are…

  13. English Around the World, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, John I. B., Ed.

    This newsletter discusses the teaching and role of English around the world. Articles also cover English-language media in a given country, and the opportunity and need for understanding and speaking English in that country. This particular issue contains items on English education and use in Yugoslavia, Norway, Iceland, Finland, Kenya, Pakistan,…

  14. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  15. English Language Teaching Profile: Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in the Central African Republic discusses the role of English and English within the educational system. While French is the official language and Sango is the national language, English is taught in all secondary schools, is used as the medium of instruction in the University…

  16. English Language Teaching Profile: Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Hong Kong provides a brief background of the social, economic, and linguistic situation, and covers the following topics: the role of English, English within the educational system, the teaching cadre, teaching materials, English outside the educational system, and British…

  17. Black Teachers of English in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Quanisha D.

    2017-01-01

    This study used narrative inquiry as a methodological tool and Critical Race Theory (CRT) as a lens to examine how the term native English speaker (NES) is socially constructed when subscribed by Black teachers of English (BTE) in South Korea. In addition to examining how Black teachers of English interpret the term native English speaker, this…

  18. Collocations in Marine Engineering English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Borucinsky

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Collocations are very frequent in the English language (Hill, 2000, and they are probably the most common and most representative of English multi-word expressions (Lewis, 2000. Furthermore, as a subset of formulaic sequences, collocations are considered to be a central aspect of communicative competence (Nation, 2001. Hence, the importance of teaching collocations in General English (GE as well as in English for Specific Purposes (ESP is undeniable. Understanding and determining the relevant collocations and their mastery are of “utmost importance to a ME instructor” (Cole et al., 2007, p. 137, and collocations are one of the most productive ways of enriching vocabulary and terminology in modern ME. Vişan & Georgescu (2011 have undertaken a relevant study on  collocations and “collocational competence” on board ships, including mostly nautical terminology. However, no substantial work on collocations in Marine Engineering English as a sub-register of ME has been carried out. Hence, this paper tries to determine the most important collocations in Marine Engineering English, based on a small corpus of collected e-mails. After determining the most relevant collocations, we suggest how to implement these in the language classroom and how to improve the collocational competence of marine engineering students.

  19. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  20. The School of Business English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila S. Pichkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available School of Business English prepare students for translation and abstracting economic texts, business correspondence and business communication originated in the late 1950s. Department of English Language № 2 pioneered the creation of the school of business English at MGIMO and made the largest contribution to its development. Developing and using the latest educational technology, actively participating in many innovative projects, responsive to changes in the economic and socio-political sphere and carefully studying the international experience, the Department has become the undisputed leader in language teaching profession. The emphasis is on the use of the advantages of a new method of object-language integrated learning, in which the program of teaching business English are built in close coordination with training programs on special subjects, and sometimes supplement them. Business games, round tables, student conferences in English have become long-term practice of the English Language № 2. Specialty permeates all stages and aspects of learning, including the common language practice.

  1. Calculation of the Hydraulic Friction of the Cooling Channels of Gas-Turbines Blade,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-27

    77 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DWISION ~~~~~ CALCULATION OF THE HYDRAULIC FRICTION OF THE COOLING CHANNELS OF GAS - TURBINES BLADE L. N. Odivanov...COOLING CHANNELS OF GAS - TURBINES BLADE By: L. N. Odivanov English pages: 27 Source: Trudy Kazanskogo Aviatsionnogo Inst itu te , No. 128, 1971, pp. 3...Shvets, Ye. I. Dyban. Air cooling4he rotors of gas turbines . Publ ish ing house of Kiev university, 1959. 2. S. Z. Kopele v, S. V. Gurov. Hydraul ic f

  2. TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN INDONESIA: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Komang Tantra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe and overview the existence of teaching English in Indonesia. English as a Foreign language gives different impressions from the other status, as L1 or L2. The materials were collected through reading, comprehending a number of references related to teaching, mastering English. The review was descriptively done and the result showed that the success of teaching English depends upon internal and external factors, namely: (1 verbal, numerical and reasoning abilities, (2 motivation, attitude, interest, aptitude, self esteem, perception and memory, (3 curriculum, personal and interpersonal interactions, (4 ability to adverse weakness into strength and constraint into opportunity, (5 spatial and socio-emotional setting, participant, end, act, channel, intention, norm and genre, (6 practice, enthusiasm and learning styles.

  3. The Ideological Construction of English: A Critical Review on the Discourse of English in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han-Yi

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the ideological character of the English language in East Asia. It focuses on the prevailing beliefs, values and propositions relating to English as a global language and the spread of English in the non-English East Asian countries, namely China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. By analyzing how English is presented in…

  4. Relocating English: Towards a New Paradigm for English in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceni, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The worldwide spread of English has recently received much interest. Issues relating to the multifaceted roles of English around the world have been highlighted and purist positions about English challenged. In particular (a) the assumption that British English is the only valid standard of English; and (b) the notion that the "native speaker" is…

  5. Chinese College Students' Views on Native English and Non-Native English in EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yang; Jingxia, Liu

    2016-01-01

    With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars' attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research…

  6. To Teach Standard English or World Englishes? A Balanced Approach to Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Martin, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests that English language teachers should consider all varieties of English, not just British Standard English or American Standard English. In order to better prepare students for the global world, and to show them that their own English is valued, teachers can implement a balanced approach that incorporates the teaching and…

  7. Channel identification machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B

    2012-01-01

    We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s) onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  8. Channel Identification Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel A. Lazar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  9. The Hegemony of English in Public Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exsuperantia Yohanita Irene

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the relation of the global role of English to the English hegemony found in the Jakarta Post articles. It highlights the readers’ point of view, specifically the arguments they used in opposing the Education and Culture Ministry plan to scrap English from Elementary School Curriculum. It underlines the contemporary phenomenon of English as a world language and the role it plays in contributing to the dominance of English reflected on the readers’ opinion.

  10. Teaching English in English : A preliminary study into nonnative English-speaking teachers' decision in using English as the language of instruction

    OpenAIRE

    大藪, 加奈

    2007-01-01

    This study deals with nonnative English-speaking teachers’ choice of English as the language of instruction. It maps actual and theoretical frameworks that need considering when conducting such a research. Two viewpoints on “English worthy of instruction” are presented, current data on nonnative English-speaking teachers’ English lessons are discussed, situations that affect teachers’ choice of language, and theoretical frameworks useful for the analysis are examined.

  11. Teaching legal english as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Codruta BADEA

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the def...

  12. Magnetic signature of the Sicily Channel volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodolo, E.; Civile, D.; Zanolla, C.; Geletti, R.

