WorldWideScience

Sample records for eastern desert egypt

  1. Eastern desert ware : traces of the inhabitants of the eastern desert in Egypt and Sudan during the 4th-6th centuries CE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnard, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Several sites in the desert between the Nile and the Red Sea, in Egypt and Sudan, as well as in the Nubian Nile Valley have produced the sherds of decorated hand-made cups and bowls, now identified as Eastern Desert Ware (EDW). Because of their small number and enigmatic origin these sherds have bee

  2. Compte rendu de: Maggie Morrow, Mike Morrow, Tony Judd, & Geoff Phillipson 2010. Desert RATS. Rock Art Topographical Survey in Egypt's Eastern Desert. Oxford: BAR International Series 2166, 254 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Quellec, Jean-Loïc

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Compte rendu de: Maggie Morrow, Mike Morrow, Tony Judd, & Geoff Phillipson 2010. Desert RATS. Rock Art Topographical Survey in Egypt's Eastern Desert. Oxford: BAR International Series 2166, 254 p.

  3. Natural radioactivity and Rare Earth elements in feldspar samples, Central Eastern desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walley El-Dine, Nadia, E-mail: nadia_walley5@hotmail.co [Department of physics, Faculty of girls for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo (Egypt); El-Shershaby, Amal [Department of physics, Faculty of girls for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo (Egypt); Afifi, Sofia [Nuclear Materials Authority (Egypt); Sroor, Amany; Samir, Eman [Department of physics, Faculty of girls for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-05-15

    The pegmatite bodies of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are widely distributed especially along the Marsa-Alam-Idfu road. The Abu Dob area covers about 150 km{sup 2} of the Arabian Nubian shield at the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of the pegmatite is zoned; the zonation starts with milky quartz at the core followed by alkali feldspar at the margins. The feldspars vary in color from rose to milky and in composition from K-feldspar to Na-feldspar, sometimes interactions of both types are encountered. Thirteen feldspar samples were collected from different locations in the Abu Dob area for measuring the natural radioactivity of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K using an HPGe detector. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. The average concentration in BqKg{sup -1} has been observed to be from 9.5 to 183675.7 BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, between 6.1 and 94,314.2 BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and from 0 to 7894.6 BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}), dose rate (D{sub R}) and external hazard (H{sub ex}) have also been determined. In the present work, the concentration of rare earth elements are measured for two feldspar samples using two techniques, Environmental Scanning Electron microscope XIL 30 ESEM, Philips, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The existence of rare earth elements in this area are very high and can be used in different important industries.

  4. Natural radioactivity and rare earth elements in feldspar samples, Central Eastern desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley El-Dine, Nadia; El-Shershaby, Amal; Afifi, Sofia; Sroor, Amany; Samir, Eman

    2011-05-01

    The pegmatite bodies of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are widely distributed especially along the Marsa-Alam-Idfu road. The Abu Dob area covers about 150km(2) of the Arabian Nubian shield at the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of the pegmatite is zoned; the zonation starts with milky quartz at the core followed by alkali feldspar at the margins. The feldspars vary in color from rose to milky and in composition from K-feldspar to Na-feldspar, sometimes interactions of both types are encountered. Thirteen feldspar samples were collected from different locations in the Abu Dob area for measuring the natural radioactivity of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K using an HPGe detector. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. The average concentration in BqKg(-1) has been observed to be from 9.5 to 183675.7BqKg(-1) for (238)U, between 6.1 and 94,314.2BqKg(-1) for (232)Th and from 0 to 7894.6BqKg(-1) for (40)K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), dose rate (D(R)) and external hazard (H(ex)) have also been determined. In the present work, the concentration of rare earth elements are measured for two feldspar samples using two techniques, Environmental Scanning Electron microscope XIL 30 ESEM, Philips, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The existence of rare earth elements in this area are very high and can be used in different important industries.

  5. Aeroradiometric and photogeologic characterizations Of the younger granites in the north eastern desert, Egypt and implications for mineral deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Maksoud, M. A. [محمد علي عبدالمقصود; Meguid, Ahmed A. Abdel; Abuzied, Hassan T.; Rakaiby, Magid L.; Bishta, Adel Z.

    1995-01-01

    Photogeologic studies of the younger granites in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt using both aerial photographs and satellite images revealed the separation of three successive phases of younger granites with different photogeological radiometrical and gcologiical characteristics. The first phase plutons (YG1) are charactlerizcd by brown colour, dark tone, fine surface texture, low relief with gentle slopes, elongated ridges, large size (3 km3), and high density -dendritic to parallcd-dra...

  6. Radioactive disequilibrium in the different rock types in Wadi Wizr, the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahiem, Nagdya M. E-mail: nasleh_1@hotmail.com

    2003-03-01

    Remote sensing and radiometric survey techniques in the area between Qusier and Mersa Alam show variation of content of natural radioactivity in Wadi Wizr area, Eastern Desert of Egypt Gamma-ray, and laser fluorimetry were applied to measure the natural radioactivity content in representative content in representative samples from Wadi Wizr. The concentration of {sup 226}Ra ranged from 36 to 661 Bq kg{sup -1}, while the radioactivity ratio between {sup 226}Ra/{sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Pb/{sup 214}Bi ranged from 0.7 to 1.4. The activity ratio {sup 238}U/{sup 226}Ra% was found to be in the range 6.4%-72.2%. A state of disequilibrium between the two radionuclides in the uranium series is clear. The trend of disequilibrium was obvious in all the investigated sites and correlating both radionuclides, {sup 238}U/{sup 226}Ra demonstrated the site variation influence. Samples were also analyzed by XRD to reveal their mineral composition.

  7. Late Neoproterozoic basement rocks of Meatiq area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Petrography and remote sensing characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Safaa M.; El kazzaz, Yahiya A.; Taha, Maysa M. N.; Mohammad, Abdullah T.

    2017-07-01

    Meatiq dome is one of the mysteries of the basement rocks in Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt. Its mode of formation, and tectonic evolution are still controversial and not fully understood. Satellite remote sensing is a powerful tool for geologic applications, especially in inaccessible regions of the Earth's surface. In this study, three proposed Landsat-8 band ratios (6/2, 6/7, (6/4*4/3)), (6/7, 6/4, 4/2), and (7/5, 7/6, 5/3) are successfully used for detailed geological mapping of the different lithological rock units exposed in Meatiq dome area in the CED. Landsat-8 Principal component (PC) images is also used for refinement the boundaries between the widely-exposed rock units in the study area. Fourteen spectral bands of Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data are successfully used to emphasize the distribution of some rock forming minerals (i.e. muscovite, quartz, ferrous oxides, ferrous silicates and hydroxyl-bearing minerals) in the lithological rock units of Meatiq dome area. ASTER muscovite index (B7/B6) and quartz index (B14/B12), ferrous iron index (B5/B3), ferrous silicates index (B5/B4), mafic index (B12/B13) and hydroxyl-bearing minerals index ((B7/B6)*(B4/B6)) discriminate muscovite bearing rocks, Granitoids, and other felsic rocks, amphibolite and other mafic rocks. The proposed image processing methods effectively discriminates between four granitic varieties existed in Meatiq area. They are namely; Abu Ziran, Ariki, Fawakhir and Atalla Plutons. This study reveals that the applied data of ASTER and Landsat-8 enhanced images produced a modified geological map with well emphasized rock units which are verified with field observations, and petrographic study.

  8. Paleoenvironmental signals and paleoclimatic condition of the Early Maastrichtian oil shales from Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy, Douaa; Wagreich, Michael; Zaki, Rafat; Mohamed, Ramadan S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Early Maastrichtian oil shales are hosted in the Duwi Formation of the Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. The examined member represents up to 20% of the total Duwi Formation. This interval is mainly composed of siliciclastic facies, phosphorites facies and carbonate facies. Oil shales microfacies is mainly composed of smectite, kaolinite, calcite, fluorapatite, quartz and pyrite. They are enriched in a number of major elements and trace metals in particular Ca, P, V, Ni, Cr, Sr, Zn, Mo, Nb, U and Y compared to the post-Archaean Australian shale (PAAS). Chondrite-normalized REEs patterns of oil shales for the studied area display light rare earth elements enrichment relatively to heavy rare earth elements with negative Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* anomalies. The most remarkable indicators for redox conditions are enrichments of V, Mo, Ni, Cr, U content and depletion of Mn content. Besides, V/V+Ni, V/Ni, U/Th, Ni/Co, authigentic uranium ratios with presence of framboidal shape of pyrite and its size are reflecting the deposition of these shales under marine anoxic to euxinic environmental conditions. Additionally, the ratio of Strontium (Sr) to Barium (Ba) Sr/Ba reflected highly saline water during deposition. Elemental ratios critical to paleoclimate and paleoweathering (Rb /Sr, Al2O3/TiO2), CIA values, binary diagram between (Al2O3+K2O+Na2O) and SiO2 and types of clay minerals dominated reflect warm to humid climate conditions prevailing during the accumulation of these organic-rich petroleum source rocks.

  9. Red Sea rift-related Quseir basalts, central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Petrogenesis and tectonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Esam S.; Ali, Shehata; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Mineral and whole-rock chemistry of Red Sea rift-related Tertiary basalts from south Quseir city, central Eastern Desert of Egypt is presented to investigate their petrogenesis and relationship to tectonic processes. The south Quseir basalts (SQB) are classified as high-Ti (TiO2 >2 wt.%) subalkaline transitional lava emplaced in an anorogenic tectonic setting. Their Mg# varies from 48 to 53 indicating the evolved nature of the SQB. Pearce element ratios suggest that the SQB magmas evolved via fractional crystallization of olivine + clinopyroxene ± plagioclase, but the absence of Eu anomalies argues against significant plagioclase fractionation. Clinopyroxene compositions provide evidence for polybaric fractionation of the parental mafic magmas. Estimated temperatures of crystallization are 1015 to 1207 °C for clinopyroxene and 1076 to 1155 °C for plagioclase. These values are interpreted to result from early stage crystallization of clinopyroxene followed by concurrent crystallization of clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The incompatible trace element signatures of the SQB (La/Ba = 0.08-0.10 and La/Nb = 0.89-1.04) are comparable to those of ocean island basalts (OIB) generated from an asthenospheric mantle source unaffected by subduction components. Modeling calculations indicate that the SQB primary magmas were derived from 4-5% partial melting of a garnet-bearing lherzolite mantle source. The NE Egyptian basaltic volcanism is spatially and temporally related to Red Sea rifting and to the local E-W striking faults, confirming a relationship to tectonic activity. Our results suggest that the extensional regime associated with Red Sea rifting controlled the generation of the Egyptian basalts, likely as a result of passive upwelling of asthenospheric mantle.

  10. Geochemistry of an island-arc plutonic suite: Wadi Dabr intrusive complex, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Ela, Fawzy F.

    1997-05-01

    The Wadi Dabr intrusive complex, west of Mersa-Alam, Eastern Desert, Egypt ranges in composition from gabbro to diorite, quartz diorite and tonalite. The gabbroic rocks include pyroxene-horn blend e gabbro, hornblende gabbro, quartz-hornblende gabbro, metagabbro and amphibolite. Mineral chemistry data for the gabbroic rocks indicate that the composition of clinopyroxenes ranges from diopside to augite and the corresponding magma is equivalent to a volcanic-arc basalt. Plagioclase cores range from An 75 to An 34 for the gabbroic varieties, except for the metagabbro which has An 11-18. The brown amphiboles are primary phases and classified as calcic amphiboles, which range from tschermakitic hornblende to magnesiohornblende. Green hornblende and actinolite are secondary phases. Hornblende barometry and hornblende-plagioclase themometry for the gabbroic rocks estimate crystallisation conditions of 2-5 kb and 885-716°C. The intrusive rocks cover an extensive silica range (47.86-72.54 wt%) and do not exhibit simple straight-line variation on Harker diagrams for many elements (e.g. TiO 2, Al 2O 3, FeO ∗, MgP, CaO, P 2O 5, Cr, Ni, V, Sr, Zr and Y). Most of these elements exhibit two geochemical trends suggesting two magma sources. The gabbroic rocks are relatively enriched in large ion lithophile elements (K, Rb, Sr and Ba) and depleted in high field strength elements (Nb, Zr, Ti and Y) which suggest subduction-related magma. Rare earth element (REE) data demonstrate that the gabbroic rocks have a slight enrichment of light REE [(La/Yb) N=2.67-3.91] and depletion of heavy REE ((Tb/Yb) N=1.42-1.47], which suggest the parent magma was of relatively primitive mantle source. The diorites and tonalites are clearly calc-alkaline and have negative anomalies of Nb, Zr, and Y which also suggest subduction-related magma. They are related to continental trondhjemites in terms of RbSr, KNaCa, and to volcanic-arc granites in terms of Rband NbY. The Wadi Dabr

  11. Diagenesis of the lower Eocene Thebes Formation, Gebel Rewagen area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Mohamad N.

    2004-03-01

    The diagenesis of lower Eocene shallow water carbonates with flint was studied in the Gebel Rewagen area, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The carbonates are mainly wackestones to packstones with benthic bioclasts embedded in a dark red luminescent micrite matrix. The studied succession displays a complex diagenetic history that involves syngenetic and late diagenetic processes. Silica, which exists either as persistent bands, nodules and/or silicified benthic bioclasts shows a distinctive pattern regarding its distribution, source, depositional environments and timing. Three lines of evidence support a syngenetic origin of the chert bands: (1) they alternate in a cyclic manner within the host carbonates and (2) they exhibit noticeable lateral persistence throughout the investigated area following the strata boundaries and (3) there is a lack of any carbonate dissolution in limestone adjacent to chert bands. The deposition of silica bands in association with shallow water carbonates is possibly related to eustatic sea-level changes, which were accompanied by episodic variations in silica and carbonate productivities. With a relative sea-level fall and the establishment of a lowstand period at the end of the early Eocene, a basinward shift of the groundwater zones is expected within the carbonate platform. During this period some late diagenetic processes took place, which involve: (1) the formation of siliceous and carbonate concretionary growths, (2) partial silicification of bioclasts, (3) neomorphic stabilization of the CaCO 3 bioclasts and (4) the formation of equant calcite cement. Siliceous and carbonate concretions are believed to have taken place within microenvironments created and controlled by sulphate-reducing bacteria and physico-chemical and kinetic factors near a marine-meteoric water mixing zone. This is inferred from the distribution of iron sulphides, the non-ferroan nature of all concretions and the depleted δ13C (-5.4‰ to -6.0‰ PDB) and δ18O (-5.8

  12. Biosorption of rare earth elements using biomass of Sargassum on El-Atshan Trachytic sill, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Shenouda Gad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of unicellular brown micro-algae has several advantages over conventional methods for removing rare earth elements (REEs from lithogenic materials. A comparative study is made to investigate the uptake and bioaccumulation of REEs from trachytic samples collected from El-Atshan mine area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The examined samples are characterized by their high REE content. Using Sargassum algae; it appears possible to reduce the abundance of the Light Rare Earths (LREEs; La, Ce, Nd, Pm, Sm and Eu that have a large atomic number. However, higher efficiency of the separation has been recorded for the heavy rare earths (HREEs which display a marked control of quantum failing (tetrad effect.

  13. Variations in radioactivity of phosphate rocks from differnet sites in Central Eastern Desert of Upper Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AMEl-Arabi; AMMYousef

    2002-01-01

    Natural radionuclides in the phosphate rock samples collected from Wadi Batur,Wadi Hegaza and Gabal Abu Had at Eastern Desert were determined using a high resolution γ-ray spectrometer.The experimental results concerning 226Ra,232Th and their daughters are presented.Analyses of the measured spectra show that 226Ra is distinguished with remarkable activities with average values ranging from 22.4 to 558Bq/kg,while 232Th activity concentration is in the range of 9.7 to 92.8Bq/kg.The results of the analyses were found to be in a good agreement with the data obtained by others.

  14. Variations in radioactivity of phosphate rocks from different sites in Central Eastern Desert of Upper Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Natural radionuclides in the phosphate rock samples collected from Wadi Batur, Wadi Hegaza and Gabal Abu Had at Eastern Desert were determinedusing a high resolution γ-ray spectrometer. The experimental results concerning 226Ra,232Th and their daughters are presented. Analyses of the measured spectra show that226Ra is distinguished with remarkable activities with average values ranging from 22.4to 558 Bq/kg, while 232Th activity concentration is in the range of 9.7 to 92.8 Bq/kg.The results of the analyses were found to be in a good agreement with the dataobtained by others.

  15. Holocene environmental changes in the Gebel Umm Hammad, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyersons, Jan; Vermeersch, Pierre M.; Beeckman, Hans; Van Peer, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Gebel Umm Hammad in the Red Sea Mountains east of Quseir, Egypt, today enjoys small but irregular amounts of winter rain, enabling the widening of joint controlled openings in the Thebes Limestone. Cavities are especially affected by flaking, while rock fragmentation is more active on the outside. The sedimentological and botanical study of fan deposits at the outlet of a karstic shaft in the Tree Shelter showed the local Holocene environmental evolution. Three periods of different degree of aridity can be considered: (i) Before 8120±45 BP (UtC-5389), bedload aggradation points to rare but occasionally heavy rains, lasting for several hours, attaining intensities of more than 76 mm/h and covering some 20 km 2. Wadi flash floods occasionally attained bankfull stage. (ii) Since 8120±45 BP (UtC-5389), such heavy rains have not occurred in the Egyptian Red Sea Mountains. Instead, a more moderate but maybe wetter precipitation regime was established. The karstic shafts were active, and there was water and life in the desert. Two humid pulses can be distinguished within this period. The first occurs at ±8000 BP, the second between 6630±45 (GrN-22560) and 6770±60 BP (GrN-22562). (iii) After the last wet culmination, there was a gradual shift to drier conditions. Shortly after ±5000 BP, modern climatic conditions are believed to have been attained. Today, the occasional rain storms are less heavy than before ±8000 BP. Bankfull stage river floods do not occur. Instead, secondary channels are eroded in the wadi beds. The general arid character during the whole period and the inherent local and temporal variations in precipitation patterns might explain apparent aberrations between the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Tree Shelter site and other remote study areas in Egypt and Sudan.

  16. Upper Cenomanian – Lower Turonian (Cretaceous calcareous algae from the Eastern Desert of Egypt: taxonomy and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan I. Bucur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An assemblage of calcareous algae (dasycladaleans and halimedaceans is described from the Upper Cenomanian to Lower Turonian of the Galala and Maghra el Hadida formations (Wadi Araba, northern Eastern Desert, Egypt. The following taxa have been identified: Dissocladella sp., Neomeris mokragorensis RADOIČIĆ & SCHLAGINTWEIT 2007, Salpingoporella milovanovici RADOIČIĆ 1978, Trinocladus divnae RADOIČIĆ 2006, Trinocladus cf. radoicicae ELLIOTT 1968, and Halimeda cf. elliotti CONARD & RIOULT, 1977. Most of the species are recorded from the first time from Egypt. Three of the identified algae (T. divnae, S. milovanovici and H. elliotti also occur in Cenomanian limestones of the Mirdita zone, Serbia, suggesting a trans-Tethyan distribution of these taxa during the early Late Cretaceous. The abundance and preservation of the algae suggest an autochthonous occurrence which can be used for the characterization of the depositional environment. The recorded calcareous as well as the sedimentologic and palaeontologic context of the Galala Formation support an open-lagoonal (non-restricted, warm-water setting. The Maghra el Hadida Formation was mainly deposited in a somewhat deeper, open shelf setting. Calcareous algae (Halimeda cf. elliotti CONARD & RIOULT are restricted to one level in the uppermost Lower Turonian which indicates a brief return to shallow-water deposition after a significant deepening with maximum flooding during the early Early Turonian.

  17. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Modern Recharge in the Eastern Desert and Sinai Peninsula of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, A.; Sultan, M.; Becker, D.; Soliman, F.; Yan, E.; Becker, R.; Chouinard, K.

    2011-12-01

    Aquifers in Egypt (e.g., Nubian Sandstone, shallow alluvial) were primarily recharged in previous wet climatic periods in the Quaternary. Previous studies have shown that both aquifers are receiving modern recharge under the current drier climatic conditions. The validity of these advocated models was tested using geophysical (conventional Electrical Resistivity, [ER]) and isotopic (O, H) data, and estimates for modern recharge were obtained using continuous rainfall-runoff modeling over the period 1998-2007. First-order estimates of the average annual modern recharge for the NSS aquifer (~13.0 x 10^6m^3/yr) and the shallow Alluvial aquifers in the Sinai Peninsula for the investigated watersheds (456 x 10^6m^3/yr) and the shallow Alluvial aquifers in the Eastern Desert (147 x 10^6m^3/yr) were computed using the SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) model and readily available global remote sensing data sets (e.g., TRMM). Projections of climate change over North Africa from three of the leading general circulation models (GCMs) (GISS, GFDL, and UKMO) indicate a potentially high degree of vulnerability in the future precipitation amounts in Egypt. For each of the major watersheds and the Nubian Sandstone outcrops, we ran the calibrated model over the investigation period (1998-2007) using the obtained average annual precipitation and additional values of 10, 50, 100, and 150 mm. The SWAT model outputs were then used to extract relationships describing variations in runoff, recharge, and evaporation in relation to average annual precipitation amounts. Using developed tools on a web-based GIS interface we described these relationships under various climatic trends. Using a 10% decrease in rainfall in Egypt results in decreasing the average annual recharge to the shallow Alluvial aquifers in the Sinai Peninsula (384 x 10^6m^3/yr) and in the Eastern Desert (111 x 10^6m^3/yr). The observed differences between the watersheds in the partitioning of precipitation and in their

  18. Geomorphologic and geologic overview for water resources development: Kharit basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaad, Sayed

    2017-10-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of geomorphologic, geologic and hydrogeologic assessment as an efficient approach for water resources development in the Kharit watershed. Kharit is one of largest watersheds in the Eastern Desert that lacks water for agricultural and drinking purposes, for the nomadic communities. This study aims to identify and evaluate the geomorphologic, geologic and hydrogeologic conditions in the Kharit watershed relative to water resource development using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results reveal that the watershed contains 15 sub-basins and morphometric analyses show high probability for flash floods. These hazards can be managed by constructing earth dikes and masonry dams to minimize damage from flash floods and allow recharge of water to shallow groundwater aquifers. The Quaternary deposits and the Nubian sandstone have moderate to high infiltration rates and are relatively well drained, facilitating surface runoff and deep percolation into the underlying units. The sediments cover 54% of the watershed area and have high potential for groundwater extraction.

  19. Variations in Vegetation Structure, Species Dominance and Plant Communities in South of the Eastern Desert-Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzy SALAMA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For two successive years, the floristic diversity and vegetation composition in the southern part of the Eastern Desert ofEgypt were investigated through four transects (3 crossing the Eastern Desert and one along the Red Sea. The data collected from 142 stands covering the study area included the species composition, functional groups, chorology and occurrences (Qvalues. A total of 94 plant species belonging to 33 different families were recorded, with Asteracea, Zygophyllaceae, Fabaceae,Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Brassicaceae as the largest families. Shrubs represented the largest functional group (39.4%, while perennial herbs represented the smallest ones (12.8%. Species occurrence (Q-value revealed that Zilla spinosa, Acacia tortilis subsp raddiana, Morettia philaeana, Caroxylon imbricatum, Zygophyllum coccineum and Citrullus colocynthis had wide ecological range of distribution (dominant species, Q-values 0.2. Saharo-Arabian chorotype was highly represented (72.6 % in the flora of this area, eventually as mono, bi or pluriregional. Classification of the data set yielded 7 vegetation groups included: (A Zilla spinosa-Morettia philaeana, (B1 Zilla spinosa-Citrullus colocynthis-Morettia philaeana, (B2 Zilla spinosa, (C1Zygophyllum album-Tamarix nilotica, (C2 Zygophyllum coccineum-Tamarix nilotica, (D1 Zilla spinosa-Zygophyllum coccineum and (D2 Zilla spinosa-Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana-Tamarix aphylla-Balanites aegyptiaca. Certain vegetation groups were assigned to one or more transects. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA revealed that electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorides, moisture content, sulphates, pH, organic matter and gravel were the soil variables that affect the species distribution in this study.

  20. A fore-arc setting of the Gerf ophiolite, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Evidence from mineral chemistry and geochemistry of ultramafites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Karim, Abdel-Aal M.; Ali, Shehata; Helmy, Hassan M.; El-Shafei, Shymaa A.

    2016-10-01

    The Gerf ophiolite is the largest mantle-derived complex in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). This ophiolitic complex extends for tens of kilometers in the south Eastern Desert (SED) of Egypt as part of the Allaqi-Heiani and Oneib-Sol Hamed suture zones. The ultramafic section of the Gerf ophiolite comprises serpentinites, serpentinized peridotites and minor pyroxenites. All rocks contain relics of original magmatic phases. The elevated Cr# (> 0.84) of Cr-spinels indicates that these rocks represent highly-depleted mantle residues after high degrees of melt extraction. Mineral and bulk-rock chemistry show that the Gerf ophiolite suite represents fragments of oceanic lithosphere that developed in fore-arc setting in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) environment. The pyroxenites have a LREE-enriched pattern relative to the serpentinites while the serpentinized peridotites display depleted patterns [average (La/Yb)n = 0.56)]. Modeling of LREE suggests that the LREE-enriched pyroxenites and serpentinites could have been produced via contamination of their mantle source by crustal material and/or subduction-related slab fluids during the mantle evolution in a SSZ setting or soon after ophiolite assemblage obduction onto the continental crust. In contrast, the LREE-depleted serpentinized peridotites could have been generated through MORB melt/mantle rock reaction.

  1. Mapping of Gold Mineralization Alteration Zones in Central Eastern Desert Egypt using Spectral Angular Mapper and Aeromagnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, E.; Fagin, T.; El Alfy, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Central Eastern Desert (CED), Egypt has long history of gold exploration and exploitation. In this study, we integrated Spectral Angular Mapper (SAM) technique and aeromagnetic data to map the gold mineralization associated within alteration zones in CED. The spectral reflectance curves of five main alteration minerals (Hematite, Illite, Kaolinite, Chlorite, and Quartz) were utilized as end members in the SAM supervised classification of ETM+ data. Each alteration mineral type was represented as a binary image that overlaid together to obtain single primary alteration map in CED. The possible pathways for the alteration migration was defined based on the subsurface and surface lineation features. For the subsurface lineation, Euler deconvolution filter was applied on the aeromagnetic data to locate the deep-seated faults. The surface lineation and shear zones were extracted from ETM+ data and used together with the subsurface lineation map to obtain a structural map. Layer intersection and fuzzy membership operation were applied for the entire datasets to identify the possible sites of alteration zones. Several GPS readings were taken from the field areas around the gold mine sites, and used as validation points for our primary results.

  2. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  3. Petrogenesis of cogenetic silica-oversaturated and -undersaturated syenites of Abu Khruq ring complex, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogahed, Moustafa M.

    2016-12-01

    The upper Cretaceous Abu Khruq ring complex (ARC) is located in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt displays concentric zonation of syenitic rocks from quartz-rich syenite at the margin, through alkali feldspar syenite to nepheline syenite in the centre. The syenitic rocks occur with nepheline monzogabbro, volcanic rocks (phonolite and trachyte) and the quartz- and nepheline-bearing pegmatites. Rocks of contrasting composition (mafic and salic) exhibit sophisticate geometric relationships. The nepheline monzogabbroic rocks have pillowy xenoliths forms within the salic (nepheline syenite and quartz alkali feldspar syenite) rocks, suggesting synchronous emplacement of the mafic and salic magmas. Clinopyroxene analysis of mafic and salic plutonic rocks of the ARC revealed that the overall pyroxene trend suggesting that fractionation involved a late, progressive increase in Na, in a reaction of the type Ca Mg Fe2+↔Na Fe3+. The chemistry of the analysed amphiboles are compositionally similar to those from typical differentiated peralkaline suites. Geochemically, the complex is enriched in the LILE, HFSE and REE. The concentrations of the compatible elements (V, Sr and Ba) generally decrease with increasing silica, consistent with fractional crystallization. A generalised increase in the Nb/Ta from the nepheline monzogabbro to nepheline syenite compositions is attributed to titanite fractionation. All the rock samples show relative increment of the LREE content than the HREE indicating weak to steep fractionated REE patterns (La/Yb) from 9.43 to 10.86, and thus retaining the geochemical characteristics of anorogenic suites. The magma sources of ARC are not derived from normal primitive mantle. The early stages of differentiation involved extensive olivine and pyroxene fractionation, the fractionation of amphibole, titanite, magnetite, apatite and feldspar may have been involved in the genesis of the salic differentiated compositions. The deviation towards silica

  4. Petrology of a Neoproterozoic Alaskan-type complex from the Eastern Desert of Egypt: Implications for mantle heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Mohamed Zaki; Arai, Shoji

    2016-10-01

    This paper details petrological and geochemical studies of an ultramafic-mafic intrusion in the Southern Eastern Desert of Egypt. The Dahanib complex shows a concentric zonation, from dunites at the core, through chromitites, clinopyroxene-rich dunites, wehrlites, harzburgites, gabbronorites and layered gabbros, to hornblende gabbros/diorites at the rim, similar to other Alaskan-type complexes. These lithologies typically feature cumulate textures and layering. Their pyroxenes (Mg#s, 0.54-0.94) evidence Fe, Mn and Na enrichment, but Al, Cr, Mg and Ti are depleted with differentiation. Their chromian spinels have a wide range of Cr# (0.31-0.61), along with high Ti and Fe, as a result of their origin through crystal accumulation and reaction with interstitial liquids. The clinopyroxenes (Cpxs) in peridotites and gabbroic rocks, which are high in REE concentration (2-100 times chondrite), are depleted in LREE relative to HREE and are similar to Cpx crystallized from asthenospheric melts. The mineral inclusions in spinel, the chemistry of Cpx in peridotites (rich in Al, Cr, Na, Ti and ΣREE = 13.7), and the melts in equilibrium with Cpx suggest that the Neoproterozoic lithosphere were partially refertilized by trace asthenospheric melts. The early magmas were possibly enriched by Mg, Cr, Ni, Ti, V and Sr, while the evolved types were rich in Fe, Mn, Na, Li, Zr, Co and REE via crystal accumulation and the interaction with interstitial liquids. The Neoproterozoic sub-arc mantle in Egypt is chemically heterogeneous and generally low in Nb, Ta, Zr and K, due to the low solubility of HFSE in slab-derived fluids and no other external addition of these elements. The large variations in lithology and chemistry, as well as the occurrence of scattered chromitite clots in the Dahanib peridotites, are related to a continuous supply of primitive magmas and/or the reaction between interstitial liquids and early cumulus crystals during multistage fractional crystallization. The

  5. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of rare-metal pegmatites at Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Abu Rushied area, situated in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt is a distinctive occurrence of economically important rare-metal mineralization where the host rocks are represented by granitic gneisses. Correspondingly, mineralogical and geochemical investigation of pegmatites pockets scattered within Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses revealed the presence of Hf-zircon, ferrocolumbite and uranyl silicate minerals (uranophane and kasolite. Electronmicroprobe analyses revealed the presence of Nb-Ta multioxide minerals (ishikawaite, uranopyrochlore, and fergusonite, uraninite, thorite and cassiterite as numerous inclusions in the recorded Hf-zircon and ferrocolumbite minerals.Abu Rusheid pegmatites are found as small and large bodies that occur as simple and complex (zoned pegmatites.Abu Rusheid rare-metal pegmatites occur as steeply dipping bodies of variable size, ranging from 1 to 5 m in width and 10 to 50 m in length. The zoned pegmatites are composed of wall zone of coarser granitic gneisses, intermediated zone of K-feldspar and pocket of mica (muscovite and biotite, and core of quartz and pocket ofmica with lenses of rare metals.The zircon is of bipyramidal to typical octahedral form and short prisms. Because the zircon of the investigated Abu Rushied pegmatite frequently contains hafnium in amounts ranging between 2.31 and 11.11%, the studied zircon was designated as Hf-rich zircon. This zircon commonly exhibits a normal zoning with rims consistentlyhigher in Hf than cores. The bright areas in the crystal either in core or rim showed a remarkable enrichment in hafnium content (8.83–11.11% with respect to the dark zones (3.19%. The investigated ferroclumbite commonly exhibits zoning; the dark zone is low in the Ta and U but the light zone is enriched in Ta (13% and U (1%. EMPAanalyses indicate the chemical composition of ishikawaite with U ranging from 0.68 to 0.79 per formula unit.Uranopyrochlore species has dominant uranium in the A

  6. An approach to locate and map swelling soils around Sohag – Safaga road, Eastern Desert, Egypt using remote sensing techniques for urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa F. Elbeih

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental consequences of swelling soils are most apparent in arid and semi-arid regions. Sedimentary clays are mixtures of illite, kaolinite and some montmorillonite. There are various soil types liable to swell such as shale, mudstone, siltstone and marl due to the presence of Smectite group in these soils. Large volume changes of these types of soils can cause extensive damages to civil engineering infrastructures; roads, airport pavements, pipelines and shallow foundations. A number of localities in Egypt are well-known by the presence of swelling soils. Sohag – Safaga highway in the Eastern Desert of Egypt is considered to be an investable transportation road and one of the most important lateral connections between Upper Egypt and the Red Sea area. The study area is located in a buffer zone of 25 km from both sides of the highway. This area is believed to be more influenced by the road and could be fully utilized to share in developing areas in the road vicinity. The research objectives are to use recent ASTER satellite imageries with the aid of field samples to map different swelling clay minerals and compare between the different sensors accuracy in locating them within the buffer zone. Certain engineering measures should be considered to enable construction over these types of swelling soils. The results confirmed the presence of montmorillonite in this buffer zone and in the 5 km buffer around the road which represents a hazard especially for the future planned projects within this area.

  7. Effect of kaolinite as a key factor controlling the petrophysical properties of the Nubia sandstone in central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Mohamed A.; Abu Hashish, Mohamed F.; Nabawy, Bassem S.; Elnaggar, Osama M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive petrographical and petrophysical investigation for the Late Cretaceous Nubia sandstone from Wadi Kareem in central Eastern Desert to measure their fluid flow properties and to investigate the effect of kaolinite on their petrophysical characteristics. From the petrographical analyses, scanning electron microscope 'SEM' and the X-ray diffraction 'XRD' analysis, it is shown that the studied sandstone samples are quite homogeneous in mineralogy and can be distinguished into four sedimentary microfacies: quartz arenite as a clean sandstone as well as three kaolinitic microfacies; namely they are kaolinitic quartz arenite, kaolinitic subarkose, and calcareous to kaolinitc quartz arenite. The main recognized diagenetic processes that prevailed during the post-depositional history of the Nubia sandstone are; compaction, cementation, alteration and dissolution of feldspar into kaolinite. The petrophysical potentiality of the studied sandstones was studied using the helium pycnometer, gas permeability and mercury injection confining pressure 'MICP' techniques. The investigated sandstones can be classified into three petrophysical facies with varying reservoir performances. The petrophysical behaviour of these facies is dependent mostly on their kaolinite content and its impact on porosity, permeability, irreducible water saturation, R35 (pore aperture corresponding to mercury saturation of 35% pore volume), R50 (median pore-throat radius), and MHR (the mean hydraulic radius). Therefore, the studied petrophysical facies are comparable to the distinguished petrographical facies.

  8. Integration of remote sensing and aeromagnetic data for mapping structural features and hydrothermal alteration zones in Wadi Allaqi area, South Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldosouky, Ahmed M.; Abdelkareem, Mohamed; Elkhateeb, Sayed O.

    2017-06-01

    Remote sensing and aeromagnetic data provided significant information for detecting potential areas of mineralization in Wadi Allaqi in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt. Application of band ratios and Crosta technique of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using Landsat-8 successfully highlighted the hydrothermal alteration zones and the structural elements represented by lithologic contacts and faults/fracture zones. Structural lineaments were also successfully extracted using remote sensing and aeromagnetic data. Center for Exploration Targeting (CET) Grid analysis and CET Porphyry Analysis techniques were applied for constructing the structural complexity heat map and probable near circular features of porphyry intrusions respectively. Combining data of lineaments, alteration zones and porphyry intrusions after obtaining a consequence of each map allowed predicting and mapping areas of probable high mineral resources. Overlaying the present sites of mineralization on the final map validated the prepared mineral predictive map. Overall results clearly revealed that areas of high structural complexity, fractures/faults density are in agreement with the detected areas of hydrothermal alterations which also matched with the known mineralization mines in the study area.

  9. Geological mapping and spectral based classification of basement rocks using remote sensing data analysis: The Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Safaa M.; Sadek, Mohamed F.

    2017-10-01

    The Pan-African Neoproterozoic Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex in the extreme South Eastern Desert of Egypt comprises dismembered ophiolite assemblages tectonically thrusted over pelite-psammopelite, quartzo-feldspathic gneiss and island-arc schistose metavolcanics. The whole sequence is intruded by syn-late to post tectonic mafic and felsic intrusions. The enhanced Landsat-8 band ratio (bands 6/2, 6/7 and 6/5 × 4/5) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Principal Component (PC2, PC6, and PC5) successfully discriminated most of the exposed lithological units and produced a detailed geological map. Granitoids, psammopelite-pelite, gneiss and serpentinite-talc carbonate rocks have been discriminated using ASTER kaolinite, clay, sericite-muscovite and calcite-carbonate indices respectively. Three spectral based classification algorithms have been compared using Landsat-8 and the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) datasets to obtain the best lithological classification for the exposed basement rock units. Results from the present study revealed that, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier algorithm provided the best lithological classification accuracy (97.72%) using the combination of 9 ASTER bands and 20 ASTER derivative images. The results of the present study concluded that, the integrated data of ASTER and Landsat-8 enhanced images are effective in the discrimination and classification of the basement rock units exposed at Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex and can be applied in similar areas in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  10. Petrology of the Motaghairat mafic-ultramafic complex, Eastern Desert, Egypt: A high-Mg post-collisional extension-related layered intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Halim, Ali H.; Helmy, Hassan M.; Abd El-Rahman, Yasser M.; Shibata, Tomoyuki; El Mahallawi, Mahmoud M.; Yoshikawa, Masako; Arai, Shoji

    2016-02-01

    The geodynamic settings of the Precambrian mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Eastern Desert of Egypt have important bearing on understanding the geotectonic evolution of the Arabian Nubian Shield. We present a detailed petrological study on a layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion that is located at the contact between the Precambrian continental crust and the Miocene Red Sea oceanic crust. The Motaghairat layered intrusion consists of basal lherzolite, orthopyroxenite, troctolite, olivine gabbro and anorthosite on the top. Variations in modal mineralogy and mineral chemistry along with the chemical composition of these units suggest their derivation from a common high-Mg tholeiitic parent melt through fractional crystallization processes. The parental magma was derived from a metasomatised mantle source. The primitive mantle-normalized patterns of the calculated melts exhibit enrichment in U relative to Th and Ba relative LREE which indicate that the enriched lithospheric mantle source was metasomatised by fluids derived from a subducted oceanic crust rather than by a sediment melt. Geological and petrological evidences suggest that the layered Motaghairat intrusion was emplaced during post-orogenic extension following subduction break-off and lithospheric delamination after the collision between the amalgamated island arc terranes and the Saharan Metacraton. The heat source required to melt the metasomatised lithospheric mantle was derived from the upwelling of hot asthenosphere after the subduction-break-off.

  11. Neoproterozoic diamictite in the Eastern Desert of Egypt and Northern Saudi Arabia: evidence of ~750 Ma glaciation in the Arabian-Nubian Shield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kamal A.; Stern, Robert J.; Manton, William I.; Johnson, Peter R.; Mukherjee, Sumit K.

    2010-06-01

    The Neoproterozoic Atud diamictite in Wadi Kareim and Wadi Mobarak in the Eastern Desert of Egypt and the Nuwaybah formation in NW Saudi Arabia consist of poorly sorted, polymictic breccia, with clasts up to 1 m of granitoid, quartz porphyry, quartzite, basalt, greywacke, marble, arkose, and microconglomerate in fine-grained matrix. Stratigraphic relations indicate that the diamictite was deposited in a marine environment. Integrated field investigation, petrographic study and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages demonstrate that the Atud and Nuwaybah are correlative. The distribution of zircon ages indicate that ~750 Ma ages are dominant with a significant component of older materials, characterized by minor Mesoproterozoic and more abundant Paleoproterozoic and Neoarchean ages. Some matrix and metasedimentary clast zircons yield ages that are a few 10s of Ma younger than the age of the youngest clast (754 ± 15 Ma), suggesting Atud/Nuwaybah diamictite deposition ~750 Ma or slightly later, broadly consistent with being deposited during the Sturtian glaciation (740-660 Ma). The Paleoproterozoic and Neoarchean clasts have no source within the ensimatic Arabian-Nubian Shield. The distribution of the pre-Neoproterozoic ages are similar to the distribution of the pre-Neoproterozoic ages in Yemen and Saharan Metacraton, suggesting that these clasts have been transported hundreds of kilometers, maybe by ice-rafting. The Atud diamictite may represent important evidence for Cryogenian “Snowball Earth” in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  12. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    . Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert impacts upon the children’s possible pathways to adulthood and their identities and social...... relationships. Not only do the children grow up in a different physical context, they are also exposed to new norms, values and behaviour that influences their everyday life and shape their identity. Especially the change from living in large, extended families to living in nuclear families as well as women......’s new roles impact upon the children’s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in ‘developed’ countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in ‘developed...

  13. Application of thorium-normalized airborne radiospectrometric survey data of Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, as a guide to the recognition of probable subsurface petroleum accumulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sadek, Mohamed A

    2002-07-01

    A new exploration method has been developed by Saunders et al. (Geophysics 58(10) (1993) 1417) using surface and aerial gamma-ray spectral measurements in prospecting for petroleum in stratigraphic and structural traps. Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, was selected to apply this method on its recorded aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, due to its distinct stratigraphic and structural setting as well as its situation in close connection with the Gulf of Suez, which represents one of the important sites of oil production in Egypt. The three variables (eU, eTh, and K) registered for the whole study area, in the form of three contour maps, were digitized along the flight paths every 1.0 km. The DRAD arithmetic means plus three standard deviations for the data set were computed. Any single profile value greater than this quantity should have a probability of 99.87% that it represents a valid anomaly and is not caused by random variations in the background values. The use of these criteria has identified one flight line which has a valid anomaly that is not caused by random variations in the background values. This might indicate a prospective possibility for petroleum accumulation in the Wadi Araba area. North-eastern Desert, Egypt.

  14. Magmatic and solid state structures of the Abu Ziran pluton: Deciphering transition from thrusting to extension in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Harald; Loizenbauer, Jürgen; Wallbrecher, Eckart

    2014-11-01

    The 606 Ma old Abu Ziran granite of the Eastern Desert of Egypt intruded the southern margin of the Meatiq dome in a sinistral shear extensional setting. Its emplacement was enabled by a system of NW-trending sinistral shears, related Riedel shears and N-S extensional shear zones and faults. Magmatic flow was east-directed and controlled by Riedel shears that progressively rotated to an orientation favourable for extension. Strain markers that document magmatic flow show eastward decreasing strain together with strain increase from pluton centre to margins. This is explained by Newtonian flow between non-parallel plates and differences in flow velocities across the pluton. Solid state fabrics including shear fabrics, orientation of late magmatic dykes and quartz tension gashes, together with quartz C-axes distributions, document southward extensional shear within the solidified pluton and adjacent host rocks. Extensional shear is correlated with exhumation of the Meatiq dome coeval and soon after pluton solidification (585 Ma). Pressure temperature evolutionary paths, derived from fluid inclusions, show a clockwise path with exhumation by isothermal decompression in the Meatiq dome. By contrast, the overlying volcanosedimentary nappes experienced an anti-clockwise path released by temperature rise due to pluton emplacement followed by isobaric cooling. Quartz fabrics indicate high-temperature coaxial N-S flow in the northern Meatiq dome and lower-temperature, non-coaxial southward flow within the overlaying superficial nappe. This is explained by the exhumation process itself that progressively localised into simple shear domains when rocks approached higher crustal levels. Late extension at ca. 580 Ma was pure shear dominated and resulted in reversal of shear, now dextral, in the western Meatiq shear zone.

  15. The Pan-African calc-alkaline granitoids and the associated mafic microgranular enclaves (MME around Wadi Abu Zawal area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt: geology, geochemistry and petrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asran Mohamed Asran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The area around Wadi Abu Zawal is occupied by gneisses-migmatites, island arcs metavolcanics, Dokhan volcanics, Hammamat sediments, intrusive rocks of granitic and gabbroic composition and dyke swarms.Materials and Methods: The present work concerning on the geology, geochemistry and petrogenesis of the MME and the host granitoid rocks of that area. The analytical methods for major and trace elements of some representative samples were carried out by XRF technique at the Institute of BGR in Hannover, Germany.Results: Mineralogically, MME are composed mainly of plagioclase, hornblende, biotite and quartz with accessory of sphene, acicular apatite and opaque oxides, while chlorite and epidote are secondary ones. Whereas Abu Zawal granitoid rocks are subsolvus and consist of variable contents of plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz, and biotite, with accessory sphene, zircon and opaque oxides, typical of I-type granites. The studied Abu Zawal area represents part of the northeastern Egypt which formed by regional crustal extension and magmatic-arc regimes during Pan-African orogenic event.The MME display major, trace element contents and tectonic setting comparable with the end members of (GDT and (IAG of the Eastern Desert which produced (by fractionation from a mantle-derived tholeiitic magma in an island-arc tectonic environment. Abu Zawal granitoid rocks exhibit trace element characteristics of volcanic-arc granites, and formed in an Andean-type setting.Conclusions: On the variation diagrams, major and trace element contents of the MME and granitoid rocks display conspicuous gap and two distinct trends one for the MME, (IAG and the other for the Abu Zawal granitoid rocks, which indicates that they are not genetically related and suggest the crustal source for the host granitoid rock.

  16. Radon level and radon effective dose rate determination using SSNTDs in Sannur cave, Eastern desert of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rafat M; Eissa, M F

    2008-08-01

    For the assessment of inhalation doses due to radon and its progeny to cavern workers and visitors, it is necessary to have information on the time integrated gas concentrations and equilibrium factors. Passive single cup dosimeters using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) is the best suited for this purpose in wadi Sannur cave, Beni Suef, Egypt. The average radon concentration measurements for the cave are 836 +/- 150 Bq m(-3) by CR-39 detectors and for equilibrium factor an overall average of all measured values was used 0.687. The effective dose for cave workers is 3.65 mSv/year while for visitors is 23 muSv/year. Comparing these values to the Ionizing Radiation Regulations (IRR) values which indicate that the estimated effective doses for workers and visitors in this cave are less than the average overall radon dose.

  17. Mid-Eocene alluvial-lacustrine succession at Gebel El-Goza El-Hamra (Shabrawet area, NE Eastern Desert, Egypt): Facies analysis, sequence stratigraphy and paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanas, H. A.; Sallam, E.; Zobaa, M. K.; Li, X.

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to provide the depositional facies, sequence stratigraphic and paleoclimatic characteristics of the Mid-Eocene (Bartonian) continental succession exposed at Gebel El-Goza El-Hamra (Shabrawet Area, NE Eastern Desert, Egypt). The studied succession consists of siliciclastic rocks followed upward by carbonate rocks. Detailed field observation and petrographic investigation indicate accumulation in floodplain-dominated alluvial and shallow lacustrine systems. The floodplain-dominated alluvial facies (45 m thick) is composed mainly of carbonate nodules-bearing, mottled mudrock with subordinate sandstone and conglomerate beds. The conglomerate and pebbly sandstone bodies interpreted as ephemeral braided channel deposits. The massive, laminated, planner cross-bedded, fine- to medium-grained sandstone bodies interlayered within mudstone reflect sheet flood deposits. The mudrocks associated with paleosols represent distal floodplain deposits. The shallow lacustrine facies (15 m thick) is made up of an alternation of marlstone, micritic limestone, dolostone and mudrock beds with charophytes and small gastropods. Both the alluvial and lacustrine facies show evidence of macro-and micro-pedogenic features. Pollen assemblages, stable δ18O and δ13C isotopes, and paleopedogenic features reflect prevalence of arid to semi-arid climatic conditions during the Bartonian. The sequence stratigraphic framework shows an overall fining-upward depositional sequence, consisting of Low- and High-accommodation Systems Tracts (LAST, HAST), and is bounded by two sequence boundaries (SB-1, SB-2). Conglomerate and pebbly sandstone deposits (braided channel and sheet flood deposits) of the lower part of the alluvial facies reflect a LAST. Mudrock and silty claystone facies (distal floodplain deposits) of the upper part of alluvial facies and its overlying lacustrine facies correspond to a HAST. The LAST, HAST and SB were formed during different accommodation-to-sediment supply (A

  18. Measurement of natural radioactivity in granites and its quartz-bearing gold at El-Fawakhir area (Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Uosif

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K in Granites and its quartz-bearing gold at El-Fawakhir area (Central Eastern Desert, Egypt were measured by using γ-ray spectroscopy [NaI (Tl 3″ × 3″]. X-Ray Fluorescence technique was used for chemical analyses of the studied samples. The specific activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K values are in range (3 ± 0.5 to 43 ± 2 Bqkg−1, (5 ± 0.7 to 41 ± 2 Bqkg−1 and (128 ± 6 to 682 ± 35 Bqkg−1 respectively. The absorbed dose rates ranged from 13.8 to 58.4 nGy h−1, where the total effective dose rates were determined to be between 16.7 and 70.9 μSvy−1. The maximum external hazard index (Hex is 0.3 nGyh−1. The calculated values of the excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCR and annual effective dose rate values are in between (8.48 × 10−5 and 2.63 × 10−4 and (24.2 and 72.9 μSvy−1 respectively. Geochemically, the studied granites consist of major oxides, they are characterized by SiO2, K2O, Na2O, Al2O3, and depleted in CaO, MgO, TiO2, and P2O5. The average absorbed dose rate (Do in air is 37.8 nGyh−1 for the whole studied samples, this value is about 3.78% of the 1.0 mSvy−1 recommended by (ICRP-60,1991 to the public, so there is no radiological risk for the workers in that area.

  19. P-T path and timing of crustal thickening during amalgamation of East and West Gondwana: A case study from the Hafafit Metamorphic Complex, Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Enen, Mahrous M.; Abu-Alam, Tamer S.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Ali, Kamal A.; Okrusch, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The southeastern sector of the Hafafit Metamorphic Complex, southern Eastern Desert of Egypt comprises infrastructural orthogneisses of tonalite and syenogranite parentage, amphibolites, and a volcano-sedimentary association. These are overthrust by an obducted suprastructural ophiolite nappes via the Nugrus thrust. The protolith of the biotite-hornblende-gneisses was formed during island-arc accretion, while that of the garnet-biotite gneisses were formed in a within-plate regime, consistent with a transition to a post-collisional setting. The volcano-sedimentary association comprises interbedded and intercalated highly foliated metapelitic schists, metabasites, and leucocratic gneisses, deposited in a back-arc basin. The metapelites and the leucocratic gneisses originated from immature Fe-shales and arkoses derived from intermediate-mafic and acidic igneous rocks, respectively, via weak chemical weathering in a tectonically active island arc terrane. The intercalated amphibolites were derived from tholeiitic basalts generated in a back-arc setting. The volcano-sedimentary association was metamorphosed under upper-amphibolite facies conditions with pressures of 9-13 kbar and temperatures of 570-675 °C, as derived from conventional geothermobarometry and pseudosection calculation. A steep, tight clockwise P-T path is constrained and a geothermal gradient around 20 °C/km is estimated for the peak metamorphism. We assume that deformation and metamorphism are due to crustal thickening during the collision of East and West Gondwana, where peak metamorphism took place in the middle to lower crust at 33 km average crustal depth. This was followed by a subsequent quasi-isothermal decompression due to rapid exhumation during wrench tectonics. Sinistral transcurrent shearing with extensional denudation resulted in vertical ductile thinning that was accompanied by heat input from magmatism, as indicated by a higher geothermal gradient during retrograde metamorphism and

  20. Subduction-related cryptic metasomatism in fore-arc to nascent fore-arc Neoproterozoic mantle peridotites beneath the Eastern Desert of Egypt: mineral chemical and geochemical evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Mohamed; Salam Abu El-Ela, Abdel; Hassan, Adel; Kill, Youngwoo; Gamal El Dien, Hamed

    2013-04-01

    Mantle spinel peridotites beneath the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) in the Eastern Desert (ED) of Egypt were formed in arc stage in different tectonic setting. Thus they might subject to exchange with the crustal material derived from recycling subducting oceanic lithosphere. This caused metasomatism enriching the rocks in incompatible elements and forming non-residual minerals. Herein, we present mineral chemical and geochemical data of four ophiolitic mantle slice serpentinized peridotites (W. Mubarak, G. El-Maiyit, W. Um El Saneyat and W. Atalla) widely distributed in the ED. These rocks are highly serpentinized, except some samples from W. Mubarak and Um El-Saneyat, which contain primary olivine (Fo# = 90-92 mol %) and orthopyroxene (En# = 86-92 mol %) relics. They have harzburgite composition. Based on the Cr# and Mg# of the unaltered spinel cores, all rocks formed in oceanic mantle wedge in the fore-arc setting, except those from W. Atalla formed in nascent fore-arc. This implies that the polarity of the subduction during the arc stage was from the west to the east. These rocks are restites formed after partial melting between 16.58 in W. Atalla to 24 % in G-El Maiyit. Melt extraction occurred under oxidizing conditions in peridotites from W. Mubarak and W. Atalla and under reducing conditions in peridotites from G. El-Maiyit and Um El-Saneyat. Cryptic metasomatism in the studied mantle slice peridotites is evident. This includes enrichment in incompatible elements in minerals and whole rocks if compared with the primitive mantle (PM) composition and the trend of the depletion in melt. In opx the Mg# doesn't correlate with TiO2, CaO, MnO, NiO and Cr2O3concentrations. In addition, in serpentinites from W. Mubarak and W. Atalla, the TiO2spinel is positively correlated with the TiO2 whole-rock, proposing enrichment by the infiltration of Ti-rich melts, while in G. El- Maiyit and Um El-Saneyat serpentinites they are negatively correlated pointing to the reaction

  1. Spectral properties of carbonatized ultramafic mantle xenoliths and their host olivine basalts, Jabal Al Maqtal basin, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, using ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Madani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spectral properties of the carbonatized ultramafic mantle xenoliths and their host olivine basalts exposed at Jabal Al Maqtal strike-slip basin, south Eastern Desert, Egypt using portable ASD FieldSpec is the main task of this article. Field data revealed the presence of ultramafic mantle xenoliths at different stratigraphic levels within Jurassic olivine basalts. Ultramafic mantle xenoliths are recorded within highly altered olivine basalt topped by hard, compact brown conglomerate (erosional surface of 1.5 m thick. They have different sizes (5–25 cm and shapes (rounded, sub-rounded and elliptical. The spectral data are collected using ASD FieldSpec in sunny, free-cloud day. Data measurements were resampled as reference-target scan. Nearly all the mineralogical constituents of the studied ultramafic mantle xenoliths were replaced by Mg-Free (<0.5 wt% calcium carbonate (calcite. Spectrally the ultramafic mantle xenoliths can be categorized into two main groups based on their Fe and Mn content which produce absorption features at shorter wavelength regions. The spectral profile of the first group shows a pronounced absorption features around 0.50 μm, 0.65 μm and 0.90 μm wavelength regions. These features are attributed to the electronic processes within the unfilled d-shells of transition Mn2+ and Fe2+ metal cations (MnO and Fe2O3 content are 2.11 wt% and 12.6 wt% respectively as indicated by XRF analyses. The spectral profile of the second group shows a very week absorption features in shorter wavelength regions which is attributed to the low MnO (0.7 wt% and Fe2O3 (2.17 wt% content. Both ultramafic mantle xenoliths groups show pronounced absorption features in longer wavelength regions (1.8–2.55 μm. Inspection of the spectral profiles of the mantle xenoliths revealed the presence of six absorption features around 1.80 μm, 1.95 μm, 2.00 μm, 2.35 μm, 2.4 μm. and 2.5 μm wavelength regions which are

  2. Variations in eruptive style and depositional processes of Neoproterozoic terrestrial volcano-sedimentary successions in the Hamid area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Ezz El Din Abdel Hakim

    2013-07-01

    Two contrasting Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary successions of ca. 600 m thickness were recognized in the Hamid area, Northeastern Desert, Egypt. A lower Hamid succession consists of alluvial sediments, coherent lava flows, pyroclastic fall and flow deposits. An upper Hamid succession includes deposits from pyroclastic density currents, sills, and dykes. Sedimentological studies at different scales in the Hamid area show a very complex interaction of fluvial, eruptive, and gravitational processes in time and space and thus provided meaningful insights into the evolution of the rift sedimentary environments and the identification of different stages of effusive activity, explosive activity, and relative quiescence, determining syn-eruptive and inter-eruptive rock units. The volcano-sedimentary deposits of the study area can be ascribed to 14 facies and 7 facies associations: (1) basin-border alluvial fan, (2) mixed sandy fluvial braid plain, (3) bed-load-dominated ephemeral lake, (4) lava flows and volcaniclastics, (5) pyroclastic fall deposits, (6) phreatomagmatic volcanic deposits, and (7) pyroclastic density current deposits. These systems are in part coeval and in part succeed each other, forming five phases of basin evolution: (i) an opening phase including alluvial fan and valley flooding together with a lacustrine period, (ii) a phase of effusive and explosive volcanism (pulsatory phase), (iii) a phase of predominant explosive and deposition from base surges (collapsing phase), and (iv) a phase of caldera eruption and ignimbrite-forming processes (climactic phase). The facies architectures record a change in volcanic activity from mainly phreatomagmatic eruptions, producing large volumes of lava flows and pyroclastics (pulsatory and collapsing phase), to highly explosive, pumice-rich plinian-type pyroclastic density current deposits (climactic phase). Hamid area is a small-volume volcano, however, its magma compositions, eruption styles, and inter

  3. Pan-African adakitic rocks of the north Arabian-Nubian Shield: petrological and geochemical constraints on the evolution of the Dokhan volcanics in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Mohamed A.; Azer, Mokhles K.

    2015-04-01

    The Precambrian basement of Egypt is part of the Red Sea Mountains and represents the north-western part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). Five volcanic sections are exposed in the Egyptian basement complex, namely El Kharaza, Monqul, Abu Had, Mellaha and Abu Marwa. They are located in the north Eastern Desert (ED) of Egypt and were selected for petrological and geochemical studies as they represent the Dokhan volcanics. The volcanics divide into two main pulses, and each pulse was frequently accompanied by deposition of immature molasse type sediments, which represent a thick sequence of the Hammamat group in the north ED. Compositionally, the rocks form a continuum from basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite (lower succession) to rhyodacite and rhyolite (upper succession), with no apparent compositional gaps. These high-K calc-alkaline rocks have strong affinities to subduction-related rocks with enriched LILEs (Rb, Ba, K, Th, Ce) relative to high field strength elements (Nb, Zr, P, Ti) and negative Nb anomalies relative to NMORB. The lower succession displays geochemical characteristics of adakitic rocks with SiO2 >53 wt%, Al2O3 >15 wt%, MgO >2.5 wt%, Mg# >49, Sr >650 ppm, Y 25 ppm, Cr >50 ppm and Sr/Y >42.4. They also have low Nb, Rb and Zr compared to the coexisting calc-alkaline rhyodacites and rhyolites. The highly fractionated rhyolitic rocks have strong negative Eu anomalies and possess the geochemical characteristics of A-type suites. Trace element geochemical signatures indicate a magma source consistent with post-collisional suites that retain destructive plate signatures associated with subduction zones. The adakitic rocks in the northern ANS are generated through partial melting of delaminated mafic lower crust interacting with overlying mantle-derived magma. The Dokhan volcanics were likely generated by a combination of processes, including partial melting, crystal fractionation and assimilation.

  4. Timing and characteristics of Late Pleistocene and Holocene wetter periods in the Eastern Desert and Sinai of Egypt, based on 14C dating and stable isotope analysis of spring tufa deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Mohamed A.; Brook, George A.

    2015-12-01

    There is very little dated evidence on wet periods in the Eastern Desert and Sinai Peninsula of Egypt during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. To obtain such information, we have studied the petrography, isotope geochemistry and AMS radiocarbon ages of mostly relict tufas deposited by springs draining perched ground water bodies in metamorphic and volcanic rocks. The tufas unconformably overly Precambrian basic igneous rocks (basalt, diabase and gabbro). As the ages of tufa carbonate are frequently older than the true ages of the deposits because of the incorporation of old, 14C-dead carbon, we have dated both the carbonate matrix and insoluble organic material of the tufas. These ages show that the tufas were largely formed during two broad time periods, the most recent from 12,058 to 6678 cal yr BP (African Humid Period), and the other from ˜31,200-22,500 cal yr BP, with preferential growth during the coldest times of this period namely during Heinrich Events 2 and 3 (H2 and H3) and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The time span between 19,000-9000 cal yr BP, including the YD and H1, appears to have been relatively more arid than the earlier LGM or H2 periods or the later Holocene. The Late Pleistocene tufas are depleted in 18O relative to the Holocene tufas and were deposited at a lower temperature (˜14.0°-20.8 °C vs. 18.4°-23.4 °C). We believe that the Holocene tufas in the Sinai were formed by rainfall from the Mediterranean and those in the southern part of the Eastern Desert by African monsoon rainfall derived from the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean. In contrast, the moisture that fed the Late Pleistocene tufas, which are depleted in 18O relative to Holocene deposits, and progressively depleted from north to south, was probably brought by the Westerlies from the Atlantic-Mediterranean Sea when the Westerly circulation was pushed southwards during the coldest periods of the Late Pleistocene. Periods of tufa deposition correlate with major

  5. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A case study from Wadi Natash volcanic field, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmed Madani

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims at revealing the spectral characteristics of the olivine basalts exposed at Wadi Natash area, Egypt, using FieldSpec spectroradiometer. It also evaluates band ratios and fusion techniques for mapping purposes using ASTER data. Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-Cretaceous are recorded in the study area. Early-Cretaceous olivine basalts are highly carbonated. Late-Cretaceous eruptions took place throughout several volcanic cones aligned in NW direction. Based on FieldSpec measurements and petrographic data, two groups of olivine basalt namely `A' and `B' are recognized. Fresh olivine basalt (group A) is characterized by low flat spectral profile with overall low reflectance values (~20%). Spectral profile of altered olivine basalt (group B) shows moderate reflectance values (~37%) with four little absorption features around the 1.10, 1.40, 2.00 and 2.35 μm wavelength regions. These absorption features are attributed mainly to the presence of chlorite and carbonate alteration products as indicated by petrographic examination. ASTER false colour composite band ratio image (3/2:R, 8/1:G and 8/5:B) discriminates easily the fresh and altered basalts by deep blue and red-dish blue colours respectively. Image fusion between previously mentioned FCC ratios image and high spatial resolution ASTER panchromatic image are carried out using brovey and HSV transformation methods. Visual and statistical assessment methods proved that HSV fusion image yields better image interpretability results compared to brovey image. It improves the spatial resolution of original FCC ratios image with acceptable spectral preservation. The present study proved the usefulness of Field-Spec spectral profiles and the processed ASTER data for discriminating different olivine basalt groups exposed at the study area.

  6. The economics of hybrid power systems for sustainable desert agriculture in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamel, S.M.; Dahl, C.

    2005-01-01

    Egypt has embarked on an ambitious desert land reclamation program in order to increase total food production. Energy planners for these desert agriculture locations have chosen diesel generation power technology because minimization of the initial capital cost of a power supply system is their top...... to investigate the economic potential of such systems in Egypt’s desert agriculture sector. Using optimization software, we assess the economics of hybrid power systems versus the present diesel generation technology in a remote agricultural development area. We also consider the emission reduction advantages...

  7. Application of fault seal analysis techniques in the Western Desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, S.M.; Wilkes, M. [BG Exploration and Production Ltd., Reading (United Kingdom); Vivian, N. [Ranger Oil (United Kingdom) Ltd., Guildford (United Kingdom); Cook, R.J. [BG R and T, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Hussein, H. [BG Egypt S.A., Cairo (Egypt)

    1998-12-31

    The Western Desert if one of Egypt`s major hydrocarbon provinces. Most discoveries to date have been in the Cretaceous, with the Jurassic being the most underexplored interval, with the highest potential for new discoveries. Although trap styles vary, the majority are structural fault blocks, requiring fault seal on one or more bounding faults. Despite the number of excellent reservoirs present in the Western Desert, large field sizes are rare, with less than 50 MMBOE STOIIP (million barrels oil equivalent, oil initially in place) being predominant. This apparent failure to regularly prove larger field sizes can be considered a direct function of trap failure resulting from absence of fault seal. A number of fault seal analysis techniques including fault-plane profiles, smear-gouge ratios, incremental strain analysis and structural sections are available to directly address trap integrity. Case histories from the Western Desert are used to demonstrate the use of these techniques, and to highlight potential pitfalls. (author)

  8. A new Oligocene site with terrestrial mammals and a selachian fauna from Minqar Tibaghbagh, the Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Jan Van Vliet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A new fossil site at Minqar Tibaghbagh, east of Siwa, in the Egyptian Western Desert is described. This represents the first place in Egypt outside the Fayum Depression yielding Paleogene, terrestrial mammals. Initial studies indicate the presence of palaeomastodonts, hyracoids, and anthracotheres, presumably early Oligocene in age. As only surface prospecting has been performed, more taxa will almost certainly be discovered in future investigations here and probably also elsewhere in the surroundings. A comparison is made with the most important contemporaneous sites in Libya and Egypt that yield terrestrial mammal remains. The selachian fauna from a higher level in the section confirms the Paleogene age of the subjacent strata. It is compared with selachians faunas from the early Oligocene Eastern Tethys Ocean at other places (the Fayum Depression in Egypt, and sites in Oman and Pakistan, and differs from these sites in being fully marine. Contrary to earlier studies, the open marine mudstones of the Daba’a Formation at Minqar Tibaghbagh are overlain by Paleogene marine sediments of most probably early Oligocene age and not early Miocene marine sediments as previously reported. These strata represent not only a new site with great potential for future finds, but also allows for biostratigraphic correlation.

  9. Palynology of Albian-Cenomanian strata in Mersa Matruh well, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Ismail Z.

    Plant microfossils have been recovered from the Albian and lower Cenomanian strata encountered in Mersa Matruh well No. 1, drilled in the northern part of the Western Desert of Egypt. The microflora includes 56 miospore species belonging to 35 genera; most of them are derived from pteridophyte, gymnosperm and angiosperm vegetations. Differences in miospore assemblages of the Albian and Lower Cenomanian are described. Correlation with coeval palynofloral assemblages in West Africa and South and North America reveals that the Mersa Matruh area, Egypt belongs to the mid-Cretaceous African-South American phytogeoprovince.

  10. Geological heritage of the Bahariya and Farafra oases, the central Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyusnina, Ekaterina E.; Sallam, Emad S.; Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological and cultural heritage of Egypt is world-known, but its geological heritage is yet to be revealed. Investigations in the central Western Desert of Egypt permitted finding a lot of unique features that can be assigned to this heritage. In the Bahariya Oasis, 10 geological heritage types are established, namely stratigraphical, paleontological, sedimentary, igneous, mineralogical, economical, paleogeographical, geomorphological, hydrological and hydrogeological, and pedological types. In the Farafra Oasis and vicinities, only geomorphological and hydrological and hydrogeological types are found. On the area between these oases, sedimentary, mineralogical, paleogeographical, and geomorphological features are established. Chalk and nummulitic limestones, invertebrate and dinosaur localities, paleoreefs and paleokarst, iron ore deposit, and peculiar landforms occur on the study territory. Taken together, these features constitute a highly diverse geological heritage that can be judged global (even if the rank of individual objects is often relatively low). This heritage is well suitable for the purpose of geotourism; for instance, thematic excursions explaining the geological evolution during the last 100 Ma are possible. Participants of such excursions can also see different facies. A geopark in the central Western Desert of Egypt would facilitate geoconservation and geotourism activities.

  11. Application of LANDSAT satellite imagery for iron ore prospecting in the Western Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Abdelhady, M. A.; Elghawaby, M. A.; Khawasik, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Prospecting for iron ore occurrences was conducted by the Remote Sensing Center in Bahariya Oasis-El Faiyum area covering some 100,000 km squared in the Western Desert of Egypt. LANDSAT-1 satellite images were utilized as the main tool in the regional prospecting of the iron ores. The delineation of the geological units and geological structure through the interpretation of the images corroborated by field observations and structural analysis led to the discovery of new iron ore occurrences in the area of investigation.

  12. Assessment of radioactivity levels in some oil samples from the western desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Distributions of natural gamma-emitting radionuclides were determined in 93 oil samples collected from some petroleum fields in the western desert of Egypt. The radioisotope activities in the area under investigation lay in tivities could be on account of differences in TDS, HCO3, and Ba, with high or low pH. In this environment, oil properties differently affected the mobilization of natural radionuclides. The range of 226Ra variation had been compared cation (B) and (E) respectively, which was less than the accepted value.

  13. Morphologic characteristics and migration rate assessment of barchan dunes in the Southeastern Western Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, M. A.; Refaat, A. A.; Abdel Wahed, M.

    2016-03-01

    This work explores the morphologic characteristics of aeolian dune sand in the southeastern part of Western Desert of Egypt. It aims to assess the movement of barchan dunes and evaluate their environmental influence on the Toshka Project. Morphometric investigation of barchan dunes in the Toshka area revealed that most barchans have high length/width (a/c) ratios (fat to pudgy), while one-fifth of the studied barchans have lower a/c ratios and so appear normal in their morphologic forms. Statistical analysis of the main parameters of barchan dunes in Toshka and other desert regions in the Kharga (Egypt), Kuwait, Southern Morocco, California and Southern Peru demonstrates that barchans of the Toshka area are distinctive in their appearance. They are characterized by distinct aspect with higher values of length and width and greater growth in height. The high-energy wind environment in addition to the large amount of drifting sand are principal factors responsible for the unique shape of Toshka barchans. The migration rate of barchan dunes in four chosen test locations, within the central and western Toshka area, ranges from about 3 to 10.82 m/year. The calculated average migration rate of these dunes is about 6 m/year in a SSW direction. Sand encroachment is more extensive in the central and western parts of the investigated Toshka area. Risk evaluation of sand dune movements in the southeastern part of the Western Desert points to medium to high sand encroachment risk values. These may represent serious hazards to the newly-established Toshka Project, threatening roads, as well as cultivated lands in the area.

  14. Microfacies analysis of foraminifera rich sedimentary rocks from the Desert Plateau, central Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnitschar, C.; Briguglio, A.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    Microfacies analysis on some samples from the Thebes Group have been carried on by means of thin sections. The study area is included in the Libyan Desert Plateau (central Egypt) at following coordinates N27° 36'30.58" E29° 44'58.34", near the biggest dune of Egypt, the Ghard Abu Muharik. Because of the round shape of the rocks and the desert patina on the surface they could easily be classified as the so called "Melonstones", which are located more southwards and mainly composed by stromatolites. On the contrary, the investigated samples show a completely different fauna and therefore have been separated from the "Melonstones". Even if shape and size are very similar and the desert patina covers all surfaces the same way the differences are impressive. To investigate the samples, two thin-sections have been prepared and analyzed at the microscope. The observed fauna is composed by: agglutinated benthic foraminifera (e.g., Dictyoconus egypticus), complex larger miliolids (e.g., Pseudolacazina cf. danatae, Fabularia sp.), alveolinids (Alveolina vredenburgi), green algae (Dasycladaceae), echinoids and corals. Because of the presence of symbionts bearing larger benthic foraminifera, which need light to feed photosymbionts, the rock was formed in a shallow water environment. With the abundant rock-building benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae the limestone shows a tendency to the packstone/wackestone facies. Based on the presence of Alveolina vredenburgi, the age of the samples can be estimate as lowermost Eocene belonging to the shallow benthic zone 5 (sensu Serra-Kiel et al., 1998). According the obtained data on stratigraphy and palaeoecology, a partial palaeoenvironmental reconstruction is possible for the Libyan Desert Plateau where outcrops are largely missing. Because of the round shape of the samples and the patina which covers them all around it can be assumed that they have been transported from longer distance. According to the geological map of the

  15. A socio-ecological investigation of options to manage groundwater degradation in the Western Desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Caroline; Salem, Boshra

    2012-07-01

    Under increasing water scarcity, collective groundwater management is a global concern. This article presents an interdisciplinary analysis of this challenge drawing on a survey including 50 large and small farms and gardens in a village in an agricultural land reclamation area on the edge of the Western Desert of Egypt. Findings revealed that smallholders rely on a practice of shallow groundwater use, through which drainage water from adjacent irrigation areas is effectively recycled within the surface aquifer. Expanding agroindustrial activities in the surrounding area are socio-economically important, but by mining non-renewable water in the surrounding area, they set in motion a degradation process with social and ecological consequences for all users in the multi-layered aquifer system. Based on the findings of our investigation, we identify opportunities for local authorities to more systematically connect available environmental information sources and common pool resource management precedents, to counterbalance the degradation threat.

  16. Inverted topography in the southeastern part of the Western Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Abdallah S.; Giegengack, Robert

    2016-09-01

    We present here a series of surficial geologic maps of 22,000 km2 of the southeastern part of the Western Desert of Egypt showing 3084 bodies of wadi-floor sediment that have been inverted by erosion to form sinuous ridges capped by alluvial gravel, here described as "inverted wadis". These features represent fragments of one or more ancient drainage systems that developed at times when rainfall, and hence overland flow, was greater than it is today in this hyperarid region. While some of the inverted wadis were tributaries to a through-flowing river that followed the course of the modern Nile, others converge on what appear to have been internal closed basins west of the Nile. Several components of this ancient drainage system have yielded artifacts assigned to an Acheulian lithic tradition, but there is not yet enough stratigraphic information available to enable us to relate this ancient drainage system to any of the proposed scenarios of Nile evolution.

  17. Extant cheilostomatous bryozoans of the Middle Miocene from the north Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziko, Abdelmohsen; Eweda, Shehta; El-Khawaga, Samar

    2016-12-01

    Twenty-nine extant Bryozoan species, belonging to the order Cheilostomata are described. They are from the Middle Miocene Marmarica Formation of the northern Western Desert in Egypt. The described bryozoans are collected from Matruh and Siwa areas. Fourteen species belong to the suborder Anasca, and the other fifteen species belong to the suborder Ascophora. The identified bryozoan species exhibit many zoarial growth forms. The encrusting forms are membraniporiform and celleporiform, while the erect forms are adeoniforms, eschariforms, vinculariiforms, reteporiform, and cellariiforms. They extend in the geologic record from the Eocene to the Recent, distributed mainly in the Tethyan realm, and recorded also from North America. The extant species are mainly of Mediterranean affinity, some are of wider distribution in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and are rarely cosmopolitan.

  18. Structural evolution of the Abu Gharadig field area, Northern Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gazzar, A. M.; Moustafa, A. R.; Bentham, P.

    2016-12-01

    Discovered in 1969, the Abu Gharadig (AG) Field was the first large hydrocarbon discovery in the Abu Gharadig Basin of the Western Desert of Egypt. Oil production began in 1973, with gas brought into production in 1975. The field produces mainly from upper Cretaceous clastic reservoirs. The AG Basin is an E-W trending intracratonic rift basin, about 330 km long and 50-75 km wide. It was initially formed as a large half graben basin during the Jurassic time in response to Tethyan rifting and continued to subside throughout the Cretaceous time. The half graben was subsequently inverted during the Late Cretaceous as part of the Syrian Arc deformation which affected northern Egypt. The Mid-Basin Arch, the AG Anticline, and the Mubarak High are three NE-SW oriented main inversion anticlines located within the AG Basin and are controlled by inversion of pre-existing Jurassic rift faults. The AG Anticline has an overall NE-SW orientation with a gentle plunge towards the NE and SW. It is locally bounded by two NE-SW-trending inverted faults on the southwest and northeast, accounting for the asymmetry of the anticline. Reverse offset of Cretaceous horizons is obvious at these inverted faults. Fault propagation folding is developed above the tips of the inverted faults at the Late Cretaceous Abu Roash and Khoman Formations. Based on thickness changes and stratigraphic relationships, inversion started during the Santonian time and continued into the Campanian-Maastrichtian. Inversion continued during deposition of the Paleocene-Middle Eocene Apollonia Formation and the Late Eocene-Oligocene Dabaa Formation.

  19. The chromite deposits associated with ophiolite complexes, Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Petrological and geochemical characteristics and mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gehad M.Saleh

    2006-01-01

    The podiform chromitites occur in a well-preserved mantle sequence consisting of lherzolite-harzburgite with abundant lenses of olivine dunite. The podiform chromitite deposits are common as small and irregularly shaped masses in the Southeastern Desert (SED) of Egypt. The podiform chromitites exhibit a wide range of compositions from high Cr to high Al varieties. The Cr of chrome spinel ranges from 0.67 to 0.88 in olivine-dunite, quite similar to that of the high-Cr chromitite, whereas it is around 0.62 in lherzolite-harzburgite. Primary hydrous mineral inclusions, amphibole and phlogopite, in chrome spinel have been reported for the first time from the Pan-African Proterozoic podiform chromitites. On the other hand, petrographic and geochemical evidence suggests that podiform chromitites in the SED of Egypt were formed as a result of crystallization of mafic melts, probably of boninitic composition, the boninitic parental magmas were probably produced by a second stage of melting above a subduction zone. Three types of chromite ores can be distinguished within the SED of Egypt: (a) sulphide-poor podiform ores; (b) brecciated ores; and (c) sulphide-rich ores. Two textural types of inclusions in chromite are distinguished: (1) primary silicate inclusions generally have high Mg-number (>96), Cr and Ni, and are dominated by pargasitic amphibole, forsterite, diopside, enstatite and Na-phlogopite. A diversity of primary and secondary platinum group minerals (PGM) is described from the chromitites, including alloys, sulphides, sulpharsenides and arsenides of Ru, Os, Ir, Rh, Ni, Cu, Fe and Co; (2) in addition to primary PGM and hydrous silicates, the fluids are of low to moderate salinity, sodium-dominated aqueous solutions with complex gas contents. Variable amounts of water, hydrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxides and nitrogen have been determined in inclusion-rich samples. The chondrite-normalized PGE patterns of lherzolite-harzburgite and olivine-dunite have

  20. Paleomagnetism of Abu Aggag and Sabaya Formations at Kalabsha, South Western Desert of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Reem; Khashaba, Ahmed; El-Hemaly, Ibrahim; Takla, Emad; Abdel Aal, Mohamed; Odah, Hatem

    2015-04-01

    Two profiles have been sampled from the Nubia Sandstone at Aswan, south Western Desert: The 1st profile has been taken from Abu Aggag Formation and the 2nd one was from Sabaya Formation (23.25 oN, 32.75 oE). 136 oriented cores (from 9 sites) have been sampled. Abu Aggag Formation is of Late Cretaceous (Turonian) and Sabaya Formation is of Early Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian). The studied rocks are subjected to rock magnetic measurements as well as demagnetization treatment. It has been found that hematite is the main magnetic mineral in both formations. Four profile sections (normal polarity) from Abu Aggag Formation, yielded a magnetic component with D = 352.7°, I = 36.6° with 95 = 5.2° and the corresponding pole lies at lat. = 82.8 °N and long. = 283.1 °E. Five profile sections (normal polarity) from Sabaya Formation, yielded a magnetic component with D = 348.6°, I = 33.3° with 95 = 5.8° and the corresponding pole lies at lat. = 78.3 °N and long. = 280.4 °E. The obtained paleopole for the two formations lies at lat. = 80.5 °N and long. = 281.7 °E. The obtaind components are considered primary and the corresponding paleopole reflects the age of Nubia Sandstone when compared with the previously obtained Cretaceous poles for Egypt.

  1. 1st paleomagnetic investigation of Nubia Sandstone at Kalabsha, south Western Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, R.; Khashaba, A.; El-Hemaly, I. A.; Takla, E. M.; Abdel Aal, E.; Odah, H.

    2016-06-01

    Two profiles have been sampled from the Nubia Sandstone at Aswan, south Western Desert: the 1st profile has been taken from Abu Aggag Formation and the 2nd one was from Sabaya Formation (23.25 °N, 32.75 °E). 136 oriented cores (from 9 sites) have been sampled. Abu Aggag Formation is of Late Cretaceous (Turonian) and Sabaya Formation is of early Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian). The studied rocks are subjected to rock magnetic measurements as well as demagnetization treatment. It has been found that hematite is the main magnetic mineral in both formations. Four profile sections from Abu Aggag Formation, yielded a magnetic component with D = 352.7°, I = 36.6° with α95 = 5.2° and the corresponding pole lies at Lat. = 82.8 °N and Long. = 283.1 °E. Five profile sections from Sabaya Formation, yielded a magnetic component with D = 348.6°, I = 33.3° with α95 = 5.8° and the corresponding pole lies at Lat. = 78.3 °N and Long. = 280.4 °E. The obtained paleopole for the two formations lies at Lat. = 80.5 °N and Long. = 281.7 °E. The obtaind magnetic components are considered primary and the corresponding paleopole reflects the age of Nubia Sandstone when compared with the previously obtained Cretaceous poles for Egypt.

  2. The economic potential of El-Gedida glauconite deposits, El-Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Habaak, Galal; Askalany, Mohamed; Faraghaly, Mohamed; Abdel-Hakeem, Mahmoud

    2016-08-01

    The mining work at El-Gedida iron mine, El-Bahariya Oasis, in the Western Desert of Egypt extracts commercial iron ore deposits without attention paid to the large glauconite deposits overlying these iron ore deposits. For this reason, the present paper aims at evaluating and attracting the attention to these glauconite deposits as alternative potassium fertilizers. The study was achieved by investigating mineralogical, physical and chemical properties of the green deposits. Mineralogical and physical properties involved the determination of glauconite pellets content in different grain size fractions relative to impurities and the analysis of the percentage of clay matrix and grain size distribution. Different pre-treatment strategies and methods including comminution, sieving, magnetic separation, and X-ray diffraction were used for investigating those mineralogical and physical properties. On the other hand, chemical analyses included potassium content, heavy metal concentrations, and pH and salinity measurements. The major elements and trace elements were measured using ICP-OES and the pH was measured using a pH conductometer. Moreover, this study investigated the nature of grain boundaries and the effect of sieving on glauconite beneficiation. Results of this study suggest that El-Gedida glauconite deposits are mineralogically, physically and chemically suitable for exploitation and can be beneficiated for use as an alternative potassium fertilizer.

  3. The role of salt weathering in the origin of the Qattara Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, M. A. M.; El-Khoriby, E.; Hamdan, M. A.

    2002-06-01

    Field studies and petrographic examinations of core samples and of the bedrock of the floor of the Qattara Depression, Egypt, indicate that salt weathering predominates in its western part in marked contrast to its eastern part. The eastern part of the depression is covered with more than 120-cm-thick, moist sands with sporadic occurrence of halite and gypsum due to the low salinity of the groundwater table. At the western part of the depression, the strongly saline, sodium chloride nature of the groundwater table favors crystallization of halite (and sometimes gypsum) at or near the surface of the outcropping bedrock of the Moghra clastics and/or Dabaa shale. Crystallization of halite and/or gypsum generates increased pressure that leads to mechanical disintegration of the bedrock into fine-grained debris. Features related to disintegration include blistering of the rock surface, splitting, spalling and/or granular disintegration. Alternation of dry and wet cycles favor halite crystallization, mechanical disintegration of the outcropping bedrock and dissolution of the halite cement, which exposes fine-grained debris to wind deflation. Removal of the debris from the floor of the depression leads to the accumulation of lunettes and other dunes in the downwind direction. Therefore, salt weathering provides fine-grained debris that are easily removed by deflation, which accounts for the topographically lower level of the western part of the depression (134 m below sea level (b.s.l.)). In contrast, the presence of moist sediments at the eastern part of the depression inhibits deflation and encourages sedimentation by adhesion of wind-blown sand to the damp surface of the sabkha at an elevation of 45 m below sea level. The disintegration of the bedrock of the Qattara Depression by salt weathering has been in effect since the onset of aridity in northern Egypt in Quaternary time. Whereas the initial excavation of the depression started in Late Miocene or Pliocene time by

  4. Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Attention in this discussion of Egypt is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Egypt and the US. The population totaled 50.5 million in 1986 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 102/1000 (1986), and life expectancy is 58.3 years. Located in the northeastern corner of Africa, Egypt has a land area of about 1 million square kilometers and is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Libya, Sudan, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and Israel. Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Egyptians are a fairly homogenous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Egypt has been a unified state for over 5000 years, and archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for considerably longer. The constitution of Egypt provides for a strong executive with authority vested in an elected president who can appoint 1 or more vice presidents, a prime minister, and a cabinet. Egypt's legislative body has 458 members -- 448 popularly elected and 10 appointed by the president. Power is concentrated in the hands of the president and the National Democratic Party's majority in the People's Assembly, but opposition parties organize, publish their views, and represent their followers at various levels in the political system. The process of gradual political liberalization begun by Sadat has continued under Mubarak. In fiscal year 1987 the gross domestic product (GDP) reached about US$30 billion. Agriculture and services each contribute about 1/3 of GDP; the remainder comes from industry, petroleum, mining, electricity, and construction. At this time, the Egyptian economy faces several challenges. In 1986 the government of Egypt initiated a major review of economic policy and initiated an economic

  5. Implications of human induced changes on the distribution of important plant species in the northwestern coastal desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Waseem Halmy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of species distribution modeling in deserts is a useful tool for mapping species and assessing the impact of human induced changes on individual species. Such applications are still rare, and this may be attributed to the fact that much of the arid lands and deserts around the world are located in inaccessible areas. Few studies have conducted spatially explicit modeling of plant species distribution in Egypt. The random forest modeling approach was applied to climatic and land-surface parameters to predict the distribution of ten important plant species in an arid landscape in the northwestern coastal desert of Egypt. The impact of changes in land use and climate on the distribution of the plant species was assessed. The results indicate that the changes in land use in the area have resulted in habitat loss for all the modeled species. Projected future changes in land use reveals that all the modeled species will continue to suffer habitat loss. The projected impact of modeled climate scenarios (A1B, A2A and B2A on the distribution of the modeled species by 2040 varied. Some of the species were projected to be adversely affected by the changes in climate, while other species are expected to benefit from these changes. The combined impact of the changes in land use and climate pose serious threats to most of the modeled species. The study found that all the species are expected to suffer loss in habitat, except Gymnocarpos decanderus. The study highlights the importance of assessing the impact of land use/climate change scenarios on other species of restricted distribution in the area and can help shape policy and mitigation measures directed toward biodiversity conservation in Egypt.

  6. 1st paleomagnetic investigation of Nubia Sandstone at Kalabsha, south Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mostafa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two profiles have been sampled from the Nubia Sandstone at Aswan, south Western Desert: the 1st profile has been taken from Abu Aggag Formation and the 2nd one was from Sabaya Formation (23.25 °N, 32.75 °E. 136 oriented cores (from 9 sites have been sampled. Abu Aggag Formation is of Late Cretaceous (Turonian and Sabaya Formation is of early Cretaceous (Albian–Cenomanian. The studied rocks are subjected to rock magnetic measurements as well as demagnetization treatment. It has been found that hematite is the main magnetic mineral in both formations. Four profile sections from Abu Aggag Formation, yielded a magnetic component with D = 352.7°, I = 36.6° with α95 = 5.2° and the corresponding pole lies at Lat. = 82.8 °N and Long. = 283.1 °E. Five profile sections from Sabaya Formation, yielded a magnetic component with D = 348.6°, I = 33.3° with α95 = 5.8° and the corresponding pole lies at Lat. = 78.3 °N and Long. = 280.4 °E. The obtained paleopole for the two formations lies at Lat. = 80.5 °N and Long. = 281.7 °E. The obtaind magnetic components are considered primary and the corresponding paleopole reflects the age of Nubia Sandstone when compared with the previously obtained Cretaceous poles for Egypt.