    2012-03-01

    Widespread Late Miocene to Quaternary volcanic activity is know to have occurred in the Sicily Channel continuing up to historical time. New magnetic anomaly data acquired in the Pantelleria Graben, one of the three main tectonic depressions forming the WNW-trending Sicily Channel rift system, integrated with available profiles, are used to identify and map volcanic bodies in this sector of the northern African margin. Some of these manifestations, both outcropping at the sea-floor or buried beneath a variable thickness of Plio-Quaternary sedimentary cover, have been imaged by seismic reflection profiles. Three main positive magnetic anomalies have been found: to the S-E of the Pantelleria Island, the largest emerged caldera of the Sicily Channel, along the eastern margin of the Nameless Bank, and at the north-western termination of the Linosa Graben. Only the anomaly located off the south-eastern coast of the Pantelleria Island, associated with a large outcropping body gradually buried beneath a substantially undisturbed Upper Pliocene-Quaternary sediments, aligns with the trend of the tectonic depression. 2-D geophysical models produced along seismic transects perpendicularly crossing the Pantelleria Graben have allowed to derive its deep crustal structure, and detect the presence of buried magmatic bodies which generate the anomalies. Marginal faults seem to have played a major role in focussing magma emplacement in this sector of the Sicily Channel. The other anomalies represent off-axis volcanic episodes and generally do not show evident magmatic manifestations at the sea-floor. These magnetic maxima seem to follow a NNE-SSW-trending belt extending from Linosa Island to the Nameless Bank, where pre-existing crustal anisotropies may have conditioned magma emplacement both at deep and shallow crustal levels. In general, data analysis has shown that there is a structural control on magma emplacement, with the major magmatic features located in specific locations

  13. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthart, Richard J.; Crowell, Shannon L.

    1998-01-01

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface.

  14. Nanoscale Vacuum Channel Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Moon, Dong-Il; Meyyappan, M

    2017-04-12

    Vacuum tubes that sparked the electronics era had given way to semiconductor transistors. Despite their faster operation and better immunity to noise and radiation compared to the transistors, the vacuum device technology became extinct due to the high power consumption, integration difficulties, and short lifetime of the vacuum tubes. We combine the best of vacuum tubes and modern silicon nanofabrication technology here. The surround gate nanoscale vacuum channel transistor consists of sharp source and drain electrodes separated by sub-50 nm vacuum channel with a source to gate distance of 10 nm. This transistor performs at a low voltage (3 microamperes). The nanoscale vacuum channel transistor can be a possible alternative to semiconductor transistors beyond Moore's law.

  15. Chaos in quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Roberts, Daniel A.; Yoshida, Beni

    2016-02-01

    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  16. CANDU fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.; Cheadle, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    The service life of CANDU fuel channels is determined by the component that has to withstand the most severe conditions, the Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube. The latest fuel channels are expected to have a lifetime of over 30 years. The properties that control service life are fracture and deformation. For fracture, a defence-in-depth approach is used - preventing crack initiation and invoking leak-before-break. Confidence in the serviceability of fuel channels is based on current knowledge of the state of health of the components evaluated by surveillance. Degradation of properties with service is slow, allowing sufficient time to judge and act when end-of-life is reached. Methods for improving the properties of components are outlined. (author)

  17. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabala, S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe

  18. Aida and Her Mainstream Classroom: A Case Study of a Young English Language Learner's Literacy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a nine-month study of literacy development of Aida, a young English language learner from Indonesia, who was mainstreamed in a Grade 2 classroom in a primary school in the south-eastern part of Australia. This article initially reviews the literature concerning features of the mainstream classroom conducive for second language learning and for literacy development. Following the presentation of methodological issues, it examines English learning activities in Aida's classroom and highlights her literacy development with examples of her work. The results from this study show that Aida developed literacy skills considered important for her second language and learning development. The variety of English learning activities and the encouraging environment in her classroom contributed much to her literacy development.

  19. Unathi: The case study of a South African ESL learner who excels at writing in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ntete

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the case study of a learner in Mdantsane Township in the Eastern Cape. Most black learners find it difficult to express themselves effectively in English. According to a survey made by Bot (1996 majority of black grade 7 learners are unable to read in English.  Many black learners in South Africa The study, which focused on five learners was an attempt to explain why some learners whose mother tongue is Xhosa are an exceptionally proficient writers of English. The article describes one of these learners and his writing practices. The data collected include formal interviews with this learner as well as an analysis of some of his writing. Some tentative conclusions are reached relating to the role of the teacher and certain affective factors. The article concludes with a few implications for researching teachers.

  20. English for Specific Purposes: Teaching English for Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musikhin, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    In the era of globalization, English communication for scientists and engineers whose native language is not English has become as important as their major related abilities. The paper describes the results of a four-year experience in the development of English for specific purpose manuals in the field of photogrammetry, interferometry, and GNSS technologies, as well as key teaching methods and didactic approaches used in class and out-of-class activities. The focus of the present study is to provide a detailed description of the development and systematic updating of a relevant manual, aimed at professional language training of learners. The findings of the study reflect the importance of an ESP course for scientists and engineers: conducting a needs analysis for carrying out a specific search of relevant and reliable authentic materials, defining proper teaching methods, software and didactic approaches used in the educational process to develop the language skills necessary to be active and contributive players in the competitive world.

  1. Sphaeromatidae (Crustacea, Isopoda) of the Beagle Channel and description of Cymodopsis beageli n. sp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, Angelina

    1998-01-01

    During an expedition with RV Victor Hensen (1994) and the RV Polarstern (1996) Isopoda Sphaeromatidae were collected in and off the eastern entrance of the Beagle Channel. The species found, Caecocassidias patagonica Kussakin, 1967, Cassidinopsis emarginata (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) and Moruloidea

  2. Successful English Learners in Speaking English at SMAN 2 Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vevy Liansari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the strategies of successful English learners in speaking English. It is aimed to investigate the learning strategies used by successful English learners of SMAN 2 Surabaya to assist in converting controlled process into automatic one. Adopting qualitative descriptive analysis, this study consistently describes the phenomena. Notably, it is designed as a case study since the researcher is interested in describing some aspects of second language performance of the subjects as individuals. The researcher used in collecting the data is an interview and supported by the researcher as the observer of the observation conducted in the classroom. The subjects of this study are two successful English learners of eleventh grade senior high. Thus, the data got from the subjects derived from the observation and interview selected, simplified, and organized to draw the conclusion. Based on the results, successful English learners use both direct and indirect strategies in learning to speak English. In applying direct strategy they make use of compensation and cognitive strategy by switching their target language to his mother tongue, using resources for receiving and sending messages in the target language and use mime or gesture. Indirect strategy is applied by making use metacognitive, affective, and social strategy. They also do activities such as paying attention to the language learning tasks, delaying speech production to focus on listening to the target language, cooperating with peers, cooperating with proficient users of target language, seeking practice opportunities, making positive statements, taking risk wisely, and self monitoring, progressive relaxation and has deep breathing.

  3. Indonesian English: what's det tuh?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aminudin Aziz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In a seminar on ESP held in Bandung, Andy Kirkpatrick of Curtin University of Technology, Australia, in relation to the anticipation of the potential emergence of a new variety of English in the Southeast Asian region and in Indonesia in particular, invited the audience, who were mostly university teachers, to start thinking about developing a teaching program based more on Indonesian culture than on, Anglo or American culture. This idea is based on the fact that “the vast majority of people in the region who are learning English are doing so with the expressed purpose of being able to use it as a lingua franca. They are not learning English to communicate with native speakers of English, but rather with other non-native speakers” (Kirkpatrick 2001. While the idea is "stimulating and challenging" (Dardjowidjojo, 2001, cares need to be taken before we finally embark further to talk about it. This is particularly important because what we will need at the outset is the down-to-earth explorations discussing the issues related particularly with the unique features that will characterise the new variety of English (if at all any. In this paper, I explore some of the potential features and argue that the most prominent of all are the differences in the realisation in the acts of speech (and writing.

  4. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Science Policy Research Unit)

    1991-01-01

    The main aim of this article is that of illustrating the experience of the use of nuclear power in Eastern Europe in order to estimate the degree of adequacy or inadequacy of COMECON's nuclear technology. The author examines four areas of interest concerning: the feasibility of new orders for nuclear plants in Eastern Europe; the pros and cons of completing half-built nuclear power plants; current policy towards existing nuclear power plants; and a review of the available evidence on the operating performance of plants in Eastern Europe. The common belief that the nuclear power experience had by old COMECON countries is uniformly bad does not seem to be fully supported by the limited evidence available. In the author's opinion, the prospects for a successful nuclear power industry in these countries depends on a series on interdependent factors among which, human skills hold a prominent position.

  5. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  6. MITOCHONDRIAL BKCa CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eBalderas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in a glioma cell line 15 years ago, mitochondrial BKCa channel (mitoBKCa has been studied in brain cells and cardiomyocytes sharing general biophysical properties such as high K+ conductance (~300 pS, voltage-dependency and Ca2+-sensitivity. Main advances in deciphering the molecular composition of mitoBKCa have included establishing that it is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, that a C-terminal splice insert confers mitoBKCa ability to be targeted to cardiac mitochondria, and evidence for its potential coassembly with β subunits. Notoriously, β1 subunit directly interacts with cytochrome c oxidase and mitoBKCa can be modulated by substrates of the respiratory chain. mitoBKCa channel has a central role in protecting the heart from ischemia, where pharmacological activation of the channel impacts the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial Ca2+ preventing cell death likely by impeding uncontrolled opening of the mitochondrial transition pore. Supporting this view, inhibition of mitoBKCa with Iberiotoxin, enhances cytochrome c release from glioma mitochondria. Many tantalizing questions remain. Some of them are: how is mitoBKCa coupled to the respiratory chain? Does mitoBKCa play non-conduction roles in mitochondria physiology? Which are the functional partners of mitoBKCa? What are the roles of mitoBKCa in other cell types? Answers to these questions are essential to define the impact of mitoBKCa channel in mitochondria biology and disease.

  7. Channels of Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, J. Michael

    Defining propaganda as "efforts by special interests to win over the public covertly by infiltrating messages into various channels of public expression ordinarily viewed as politically neutral," this book argues that propaganda has become pervasive in American life. Pointing out that the 1990s society is inundated with propaganda from…

  8. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  9. Channeling through Bent Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC

    2012-09-07

    Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump, thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used to

  10. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.

    2011-01-01

    is recorded by 350 Reftek Texan receivers for 10 equidistant shot points along the profile. We use forward ray tracing modelling to construct a two-dimensional velocity model from the observed travel times. These results show the first images of the subsurface velocity structure beneath the Greenland ice......The conjugate Atlantic passive margins of western Norway and eastern Greenland are characterized by the presence of coast-parallel mountain ranges with peak elevations of more than 3.5 km close to Scoresby Sund in Eastern Greenland. Knowledge about crustal thickness and composition below...

  11. English Language Learning Strategies Used by University Students: A Case Study of English and Business English Major at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Pranee Pathomchaiwat

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this research are 1) to study English language learning strategies used by the fourth-year students majoring in English and Business English, 2) to study the English language learning strategies which have an affect on English learning achievement, and 3) to compare the English language learning strategies used by the students majoring in English and Business English. The population and sampling comprise of 139 university students of the Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Rese...

  12. English language usage pattern in China mainland doctors: AME survey-001 initial analysis results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J

    2015-02-01

    English is the most widely used language in medical community worldwide. Till now there is no study yet on how English language is being used among mainland Chinese doctors. The present survey aimed to address this question. An online cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of 23 Oct 2014 to 13 November 2014, totaling 22 days. This survey was conducted on the platform provided by DXY (www.dxy.cn), which is the largest medical and paramedical related website in China with registered medical doctor users of slightly more than one million. E-mails were sent to all DXY registered users to invite them to participate the survey which lasts approximately five-minute. The questionnaire included three major aspects: (I) the demographic characteristics of participants; (II) English reading pattern; and (III) paper publishing experience in international journals. To accommodate the complexity of relationships among variables, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to build the model. In total 1,663 DXY users completed the survey, which counted for ≈1% of the total registered medical doctor users. There were more participants from relatively economically developed eastern coast areas. The age of participants was 33.6±7.4 years. There were 910 respondents from teaching hospitals (54.72%), followed by tertiary care hospitals (class-III hospital, 22.37%). Mainland Chinese doctors were more likely to consult medical materials in Chinese (63.5%) when they encounter clinical difficulties. Participants who were able to list English journals of their own specialty up to four were 44.02% for 0, 13.77% for one journal, 13.89% for two journals, 9.26% for three journals, and 19.06% for four journals. Most participants (82.86%) have read at least one English paper or one professional book in English, while 17.14% responded they never read a single English paper or professorial book in English. About 30.42% participants published at least one paper in English

  13. English for International Trade Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilová Štĕpánka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Law at Masaryk University in Brno, the Czech Re- public, offers several fields of studies, one of them being the three-year Bachelor’s degree programme of International Trade Law. This programme includes two semesters of English for specific purposes which the students take in their first year of studies. However, as the programme is offered as a part time study, there are only 10 lessons of English taught within two days per semester. Preparing a course which would develop the students’ language abilities and skills in the international trade law environment appears to be rather challenging under such conditions.

  14. English grammar a university course

    CERN Document Server

    Downing, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This best-selling comprehensive descriptive grammar forms a complete course, ideal for all students studying English Language ,whether on a course or for self-study. Broadly based on Hallidayan systemic-functional grammar but also drawing on cognitive linguistics and discourse analysis, English Grammar is accessible, avoiding overly theoretical or technical explanations.Divided into 12 self-contained chapters based around language functions, each chapter is divided into units of class-length material. Key features include:Numerous authentic texts from a wide range of sources, both spoken and w

  15. Japanese English in Travel Brochures

    OpenAIRE

    Premvadee Na Nakornpanom

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the role and impact of English loan words on Japanese language in travel brochures. The issues arising from a potential switch to English as a tool to absorb the West’s advanced knowledge and technology in the modernization of Japan to a means of linking Japan with the rest of the world and enhancing the country’s international presence. Sociolinguistic contexts was used to analyze data collected from the Nippon Travel agency "HIS"’s brochures in Thailand, revealing th...

  16. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...... and Wacquant’s concept of state, with the key concept being ‘state-crafting’. The article contributes knowledge about the imaginaries, and the manufacturing and managing of ‘the public good’ – understood as a referent for modern governing – of the English welfare state. The article concludes...

  17. Summer Oral Expression English Course

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place between 15 August and 30 September 2011. Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enrol through the following link https://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9:1576796470009589::::X_STATUS,XS_COURSE_NAME,XS_PROGRAMME,XS_SUBCATEGORY,X_COURSE_ID,XS_LANGUAGE,XS_SESSION:D,,1,,4368,B, Or contact: Kerstin FUHRMEISTER (70896) Tessa OSBORNE (72957)  

  18. Cambridge IGCSE English first language

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2013-01-01

    Revised edition for the 2015 syllabus to help your students prepare for their examination and enhance their enjoyment of English. This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE First Language English (0500 and 0522) syllabuses, for first teaching from 2013. ? Develops the skills necessary to become a better reader and writer. ? Offers detailed advice and preparation for the examination. ? Teaches skills for successful writing of essays and coursework assignment. We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain endorsement for this title.