  7. Uranium mineralization in the muscovite-rich granites of the Shalatin region, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The younger granitoids of the Shalatin district in the Southeastern Desert of Egypt, are of biotite and two-mica granite compositions. The geochemistry of rare-earth elements ( REE), yttrium, thorium and uranium forms the basis for many important methods to reconstruct igneous petrogenesis. Since the recognition that REE, Y, Th, U-rich accessories may play an important role in controlling the geochemistry of crustal melts, a considerable amount of work has been done in an attempt to understand their effects. However, this effort has been almost exclusively focused on three minerals: zircon, monazite and apatite. Nevertheless, the variety of REE-Th-U-rich accessories in granite rocks are neither limited to these three minerals nor are they always the main REE, Y, Th carriers. The geochemistry of REE, Y, Th and U reflects the behavior of accessories and some key major minerals such as garnet and feldspars, and may therefore give valuable information about the conditions of partial melting, melt segregation and crystallization of granite magmas in different crustal regimes. The geochemistry of U and Th during magmatic differentiation has been studied in many granites from different areas and it has been known that the U and Th contents of granitic rocks generally increase during differentiation, although in some cases they decrease. The Th/U ratio can either increase or decrease, depending on redox conditions, the volatile content or alteration by endogene or supergene solutions. The accessory assemblage of muscovite-rich granites and high-grade rocks is composed of monazite, xenotime, apatite, Th-orthosilicate, secondary U-mineralization and betafite-pyrochlore. REE, Y, Th and U are not suitable for geochemical modeling of granitoids by means of equilibrium-based trace element fractionation equations, but are still useful petrogenetic tools.

  8. Guo Dantong, Intercourse between Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    With growing interests in the studies of global history, scholars around the worldhave since the 1970s increasingly focused their attentions on the relationship between the ancient civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean world. Guo Dantong has takenpart in the academic discussions on this subject in China in recent years, and publishedone of her important research results in 2011.

  9. Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book covers Egyptian history from the Predynastic to the late Roman Period. It also introduces early contemporary literary references to ancient Egypt and uses a number of theoretical approaches to interrogate the archaeological and textual data. Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology are often...... in archaeological studies, such as materiality, performativity, corporeality, embodiment, identity, and popular culture studies. Egyptian material is explored via these themes, to create nuanced and contextual interpretations of particular sites, events, artefacts and practices. Egypt: Ancient Histories, Modern...... to a discipline whose historical materials seem to be so rich and varied. The reason for this study is to challenge such insularity and to demonstrate the utility of integrating theoretical ideas with specific studies of ancient Egyptian material. The chapters in this volume explore a variety of ancient...

  10. Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book covers Egyptian history from the Predynastic to the late Roman Period. It also introduces early contemporary literary references to ancient Egypt and uses a number of theoretical approaches to interrogate the archaeological and textual data. Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology are often...... in archaeological studies, such as materiality, performativity, corporeality, embodiment, identity, and popular culture studies. Egyptian material is explored via these themes, to create nuanced and contextual interpretations of particular sites, events, artefacts and practices. Egypt: Ancient Histories, Modern...... to a discipline whose historical materials seem to be so rich and varied. The reason for this study is to challenge such insularity and to demonstrate the utility of integrating theoretical ideas with specific studies of ancient Egyptian material. The chapters in this volume explore a variety of ancient...

  11. Upper Paleocene-Lower Eocene biostratigraphy of Darb Gaga, Southeastern Kharga Oasis Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Khaled; Berggren, William A.; Abdel Sabour, Ayman

    2016-06-01

    Paleontological studies on the Upper Paleocene-Lower Eocene succession at Darb Gaga, southeastern Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt document the changes associated with the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), such as 1) a radical alteration of the relative and absolute abundance of planktonic foraminifera; 2) a massive occurrence of the excursion planktonic foraminiferal taxa; 3) a widespread deposition of calcarenite yielding atypical (extremely high) faunal abundance associated with the younger phase of warming; and 4) a concentration of coprolites associated with the middle phase of warming. We also document the Lowest Occurrence (LO) of dimorphic larger benthic and excursion foraminifera during the earlier phase of warming at Darb Gaga, as recorded in Bed 1 of the Dababiya Quarry Member. The absence of these faunas in Bed 1 at Dababiya (the GSSP for the P/E Boundary) is likely to be due to both intense deficiency in dissolved oxygen and massive carbonate dissolution. Only remains (fish remains) of faunas that can tolerate the toxicity produced by low oxygen conditions are found in the stratigraphic record of this (oldest) phase at Dababiya. The Dababiya Quarry Member (DQM) at Darb Gaga reflects the unfolding of the sedimentary and biotic changes associated with the PETM global warming at, and following, the Paleocene/Eocene boundary on the southern Tethys platform. The changes began with a rapid increase in bottom and "intermediate" water temperature. The temperature increase was accompanied by removal of oxygen during the early and middle stages of warming. This led to the absence of both subbotinids and calcareous benthic foraminifera in the early and second coprolite-bearing phases (Beds 2 and 3 of the DQM). Dissolution seems to have no role during these stages as shown by the unusual abundance and good preservation of the warm-tolerant Ac. sibaiyaensis. This species reaches its maximum abundance in Bed 2 where it exhibits a broad range of size (63

  12. Paleocene-Eocene transition at Naqb Assiut, Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt: Stratigraphical and paleoenvironmental inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dawy, Moustafa, Hassan; Obaidalla, Nageh Abdelrahman; Mahfouz, Kamel Hussien; Abdel Wahed, Samar Adel

    2016-05-01

    This work depends on the study of the lower part of the Esna Formation which encompasses the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) transition in Egypt as well as at Naqb Assiut section, Kharga Oasis, Western Desert. The Paleocene/Eocene (P/E) boundary is represented by El Dababiya Quarry Member which consists of five distinctive beds (nos. 1-5) at the GSSP. On the other hand, at Naqb Assiut section this boundary is only represented by the upper two beds (nos. 4&5), whereas, the lower three beds (nos. 1-3) are missing due to a hiatus. This hiatus is marked by the occurrence of an irregular surface contains pebbles and phosphatic materials. This hiatus may be related to the echo of Sryian Arc Orogeny at the P/E time. Biostratigraphically; four planktonic foraminiferal zones are defined from base to top as: Acarinina soldadoensis/Globanomalina pseudomenardii and Morozovella velascoensis (late Paleocene), Acarinina sibaiyaensis and Pseudohastigerina wilcoxensis/Morozovella velascoensis (early Eocene). The Acarinina sibaiyaensis Zone which represents the P//E/boundary is characterized by the occurrence of intrazonal hiatus at it's lower part. The benthonic foraminiferal taxa contain abundant representatives of Midway-type fauna (∼91% of the whole assemblages), beside few Velasco-type faunal ones (∼9%), indicating an outer neritic (150-200 m) water depth of deposition during the P-E transition. Quantitative analysis and composition of benthonic foraminiferal assemblages are indicative for various environmental changes around the P/E boundary. They reflected a high diversity, increase of epifaunal taxa, and low-intermediate productivity conditions, which indicates a well-ventilated bottom water and oligo - to mesotrophic conditions during the late Paleocene age. Rapid extinction of about 18% of the entire benthonic foraminiferal species started at the P/E boundary, where the last occurrence of Angulogavelinella avnimelechi is pronounced at the base of this boundary. There is a

  13. Environmental impact and natural hazards on Kharga Oasis monumental sites, Western Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, A. B.; Howari, F. M.; El-Sankary, M. M.; Wali, A. M.; Saleh, M. M.

    2010-09-01

    Kharga Oasis monumental sites are important to the cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The studied sites include the Hibis, EI-Nadura, EI-Ghueita and El-Zayyan temples as well as El-Bagawat Cemetery. The present study found that natural hazards have remarkable impacts on these sites. The impact of weathering processes, encroachment of sand dunes, stability of foundation beds and shallow groundwater seepage were documented. The present study found that humidity, temperature, sunlight and water content conditions seem to be favorable for biodegradation as evidenced by the presence of algae, bat blood and bird excretions. The radioactivity levels at the investigated sites are also measured via gamma-ray spectrometry. Sand dunes in the area pose a serious natural threat to the monumental sites. Active sand dunes are rapidly encroaching upon the components of these monuments, partially covering some monuments such as El-Ghueita Temple. These dunes load wind storms with fine sand particles. This causes wind erosion through sand blasting of these sites. Some monuments, such as EI-Nadura, EI-Ghueita and El-Zayyan temples were constructed on a suitable hard sandstone ground, whereas others, such as the Hibis Temple, were constructed on unsuitable soft shale ground in relatively topographically low area. The impact of the unstable foundation and shallow groundwater levels have caused severe structural damage as evidenced by tilted columns, cracked walls and salt-crystal growth in the porous building stones. These destructive elements threaten some other temples in Kharga Oasis and will eventually cause total physical collapse. Although rain is rare in this area, it can form a real threat to mud brick monuments such as El-Bagawat Cemetery. The natural radioactivity sources resulted in an annual effective dose equivalent values averaging 0.20, 0.13, 0.09 and 0.07 m

  14. Rare metal-bearing pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert of Egypt: Geology, geochemical characteristics, and petrogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The pegmatite province of the Southeastern Desert (SED) is part of a pegmatite district that extends from Egypt (extends to 1200 km2). Rare metal pegmatites are divided into (1) unzoned, Sn-mineralized; (2) zoned Li, Nb, Ta and Be-bearing; and (3) pegmatites and pegmatites containing colored, gem-quality tourmaline. The Rb/Sr data reflect a crustal origin for the rare metal pegmatites and indicate that the original SED magma was generated during the peak of regional metamorphism and predates the intrusion of post-tectonic leucogranites. These bodies developed an early border zone consisting of coarse to very coarse muscovite+quartz+alkali feldspar, followed by an intermediate zone of dominant quartz+feldspar+muscovite rock. Garnet, tourmaline, beryl, galena, pyrite, amblygonite, apatite and monazite are rare accessories in both zones. Cassiterite tends to concentrate in replacement zones and along fractures in albite+quartz+muscovite-rich portions. The highest concentrations of cassiterite occur in irregular greisenized zones which consist dominantly of micaceous aggregates of green Li-rich muscovite, quartz, albite and coarse-grained cassiterite. The different metasomatic post-solidification alterations include sodic and potassic metasomatism, greisenization and tourmalinization. Geochemically, the pegmatite-generating granites have a metaluminous composition, showing a differentiation trend from coarse-grained, unfractionated plagioclase-rich granite towards highly fractionated fine- to medium-grained, local albite-rich rock. Economically important ore minerals introduced by volatile-rich, rare metal-bearing fluids, either primarily or during the breakdown of the primary mineral assemblages, are niobium-tantalum oxides, Sn-oxides (cassiterite), Li-silicates (petalite, spodumene, euctyptite, and pollucite), Li-phosphates (amblygonite, montebrasite and lithopilite) and minor REE-minerals (Hf-zircon, monazite, xenotime, thorian, loparite and yttrio-fluorite). The

  15. Inferring the subsurface basement depth and the structural trends as deduced from aeromagnetic data at West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ahmed; Abdel Hafeez, Tharwat H.; Saleh, Hassan S.; Mohamed, Waheed H.

    2016-12-01

    The present work aimed to delineate the subsurface structures and to estimate the magnetic source depth at the selected area lying in West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt, following different geomagnetic techniques. The analysis of aeromagnetic data demonstrates five significant tectonic faults trending to NW-SE, ENE-WSW, NE-SW, E-W and NNW-SSE directions constructed using Euler deconvolution techniques. The execution of this study is initiated by transformation of the total intensity aeromagnetic data to the reduced to pole (RTP) magnetic intensity. This is followed by applying several transformation techniques and various filtering processes through qualitative and quantitative analyses on magnetic data. The reduced to the northern magnetic pole (RTP) data are separated spectrally into regional and residual magnetic components using the computed power spectrum of the magnetic data. The estimated mean depths of both regional and residual sources are found to be 5.27 km and 2.78 km respectively. Also, depth estimations have been conducted by application of the Euler deconvolution and 2-D modeling techniques. The results indicate that the eastern and northern parts of the study area discriminate deeper basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 5095 m. While the southern and western parts of the study area discriminate shallower basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 227 m. This study has given a clear picture of the geologic structures beneath the study area.

  16. Vegetation analysis and soil characteristics of five common desert climbing plants in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ghani, Monier Abd; EL-KHEIR, Mahmoud ABO; ABDEL-DAYEM, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to characterise Egyptian desert vine flora and compare it with that of deserts in other continents, such as Australia and North America. Specifically, 5 common climbing desert plants (Citrullus colocynthis, Cocculus pendulus, Cucumis prophetarum, Pergularia tomentosa, and Periploca angustifolia) were selected for this study. The floristic composition, vegetation heterogeneity, and chorological affinities of the associated species of the studied climbing plants were quantitati...

  17. The history and fate of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer springs in the oasis depressions of the Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Owen; Fensham, Rod

    2016-03-01

    Extraction of groundwater for agriculture has resulted in the loss of springs across arid regions of the globe. The history and fate are recorded of the artesian springs of Egypt's Western Desert, from ancient times to the present, spanning the rise and fall of the great civilisations from the Pharoanic dynasties to Persian, Greek and Roman conquests. The study area includes oases Kharga, Dakhla, Bahriya, Farafra and Siwa, and several outer and small oases around Siwa and the edge of the Qattara Depression. The region is hyper-arid, receiving 10 mm or less average annual precipitation and evaporation rates are in the vicinity of 3,000 mm/a. Groundwater in the oases is largely derived from bores discharging from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer. Based on an extensive survey, conducted for the first time, attention is drawn to the rapid demise of springs as a result of modern irrigation schemes which continue to deplete groundwater supplies.

  18. Palynology in a polar desert, eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby; Abrahamsen, Niels

    1988-01-01

    history back to c. 7,000 years calBP (6,000 years convBP) in this·extreme environment, which presents the coldest thermal regime where vascular plants can grow. The diagram shows that polar desert developed from sparse high arctic tundra at c. 4,300 years calBP (3,900 years convBP), owing...... to reduced summer heat. Also adjacent parts of high arctic Greenland, Canada and Svalbard suffered environmental decline, and polar deserts- presently restricted to a narrow fringe of land at the shores of the Arctic Ocean-were even more restricted before this time. Like other arctic vegetation types, polar...

  19. AMPHIBIAN DECLINES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN THE EASTERN "MOJAVE DESERT"

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of amphibian species historically inhabited sparsely distributed wetlands in the Mojave Desert, USA, habitats that have been dramatically altered or eliminated as a result of human activities. The population status and distribution of amphibians were investigated in a 20...

  20. Morphostructural record of iron deposits in paleosols, cretaceous Nubia Sandstone of Lake Naser basin, Egypt, Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Salem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of processed Landsat ETM + images and the application of geomorphotectonic concepts supplemented by extensive geological field work enabled the effective record of iron occurrences in the area located to the west of Lake Nasser. Three clearly newly differentiated landforms are evaluated for the possible presence of iron occurrences. Each landform is controlled by a specific tectonic environment and includes one of the three stratigraphic formations hosting iron deposits in the area. These landforms are: Area 1 (Kurkur landform, including plunging anticlines and domes affecting the Abu Aggag Formation. This formation is unconformably overlain by horizontal sandstone beds belonging to the Temsah Formation. The unconformity surface includes paleosols rich in limonite, crystallized gypsum in the form of roses and clay minerals. Area 2 (Tushka landform extends to the south of the Allaqi fault. The area includes yardangs carved in horizontal sandstone beds interstratified with some hematite bed, in addition to several fragments of hematite and magnetite as wadi deposits and desert varnish. Area 3 (Abu Simbel landform includes conical hills constituted by flattened horizontal beds belonging to the El Burg Formation. Each hill is capped by thick hematite/magnetite beds extending from Tushka to the border with Sudan. The Nubia Sandstone, here, includes three formations, namely: the Abu Aggag, Temsah, and Um Baramil.

  1. Prevalence of injuries among high school students in Eastern and Western parts of Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahdan, Maha M; Sayed, Amany M; Abd Elaziz, Khaled M; El-Hoseiny, Mostafa M; Al-Gwaily, Mohamed M

    2016-12-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and long term disability and a significant contributor to healthcare costs among children worldwide especially those aged 15-19 years. To determine the prevalence of injuries among secondary school students in Cairo, Egypt and to explore the associated risk factors for sustaining injury. A Cross-sectional study was conducted on secondary school students in eastern and western part of Cairo; self-administered questionnaire was used for assessing injuries sustained in previous 12 months and the associated risk factors for injury. The overall prevalence of injuries was 68.5%. Unintentional injuries were the most common injuries falls (50%) and burns (38.6%). Significant factors associated with sustaining injury were truancy, smoking, alcohol use, quarreling behavior, carrying weapon, threatened by weapon and verbal bullying. This study showed a high prevalence of injuries among high school students in Egypt which necessitates raising public awareness about the magnitude and burden of injuries among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Land capability classification of some western desert Oases, Egypt, using remote sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Alla Gad

    2015-10-01

    It could be concluded that the desert Oases are sustainable areas, which might have potential importance supporting the national development programs. Integrating remote sensing data with digital soil map, using GIS, led to the elaboration of successful land capability classification mapping.

  3. The hydrogeological conditions in Sahel Hasheesh, Eastern Desert, Eg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Mohamed A.; Mekhemer, Hatem M.; Mabrou, Walid Abdallah

    2016-06-01

    The groundwater development in Egypt in the present time is of a vital importance than in past few years. A comprehensive plan for new land reclamation projects has been recently established. To achieve these plans new sources of water must be available. This has been done by conducting a number of VES'S where interpreted by a comparison with the existing drilled borehole soil samples. The optimum resistivity model is obtained by matching method using "IPI2Win" Moscow State University 2000 software computer programs for resistivity interpretation. The results of the quantitative interpretation of the resistivity curves has been represented as geoelectric sections, showing the thickness and true electric resistivity values of the different geoelectric layers. The results of quantitative interpretation of the vertical electrical soundings show subsurface five geoelectric units and the aquifer system belongs to lower Miocene and the total salinity of 2451.2 ppm. The depth to water surface is 88.05 m and the total dissolved solids are 2451.2 ppm (Mekhemer well). The salt assemblages in Sahel Hasheesh are NaCl, MgCl2, MgSO4, CaSO4, Ca(HCO3)2. This marine water is of brackish sodium chloride water type (NaCl).

  4. Some biomedical applications of Balanites aegyptiaca grown naturally in radioactive area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, A M A; Ahmad, I A; Kamel, A M

    2010-06-15

    Balanites aegyptiaca is a naturally grown desert plant at some radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area, Southeastern Desert. The aim of the present study was to highlight on the B. aegyptiaca species grown naturally at radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area (fruit part) on the ability of using the fruit in some biomedical application (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and diabetes). The investigated plant was collected from different location at Wadi El-Gemal area. The uranium content was determined previously and different concentrations from the fruit with highest uranium content were used to examine the effect of B. aegyptiaca (fruit part) on the glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (HDL and LDL-cholesterol) levels using experimental rats. Different analysis techniques were used in order to determine different parameters. The obtained data suggest the beneficial role of B. aegyptiaca fruit as an anti-diabetic and hypo-lipidimic agent.

  5. Some biomedical applications of Balanites aegyptiaca grown naturally in radioactive area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, A.M.A., E-mail: Ghostvolca@hotmail.com [Nuclear Materials Authority, P.O. Box 530, El Maadi, Cairo (Egypt); Ahmad, I.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt); Kamel, A.M. [Labeled Compounds Department, Radioisotopes Production Division, Hot Labs Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Abou-Zaabal 13759 (Egypt)

    2010-06-15

    Balanites aegyptiaca is a naturally grown desert plant at some radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area, Southeastern Desert. The aim of the present study was to highlight on the B. aegyptiaca species grown naturally at radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area (fruit part) on the ability of using the fruit in some biomedical application (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and diabetes). The investigated plant was collected from different location at Wadi El-Gemal area. The uranium content was determined previously and different concentrations from the fruit with highest uranium content were used to examine the effect of B. aegyptiaca (fruit part) on the glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (HDL and LDL-cholesterol) levels using experimental rats. Different analysis techniques were used in order to determine different parameters. The obtained data suggest the beneficial role of B. aegyptiaca fruit as an anti-diabetic and hypo-lipidimic agent.

  6. Petrophysical evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Lower Cretaceous Kharita clastics, North Qarun oil field, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teama, Mostafa A.; Nabawy, Bassem S.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the available well log data of six wells chosen in the North Qarun oil field in the Western Desert of Egypt, the petrophysical evaluation for the Lower Cretaceous Kharita Formation was accomplished. The lithology of Kharita Formation was analyzed using the neutron porosity-density and the neutron porosity-gamma ray crossplots as well as the litho-saturation plot. The petrophysical parameters, include shale volume, effective porosity, water saturation and hydrocarbon pore volume, were determined and traced laterally in the studied field through the iso-parametric maps. The lithology crossplots of the studied wells show that the sandstone is the main lithology of the Kharita Formation intercalated with some calcareous shale. The cutoff values of shale volume, porosity and water saturation for the productive hydrocarbon pay zones are defined to be 40%, 10% and 50%, respectively, which were determined, based on the applied crossplots approach and their limits. The iso-parametric contour maps for the average reservoir parameters; such as net-pay thickness, average porosity, shale volume, water saturation and the hydrocarbon pore volume were illustrated. From the present study, it is found that the Kharita Formation in the North Qarun oil field has promising reservoir characteristics, particularly in the northwestern part of the study area, which is considered as a prospective area for oil accumulation.

  7. Vertebrate paleontological exploration of the Upper Cretaceous succession in the Dakhla and Kharga Oases, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Hesham M.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Kora, Mahmoud; Sertich, Joseph J. W.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Faris, Mahmoud; Ouda, Khaled; El-Dawoudi, Iman; Saber, Sara; El-Sayed, Sanaa

    2016-05-01

    The Campanian and Maastrichtian stages are very poorly documented time intervals in Africa's record of terrestrial vertebrate evolution. Upper Cretaceous deposits exposed in southern Egypt, near the Dakhla and Kharga Oases in the Western Desert, preserve abundant vertebrate fossils in nearshore marine environments, but have not yet been the focus of intensive collection and description. Our recent paleontological work in these areas has resulted in the discovery of numerous new vertebrate fossil-bearing localities within the middle Campanian Qusier Formation and the upper Campanian-lower Maastrichtian Duwi Formation. Fossil remains recovered from the Campanian-aged Quseir Formation include sharks, rays, actinopterygian and sarcopterygian fishes, turtles, and rare terrestrial archosaurians, including some of the only dinosaurs known from this interval on continental Africa. The upper Campanian/lower Maastrichtian Duwi Formation preserves sharks, sawfish, actinopterygians, and marine reptiles (mosasaurs and plesiosaurs). Notably absent from these collections are representatives of Mammalia and Avialae, both of which remain effectively undocumented in the Upper Cretaceous rocks of Africa and Arabia. New age constraints on the examined rock units is provided by 23 nannofossil taxa, some of which are reported from the Duwi Formation for the first time. Fossil discoveries from rock units of this age are essential for characterizing the degree of endemism that may have developed as the continent became increasingly tectonically isolated from the rest of Gondwana, not to mention for fully evaluating origin and diversification hypotheses of major modern groups of vertebrates (e.g., crown birds, placental mammals).

  8. Origin of ferricretes in fluvial-marine deposits of the Lower Cenomanian Bahariya Formation, Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Lawrence H.; Khalifa, Mohamed A.

    2010-03-01

    The type section of the Lower Cenomanian Bahariya Formation at Gebel El-Dist (Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert), Egypt, comprises claystones, mudstones, siltstones and sandstones deposited in fluvial-deltaic coastal plain, lagoonal, estuarine and shallow marine environments. The formation is characterized by an abundance of ferruginous sandstones that locally weather to form prominent iron crusts. These centimeter to decimeter-scale ferruginous horizons display a continuum of features ranging from unaltered sandstone with a pervasive ferruginous matrix to distinct ironstone beds with massive, nodular, vesicular and pisolitic textures. Ferruginous sandstone typically occurs at the tops of sandstone beds, or bracketing the base and top of beds, in the fining-upward cycles of deltaic plain deposits in the lower part of the formation and on a low-energy fluvial floodplain in the middle of the formation. Indurated ironstone beds occur mainly as the caps of coarsening-upward cycles of prograding shoreface sediments through much of the formation. We interpret the ironstone crusts as ferricretes, formed by iron accumulation that resulted from the oxidation and precipitation of soluble iron or colloids transported in the sediment load or by groundwater. This accumulation possibly took place at the water table or possibly below the water table at the fresh water/saline water interface. However, base-level fall and subsequent subaerial exposure of the sediments resulted in reworking and pedogenic modification of some of the iron-impregnated horizons.

  9. Isolation of biologically active constituents from Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (family: Moringaceae) growing in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Alfy, Taha S.; Shahira M. Ezzat; Hegazy, Ahmed K.; Amer, Aziza M. M.; Kamel, Gehan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Moringa peregrina is a wild plant that grown in the eastern desert mountains in Egypt. Although, this plant is native to Egypt, no details studies were traced on its chemical composition and biological activity. Materials and Methods: The different fractions of the ethanolic extract of the dried aerial parts of the plants were subjected to fractionation and purification on various silica and sephadex columns for the isolation of the major compounds which were tested for there anti...

  10. Fluvial Transport Model from Spatial Distribution Analysis of Libyan Desert Glass Mass on the Great Sand Sea (Southwest Egypt: Clues to Primary Glass Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Jimenez-Martinez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Libyan Desert Glass (LDG is a natural silica-rich melted rock found as pieces scattered over the sand and bedrock of the Western Desert of Egypt, northeast of the Gilf Kebir. In this work, a population mixture analysis serves to relate the present spatial distribution of LDG mass density with the Late Oligocene–Early Miocene fluvial dynamics in the Western Desert of Egypt. This was verified from a spatial distribution model that was predicted from the log-normal kriging method using the LDG–mass-dependent transformed variable, Y(x. Both low- and high-density normal populations (–9.2 < Y(x < –3.5 and –3.8 < Y(x < 2.1, respectively were identified. The low-density population was the result of an ordinary fluvial LDG transport/deposition sequence that was active from the time of the melting process, and which lasted until the end of activity of the Gilf River. The surface distribution of the high-density population allowed us to restrict the source area of the melting process. We demonstrate the importance of this geostatistical study in unveiling the probable location of the point where the melting of surficial material occurred and the role of the Gilf River in the configuration of the observed strewn field.

  11. Diversity of bacteria nesting the plant cover of north Sinai deserts, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira L. Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available North Sinai deserts were surveyed for the predominant plant cover and for the culturable bacteria nesting their roots and shoots. Among 43 plant species reported, 13 are perennial (e.g. Fagonia spp., Pancratium spp. and 30 annuals (e.g. Bromus spp., Erodium spp.. Eleven species possessed rhizo-sheath, e.g. Cyperus capitatus, Panicum turgidum and Trisetaria koelerioides. Microbiological analyses demonstrated: the great diversity and richness of associated culturable bacteria, in particular nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs; the majority of bacterial residents were of true and/or putative diazotrophic nature; the bacterial populations followed an increasing density gradient towards the root surfaces; sizeable populations were able to reside inside the root (endorhizosphere and shoot (endophyllosphere tissues. Three hundred bacterial isolates were secured from studied spheres. The majority of nitrogen-fixing bacilli isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymexa, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus circulans and Bacillus licheniformis. The family Enterobacteriaceae represented by Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter sackazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia adorifera, Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-Enterobacteriaceae population was rich in Pantoae spp., Agrobacterium rdiobacter, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Chrysemonas luteola. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were reported inside root and shoot tissues of a number of tested plants. The dense bacterial populations reported speak well to the very possible significant role played by the endophytic bacterial populations in the survival, in respect of nutrition and health, of existing plants. Such groups of diazotrophs are good candidates, as bio-preparates, to support the growth of future field crops grown in deserts of north Sinai and irrigated by the

  12. Diversity of bacteria nesting the plant cover of north Sinai deserts, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Amira L; Youssef, Hanan H; Amer, Wafaa M; Monib, Mohammed; Fayez, Mohammed; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2013-01-01

    North Sinai deserts were surveyed for the predominant plant cover and for the culturable bacteria nesting their roots and shoots. Among 43 plant species reported, 13 are perennial (e.g. Fagonia spp., Pancratium spp.) and 30 annuals (e.g. Bromus spp., Erodium spp.). Eleven species possessed rhizo-sheath, e.g. Cyperus capitatus, Panicum turgidum and Trisetaria koelerioides. Microbiological analyses demonstrated: the great diversity and richness of associated culturable bacteria, in particular nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs); the majority of bacterial residents were of true and/or putative diazotrophic nature; the bacterial populations followed an increasing density gradient towards the root surfaces; sizeable populations were able to reside inside the root (endorhizosphere) and shoot (endophyllosphere) tissues. Three hundred bacterial isolates were secured from studied spheres. The majority of nitrogen-fixing bacilli isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymexa, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus circulans and Bacillus licheniformis. The family Enterobacteriaceae represented by Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter sackazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia adorifera, Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-Enterobacteriaceae population was rich in Pantoae spp., Agrobacterium rdiobacter, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Chrysemonas luteola. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were reported inside root and shoot tissues of a number of tested plants. The dense bacterial populations reported speak well to the very possible significant role played by the endophytic bacterial populations in the survival, in respect of nutrition and health, of existing plants. Such groups of diazotrophs are good candidates, as bio-preparates, to support the growth of future field crops grown in deserts of north Sinai and irrigated by the water of El

  13. Evaluation of groundwater vulnerability in El-Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt, using modelling and GIS techniques: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, M. H.; El Osta, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer (NSSA) is the main groundwater resource of the El-Bahariya Oasis, which is located in the middle of the Western Desert of Egypt. This aquifer is composed mainly of continental clastic sediments of sandstone with shale and clay intercalations of saturated thickness ranging between 100 and 1500 m. Vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources has become an important element for sustainable resources management and land use planning. Accordingly, this research aims to estimate the vulnerability of NSSA by applying the DRASTIC model as well as utilising sensitivity analyses to evaluate the relative importance of the model parameters for aquifer vulnerability in the study area. The main objective is to demonstrate the combined use of the DRASTIC and the GIS techniques as an effective method for groundwater pollution risk assessment, and mapping the areas that are prone to deterioration of groundwater quality and quantity. Based on DRASTIC index (DI) values, a groundwater vulnerability map was produced using the GIS. The aquifer analysis in the study area highlighted the following key points: the northeastern and western parts of the NSSA were dominated by `High' vulnerability classes while the northwestern and southeastern parts were characterised by `Medium' vulnerability classes. The elevated central part of the study area displayed `Low' aquifer vulnerability. The vulnerability map shows a relatively greater risk imposed on the northeastern part of the NSSA due to the larger pollution potential of intensive vegetable cultivation. Depth-to-water, topography and hydraulic conductivity parameters were found to be more effective in assessing aquifer vulnerability.

  14. Evaluation of groundwater vulnerability in El-Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt, using modelling and GIS techniques: A case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M H Masoud; M M El Osta

    2016-08-01

    The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer (NSSA) is the main groundwater resource of the El-Bahariya Oasis, which is located in the middle of the Western Desert of Egypt. This aquifer is composed mainly of continental clastic sediments of sandstone with shale and clay intercalations of saturated thickness ranging between 100 and 1500 m. Vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources has become an important element for sustainable resources management and land use planning. Accordingly, this research aims to estimate the vulnerability of NSSA by applying the DRASTIC model as well as utilising sensitivity analyses to evaluate the relative importance of the model parameters for aquifer vulnerability in the study area. The main objective is to demonstrate the combined use of the DRASTIC and the GIS techniques as an effective method for groundwater pollution risk assessment, and mapping the areas that are prone to deterioration of groundwater quality and quantity. Based on DRASTIC index (DI) values, a groundwater vulnerability map was produced usingthe GIS. The aquifer analysis in the study area highlighted the following key points: the northeastern and western parts of the NSSA were dominated by ‘High’ vulnerability classes while the northwestern and southeastern parts were characterised by ‘Medium’ vulnerability classes. The elevated central partof the study area displayed ‘Low’ aquifer vulnerability. The vulnerability map shows a relatively greater risk imposed on the northeastern part of the NSSA due to the larger pollution potential of intensive vegetable cultivation. Depth-to-water, topography and hydraulic conductivity parameters were found to be more effective in assessing aquifer vulnerability.

  15. Palynostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental significance of the Cretaceous succession in the Gebel Rissu-1 well, north Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Beialy, Salah; El-Soughier, Maher; Mohsen, Sayed Abdel; El Atfy, Haytham

    2011-02-01

    Palynological investigation of the Cretaceous Abu Roash, Bahariya, Kharita, Alamein, Alam El Bueib and Betty formations, encountered in the Gebel Rissu-1 well, north Western Desert, Egypt yielded 27 species of pteridophytic spores, 24 of gymnosperm pollen, 25 of angiosperm pollen and 11 of dinoflagellate cysts in addition to some acritarchs, foraminiferal test linings and freshwater algae. This enabled us to recognize five miospore biozones arranged from youngest to oldest as: Classopollis brasiliensis- Afropollis cf. kahramanensis- Dichastopollenites ghazalataensis Assemblage Zone (Late Cenomanian); Elaterosporites klaszii- Sofrepites legouxae- Afropollis jardinus Assemblage Zone (Middle/Late Albian-Early Cenomanian); Pennipollis peroreticulatus- Duplexisporites generalis-Tricolpates Assemblage Zone (Early Aptian-Early Albian); Tucanopollis crisopolensis- Afropollis sp. Assemblage Zone (Barremian) and Appendicisporites cf. tricornitatus- Ephedripites spp. Assemblage Zone (Late Neocomian). The Early Cretaceous Kharita, Alam El Bueib and the Betty formations encountered in the Gebel Rissu-1 well are interpreted to indicate oxic proximal and distal shelf deposits, characterized by type III/IV, V kerogen, which is gas prone but having little potential to produce hydrocarbons. The Upper Cretaceous Abu Roash and Bahariya formations are characterized by a distal suboxic-anoxic and marginal dysoxic-anoxic environment, and their kerogen type III/II indicates gas/oil prone nature. The Bahariya and Kharita Albian-Cenomanian sediments in the present study witnessed the onset of a semi-arid to arid climate, with local or seasonal humid conditions, based on the continuous high abundance of the elaterates pollen and Afropollis-producing plants that inhabited the paleotropical humid coastal plains.

  16. Geology and rare-earth element geochemistry of highly evolved, molybdenite-bearing granitic plutons, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The field relations, mineralogy, and major and trace elements (including REE analyses of whole-rock samples and minerals) of granites and their associated molybdenite + uranium mineralized aplites in Southeastern Desert, Egypt, have been studied. The granites are leucocratic and mostly peraluminous in nature with muscovite increasing at the expense of biotite. The chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the granitic rocks indicate that their melts originated from the LILE-enriched mantle wedge by partial melting and are contaminated by crustal melts, followed by thermogravitational processes. Leucogranites with higher Na2O/K2O ratios from Um Dargag and Um Maiat crystallized under H2O-saturated equilibrium conditions in which the exsolved vapor continuously migrated away. The REE patterns of the granites studied are characterized by LREE enrichments and negative Eu anomalies. In comparison, the potassic aplites and the more sodic leucogranites are depleted in LREE, enriched in HREE and show more remarkable negative Eu anomalies. Allanite and monazite are the most important REE carriers in the granites. These minerals are strongly enriched in LREE, whereas fluorite and xenotime, which are more abundant in the aplites, are enriched in HREE. The average Lu/Ce ratio represents the fractionation trend with respect to HREE. It is 0.71 for radioactive fluorite, and it increases to 1.22 for non-radioactive fluorite. The high REE contents of molybdenite represent re-deposition of the mobilized Mo and REE. Due to the strong control of accessory minerals, the REEs are of limited use in petrogenetic modelling of highly evolved granitic systems.

  17. Assessment of waterlogging in agricultural megaprojects in the closed drainage basins of the Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Bastawesy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of waterlogging in the cultivated and arable areas within typical dryland closed drainage basins (e.g. the Farafra and Baharia Oases, which are located in the Western Desert of Egypt. Multi-temporal remote sensing data of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ were collected and processed to detect the land cover changes; cultivations, and the extent of water ponds and seepage channels. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM has been processed to delineate the catchment morphometrical parameters (i.e. drainage networks, catchment divides and surface areas of different basins and to examine the spatial distribution of cultivated fields and their relation to the extracted drainage networks. The soil of these closed drainage basins is mainly shallow and lithic with high calcium carbonate content; therefore, the downward percolation of excess irrigation water is limited by the development of subsurface hardpan, which also saturates the upper layer of soil with water. The subsurface seepage from the newly cultivated areas in the Farafra Oasis has revealed the pattern of buried alluvial channels, which are waterlogged and outlined by the growth of diagnostic saline shrubs. Furthermore, the courses of these waterlogged channels are coinciding with their counterparts of the SRTM DEM, and the recent satellite images show that the surface playas in the downstream of these channels are partially occupied by water ponds. On the other hand, a large water pond has occupied the main playa and submerged the surrounding fields, as a large area has been cultivated within a relatively small closed drainage basin in the Baharia Oasis. The geomorphology of closed drainage basins has to be considered when planning for a new cultivation in dryland catchments to better control waterlogging hazards. The "dry-drainage" concept can be implemented as the drainage and

  18. Stacked, Lower Miocene tide-dominated estuary deposits in a transgressive succession, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Safiya M.; Steel, Ronald J.; El Barkooky, Ahmed; Hamdan, Mohamed; Olariu, Cornel; Helper, Mark A.

    2012-12-01

    The net transgressive Lower Miocene Moghra Formation of Egypt is a sandy estuarine complex consisting of a series of stratigraphic units that reflect repeated transgressive to regressive shoreline movements across the Burdigalian (Lower Miocene) coastal landscape. The transgressive part of each unit is preserved atop a deep erosional scour surface, and consists of tidal-fluvial sandstones with tree logs and vertebrate bones that transition up to cross-stratified, tidal estuarine channel deposits and then to open-marine, shelf mudstones and limestones. In contrast, the regressive part is thinly developed and consists of thin-bedded, fossiliferous shelf mudstones that pass upward to thin, tide-influenced delta-front deposits. Each of the nine transgressive-regressive units of the Moghra Formation is capped by a river-scour surface that severely truncates the underlying regressive half-unit. Regional tectonic subsidence and an overall decreasing influx of clastic sediment accounts for the accumulation of the Moghra Formation and its overall transgressive character. The high frequency relative base-level changes reflected by the transgressive-regressive units (averaging < 350 kyr) that punctuate the overall transgressive stratigraphic trend are thought to have been driven by (1) sea-level changes caused by recently-documented variations in East Antarctic ice-sheet volume during the Lower Miocene, and/or by (2) variation in the large-scale influx of sediment to the region (during continuous tectonic subsidence). The relative importance of the sea-level (eustatic fall) vs. supply drive (deep fluvial scour) mechanisms for producing the repeated and widespread Burdigalian incision surfaces in the Moghra succession cannot easily be determined.

  19. Gravity and magnetic studies of the eastern Mojave Desert, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Kevin M.; Ponce, David A.

    2016-06-17

    IntroductionFrom May 2011 to August 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected gravity data at more than 2,300 stations and physical property measurements on more than 640 rock samples from outcrops in the eastern Mojave Desert, California and Nevada. Gravity, magnetic, and physical-property data are used to study and locate regional crustal structures as an aid to understanding the geologic framework related to mineral resources of the eastern Mojave Desert.The eastern Mojave Desert is host to a world-class rare earth element carbonatite deposit located at Mountain Pass, California. Carbonatites are typically defined as magmatic rocks with high modal abundances of primary carbonate minerals >50 weight percent and elevated abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) (Nelson and others, 1988; Woolley and Kempe, 1989). The “Sulphide Queen” carbonatite ore deposit is a composite, tabular body made up of sills and dikes of REE-bearing sovites and beforsites that occurs just south of the Clark Mountain Range along a north-northwest trending fault-bounded block that extends along the northeast edge of the Mescal Range and northwestern extent of Ivanpah Mountains. This early to middle Proterozoic block is composed of a 1.7 Ga metamorphic complex of gneiss and schist that underwent widespread metamorphism and associated plutonism during the Ivanpah orogeny (Miller and others, 2007). Subsequently, these rocks were intruded by a series of granitoids, which included the 1.4 Ga (DeWitt and others, 1987) ultrapotassic alkaline suite of intrusions that are spatially and temporally associated with hundreds of dikes, outcrops, and a carbonatite ore body. The relative age sequence of this intrusive suite of alkaline rocks from oldest to youngest includes shonkinite, mesosyenite, syenite, quartz syenite, potassic granite, carbonatite, and late shonkinite dikes (Olson and others, 1954; Wooden and Miller, 1990; Haxel, 2005; Miller and others, 2007).

  20. Correlation of Aerogravity and BHT Data to Develop a Geothermal Gradient Map of the Northern Western Desert of Egypt using an Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Haby S.; Abdel Zaher, Mohamed; Senosy, Mahmoud M.; Saibi, Hakim; El Nouby, Mohamed; Fairhead, J. Derek

    2015-06-01

    The northern part of the Western Desert of Egypt represents the second most promising area of hydrocarbon potential after the Gulf of Suez province. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to develop a new predictive model for calculation of the geothermal gradients in this region based on gravity and corrected bottom-hole temperature (BHT) data. The best training data set was obtained with an ANN architecture composed of seven neurons in the hidden layer, which made it possible to predict the geothermal gradient with satisfactory efficiency. The BHT records of 116 deep oil wells (2,000-4,500 m) were used to evaluate the geothermal resources in the northern Western Desert. Corrections were applied to the BHT data to obtain the true formation equilibrium temperatures, which can provide useful constraints on the subsurface thermal regime. On the basis of these corrected data, the thermal gradient was computed for the linear sections of the temperature-versus-depth data at each well. The calculated geothermal gradient using temperature log data was generally 30 °C/km, with a few local high geothermal gradients in the northwestern parts of the study area explained by potential local geothermal fields. The Bouguer gravity values from the study area ranged from -60 mGal in the southern parts to 120 mGal in the northern areas, and exhibited NE-SW and E-W trends associated with geological structures. Although the northern Western Desert of Egypt has low regional temperature gradients (30 °C/km), several potential local geothermal fields were found (>40 °C/km). The heat flow at each well was also computed by combining sets of temperature gradients and thermal conductivity data. Aerogravity data were used to delineate the subsurface structures and tectonic framework of the region. The result of this study is a new geothermal gradient map of the northern Western Desert developed from gravity and BHT log data.

  1. Genetic diversity in the desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus delameri) population of eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muwanika, Vincent B.; Kock, Richard; Masembe, Charles;

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variability is an important component in the ability of populations to evolve and adapt to changing environmental conditions and consequently for their long-term survival. Here we report the first description of both nuclear loci and mitochondrial control region sequence variability...... in a population of the desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) sampled from 12 localities in its natural range in eastern Africa. From the total sample (30 individuals), at the six microsatellite loci that were analysed, a total of 43 alleles was observed averaging seven alleles per locus. Expected...

  2. North-South Partnership in Space Research and Application: Space Research Center at Minufiyia University, Egypt, as Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M.

    With the starting the year 2002 the Minufiyia University Council taked an Issue by construction Space Research Center, as a first Center for Space Research in the Egyptian Universities (20 Universities), as a part from the Desert Environment Research Institute for temporal time, then after the growth, it will be independent center. The green area of Egypt (Nile Valley and Delta) are 4% only from the total area of Egypt, the remain 96% is desert area. The most useful thing is to study the desert from space. For that the suggested projects to be performed in this new center are: 1.Monitoring the storage tanks of the underground water in the Egyptian Desert (Sahara) by artificial satellites as GRACE of NASA and DLR. 2.Building 32 meter Radio telescope at Abu-Simbel in the South of Egypt as part of the European VLBI network (EVN) to cover the gab between the radio telescope in the western Europe and the radio telescope at Hartebessthock in South Africa. The cooperation of International interested institutions is being explored for this important project of Egypt. 3.Solar activity and the climatic changes through the 21st century as clarified by global solar radiation data at Khargha Oases at the western desert of Egypt. 4.Testing of the Martian exploration instruments for 2003 and 2005 space trips to Mars in the western desert of Egypt, as it is the driest area in the worl d, where are similarity between the dry atmosphere of Sahara and the atmosphere of Mars, also in the soil, and dry valleys. In collaboration with NASA and ESA. 5.Studding the eastern structure, due to meteoric impact in the western desert of Egypt since 28 Million years. Also, studding the meteors chemistry, for meteors found in the Egyptian desert, and the origin of life as meteor (Nachlet) in collaboration with NASA and ESA. Solar energy and humidity distribution over Sahara from artificial Satellite Meteostat observations.

  3. Holocene freshwater carbonate structures in the hyper-arid Gebel Uweinat region of the Sahara Desert (Southwestern Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Margarita M.; Meckler, A. Nele; McKay, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    The eastern part of the Sahara is at present the driest region of the desert. Yet the extensive animal rock art in the area, presumed to depict real activities in the lives of the painters, suggests that environmental conditions were significantly different when the rock art was produced. Here we report on exploration of the area, which led to the discovery of morphologically-distinct carbonate structures that line the walls of two valleys in Gebel Uweinat, and were likely formed in standing water. The carbonate structures comprise what appear to be shoreline carbonate formations, and date back to 8100 and 9400 years BP. The chemical and morphological similarity of these formations to carbonate structures from modern lakes suggests that these lakes contained fresh, standing water suitable for human and animal use. However, the significant quartz content suggests that windblown sand was pervasive, and thus the vegetation cover may have been sparse. This discovery supports the possibility of grasslands in the area, which may have been able to support human habitation, and adds to the evidence for a wetter climate in the area in the early Holocene.

  4. Evaluation of airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data for the Missikat uranium deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Nabi, S H

    2001-03-01

    The examination of gamma-ray spectrometric data of the Missikat area was found to be useful in locating areas worth exploring for uranium occurrence. The statistical treatment of these data shows that the uranium threshold level is 13 ppm. Such a value represents indirectly the presence of uranium mineralization and identifies anomalous areas on the eU contour map in the northern border of the Missikat-Ria El Gerra granitic plutons. This area should be of prime concern in uranium exploration of these plutons. The interpretation of the variation in the eU/eTh ratio with eU and eTh suggests that uranium redistribution has occurred within the Missikat-Ria El Gerra granitic plutons. Uranium may be reconcentrated in silicification, sericitization and kaolinization alterations which are geologically evident. eU, eTh and their ratio eU/eTh for the Missikat-Ria El Gerra granites exhibit a lognormal distribution which is in agreement with the general distribution of trace elements, whereas the K content tends towards a normal distribution.

  5. Magnetic interpretation of north Gebel El Shallul area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Khameis

    2010-06-01

    The interpretation of the basement tectonic map of the area indicated the presence of a set of unexposed subsurface basic dykes running generally in NNW–SSE direction controlling the courses of major wadis in the study area. This set of NNW–SSE basic dykes are dissected by a NE–SW fault system. These two sets of fault systems were found to be matched well with that obtained from the Landsat image and geological map. It was found that the pronounced NNW direction is a predominant structural trend controlling the structural framework of the area.

  6. Hazards mitigation and natural resources evaluation around Sohag – Safaga highway, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa F. Elbeih

    2011-06-01

    This research mainly depends on using recent satellite images of Misrsat-1, Landsat TM5, and ASTER with the aid of Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Different soil types that were delineated are mostly suitable for agricultural landuse. The suitability of this agriculture depends on the availability and quality of the irrigation water.

  7. Controls on lode gold mineralization, Romite deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basem A. Zoheir

    2012-09-01

    The carbonate δ13CPDB and δ18OSMOW isotope signatures preclude an organic source of the ore fluid, but metamorphic and magmatic sources are still valid candidates. The intense deformation and lack of magmatism in the deposit area argue for metamorphic dewatering of greenstone rocks as the most likely fluid source. The narrow ranges of δ13C (−4.6‰ to −3.1‰ and δ18O (11.9‰–13.7‰ in carbonate minerals in lodes imply a corresponding uniformity to the ambient temperature and δ13CCO2 (δ13CΣC of the ore fluids. The calculated δ18OH2O values of 6.9‰–7.9‰ for ore fluids, based on δ18O values of vein quartz further suggest a likely metamorphic origin.

  8. Occurrence of Samarskite-Y in the Mineralized Umm Lassifa Pegmatite, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Samarskite-Y, with an average assay of about 43.23% Nb2O5 and 17.43% Y2O5has been identifid in the mineralized pegmatite bodies injected in Gabal Umm Lassifa monzogranite. The mineral is associated with columbite, zircon, monazite, cassiterite, ilmenite and rutile. The mineralogy and geochemistry of the studied samarskite variety were determined using microscopic examination and X-ray Diffraction (XRD as well as quantitative analysis by both Field emission scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe analysis. Microscopic investigation revealed that the defied samarskite crystals are characteristically velvet-yellow brown to bloody red in color and having a characteristic pendent vitreous or resinous luster. Analytical data confimed the presence of samarskite-Y whose composition corresponding to empirical formula: [(Y0.42, REE0.44, Th0.076, Si0.05, Ca0.007, U0.07, Fe0.077 ∑1.15 (Nb0.81, Ta0.04, Ti0.14 ∑0.86 O4]. Accordingly, the mineralized Umm Lassifa pegmatite can be considered as a promising target ore for its rare-metal mineralization that includes mainly Nb, Ta, Y, REE and Zr together with U and Th.

  9. Occurrence of Samarskite-Y in the Mineralized Umm Lassifa Pegmatite, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan

    2015-01-01

    Samarskite-Y, with an average assay of about 43.23% Nb2O5 and 17.43% Y2O5has been identifid in the mineralized pegmatite bodies injected in Gabal Umm Lassifa monzogranite. The mineral is associated with columbite, zircon, monazite, cassiterite, ilmenite and rutile. The mineralogy and geochemistry of the studied samarskite variety were determined using microscopic examination and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) as well as quantitative analysis by both Field emission scanning electron micro...

  10. Fluid Inclusions in the Gold-Bearing Quartz Veins at Um Rus Area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMED EL TOKHI; ABDALLA EL MUSLEM

    2002-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in the gold-bearing quartz veins at the Um Rus area are of three types: H2O, H2O-CO2 and CO2 inclusions. H2O inclusions are the most abundant, they include two phases which exhibit low and high homogenization temperatures ranging from 150 to200℃ and 175 to 250℃, respectively. The salinity of aqueous inclusions, based on ice melting, varies between 6.1 and 8 equiv. wt% NaCl. On the other hand, H2O-CO2 fluid inclusions include three phases. Their total homogenization temperatures range from 270 to 325℃,and their salinity, based on clathrate melting, ranges between 0.8 and 3.8 equiv. wt % NaCl.CO2 fluid inclusions homogenize to a liquid phase and exhibit a low density range from 0.52 to0.66 g/cm3. The partial mixing of H2O-CO2 and salt H2O-NaCl fluid inclusions is the main source of fluids from which the other types of inclusions were derived. The gold-bearing quartz veins are believed to be of medium temperature hydrothermal convective origin.

  11. Mineralogy and radioactivity of pegmatites from South Wadi Khuda area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed F.Raslan; Mohamed A.Ali; Mohamed G.El-Feky

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive minerals in pegmatites associated with granitic rocks are commonly encountered in the south of the Wadi Khuda area and found as dyke-like and small bodies. They are observed within garnet-muscovite granites near the contact with older granitoids. Field surveys indicated that the studied pegmatites vary in dimensions ranging from 2 to 10 m in width and from 10 to 500 m in length. They are composed mainly of intergrowth of milky quartz, reddish-pink K-feldspar and plagioclase together with small pockets of muscovite. Field radiometric measurements indicated that radioactivity in pegmatites is more than twice that of their enclosing country rocks. Radionuclide measurements revealed that the average contents of U and Th increase gradually from rocks of dioritic to granodioritic composition (1.5×10-6 U and 4.3×10-6 Th) and increase significantly in biotite granites (5.8×10-6 U and 15.2×10-6 Th) but drastically decrease in muscovite granites (2.2×10-6 U and 5.6×10-6 Th). The average contents of U and Th of anomalous pegmatites are 95.3×10-6 and 116.9×10-6, respectively, indicating their uraniferous nature. In the south of the Wadi Khuda area, pegmatites are low in average Th/U (1.4) and high in average U/K (35.6), which suggests that uranium concentrating processes did not affect the pegmatites, indicating poor source-rocks. Mineralogical investigations of the studied pegmatites revealed the presence of secondary uranium minerals (kasolite and autunite), in addition to zircon, thorite, apatite, garnet and biotite. Primary and secondary radioactive mineralizations indicated that the mineralization is not only magmatic, but also post-magmatic. Electron microprobe analyses showed distinct cryptic chemical zoning within thorite where UO2 decreases from core to rim. This feature in thorite is sporadic, suggesting non-uniform redistributions of UO2 within thorite during magmatic processes.

  12. Nest site characteristics and nesting success of the Western Burrowing Owl in the eastern Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshore, Kathleen M.; Crowe, Dorothy E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated nest site selection at two spatial scales (microsite, territory) and reproductive success of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) at three spatial scales (microsite, territory, landscape) in the eastern Mojave Desert. We used binary logistic regression within an information-theoretic approach to assess factors influencing nest site choice and nesting success. Microsite-scale variables favored by owls included burrows excavated by desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), burrows with a large mound of excavated soil at the entrance, and a greater number of satellite burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. At the territory scale, owls preferred patches with greater cover of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) within 50 m of the nest burrow. An interaction between the presence or absence of a calcic soil horizon layer over the top of the burrow (microsite) and the number of burrows within 50 m (territory) influenced nest site choice. Nesting success was influenced by a greater number of burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. Total cool season precipitation was a predictor of nesting success at the landscape scale. Conservation strategies can rely on management of habitat for favored and productive nesting sites for this declining species.

  13. Regional geophysical expression of a carbonatite terrane in the eastern Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, David A.; Denton, Kevin M.; Miller, David M.

    2013-01-01

    A world-class, rare earth element carbonatite deposit is located near Mountain Pass, in the eastern Mojave Desert of California and is hosted by Proterozoic rocks that extend along the eastern margins of the Clark Mountain Range, Mescal Range, and Ivanpah Mountains in a north-northwest trending fault-bounded block. This Proterozoic block is generally composed of a complex of 1.7 - 1.6 Ga gneisses and schists that are intruded by ~1.4 Ga carbonatite and ultrapotassic mafic dikes. In the latter suite, common intrusive rock types include shonkinite, syenite, and alkali granites that are associated with carbonatite dikes. Regional geophysical data reveal that the carbonatite deposit itself occurs along the northeast edge of a prominent magnetic high with an amplitude of 200 nanoteslas, which appears to be related to the surrounding Proterozoic block. More than 340 gravity stations and 155 physical property samples were collected to augment existing geophysical data to determine the geophysical and geologic setting of the eastern Mojave Desert carbonatite terrane. Physical properties of representative rock types in the area show that 23 samples of carbonatite ore have an average saturated bulk density of 2,866 with a range of 2,440 to 3,192 kg/m3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 0.22 with a range of 0.03 to 0.61x 10-3 SI units, 17 samples of syenite have an average saturated bulk density of 2,670 with a range of 2,555 to 2,788 kg/m3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 3.50 with a range of 0.19 to 11.46 x 10-3 SI units, 19 samples of shonkinite dike have an average saturated bulk density of 2,800 with a range of 2,603 to 3,000 kg/m3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 0.71 with a range of 0.00 to 4.44 x 10-3 SI units, and 28 samples of Proterozoic gneiss have an average saturated bulk density of 2,734 with a range of 2,574 to 3,086 kg/m3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 1.23 with a range of 0.01 to 7.48 x 10-3 SI units. In general, carbonatites have distinctive gravity

  14. Trace elements assessment in agricultural and desert soils of Aswan area, south Egypt: Geochemical characteristics and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mohamed Abdallah Gad; Pöllmann, Hebert

    2015-12-01

    Determination of chemical elements, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Sr, Ti, Y, and Zn have been performed in agricultural and desert soils and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) at Aswan area. Consequently, the pollution indices, univariate and multivariate statistical methods have been applied, in order to assess the geochemical characteristics of these elements and their impact on soil environmental quality and plant, and to reach for their potential input sources. The investigation revealed that the mean and range values of all element concentrations in agricultural soil are higher than those in desert soil. Furthermore, the agricultural soil displayed various degrees of enrichment and pollution of Cd, Zn, Mo, Co, P, Ti, Pb. The geochemical pattern of integrated pollution indices gave a clear image of extreme and strong pollution in the agricultural soil stations, their poor quality with high risk to human health and considered as a tocsin for an alert. In contrast, the desert soil is the good environmental quality and safe for plant, animal and human health. Alfalfa is tolerant plant and considered as a biomarker for P and Mo in polluted agricultural soil. Four geochemical associations of analyzing elements in agricultural soil and three ones in desert soil have been generated, and their enhancements were essentially caused by various anthropogenic activities and geogenic sources. The investigation also revealed that the broad extended desert soil is fruitful and promising as cultivable lands for agricultural processes in the futures.

  15. Physiographic soil map delineation for the Nile alluvium and desert outskirts in middle Egypt using remote sensing data of EgyptSat-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Afify

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to produce a physiographic soil map with correlated attributes to be a base for extra modifiers within the land information system. This integrated data will serve the purposes of land use planning, precision farming practices and to be applied in other areas using the extrapolation approach. The Satellite data of EgyptSat-1 were projected on an area of Middle Egypt that represents unique physiographic features over portions of Beni Suef, El Fayoum, Helwan, and October Provinces. The spectral signatures of the land patterns were delineated by the visual interpretation using the physiographic approach, while soil taxa were categorized according to the key of Soil Taxonomy (USDA, 2010, resulting in two landscape categories. The first category includes older and developed parent materials, covering the following units: (a Pediplains of residual soils over limestone parent rock, having soils of Lithic Haplocalcids, loamy skeletal. (b Terraced old alluvial plains represent the formerly deposited alluvium that preceded the recent one of the River Nile alluvium. They includes soils of Typic Calcigypsids, loamy skeletal and old alluvial plain but are currently managed under cultivation. The soils are dominated by Typic Haplocalcids, loamy skeletal. (c Wadis that were shaped by the paleodrainage erosion, are currently subjected to the seasonal flush flooding and are sparsely vegetated including soils of Typic Torrifluvents, lamy skeletal (calcareous; Typic Torriorthents, sandy skeletal, and Typic Torriorthents, sandy. (d Aeolian plain “partly cultivated” includes soils of Typic Torripsamments (calcareous. The second category is a recent River Nile alluvium that formed the following units: (a Terraced recent alluvial plain “cultivated” includes soils of Entic Calcitorrerts, fine and Typic Haplotorrerts fine. (b Recent flat alluvial plain includes soils of Typic Haplotorrerts, fine. (c Meandering belt is aligning

  16. Interactive interpretation of airborne gravity, magnetic, and drill-hole data within the crustal framework of the northern Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Haby S.; Senosy, Mahmoud. M.; Abdel Zaher, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    The northern part of Western Desert represents the second most important oil-producing and gas provinces in Egypt. The aim of the present study is to highlight the subsurface structures, tectonic framework, and variation of the crust and upper mantle of the northern Western Desert. Geophysical data in the form of airborne gravity and magnetic maps as well as drill-hole data were used to achieve the objectives of the study. 2D interactive sequential modeling of aerogravity and aeromagnetic data was done along some selected profiles with constraints of the existing deep drill-holes at the study area. From these models, three maps for the depths to Precambrian basement, Conrad, and Moho surfaces were constructed. The results of this study indicate that the depth to the basement surface (thickness of the sedimentary section) ranges between 900 m at the southern parts and more than 5500 m at the northern parts. Meanwhile, the depth of Conrad discontinuity which reflect thickness of the upper crust; varies approximately between 10,000 m at the central and northern parts and 17,000 m at the southern parts of the area. While the Moho depth which represents the crustal thickness ranges from 27,000 m at the northern parts to 39,000 m southward. Integrating the results shows that the main compressive stress which influenced the studied area is in N55°W direction that supposed to cause primary shear in N25°W and N85°W directions with right and left lateral movements, respectively.

  17. Alexandria's Eastern Harbor, Egypt: Pollen, microscopic charcoal, and the transition from natural to human-modified basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J.-D.; Bernhardt, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen and microscopic charcoal examined in Holocene sediment core samples record major environmental modifications affecting Alexandria's Eastern Harbor through time. We assess whether such changes on Egypt's coastal margin were influenced primarily by natural, or natural plus human, or primarily human factors. We focus on (1) the times when pollen assemblages and microscopic charcoal content changed in the core, (2) how they changed, and (3) why this occurred. The analysis takes into account the core's stratigraphy, regional climate variability, human history, and local archaeological record. Four pollenmicroscopic charcoal zones are identified. The earliest change occurred at ca. 6000 YBP, during Egypt's earlier Predynastic (Neolithic) period, coinciding with a lithologic break from sand to muddy sand. Pollen during this time indicates a transition to a much drier climate rather than effects of human activity. The second change in pollen occurred 3600-2900 YBP, during a period of continued aridity with no lithologic variation in this core interval. Pollen (cereal taxa, agricultural weeds, grape) and a sharp increase in microscopic charcoal indicate that human activity became prevalent at least 700 y before Alexander the Great's arrival in this region, and these results highlight the transition from a largely natural climatecontrolled environment to one influenced by both climate and anthropogenic activity. The third shift up-core in pollen assemblages is dated at ca. 2300 YBP, at the boundary between a sand and mud unit. It coincides with construction by the Ptolemies of the Heptastadion between Alexandria and Pharos Island. From this time onward, harbor sediment in the nearly enclosed catchment basin indicates a near-continuous record of dominant proximal human activity. ?? 2010 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  18. On scientific expedition tourism of desert region: a case of eastern Ulan Buh Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Desert-based adventure tourism is a rapidly expanding tourism market segment after the late 20th century around the world.Perhaps the most significant factor in the development of desert adventure tourism is the extent to which common tourists are really engaged in scientific expedition.Inner Mongolia has long been considered as the resources accumulation area of desert tourism.The investigation on the Ulan Buh Desert has discovered that the desert animals,the vegetation,the insects,the fungus,the landform and the climate are impressive for both the researchers and the mass tourists.After the resources investigation a survey was carried out in 2007 to get the detailed information of the tourists attitude toward the planning desert scientific product in the Ulan Buh Desert.Based on the resources and market analysis,this paper tries to make a planning of the desert scientific expedition tour of the Ulan Buh Desert.The planning includes the functional division,expedition route design,tour-explaining system,facility of safety guaranty and service planning,and the professional training base.

  19. The bivalve Placuna (Indoplacuna) miocenica from the Middle Miocene of Siwa Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt: Systematic paleontology, paleoecology, and taphonomic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed M.; El Hedeny, Magdy M.; Rashwan, Mohammed A.; Abdel Aal, Abdel Aal A.

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the epifaunal, free lying bivalve Placuna (Indoplacuna) miocenica (Fuchs, 1883) encountered in the Middle Miocene Marmarica Formation of Siwa Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt, in terms of systematic paleontology, paleoecology and taphonomy. Well to moderately preserved shells of this species were collected from three sections. They have been found embedded in sandy, marly and chalky limestones. Although they are extremely thin and fragile, they occurred as complete disarticulated and articulated valves. Specimens of P. (I.) miocenica are highly accumulated in the north Siwa section forming a coquinoid band (30 cm thick). In addition, they are generally distributed sporadically in different stratigraphic levels within the three studied sequences. Taphonomic observations indicated that these shells were affected by encrustation, bioerosion, disarticulation, fragmentation and abrasion. Moreover, valves of this species suffered minor chipping along their fragile margins. The occurrence of the studied species associated with oysters and other benthic faunal assemblages within carbonate sediments revealed shallow, low energy, warm and intertidal environments with periods of relatively agitated conditions.

  20. Environmental history recorded in eolian deposits under stone pavements, eastern Mojave Desert, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Stephen; Fuchs, Markus; Dietze, Elisabeth; Lomax, Johanna; Kleber, Arno; Dietze, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Reconstructing the evolution of arid landscapes is challenged by the limited availability of appropriate environmental archives. A widespread surface feature of arid landscapes - stone pavement - traps eolian fines and can form an accretionary archive, growing with time and thereby recording essential information about the conditions under which it evolves. Based on a regional example in the eastern Mojave Desert, USA, seven stone pavement-covered soil-sediment sections on 560 and 270 ka old basalt flows are condensed to a correlation framework, comprising five distinct, successive sedimentological units. An OSL-based chronology enables correlation of this new sediment archive with other environmental archives from the region. Three of the stratigraphic units are of accretionary nature and the top of each unit is mantled by a new generation of stone pavement. These stratigraphic units were deposited between >32.3-20.4 ka, 20.4-16.5 ka and younger than 16.5 ka, appearing to be strongly coupled with the history of the nearby ancient Lake Mojave and enhancing our knowledge of the eolian activity in this area. End-member modelling analysis of sampled grain-size distributions allows identification of a local detritus component, four separate eolian components and two distinct clay enrichment components, contributing different quantities of sediment sources to the five stratigraphic units. These findings improve current concepts about the evolution of stone pavements and their role as conveyers of information about environmental conditions in arid landscapes. Stone pavement-covered accretionary sediment deposits are a new key archive that allows quantifying the relative importance of dust accretion, slope processes, soil formation and vegetation cover.

  1. The Climate and Its Impacts on Egyptian Civilized Heritage: Ei-Nadura Temple in El- Kharga Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt As a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Ismael

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, El-Kharga Oasis monumental sites are considered an important part of our world´s cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The Roman stone monuments in Kharga represent cultural heritage of an outstanding universal value. Such those monuments have suffered weathering deterioration. There are various elements which affect the weathering process of stone monuments: climate conditions, shapes of cultural heritages, exposed time periods, terrains, and vegetation around them, etc. Among these, climate conditions are the most significant factor affecting the deterioration Archeological sites in Egypt. El- Kharga Oasis belongs administratively to the New Valley Governorate. It is located in the southern part of the western desert of Egypt, lies between latitudes 22º30'14" and 26º00'00" N, and between 30º27'00" and 30º47'00" E. The area of El Kharga Oasis covers about 7500 square kilometers. Pilot studies were carried out on the EI-Nadura Temple, composed of sandstones originating from the great sand sea. The major objective of this study is to monitor and measure the weathering features and the weathering rate affecting the building stones forming El- Nadora Roman building rocks in cubic cm. To achieve that aims the present study used analysis of climatic data such as annual and seasonal solar radiation, Monthly average number of hours of sunshine, maximum and minimum air temperatures, wind speed, which have obtained from actual field measurements and data Meteorological Authority of El-Kharga station for the period 1941 to 2000 (60 years, and from the period 1941-2050 (110 years as a long term of temperature data. Several samples were collected and examined by polarizing microscopy (PLM, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (SEM-EDX. The results were

  2. Characterization of magnetic spherical fractions in sand deposits for interpretation of environmental change around the El- Zayyan temple, Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Makiko; Koizumi, Natsuko; Kato, Sayuri; Kikuchi, Ryohei; Kamei, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    Desertification in North Africa has rapidly advanced over the last 6,000 years. Such environmental changes began in the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt (4200 - 3150 BC), and the occupation of Achaemenid Persian and Roman cultures in Egypt occurred under even drier climates. Kharga is the largest oasis of the five oases, located in the western desert of Egypt that contains a treasure trove of archaeological resources. This oasis has been highlighted to promote resource exploration and development of archaeological tourism since the 1980's. The El-Zayyan temple is located 27 km south of the central Kharga oasis. Zayyan was once called 'Tchonemyris', which has connection with the means of 'huge well' in Greek. Although major portions of the temple were rebuilt in 140 AD during the rule of the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, this temple is considered to be originally built in the Ptolemaic period (4c-1c BC). It is likely that the area had a sufficient water supply in the past as the El-Zayyan temple stands at the lowest point (-18 m a.s.l.) in the Kharga oasis. Furthermore, the El-Ghueita temple that stands on a hill top at 68.5 m a.s.l., 4 km northward from the El-Zayyan temple, has given name that means 'beautiful garden' in Greek. From these facts, we can imagine that the past landscape of this area contained green surroundings. The El-Ghueita temple was well known as a production centre of high quality wine since the mid-Dynastic age (2050 -1786 BC). As this area is currently arid, it is expected that there were irrigation facilities to maintain the vast farm land during the ancient period. To deepen our knowledge of how people developed their technologies and conducted their life within the natural environment of a drastic drying period, understanding the process of environmental change on a region scale is necessary. The aim of this study was to extract proxies from sand deposits in the western desert area to estimate the change in the environment. We examined the

  3. Evaluation Of Present-Day Climate-Induced Desertification In El-Dakhla Oasis, Western Desert Of Egypt, Based On Integration Of MEDALUS Method, GIS And RS Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Hossam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Limited to fourth percent or less of the country’s total land area, Egypt’s agricultural landscape is threatened by the repercussions of climate change, desertification, soil depletion, and looming water scarcity. Outside of the Nile river valley and scattered fertile pockets in the desert oases, the vast majority of land is desert: rocky, parched and unable to support conventional farming. According to Egyptian National Action Program 2005 (ENAP, Egypt covers an area of about one million km2 ~ 100 million hectares, out of which about of 76.5 thousands km2 ~ 7.6% of the total area are inhabited, and the remaining (92.4% area is desert. Desertification is a very complex process governed by several variables which influence each other. It is thus not possible to conclude for the general picture from a single factor alone. This process has a high rate in arid and hyper-arid countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this research was to evaluation the present-day climate-induced desertification in El-Dakhla Oasis, so in this study, the newest method for evaluating and mapping of desertification was used. The mathematic method was carried out by European Commission (EC, (MEditerranean Desertification And Land Use at the MEDALUS project and booked as ESAs in 1999 integrated with remote sensing and GIS. All indices of the model were revised before using, and regarding to the region condition these indices were defined as key indices which were: Temperature, precipitation, wind, albedo, ground water and soil benchmark, and each benchmark has some sub-layers getting from their geometric mean. Based on the MEDALUS model, each sub-benchmark was quantified according to its quality and given a weighting of between 1.0 and 2.0. All benchmarks should be reinvestigated and adjusted to local conditions. Ultimately, desertification severity was classified in four level including low, moderate, Severe and high Severe. ArcGIS 10 was used to analysis and

  4. Heterogeneity of Soil and Vegetation in the Urban Habitats of New Industrial Cities in the Desert Landscape of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monier Abd EL-GHANI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vegetation and soil supporting the habitats in 4 new industrial cities were assessed. Five main habitats were distinguished from inner city toward outskirts: lawns, home gardens, public gardens, waste lands and desert outskirts. After application of Twinspan, 26 vegetation groups were identified in the 5 recognized habitats, demonstrating that some groups are chatracteristic of a certain city, e.g. Asphodelus aestivus - Deverra tortuosa - Thymelaea hirsuta group was confined to the desert habitat of Burg El-Arab city; Thymelaea hirsuta - Linaria albifrons and Atriplex halimus - Atriplex lindleyi subsp. inflata - Suaeda vermiculata - Typha domingensis groups were found in the waste lands of Burg El-Arab city; Conyza bonariensis - Cynodon dactylon - Sonchus oleraceus group in the home garden habitat of 10th Ranadan city; Cynodon dactylon group in the lawns of Burg El-Arab city; Bassia indica - Plantago major group in the public gardens of Burg El-Arab city; Oxalis corniculata - Plantago lagopus group in the public gardens of 10th Ramadan city; Sonchus oleraceus - Cynodon dactylon and Dactyloctenium aegyptium - Leptochloa fusca - Phragmites australis groups in the public gardens of 6th October city. Silt, clay, organic matter, carbonates and carbon contents showed significant diffrences among the 5 habitats.

  5. Marine fouling community in the Eastern harbour of Alexandria, Egypt compared with four decades of previous studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH.E. RAMADAN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to compare the fouling communities between the years 1960 and 1999 in the Eastern harbour of Alexandria, Egypt and to study the main factors that may be controlling these communities. This comparison is based on monthly durations of panel immersion. By using roughened white polystyrene test panels (12.5x12.5 cm, monthly samples of marine fouling were collected from the harbour from October 1998 through September 1999. It is clear that a remarkable variation in number and diversity of fouling communities throughout the last four decades is evident. The minimum diversities were recorded during the studies of 1960 and 1970 (19 and 20 species respectively, while the maximum diversity (35 species was achieved during the 1991 study. Moreover, a small shift among the four dominant groups (Polychaeta, Cirripedia, Bryozoa and Amphipoda was noted during the four decades of the studies. The present comparison indicated that many factors may contribute to this variation, of which nutrient enrichment is the most important and the nature of the applied test panel is lees so.

  6. DISTRIBUTIONAL CHANGES AND POPULATION STATUS FOR AMPHIBIANS IN THE EASTERN MOJAVE DESERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of amphibian species historically inhabited sparsely distributed wetlands in the Mojave Desert of western North America, habitats that have been dramatically altered or eliminated as a result of human activities. The population status and distributional changes for amphi...

  7. A shell concentration of the Middle Miocene Crassostrea gryphoides (Schlotheim, 1813) from Siwa Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed M.; El Hedeny, Magdy M.

    2016-08-01

    A concentration of heavy, thick-shelled, large-sized, and elongated population of the oyster Crassostrea gryphoides (Schlotheim, 1813) was recorded in shallow-marine deposits of the basal Oasis Member of the Middle Miocene Marmarica Formation exposed at Siwa Oasis, Egypt. The oyster assemblage is resedimented as a lens-shaped bank up to 80-100 cm thick and about 220 m long. Crassostrea gryphoides specimens are embedded in a yellowish green, soft marl matrix. This is the first documented occurrence of this lens at Siwa Oasis. The lensoid structure is bounded by a lower marl and an upper shale beds of about 2 m and 1.5 m thick, respectively. Assemblage within this lens is characterized by extreme variations of Crassostrea gryphoides, forming an almost monotypic assemblage. The shell packing was dense (shell percentages higher than 75%) at the base and the center of the lens, whereas it exhibits loose packing at the top and right and left sides of the lens (shell percentage less than 15%). Valves are poorly sorted and randomly orientated (both in surface and cross section views). Encrustation and bioerosion have observed on both sides of the left and right valves. The relatively limited varieties of encrusters together with moderate frequency of borings indicate moderate to high sedimentation rate. On the other hand, the low abundance of fragmented and abraded shells indicates good preservation and minimal transport. The studied lens concentration is interpreted as proximal tempestites assemblage.

  8. Land reclamation in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    For decades, Egypt has tried to increase its agricultural area through reclamation of desert land. The significance of land reclamation goes beyond the size of the reclaimed area and number of new settlers and has been important to Egyptian agricultural policies since the 1952-revolution. This pa...

  9. Geothermal studies in oilfield districts of Eastern Margin of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdel Zaher; Mohamed El Nuby; Essam Ghamry; Khamis Mansour; Nureddin M. Saadi; Heba Atef

    2014-01-01

    Results of geothermal studies carried out at 149 onshore oil wells have been used in evaluation of temperature gradient and heat flow values of the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez. The investigations included temperature logs in boreholes, calculation of amplitude temperature, geothermal gradients and heat flow. The results obtained indicate that geothermal gradient values are in the ranges of 0.02–0.044 °C/m and regionally averaged mean heat flow values are found to fall in the interval of...

  10. Paleotsunami deposits along the coast of Egypt correlate with historical earthquake records of eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Asem; Meghraoui, Mustapha; El Gabry, Mohamed; Maouche, Said; Hussein, Hesham; Korrat, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Tsunami deposits are investigated along the Mediterranean coast of Egypt in the framework of the EC-Funded ASTARTE project (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839) and the French-Egyptian IMHOTEP project. The study area located west of Alexandria is selected according to historical earthquakes and related inundation events as recorded in archives. Field investigations include: 1) Coastal geomorphology along estuaries, wedge-protected and dune-protected lagunas, and terrace-platforms as potential sites for paleotsunami and boulder records, and 2) Investigations of paleotsunamis deposits and their spatial distribution using trenching and coring. In addition of 10 trenches (1.5-m-depth) and 16 (1 to 2.5-m-depth) core descriptions with detailed logging and Xrays, data collection includes geochemical analysis, magnetic susceptibility and radiocarbon dating necessary for the identification of tsunamis records. In stratigraphic successions of low energy marine and alluvial deposits, mixed sand, gravel and broken shells are interpreted as catastrophic layers correlated with tsunami deposits. The two selected sites at Kefret Saber 32-km west of Marsa-Matruh city and 10 km northwest of El Alamein village are inner lagunas protected by 2 to 40-m-high dunes parallel to the shoreline. A total of 50 samples of organic deposits and charcoal fragments were collected from both sites, among which 20 samples have been dated. Dated charcoal in deposits above and below the catastrophic layers lead us to correlate them with the 24 June 1870 (Mw 7.5), 8 August 1303 (Mw 8) and 21 July 365 (Mw 8 - 8.5), major earthquakes that generated tsunamis with the inundation of Alexandria harbor. Major tsunamigenic seismic sources being along the Hellenic subduction zone and Cyprus arc, our study of paleotsunami deposits and their distribution along the Egyptian coast will help in a better constraint of the size and recurrence of tsunamis, and

  11. Curie point depth and heat flow from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data over the northern part of Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saada, Saada Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    The present work aims to estimate the Curie point depth and the surface heat flow for the northern part of the Western Desert using aeromagnetic data. Applying spectral analysis to aeromagnetic anomalies has provided equitable promising geological results, useful for further geothermal or petroleum exploration. The total intensity aeromagnetic map was first reduced to the north magnetic pole to correct the shape and position of different magnetic anomalies over their causative bodies. Secondly, the short wavelengths were removed to enhance the deeper long wavelengths related to the deep sources. Spectral analysis indicates that the area is underlined by an average Curie point depth of about 27 km. This implies an average thermal heat flow (53 mW/m2) lower than the average global heat flow. The investigated area was divided into eighteen blocks, where the average depths to centroid and top of the magnetic source were estimated for each block. The results of this work show a general depth increase of the magnetic boundaries from 24.5 km in the southern area to 33 km at the northern part. The calculated surface heat flow decreases from about 56 to 42 mW/m2 in the same direction. Consequently, this area is characterized by its low geothermal gradient and surface heat flow. This low geothermal gradient indicates that the upper mantle contributes to the magnetic features at the northern offshore parts. This work also recommends by deep drilling for petroleum exploration and production within the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea exploration strip.

  12. Hydrogeological aspects and environmental concerns of the New Valley Project, Western Desert, Egypt, with special emphasis on the southern area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, Fakhry A.

    1988-12-01

    The New Valley Project has been given much attention in the past 20 years especially from the hydrogeological point of view concerning groundwater utilization for the reclamation of a large area of the Western Desert. Lithological, petrophysical, and petrographical studies were conducted on four wells south of Beris Oasis, namely Beris 20, Beris 15, Beris 14, and Beris 13, and are defined by latitudes 24°25'E and 24°35'E and longitudes 30°30'N and 30°46'N. The Nubian sedimentation is of Posttectonic deposition that took place over the uplifted Precambrian granitic basement and is Lower Cretaceous, whereas the upper most variegated shales of the cap rock are Upper Cretaceous. The Nubian sandstones in the area south of Beris Oasis contain hematitic stains and/or fine granular authigenic hematite, thin laminae of brown ferruginous quartzite is also recorded denoting oxidizing conditions in the basin of deposition. Thin streaks of carbonaceous shales are met with in different depths to the south of Beris area, may be taken to denote oscillations in the sea level and accordingly its depths, and are responsible for the change in the oxidation-reduction potential during the deposition of the corresponding beds. Lithologic logs were interpreted together with the electric and micro-logs for adjustment of the shale breaks and showed that there are five water-bearing zones, named from bottom to top: A, B, C, D, and E, and are mainly unfossiliferous orthoquartzites, separated from each other by impervious beds of siltstones, shales, and clays of varying thicknesses. This zoning had been found valid in other parts of the Kharga Oases and could be applied locally in the Kharga Oases area. Mechanical analysis was performed mainly on 39 samples, of which 18 were core samples and 21 were cuttings, that were raised from four wells dug in the area south of Beris Oasis, Kharga Oases. Porosity and permeability tests were carried out on the 18 core samples only. The implication of

  13. Carbonate platform facies development of the Turonian Wata Formation in central and eastern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, M. A.; Farouk, S.; Hassan, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Wata carbonate platform in central and eastern Sinai show a clear pattern of evolutionary development during sedimentation. Three facies are recognized in the carbonate platform. Inner-platform in the south, inter-platform basin in the middle, and outer-platform in the northwest. Such classification was probably performed by the effect of Syrian Arc System that culminated during Turonian in Sinai. Inner-platform includes fining-upward cycles, each begins with packstone, followed by wackestone and capped by lime-mudstone or claystone or molluscan bioclastic wackestone at the base capped by sandy oolitic packstone or dolostone. The dominant faunal associations are molluscs, and echinoids. Inter-platform basin occurs north of inner-platform and extends northwest-southeast direction and comprises fining-upward cycles, each of which begins with bioclastic ostracodal packstone, calcisphere packstone, bioclastic packstone, capped by wackestone and lime-mudstone The faunal association includes, sponge spines, ostracodes, molluscan debris and calcispheres. They were deposited in shoal marine and barrier. The outer-platform occurs at Gebel Giddi and extended northwestwards. The lithofacies are entirely represented by calcisphere wackestone/packstone, with a reduced thickness of 20 m.

  14. Geothermal studies in oilfield districts of Eastern Margin of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel Zaher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of geothermal studies carried out at 149 onshore oil wells have been used in evaluation of temperature gradient and heat flow values of the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez. The investigations included temperature logs in boreholes, calculation of amplitude temperature, geothermal gradients and heat flow. The results obtained indicate that geothermal gradient values are in the ranges of 0.02–0.044 °C/m and regionally averaged mean heat flow values are found to fall in the interval of 45–120 mW/m2. Temperature gradients and heat flow values change from low values eastward to high values toward the axial of Gulf of Suez rift. The result of this research work has been highly successful in identifying new geothermal resources eastward of the Gulf of Suez. Additionally, this study shows that the areas with relatively higher temperature gradients have lower oil window, mature earlier, than those with low gradient values. Thus, high temperature gradients cause to expedite the formation of oil at relatively shallow depths and narrow oil windows. On the other hand, low temperature gradient makes the oil window to be quite broad when locate at high depths.

  15. Aerosol radiative forcing during African desert dust events (2005-2010) over South-Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, A.; Olmo, F. J.; Lyamani, H.; Antón, M.; Quirantes, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-03-01

    The instantaneous values of the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) at the surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) were calculated during desert dust events occurred at Granada (Southeastern Spain) from 2005 to 2010. For that, the SBDART radiative transfer model was utilized to simulate the global irradiance values (0.3-2.8 μm) at the surface and TOA using as input the aerosol properties derived from a CIMEL sun-photometer measurements and an inversion methodology that uses the sky radiance measurements in principal plane configuration and non-spherical particle shapes approximation. The SBDART modeled global irradiances at surface have been successfully validated against experimental measurements obtained by CM-11 pyranometer, indicating the reliability of the radiative transfer model used in this work for the ARF calculations. The monthly ARF values at surface ranged from -32 W m-2 to -46 W m-2, being larger in April and July than in the rest of months. The seasonal ARF evolution was inconsistent with seasonal aerosol optical depth (AOD) variation due to the effects induced by other aerosol parameter such as the single scattering albedo. The ARF at TOA changed from -9 W m-2 to -29 W m-2. Thus, the atmospheric ARF values (ARF at TOA minus ARF at surface) ranged from +15 to +35 W m-2. These results suggest that the African dust caused local atmospheric heating over the study location. The instantaneous aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (ARFE), aerosol radiative forcing per unit of AOD (440 nm), at surface and TOA during African desert dust events was evaluated according to the desert dust source origins. The ARFE values at surface were relatively high (in absolute term) and were -157 ± 20 (Sector A), -154 ± 23 (Sector B), and -147 ± 23 (Sector C) W m-2. These values were larger than many of the values found in literature which could be due to the presence of more absorbing atmospheric particles during African desert dust intrusions over our study area

  16. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Gaafar

    2015-06-01

    Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E–W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm, Hf (51 ppm, Nb (340 ppm, Ta (44 ppm, and U (90 ppm. Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric, geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two main structural trends in the NW- and ENE-directions.

  17. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of uranium-rich fluoriteinEl-Missikat mineralized granite,Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A unique, highly radioactive variety of fluor it emineral has been recorded in the uranium occurrence of El-Missikat sheared granite pluton. In this occurrence, the uranium assumes different forms, including its presence as discrete, visible, secondary minerals, rare uraninite and its association with the jasperoid and silica veinlets. However,in some other parts of the sheared zone, the uranium was found to be solely incorporated with fluorite crystals,filling veinlet sand fractures with out any other manife station.This paper focuses ont her elevant mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of this unique fluorite variety.In addition to an investigation with binocular and polarizing microscopes, the separated fluorite grains were analyzed usingan environmental scanning electronmicroscope(ESEM and a field-emission scanning electron microscope.In addition to this,some fluorite crystals were subjected to electron microprobe analyses. While the fluorite accounted for as much as 20% of the sheared granite samples studied, it was found to range from 82 to 96 % in the different size fractions of the separated heavy mineral content. In some parts of the separated fluorite crystals,uranium inquantities of up to 2200 ppm was found to be heterogeneously distributed in the fluoritelattice,regardless of its coloration.

  18. Serpentinite-hosted talc-magnesite deposits of Wadi Barramiya area, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Characteristics, petrogenesis and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Bik, M. W.; Taman, Z.; El Kalioubi, B.; Abdel Wahab, W.

    2012-02-01

    Enormous quantities of practically untapped talc-magnesite rocks are distributed in the Wadi Barramiya area in intimate spatial and genetic association with the ophiolitic serpentinites. These deposits are an important potential source of magnesia, which is used in a broad spectrum of strategic industries. Barramiya ophiolitic serpentinites represent obducted oceanic slices onto island-arc successions. They occur as elongated mountainous ranges in the form of anticlinal-synclinal sheets demarcating the general ENE-WSW brittle-ductile shear zones of the area. The serpentinite-hosted talc-magnesite deposits of Barramiya area are located: (a) along major faults that cut the serpentinite slices, or (b) at thrust contacts between obducted serpentinites and other mélange components (more siliceous country rocks of island-arc affinity). The latter were regionally metamorphosed at greenschist up to middle amphibolite facies conditions. The talc-magnesite rocks represent in situ fissure-fed metasomatic products of serpentinite precursors via extensive rock-fluid interactions. The main fluids involved in the transformation processes of serpentinites to talc-magnesite were SiO2aqueous solutions and CO2. The deposits located along the fault systems cutting the serpentinite-host are magnesite-rich, whereas those located at the contacts between serpentinites and the more siliceous country rocks are typically talc-rich. Based on the proportional distribution of talc and magnesite in conjunction with other accessories, the rocks have been distinguished into assemblages. Their characteristics, petrogenesis and evolution from serpentinite precursors are elaborated in the light of their petrography, XRD, EDAX, and XRF data. Constraints on the conditions of their formation include temperature of about 490 °C and a maximum XCO2 of about 0.13. New mapping was undertaken for the area using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Accordingly, the Barramiya talc-carbonate rocks were more precisely mapped as separate layers and their reserve estimation was accomplished.