  19. Intellectual Property in "College English"--and English Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoss, Danielle Nicole

    2013-01-01

    In this review, I look back to the first issue of College English, and then across the years to trace the ways in which "Intellectual Property" (and this distinction from intellectual property is important) has been addressed by authors in the pages of the journal. I distinguish two periods of time marked by different approaches to IP issues, and…

  20. English Day--A Whole Day of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yehudit Od

    1997-01-01

    English Day is celebrated annually at one Israeli school through language- and culture-related activities. One year, the school implemented whole-language learning strategies and involved parents and students in related activities at a series of activity stations featuring movies, books, television, fashion, comics, games, technology, science,…

  1. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    . Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most......During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... in Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? Eastern European buyers attach great importance to other aspects when they list new suppliers and products than does Western European retailing. These are the results of a MAPP study of Eastern European retail and wholesale buying behaviour for fish and cheese...

  2. Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 34 of 34 ... Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home > Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. An annotated bibliography of eastern redcedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Schmidt; Ronald J. Piva

    1995-01-01

    Presents a listing of 719 citations related to eastern redcedar through September 1994. Major eastern redcedar subject headings include: physiology, nursery propagation, regeneration / planting, pests, weather-related factors, control, products, wildlife relationship, and ecological relationships.

  5. Contrasting records of sea-level change in the eastern and western North Atlantic during the last 300 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A. J.; Barlow, N. L. M.; Gehrels, W. R.; Saher, M. H.; Woodworth, P. L.; Scaife, R. G.; Brain, M. J.; Cahill, N.

    2014-02-01

    We present a new 300-year sea-level reconstruction from a salt marsh on the Isle of Wight (central English Channel, UK) that we compare to other salt-marsh and long tide-gauge records to examine spatial and temporal variability in sea-level change in the North Atlantic. Our new reconstruction identifies an overall rise in relative sea level (RSL) of c. 0.30 m since the start of the eighteenth century at a rate of 0.9±0.3 mm yr. Error-in-variables changepoint analysis indicates that there is no statistically significant deviation from a constant rate within the dataset. The reconstruction is broadly comparable to other tide-gauge and salt-marsh records from the European Atlantic, demonstrating coherence in sea level in this region over the last 150-300 years. In contrast, we identify significant differences in the rate and timing of RSL with records from the east coast of North America. The absence of a strong late 19th/early 20th century RSL acceleration contrasts with that recorded in salt marsh sediments along the eastern USA coastline, in particular in a well-dated and precise sea-level reconstruction from North Carolina. This suggests that this part of the North Carolina sea level record represents a regionally specific sea level acceleration. This is significant because the North Carolina record has been used as if it were globally representative within semi-empirical parameterisations of past and future sea-level change. We conclude that regional-scale differences of sea-level change highlight the value of using several, regionally representative RSL records when calibrating and testing semi-empirical models of sea level against palaeo-records. This is because by using records that potentially over-estimate sea-level rise in the past such models risk over-estimating sea-level rise in the future.

  6. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  7. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  8. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  9. Quantum communication under channel uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noetzel, Janis Christian Gregor

    2012-01-01

    This work contains results concerning transmission of entanglement and subspaces as well as generation of entanglement in the limit of arbitrary many uses of compound- and arbitrarily varying quantum channels (CQC, AVQC). In both cases, the channel is described by a set of memoryless channels. Only forward communication between one sender and one receiver is allowed. A code is said to be ''good'' only, if it is ''good'' for every channel out of the set. Both settings describe a scenario, in which sender and receiver have only limited channel knowledge. For different amounts of information about the channel available to sender or receiver, coding theorems are proven for the CQC. For the AVQC, both deterministic and randomised coding schemes are considered. Coding theorems are proven, as well as a quantum analogue of the Ahlswede-dichotomy. The connection to zero-error capacities of stationary memoryless quantum channels is investigated. The notion of symmetrisability is defined and used for both classes of channels.

  10. Learning Channels and Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fan-Yu; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the basics of learning channels and how specification of stimuli can help enhance verbal behavior. This article will define learning channels and the role of the ability matrix in training verbal behavior.

  11. ``Just Another Distribution Channel?''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstra, Wolter; de Leeuw, Gerd-Jan; van de Kar, Els; Brand, Paul

    The telecommunications-centric business model of mobile operators is under attack due to technological convergence in the communication and content industries. This has resulted in a plethora of academic contributions on the design of new business models and service platform architectures. However, a discussion of the challenges that operators are facing in adopting these models is lacking. We assess these challenges by considering the mobile network as part of the value system of the content industry. We will argue that from the perspective of a content provider the mobile network is ‘just another’ distribution channel. Strategic options available for the mobile communication operators are to deliver an excellent distribution channel for content delivery or to move upwards in the value chain by becoming a content aggregator. To become a mobile content aggregator operators will have to develop or acquire complementary resources and capabilities. Whether this strategic option is sustainable remains open.

  12. Geysering in boiling channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Takemoto, Takatoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Chiang, Jing-Hsien [Japan NUS Corp. Ltd., Toyko (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A concept of natural circulation BWRs such as the SBWR has been proposed and seems to be promising in that the primary cooling system can be simplified. The authors have been investigating thermo-hydraulic instabilities which may appear during the start-up in natural circulation BWRs. In our previous works, geysering was investigated in parallel boiling channels for both natural and forced circulations, and its driving mechanism and the effect of system pressure on geysering occurrence were made clear. In this paper, geysering is investigated in a vertical column and a U-shaped vertical column heated in the lower parts. It is clarified from the results that the occurrence mechanism of geysering and the dependence of system pressure on geysering occurrence coincide between parallel boiling channels in circulation systems and vertical columns in non-circulation systems.

  13. English for Airport Ground Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes part of a European Commission Leonardo project that aimed to design a multimedia course for English language learners seeking work as ground staff in European airports. The structural-functional analysis of the dialogues written from the course showed that, across the four trades explored (security guards, ground handlers,…

  14. Internalization of English Orthographic Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrist, Robert H.

    1976-01-01

    Examines patterns (and their internalization) of regularity underlying English orthography, graphic representations of specific phonemes in different environments, reactions of literate native speakers to correctness of different correspondences in these situations, and reactions of these informants to recognition tests involving alternative…

  15. English in the Garment Shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplaetse, Lorrie

    This text for limited-English-speaking workers in the garment industry consits of illustrated vocabulary words, grammar lessons, narratives or brief readings, and exercises on employment-related topics. The first section focuses on shop talk, including job-specific vocabulary, simple expressions and explanations, social language, seeking and…

  16. Implications for English Language T

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... will be able to communicate in diverse communicative situations of daily living. Introduction. Applied Linguists and language teachers generally agree that communication is the goal of language teaching. Here in Nigeria, the main aim of teaching. English is to help students acquire relevant communication ...

  17. Workplace English: Approach and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, David

    1984-01-01

    Describes two approaches to teaching vocational English as a second language: (1) describing work activities in terms of processes and procedures and (2) describing work activities in terms of specific human behaviors. Suggests a goal analysis as an initial step before deciding which approach to take in any training project. (SED)

  18. Postmodern Moonshine in English 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nan

    2006-01-01

    Theorists have usurped English composition. They have banished great literature as the residual oppression of dead white males. They control groups like the NCTE and MLA, which announce that exercises in grammar and the mechanics of writing are "deleterious" for students tantamount to "malpractice." Nan Miller reminds those…

  19. Researching in English: Document Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    In this article I argue for the defining importance of document study for researchers in curriculum. Two examples of previous analyses are provided, one demonstrating an approach to language analysis of the "Australian Curriculum: English" from the Literature strand, the other a study of the relationship of curricula to each other in…

  20. English Homework: What Makes Sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchel, Laura Loder

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to persuade English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers and teacher trainers that homework is indeed beneficial by presenting multiple examples of high-quality homework assignments, as Dettmers et al. (2010) found in mathematics. The argument here is that it is not the time spent on homework that matters in early…

  1. READING AND WRITING STANDARD ENGLISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRAIG, MYRTLE C.

    THE PROBLEM OF HOW TO TEACH PUPILS IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS TO READ AND WRITE STANDARD ENGLISH IS DISCUSSED. THE VALUE OF ORAL LANGUAGE AS A MEANS OF ATTAINING READING AND WRITING PROFICIENCY IS SUGGESTED. SUCCESS IN THESE AREAS CAN BE ATTAINED IF (1) THE HOME LANGUAGE OF THE CHILD IS ACCEPTED, (2) THE CHILD IS OFFERED MATERIALS ON HIS LEVEL OF…

  2. Teaching English Pronunciation to Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barbara

    This guide provides teachers of Korean children and adults with information on the problems Koreans encounter in learning to pronounce English. Principles of contrastive analysis and error analysis are used to give insight into these pronunciation problems. The first section dealing with problem sounds covers the following: (1) an explanation of…

  3. Tense and Aspect in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In the 1990's the author cooperated with Carl Bache on a grammar of English. It turned out that the views they had previously arrived at individually on tense and aspect could be combined by operating with a fused system involving four ordered choices resulting in sixteen tense-aspect forms...

  4. Orality, Literacy, and Standard English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazere, Donald

    1991-01-01

    Examines the debate initiated by Thomas J. Farrell's 1983 article, "IQ and Standard English." Suggests the importance of social class in assessing the situation of basic writers coming to college from predominately oral cultures, who are generally unprepared to write critically, follow complex lines of argument, or handle new vocabulary…

  5. English Intonation and Relevance Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Michael

    An analysis of English intonation focuses on fall-rise and rise-fall instruction. Fall-rise intonation marks material from which the speaker would derive a precondition for what he is saying, while rise-fall intonation marks material from which the speaker would derive a consequence from what he is saying based on inversion of the clause where the…

  6. English Teachers Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saefurrohman; Balinas, Elvira S.

    2016-01-01

    The new language assessment policies in the Philippines and in Indonesia have impact on English teachers' assessment practices. Classroom assessment; as mandated in the current curriculum of both countries swifts from sources of information to the inseparable process of teaching and learning. This study describes Filipino and Indonesian high…

  7. Morphology Of The English Noun

    OpenAIRE

    ., farikah .

    2003-01-01

    Word is the key element in morphology. Morpology is a study of internal con­ struction of words. In language learneang, noun is the important element, In this paper, the writer will present morphologv of the English noun, it will also he described noun identification. Key Words: Morphology, Noun

  8. English in the Czech Republic: Linguists’ perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaderka, Petr; Prošek, Martin

    -, č. 28 (2014), s. 173-198 ISSN 0933-1883 Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : language situation * English as a global language * attitudes towards English * national language institution * sociolinguistics * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  9. The British Empire and the English Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thron, E. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Examines the recent call for English departments to recognize literature that falls outside the British and American tradition. Suggests that we recognize English as a world language and choose books to teach accordingly. (JC)

  10. Prepositions in American and British English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindt, Dieter; Weber, Christel

    1989-01-01

    Compares the distribution of prepositions in American and British English. Two machine-readable one million word Corpora, the Brown Corpus of American English and the Lob Corpus of British are used as a basis of comparison. (Author/OD)

  11. Communicating in English for Science and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe

    Communicating in English for Science and Technology covers some of the most important questions in connection with communication models, stylistics and genre conventions within the area of English used in science and technology texts. Moreover,knowledge management, terminology management...

  12. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  13. Expression of emotion in Eastern and Western music mirrors vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Daniel Liu; Sundararajan, Janani; Han, Shui'er; Purves, Dale

    2012-01-01

    In Western music, the major mode is typically used to convey excited, happy, bright or martial emotions, whereas the minor mode typically conveys subdued, sad or dark emotions. Recent studies indicate that the differences between these modes parallel differences between the prosodic and spectral characteristics of voiced speech sounds uttered in corresponding emotional states. Here we ask whether tonality and emotion are similarly linked in an Eastern musical tradition. The results show that the tonal relationships used to express positive/excited and negative/subdued emotions in classical South Indian music are much the same as those used in Western music. Moreover, tonal variations in the prosody of English and Tamil speech uttered in different emotional states are parallel to the tonal trends in music. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the association between musical tonality and emotion is based on universal vocal characteristics of different affective states.

  14. Expression of emotion in Eastern and Western music mirrors vocalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liu Bowling

    Full Text Available In Western music, the major mode is typically used to convey excited, happy, bright or martial emotions, whereas the minor mode typically conveys subdued, sad or dark emotions. Recent studies indicate that the differences between these modes parallel differences between the prosodic and spectral characteristics of voiced speech sounds uttered in corresponding emotional states. Here we ask whether tonality and emotion are similarly linked in an Eastern musical tradition. The results show that the tonal relationships used to express positive/excited and negative/subdued emotions in classical South Indian music are much the same as those used in Western music. Moreover, tonal variations in the prosody of English and Tamil speech uttered in different emotional states are parallel to the tonal trends in music. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the association between musical tonality and emotion is based on universal vocal characteristics of different affective states.

  15. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear reactor coolant channel is described that is suitable for sub-cooled reactors as in pressurised water reactors as well as for bulk boiling, as in boiling water reactors and steam generating nuclear reactors. The arrangement aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel elements and the coolant. Full constructional details are given. See also other similar patents by the author. (U.K.)

  16. Channel box compression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamizo, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuki.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention reduces the volume of spent fuel channel boxes of power plant facilities to eliminate secondary wastes, suppress generation of radiation sources and improve storage space efficiency. The device has a box-like shape. A support frame is disposed on the lateral side of the box for supporting spent channel boxes. A horizontal transferring unit and a vertical transferring compression unit driven by a driving mechanism are disposed in the support frame. Further, the compression unit may have a rotational compression roller so as to move freely in the transferring unit. In addition, the transferring unit and the driving mechanism may be disposed outside of pool water. With such a constitution, since spent channel boxes are compressed and bent by horizontal movement of the transferring unit and the vertical movement of the compression unit, no cut pieces or cut powders are generated. Further, if the transferring unit and the driving mechanism are disposed outside of the pool water, it is not necessary to make them waterproof, which facilitates the maintenance. (I.S.)

  17. Ion channeling revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corona, Aldo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nguyen, Anh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates accidental, or unintentional, ion channeling in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals or polycrystalline materials. This becomes an important issue when simulating the creation by energetic neutrons of point displacement damage and extended defects using beams of ions. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different powers of the argument. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles and minimum yield or dechanneling probabilities, effects on half-angles of amorphous overlayers, accidental channeling probabilities for randomly oriented crystals or crystallites, and finally a way to automatically generate stereographic projections of axial and planar channeling half-angles. The program can generate these projections and calculate these probabilities for axes and [hkl] planes up to (555).