  19. Structure roles for the localization of metasomatite uranium deposit type at Wadi Belih area, Northern Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton G. Waheeb

    2016-06-01

    Due to the resulting younger extension NW–SE event the hydrothermal solution gradually migrates upward forming alkali metasomatite, contemporaneous with uranium mineralization. They are developed along that shear zone where structure contact and the low-stress regions in the vicinity of the shear zone are favorable locations for fluid flow focusing and hence U mineralizations occur in the highly fractured and mylonitized zones along the contact as lensoidal bodies.

  20. Preliminary crustal deformation model deduced from GPS and earthquakes’ data at Abu-Dabbab area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Monem S. Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    From the seismic tomography study, the 3D Vp and Vp/Vs crustal models indicate high Vp/Vs values forms an elongated anomaly, in the central part of the study area, that extends from a depth of 12 km to about 1–2 km of depth is obtained. By using this crustal model in relocations all seismicity informed that most of the seismicity strongly tend to occur in a cluster manner exactly above the southern part of the study area. Based on the conducted source mechanism study, it is noticed that shallow earthquakes are associated by a high CLVD ratio (up to 40%. Furthermore, initiation of a high level seismic activity, without a large seismic main shock is observed in the Abu-Dabbab area. The distribution of micro-earthquakes tends to align in an ENE–WSW direction marking a zone of activity verse the Red Sea. The nucleation of the seismic activity beneath the southern part of the Abu-Dabbab crust is more consistent with the obtained crustal deformation result by increasing the crustal movement in the south part than the northern part. Then, based on the obtained results of the above mentioned studies; seismic tomography; source mechanisms, and crustal deformation we conclude that these seismic activities that are associated by crustal deformation are owing to some magma activity beneath the crust of the Abu-Dabbab area.

  1. Petrogenesis of Bir Madi Gabbro-Diorite and Tonalite-Granodiorite Intrusions in Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Implications for Tectono-Magmatic Processes at the Neoproterozoic Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. OBEID

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic rocks of the Bir Madi area, south eastern desert, comprise a Metagabbro-Diorite Complex (GDC and a Tonalite-Granodiorite Suite (TGrS. The GDC has a weak tonalitic to strong calc-alkaline character and is made up of olivine gabbro, hornblende gabbro, diorite and monzodiorite. The olivine gabbro is characterized by abun-dance of augite and labradorite with pseudomorphic serpentine. The hornblende gabbro is mainly composed of horn-blende, labradorite, andesine and minor amounts of quartz with or without augite. The diorite consists essentially of andesine, hornblende, biotite and quartz. The GDC is compositionally broad, with a wide range of SiO2 (46-57 % and pronounced enrichment in the LILE (Ba and Sr relative to the HFSE (Nb, Y and Zr. The GDC rocks exhibit petrological and geochemical characteristics of arc-related mafic magmas, derived possibly from partial melting of a mantle wedge above an early Pan-African subduction zone of the Neoproterozoic Shield. The tonalite and granodiorite have a calc-alkaline affinity and show the geochemical signatures of I-type granitoids. The TGrS contains amphibolite enclaves and foliated gabbroic xenoliths. Based on the field evidence and geochemical data, the GDC and TGrS are not related to a single magma type through fractional crystallization. The presence of microgranular amphibolite enclaves in the tonalitic rocks suggest against their generation by partial melting of a mantle-derived basaltic source. The tonalitic magma originated from partial melting of an amphibolitic lower crust by anatexis process at a volcanic arc regime during construction of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Fractional crystallization of K-feldspar and biotite gave more developed granodiorite variety from the tonalitic magma. The gabbroic xenoliths are similar in the chemical composition to the investigated metagabbros. They are incompletely digested segments from the adjacent metagabbro rocks incorporated into the

  2. Pedological and geological relationships with soil lichen and moss distribution in the eastern Mojave Desert, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.; Phillips, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are ubiquitous in drylands globally. Lichens and mosses are essential biocrust components and provide a variety of ecosystem services, making their conservation and management of interest. Accordingly, understanding what factors are correlated with their distribution is important to land managers. We hypothesized that cover would be related to geologic and pedologic factors. We sampled 32 sites throughout the eastern Mojave Desert, stratifying by parent material and the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The cover of lichens and mosses on ‘available ground’ (L + Mav; available ground excludes ground covered by rocks or plant stems) was higher on limestone and quartzite-derived soils than granite-derived soils. Cover was also higher on moderately younger-aged geomorphic surfaces (Qya2, Qya3, Qya4) and cutbanks than on very young (Qya1), older-aged surfaces (Qia1, Qia2), or soils associated with coppice mounds or animal burrowing under Larrea tridentata. When all sites and parent materials were combined, soil texture was the most important factor predicting the occurrence of L + Mav, with cover positively associated with higher silt, very fine sand, and fine sand fractions and negatively associated with the very coarse sand fraction. When parent materials were examined separately, nutrients such as available potassium, iron, and calcium became the most important predictors of L + Mav cover.

  3. Pollen indication to source plants in the eastern desert of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuecong; XU Qinghai; ZHAO Yingkui; YANG Xiaolan; XIAO Jule; CHEN Hui; L(U) Xinmiao

    2005-01-01

    , but the higher Xp and the lower Xa values make that these pollen types can also indicate source plants moderately. Allium, Leguminosae, Roseceae, Pedicularis and Compositae have low A scores (less than 0.5), high O and/or U scores, so they cannot indicate source plants clearly. Some other pollen types, such as Pinus, Picea, Betula, Quercus, Ulmus, Ephedra, Elaegnaceae, Ranunculaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Polygonaceae, Saxifragaceae, only appear in pollen assemblages, so their indication cannot be decided. Just like the pollen percentage ratios of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae (A/C), the ratios of Ephedra and Artemisia (E/A), Nitraria and Ephedra (N/E) can also indicate the aridity of environment. In typical desert communities, A/C ratios are less than 0.5, E/A ratios are more than 0.1, and N/E ratios are less than 1. In steppe desert, A/C ratios are 0.5―2, E/A ratios are less than 0.1, and N/E ratios are more than 1.

  4. Epidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis at a Focus Monitored by the Multinational Force and Observers in the Northeastern Sinai Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL). in the MFO zone of operation, there is concern Logistical limitations made it impossible to in- that the New World L...in the Negev the peace keeping forcc in east Sinai. J Egypt (Yotvata). llarefuah 67: 41-45. Soc Parasitol 19: 725-733. 19. Giladi M. Danon YL...Tech Rep 20. Giladi M. Danon YL. Greenblatt CL. Block C. Ser 793. Schinder E. 1988. Local environmental risk fac- 5. Kubba R. AI-Gindan Y. EI-Hassan AM

  5. PIXE micro-mapping of minor elements in Hypatia, a diamond bearing carbonaceous stone from the Libyan Desert Glass area, Egypt: Inheritance from a cold molecular cloud?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreoli, M.A.G., E-mail: marco.andreoli@wits.ac.za [School of Geosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Box 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Przybylowicz, W.J. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics & Applied Computer Science, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Kramers, J.; Belyanin, G. [Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Westraadt, J. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Bamford, M. [Evolutionary Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Box 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Venter, A. [South African Nuclear Energy Corporation, P.O. Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    Matter originating from space, particularly if it represents rare meteorite samples, is ideally suited to be studied by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) as this analytical technique covers a broad range of trace elements and is per se non-destructive. We describe and interpret a set of micro-PIXE elemental maps obtained on two minute (weighing about 25 and 150 mg), highly polished fragments taken from Hypatia, a controversial, diamond-bearing carbonaceous pebble from the SW Egyptian desert. PIXE data show that Hypatia is chemically heterogeneous, with significant amounts of primordial S, Cl, P and at least 10 elements with Z > 21 (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Os, Ir) locally attaining concentrations above 500 ppm. Si, Al, Ca, K, O also occur, but are predominantly confined to cracks and likely represent contamination from the desert environment. Unusual in the stone is poor correlation between elements within the chalcophile (S vs. Cu, Zn) and siderophile (i.e.: Fe vs. Ni, Ir, Os) groups, whereas other siderophiles (Mn, Mo and the Platinum group elements (PGEs)) mimic the distribution of lithophile elements such as Cr and V. Worthy of mention is also the presence of a globular domain (Ø ∼ 120 μm) that is C and metals-depleted, yet Cl (P)-enriched (>3 wt.% and 0.15 wt.% respectively). While the host of the Cl remains undetermined, this chemical unit is enclosed within a broader domain that is similarly C-poor, yet Cr–Ir rich (up to 1.2 and 0.3 wt.% respectively). Our data suggest that the pebble consists of shock-compacted, primitive carbonaceous material enriched in cold, pre-solar dust.

  6. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.; El-Hadidy, M.; Deif, A.; Abou Elenean, K.

    2012-12-01

    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5°) within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA) values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  7. Depth determination of the subsurface uranium deposits using CR-39 cylindrical technique in Gneissoic granitic rocks, Abu Rushied area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed F. Hassan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Using solid state nuclear track detectors and employing CR-39 cylindrical technique, the depth of the subsurface uranium deposits were determined. This techniques depends mainly on the nuclear track detector situated in zigzag form inside a polyethylene cylinder of 65 cm length and 7 cm diameter. This technique was applied on a borehole in a granite mass Abu Rushied area, southeast area desert. The obtained results revealed that, the depth of U -ore deposited reached about 89 m with thickness nearly 24 m. The obtained data for radon concentrations were also used for the determination of the exhalation rates, the measured values for exhalation rate (mBqm−2h−1 varies between 6.14E-03 at h = 50 cm and 4.53E-02 at h = 10 cm, The obtained values are comparable with that recorded for the granite type of rock.

  8. Impact of the geological structures on the groundwater potential using geophysical techniques in West Bani Mazar area, El Minia - Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Hussein Hosni; Kotb, Adel Diab Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    Establishment of the new agricultural projects in west Bani Mazar area, El Minia, Egypt needs a good knowledge about groundwater. Groundwater serves as the unique source of water supplies in the study area. Vertical Electrical Sounding technique is a convenient tool for groundwater exploration. This technique was utilized to illustrate the geoelectric succession, vertical and spatial extensions of the encountered layers, depth to water bearing layers and the structures affecting these layers. Profiling technique was carried out along a grid pattern using different half current electrode spacings (150 m, 300 m and 500 m) to clarify changes in resistivity values throughout the study area at different depths. Geoelectric layers B1 and B2 of the saturated zone are suitable for groundwater extraction in the study area. The resistivity values of the geoelectric layer B1 decrease towards the West direction, they decrease from 23.0 Ωm to 16.0 Ωm; and its thicknesses increase towards the SE direction from 12.0 m to 18.0 m. Whereas, the resistivity values of the geoelectric layer B2 decrease towards the NW direction from 40.0 Ωm to 26.5 Ωm; and its thicknesses vary from 34.0 m to 40.0 m. The depths to the upper surface of the water bearing layer B1 increase towards the NW direction from 44.0 m to 89.4 m. Based on the results obtained from the Vertical Electrical Soundings, four two-dimensional resistivity imaging profiles were measured at the selected sites. These 2-D resistivity profiles aim to determine depths to the water bearing layers, their thicknesses and the shallow structure. The inverted models of these profiles matched with the geoelectric sequence at these sites. In addition, a normal fault is detected at the northwestern part of the study area. According to the results obtained from this study it is clear that the groundwater in the area under consideration is occurred in the fractured limestone layers that belong to Eocene Age. Resistivity values of the

  9. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  10. Basin deconstruction-construction: Seeking thermal-tectonic consistency through the integration of geochemical thermal indicators and seismic fault mechanical stratigraphy ​- Example from Faras Field, North Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigott, John D.; Abouelresh, Mohamed O.

    2016-02-01

    To construct a model of a sedimentary basin's thermal tectonic history is first to deconstruct it: taking apart its geological elements, searching for its initial conditions, and then to reassemble the elements in the temporal order that the basin is assumed to have evolved. Two inherent difficulties implicit to the analysis are that most organic thermal indicators are cumulative, irreversible and a function of both temperature and time and the non-uniqueness of crustal strain histories which complicates tectonic interpretations. If the initial conditions (e.g. starting maturity of the reactants and initial crustal temperature) can be specified and the boundary conditions incrementally designated from changes in the lithospheric heat engine owing to stratigraphic structural constraints, then the number of pathways for the temporal evolution of a basin is greatly reduced. For this investigation, model input uncertainties are reduced through seeking a solution that iteratively integrates the geologically constrained tectonic subsidence, geochemically constrained thermal indicators, and geophysically constrained fault mechanical stratigraphy. The Faras oilfield in the Abu Gharadig Basin, North Western Desert, Egypt, provides an investigative example of such a basin's deconstructive procedure. Multiple episodes of crustal extension and shortening are apparent in the tectonic subsidence analyses which are constrained from the fault mechanical stratigraphy interpreted from reflection seismic profiles. The model was iterated with different thermal boundary conditions until outputs best fit the geochemical observations. In so doing, the thermal iterations demonstrate that general relationship that basin heat flow increases decrease vertical model maturity gradients, increases in surface temperatures shift vertical maturity gradients linearly to higher values, increases in sediment conductivities lower vertical maturities with depth, and the addition of "ghost" layers

  11. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  12. Egypt`s potential for geothermal energy use and underground storage of thermal energy; Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung geothermischer Energie und zur unterirdischen thermischen Energiespeicherung in Aegypten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, A.M.; Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    Egypt belongs to the arid to extremely arid zone. Hot springs or wells are chiefly distributed over the areas of the Golf of Suez shoreline, along the Red Sea coast and in the Bahariya, Dakhla and Kharga oasis in the Western Desert. The Red Sea with it`s branches into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba/Jordan valley is the northern end of the East African Rift, which is tectonically active and yields further south known geothermal resources (e.g. in Kenya). Thus, a relatively high het flow zone exists on the eastern border of the Gulf of Suez, on Sinai peninsula. The hot springs of Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon and El Sokhna are located there. Hammam Faroun is the hottest spring in Egypt with water temperature of approx. 70 C. This paper compiles previous studies from Egypt to elucidate the geothermal potential of Egypt and opportunities to make use of it. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aegypten gehoert zur ariden bis extrem ariden Zone. Heisse Quellen oder erbohrte heisse Waesser finden sich hauptsaechlich entlang der Kueste des Golfs von Suez und des Roten Meeres, sowie in den Oasen Bahariya, Dakhla und Kharga in der westlichen Wueste. Das Rote Meer mit seinen Verzweigungen in den Golf von Suez und in den Golf von Akaba/Jordangraben bildet den noerdlichen Abschluss des Ostafrikanischen Grabensystems, das tektonisch sehr aktiv ist und weiter suedlich (z.B. in Kenia) bekannte geothermische Ressourcen bietet. Eine Zone mit hohem geothermischen Waermefluss befindet sich dementsprechend auch am oestlichen Rand des Golfs von Suez, der zur Halbinsel Sinai gehoehrt. Hier werden die heissen Quellen von Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon und El Sokhna angetroffen. Hammam Faraon ist die heisseste Quelle Aegyptens mit Wassertemperaturen von etwa 70 C. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht, einige fruehere Studien aus Aegypten zusammenzufassen und das geothermische Potential Aegyptens mit den Moeglichkeiten seiner Nutzung aufzuzeigen. (orig.)

  13. An Integrated Approach (TRMM, MODIS, AVHRR, and Rain Gauge) for Assessment of Precipitation in Arid Areas: A Case Study from the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, A.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Abdeldayem, A. W.

    2005-05-01

    Water shortages are major obstacles to sustainable development and a cause for poverty in arid and semiarid countries. In these domains often the case, the appropriate systems (precipitation networks) that are needed to estimate precipitation on a regional scale are absent. We developed an integrated methodology to address this problem using data sets that are available on a global scale. We developed an integrated approach to improve estimates of renewable water resources. The approach utilizes the following data sets (1) TRMM-3B42V6 to extract 3-hourly precipitation data, (2) daily AVHRR data for soil moisture and NDVI measurements, (3) METEOSAT-7 for monitoring cloud movement, and (4) rain gauge data for ground truthing. Our approach entails identifying rain storm events from TRMM data. Following the identification of the events, we verify the individual events by examining the cloud patterns, examining the temporal variations in NDVI and soil moisture, and through comparisons with rain gauge data. For the year 1998, we examined in a GIS environment the following: TRMM scenes (2920 scenes), AVHRR data (365 scenes), METEOSAT (8760 scenes), and available rain gauge data. Findings indicate: (1) A general correspondence between TRMM data and rain gauge data, (2) A progressive increase in NDVI measurements following precipitation (peak after ~10 days), and (3) instantaneous increase in soil moisture. A similar (yet with a more restricted data set) exercise was conducted in year 1994, where a major flood occurred.

  14. Geology, Ore-microscopy and Fluid inclusion study on Auriferous Quartz Veins at the Gidami Gold Mine, Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Monsef, Mohamed; Salem, Ibrahim; Slobodnik, Marek

    2013-04-01

    The gold deposits are represented by auriferous quartz veins and aplitic dykes that are cutting through granitic rocks. The main lode of gold is confined to two principal veins occupying fracture zones and fissures. The main auriferous vein is striking mainly NNW-SSE with dipping 85° NE, it extends up to 450 m with an average thickness 120 cm. The second vein is striking NW-SE and dipping 60° E, it extends for 150 m with an average thickness 35 cm. The gold bearing veins are made up of fine grained quartz that is always massive, milky-white with reddish or greenish tint. They commonly include vugs, some of them are occasionally filled with iron oxides, carbonate and clay minerals. Sometimes the quartz veins enclose remnants of altered wall rock materials as an indication for the metamorphic or syntectonic nature of the veins. Brecciation, comb layering, swelling and nodules manganese dendrites are usually detected. The microscopic examination for thin and polished sections of auriferous quartz veins revealed that quartz and calcite are the predominant minerals commonly associated with accessory minerals (fluorite, apatite, zircon, muscovite and sericite). Ore mineral assemblage is found as disseminated sulfide minerals (pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, pyrrhotite covellite, galena and pentlandite). Ilmenite and goethite are the main iron oxide mineral phases. Gold most commonly occurs as small inclusions within pyrite or goethite. Gold also occurs as tiny grains scattered within quartz vein (in close proximity to the sulfides) or as disseminated grains in the altered wall rocks. Hydrothermal alteration includes silicification, kaolinitization, sericitisation, carbonatisation confined to a delicate set of veins. Petrography and microthermometry of fluid inclusions revealed that the majority of inclusions are of primary/pseudosecondary nature that occur in clusters and along growth zones or along intra-granular planar trails (pseudosecondary inclusions). Two types of samples were taken from the auriferous quartz vein; samples from the outer zone (Rim) and samples from the inner zone (Core). With respect to number of phases present at the room temperature (20 °C) there are two main groups of fluid inclusions can be recognized in both zones: A) two-phase - aqueous inclusions (Type I) and B) three-phase - carbonic-rich inclusions (Type II). Type I inclusions could be further subdivided into two sub-types (H2O-NaCl±KCl) and (H2O-NaCl±MgCl2) systems, based mainly on the eutectic temperature (Teu). For (H2O-NaCl±KCl) system, eutectic temperatures range from -22.1 °C to -23.9 °C at the rim and from -22.7 °C to -23.5 °C at the core. Values of homogenization temperatures (Th) are between (190.4 °C - 273.1 °C) at the rim and between (217 °C - 281.1 °C) at the core. Salinity has a range of (0.73 to 4.7 mass% of NaCl) at the rim and (0 to 1.65 mass% of NaCl) at the core. For (H2O-NaCl± MgCl2) system, eutectic temperatures range from -32.7 °C to -35 °C at the rim and from -33.9 °C to -34.2 °C at the core. Values of homogenization temperatures are up to 376.1 °C at the rim and between (310.6 °C - 480.2 °C) at the core. Salinity has a range of (2.15 to 3.8 mass% of NaCl) at the rim and (2.15 to 3.65 mass% of NaCl) at the core. Type II inclusions of (H2O-NaCl-CO2±CH4) system, most of them were homogenized to liquid state and the other were homogenized to vapour or rarely to critical state. The total homogenization temperature ranges between (260 °C - 340 °C) at the rim with low salinity (0 - 4.2 mass% NaCl equiv.) and density of range (0.49 - 0.86 g/cc). Within core samples, the total homogenization temperature ranges between (299.9 °C - 408.8 °C) with salinity (3.73 - 4.78 mass% of NaCl equiv.) and density of range (0.61 - 0.87 g/cc). These data are consistent with transportation of gold as a bisulphide complex, likely due to decreases in sulphur activity accompanying fluid unmixing.

  15. Mineral chemistry of monazite-(Nd, xenotime-(Y, apatite, fluorite and zircon hosting in lamprophyre dyke in Abu Rusheid area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The studied mineralized lamprophyre dyke in Abu Rusheid area is trending NNW-SSE, and occurs withinAbu Rusheid mineralized shear zone, measuring 0.2 - 1.0 m in width and 0.5 - 1.0 km in length. It was emplacedparallel with the Abu Rusheid shear zone. The dyke is mainly composed of plagioclases, amphiboles, mica (musco-vite and biotite, relics of pyroxenes with K-feldspars and quartz derived from surrounding country rocks asphenocrysts embedded in fine-grained groundmass. The lamprophyre dyke hosts REE-minerals monazite-(Nd,xenotime-(Y, and REE-bearing minerals apatite, fluorite, zircon-(Hf, rutile with inclusions of xenotime and ironoxides. The emplacement of lamprophyre dyke caused heating in the mineralized shear zone of Abu Rusheid area.The lamprophyre dyke was subsequently affected by hydrothermal alterations (e.g. chlorite-carbonate, muscovitization,fluoritization.The REE were remobilized from the mineralized shear zones by hydrothermal solutionsand re-precipitatedas REE-minerals xenotime-(Y and monazite-(Nd around flourapatite, fluorite, zircon andrutile. The solid solutions between monazite-(Nd and xenotime-(Y were formed as a product precipitation fromhydrothermal solutions. Also, the apatite mineral in the lamprophyre dyke was subjected to the heating duringthe emplacement, which lead to its alteration and breakdown with concominant precipitation of xenotime-(Yand monazite-(Nd. The chemistry of monazite-(Nd and xenotime-(Y obtained by scanning electron microscopy(SEM, and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA, showed that these minerals are enriched in U and Th. Themonazite-(Nd associated with fluorapatite in the studied dyke is poor in Th (0.02 ≤ Th ≤ 0.81 wt%, but usuallyrich in U (0.92 ≤ U ≤ 2.91 wt%, which indicates that monazite formed as a result of flourapatite metasomatism.

  16. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuo El-Ela A. Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba–Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  17. Remote sensing observations of sand movement in the Bahariya Depression, Western Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Ted A.; Jacobberger, Patricia A.

    1987-01-01

    Aerial photographs taken in the 1940's have been used in combination with recent Landsat MSS and TM data to study dune movement in the Western Desert of Egypt. The El-Ghorabi dunes track northwest to southeast along the eastern edge of the Bahariya Depression. These dunes are of complex longitudinal form with well-defined, lag-covered interdune corridors. Studies using both aerial coverage and multitemporal MSS and TM image data reveal little or no net southward extension or movement of the seifs, although field measurements and remote sensing data indicate small-scale lateral migration of dune crests and interdune corridors through time. The primary process of sand transport for these dunes seems to be in response to seasonal shifts in dominant wind direction, as reflected in the development and rapid response of sand shadows leeward of the main dune masses.

  18. Vegetation history along the eastern, desert escarpment of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Camille A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Rylander, Kate A.

    2011-05-01

    Plant macrofossils from 38 packrat middens spanning the last ~ 33,000 cal yr BP record vegetation between ~ 650 and 900 m elevation along the eastern escarpment of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, northern Baja California. The middens span most of the Holocene, with a gap between ~ 4600 and 1800 cal yr BP, but coverage in the Pleistocene is uneven with a larger hiatus between 23,100 and 14,400 cal yr BP. The midden flora is relatively stable from the Pleistocene to Holocene. Exceptions include Pinus californiarum, Juniperus californica and other chaparral elements that were most abundant > 23,100 cal yr BP and declined after 14,400 cal yr BP. Despite being near the chaparral/woodland-desertscrub ecotone during glacial times, the midden assemblages reflect none of the climatic reversals evident in the glacial or marine record, and this is corroborated by a nearby semi-continuous pollen stratigraphy from lake sediments. Regular appearance of C 4 grasses and summer-flowering annuals since 13,600 cal yr BP indicates occurrence of summer rainfall equivalent to modern (JAS average of ~ 80-90 mm). This casts doubt on the claim, based on temperature proxies from marine sediments in the Guaymas Basin, that monsoonal development in the northern Gulf and Arizona was delayed until after 6200 cal yr BP.

  19. Monazite paragenesis and U-Pb systematics in rocks of the eastern Mojave Desert, California, U.S.A.: implications for thermochronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, J.A.; Miller, C.F.; Wooden, J.L.; Harrison, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the paragenesis and U-Pb systematics of monazite in rocks from the eastern Mojave Desert, California, corroborate its potential usefulness as a prograde thermochronometer and in dating granite inheritance. Unmetamorphosed Latham Shale and its equivalents at grades ranging from greenschist to upper amphibolite facies are virtually identical in composition. Monazite is absent in the shale and low-grade schists, but it is abundant in schists at staurolite and higher grades. Lower-grade schists instead include minute Th- and Ce-oxides and unidentified Ce-poor LREE-phosphates that apparently are lower-temperature precursors to monazite. Thus monazite originates when the pelite passes through lower-amphibolite-facies conditions. Monazites from three Upper Cretaceous granites yield ages that are strongly discordant. Upper intercepts of 1.6-1.7 Ga are similar to those defined by U-Pb data for coexisting zircons and coincide with a period of copious magmatism in the Mojave crust. As the host Upper Cretaceous granitic magmas were all above 700??C, effective closure of the restitic monazites to Pb loss must be well in excess of this temperature. U-Pb compositions of monazite from Proterozoic granitoids and schist also indicate high Pb retentivity. Taken together, these studies support the suggestion that monazite can be an effective prograde thermochronometer. At least in pelites, it is not usually retained as a detrital mineral, but rather forms during moderate-temperature metamorphism. Its U-Pb system should not be reset by subsequent higher-grade metamorphism. ?? 1993.

  20. Wind atlas for Egypt: Measurements, micro- and mesoscale modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.; Badger, J.

    2006-01-01

    with SRTM 3 elevation data and satellite imagery, provide the means for immediate WAsP wind resource assessments anywhere in Egypt. In addition to the very high wind resource in the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, the wind atlas has discovered a large region in the Western Desert with a fairly high resource...

  1. The Toshka mirage in the Egyptian desert - river diversion as political diversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Egypt's geography renders it vulnerable to water scarcity, but also enables it to control its inflow. After a run of high influx years from the Nile, Egypt embarked on a project to utilise the surplus water by planning a gigantic desert development project, Toshka, in the late 1990s. The present con

  2. The Toshka mirage in the Egyptian desert - river diversion as political diversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Egypt's geography renders it vulnerable to water scarcity, but also enables it to control its inflow. After a run of high influx years from the Nile, Egypt embarked on a project to utilise the surplus water by planning a gigantic desert development project, Toshka, in the late 1990s. The present

  3. Gamma-ray measurements of natural radioactivity in sedimentary rocks from Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure concentrations and distributions of natural radionuclides occurring mentary rock samples from Eastern Desert (Um El-Huetat), Nile Valley (Gebel Owina) and from southwest Sinai (Wadi Ghweiba) were measured using a high-purity germanium detector. The samples under investigation (clay, shale and sandstone) were used as raw materials in the construction industry (bricks, ceramics, cement, fillers, etc.). Though the sediments of Egypt have already been investigated in the geological and mineralogical aspects, it is necessary to investigate the natural radioactivity in order to complete their classification. The average concentration values of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K in the surveyed samples were 47 ± 7,21± 5, 393±19 Bq.kg-1 (clay); 23 ± 5, 30 ± 6, 563 ± 24 Bq.kg-1(shale); and 17 ± 4, 14 ± 4, 299 ± 17 Bq.kg-1 (sandstone), respectively. All sediment samples have radium equivalent natural radionuclides present in the samples have been computed and compared with the global averages. In terms of the radiation safety, the natural radioactivity of the sediment in Egypt is below the recommended limits of the gamma dose rate. Therefore, they can be used for all kinds of public buildings.

  4. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  5. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  6. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  7. Desert Scrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.L.C.; Halama, K.J.; Lovich, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    Desert scrublands comprise the lower to mid-elevation portions of four different ecosystems including the Chihuahuan, Great Basin, Mojave and Sonoran Deserts. Together the area inside their outer boundaries includes over 8% of the surface area of the United States. Despite significant differences in the flora and fauna of these bioregions they all share the common trait of being arid shrub-steppe ecosystems, receiving, on average, less than 254 mm of rain per year. The austere nature of these landscapes belies their significant biodiversity, the amazing behavioral and physiological adaptations of the biota, and the fragility of the ecosystems to human disturbances. For example, the Mojave Desert alone has at least 250 species of ephemeral plants, mostly winter annuals, and up to 90% are endemic.

  8. Napoleon in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to…

  9. A dynamic simulation model of desertification in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasmy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a system dynamic model to simulate and analyze potential future state of desertification in Egypt. The presented model enhances the MEDALUS methodology developed by European Commission. It illustrates the concept of desertification through different equations and simulation output graphs. It is supplemented with a causal loop diagram showing the feedback between different variables. For the purpose of testing and measuring the effect of different policy scenarios on desertification in Egypt, a simulation model using stock and flow diagram was designed. Multi-temporal data were used to figure out the dynamic changes in desertification sensitivity related to the dynamic nature of desert environment. The model was applied to Al Bihira governorate in western Nile Delta, Egypt, as the study area, and the results showed that the urban expansion, salinization, and not applying the policy enforcement are considered the most variables provoking the desertification.

  10. Isolation of biologically active constituents from Moringa peregrina (Forssk. Fiori. (family: Moringaceae growing in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha S El-Alfy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Moringa peregrina is a wild plant that grown in the eastern desert mountains in Egypt. Although, this plant is native to Egypt, no details studies were traced on its chemical composition and biological activity. Materials and Methods: The different fractions of the ethanolic extract of the dried aerial parts of the plants were subjected to fractionation and purification on various silica and sephadex columns for the isolation of the major compounds which were tested for there anticancer activity. The aqueous and ethanolic extract as well as its different fractions were tested for antihyperglycemic effect on Streptozitocin-induced diabetes in rats. Results: Investigation of the different fractions of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of M. peregrina yielded lupeol acetate (1, β-amyrin (2, α-amyrin (3, β-sitosterol (4, β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside (5, apigenin (6, rhamnetin (7, neochlorogenic acid (10, rhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (12, and 6-methoxy-acacetin-8-C-β-glucoside (13 which were isolated for the first time from the plant. Compound (13 was isolated for the first time from genus Moringa. In addition, quercetin (8, chryseriol-7-O-rhamnoside (9 and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (11 were also isolated. Identification has been established by spectral data (UV, MS, IR, 1H, 1H -1H COSY, and 13C-NMR. The major isolated compounds were found to have valuable cytotoxic activities against breast (MCF 7 and colon (HCT 116 cancer cell lines and their activities were comparable to the reference drug doxorubicin. On the other hand, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts as well as the n-hexane fraction were found to have potent antihyperglycemic effect on Streptozitocin-induced diabetes in rats. Conclusion: The Egyptian plant M. peregrina is rich in biologically active ingredients which showed potent cytotoxic activity and also its ethanolic extraxt exert a significant antihyperglycemic effect.

  11. Desert and desertification in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the greatest environmental concerns in Iran as in other arid and semiarid countries is the transformation of once productive, or marginally productive, land to deteriorated land and soil unable to support plants and animals. Because the land becomes barren and dry, the process is described as desertification, which occurs as a sequence of events. The area of deserts in Iran is about 340,000 Km2 (less than one fifth of its total area), of which 100,000 Km2 is being used for some cultivation, 120,000 Km2 is subjected to moving sands about 40 % of which is active sand dunes. Most of features and processes usual in world famous deserts are also observed in Iran: low precipitation, high evaporation, poor or lack of vegetation, saline and alkaline soils, low population and small and sparse oases. The deserts of Iran are generally classified in the subtropical, warm, arid and semiarid group, but the effect and presence of some geographical and geoclimatical factors such as height, vicinity to Indian Ocean and so on do some changes in climatic conditions and geographical features causing some local and regional differences in them. Geographically, two groups of deserts have been known in Iran: (1) Coastal deserts which, like a ribbon with variable width, stretch from extreme southeast to extreme southwest, at the north parts of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf. One important feature of these deserts is relatively high humidity which differentiates them from other deserts. This causes an increase in vegetation coverage and hence a decrease in eolian erosion and also a dominance of chemical weathering to that of physical. (2) internal deserts, which rest in central, eastern and southeastern plateau of the country and in independent and semi dependent depressions. This situation, which is due to the surrounding high mountains, blocks humidity entry and causes the aridity of these deserts. Wind as a dominant process in the area causes deflated features such as Reg (desert

  12. Desert Shield and Desert Storm Emerging Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-07

    by identifying activo component an civilian maintenance instructors to replace active component instructors receiving orders for war or other PCS sites...STORM Desert scenarios in UCOFT 81619 /61WY (00687) DESERT STORM Activo Tank Table 911 816sy 90990 (006m) DESERT STloM Degraded Mode Guoery WS1W 4042iA

  13. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  14. Late Eocene diatomite from the Peruvian coastal desert, coastal upwelling in the eastern Pacific, and Pacific circulation before the terminal Eocene event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marty, R.; Dunbar, R.; Martin, J.B.; Baker, P.

    1988-09-01

    Previously undocumented late Eocene diatomaceous sediments are present near Fundo Desbarrancado (FD) in southern Peru. These sediments are similar to Miocene diatomite from the same area but, unlike the Miocene diatomite, the FD sediments contain cherty layers, are enriched in CaCO/sub 3/, have a diverse and abundant radiolarian fauna, and possess varved-massive and millimeter- and meter-scale biogenic-terrigenous alternations. The FD sediments are part of an Eocene sequence that includes the clastic sediments of the Paracas Formation, and they are correlative to the Chira Formation of northern Peru. The Paleogene biogenic sediments of western South America show that coastal upwelling developed in the eastern Pacific before the latest Eocene, argue for the existence of a proto-Humboldt current at this time, and suggest that the terminal Eocene event was the culmination of gradual changes and not a catastrophic event at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary.

  15. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities.

  16. Surgery in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Zawahry, M D; Ramzy, A F; el-Sahwi, E; Bahnasy, A F; Khafaga, M; Rizk-Allah, M A; Abou el-Hoda, M F

    1997-07-01

    The history of medicine can never be complete without referral to ancient Egyptian medicine. Imhotep has been identified as the god of medicine. There are 13 faculties of medicine in Egypt; the oldest is the Kasr El Aini Faculty, which started in 1925. We review undergraduate and postgraduate education in Egypt. The Egyptian Society of Surgeons organizes the scientific surgical activities. Schistosomiasis is a national health problem. Health care is provided by many types of hospitals, including university, teaching, Ministry of Public Health, military, and private hospitals.

  17. Analytical results and sample locality map for rock, stream-sediment, and soil samples, Northern and Eastern Coloado Desert BLM Resource Area, Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Harley D.; Chaffee, Maurice A.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 1996-1998 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geochemical study of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) 5.5 million-acre Northern and Eastern Colorado Desert Resource Area (usually referred to as the NECD in this report), Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, southeastern California (figure 1). This study was done in support of the BLM's Coordinated Management Plan for the area. This report presents analytical data from this study. To provide comprehensive coverage of the NECD, we compiled and examined all available geochemical data, in digital form, from previous studies in the area, and made sample-site plots to aid in determining where sample-site coverage and analyses were sufficient, which samples should be re-analyzed, and where additional sampling was needed. Previous investigations conducted in parts of the current study area included the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program studies of the Needles and Salton Sea 1? x 2? quadrangles; USGS studies of 12 BLM Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) (Big Maria Mountains, Chemehuevi Mountains, Chuckwalla Mountains, Coxcomb Mountains, Mecca Hills, Orocopia Mountains, Palen-McCoy, Picacho Peak, Riverside Mountains, Sheephole Valley (also known as Sheep Hole/Cadiz), Turtle Mountains, and Whipple Mountains); and USGS studies in the Needles and El Centro 1? x 2? quadrangles done during the early 1990s as part of a project to identify the regional geochemistry of southern California. Areas where we did new sampling of rocks and stream sediments are mainly in the Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range and in Joshua Tree National Park, which extends into the west-central part of the NECD, as shown in figure 1 and figure 2. This report contains analytical data for 132 rock samples and 1,245 stream-sediment samples collected by the USGS, and 362 stream-sediment samples and 189 soil samples collected during the NURE program. All samples are from the Northern and Eastern Colorado

  18. Seismicity and kinematic evolution of middle Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, A.; Abdel-Monem, S. M.; Sakr, K.; Ali, Sh. M.

    2006-08-01

    Based on historical and instrumental seismicity as well as recent GPS measurements, the seismicity and kinematic evaluation of middle Egypt is presented. Middle Egypt suffered in historical times by six major earthquakes and the Ramses II temple on the west bank of the Nile in Luxor, was almost destroyed by an ancient event. The temporal distribution of recent earthquakes (1900-1997) is highly scattered with only nine events recorded. Only after the installation of the modern Egyptian national seismograph network (ENSN) the seismic record of middle Egypt increased with a total of 280 earthquakes from 1998 to 2004. Focal mechanism solutions of the largest five events during the ENSN's operation period reveal reverse faulting mechanism with minor strike-slip component on the west bank of the Nile, while a normal faulting mechanism dominate in the eastern side. The orientations of both P- and T-axes are consistent with the Red Sea-Gulf of Suez stress field. Dynamic source parameters of these five events were derived from P-wave spectra as well. Three campaigns of GPS measurements were carried out for the middle Egypt network that established after the first instrumental earthquake on 14 December 1998 in this area. The velocity vectors for each epoch of observations were calculated and deformation analysis was performed. The horizontal velocity varies between 1 and 4 mm/year across the network. The deformation pattern suggests significant contraction across the southeastern sector of the study area while, the northwestern part is characterized by an extension strain rates. High shear strain is observed along the epicenteral area of the Mw = 4.0 June 2003 earthquake possibly reflecting the stress accumulation stage of a seismic cycle.

  19. Discrimination of inland and coastal dunes in Eastern Saudi Arabia desert system: An approach from particle size and textural parameter variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeshidayatullah, Ardiansyah; Chan, Septriandi Asmaidi; Al-Ghamdi, Majed; Akif, Tariq; Al-Ramadan, Khalid

    2016-05-01

    Different particle size parameters have been investigated in this study in order to distinguish the characteristics of different dune morphologies in the Eastern Saudi Arabia. Sand samples were collected from various environments including: the stoss, lee, crest and interdune sides of the inland dunes and foreshore; berm; backshore and backdune of the coastal dunes. Statistical parameters reveal that the majority of inland dune samples are dominated by well sorted fine sand whereas coastal dune samples are mainly dominated by very coarse to medium sand, ranging from well sorted to moderately sorted with a low percentage of silt and clay. The presence of relatively coarser grains in the coastal dunes might be explained by continuous wind deflation along the coast together with wave and tidal activities that concentrate coarser grains. Cross-plots from four statistical parameters and supported by the ANOVA test clearly distinguish the particle variations between these dunes. The log-probability analysis suggest that the main transport mechanism in inland and coastal dunes is dominated by the saltation population, comprising up to 80 percent of the distribution. However, the coastal dunes suspension population is mostly belonging to coarser grained material, whereas the inland dunes population is finer. In comparison with particle size characteristics of dunes in the region, the current study shows a close relationship to mean particle size in Iraq, but is relatively finer compared to the Kuwait dunes. This similarity and difference in particle size variation is mostly controlled by the proximity to the coast and also the wind energy and variation in the wind direction.

  20. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  1. Political history of modern Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Islam Islami

    2016-07-01

    Gamal Abdel Nasser was the one who established the Republic of Egypt and ended the monarchy rule in Egypt following the Egyptian revolution in 1952. Egypt was ruled autocratically by three presidents over the following six decades, by Nasser from 1954 until his death in 1970, by Anwar Sadat from 1971 until his assassination 1981, and by Hosni Mubarak from 1981 until his resignation in the face of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

  2. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background - Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin...

  3. More sustainable energy in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, L.

    2007-01-01

    Last autumn, Risø completed eight years of work mapping out Egypt’s wind climate and wind resources. The result was a 260-page Wind Atlas for Egypt. Thanks to this, Egypt will be able to increase the share of renewable energy.......Last autumn, Risø completed eight years of work mapping out Egypt’s wind climate and wind resources. The result was a 260-page Wind Atlas for Egypt. Thanks to this, Egypt will be able to increase the share of renewable energy....

  4. Myxomycetes from upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raheem, Ahmed M

    2002-01-01

    The results of the first inventory of Myxomycetes from the subtropical region Upper Egypt are reported. The substrates were wood, bark of living and dead tree and leaf litter. 20 species belonging to 17 genera of Myxomycetes were identified. Wood was the best substrate for Myxomycetes colonization. Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa, Didymiun melanospermum, Licea biforis and Lycogala epidendrum were the most common species. Brief description and classification of species are provided.

  5. Geophysical Evaluation for Wadi Rayan Field, Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Othman

    2016-03-01

    There are two intervals of producing sandstone which not only vary from one well to another but also not deposited in some wells. For these reasons, it is important to integrate all available geological and geophysical data to come up with a model for ARG reservoir.

  6. Geochemistry of lamprophyres associated with uranium mineralization, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two brecciated shear zones (NNW-SSE) are found crosscutting cataclastic rocks. The cataclastic rocks (3.0 km2) occupy the core of the granitic pluton and enclose a roof pendant of mafic-ultramafic rocks. The NNW-SSE-extending lamprophyre dykes vary in thickness from 0.5 m to 1 m and up to 800 m long, cutting the cataclastic rocks and are composed mainly of plagioclases, amphiboles, relics of pyroxenes and K-feldspar phenocrysts embedded in fine-grained groundmass. They are characterized as being peraluminous, calc-alkaline in composition (chemical trap) and enriched in calcite, sulfide and P2O5.The lamprophyres were affected by hydrothermal alteration (chlorite-carbonate alteration) while the cataclastic rocks were affected by diagenetic alteration (K-feldspar-albite alteration).Uranium mineralization is the product of hydrothermal events and has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), involving primary uranium minerals (U3O8) and secondary uranium minerals (uranophane and beta-uranophane, kasolite, torbernite, autonite and meta-autonite) in addition to U-bearing minerals (astrocyanite, betafite and fergusonite).The presence of different mineral parageneses associated with clay minerals indicates that the lamprophyres were subjected to acidic and alkaline mineralizing solutions. Moreover, the U-Zr/U, U-Ce/U values show negative correlations, confirming U-enrichment in both cataclastic rocks and shear zones while the Th-eU/eTh, Th-Zr/Th and Th-Ce/Th values show negative correlations, indicating that the U-bearing solutions are rich in Th in the cataclastic rocks only.

  7. Mesozoic evolution of northeast African shelf margin, Libya and Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.; Schamel, S.