  18. TRP channels in kidney disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Y.J.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian TRP channel proteins form six-transmembrane cation-permeable channels that may be grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of amino acid sequence homology (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPA, TRPP, and TRPML). Recent studies of TRP channels indicate that they are involved in numerous fundamental cell

  19. An Overview of English Extensive Reading Program

    OpenAIRE

    Fujikami , Ryuji; Nagasaka, Tatsuhiko Paul; Yoshino, Yasuko; Jones, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review the changes in attitude toward reading English shown by students as a result of participating in an extensive reading program. The top classes for each department studying Integrated English in the first semester of 2012 were given the challenge of reading extensively in English, using simple readers from leading publishers. Before and after the program, the non-English majors were asked to answer a questionnaire designed to reveal their attitudes toward reading Engli...

  20. Re-contextualising academic writing in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne

    six focal students’ challenges in re-contextualising themselves as writers in English in a new university environment, data were generated from regular interviews with the participants over one semester, supplemented by questionnaires, documentary evidence, and observational data. Analyses building......’ experiences as writers of English, manifested in three main areas of concern: ideational, linguistic, and interpersonal. These writing concerns were embedded in more global processes of establishing academic continuity and in managing English-mediated instruction and learning in the English...

  1. English for Science and Technology - Theoretical Part

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe

    The books covers the most basic, theoretical approaches to English for Science and Technology. The book is aimed at BA Students or as an introduction to English in the genres of science and technology writing.......The books covers the most basic, theoretical approaches to English for Science and Technology. The book is aimed at BA Students or as an introduction to English in the genres of science and technology writing....

  2. Contrastive Linguistic English Phonology Vs. Arabic Phonology

    OpenAIRE

    Mona M. Hamad

    2014-01-01

    Phonology is a wide area of study in any language specially English &Arabic Language, it needs books to cover every single part of these languages. This review paper aims at providing Arab learners and English learners with stem footnotes of these two languages in area of phonology, to ease their learning of English and Arabic languages as foreign or second language, this review paper provide learners with the main differences and rules of English and Arabic languages alphabets that the resea...

  3. Remapping Englishness--the Impact of Globalization on College English Instruction in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jade Tsui-yu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of globalization upon the college-level instruction of English/American literature in Taiwan. The examination will be centered upon the subject of Englishness as demonstrated in the courses of English/American Literature taught in Taiwan. By focusing on the term "Englishness," the paper…

  4. English Speech Acquisition in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children Learning Russian and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.; Wright, Kira L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: English speech acquisition in Russian-English (RE) bilingual children was investigated, exploring the effects of Russian phonetic and phonological properties on English single-word productions. Russian has more complex consonants and clusters and a smaller vowel inventory than English. Method: One hundred thirty-seven single-word samples…

  5. The Cambridge History of the English Language. Volume VI: English in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algeo, John, Ed.

    This book is one volume in a series that examines the history of English. It traces the history of English in North America during the past 400 years, from its British background to its present position among the varieties of English used worldwide. Influences that have formed American English include political, social, and cultural changes in…

  6. Characteristics of an Effective English Language Teacher as Perceived by Iranian Teachers and Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishavan, Homa Babai; Sadeghi, Karim

    2009-01-01

    This study attempted to characterize qualities of an effective English language teacher (EELT) as perceived by Iranian English language teachers and learners. For this purpose, a tailor-made questionnaire was administered to 59 English language teachers and 215 learners of English at universities, high schools and language institutes in Iran. The…

  7. Borrowing Legitimacy as English Learner (EL) Leaders: Indiana's 14-Year History with English Language Proficiency Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita-Mullaney, Trish

    2017-01-01

    English language proficiency or English language development (ELP/D) standards guide how content-specific instruction and assessment is practiced by teachers and how English learners (ELs) at varying levels of English proficiency can perform grade-level-specific academic standards in K-12 US schools. With the transition from the state-developed…

  8. A Comparison of English Language Acquisition Patterns in English Monolingual and Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad, Diana; And Others

    English monolingual and Spanish/English bilingual children in kindergarten and first grade in 11 states were administered two tests from the EL CIRCO (CIRCUS) battery. The purpose of the study was to determine comparative acquisition of English grammar for kindergarteners and first graders and for bilingual and English monolingual children. Data…

  9. Addressing the "Essences": Making English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Larissa McLean; Grant, Ashleigh; Hehir, Emily; Matthews, Hagan; May, Caitlin; Thiel, Philip; Sparrow, Catherine; Trevaskis, Glen; Barton, Katherine; Elliot, Amelia; Ogden, Trent

    2013-01-01

    Garth Boomer's democratic and often provocative vision for English teaching continues to play an important part in the professional development of English teachers. In particular, Boomer's work is often used by Teacher Educators in preservice degrees to introduce emerging English teachers to key ideas such as curriculum negotiation and…

  10. Diglossia and Register Variation in Singapore English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiming, Bao; Huaqing, Hong

    2006-01-01

    Colloquial Singapore English is an outer circle variety that exhibits contact induced linguistic change. It has been characterized as the L variant in diglossic opposition to standard English. In this paper, the authors address two related issues: (1) the extent to which the Singapore English diglossia is supported by corpus data, and (2) the…

  11. Pronunciation Problems of Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feifei

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, Chinese students are pursuing their studies abroad in English-speaking countries, such as the USA, the UK, Australia, and New Zealand. Despite the fact that they have studied English as a compulsory subject for a number of years and have passed multiple English proficiency tests, many still find it is difficult to communicate well in…

  12. Responses to Dutch-accented English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nejjari, W.; Gerritsen, M.; Haagen, M.J. van der; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study into the reactions of ‘native’ speakers of British English to Dutch-English pronunciations in the onset of a telephone sales talk. In an experiment 144 highly educated British professionals who were either familiar or not familiar with Dutch-accented English responded

  13. Computer Multimedia Assisted English Vocabulary Teaching Courseware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available English vocabulary is often regarded as the most boring link in English learning. However, English vocabulary is the basis of all aspects of English learning. Therefore, enriching the process of English vocabulary learning and stimulating the interest of English vocabulary learning are the keys to the reform of English vocabulary teaching. The computer multimedia is developing and popularizing rapidly with the rapid development of informationization and networking, which plays its role in more and more fields. The application of multimedia technology in the field of teaching is no longer strange. This paper mainly studied the design of computer multimedia assisted English vocabulary teaching courseware. First of all, this paper gave an overview of computer multimedia technology from the aspects of concept, characteristics, development and application situation, which cited and analyzed the cognitive learning theory and memory law. Under the guidance of scientific laws and in combination with the requirement analysis and pattern construction of English vocabulary teaching, this paper realized the module design, style design and database design of English vocabulary courseware. Finally, the content of English vocabulary teaching courseware was demonstrated, and its application effect was verified through the combination of subjective evaluation and objective evaluation. This article has an important guiding significance for stimulating students’ interest in English vocabulary learning and enhancing the quality of vocabulary teaching.

  14. English Code Switching in Indonesian Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Dedy

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing phenomenon, worldwide, of inserting English words, phrases or expressions, into the local language: this is part of the acceptance of English as current world language. Indonesia is experiencing the use of this mixture of language when using either their own Indonesian or local language; English words, phrases and expressions…

  15. 14 CFR 221.4 - English language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false English language. 221.4 Section 221.4... REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.4 English language. All tariffs and other documents and material filed with the Department pursuant to this part shall be in the English language. ...

  16. The Ownership of Aboriginal English in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    A widely-observed postcolonial phenomenon is the indigenization of English by communities into which it was formerly involuntarily introduced. When this takes place, the community which has appropriated English to serve its own purposes regards the language as their own. The question of the ownership of English has been extensively discussed by…

  17. Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Carol A.; Ross, Amparo

    The project titled "Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped" was established to research existing evaluation instruments in language other than English, validate the tests as well as additional translations where needed, and develop a procedural manual for distribution to utilize in evaluating non-English speaking handicapped students. The…

  18. Euphemism and political correctness in contemporary English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н Б Рубина

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented article is devoted to the consideration of such linguistic category as the political correctness which was widely adopted in the English-speaking countries and made considerable impact on modern English language. Linguistic political correctness is the most curious language theme to ignore which, means to miss the major aspect of modern English language.

  19. Teachers' Attitude towards English in Batu Anam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Mah Zhi; Lin, Lee Poh

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the attitude of 60 primary and secondary school teachers towards English in Batu Anam. A questionnaire was administered to find out whether they have a positive or a negative attitude towards the English language. Results indicate that teachers in Batu Anam generally have a positive attitude towards English. Comparison…

  20. English-Language Writing Instruction in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    Second language writing scholars have undertaken descriptions of English-language writing instruction in a variety of international settings, describing the role of various contextual factors in shaping English-language writing instruction. This article describes English-language writing instruction at various levels in Poland, noting how it is…

  1. On English Teaching in Maritime Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiang; Wang, Honggui

    2011-01-01

    According to English level of Chinese ocean sailors at present, we analyze the characteristics and instruction needs of navigation English and point out current English teaching in maritime specialty has many problems. Traditional teaching modes are not suitable for modern maritime needs any longer. So we propose feasible methods and…

  2. Asian Varieties of English: Attitudes towards Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Mina; Shibata, Miki

    2011-01-01

    According to previous studies, Japanese EFL learners who wish to acquire American or British English pronunciation are reluctant to speak their L1-accented English. In view of this tendency, the present study examined the attitudes of Asian learners toward their L1-accented English. University students from Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia…

  3. The Progressive in English and Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi

    1996-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the progressive constructions in English and Japanese, concluding that whereas an English sentence of this type refers to a dynamic state, this need not be the case in Japanese. The article argues that the progressive operators in both English (be-ing) and Japanese (-teiru) can be characterized as stativizer. (18 references)…

  4. English Pronunciation Lessons: A Teacher's Resource Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Catholic Migration Commission, Morong (Philippines).

    The manual for English pronunciation instruction is designed for use in intensive language courses for Southeast Asians learning English as a Second Language. An introductory section suggests classroom presentation and lesson planning techniques and gives background information on English phonology and pronunciation instruction. A variety of…

  5. The online informal learning of English

    CERN Document Server

    Sockett, G

    2014-01-01

    Young people around the world are increasingly able to access English language media online for leisure purposes and interact with other users of English. This book examines the extent of these phenomena, their effect on language acquisition and their implications for the teaching of English in the 21st century.

  6. Strategic English Writing for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2017-01-01

    Writing is one of the four abilities in English Learning. Many students need to write their theses and dissertations in English in order to achieve their academic degrees. English writing is in fact an access of international and intercultural communication with native-speakers and non-native speakers, in academic fields. After reading abundant…

  7. Reading Motivation: A Focus on English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protacio, Maria Selena

    2012-01-01

    Because of the numerous challenges that ELs face, such as having to concurrently learn the curriculum and the English language, it is critical to focus on motivation. However, little attention has been given to ELs' motivation to read in English. Based on an interview study, results indicate that ELs may be motivated to read in English to learn…

  8. Mathematics and English, Two Languages: Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Shosh; Markovits, Zvia

    2013-01-01

    English is an international language used all over the world. Mathematics is the language of sciences but it is also a language used in everyday life. Although both are perceived as languages, mathematics and English are considered as two completely distinct disciplines. In this paper we first discuss English and mathematics as languages. Then we…

  9. Aesthetic Learning, Creative Writing and English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Francis

    2016-01-01

    My article argues that the concept of "aesthetic learning" can be helpful for English teachers on two levels. First, it can be a useful identity for English teachers and students to adopt, based upon my own experiences as a secondary English teacher, creative writer and PhD student. Second, I argue that "aesthetic learning" is…

  10. The Linguistic Market for English in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2016-01-01

    A large body of work has investigated the presence of English and its teaching and learning in the developing world where English is used as a second/foreign language. While this work has provided plausible explanations for the global spread of English as well as its uptake by education policy-makers and communities, there has been limited…

  11. Being "Neutral"? English Pronunciation among Norwegian Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Ulrikke; Piercy, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the pronunciation of English among Norwegian adolescents by applying sociolinguistic methods in a second language context. Results from an auditory analysis of seven phonological variables show a blended use of linguistic features from American English and British English, with some additional pronunciations, forming a…

  12. English-Teaching Institutions in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tariq

    2001-01-01

    Discusses English medium teaching in Pakistan and suggests that at the moment it is an elitist preserve and a stumbling block for Pakistanis not taught through English. Indicates that exposing other students to English could counteract growing cultural and religious intolerance in Pakistan. (Author/VWL)

  13. Seismic Structure of the Eastern Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchters, W.; Grevemeyer, I.; Ranero, C. R.; Booth-Rea, G.; Gallart, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Alboran basin is located in the western-most Mediterranean Sea and is surrounded by the Gibraltar-Betic and Rif orogenic arc. The sediment infill indicates that the most important phase of formation started in the early-to-mid-Miocene. Currently two conflicting models have been proposed for their formation: One model proposes contractive tectonics producing strike-slip faults and folds with sedimentation occurring in synclinal basins and in regions of subsidiary extension in transtensional fault segments. A second model proposes a driving slab roll back that caused contraction at the front of the arc and coeval overriding plate bending and extension and associated arc magmatism. However, this phase has been partially masked by late Miocene to present contractive structures, caused by the convergence of Africa and Iberia. In September 2006 a 250 km long seismic refraction and wide-angle profile was acquired coincident with the existing multi-channel seismic (MCS) ESCI-Alb2 line using the German research vessel Meteor. The source was an array of two 32 litres BOLT airguns. Shots were recorded on 24 ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) and ocean-bottom hydrophone (OBH) stations. The profile runs roughly along the axis of the basin, circa 65 km off the coast of Morocco, north of the Alboran Ridge. It continues in an ENE direction to end north of Mostaghanem in Algeria. Using seismic tomography we mapped the crustal and upper mantle structure of the eastern Alboran Sea and the western most Algero-Balearic basin. The most eastern part of the profile indicates crust in the order of 5-5.5 km with a high gradient upper crust (Vp~3.5 to 6 km/s) and gentler lower crust gradient (Vp ~6 to 6.8 km/s), which we interpret as a velocity structure typical of oceanic crust. Towards the west, crust thickens to 11-13 km and crustal velocities tend to be lower than in the eastern domain. Mantle velocity is 7.6-7.7 km/s in the oceanic domain and <7.2-7.3 km/s under the eastern Alboran

  14. The Influence of Learning Style on English Learning Achievement Among Undergraduates in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Hoi, Cathy Ka Weng; Teo, Timothy

    2018-03-26

    Learning style is one of the main factors that determines how students learn English and has a significant influence on students' learning strategy selection, which further affects their learning outcomes (Ehrman and Oxford in Mod Lang J 74(3):311-327, 1990; Oxford in Language learning styles and strategies: an overview, 2003. http://web.ntpu.edu.tw/~language/workshop/read2.pdf ). This study examines the learning style preferences of Chinese university students and whether those preferences influence their English achievements. Four hundred undergraduates from one university in eastern mainland China participated in this study. Data from 329 valid questionnaires were analysed. The results revealed that the Chinese university students preferred the visual learning style the most, followed by the auditory and kinaesthetic styles. However, no learning style preference was found to influence the students' English proficiency. Cultural reasons are discussed to explain the findings, which contradict those of previous studies of learning style theories and practices. This study recommends that Chinese scholars consider issues of English teaching and learning in China and to adopt appropriate teaching methods to effectively improve English teaching.