    1989-03-01

    The present tectonic features of the northeast African shelf margin between the Nile delta and the Gulf of Sirte are products of (1) precursory late Paleozoic basement arches, (2) early Mesozoic rifting and plate separation, and (3) Late Cretaceous structural inversion. The 250 km-wide and highly differentiated Mesozoic passive margin in the Western Desert region of Egypt is developed above a broad northwest-trending Late Carboniferous basement arch. In northeastern Libya, in contrast, the passive margin is restricted to just the northernmost Cyrenaica platform, where subsidence was extremely rapid in the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. The boundary between the Western Desert basin and the Cyrenaica platform is controlled by the western flank of the basement arch. In the middle Cretaceous (100-90 Ma), subsidence accelerated over large areas of the Western desert, further enhancing a pattern of east-west-trending subbasins. This phase of rapid subsidence was abruptly ended about 80 Ma by the onset of structural inversion that uplifted the northern Cyrenaica shelf margin and further differentiated the Western Desert subbasin along a northeasterly trend.

  8. Systematic Revision of the Genus Pancratium L. (Amaryllidaceae in Egypt with a New Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza EL-HADIDY

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, taxonomic aspects of the genus Pancratium L. (Amaryllidaceae, Pancratieae were thoroughly studied to point out the most reliable characters for taxon delimitation. Here, we base our species on both geographical and morphological features. The detailed taxonomic revision of genus Pancratium is based on field studies and the examination of representative specimens together with the authentic types deposited in the major herbaria of Egypt and Kew. Variations in the aerial scape, spathe, perianth, corona-teeth, pistil, stamens, capsules and seeds, as well as those of leaf base and leaf orientation are good markers to separate the different species. As a result, five species are recognized, including P. trianthum as a new record to the flora of Egypt. It is restricted to the south-eastern corner of Egypt (Gebel Elba region and being unique in possessing solitary spathe and long attenuate leaf base. A specific key and descriptions are given with typifications.

  9. Habitat selection by juvenile Mojave Desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian D; Halstead, Brian J.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Peaden, J. Mark; Buhlmann, Kurt A.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Nafus, Melia G.

    2016-01-01

    Growing pressure to develop public lands for renewable energy production places several protected species at increased risk of habitat loss. One example is the Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), a species often at the center of conflicts over public land development. For this species and others on public lands, a better understanding of their habitat needs can help minimize negative impacts and facilitate protection or restoration of habitat. We used radio-telemetry to track 46 neonate and juvenile tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert, California, USA, to quantify habitat at tortoise locations and paired random points to assess habitat selection. Tortoise locations near burrows were more likely to be under canopy cover and had greater coverage of perennial plants (especially creosote [Larrea tridentata]), more coverage by washes, a greater number of small-mammal burrows, and fewer white bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) than random points. Active tortoise locations away from burrows were closer to washes and perennial plants than were random points. Our results can help planners locate juvenile tortoises and avoid impacts to habitat critical for this life stage. Additionally, our results provide targets for habitat protection and restoration and suggest that diverse and abundant small-mammal populations and the availability of creosote bush are vital for juvenile desert tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert.

  10. Egypt Highlighted at International Tourism Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    During the Beijing International Travel and Tourism Market 2006 (BITTM) fair, the Egypt Tourism Authority launched a tourism-promotional campaign, entitled "Egypt Shines for You." To mark the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Egypt, the Egypt Tourism Authority plans to implement a year-long promotional initiative in China to popularize Egypt's tourist destinations and culture. Dr. Nasser Abdel-Aal, Tourism Counselor at the Egyptian

  11. Egypt & Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Financial crisis that occurred in August 2008 was unforeseen, sudden, sharp, and had a great impact on the global financial market. Egypt is one of the countries was affected by this financial crisis as a market economy country, and WTO member. in this paper I will try to study the implication of such crisis on the Egyptian economy in the fields of tourism, Suez canal, oil field, and GDP, not only the economy factor were effected, but also the Egyptian market represented in its compon...

  12. Desert dust hazards: A global review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, N. J.

    2017-02-01

    Dust storms originate in many of the world's drylands and frequently present hazards to human society, both within the drylands themselves but also outside drylands due to long-range transport of aeolian sediments. Major sources of desert dust include the Sahara, the Middle East, central and eastern Asia, and parts of Australia, but dust-raising occurs all across the global drylands and, on occasion, beyond. Dust storms occur throughout the year and they vary in frequency and intensity over a number of timescales. Long-range transport of desert dust typically takes place along seasonal transport paths. Desert dust hazards are here reviewed according to the three phases of the wind erosion system: where dust is entrained, during the transport phase, and on deposition. This paper presents a synthesis of these hazards. It draws on empirical examples in physical geography, medical geology and geomorphology to discuss case studies from all over the world and in various fields. These include accelerated soil erosion in agricultural zones - where dust storms represent a severe form of accelerated soil erosion - the health effects of air pollution caused by desert aerosols via their physical, chemical and biological properties, transport accidents caused by poor visibility during desert dust events, and impacts on electricity generation and distribution. Given the importance of desert dust as a hazard to human societies, it is surprising to note that there have been relatively few attempts to assess their impact in economic terms. Existing studies in this regard are also reviewed, but the wide range of impacts discussed in this paper indicates that desert dust storms deserve more attention in this respect.

  13. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  14. 'Temple deposits in early dynastic Egypt : the case of Tell Ibrahim Awad'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarlem, Wilhelmus Maria van

    2014-01-01

    Extensive discussion of the several kinds of deposits (mainly consisting of votive objects) found in the Early Dynastic temple of Tell Ibrahim Awad in the Eastern Nile Delta of Egypt. A general description of the site and a specific description of the temple sequence is followed by a detailed

  15. Transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols across Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El-Askary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The flow of pollutants from Europe and desert dust to Europe from the Sahara desert both affects the air quality of the coastal regions of Egypt. As such, measurements from both ground and satellite observations assume great importance to ascertain the conditions and flow affecting the Nile Delta and the large city of Alexandria. We note that special weather conditions prevailing in the Mediterranean Sea result in a westerly wind flow pattern during spring and from North to South during the summer. Such flow patterns transport dust-loaded and polluted air masses from the Sahara desert and Europe, respectively, through Alexandria, and the Nile Delta in Egypt. We have carried out measurements acquired with a ground- based portable sun photometer (Microtops II and the satellite-borne TERRA/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor during the periods of October 1999–August 2001 and July 2002–September 2003. These measurements show a seasonal variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD following these flow patterns. Maximum aerosol loadings accompanied by total precipitable water vapor (W enhancements are observed during the spring and summer seasons. Pronounced changes have been observed in the Ångström exponent (α derived from ground-based measurements over Alexandria (31.14° N, 29.59° E during both dust and pollution periods. We have followed up the observations with a 3-day back-trajectories model to trace the probable sources and pathways of the air masses causing the observed aerosol loadings. We have also used other NASA model outputs to estimate the sea salt, dust, sulfates and black carbon AOD spatial distributions during different seasons. Our results reveal the probable source regions of these aerosol types, showing agreement with the trajectory and Ångström exponent analysis results. It is confirmed that Alexandria is subjected to different atmospheric conditions involving dust, pollution, mixed aerosols and

  16. Egypt- Old Ally, New Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    agriculture, land reclamation, pastoralism, petroleum, mining, fishing and tourism industries. The Egyptian government should simultaneously pursue a...Mohammed, Bioleaching of Rare Earth Elements and Uranium from Sinai Soil , Egypt Using Actinomycetes, The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine 2013

  17. The schistosomiasis problem in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, A B

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of past and current efforts to control schistosomiasis in Egypt, describes recent trends, and analyzes factors responsible for changes in transmission. For the purpose of long-term planning and developing control strategies, the country has been divided into eight geographic zones: Suez Canal Zone, Sainai, Nile Delta, Guiza, Fayoum, Middle Egypt, Upper Egypt, and the High Dam Lake Zone. Overall control priorities are examined and the strategy for each zone is described. The most recent information on changes in epidemiologic patterns of schistosomiasis in Egypt is mentioned, as well as the introduction of newer therapeutic agents. Lastly, the role of outside funding agencies in supporting schistosomiasis control is examined.

  18. Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in Egypt: Travel through Time: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida M.R. Barakat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (Trematodes of the genus Schistosoma (S.. It is well documented that schistosomiasis haematobium was endemic in Ancient Egypt. Infection was diagnosed in mummies 3000, 4000 and 5000 years old. Scott was the first to describe the pattern of schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. Schistosomiasis haematobium was highly prevalent (60% both in the Nile Delta and Nile Valley South of Cairo in districts of perennial irrigation while it was low (6% in districts of basin irrigation. Schistosoma mansoni infected 60% of the population in the Northern and Eastern parts of the Nile Delta and only 6% in the Southern part. Neither S. mansoni cases nor its snail intermediate host were found in the Nile Valley South of Cairo. The building of the Aswan High Dam -which was completed in 1967 – did not cause any increase in schistosomiasis prevalence. In 1990, a study conducted in nine governorates of Egypt confirmed the change in the pattern of schistosomiasis transmission in the Delta. There was an overall reduction in S. mansoni prevalence while Schistosoma haematobium had continued to disappear. In Middle and Upper Egypt there was consistent reduction in the prevalence of S. haematobium except in Sohag, Qena, and Aswan governorates. However, foci of S. mansoni were detected in Giza, Fayoum, Menya and Assiut. All schistosomiasis control projects implemented in Egypt from 1953 to 1985 adopted the strategy of transmission control and were based mainly on snail control supplemented by anti-bilharzial chemotherapy. In 1997, the National Schistosomiasis Control Program (NSCP was launched in the Nile Delta. It adopted morbidity control strategy with Praziquantel mass treatment as the main component. In 1996, before the NSCP, 168 villages had S. mansoni prevalence >30%, 324 villages 20–30% and 654 villages 10–20%. By the end of 2010, in the whole country only 29 villages had prevalence >3% and none had

  19. Cadmium status in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is inferred from these studies that releases of Cd are still increasing and it is recommended that measures must be taken to reduce emissions of cadmium. Any cadmium discharged into the Egyptian environment may move from one compartment to another at varying rates,resulting in an accumulation in compartments such as soils and biota. Such accumulation can be expected to increase with continued emissions,and attention should be given to all sources of cadmium, natural as well as anthropogenic especially in the industrial cities in Egypt. Cadmium present in sewage, as well as industrial effluent (also, other liquid and solid wastes) and sewage sludge will increase levels in soils and is xpected to contribute to dietary levels and body burdens. The current information indicates that such effects may have to be evaluated over long periods of time, possibly as long as 50 - 100 years.

  20. Egypt/FOF reorganize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In Egypt, both the national family planning program and the privately operated social marketing program, Family of the Future (FOF), are currently being reorganized. The Population and Family Planning Board, orginally charged with the responsibility of overseeing the national family planning program, was replaced by the newly created National Council. The reasons for the change and the type of program changes which will ensue from this organizational change are unclear. The FOF recently adopted a new management organizational structure, implemented a computerized management and information system, and initiated a staff training program. The management of the program's product line is now divided into 3 sections. There are separate sections for IUDs, barrier methods, and hormonal methods. Each section is responsible for developing a marketing plan for its products and overseeing the distribution of its products. The management staff is now provided with management skills training. To date, 9 managers have received training in management techniques in the US at George Washington University. Personal computers are being installed at the FOF office in Cairo. The system will be used to keep tract of inventory, volunteer activities, and product distribution and to handle accounting procedures. These innovations are expected to facilitate the handling of planned changes in FOF's product line. FOF will begin selling surgical gloves, as a supplemental item for its currently marketed IUD kit, and pregnancy testing kits for use by physicians and hospitals. Other anticipated introductions include Depo Provera, an injectable contraceptive, the new Ortho vaginal tablet which will replace the currently marketed Annan vaginal tablet, and possibly, the implant contraceptive, Norplant. Triton is currently under contract with the US Agency for International Development to provide technical assistance for the FOF program. This contract is due to expire in December, 1984, and a

  1. Mesozoic carbonate-siliciclastic platform to basin systems of a South Tethyan margin (Egypt, East Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassy, Aurélie; Crouzy, Emmanuel; Gorini, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2015-04-01

    The Mesozoïc Egyptian margin is the south margin of a remnant of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, at the African northern plate boundary. East Mediterranean basin developed during the late Triassic-Early Jurassic rifting with a NW-SE opening direction (Frizon de Lamotte et al., 2011). During Mesozoïc, Egypt margin was a transform margin with a NW-SE orientation of transform faults. In the Eastern Mediterranean basin, Mesozoïc margins are characterized by mixed carbonate-siliciclastics platforms where subsidence and eustacy are the main parameters controlling the facies distribution and geometries of the platform-to-basin transition. Geometries and facies on the platform-slope-basin system, today well constrained on the Levant area, where still poorly known on the Egyptian margin. Geometries and stratigraphic architecture of the Egyptian margin are revealed, thanks to a regional seismic and well data-base provided by an industrial-academic group (GRI, Total). The objective is to understand the sismostratigraphic architecture of the platform-slope-basin system in a key area from Western Desert to Nile delta and Levant margin. Mapping of the top Jurassic and top Cretaceous show seismic geomorphology of the margin, with the cartography of the hinge line from Western Desert to Sinaï. During the Jurassic, carbonate platform show a prograding profile and a distally thickening of the external platform, non-abrupt slope profiles, and palaeovalleys incisions. Since the Cretaceous, the aggrading and retrograding mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform show an alternation of steep NW-SE oblique segments and distally steepened segments. These structures of the platform edge are strongly controlled by the inherited tethyan transform directions. Along the hinge line, embayments are interpreted as megaslides. The basin infilling is characterised by an alternation of chaotic seismic facies and high amplitude reflectors onlaping the paleoslopes. MTC deposits can mobilize thick sedimentary

  2. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-25

    with France and Russia ............................................................................... 9 U.S. Policy: How Important is Egypt...ability to import food and fuel. 3 Tourism receipts, a major source of foreign exchange, 4 declined by 15% in 2015, as concern over terrorism...Egypt earned $7.2 billion in tourism revenues. In 2010, it had earned $12.5 billion. See, “Egypt sees Tourist Returns down 10 pct after Plane Crash

  3. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  4. An electrified dust storm over the Negev desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Yoav; Katz, Shai; Yaniv, Roy; Ziv, Baruch; Price, Colin

    2016-11-01

    We report on atmospheric electrical measurements conducted at the Wise Observatory in Mitzpe-Ramon, Israel (30°35‧N, 34°45‧E) during a large dust storm that occurred over the Eastern Mediterranean region on 10-11 February 2015. The dust was transported from the Sahara, Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula ahead of an approaching Cyprus low. Satellite images show the dust plume covering the Negev desert and Southern Israel and moving north. The concentrations of PM10 particles measured by the air-quality monitoring network of the Israeli Ministry of the Environment in Beer-Sheba reached values > 450 μg m- 3 and the AOT from the AERONET station in Sde-Boker was 1.5 on February 10th. The gradual intensification of the event reached peak concentrations on February 11th of over 1200 μg m- 3 and an AOT of 1.8. Continuous measurements of the fair weather vertical electric field (Ez) and vertical current density (Jz) were conducted at the Wise Observatory with 1 minute temporal resolution. Meteorological data was also recorded at the site. As the dust was advected over the observatory, very large fluctuations in the electrical parameters were registered. From the onset of the dust storm, the Ez values changed between + 1000 and + 8000 V m- 1 while the current density fluctuated between - 10 pA m2 and + 20 pA m2, both on time-scales of a few minutes. These values are significant departures from the average fair-weather values measured at the site, which are ~- 200 V m- 1 and ~ 2 pA m2. The disturbed episodes lasted for several hours on February 10th and the 11th and coincided with local meteorological conditions related to the wind speed and direction, which carried large amounts of dust particles over our observation station. We interpret the rapid changes as caused by the transport of electrically charged dust, carrying an excess of negative charge at lower altitudes.

  5. IMPRESSIONS OF SOME OTTOMAN POETS FROM EGYPT / BAZI OSMANLI SÂİRLERİNİN MISIR İZLENİMLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mustafa ERDOĞAN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between Turks and Egyptiansgo back a long time in history. After Yavuz Sultan Selimconquered Egypt and made it an Ottoman state, therelations increased even more. In this respect manyOttoman poets went to Egypt for different purposes andwrote poems that included their impressions andopinions about the country. After a condensed researchand scanning on divans, it is ascertained that there areindependently written poems about Egypt in the divans ofKaramanlı Aynî, Ahmed Pasa, Revânî, Kâbulî, Fehîm-îKadîm, Mezâkî, Tecelli, Râmî Pasha and Neylî. Thesepoems indicate the poets’ points of view to Egypt andEgyptians and reflect their thoughts and impressionsabout Egypt. Furthermore they are sources that giveopinions to us how Istanbul and Anatolia was perceivedfrom there and how much the poets were missing theirhomeland. In the introduction part of this article therelation of the poets with Egypt is explained. Thenchronologically the poets who have poems about thiscountry and their relationships with it are introduced.After that the poem of the chronologically mentioned poetis evaluated according to the criteria of form and content,and the text of the poem is presented. At the end of theresearch of eleven poems of nine poets about Egypt (threepoems of Fehim are taken for evaluation, it isunderstood that some of the poets praise Egypt as it isthe land of the prophet Joseph and also acclaim for itsabundant lands full of betel nut and sugar. On contrarysome of the poets criticize the country as it has a dustyand hot desert climate, and as it is far away from theirhomelands.

  6. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  7. Long-term detection and hydrochemistry of groundwater resources in Egypt: Case study of Siwa Oasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar A. Aly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water, it is said, will be the oil of the twenty-first century. Successful water management will be the key to future economic growth and social wealth in both developed and developing countries. Due to the continuous agricultural expansion, urban development, and increased demands on limited water supplies, Egypt is compelled to look for unconventional water resources. One of the most important sources is groundwater in the western desert of Egypt. More water abstraction is currently taking place raising the dangers of overexploitation and deterioration of water quality in Siwa Oasis located in Egypt western desert. The main objectives of this study are to monitor the quality of the Siwa Oasis groundwater over ten years. The present paper presents the results of this investigation and the future outlook for the situation of the limited water resources of the oasis. The data showed spatial differences between water qualities obtained from different locations within the Oasis. It was also observed that there are temporal changes and that water quality is deteriorating in alarming rate over time. Most studied water samples were considered unsuitable for irrigation due to salinity hazards. The reason that may contribute to speeding up groundwater quality deterioration is the unsafe ground water mining on the deep sandstone aquifers which causes the decreases of the fresh water vertical movement from the deep sandstone aquifer to the surface limestone aquifer.

  8. The evolution of deserts with climatic changes in China since 150 ka B.P.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董光荣; 陈惠忠; 王贵勇; 李孝泽; 邵亚军; 金炯

    1997-01-01

    According to the bioclimatic zones, dune mobility and the fabric characteristics of stratigraphic sedimentary facies, the deserts in China are divided into Eastern, Western, Central and Northwestern deserts. Based on the records of stratigraphical facies, climatic proxies, historical data, etc. in each desert region, the evolution of deserts with climatic changes in time and space since 150 ka B. P. in China are dealt with; then the evolution of deserts in relation to the glacial climatic fluctuations caused by solar radiation changes, underlying surface variation and their feedback mechanism is discussed through comparison with global records; finally, in consideration of global wanning due to increasing of greenhouse gases such as CO2, the possible tendency of the evolution of deserts and the climatic changes is discussed.

  9. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 4 of 5 Vols. Annexes 6--10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, Edward E.; Teagan, Peter; Little, Arthur D.; Kaplan, George; Kunze, Jay; Warchol, Edward J.

    1979-04-01

    Annex 6, which investigates the possible hydroelectric resources of Egypt, reveals that presently the only existing sites are on the upper Nile at the High and Aswan Dams. There are 8 sites on the Nile where it is practical to add hydroelectric generation and, of these, only 4 are feasible for immediate construction. There are also pumped-storage sites on the Nile and the Red Sea. There is also the Qattara Depression in the Western Desert which can be utilized for conventional, as well as pumped-storage generation, by bringing water from the Mediterranean Sea to the depression by canal or tunnel. The options were considered for construction of hydro plants to met the electric load growth of Egypt when other forms of energy supply would be integrated into a comprehensive supply pattern. In Annex 7, the prospective use of nuclear energy to meet Egypt's resources (uranium and thorium) to implement a nuclear energy program, and potential effects of the expanded use of nuclear energy are discussed. Annex 8 discusses solar energy (technology descriptions and impacts, solar thermal power, photovoltaics). Also wind power generation, biomass utilization, desalination, solar air conditioning and refrigeration, and cost of power from diesel engines are discussed. Annex 9 covers geothermal potentials in Egypt, discussing resources with temperatures above 180/sup 0/C; from 150 to 180/sup 0/C; from 100 to 150/sup 0/C; and with temperatures below 100/sup 0/C. Annex 10 discusses the electric power systems in Egypt. The following subjects are covered: existing electric power systems; electrical power facilities under construction or planned for construction by 1985; past and projected growth of electrical energy; distribution; and electrical power system projected from 1985 to 2000. (MCW)

  10. Een koninklijke baksteen uit Egypte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haarlem, W.

    2007-01-01

    A ‘royal’ brick from Egypt A mudbrick with the name of Menkheperre, High Priest of Amun and Sovereign of Thebes in the 21st Dynasty, was recently given to the Museum. The historical context, building techniques and possible provenance are discussed.

  11. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  12. Applications of geomorphology, tectonics, geology and geophysical interpretation of, East Kom Ombo depression, Egypt, using Landsat images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sayed A. El Gammal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Eastern Desert of Egypt, A NW–SE oriented structural graben extends from the North of Aswan to the Red Sea coast with a length of about 400 km and an average width of 30 km. The area has significant potential for development as it may be provided with water from surface and subsurface sources and is the site of prospection for petroleum. The present paper is an attempt to understand the structural evolution and genetic development of the geomorphologic features of the area and constructing presently a new geomorphological map at a scale of 1:250,000 using Landsat ETM images and field checks. Available geological maps and the produced geomorphological map are digitized by using the ARC-GIS software. The same program is also used to produce a 3D DEM for surface and subsurface features. Based on new interpretations of aeromagnetic and radiometric data, the subsurface features of the basement cover were illustrated on a 3D map. Geological–geomorphological profiles have been constructed in different directions in the area to identify present and ancient geomorphologic features. The place and shape of subsurface deep seated NW–SE trending faults have been determined. The faults, which generated the graben have downthrows in the order of 900–5800 m. The surface and subsurface observations delineate the dominant downthrow of about 3750 m. Three E–W subsurface faults have been detected under Nubia sandstone, one of them, displaying a downthrow of about 845 m, cuts through the basement rocks.

  13. Metal and fluid sources in a potential world-class gold deposit: El-Sid mine, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Hassan; Zoheir, Basem

    2015-04-01

    Lode gold mineralization at the El-Sid mine area is associated with the ca. 600 Ma Fawakhir granite intrusion, which cuts the ~737 Ma ophiolite nappes in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The mineralized quartz veins are hosted by ~E- and NE-trending fault/fracture sets cutting the western boundary of the intrusion and sheared ophiolites. The results of electron microprobe analyses of gold-associated hydrothermal sulfide and silicate minerals suggest that Au was mobilized alongside Ni, Co, Cr and As from the adjacent ophiolitic serpentinite. After granite emplacement, hydrothermal fluids interacted with the sheared serpentinite, leaching metals and re-depositing them in the faults/fractures and adjacent wall rock in a cyclic process. Low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluids with significant quantities of volatile species (CO2, CH4, and N2 ± H2S) leached and transported Au from deep to shallow crustal levels. Carbon dioxide had a buffering effect on the Au-bearing hydrothermal solution, maintaining its pH within a narrow near-neutral range, where elevated gold concentration was transported by complexation with reduced magmatic sulfur in a reducing environment. Gold deposition along fault/fracture conduits in the Fawakhir granite and adjacent serpentinite resulted from interplay of pressure drop, fluctuations in oxygen and sulfur fugacities, and exsolution of the volatile phases. Infiltration of meteoric water may have contributed to the formation of the late stage gold-sulfide mineralization that formed at shallower levels during terrane uplift. Sulfidation of the Fe-rich magmatic minerals was, on the other hand, the overriding process in the wall rock as evidenced by abundant disseminated sulfides with gold inclusions. Considering the structural control by regional shear zones (fluid conduits) and the voluminous granitic and ophiolitic rocks (metal sources), a high tonnage gold deposit amenable to open pit mining at the El-Sid mine area is very likely.

  14. Potential Geographical Distribution of Genus Ammopiptanthus (Leguminosae) in the Eastern Central Asian Desert and Its Determinant Environmental Factors%沙冬青属植物在亚洲中部荒漠区的潜在地理分布及驱动因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马松梅; 张明理; 陈曦

    2012-01-01

    在较大的空间尺度上,物种分布模型是预测物种潜在分布的有效途径之一。利用最大熵模型MAXENT,预测了蒙古沙冬青和新疆沙冬青在亚洲中部荒漠区的潜在分布;借助模型启发式搜索和多元线性回归分析揭示了控制其潜在分布的驱动因子。结果表明:①蒙古沙冬青的潜在适生区和实际分布范围基本一致,局限在阿拉善荒漠区的东部和南部、鄂尔多斯西部;最适生的分布区局限在内蒙古乌兰布和沙漠东缘和贺兰山北部的小部分区域。控制蒙古沙冬青潜在分布的关键因子主要是反映极端的温度和降水条件的因子,如最干月降水量、极端最低温和最冷季平均温度等。②新疆沙冬青最适生的潜在分布区局限在新疆乌恰县和沿昆仑山向南延伸的区域。反映极端气候和气候变化范围的因子,如温度季节性、最冷季平均温度、最湿月降水量和降水季节性等以及海拔,基本控制了新疆沙冬青的潜在分布。%On a large spatial scale, species distribution model is one of the effective ways for modelling species' potential distribution. Using species distribution model (MAXENT), this study aimed to determine the potential distribution areas of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus and Ammopiptanthus nanus in the eastern Central Asian desert, and then to identify the determinant environmental variables contributing to the distri- bution. Results show that: (1) The produced potential distribution areas of A. mongolicus agree well with the observed ones, and species A. mongolicus are restricted distributed in the eastern and southern part of Alxa desert and the western Ordos of Inner Mongolia. The most suitable habitats are in the eastern edge of the Ulan Buh Desert and a small area of northern Helan Mountain. The distribution-influencing factors are mainly the extreme temperature and precipitation, for example, the most drought month

  15. Ecoregion sections of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological sections within California deserts. These deserts occupy the southeastern portion of California and include two ecoregional...

  16. Journeying the Redshift Desert

    CERN Document Server

    Renzini, Alvio

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic star formation rate, AGN activity, galaxy growth, mass assembly and morphological differentiation all culminate at redshift $\\sim 2$. Yet, the redshift interval $1.4\\lsim z\\lsim 3$ is harder to explore than the closer and the more distant Universe. In spite of so much action taking place in this spacetime portion of the Universe, it has been dubbed the ``Redshift Desert'', as if very little was happening within its boundaries. The difficulties encountered in properly mapping the galaxy populations inhabiting the Desert are illustrated in this paper, along with some possible remedy.

  17. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  18. Nomenclatural notes on the genus Pteranthus (Caryophyllaceae) with lectotypification of the name Camphorosma pteanthus and Pteranthus trigynus, and comments on Forsskål's seeds sent from Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamonico, Dulio; Friis, Ib; Jarvis, Charles;

    2015-01-01

    The nomenclatural history of the genus Pteranthus ( Caryophyllaceae) is reviewed. Original material of Camphorosma pteranthus and Pteranthus dichotomus came from a single gathering made by Forsskål in the desert outside Cairo, Egypt, in March 1762. The original material of C. pteranthus was grown...

  19. Pharmacognostical Studies of the Seed of Lagonychium farctum (Banks and Sol. Bobr. Growing in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia M. El-Sayyad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lagonychium farctum (Banks & Sol. Bobr.is a wild plant growing in the deserts of Upper Egypt as a prickly perennial shrub with monopodial branches. It belongs to family Leguminosae. The plant is usually branching from the base and attains up to 2.5 m in height. It is used in traditional system of medicine as an astringent as well as antidysenteric. The present study investigates various standardized parameters such as macroscopic and microscopic characters which could be helpful in authentication of the seed of Lagonychium farctum. (Banks & Sol. Bobr.

  20. Management of Egypt's Surface and Groundwater Resources: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Yan, E.; Milewski, A.; Mohamed, L.; Farag, A. Z. A.

    2014-12-01

    The River Nile is the main source of fresh water in Egypt. Most of Egypt's River Nile water (>85%) originates as precipitation over the Ethiopian highlands and is channeled by the Blue Nile. The construction (years: 2011 to 2017) of the Renaissance Dam (reservoir capacity: 70 x 109m3) on the Blue Nile poses an extreme threat to Egypt's population. If the reservoir was to be filled in 7 years, Egypt will lose (during each of 7 years following dam completion) a minimum of 15 x 109m3 of its annual allocation (55 x 109m3) to reservoir filling (10 x 109m3), evaporation (3.5 x 109m3), and infiltration (1.5 x 109m3). Three solutions are proposed: Solution I takes advantage of the cyclicity of Nile floods and is based on findings from a calibrated (against temporal head data) unconfined 2-dimensional transient groundwater flow model for Lake Nasser and surroundings and a calibrated (against lake levels) surface water model. Models show with time: (1) losses to infiltration will decrease (1975-193: 58.4 109m3; 1993-2001: 43.6 x 109m3) due to silting of Lake bottom and encroachment of excess Lake Nasser water will increase (e.g., 1975-1993: none; 1993-2001: 17 x 109m3). We propose to develop sustainable agricultural in the Western Desert: (1) In high flood years, excess Lake Nasser water (e.g., 1993-2001: 17 x 109m3) is channeled across the plateau bounding (from west) the River Nile valley to artificially recharge the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) that crops out west of the plateau and, (2) in low flood years, we extract the recharged groundwater. Solution II calls on mining the NSAS at reasonable rates. Using temporal (January 2003 - September 2012) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data we estimate the annual depletion rates at 2 x 109m3 due to artificial extraction (1.5 x 109m3) and natural discharge (0.5 x 109m3). Assuming current GRACE depletion rates, the recoverable groundwater (5,180 x 109m3) will last for 2500 years; if we were to quadruple

  1. Highlights and conclusions from the Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network (EMPHNET) conference 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nsour, M; Kaiser, R; Abd Elkreem, E; Walke, H; Kandeel, A; Bloland, R

    2012-02-01

    As a follow up of a short communication that the Eastern Mediterranean Health journal published in December 2011, this article reports on highlights and conclusions from scientific abstracts, methodology workshops and plenary sessions that were presented as part of the Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network (EMPHNET) conference held from 6 to 9 December 2011 in Sharm Al Sheikh, Egypt.

  2. 青藏高原东缘古近纪沙漠及其对季风起源的启示%The Palaeogene deserts and their implications for the origin of monsoons on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, SW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江新胜; 崔晓庄; 伍皓; 熊国庆; 卓皆文; 陆俊泽; 江卓斐

    2012-01-01

    The desert deposits as a kind of unusual deposits developed under specific climatic conditions in the geologic history play a particular role in the approaches to global climatic changes and atmospheric circulation patterns. Numerous studies show that although gypsum and other salt deposits indicating xerothermal climates once occurred over a wide area of the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau within the arid zone prior to the establishment of the modern Eastern Asian monsoon systems, especially during the early - middle Palaeogene, the presence or absence of deserts remain to be uncertain up to now. The recent results obtained in the research of the early - middle Palaeogene red strata in the sedimentary basins on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau with the aid of the integration of sedimentology, palaeoclimatology and palaeogeography have disclosed that there was indeed an enrichment zone of aeolian dunes with stable thickness on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau during the early - middle Palaeogene. This implies that the basin-range type desert depositional systems might be present in the study area during the Palaeogene on the basis of palaeogeographic and sedimentary model and palaeoclimatic proxy index analysis. The sedimentary facies and palaeocurrent analysis indicates that the presence of a transitional boundary from arid to humid and from planetary wind circulation to monsoon circulation in the study area may mark the occurrence of Eastern Asian monsoon events. For this reason,the results of research in the present paper may provide not only new sedimentological data for the approaches to the evolution of the Cenozoic arid zones in China and global climatic changes but also significant atmospheric circulation evidence for the uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and the origin of the Eastern Asian monsoons.%沙漠沉积是地质历史演化过程中的一种特殊沉积,是特殊气候条件下的产物,对研究全

  3. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  4. CHIEFS & CHIEFDOMS IN PROTODYNASTIC EGYPT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AntonioPérezLargacha

    1995-01-01

    Ever smce they were discovered, the standards depicted on the decorated pottery and protodynastic objects have been interpreted in different ways, all related to the traditional theory that Egypt was unified by Narmer who conquered Lower Egypt and founded the first dynasty. However, recent excavations in centers like Hierakonpolis or regions like the Nile Delta (van der Brink 1992), have modified the traditional view of Egyptian unification and old interpretations have had to be rejected. The idea that Upper Egypt’s northward expansion reached the Nile Delta at the end of Naqada Ⅱ is now generally accepted; during Naqada Ⅲ there was a single material culture in Egypt and, perhaps, a single ruler. The questions become: was there only one king at that time, and if not, how many kings were there? Did cultural unification occur after political unification or was the culture unified before the political unification, and if so, how long before? To know the answers to these questions, we must study the early

  5. Scenario analysis of land use change in Horqin Desert and its surrounding area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.M.; Zhao, S.; Verburg, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Horqin desert and its surrounding area(41°17'~45°24' N,116°21'~123°30' E),loca-ted in the eastern part of agro-pas ture transitional zone in northern China,is an area sensitive to environmental change due to transitional location and the high potential for sandy desert-if ication.During the past dec

  6. Non-rainfall water sources in the topsoil and their changes during formation of man-made algal crusts at the eastern edge of Qubqi Desert,Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In arid and semiarid areas,water uptake (non-rainfall water) serves as an important water source for plants,biological soil crusts,insects and small animals.In this study,a measurement program was undertaken to investigate water uptake and its changes during formation of man-made algal crusts in the Qubqi Desert.In the study region,water uptake from the atmosphere accounted for 25.07%-39.83% of the total water uptake,and was mainly taken up by a water vapor adsorption mechanism;the proportion of water uptake from the soil substrate was much higher (60.17%-74.93%).The formation of crusts promoted water uptake,but the increased uptake did not occur immediately after inoculation or crusts formation.The water taken up from the atmosphere increased significantly from day 15 after inoculation,and the soil water content was markedly enhanced from day 20 after inoculation.It is considered that the growth of algal filaments and their secretions were the main factors increasing the amount of water uptake and water content in the crusts,and these variables increased even during dry periods when some algae are likely to have died.

  7. Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

  8. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  9. Single Finds. The case of Roman Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins......Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins...

  10. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-12

    smuggling of illegal workers, prostitutes, and even Palestinian brides for grooms inside Gaza. It is not uncommon for Palestinian smugglers to bribe security...Egypt in a difficult diplomatic position. On the one hand, Egypt has attempted to symbolically support international efforts to alleviate the

  11. 西部典型地区荒漠生态系统健康评估——以尉犁县为例%Assessment of Desert Ecosystem Health in the Typical Regions of Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣勇

    2011-01-01

    Based on information of RS and socio-economic, we selected soil erosion, terrain and LUCC indexes, the construction of deserteco-system health assessment model in Yuli County were studied, and the health condition of eco-system health assessment model in YuliCounty in 2000 were evaluated preliminarily. We found that the first grade health desert-ecosystem covered 3.14% of total eco-system area inYuli County; the second grade covered 5. 79% ;the third grade covered 8. 10% ; the forth grade covered 4.2%. The research concluded thatthe unbalanced distribution of water resources and impacts of human disturbance were the main factors for the healthy level of desertecosystem.%采用遥感监测反演数据和社会经济统计数据,选取土壤侵蚀、地形和人类利用水平指标,研究构建尉犁县荒漠生态系统健康评价模型,初步评估了2000年尉犁县荒漠生态系统的健康状况.评估发现,尉犁县荒漠生态系统健康情况:健康Ⅰ级区生态类型占尉犁县生态系统面积的3.14%;健康Ⅱ级区生态类型占5.79%;健康Ⅲ级区生态类型占8.10%;健康Ⅳ级区生态类型占4.20%.研究总结得出了 、水资源的分布情况以及人类干扰是决定荒漠生态系统健康水平的主要因素.

  12. Egypt Aiming at Attracting Investment from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey GUO

    2009-01-01

    @@ Jointly with China Economic & Trade Counselor Office in Egypt,the General Authority for Investment (GAFI) and the General Authority for Special Economic Zone North-West Gulf of Suez (SEZone) held China-Africa Development Fund Conference in Cairo,Egypt on March 16,2009.The Minister of Investment Egypt Dr.Mahmoud Mohieldin,Chinese Ambassador to Egypt Mr.Wu Chunhua,Chairman of GAFI and SEZone Mr.Assem Ragab,Vice President of China-Africa Development Fund Mr.Lu Qingchen,Economic and Trade Minister Counselor of the Chinese Embassy in Egypt Mr.Cao Jiachang,as well as over 100 Chinese/Egyptian businessmen attended the conference.

  13. Desert farming benefits from microbial potential in arid soils and promotes diversity and plant health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Köberl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To convert deserts into arable, green landscapes is a global vision, and desert farming is a strong growing area of agriculture world-wide. However, its effect on diversity of soil microbial communities, which are responsible for important ecosystem services like plant health, is still not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the impact of long-term agriculture on desert soil in one of the most prominent examples for organic desert farming in Sekem (Egypt. Using a polyphasic methodological approach to analyse microbial communities in soil as well as associated with cultivated plants, drastic effects caused by 30 years of agriculture were detected. Analysing bacterial fingerprints, we found statistically significant differences between agricultural and native desert soil of about 60%. A pyrosequencing-based analysis of the 16S rRNA gene regions showed higher diversity in agricultural than in desert soil (Shannon diversity indices: 11.21/7.90, and displayed structural differences. The proportion of Firmicutes in field soil was significantly higher (37% than in the desert (11%. Bacillus and Paenibacillus play the key role: they represented 96% of the antagonists towards phytopathogens, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in the amplicon library and for isolates were detected. The proportion of antagonistic strains was doubled in field in comparison to desert soil (21.6%/12.4%; disease-suppressive bacteria were especially enriched in plant roots. On the opposite, several extremophilic bacterial groups, e.g., Acidimicrobium, Rubellimicrobium and Deinococcus-Thermus, disappeared from soil after agricultural use. The N-fixing Herbaspirillum group only occurred in desert soil. Soil bacterial communities were strongly driven by the a-biotic factors water supply and pH. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: After long-term farming, a drastic shift in the bacterial communities in desert soil was observed. Bacterial communities in agricultural

  14. Desert farming benefits from microbial potential in arid soils and promotes diversity and plant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Müller, Henry; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Berg, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    To convert deserts into arable, green landscapes is a global vision, and desert farming is a strong growing area of agriculture world-wide. However, its effect on diversity of soil microbial communities, which are responsible for important ecosystem services like plant health, is still not known. We studied the impact of long-term agriculture on desert soil in one of the most prominent examples for organic desert farming in Sekem (Egypt). Using a polyphasic methodological approach to analyse microbial communities in soil as well as associated with cultivated plants, drastic effects caused by 30 years of agriculture were detected. Analysing bacterial fingerprints, we found statistically significant differences between agricultural and native desert soil of about 60%. A pyrosequencing-based analysis of the 16S rRNA gene regions showed higher diversity in agricultural than in desert soil (Shannon diversity indices: 11.21/7.90), and displayed structural differences. The proportion of Firmicutes in field soil was significantly higher (37%) than in the desert (11%). Bacillus and Paenibacillus play the key role: they represented 96% of the antagonists towards phytopathogens, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in the amplicon library and for isolates were detected. The proportion of antagonistic strains was doubled in field in comparison to desert soil (21.6%/12.4%); disease-suppressive bacteria were especially enriched in plant roots. On the opposite, several extremophilic bacterial groups, e.g., Acidimicrobium, Rubellimicrobium and Deinococcus-Thermus, disappeared from soil after agricultural use. The N-fixing Herbaspirillum group only occurred in desert soil. Soil bacterial communities were strongly driven by the a-biotic factors water supply and pH. After long-term farming, a drastic shift in the bacterial communities in desert soil was observed. Bacterial communities in agricultural soil showed a higher diversity and a better ecosystem function for plant health but a

  15. Southwestern desert resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, William L.; van Riper, Charles; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2010-01-01

    The southwestern deserts stretch from southeastern California to west Texas and then south to central Mexico. The landscape of this region is known as basin and range topography featuring to "sky islands" of forest rising from the desert lowlands which creates a uniquely diverse ecology. The region is further complicated by an international border, where governments have caused difficulties for many animal populations. This book puts a spotlight on individual research projects which are specific examples of work being done in the area and when they are all brought together, to shed a general light of understanding the biological and cultural resources of this vast region so that those same resources can be managed as effectively and efficiently as possible. The intent is to show that collaborative efforts among federal, state agency, university, and private sector researchers working with land managers, provides better science and better management than when scientists and land managers work independently.

  16. A-type volcanics in Central Eastern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M. D.; Moussa, H. E.; Azer, M. K.

    2007-04-01

    Alkaline rhyolitic and minor trachytic volcanics were erupted ˜580-530 Ma ago. They occur with their A-type intrusive equivalents in Sinai, southern Negev and southwestern Jordan. At Taba-Nuweiba district, these volcanics outcrop in three areas, namely, Wadi El-Mahash, Wadi Khileifiya and Gebel El-Homra. Mineralogically, they comprise alkali feldspars, iron-rich biotite and arfvedsonite together with rare ferro-eckermannite. Geochemically, the older rhyolitic volcanics are highly evolved, enriched in HFSE including REE and depleted in Ca, Mg, Sr and Eu. The rhyolitic rocks of Wadi El-Mahash and Gebel El-Homra are enriched in K 2O content (5.3-10.1 wt.%) and depleted in Na 2O content (0.08-2.97 wt.%), while the rhyolites of Wadi Khileifiya have normal contents of alkalis. Their REE patterns are uniform, parallel to subparallel, fractionated [(La/Yb) n = 5.4] and show prominent negative Eu-anomalies. They are classified as alkali rhyolites with minor comendites. The younger volcanics are classified as trachyandesite and quartz trachyte (56.6-62.9 wt.% SiO 2). Both older and younger volcanics represent two separate magmatic suites. The overall mineralogical and chemical characteristics of these volcanics are consistent with within plate tectonic setting. It is suggested that partial melting of crustal rocks yielded the source magma. Lithospheric extension and crustal rupture occurred prior to the eruption of these volcanics. The rather thin continental crust (˜35 km) as well as the continental upheaval and extensive erosion that preceded their emplacement favoured pressure release and increasing mantle contribution. The volatiles of the upper mantle were important agents for heat transfer, and sufficient for the anatexis of the crustal rocks. A petrogenetic hypothesis is proposed for the genesis of the recorded potassic and ultrapotassic rhyolitic rocks through the action of dissolved volatiles and their accumulation in the uppermost part of the magma chamber.

  17. Aquaporins in desert rodent physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2015-08-01

    Desert rodents face a sizeable challenge in maintaining salt and water homeostasis due to their life in an arid environment. A number of their organ systems exhibit functional characteristics that limit water loss above that which occurs in non-desert species under similar conditions. These systems include renal, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, nasal, and skin epithelia. The desert rodent kidney preserves body water by producing a highly concentrated urine that reaches a maximum osmolality nearly three times that of the common laboratory rat. The precise mechanism by which urine is concentrated in any mammal is unknown. Insights into the process may be more apparent in species that produce highly concentrated urine. Aquaporin water channels play a fundamental role in water transport in several desert rodent organ systems. The role of aquaporins in facilitating highly effective water preservation in desert rodents is only beginning to be explored. The organ systems of desert rodents and their associated AQPs are described.