  15. Intracellular ion channels and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eLeanza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of channels play a role in the maintenance of ion homeostasis in subcellular organelles including endoplasmatic reticulum, nucleus, lysosome, endosome and mitochondria. Here we give a brief overview of the contribution of various mitochondrial and other organellar channels to cancer cell proliferation or death. Much attention is focused on channels involved in intracellular calcium signaling and on ion fluxes in the ATP-producing organelle mitochondria. Mitochondrial K+ channels (Ca2+-dependent BKCa and IKCa, ATP-dependent KATP, Kv1.3, two-pore TWIK-related Acid-Sensitive K+ channel-3 (TASK-3, Ca2+ uniporter MCU, Mg2+-permeable Mrs2, anion channels (voltage-dependent chloride channel VDAC, intracellular chloride channel CLIC and the Permeability Transition Pore (MPTP contribute importantly to the regulation of function in this organelle. Since mitochondria play a central role in apoptosis, modulation of their ion channels by pharmacological means may lead to death of cancer cells. The nuclear potassium channel Kv10.1 and the nuclear chloride channel CLIC4 as well as the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER-located inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 receptor, the ER-located Ca2+ depletion sensor STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1, a component of the store-operated Ca2+ channel and the ER-resident TRPM8 are also mentioned. Furthermore, pharmacological tools affecting organellar channels and modulating cancer cell survival are discussed. The channels described in this review are summarized on Figure 1. Overall, the view is emerging that intracellular ion channels may represent a promising target for cancer treatment.

  16. Building Sustainability Quality of English Education Department by Creating English Area

    OpenAIRE

    Fauzia Fauzia

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays English is to be regarded as international languages in the world. In Indonesia as a part of South Asia, English has two functions as foreign and second language. In fact, English Language Education becomes more popular for all people in Indonesia. English area defines as a place which is able to support language learners to be more active in using English. This area is provided for learners to practice their English both of formal and informal. Creating English area as one of the wa...

  17. Planar channeling observed by radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsarte, Guy

    1970-06-01

    Radiographies of crystals by means of channeled particles exhibit channeling patterns. The origin of these patterns is studied, The role played by planar channeling is demonstrated. It is shown that these patterns are local amplifications of the process generating the images of a crystal on the radiography. It is deduced that planar channeling plays a determining role in the formation of these images. An orientation chamber using transmitted planar channels is described. The orientation of very small grains in a polycrystal can be very easily obtained, (author) [fr

  18. Dictionary of surfactants English/German and German/English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is supplement to the monograph ''Surfactants in Consumer Products'' edited by Professor Dr. J. Falbe. It comprises approximately 3.200 keywords of the chemistry, technology and applications of surfactants in English/German and German/English. In the monograph the physical-chemical principles of action of the surfactants, their production and their application in laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents and cleaning agents as well as in cosmetics and toiletries are discussed. The technological aspects of application and formulation along with those of production and manufacturing processes are illustrated. Ecological and toxicological questions are probed in depth. Finally, important economic data concerning this branch of industry as well as an attempt to provide a perspective with regard to the future of the surfactant market round out the picture.

  19. ENGLISH TEACHERS’ MASTERY OF THE ENGLISH ASPIRATION AND STRESS RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Isti'anah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This  paper  tries  to  observe  the  English  teachers’  awareness  and representation  of  the  English  aspiration  and  stress  rules.  The research purposes to find out whether or not the teachers are aware of the English aspiration and stress rules,  and to find out how the teachers represent the English aspiration and stress rules. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that the teachers’ awareness of the English aspiration and stress rules is very low. It is indicated with the percentage which equals to 44% and 48% for English aspiration and  stress  rules.  In  representing  the  English  aspiration  and  stress rules, the teachers face the problems in producing aspiration in the pronunciation,  placing  the  right  stress  and  pronouncing  three  and four  X  in  the  coda  position.  There  are  two  reasons  affecting  the teachers’  awareness  of  the  English  aspiration  and  stress  rules namely exposure and L1 influence. Artikel  ini  bertujuan  untuk  meneliti  kesadaran  dan  representasi aturan aspirasi dan tekanan oleh guru bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini bertujuan  untuk  menjelaskan  apakah  guru  bahasa  Inggris mempunyai  kesadaran  atas  aturan  aspirasi  dan  tekanan  dalam bahasa  Inggris,  dan    untuk  menunjukkan  bagaimana  guru  Bahasa Inggris  mewujudkan  aturan  aspirasi  dan  tekanan  dalam  pelafalan mereka.  Berdasarkan  analisis  yang  dilakukan,  dapat  disimpulkan bahwa  kesadaran  guru  Bahasa  Inggris  atas  aturan  aspirasi  dan tekanan  dalam  Bahasa  Inggris  masih  sangat  rendah.  Hal  tersebut ditunjukkan  oleh  rendahnya  prosentase  dalam  perwujudan  aturan aspirasi  dan  tekanan:  44%  dan  48%.  Dalam  mewujudkan  aturan aspirasi dan tekanan, guru Bahasa Inggris menemui masalah dalam menghasilkan  aspirasi  dalam  pelafalan,  meletakkan  tekanan  pada

  20. Particle tracking in the eastern Irish Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Judith; Amoudry, Karen; Phillips, Hazel; Brown, Jenny

    2017-04-01

    The unstructured grid finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) has been applied to the west coast of the UK, in order to examine the circulation and transport in the eastern Irish Sea. Tides, freshwater river discharge and meteorological forcing for the year 2008 were used to force the baroclinic hydrodynamic circulation. The hydrodynamics of the Irish Sea are largely governed by the semidiurnal tide, which has a tidal range reaching 10m at Liverpool is the eastern Irish Sea. Tidal currents reach 1 ms-1 over the majority of the area, which means that much of Irish Sea is vertically well-mixed throughout the year period, with a few areas affected by seasonal stratification, such as the cyclonic gyre in the deep channel off Ireland in the western Irish Sea which experiences thermal stratification in summer. In Liverpool Bay, horizontal density gradients, created through freshwater influence from estuaries along the coastline interact with the strong tidal current to produce a phenomenon known as strain-induced periodic stratification (SIPS). There are water quality concerns due to the tendency to eutrophication, as the area is often exposed to industrial pollution and excess nutrients from effluent waters and rivers. There is also concern about the fate of radioactive materials discharged from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant since 1952. In addition to the present discharges from the site, it has been estimated that it is likely that all of the americium and plutonium and around 10% of the caesium entering the Irish Sea were originally assimilated into deposits of silt and mud sediments; this material may be regarded as a considerable potential source of radionuclides. Determining suspended sediment pathways in this region is important in order to identify potential areas vulnerable to deposition of radioactive material, particularly as radionuclide uptake onto sediments takes place in the offshore 'mud patch' before returning to the coast to be deposited