  18. Seminar on Egypt population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, J F

    1984-01-01

    The information and viewpoints presented at the Seminar on Egypt Population Policy held in Cairo on October 16-18 were summariezed and critically assessed. The seminar was organized by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population's Committee on the Utilization ofDemographic Knowlege in Policy Formulation and Planning for the purpose of assessing the policy making the utility of social science and demographc knowledge with specific reference to Egypt's family planning program. The seminar was attended by demographers, social scientists, and experienced policy makers, and the discussion was highly focused. Seminar papers and discussions sought to clarify Egypt's current demographic situation, attempted to use sample survey data to identifyfertility determinants, analyzed Egypt's policyresponses to the population problem, assessed the national family planning program, identified the type of knowledge available for policy making, and noted areas where policy relevant information is lacking. Evidence presented at the seminar indicated that Egyptian fertility is still high and that corrected the total fertility rate for 1980 was close to 6. Since, 1960, fertility declined in all regions of the country, but between 1976-80 the decline decelerated. This deceleration appears to be a temporary phenonemon. There is evidence that the age at marriage is increasing, that the population is motivated to use contraception when desired family size is reached, that contraceptive use is cost sensitive, and that the overall decline in fertility since the 1960s occurred in all parts of the country. Papers which presented analyses of fertility determinants, based on sample survey data, provided little useful insight for policy formulation. The studies indicate that the impact of family planning services on different segments of the population varies, and that these impacts may be increased if social and economic development persists. The preception of the population

  19. Impact of Geoethics in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelMakosud, kholoud Mohamed; Ezzat, Nada

    2016-04-01

    Geoethics, is a new term that could be unknown in the Arab world,where its translation in Arabic language make some kind of problems,with special emphasis on Egypt; spreading this term and the importance of it to professionals and un professionals is not an easy task.Culture and awareness problems face us on dealing with it. In this working paper the researchers study two levels of educational samples, the first one is of young geo-scientists and the other one is of young people of different disciplines to make over view survey (monitoring the base level) about knowing geoethics and another survey after applying some lectures and workshops to the same samples to monitor the second level. The aim of the research is to find out how people will accept this term and its application and how we can spread it through community with different effective ways. In Egypt there are some kind of culture problems could affect on spreading of any new concept, these problems could be overcome by some scientific, social and culture recommendations, these recommendations could be applied in both Arab countries and African Countries with few modifications.

  20. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    2005-01-01

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  1. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoono...

  2. A preliminary study on dicrocoeliasis in Egypt, with a general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Fouad M; Morsy, Tosson A; Ibrahim, Badawia B; Abdel-Aziz, Ahmed

    2003-04-01

    Dicrocoelium dendriticum (D. dendriticum) is a lancet-shape liver fluke that affects sheep and mammals including man. Human and animal infections have been world widely reported particularly in some of the Eastern Mediterranean sheep raising countries. Infection is acquired by eating the second intermediate host (17 species of ants) with raw fruits, vegetables, herbs or even with the drinking water. As for the first intermediate host, there is about 54 different species of land snails. In spite of the fact that both the first and second intermediate hosts of D. dendriticum are available in Egypt, data about human and animal dicrocoeliasis is lacking. This investigation is a preliminary study to report on the presence of D. dendriticum (in sheep, goats and man in North Sinai Governorate) in Egypt.

  3. Egypt receives computers from CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

  4. Diphtheria immunity status in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, El-Rashdy M; El-Awady, Mostafa K

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine immune status to corynebacterium diphtheria by screening for protective antibodies in a sample of Egyptian population. The study population consisted of 709 healthy subjects aged from 2 months to 105 years, inhabitants of 6 regions of Egypt. The study utilized Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure serum levels IgG antibodies reactive with diphtheria toxoid. Levels of diphtheria toxoid antibody > or = 0.1 IU/ ml were defined as immune/protected, 23.9 % of the population were found to be susceptible to diphtheria (IgG level antibodies decreased in old ages (< 60 y) with the females being more susceptible then males. These results recommend a booster immunization for the susceptible age groups.

  5. Origin, development and evolutionary model of shelf desertization environment in late stage of Upper Pleistocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵松龄; 于洪军; 刘敬圃

    1997-01-01

    Based on the study of palaeo-environmental evolution in the shelves of the Eastern China Seas, the concept of "shelf desertization" in the late stage of Upper Pleistocene is defined; the environmental background and evolutionary process of shelf desertization are analysed. Study on the records of subbottom profiling and the data of core samples from shelf areas revealed that during low sea-level stages, the sedimentary environment in the exposed shelf plains was dominated by aeolian depositional process under cold and dry climatic conditions, i.e. under the action of strong winter-monsoon winds. Parts of the exposed marine strata were disintegrated, and aeolian sand dunes were formed on the disintegrated marine deposits, from which the finer sediment grains were blown away by wind and deposited in the downwind areas to form the derivative loess deposits. Thus a desertization environmental system was formed in the exposed shelf plains of the Eastern China Seas.

  6. Genome sequences of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease viruses from Egypt and Palestinian Autonomous Territories (Gaza Strip).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Knowles, Nick J; Hammond, Jef; King, Donald P

    2012-08-01

    Two foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome sequences have been determined for isolates collected from recent field outbreaks in North Africa (Egypt) and the Middle East (Palestinian Autonomous Territories). These data represent the first examples of complete genomic sequences for the FMDV SAT 2 topotype VII, which is thought to be endemic in countries immediately to the south of the Sahara desert. Further studies are now urgently required to provide insights into the epidemiological links between these outbreaks and to define the pathogenicity of this emerging lineage.

  7. Oil and Gas Prospects in Egypt Recherches d'huile et de gaz en Égypte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ayouti M. K.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulations of oil were first known in Egypt since 1968, some ten years after the famous Drake well in Pennsylvania in August 1859. These oil accumulation were found as seepages in tunnels dug for extracting sulphur in the area of Gemsa on the West coast of the Gulf of Suez. Since that time exploration activites were conducted on and off throughout a long history of operations which witnessed the use of the latest developments in exploration tools and techniques. So far, the main oil province in Egypt is the Gulf of Suez Basin, where the bulk of oil reserve have been found. Other hydrocarbon provinces are the Nile Delta Basin, the Abu Gharadig Basin and the Alamein ridge, both in the Western Desert. Three important gas discoveries were made in the Nile Delta Basin two of which are offshore, in addition to other so for non commercial gas finds. In addition to the known oil and gas discoveries the exploration activities throughout that long period contributed volumenous geological and geophysical material and data which added appreciably to the geology of Egypt at large, and in particular to the petroleum geology of the country. The Gulf of Suez oil province displayed very favourable conditions for the generation and trapping of hydrocarbons in Miocene and Pre-Miocene pools though at the same time it displayed very complicated geological setting which renders the exploration work a difficult task. The Nile Delta Basin, on the otherhand, is a relatively very recently explored area. Accordingly, extensive exploration work is still needed in order to evaluate the hydrocarbon possibilities of that basin. So for, gas has been discovered at a number of locations in lower Pliocene-Miocene pools. Whether future work would prove that oil generation took place remains to be seen. The Western Desert did not yet display the required response with regards to the exploration work conducted till now. To date, only few small discoveries have been made with oil

  8. Geomorphology and Quaternary geology of the Dakhla Oasis Region, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Ian A.

    Dakhla Oasis (25.5°N, 29°E) occupies a structurally localized depression at 90-140 m above sea level, ˜1200 km 2 in area, below a 300 m escarpment bordering the Libyan Plateau, Western Desert of Egypt. Semi-arid intervals of the Quaternary period generated eight sedimentary formations, separated by erosion during hyper-arid intervals. Sediments comprise three generations of colluvial/fluvial fanglomerates, two generations of tabular spring-laid clastic and chemical sediments, two generations of mound springs and basinal sediments. of fluvio-lacustrine, evaporitic, pluvio-aeolian and aeolian origins. Discussion of these sediments is organized according to geomorphic region, from north to south, plateau, scarp and piedmont, lowland and cuesta plain. Chronological evidence is restricted to many radiocarbon dates of Holocene cultural material associated with playa sediments (9-4.5 ka), a {Th}/{U} isochron age of ˜62.0 ±7.6 ka for basinal evaporites, and two {Th}/{U} ages of ˜176 and ˜170 ka for a boulder of derived travertine. The regional Quaternary sequence is reconstructed from stratigraphic and geomorphic relationships of the sediments and erosion surfaces. It is broadly similar to sequences earlier reconstructed in the topographically similar Kharga Oasis region 150 km to the east, and Kurkur Oasis, 400 km to the south-southeast. Speculations on chronology and driving mechanism are offered in conclusion.

  9. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from Skylab imagery. [Mojave Desert block of Texas, Arizona, and Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two alternate models for the extension of the Texas zone through the Mojave Desert block have been developed: (1) along the Pisgah Line, and (2) along the eastern Transverse Ranges; this model suggests a counterclockwise rotation of the Mojave block. Analysis of S190B photographs of the western Mojave Desert provides strong evidence for the feasibility of identifying recent fault breaks.

  10. Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alaaeldin F. Mohamed

    disorders characterized by the absence or reduced pigmentation of the skin, hair and eyes. To assess ... and analyzed using standard statistical software. Results: The ..... to skin cancer and optic neuronal defects shared in all types of. Table 2 ...

  11. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  12. Ecological zones of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological zones within California deserts. We derived ecological zones by reclassifying LANDFIRE vegetation biophysical setting types, plus...

  13. Remote Sensing Field Guide - Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    sea in North America is in the Gran Desierto of northern Sonora, Mexico, which extends northward into the Yuma Desert of Arizona and the Algodones...parallel to the dune chains. PATTERN INDICATOR SHEET - DESERT DUNES PHOTO: AERIAL (OBLIQUE) STAR - COMPOUND LOCATION: Mexico (Northern) El Gran Desierto ...dunes. This field is in the central part of El Gran Desierto about 20 km south of the Arizona-Mexico border Photo B (on back) is a closer view. For orien

  14. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  15. Women's position and family planning in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy, P; Malhotra, A

    1996-01-01

    In this report, data from the 1988 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey are used to address some of the most frequently raised questions about the relationship between gender inequality and reproductive behavior. The findings from binomial and multinomial logit models show that while the relationship between women's position and fertility control in Egypt is complex, some clear, broad patterns exist that have important theoretical and policy implications. First, although women's status in Egypt is clearly multidimensional, the reproductive aspect of women's position has a strong connection with the nonreproductive dimensions. Second, the case of the continued use of education and employment as proxies of women's position, especially in relationship to fertility control, is considerably discredited by the results. Finally, the findings indicate that Egyptian culture supports gender equality in the form of interaction and negotiation rather than women's autonomy.

  16. Possible genetic link between I-type granite and orogenic gold deposits in Egypt (metamorphic-magmatic interaction?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Monsef, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The orogenic gold deposits are a distinctive type of deposits that revealed unique temporal and spatial association with an orogeny. Where, the system of gold veins and related ore minerals was confined to hydrothermal solutions formed during compressional to transpressional deformation processes at convergent plate margins in accretionary and collisional orogens, with the respect to ongoing deep-crustal, subduction-related thermal processes. In Egypt, most of vein-type and dyke-type gold mineralization are restricted to granitic rocks or at least near of granitic intrusion that seems to have had an important influence on gold mineralization. Shear zone-related, mesothermal gold deposits of Fatira and Gidami mines in the northern Eastern Desert of Egypt are found within granitic bodies or at the contact between granites and metavolcanic rocks. The hosting-granitic rocks in Fatira and Gidami areas are mainly of granodioritic composition (I-Type granite) which is related to calc-alkaline magmatic series. However, Fatira granitoids were developed within island arc tectonic settings related to mature island arc system (Late-orogenic stage), at relatively low temperature (around 660° C) and medium pressure between (5 - 10 Kbar). On the other hand, Gidami granitoids were developed during the collision stage in continental arc regime related to active continental margin (Syn-orogeny), which were crystallized at relatively high temperature (700-720° C) and low pressure (around 0.1 Kbar). The ore mineralogy includes pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, covellite, ilmenite, goethite ± pyrrhotite ± pentlandite ± galena ± molybdenite. Native gold is detected only in Gidami mineralization as small inclusions within pyrite and goethite or as tiny grains scattered within quartz vein (in close proximity to the sulfides). In Fatira deposits, it is detected only by microprobe analysis within the crystal lattice of pyrite and jarosite. Fluid inclusions study for the mineralized

  17. Status of fertility control in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I

    1982-01-01

    The concern for fertility control is not alien to the cultural and religious heritage of Egypt. Historically, Egyptian interest in fertility dates to the Pharoahs. Contraceptive recipes written at least 15-18 centuries B.C. have been found. Romans may have borrowed some of the more effective methods from Egypt when it became part of the Roman Empire as evidenced by the decline in size of aristocratic Roman families at the beginning of the Christian era. Muslim conquerors of Egypt encouraged fertility control. In the 9th century differences of opinion about the legality of contraception appeared among the interpreters of Islamic law. Some methods found in the writings of Muslim doctors as al-Razi and Avicenna still survive in the folk medicine of Egypt. In modern times use of barrier methods of contraception were encouraged by family planning organizations in Egypt. The medical profession was not deeply involved since these methods did not require much medical assistance. In 1936 a religiouss verdict declared contraception to be a lawful act of Islam. National programs in family planning in the 1960's encouraged the use of the Lippes Loop IUD. The medical problem of blood loss associated with the IUD caused anxiety because of the high incidence of anemia in the female Egyptian population. There was also a cultural limitation on the wide use of the IUD. "Spotting" due to the IUD resulted in females being ritually unclean and therefore unfit to pray or observe the Islamic fast. The Pill, initially favored caused complications due to its effect on breast milk which is the universal source of nutrition for infants in Egypt. Replacement of the Pill by depo-provera injections during the post partum period of lactation is a practical solution. Permanent sterilization is limited to females and only performed when medically indicated. Abortion is illegal and permitted only as a therapeutic measure.

  18. Nomograms for determining fault parameters from gravity data application to the Mersa Matruh Basin, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, E. M.; Bayoumi, A. I.

    Rigorous calculation of gravity effects of faults for the interpretation of subsurface structure from exploration gravity surveys is time-consuming and tedious. Resort to electronic computers is convenient but not always necessary. Simple hand calculations can be instructive and are often adequate and useful. This paper confirms the basic ideas of some geophysicists on the usefulness of approximating most fault structures by one semi-infinite horizontal slab, and presents two simple nomograms to determine the slab parameters from gravity very rapidly. A field example from the Mersa Matruh Basin, Western Desert of Egypt, is presented in which the thickness and depth of a fault are estimated from the nomograms and verified from drilling data.

  19. Botanical and genetic characteristics of Farsetia aegyptia Turra growing in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa M. Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Farsetia aegyptia Turra is a perennial woody desert shrub native to Egypt. It is used by native Bedouins as an anti-diabetic and antispasmodic. Study of the botanical features was carried out for the root, young and old stems, leaf, fruit and seed of the plant. F. aegyptia Turra was characterized by the presence of myrosin cells and non-glandular branched unicellular two-armed hairs in the stem, leaves and fruit, while the root showed sclereids with a wide or narrow lumen and lignified pitted walls. Furthermore, the DNA of the plant was extracted from leaf samples and analysed using ten random decamer primers. A total of 58 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were identified. Both the botanical study and the DNA fingerprint helped in the identification of the plant.

  20. Reaching women in Egypt: a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mousa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

  1. TREATMENT OF FRACTURES IN ANCIENT EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Bashurov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most complete information about the medicine in Ancient Egypt two papyrus provided: a large medical papyrus of G. Ebers and papyrus about the surgery of E. Smith. Smith’s papyrus is of particular interest as it contains the information on the status of surgery in Ancient Egypt. Papyrus consists of descriptions of the clinical cases. To the present time, 48 cases have survived; it is arranged in order of location - from the head down to the feet. Orthopedic deformities were reflected in the figures on the walls of the pyramids and temples as well as the description of the mummies and archaeological finds.

  2. Wyoming big sagebrush associations of eastern Oregon; vegetation attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides a synopsis of several vegetative characteristics for the Wyoming big sagebrush complex in eastern Oregon covering the High Desert , Snake River, and Owyhee Ecological Provinces in Harney, Lake, and Malheur Counties. The complex has been grouped into six associations defined by t...

  3. Thermal design of a fully equipped solar-powered desert home

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M.A.

    2010-03-01

    The paper presents a conceptual design and thermodynamic analysis of a solar-powered desert home. The home is airconditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. Electrical power, which drives the entire energy system, is generated by roof mounted photovoltaic modules. A detailed dynamic heat transfer analysis is conducted for the building envelope, coupled with a solar radiation model. A dynamic heat balance for a typical Middle-Eastern desert site, reveals that indeed such a design is feasible with present day technology; and should be even more attractive with future advances in technology.

  4. Surveillance of avian influenza viruses in migratory birds in Egypt, 2003-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Atef; Saad, Magdi; Elassal, Emad; Amir, Ehab; Plathonoff, Chantal; Bahgat, Verina; El-Badry, Maha; Ahmed, Lu'ay S; Fouda, Mostafa; Gamaleldin, Mohammed; Mohamed, Nahed Abd-Elal; Salyer, Stephanie; Cornelius, Claire; Barthel, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Migratory (particularly aquatic) birds are the major natural reservoirs for type A influenza viruses. However, their role in transmitting highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses is unclear. Egypt is a "funnel" zone of wild bird migration pathways from Central Asia and Europe to Eastern and Central Africa ending in South Africa. We sought to detect and isolate avian influenza viruses in migratory birds in Egypt. During September 2003-February 2009, the US Naval Medical Research Unit Number 3, Cairo, Egypt, in collaboration with the Egyptian Ministry of Environment, obtained cloacal swabs from 7,894 migratory birds captured or shot by hunters in different geographic areas in Egypt. Samples were processed by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for detection of the influenza A matrix gene. Positive samples were processed for virus isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonated eggs and isolates were subtyped by PCR and partial sequencing. Ninety-five species of birds were collected. Predominant species were Green-Winged Teal (Anas carolinensis; 32.0%, n=2,528), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata; 21.4%, n=1,686), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta; 11.1%, n=877). Of the 7,894 samples, 745 (9.4%) were positive for the influenza A matrix gene (mainly from the above predominant species). Thirteen of the 745 (1.7%) were H5-positive by PCR (11 were low-pathogenic avian influenza and two were HPAI H5N1). The prevalences of influenza A was among regions were 10-15%, except in Middle Egypt (4%). Thirty-nine influenza isolates were obtained from PCR-positive samples. Seventeen subtypes of avian influenza viruses (including H5N1 and H7N7) were classified from 39 isolates using PCR and partial sequencing. Only one HPAI H5N1 was isolated in February 2006, from a wild resident Great Egret (Ardea alba). No major die-offs or sick migratory birds were detected during the study. We identified avian influenza virus subtypes not previously reported in Egypt. The HPAI H5N1 isolated

  5. Recommended Cross-Desert Driving Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Beijing - Duolun - Dalai Nur- Hexigten Banner -Saihanba - Weichang - Luanping - Miyun - Beijing. Along this 1,600-kilometer route is a 150-kin section(between Duolun and Darhan) of desert with no surfaced road - a paradise for desert drivers.

  6. Phenolic Compounds from the Fruits of Medemia argun, a Food and Medicinal Plant of Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masullo, Milena; Hamed, Arafa I; Mahalel, Usama A; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    Medemia argun is a mysterious and little known monotypic fan palm from the Nubian Desert Oases of southern Egypt and northern Sudan. Its fruits have been found in the tombs from the 5th Dynasty (ca. 2500 BC) to Roman times (6-7th century AD), including the celebrated tomb of Tutankhamun. In ancient Egypt, the fruits of this palm were widely distributed and were highly valued, as confirmed by their frequent occurrence in offerings in the tombs. In order to elucidate the chemical composition of the phenolic fraction, phytochemical investigation of the BuOH extract of fruits was carried out to afford eight compounds (1-8), among which was the new 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylacetophenone 2-0-β-D-glucopyranoside (1). With the aim to investigate if the high shelf life of M argun fruits could be related to the occurrence of antioxidant principles that were able to prevent oxidative reactions, the evaluation was carried out of the in vitro antioxidant activity by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay of the extract and isolated compounds.

  7. EASTERN UGANDA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EVALUATION OF SELECTED ELITE POTATO GENOTYPES IN. EASTERN ... Significant

  8. Stone structures in the Syrian Desert

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    An arid land, known as the Syrian Desert, is covering a large part of the Middle East. In the past, this harsh environment, characterized by huge lava fields, the "harraat", was considered as a barrier between Levant and Mesopotamia. When we observe this desert from space, we discover that it is crossed by some stone structures, the "desert kites", which were the Neolithic traps for the game. Several stone circles are visible too, as many Stonehenge sites dispersed in the desert landscape.

  9. Multi-scale forcing and the formation of subtropical desert and monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. X. Wu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates three types of atmospheric forcing across the summertime subtropics that are shown to contribute in various ways to the occurrence of dry and wet climates in the subtropics. To explain the formation of desert over the western parts of continents and monsoon over the eastern parts, we propose a new mechanism of positive feedback between diabatic heating and vorticity generation that occurs via meridional advection of planetary vorticity and temperature. Monsoon and desert are demonstrated to coexist as twin features of multi-scale forcing, as follows.

    First, continent-scale heating over land and cooling over ocean induce the ascent of air over the eastern parts of continents and western parts of oceans, and descent over eastern parts of oceans and western parts of continents. Second, local-scale sea-breeze forcing along coastal regions enhances air descent over eastern parts of oceans and ascent over eastern parts of continents. This leads to the formation of the well-defined summertime subtropical LOSECOD quadruplet-heating pattern across each continent and adjacent oceans, with long-wave radiative cooling (LO over eastern parts of oceans, sensible heating (SE over western parts of continents, condensation heating (CO over eastern parts of continents, and double dominant heating (D: LO+CO over western parts of oceans. Such a quadruplet heating pattern corresponds to a dry climate over the western parts of continents and a wet climate over eastern parts. Third, regional-scale orographic-uplift-heating generates poleward ascending flow to the east of orography and equatorward descending flow to the west.

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP is located over the eastern Eurasian continent. The TP-forced circulation pattern is in phase with that produced by continental-scale forcing, and the strongest monsoon and largest deserts are formed over the Afro-Eurasian Continent. In contrast, the Rockies and the Andes are

  10. Phytoremediation for Oily Desert Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Samir

    This chapter deals with strategies for cleaning oily desert soils through rhizosphere technology. Bioremediation involves two major approaches; seeding with suitable microorganisms and fertilization with microbial growth enhancing materials. Raising suitable crops in oil-polluted desert soils fulfills both objectives. The rhizosphere of many legume and non-legume plants is richer in oil-utilizing micro-organisms than non-vegetated soils. Furthermore, these rhizospheres also harbour symbiotic and asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and are rich in simple organic compounds exuded by plant roots. Those exudates are excellent nutrients for oil-utilizing microorganisms. Since many rhizospheric bacteria have the combined activities of hydrocarbon-utilization and nitrogen fixation, phytoremediation provides a feasible and environmentally friendly biotechnology for cleaning oil-polluted soils, especially nitrogen-poor desert soils.

  11. Supply and Demand for Graduates in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabsheibani, Gholamreza

    1991-01-01

    Data from a sample of university graduates in Egypt are used to test the effect of a mismatch in higher education policy and labor demand on future employment patterns. The results are delayed employment or underemployment and consequent lowering of lifetime earnings of college graduates. (MSE)

  12. Toward replacement fertility in Egypt and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltigani, Eltigani E

    2009-09-01

    Egypt and Tunisia began their fertility transition at almost identical fertility levels and at roughly the same time period, yet the difference in the pace of decline has been such that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Tunisia reached replacement level by the year 2001, whereas the TFR in Egypt remains above three live births per woman. This article draws on the secondary literature and on several nationally representative surveys from the two countries between 1978 and 2005 to provide empirical evidence of the difference in the pace of fertility decline and to analyze the determinants of the differential. Findings include (a) variation across the two countries in the consistency of fertility decline among the segments of the population leading the transition; (b) that the success of each country's family planning program was influenced by the role of political leaders and the extent of the program's integration within socioeconomic development objectives; (c) that the impact of contraception on TFR decline became an important factor in the mid-1980s; and (d) that the greatest determinant of the discrepancy in the pace of fertility decline is the disparity in age at marriage, which rose more significantly in Tunisia than in Egypt. The latter finding indicates that reaching replacement fertility in Egypt hinges primarily on further declines in marital fertility, resulting from reduction of wanted fertility and from an expansion of family planning program coverage and improved efficiency of service delivery and use.

  13. Review of parasitic zoonoses in egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed I; Uga, Shoji

    2014-03-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance.

  14. Censorship and Security Agents Pervade Egypt's Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a glimpse into one of the many ways in which the Egyptian government and the campus administrators it appoints are slowly and persistently squeezing the life out of universities in Cairo, Egypt. Classroom discussions are monitored, faculty appointments and academic research are scrutinized, and faculty participation in outside…

  15. Adolescent tramadol use and abuse in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Salah El-Deen, Ghada M; Yousef, Usama; Raya, Yasser; Abdel-Ghani, Mohamed M; El-Gohari, Hayam; Atwa, Samar A

    2015-05-01

    Tramadol abuse liability is underestimated and the evidence of abuse and dependence is emerging. It has many health and social consequences especially in adolescents. Tramadol abuse has not been well studied in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of tramadol use and abuse among school students in Egypt. A total of 204 students, aged 13-18 years, from six schools in Zagazig, Egypt, were screened for tramadol use using The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test and a urine screen for tramadol. The prevalence of tramadol use was 8.8% among school students and the average age at onset of tramadol use was 16.5 ± 1.1. Some 83% of the users were using tramadol alone while the rest (17%) were using a combination of tramadol, alcohol, and cannabis. Two-thirds of these students started with tramadol as the first drug after the onset of tobacco smoking. Over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems and 6% had dependence. There was a significant association between tramadol use and older age, male gender, and smoking. Drug-related problems were negatively correlated with age at onset of tramadol use. Tramadol use was common among adolescents and over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems. Population-based longitudinal studies are needed to investigate tramadol use and the possible role of tramadol as a gateway drug in the development of substance abuse in Egypt.

  16. Biosystematic studies on Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel Khalik, K.N.E.

    2002-01-01

    The present work deals with a systematic investigation of 45 taxa belonging to 23 genera of the tribes Arabideae, Euclidieae, Hesperideae, Lunarieae, Matthioleae and Sisymbrieae of the family Brassicaceae from Egypt. This work is largely based on herbarium material received on loan fr

  17. Journey to Egypt: A Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvidge, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

  18. A long-term vegetation history of the Mojave-Colorado Desert ecotone at Joshua Tree National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Camille A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Rylander, Kate A.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-eight dated packrat middens were collected from upper desert (930-1357?m) elevations within Joshua Tree National Park near the ecotone between the Mojave Desert and Colorado Desert, providing a 30?ka record of vegetation change with remarkably even coverage for the last 15?ka. This record indicates that vegetation was relatively stable, which may reflect the lack of invasion by extralocal species during the late glacial and the early establishment and persistence of many desert scrub elements. Many of the species found in the modern vegetation assemblages were present by the early Holocene, as indicated by increasing S?renson\\'s Similarity Index values. C4 grasses and summer-flowering annuals arrived later at Joshua Tree National Park in the early Holocene, suggesting a delayed onset of warm-season monsoonal precipitation compared to other Sonoran Desert and Chihuahuan Desert localities to the east, where summer rains and C4 grasses persisted through the last glacial?interglacial cycle. This would suggest that contemporary flow of monsoonal moisture into eastern California is secondary to the core processes of the North American Monsoon, which remained intact throughout the late Quaternary. In the Holocene, northward displacement of the jet stream, in both summer and winter, allowed migration of the subtropical ridge as far north as southern Idaho and the advection of monsoonal moisture both westward into eastern California and northward into the southern Great Basin and Colorado Plateau. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Spatial and temporal changes in desertification in the southern region of the Tengger Desert from 1973 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingyu; Guan, Wenqian; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Shilei; Pan, Baotian; Wang, Lei; Song, Na; Lu, Min; Li, Fuchun

    2016-04-01

    The sandy land in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is adjacent to cities and towns, and land desertification poses a threat to the livelihood and production of local residents. To determine dynamic changes in local desertification, five periods (1973, 1987, 1992, 2001, and 2009) of remote sensing data are studied by remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). The desert contraction area is primarily centered around three units (Wuwei, Gulang, and Jingtai) and nearby regions of Zhongwei City. The primary desert expansion areas include the west side of Helan Mountain (WSHM), the Central Mountainous Area (CMA), and the eastern and western Zhongwei units far from towns. From 1973 to 2009, the degree of change in the contracting part of the primary desert expansion unit showed an increasing trend; in brief, most of the desert (especially after 2001) has been developing in a direction in which desertification has been gradually controlled. The primary desert expansion areas are less affected by human activity, but they are primarily controlled by natural factors (especially wind and terrain). The desert contraction areas occur around the towns and nearby regions with frequent human activity; desertification is primarily controlled by human factors. With rapid economic development (especially after 2000), the scale of the cultivated area, town, and ecological protection engineering has gradually expanded, and the latter two are primarily built on a previous desert, which is the root cause of the reduction in the desert areas around the towns and the shrinkage toward north of border. Therefore, reasonable and effective human activity in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is playing a crucial role in preventing desertification.

  20. Spatial and temporal changes in desertification in the southern region of the Tengger Desert from 1973 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingyu; Guan, Wenqian; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Shilei; Pan, Baotian; Wang, Lei; Song, Na; Lu, Min; Li, Fuchun

    2017-07-01

    The sandy land in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is adjacent to cities and towns, and land desertification poses a threat to the livelihood and production of local residents. To determine dynamic changes in local desertification, five periods (1973, 1987, 1992, 2001, and 2009) of remote sensing data are studied by remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). The desert contraction area is primarily centered around three units (Wuwei, Gulang, and Jingtai) and nearby regions of Zhongwei City. The primary desert expansion areas include the west side of Helan Mountain (WSHM), the Central Mountainous Area (CMA), and the eastern and western Zhongwei units far from towns. From 1973 to 2009, the degree of change in the contracting part of the primary desert expansion unit showed an increasing trend; in brief, most of the desert (especially after 2001) has been developing in a direction in which desertification has been gradually controlled. The primary desert expansion areas are less affected by human activity, but they are primarily controlled by natural factors (especially wind and terrain). The desert contraction areas occur around the towns and nearby regions with frequent human activity; desertification is primarily controlled by human factors. With rapid economic development (especially after 2000), the scale of the cultivated area, town, and ecological protection engineering has gradually expanded, and the latter two are primarily built on a previous desert, which is the root cause of the reduction in the desert areas around the towns and the shrinkage toward north of border. Therefore, reasonable and effective human activity in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is playing a crucial role in preventing desertification.

  1. Desert Environmental Handbook. First Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    Department of the Army, February 1972. 2. Analogs of Yuma Climate I-XI, US Army Natick Laboratories, Natick, Massachusetts, 1958-60. 3. Kolb, C. R.; Dornbusch ...Station Atrea, Arizona, Purdue University, March 1955. Kolb, C. R.; Dornbusch , W. K. Jr.; 1. Analogs of Yuma Terrain in the Middle East Desert; 2

  2. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  3. Women in the Gobi Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    THE plane flew for about an hour,transporting me from Beijing to adeserted land,the Gobi desert,where sits the China Arms Testing &Training Target Field.For about 40 years,thousands of scientists and technicianshave made hundreds of greatachievements in the history of Chinesearms testing;among them are a lot ofunusual women making their own quietcontributions.

  4. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  5. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a highland desert of Northern Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. METHODOLOGY: We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area-likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today.

  6. Thermal design of a modern, air-conditioned, single-floor, solar-powered desert house

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents a thermal analysis of a single-floor, solar-powered desert house. The house is air-conditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. Electrical power, which drives the entire energy system, is generated by roof-mounted photovoltaic modules. The modules are fixed on special cradles which fold at night to expose the roof to the night sky, thereby enhancing night-time cooling, which is substantial in the desert environment. A detailed dynamic heat transfer analysis is conducted for the building envelope, coupled with a solar radiation model. Application to a typical Middle-Eastern desert site reveals that indeed such a design is feasible with present-day technology; and should be even more attractive with future advances in technology. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  7. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for North Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A. E-mail: amanysroor@hotmail.com; Afifi, S.Y.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Salman, A.B.; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (R{sub eq}) and the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary.

  8. Mineralogical, geochemical and hydrocarbon potential of subsurface Cretaceous shales, Northern Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Mousa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four Cretaceous shale core samples of Gibb Afia-1, Betty-1, Salam-1X and Mersa Matruh-1 wells were mineralogically and geochemically studied using XRD, XRF and Rock Eval Pyrolysis. Kaolinite, smectite and illite are the main clay minerals in addition to rare chlorite, while the non-clay minerals include quartz, calcite, dolomite and rare siderite. The shales were derived through intensive chemical weathering of mafic basement and older sedimentary rocks. These sediments were deposited in a near-shore shallow marine environment with some terrestrial material input. The shales have poor to fair organic content. It is marginally to rarely mature.

  9. Application of electrical resistivity method for groundwater exploration at the Moghra area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I.I. Mohamaden

    2016-09-01

    Structurally, the study area is influenced by three faults two of them are geological/geoelectrical faults forming a graben structure at the central part; the third fault is a geoelectrical fault and is located to the west of the graben structure forming a horest structure.

  10. STATISTICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE GROUNDWATER SYSTEM IN DARB EL-ARBAEIN, SOUTHWESTERN DESERT, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashouty Mohamed El

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Darb El Arbaein, the groundwater is the only water resources. The aquifer system starts from Paleozoic-Mesozoic to Upper Cretaceous sandstone rocks. They overlay the basement rocks and the aquifer is confined. In the present research, the performance of the statistical analyses to classify groundwater samples depending on their chemical characters has been tested. The hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data of 92 groundwater samples was obtained from the GARPAD authority in northern, central, and southern Darb El Arbaein. A robust classification scheme for partitioning groundwater chemistry into homogeneous groups was an important tool for the characterization of Nubian sandstone aquifer. We test the performance of the many available graphical and statistical methodologies used to classify water samples. R-mode, Q-mode, correlation analysis, and principal component analysis were investigated. All the methods were discussed and compared as to their ability to cluster, ease of use, and ease of interpretation. The correlation investigation clarifies the relationship among the lithology, hydrogeology, and anthropogenic. Factor investigation revealed three factors namely; the evaporation process-agriculturalimpact-lithogenic dissolution, the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer system, and the surface meteoric water that rechargethe aquifer system. Two main clusters that subdivided into four sub clusters were identified in groundwater system based on hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data. They reflect the impact of geomedia, hydrogeology, geographic position, and agricultural wastewater. The groundwater is undersaturated with respect to most selected minerals. The groundwater was supersaturated with respect to iron minerals in northern and southern Darb El Arbaein. The partial pressure of CO2 of the groundwater versus saturation index of calcite shows the gradual change in PCO2 from atmospheric to the present aquifer pressures.

  11. Prospect evaluation of BED 3 and Sitra oilfields, Abu Gharadig Basin, North Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ibrahim; Ghazala, Hosni; El Diasty, Waleed

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of hydrocarbons is closely linked to the elements of petroleum system history of the BED 3 and Sitra 8 oilfields, which has created multiple reservoir and seal combinations. BED 3 Field and Sitra concessions occupy the northwestern part of the Abu Gharadig Basin and extends between latitudes 29°45‧ and 30°05‧N and longitudes 27°30‧ and 28°10‧E. The comprehensive integration of the geo-related data and the interpretation of the well logging, geochemical, seismic data in time domain and depth and sealing mechanisms explain the occurrence of hydrocarbons in some certain reservoirs during cretaceous age and other reservoirs in the same fields don't have any hydrocarbon accumulation. Detailed seismic data interpretation was performed for the target units of BED 3 and Sitra 8 oilfields in time domain and converted to depth domain. Sitra 8 Field is a three-way dip closure bounded by NW-SE faults while BED 3 field is represented by a WNW-ESE trending horst dipping to the east. The Albian-Cenomanian Kharita Formation has a high energy shallow marine shelf environment and considered as the main pay zone in the BED 3 oilfield. On the other hand, Kharita sands are dry in the Sitra 8 Field. Also, the shallow marine shale, sandstone, limestone and dolomite interbeds of the Abu Roash G Member are another hydrocarbon bearing reservoir in the Sitra 8 Field. Sealing mechanisms were applied to explain why certain reservoirs have hydrocarbon and others don't. Allan's juxtaposition diagram for the main faults in the study area shows that Kharita sands in BED 3 area have excellent juxtaposition as Kharita juxtapose to upper Bahariya and intra Bahariya, which consist of shale and limestone. Abu Roash G sands in BED 3 area have bad juxtaposition as the Abu Roash G juxtapose to Abu Roash C sand (sand juxtaposed sand). Allan's diagram shows that the Abu Roash G reservoir (main target) in Sitra 8 is juxtaposing Abu Roash D which is composed of limestone and shale, which acts as very good seal rock, while the Kharita reservoir is juxtaposing Abu Roash G sand (sand juxtaposed sand) from the crest position which can explain the bad juxtaposition.

  12. Laterites-bearing REEs,Wadi Natash,Southeastern Desert,Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; El-Ahmady; Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    The present paper recorded the occurrence of laterites-bearing REEs in Natash area.Natash laterite deposits occur as horizons(5-15 m in thickness) at the boundary between the Cretaceous sandstones,and Natash flows.Laterite was recorded in more than twenty six occurrence distributed over an area of about 500 km2 along and around Wadi Natash.It ranges in color from light-grey,dark-grey to reddish-brown.The distribution of laterite deposits is structural controlled.Mineralogical results of laterites proved the...

  13. Magnetization of three Nubia Sandstone formations from Central Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El-Shayeb

    2013-06-01

    The first magnetic component obtained from the two older formations is considered primary, as the corresponding pole reflects the age when compared with the previously obtained Cretaceous poles for North Africa. On other hand, the second pole obtained from the Maghrabi formation (the younger is inconsistent with the Cretaceous pole positions for North Africa, but falls closer to the Eocene pole indicating that the rocks of this formation could have suffered remagnetization during the late Eocene time.

  14. Women's empowerment and generalized anxiety in Minya, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; Dijkerman, Sally; Zureick-Brown, Sarah; VanderEnde, Kristin E

    2014-04-01

    Gender disparities in mental health are global, with women experiencing higher rates than men of anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and attempted suicide. Women's low social status may partly explain these disparities, yet evidence from Arab and Middle Eastern settings is limited. We assessed whether women's empowerment - or acquisition of enabling resources, and in turn, enhanced agency - was associated with their lower generalized anxiety. For 539 ever-married women 22-65 years who participated in the 2005 Egypt Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) and a 2012 follow-up survey in rural Minya, we estimated linear reduced-form and mediation regression models to assess the associations of women's premarital enabling resources with their generalized anxiety in 2012, overall and through measures of their marital agency in 2005. Women's higher schooling attainment, premarital economic activity, later age at first marriage, and greater proximity to natal (or birth) family had significant, adjusted associations with lower generalized anxiety. Measures of women's agency in marriage had mixed associations with generalized anxiety, but their inclusion modestly reduced the coefficients for premarital resources. Parallel qualitative findings confirmed nuanced associations between women's exclusive decision-making and their mental health. Efforts to enhance women's education and premarital economic activity might be combined with efforts to delay first marriage and ensure women's extra-marital social support to maximize their empowerment and its mental-health benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Desert Pathfinder at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    The Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) project celebrates the inauguration of its outstanding 12-m telescope, located on the 5100m high Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama Desert (Chile). The APEX telescope, designed to work at sub-millimetre wavelengths, in the 0.2 to 1.5 mm range, passed successfully its Science Verification phase in July, and since then is performing regular science observations. This new front-line facility provides access to the "Cold Universe" with unprecedented sensitivity and image quality. After months of careful efforts to set up the telescope to work at the best possible technical level, those involved in the project are looking with satisfaction at the fruit of their labour: APEX is not only fully operational, it has already provided important scientific results. "The superb sensitivity of our detectors together with the excellence of the site allow fantastic observations that would not be possible with any other telescope in the world," said Karl Menten, Director of the group for Millimeter and Sub-Millimeter Astronomy at the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) and Principal Investigator of the APEX project. ESO PR Photo 30/05 ESO PR Photo 30/05 Sub-Millimetre Image of a Stellar Cradle [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 627 pix - 200k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1254 pix - 503k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1539 x 2413 pix - 1.3M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 30/05 is an image of the giant molecular cloud G327 taken with APEX. More than 5000 spectra were taken in the J=3-2 line of the carbon monoxide molecule (CO), one of the best tracers of molecular clouds, in which star formation takes place. The bright peak in the north of the cloud is an evolved star forming region, where the gas is heated by a cluster of new stars. The most interesting region in the image is totally inconspicuous in CO: the G327 hot core, as seen in methanol contours. It is a truly exceptional source, and is one of the richest sources of emission from complex organic molecules in the

  16. Reference intervals and physiologic alterations in hematologic and biochemical values of free-ranging desert tortoises in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M.; Berry, Kristin H.; Wallis, I.R.; Nagy, K.A.; Henen, B.T.; Peterson, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) populations have experienced precipitous declines resulting from the cumulative impact of habitat loss, and human and disease-related mortality. Evaluation of hematologic and biochemical responses of desert tortoises to physiologic and environmental factors can facilitate the assessment of stress and disease in tortoises and contribute to management decisions and population recovery. The goal of this study was to obtain and analyze clinical laboratory data from free-ranging desert tortoises at three sites in the Mojave Desert (California, USA) between October 1990 and October 1995, to establish reference intervals, and to develop guidelines for the interpretation of laboratory data under a variety of environmental and physiologic conditions. Body weight, carapace length, and venous blood samples for a complete blood count and clinical chemistry profile were obtained from 98 clinically healthy adult desert tortoises of both sexes at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural area (western Mojave), Goffs (eastern Mojave) and Ivanpah Valley (northeastern Mojave). Samples were obtained four times per year, in winter (February/March), spring (May/June), summer (July/August), and fall (October). Years of near-, above- and below-average rainfall were represented in the 5 yr period. Minimum, maximum and median values, and central 95 percentiles were used as reference intervals and measures of central tendency for tortoises at each site and/or season. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance for significant (P < 0.01) variation on the basis of sex, site, season, and interactions between these variables. Significant sex differences were observed for packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, aspartate transaminase activity, and cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations. Marked seasonal variation was observed in most parameters in conjunction with reproductive cycle, hibernation, or seasonal

  17. Exporting a Scandinavian Learning Model to Egypt and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Youssef, Sandra Safwat; Bygholm, Ann; Jæger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    many challenges. In this paper, we will present findings from an ethnographic study of the learning systems in higher education in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The sample includes undergraduate level classes taught in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The selected learning setting include an 'Academic...... Communication and Grammar' class in Denmark, a 'Financial Management' class in Vietnam and a 'Marketing Management' class in Egypt. To analyze the data collected, the researcher developed a model based on a constructivist understanding of learning processes. Three detailed descriptions of observations made......, and the LS observed in Egypt is predominantly student-materials centered...

  18. Oriental Fantasy : A postcolonial discourse analysis of Western belly dancers’ imaginations of Egypt and dance festivals in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hooi, Mavis

    2015-01-01

    Belly dance is popularly practised in the West, and every year, thousands of enthusiasts and professionals from around the world travel to attend belly dance festivals in Egypt, which is considered the cultural centre of the dance. This bachelor’s thesis examines the discourses produced by Western or ʽwhiteʼ belly dancers from Sweden and Finland, on the topics of tourism in Egypt and belly dance festivals in Egypt. The texts are analysed using James Paul Gee's discourse analytical framework, ...

  19. FAMILY SUPPORT FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOR: A QUALITATIVE STUDY IN RURAL SOUTHERN EGYPT (UPPER EGYPT)

    OpenAIRE

    ASMAA GHAREEB MOHAMED; Ohashi, Ayumi; HIGUCHI, MICHIYO; Chiang, Chifa; SHOKRIA ADLY LABEEB; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women’s health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women’s health-seeking behavior in areas ...

  20. Exercise Desert Rock Letter Orders. Army, Camp Desert Rock, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-08-01

    WILF.iED J MSGT A19032i3 HJ;,ŕWAY, ELLafGzJN 8FC Xf,37791267 INOZ W, P. 1. PVT2 US52401808 KELLEY, JESSIE J SFC R1� EVaS, LOUIS PFC .,53073109...Ord Co (HAM) Camo Desert Rock, Nevada You will preeeed to Reynolds Funeral Vome, Sigourney, Iowa 0/a 24 AU ist 1957 for apprx fourteen (14) days to

  1. Tick paralysis: first zoonosis record in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosabah, Amira A Abd El-rahman; Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-04-01

    Tick paralysis caused by the secretion of toxin with saliva while taking a blood meal is an important veterinary disease, but is rare in humans. Although it has certain geographical proclivities, it exists worldwide. Tick paralysis was demonstrated for the first time in Egypt among four children living in rural area at Giza Governorate. The clinical pictures were confused with rabies; myasthensia gravis; botulism; diphtheritic polyneuropathy encountered in rural areas. The recovery of tick infesting the four little children and negative clinical and laboratory data of all diseases denoted tick paralysis. The encountered ticks infesting their animals were Rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs, Hyalomma dromedarii on camels and Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and Haemaphysalis sp. on goats. The case was recognized as first record of tick paralysis in Egypt.

  2. LETTING GO: DE-RADICALIZATION IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the causes of how terrorist organizations are formed and how counter terrorism measures can be more effective is immense. What is novel in terrorism literature is de-radicalization in terrorist organizations. This paper hopes to shed light on the de-radicalization process in terrorist organizations based in Egypt. In order to achieve that goal, the first part of the paper will deal with the de-radicalization process. The second part will briefly describe the major radical terrorist organizations that are effective in Egypt. The last part will combine the two parts and bring in suggestions on the de-radicalization process itself. Terrorism and de-radicalization are complicated threats to nearly all societies. Therefore, it is important to go beyond security and intelligence approaches and take proactive measures. It is best to view what is de-radicalization and how it can be achieved.

  3. China Knitting Delegation Visiting Turkey and Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Mr.Zhao Hong,V.President of China National Knitting Industry Association,also the chief editor of this magazine,will visit Turkey and Egypt,taking with him a delegation from Zhutang Town,one of the most important knitting industry clusters in China.The purpose of the visit is to strengthen the business relationship with lzmir area,one of the textile clustering areas in Turkey,to encourage bilateral investment and cooperation between the two industries despite Turkish trade remedy cases against textile imports from China.Observers view the regular visits between the two industries as a positive and optimistic signal for"burying the hatchet"to shake hands for more successful investment promotion and business cooperation.Egypt is famous for its long-staple cotton,and the yarn made of it is always an interest to Chinese knitters.

  4. Ostrich (Struthio camelus) production in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R G; Mahrose, K M A; El-Shafei, M; Marai, I F M

    2008-06-01

    This review discusses the historical, developmental and practices of ostrich farming in Egypt. In the early 20th century, ostrich farming was very important for production of ostrich feathers and documents were produced to perfect the art of procuring the plumes from the birds and subsequently processing them. Pharaohs used ostrich feathers for adornment. Of 43 provinces, 12 were featured in 2003-2004 as farming ostriches: Alexandria, Al-Behera, Al-Dakahlia, Al-Wadi Al-Gadid, Aswan, Cairo, El-Sharkia, Geiza, Ismailia, Kafr-El-Sheikh, Matrouh and Nubaria. Abattoirs and tanneries specialising in ostrich handling are limited to two. Egypt has numerous strengths and opportunities to develop its ostrich sector. Rising meat prices suggest that fresh ostrich meat is unaffordable to many locals. Funds may be allocated to local advertising campaigns to promote ostrich meat; provision of incentives to farmers; and improving the capacity of abattoirs.

  5. [Concepts of the heart in Ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskind, Bernard; Halioua, Bruno

    2004-03-01

    The heart was regarded in Ancient Egypt as the organic motor of the body and also the seat of intelligence, an important religious and spiritual symbol. It was considered as one of the eight parts of human body. Counter to other organs it had to be kept carefully intact in the mummy to ensure its eternal life. In Ancient Egypt, the concept of heart included three constituents: heart-haty, heart-ib, and the spiritual seat of intelligence, emotion and memory. The hieroglyphs representing the heart early in the first dynasty were drawn with eight vessels attached to it. Egyptian doctors have elaborated an original conception of cardiovascular physiology which endured 30 centuries.

  6. Road traffic injuries and data systems in Egypt: addressing the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanachandra, P; Hoe, C; El-Sayed, H F; Saad, R; Al-Gasseer, N; Bakr, M; Hyder, A A

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major cause of global mortality and morbidity, killing approximately 1.3 million people and injuring 20 to 50 million each year. The significance of this public health threat is most pronounced in low- and middle-income countries where 90 percent of the world's road traffic-related fatalities take place. Current estimates for Egypt show a road traffic fatality rate of 42 deaths per 100,000 population-one of the highest in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. RTIs are also responsible for 1.8 percent of all deaths and 2.4 percent of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in the country. Despite this, studies surrounding this topic are scarce, and reliable data are limited. The overall goal of this article is to define the health impact of RTIs in Egypt and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each data source for the purpose of improving the current RTI data systems. A 2-pronged approach was undertaken to assess the burden of RTIs in Egypt. First, a thorough literature review was performed using PubMed, Embase, ISIS Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Articles pertaining to Egypt and road traffic injuries were selected for screening. With assistance from Egyptian colleagues, a comprehensive exploration of data sources pertaining to RTIs in Egypt was undertaken and secondary data from these sources were procured for analysis. The literature review yielded a total of 20 studies, of which 6 were multi-country and 5 were hospital-based studies. None examined risk factors such as speeding, alcohol, or seat belt use. Secondary data sources were acquired from national hospital-based injury surveillance; a community-based health survey; pre-hospital injury surveillance; the Ministry of Transport; the General Authority for Roads, Bridges and Land Transport; death certificates; and the central agency for public motorization and statistics. Risk factor data are also limited from these sources. The results of this article

  7. MERS Coronaviruses in Dromedary Camels, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Daniel K. W.; Poon, Leo L.M.; Gomaa, Mokhtar M.; Shehata, Mahmoud M.; Perera, Ranawaka A. P. M.; Abu Zeid, Dina; El Rifay, Amira S.; Siu, Lewis Y.; Guan, Yi; Webby, Richard J; Mohamed A Ali; Peiris, Malik; Kayali, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    We identified the near-full-genome sequence (29,908 nt, >99%) of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a nasal swab specimen from a dromedary camel in Egypt. We found that viruses genetically very similar to human MERS-CoV are infecting dromedaries beyond the Arabian Peninsula, where human MERS-CoV infections have not yet been detected.

  8. China-Egypt, Closer in Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ Rashid Mohamed Rashid, Egyp-tian minister of Ministry of Trade and Industry, with his commercial delegation visited China in the late February, seeking for more cooperation channels and projects for two countries' development in the current international financial crisis.On February 25, the China-Egypt Busi-ness Seminar was held in Beijing, to usher over 200 entrepreneurs from both sides sit together to have the matching-making.

  9. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    power has engendered a fierce backlash from Brotherhood opponents who deeply distrust its motives . President Morsi on November 22, 2012, declared...Egypt from sliding into a dark tunnel of conflict, internal fighting, criminality, accusations of treason, sectarian discord and the collapse of state...order to assist exports18 and tourism , the Central Bank has tried to manage the gradual devaluation of the currency (Egyptian Pound), which has slid

  10. Political Stability and Military Intervention in Egypt

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Casey; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2013-01-01

    Policy choices in the wake of recent mass protests in Egypt will determine the likelihood of civil war in the short run and the prospects for democracy in the long run. Economic conditions can be improved by international action to reduce grain-based biofuel production and finance employment generation. Creating the conditions for stable democracy requires accepting power-sharing mechanisms in which the military will have an important role.

  11. The October 12, 1992, Dahshur, Egypt, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenhaus, P.C.; Celebi, M.; Sharp, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    Cairo and northeastern Egypt experienced a rare, damaging earthquake on October 12, 1992. The earthquake, which measured 5.9 on the Richter magnitude scale, was centered near the village of Dahshur, about 18 km south of Cairo. The computed hypocentral depth of the earthquake, about 25 km, is consistent with the fact that fault rupture associated with the earthquake did not reach the surface. 

  12. First evidence of enterobiasis in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, P D

    2002-10-01

    The oldest and most common parasite for which we have direct evidence, in the New World, is Enterobius vernicularis. Numerous archaeological sites, especially in the arid American southwest, have yielded fecal samples positive for pinworm ova, some of these dating back 10,000 yr. Reports of pinworm from the Old World are scarce. This article reports the first evidence of pinworm infection from Roman-occupied (30 BC-AD 395) Egypt.

  13. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Egypt and Uganda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Egyptian-Chinese Friendship Association(ECFA) and the Uganda-China Friendship Association(UCFA),a goodwill delegation led by Wang Mingyi,vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Henan Provincial People’s Congress and honorary president of the Henan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries,paid a friendly visit to Egypt and Uganda from November 3 to 14,2006.

  14. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Ptolemaic pharaohs and endured until the suicide of Cleopatra in 30 B.C., at which time direct Roman control was instituted. The early Ptolemies were...Idfu) and Den- ,Ata (present-day Dandarah). The last of the Ptolemies was Cleopatra , the wife of Julius Cae- sar and later Mark Antony. During her...reign, Egypt again became a factor in Mediterranean politics. Cleopatra was a woman of genius and a worthy opponent of Rome. Her main preoccupations were

  15. Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) thermal ecology and reproductive success along a rainfall cline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Annette E; Gambone, Megan M; Wallace, Bryan P; Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Spotila, James R; Avery, Harold W

    2015-05-01

    Desert resource environments (e.g. microclimates, food) are tied to limited, highly localized rainfall regimes which generate microgeographic variation in the life histories of inhabitants. Typically, enhanced growth rates, reproduction and survivorship are observed in response to increased resource availability in a variety of desert plants and short-lived animals. We examined the thermal ecology and reproduction of US federally threatened Mojave desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), long-lived and large-bodied ectotherms, at opposite ends of a 250-m elevation-related rainfall cline within Ivanpah Valley in the eastern Mojave Desert, California, USA. Biophysical operative environments in both the upper-elevation, "Cima," and the lower-elevation, "Pumphouse," plots corresponded with daily and seasonal patterns of incident solar radiation. Cima received 22% more rainfall and contained greater perennial vegetative cover, which conferred 5°C-cooler daytime shaded temperatures. In a monitored average rainfall year, Cima tortoises had longer potential activity periods by up to several hours and greater ephemeral forage. Enhanced resource availability in Cima was associated with larger-bodied females producing larger eggs, while still producing the same number of eggs as Pumphouse females. However, reproductive success was lower in Cima because 90% of eggs were depredated versus 11% in Pumphouse, indicating that predatory interactions produced counter-gradient variation in reproductive success across the rainfall cline. Land-use impacts on deserts (e.g. solar energy generation) are increasing rapidly, and conservation strategies designed to protect and recover threatened desert inhabitants, such as desert tortoises, should incorporate these strong ecosystem-level responses to regional resource variation in assessments of habitat for prospective development and mitigation efforts.

  16. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  17. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

  18. GPS-GRAVIMETRIC GEOID DETERMINATION IN EGYPT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to improve the geoid byGPS/leveling data in Egypt.Comparisons of the gravimetric geoid with GPS/leveling data have been performed.On the basis of a gravimetric geoid fitted to GPS/leveling by the least square method,a smoothed geoid was obtained.A high-resolution geoid in Egypt was computed with a 2.5′×2.5′ grid by combining the data set of 2 600 original point gravity values,30″×30″ resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) grid and the spherical harmonic model EGM96.The method of computation involved the strict evaluation of the Stokes integral with 1D-FFT.The standard deviation of the difference between the gravimetric and the GPS/leveling geoid heights is ±0.47 m.The standard deviation after fitting of the gravimetric geoid to the GPS/leveling points is better than ±13 cm.In the future we will try to improve our geoid results in Egypt by increasing the density of gravimetric coverage.

  19. Seed dispersal of desert annuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, D Lawrence; Flores-Martinez, Arturo; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Barron-Gafford, Greg; Becerra, Judith X

    2008-08-01

    We quantified seed dispersal in a guild of Sonoran Desert winter desert annuals at a protected natural field site in Tucson, Arizona, USA. Seed production was suppressed under shrub canopies, in the open areas between shrubs, or both by applying an herbicide prior to seed set in large, randomly assigned removal plots (10-30 m diameter). Seedlings were censused along transects crossing the reproductive suppression borders shortly after germination. Dispersal kernels were estimated for Pectocarya recurvata and Schismus barbatus from the change in seedling densities with distance from these borders via inverse modeling. Estimated dispersal distances were short, with most seeds traveling less than a meter. The adhesive seeds of P. recurvata went farther than the small S. barbatus seeds, which have no obvious dispersal adaptation. Seeds dispersed farther downslope than upslope and farther when dispersing into open areas than when dispersing into shrubs. Dispersal distances were short relative to the pattern of spatial heterogeneity created by the shrub and open space mosaic. This suggests that dispersal could contribute to local population buildup, possibly facilitating species coexistence. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that escape in time via delayed germination is likely to be more important for desert annuals than escape in space.

  20. Softening of sub-continental lithosphere prior rifting: Evidence from clinopyroxene chemistry in peridotite xenoliths from Natash volcanic province, SE Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Rus, M. A.; Chazot, G.; Vannucci, R.; Gahlan, H. A.; Boghdady, G. Y.; Paquette, J.-L.

    2016-11-01

    Major and trace element compositions were determined for well-preserved diopside relics in highly altered mantle xenoliths from Natash volcanic province, south Eastern Desert of Egypt, to unravel the major magmatic processes that occurred within the lithospheric mantle long time before the Red Sea rift. The diopside shows a limited compositional range as for mg# (0.89-0.92), Al2O3 (3.52-5.60 wt%), andTiO2 (0.15-0.35 wt%), whereas it is characterised by a larger variability as for Na2O (0.23-1.83 wt%) and, in particular the trace elements. The latter identify two main diopside types: 1) CPX-I has low abundances of incompatible elements, spoon-like REE patterns, small negative anomalies in Ti and Zr and a positive anomaly in Sr; and 2) CPX-II has high abundances in incompatible elements, REE patterns with steady enrichment from HREE to LREE patterns and marked negative anomalies in Ti and Zr. The range of REE patterns in the mantle section can be explained by 7-22% batch melting of the primitive mantle followed by varying degrees of trace element chromatographic exchange. CPX-I underwent only small-scale reactive porous flow metasomatism at the percolation front, whereas CPX-II resulted from large-scale rock-melt interaction close to the melt source. Trace element abundances of CPX-II suggest equilibration with carbonatite-like melts that bear close similarities with the carbonatites that enriched the lithosphere in the southern part of the Arabian plate. The similarity of the P-T gradients recorded by the Natash and southern part of Arabian lithospheres, as well as their re-fertilisation by similar, carbonatite-like agents, is consistent with the presence of a mantle plume at the base of the lithosphere after accretion of the Arabian-Nubian Shield in Late Precambrian. The plume material was fossilized due to secular cooling and became part of the lithospheric mantle before the eruption of the Natash volcanic in Late Cretaceous.

  1. Network topology of the desert rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Mongstad Hope

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Desert roses are gypsum crystals that consist of intersecting disks. We determine their geometrical structure using computer assisted tomography. By mapping the geometrical structure onto a graph, the topology of the desert rose is analyzed and compared to a model based on diffusion limited aggregation. By comparing the topology, we find that the model gets a number of the features of the real desert rose right, whereas others do not fit so well.

  2. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  3. Egypt and the Augustan Cultural Revolution : an interpretative archaeological overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerde, (Marike) van M.E.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the VIDI 'Cultural innovation in a globalising society: Egypt in the Roman world', this research explores manifestations of Egypt in the material culture of Augustan Rome. This period was a crucial turning point for the urban landscape of Rome, which was characterised by cultural

  4. Student Academic Freedom in Egypt: Perceptions of University Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain-Al-Dien, Muhammad M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate student academic freedom from the university education students' point of view in Egypt. This study adopted a survey research design in which the questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. The study participants comprised 800 university education students in Egypt. The result of the…

  5. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  6. Integrate the Arts. The Art of Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Mary

    1996-01-01

    Presents three art projects that can bring to life the study of ancient Egypt for elementary students. After researching Egypt's history and culture, students can create King Tut masks, make Cleopatra headdresses, and craft cartouche pendants. The article describes the materials needed and steps required to complete each project. (SM)

  7. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  8. Framing Egypt : Roman literary perceptions of Egypt from Cicero to Juvenal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemreize, M.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of Roman literary references to Egypt without preference for one particular period, author or subject, in contrast to most previous scholarship. In doing so, it shows that these references vary greatly, are context-dependent, and cannot be rightly understood when

  9. Framing Egypt : Roman literary perceptions of Egypt from Cicero to Juvenal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemreize, M.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of Roman literary references to Egypt without preference for one particular period, author or subject, in contrast to most previous scholarship. In doing so, it shows that these references vary greatly, are context-dependent, and cannot be rightly understood when interp

  10. Distribution and abundance of house dust mites, Dermatophagoides spp., in different ecological localities in Esna City, Kena Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, M K; Rifaat, M M

    1997-08-01

    The distribution and abundance of house dust mites, Dermatophagoides spp. were studied in July, September and November, 1995 in three different localities in Esna City, Kena Governorate, Upper Egypt. During these months, 15 houses were sampled in each locality. 87% of riverside houses were infested with mites where D. pteronyssinus dominated (80%) over D. farinae. Sixty percent of the valley houses sampled were infested, where D. farinae was dominant (66%). Densities of both Dermatophagoides spp., were considerably higher in riverside than in valley houses. Live mites were not found in the lightly infested houses sampled in the desert area (54% positive). Relative humidity, which varied in houses located in different climatic localities in Esna City, was noted to be the principal limiting factor influencing the distribution and abundance of both species. Temperature did not appear to be an important factor influencing the distribution and abundance.

  11. Indirect determination of broadband turbidity coefficients over Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Metwally, Mossad

    2013-01-01

    Long-term data from diffuse and global irradiances were used to calculate direct beam irradiance which was used to determine three atmospheric turbidity coefficients (Linke T L , Ångström β and Unsworth-Monteith δ a ) at seven sites in Egypt in the period from 1981 to 2000. Seven study sites (Barrani, Matruh, Arish, Cairo, Asyut, Aswan and Kharga) have been divided into three categories: Mediterranean climate (MC), desert Nile climate (DNC) and urban climate (UC, Cairo). The indirect method (i.e., global irradiance minus diffuse irradiance) used here allows to estimate the turbidity coefficients with an RMSE% ≤20 % (for β, δ a and T L ) and ~30 % (for β) if compared with those estimated by direct beam irradiance and sunphotometeric data, respectively. Monthly averages of T L , β and δ a show seasonal variations with mainly maxima in spring at all stations, due to Khamsin depressions coming from Sahara. Secondary maxima is observed in summer and autumn at DNC and MC (Barrani and Arish) stations in summer due to dust haze which prevails during that season and at UC (Cairo) in autumn, due to the northern extension of the Sudan monsoon trough, which is accompanied by small-scale depressions with dust particles. The mean annual values of β, δ a , and T L (0.216, 0.314, and 4.6, respectively) are larger in Cairo than at MC stations (0.146, 0.216, and 3.8, respectively) and DNC stations (0.153, 0.227, and 3.8, respectively). Both El-Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo eruptions were examined for all records data at MC, UC and DNC stations. The overburden caused by Mt. Pinatubo's eruption was larger than El-Chichon's eruption and overburden for β, and T L at DNC stations (0.06, and 0.58 units, respectively) was more pronounced than that at MC (0.02, and 0.26, respectively) and UC (0.05 and 0.52 units, respectively) stations. The annual variations in wind speed and turbidity parameters show high values for both low and high wind speed at all stations. The wind directions

  12. Oedematous skin disease of buffalo in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, S A

    2001-05-01

    This review covers a historical view and etiology of oedematous skin disease which affects buffalo in Egypt, the microbiology of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causing the disease: its virulence; clinical signs; mechanism of pathogenesis; histopathology; mode of transmission; immunological aspects; treatment and control. It is concluded that C. pseudotuberculosis serotype II is the main cause of OSD and exotoxin phospholipase D and its lipid contents of the cell wall are the major causes of pathogenesis. After declaring the role of Hippobosca equina in transmission of the causative agent among buffaloes, control of OSD is now available.

  13. Astronomy at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Nabta Playa may contain the oldest human-made features with astronomical alignments in Egypt. In the Late and Terminal Neolithic (7,500-5,400 BP), nomadic pastoralists built a ceremonial center on the western shore of Nabta Playa, consisting of some 30 complex megalithic structures, stone circles, and lines of megaliths crossing the playa. The megaliths may once have aligned with Arcturus, the Belt of Orion, Sirius, and α Cen. Reorientations of the northern set of megaliths suggest a response to precession. Elaborate burials at the nearby cemetery at Gebel Ramlah indicate the nomads consisted of Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations with little social stratification.

  14. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The

  15. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    agricultural output, large domestic market , and strategic location between the Mediterranean and Red Seas. Most importantly, the British saw Egypt as vital to...the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE), March 6, 2008. 17 Steven A. Cook, "Adrift on the Nile: The Limits of...widespread due to Israel’s total blockade of Gaza, Hamas’s demand for weapons, and the lack of viable economic alternatives to black market activity on

  16. Off-Road and the Fragile Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Part one of a two-part article sets forth the dimensions and the political-cultural aspects of the use of off-road vehicles in desert areas. Presents arguments for and against off-road vehicle use on national-resource land as exemplified in the California Desert. (Editor/JR)

  17. [Studies on the development of the medical occupational image in Egypt's early times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Heinz; Hallof, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    Shamanism in pre-dynastic Egypt, practise by Sem-priests, combines social, psycho-hygienic and para-medical elements of both Near-Eastern and African provenance. These activities, which included health care and medical prophylaxes, were organised by highly qualified advisors of the Pharaoh with the establishment of Egyptian state religion. Their aim was to protect the rulers against his "enemies". These enemies included illnesses of all kinds, as well as injuries to health caused by impure food. The importance of this task is emphasised by the fact that it was usually the eldest son of the Pharoah who was responsible for the correct performance of the royal rituals, which included these medical aspects. Changes in religious concepts made these special advisors and priests superfluous. They took over other tasks in the funeral service of the Pharaoh or were included in the professional group of physicians, known from the time of the pyramids as "Sahkmet-priests", i.e. medical specialists. They were particularly responsible for precautionary measures against epidemics and for curing snake and scorpion bites. They created the first medical papyri and established the legal foundation for the medical care of the inhabitants of Egypt by royal order.

  18. Emergence of peste des petits ruminants virus lineage IV in Ismailia Province, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltan, Mohamed A; Abd-Eldaim, Mohamed M

    2014-12-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious fatal disease of small ruminants characterized by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, erosive stomatitis and severe enteritis that ultimately results in high mortalities. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is widely distributed and endemic in several African, middle eastern and south Asian countries and it poses a threat to European countries. Egyptian veterinary medical authorities stated that Egypt is free from PPRV and the only measures for disease control are test and slaughter of infected population to maintain the free status. The aim of our investigation was to detect PPRV in Ismailia province as an indicator of the infection status in Egypt and perform molecular characterization of the emerging virus to gain insight into the origin of circulating virus. A total of 40 representative clinical samples, from a single goat case and goat flock in 2010 and sheep flock in 2012, were tested for PPRV by RT-PCR. About 21 (52.5%) samples were positive. The phylogenetic analysis of the detected viruses revealed circulation of PPRV lineage IV. The circulating viruses are closely related to Sudanese and Saudia Arabian strains with nucleotide identity ranged from 99.2% to 99.6%, respectively. Also, it is closely related to Moroccan 2008 viruses with identities ranged from 97.6% to 98%. Epidemiological investigation at the national level is recommended for monitoring PPRV spread and implementing an appropriate control program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A River in the Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仲言

    1994-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula today is a barren desert. But 6,000 yearsago, says Farouk El-Baz,a river ran through the heart of the peninsula.From the Hijaz Mountains in western Saudi Arabia, it flowed 530 milesnortheast, emptying into the Persian Gulf through a delta that coveredmost of present day Kuwait. The Kuwait River, as El-Baz has dubbedit, averaged 5 miles wide and 50 feet deep along its entire length, and itcarried gravel from the Hijaz all the way to Kuwait. "It must have been amighty river, "says El-Baz.

  20. Simplified analysis of naturally ventilated desert buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, E.H.; Richards, P.G.; Rousseau, P.G. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Etzion, Y.; Erell, E. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer (Israel). J. Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research)

    1992-10-01

    The verification of a simplified thermal analysis procedure and its application to naturally ventilated desert buildings are discussed. Measurements for buildings in the Negev Desert, made independently by the Desert Architecture Unit of the Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, were inter alia used to verify the simplified thermal analysis procedure QUICK, developed by the Centre for Experimental and Numerical Thermoflow. As detailed information for validation purposes is not always readily available to researchers, the measurements as well as the buildings' descriptions are given in detail in this paper. The effect of natural ventilation strategies on the indoor air temperatures is also investigated for the desert buildings. A simplified but novel procedure to calculate the air change rates through the building from the measured wind speeds, building geometry and surroundings is proposed. Hourly air change rates determined with the proposed procedure are employed in the simulations with QUICK. (author)

  1. Nummulite biostratigraphy of the Eocene succession in the Bahariya Depression, Egypt: Implications for timing of iron mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, A. M.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Calvo, J. P.; Sallam, E. S.

    2016-08-01

    In the northern part of the Bahariya Depression (Western Desert, Egypt) the Eocene carbonate succession, unconformably overlying the Cretaceous deposits, consists of three main stratigraphic units; the Naqb, Qazzun and El Hamra formations. The Eocene carbonates are relevant as they locally host a large economic iron mineralization. This work revises the stratigraphic attribution of the Eocene formations on the basis of larger benthic foraminifers from both carbonate and ironstone beds. Eight Nummulites species spanning the late Ypresian - early Bartonian (SBZ12 to SBZ17) were identified, thus refining the chronostratigraphic framework of the Eocene in that region of Central Egypt. Moreover, additional sedimentological insight of the Eocene carbonate rocks is presented. The carbonate deposits mainly represent shallow marine facies characteristic of inner to mid ramp settings; though deposits interpreted as intertidal to supratidal are locally recognized. Dating of Nummulites assemblages from the youngest ironstone beds in the mines as early Bartonian provides crucial information on the timing of the hydrothermal and meteoric water processes resulting in the formation of the iron ore mineralization. The new data strongly support a post-depositional, structurally-controlled formation model for the ironstone mineralization of the Bahariya Depression.

  2. Out of Egypt: Israel’s Exodus Between Text and Memory, History and Imagination

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Thomas; Propp, William; Israel’s Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective : Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience

    2015-01-01

    The Bible's grand narrative about Israel's Exodus from Egypt is central to Biblical religion, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim identity, and the formation of the academic disciplines studying the ancient Near East. It has also been a pervasive theme in artistic and popular imagination.  Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective is a pioneering work surveying this tradition in unprecedented breadth, combining archaeological discovery, quantitative methodology, and close literary reading.  Archaeologists, Egyptologists, Biblical Scholars, Computer Scientists, Geoscientists and other experts contribute their diverse approaches in a novel, transdisciplinary consideration of ancient topography, Egyptian and Near Eastern parallels to the Exodus story, the historicity of the Exodus, the interface of the Exodus question with archaeological fieldwork on emergent Israel, the formation of biblical literature, and the cultural memory of the Exodus in ancient Israel and beyond.  This edited volume contains rese...

  3. ISCC Kuraymat Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakmann, G.

    2006-07-01

    The New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) of Egypt intends to implement an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant, ISCC Kuraymat, to be located about 95 km south of Cairo, on the eastern side of the river Nile, at a northern latitude of 29{sup o} 16' and an eastern longitude of 31{sup o} 15'. The complete ISCC Project shall be implemented in three (3) contract lots: One (1) Contract Lot for Solar Island as EPC cum OandM contract for engineering, procurement, construction, testing, commissioning and five (5) years operation and maintenance; (Two contracts will be used for this Lot (Solar Island), one for EPC and one for the OandM part of the Lot.) The Solar Island shall consist of a parabolic trough solar field capable to generate about 110 MW (thermal) of solar heat at a temperature of 393{sup o}C, the related IandC and control room and the heat transfer fluid (HTF) system up to the HTF inlet and outlet flanges of the Solar Heat Exchanger(s). The Contractor for Solar Island shall guarantee the supply of solar heat to the Solar Heat Exchanger(s) as a function of normal direct solar irradiation (DNI) and of solar position. One (1) Contract for Combined Cycle Island as EPC contract for engineering, procurement, construction, testing and commissioning and extended two (2) year warranty period. The Combined Cycle Island shall consist of one (1) or two (2) gas turbine(s) with ISO rating of about 80 MWe (total), one (1) or two (2) heat recovery steam generator(s) (HRSG), one (1) steam turbine of about 70 MWe, solar heat exchanger(s) capable to absorb about 110 MW (thermal) of solar heat plus all associated balance of plant equipment. The Contractor(s) for Combined Cycle Island shall guarantee the supply of electricity and the heat rate as a function of ambient temperature and as a function of solar heat supply from the Solar Island. One (1) Contract for Combined Cycle Island as OandM contract for five (5) year operation and maintenance. (Author)

  4. Framework for Bridges Maintenance in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Abd Elkhalek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approaches for bridges maintenance is proven to be inefficient as they lead to random way of spending maintenance budget and deteriorating bridge conditions. In many cases, maintenance activities are performed due to user complaints. The objective of this paper is to develop a practical and reliable framework to manage the maintenance and repair activities of Bridges network in Egypt considering performance and budget limits. The model solves an optimization problem that maximizes the average condition of the network given the limited budget using Genetic Algorithm (GA. The main tasks of the system are bridge inventory, condition assessment, deterioration using markov model, and maintenance optimization. The developed model takes into account multiple parameters including serviceability requirements, budget allocation, element importance on structural safety and serviceability, bridge impact on network, and traffic. A questionnaire is conducted to complete the research scope. The proposed model is implemented in software, which provides a friendly user interface. The results of the framework are multi – year maintenance plan for the entire network for up to five years. A case study is presented for validating and testing the model with Data collected from “General Authority for Roads, Bridges and Land Transport” in Egypt.

  5. Political Participation and Power Relations in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shehata, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    The political use of media in Egypt post-2011 revolution brought about drastic transformations in political activism and power structures. In the context of communication power theory, this article investigates the effects of newspapers and social network sites on political participation and poli......The political use of media in Egypt post-2011 revolution brought about drastic transformations in political activism and power structures. In the context of communication power theory, this article investigates the effects of newspapers and social network sites on political participation...... and political power relations. The research employed a mixed methodology, comprised of a survey of 527 Egyptian youth and semi-structured interviews of 12 political activists and journalists. The results showed a significant relationship between reading newspapers and youth’s political participation......, but not between using social network sites and political participation. In addition, newspapers and social network sites were platforms for a series of conflicts and coalitions that emerged between pro- and anti-revolution actors. Despite the importance of social network sites as key tools for informing...

  6. Comparisons of diazotrophic communities in native and agricultural desert ecosystems reveal plants as important drivers in diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Erlacher, Armin; Ramadan, Elshahat M; El-Arabi, Tarek F; Müller, Henry; Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Diazotrophs provide the only biological source of fixed atmospheric nitrogen in the biosphere. Although they are the key player for plant-available nitrogen, less is known about their diversity and potential importance in arid ecosystems. We investigated the nitrogenase gene diversity in native and agricultural desert soil as well as within root-associated microbiota of medicinal plants grown in Egypt through the combination of nifH-specific qPCR, fingerprints, amplicon pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization-confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although the diazotrophic microbiota were characterized by generally high abundances and diversity, statistically significant differences were found between both soils, the different microhabitats, and between the investigated plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.). We observed a considerable community shift from desert to agriculturally used soil that demonstrated a higher abundance and diversity in the agro-ecosystem. The endorhiza was characterized by lower abundances and only a subset of species when compared to the rhizosphere. While the microbiomes of the Asteraceae were similar and dominated by potential root-nodulating rhizobia acquired primarily from soil, the perennial S. distichum generally formed associations with free-living nitrogen fixers. These results underline the importance of diazotrophs in desert ecosystems and additionally identify plants as important drivers in functional gene pool diversity.

  7. Comparisons of diazotrophic communities in native and agricultural desert ecosystems reveal plants as important drivers in diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Erlacher, Armin; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Müller, Henry; Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Diazotrophs provide the only biological source of fixed atmospheric nitrogen in the biosphere. Although they are the key player for plant-available nitrogen, less is known about their diversity and potential importance in arid ecosystems. We investigated the nitrogenase gene diversity in native and agricultural desert soil as well as within root-associated microbiota of medicinal plants grown in Egypt through the combination of nifH-specific qPCR, fingerprints, amplicon pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization–confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although the diazotrophic microbiota were characterized by generally high abundances and diversity, statistically significant differences were found between both soils, the different microhabitats, and between the investigated plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.). We observed a considerable community shift from desert to agriculturally used soil that demonstrated a higher abundance and diversity in the agro-ecosystem. The endorhiza was characterized by lower abundances and only a subset of species when compared to the rhizosphere. While the microbiomes of the Asteraceae were similar and dominated by potential root-nodulating rhizobia acquired primarily from soil, the perennial S. distichum generally formed associations with free-living nitrogen fixers. These results underline the importance of diazotrophs in desert ecosystems and additionally identify plants as important drivers in functional gene pool diversity. PMID:26705571

  8. Deserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graulund, Rune

    2016-01-01

    , comic sketches and lyrical reveries; travel writing is now a crucial focus for discussion across many subjects within the humanities and social sciences. An ideal starting point for beginners, but also offering new perspectives for those familiar with the field, The Routledge Companion to Travel Writing...

  9. Deserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graulund, Rune

    2016-01-01

    , comic sketches and lyrical reveries; travel writing is now a crucial focus for discussion across many subjects within the humanities and social sciences. An ideal starting point for beginners, but also offering new perspectives for those familiar with the field, The Routledge Companion to Travel Writing...

  10. Microphytic crusts: 'topsoil' of the desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne

    1990-01-01

    Deserts throughout the world are the home of microphytic, or cryptogamic, crusts. These crusts are dominated by cyanobacteria, previously called blue-green algae, and also include lichens, mosses, green algae, microfungi and bacteria. They are critical components of desert ecosystems, significantly modifying the surfaces on which they occur. In the cold deserts of the Colorado Plateau (including parts of Utah, Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico), these crusts are extraordinarily well-developed, and may represent 70-80% of the living ground cover.

  11. Governance and Risk Management: Empirical Evidence from Malaysia and Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rashidah Abdul Rahman; Siti Balqis Noor; Tariq Ismail

    2013-01-01

    ... management practices of Islamic banks in Malaysia and Egypt. The findings of this study identified that the Islamic banks in the selected countries are somewhat efficient in their risk management process...

  12. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  13. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: Past, present and future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2013-01-01

    .... In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta...

  14. Schistosomiasis and cancer in egypt: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Hussein

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is not known to be associated with any malignant disease other than bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is still the most common malignant tumor among males in Egypt and some African and Middle East countries. However, the frequency rate of bladder cancer has declined significantly during the last 25 years. This drop is mainly related to the control of Schistosomiasis. Many studies have elucidated the pathogenic events of Schistosomal-related bladder cancer with a suggested theory of pathogenesis. Furthermore, the disease presents with a distinct clinicopathologic profile that is quite different from bladder cancer elsewhere with younger age at presentation, more male predominance, more invasive stages, and occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma pathologic subtype. However, recent data suggest that this profile has been dramatically changed over the past 25 years leading to minimization of the differences between its features in Egypt and that in Western countries. Management of muscle-invasive localized disease is mainly surgery with 5-year survival rates of 30-50%. Although still a debatable issue, adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have improved treatment outcomes including survival and bladder preservation rates in most studies. This controversy emphasizes the need of individualized treatment options based on a prognostic index or other factors that can define the higher risk groups where more aggressive therapy is needed. The treatment for locally advanced and/or metastatic disease has passed through a series of clinical trials since 1970s. These phase II and III trials have included the use of single agent and combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. The current standard of systemic chemotherapy of generally fit patients is now the gemcitabine-cisplatin combination. In conclusion, a changing pattern of bladder cancer in Egypt is clearly observed. This is mainly due to the success in the control of Schistosomiasis

  15. The effects of solar activity on the global solar radiation measured at Khargha Oasis in the Western Dessert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M.; Mohamed, A.

    Khargha is an Oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt of coordinates lat. 25 o 27/ N, long. 30 o 32 / E, and elevation 77.8 meter over the sea level. It is one of the driest areas in the world, the global solar radiation measured starting from January 1976 till now by station belong to the Egyptian Meteorological Authority. We used the data for the last 25 years of the 20"' Century on the daily bases, it is more than two solar cycles. The annual mean of relative humidity for Khargha is 30, and the total rainfall in mms as annual mean is less than one. Where, the evaporation in mms per day as annual mean is about 16. The total sky cover in oktas as annual mean is 0.4 at the midnight, while it is one oktas at the noon as 2annual mean, and 0.7 oktas on the mean of the day. The annual mean is 6.5 Kwh/rn /day for global solar radiation. Fourier analysis technique used to analysis the time series to show any reflection for the 11-year cycle of the solar activity on the measured global radiation in remote, clean, and dry desert area. The results indicate periodicity's similar to the solar activity periodicities, especially that of the eleven year cycle, in a good indication for the effect of solar activity on the climate change.

  16. Development And Climate Change In Egypt: Focus On Coastal Resources

    OpenAIRE

    M. El Raey; Hagenstad, M.; Smith, J.; Agrawala, S.; M. van Aalst; Conway, D.; Moehner, A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the integrated case study for Egypt carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Egypt are assessed and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios are analyzed to examine the proportion of development assistance activities af...

  17. Perceived stress among tomorrow’s attorneys in Mansoura, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Amr; Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Few data are available on the level and sources of stress among law students in the Middle East generally and in Egypt specifically. We conducted this study to identify the prevalence and predictors of perceived stress among law students in Mansoura University, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study covered 426 law students selected through a stratified cluster sampling method. The questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items on sources of...

  18. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

  19. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The emerging evidence of the potentially clinicalimportance of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection(OBI) increases the interest in this topic. OBI mayimpact in several clinical contexts, which include thepossible transmission of the infection, the contributionto liver disease progression, the development ofhepatocellular carcinoma, and the risk of reactivation.There are several articles that have published on OBI inEgyptian populations. A review of MEDLINE databasewas undertaken for relevant articles to clarify theepidemiology of OBI in Egypt. HBV genotype D is theonly detectable genotype among Egyptian OBI patients.Higher rates of OBI reported among Egyptian chronicHCV, hemodialysis, children with malignant disorders, andcryptogenic liver disease patients. There is an evidenceof OBI reactivation after treatment with chemotherapy.The available data suggested that screening for OBI mustbe a routine practice in these groups of patients. Furtherstudies needed for better understand of the epidemiologyof OBI among Egyptian young generations after the eraof hepatitis B vaccination.

  20. Desert National Wildlife Range Wilderness study summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a summary of a wilderness study done of the Desert National Wildlife Range pursuant to the Wilderness Act of 1964. It provides information as to the...

  1. Proposed Desert Pupfish Preserve : Supplemental LARC Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains supplements to a previous report on the desert pupfish preserve proposal. The attachments are titled: “Vertebrate Animals and Vascular...

  2. Social and Demographic Factors Associated with Morbidities in Young Children in Egypt: A Bayesian Geo-Additive Semi-Parametric Multinomial Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Khatab

    Full Text Available Globally, the burden of mortality in children, especially in poor developing countries, is alarming and has precipitated concern and calls for concerted efforts in combating such health problems. Examples of diseases that contribute to this burden of mortality include diarrhoea, cough, fever, and the overlap between these illnesses, causing childhood morbidity and mortality.To gain insight into these health issues, we employed the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey Data of Egypt, which recorded details from 10,872 children under five. This data focused on the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of household members. We applied a Bayesian multinomial model to assess the area-specific spatial effects and risk factors of co-morbidity of fever, diarrhoea and cough for children under the age of five.The results showed that children under 20 months of age were more likely to have the three diseases (OR: 6.8; 95% CI: 4.6-10.2 than children between 20 and 40 months (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.38-3.3. In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, the children of mothers who were over 20 years of age were more likely to have only cough (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 0.9-1.5 and only fever (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 0.91-1.51 compared with their counterparts. Spatial results showed that the North-eastern region of Egypt has a higher incidence than most of other regions.This study showed geographic patterns of Egyptian governorates in the combined prevalence of morbidity among Egyptian children. It is obvious that the Nile Delta, Upper Egypt, and south-eastern Egypt have high rates of diseases and are more affected. Therefore, more attention is needed in these areas.

  3. Recent environmental change and prehistoric human activity in Egypt and Northern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Kathleen

    2004-03-01

    This paper reviews the various Late Quaternary records that are available from western Egypt and northern Sudan, which includes more than 500 published radiocarbon dates and various sedimentary archives from local landscape components, including palaeolakes, soils, drainages (wadis), and archaeological sites. This palaeoenvironmental compilation frames the spatial and temporal context of local cultural activities when the region was most hospitable ˜9000-6000 BP; at this time, monsoonal weather influenced the portion of the African continental interior, creating enough convective rainfall for occasional surface water storage. In this part of the modern Sahara, rapid hydroclimatic changes play a key role in geomorphic evolution and resource availability. As 'watering holes' formed and dried up in the Early to Middle Holocene, Neolithic people developed various subsistence strategies, including opportunistic hunting of small animals (e.g. gazelle and hare), and food-related (e.g. wild sorghum, millet, and legumes) activities: gathering, plant cultivation and livestock-rearing. During its wettest phases during the 'monsoonal maximum,' the area was drought-prone, sustaining a meager steppe-shrub desert flora. Further desertification and aeolian deflation during the Middle and Late Holocene fostered technological innovation, migration and settlement, as well as the further development of agrarian communities and complex culture.

  4. Petrophysical Properties of Clastic Reservoirs Using NMR Relaxometry and Mercury Injection Data: Bahariya Formation, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Abdel Moktader A.; El Sayed, Nahla A.

    2016-10-01

    The Bahariya Formation is a sedimentary sequence, which was deposited under fluvial to shallow marine conditions at the beginning of the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) transgression in the Western Desert of Egypt. Thirty sandstone core samples, obtained from the Bahariya Formation, are conducted to NMR measurements and the relaxation time T2 = 100 μs and 600 μs were estimated. Application of a model related core-porosity and transverse relaxation time (T2) measured from NMR spectrum; the cementation exponent of Wyllie's type is outlined with high accuracy. Consequently, the water saturation and hydrocarbon saturation will be significantly enhanced. The irreducible water saturation (Swirr) calculated from the mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) measurements is related to the normalized area under < 4 μs of transverse relaxation time (T2) and a regression model is calculated with a reliable coefficient of correlation permitting calculation of (Swirr) with high accuracy. Lithologic laminations presented in some intervals of the Bahariya Formation have great consequences on both the Mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) measurements and nuclear magnetic Relaxometry (T2) as well. Thin sections and SEM-micrographs were made for some selected core samples in order to recognize petrography and mineralogy of the Bahariya sandstones. Glauconitic, mica, zircon, rutile and pyrite minerals are predominant in the laminated sandstones intervals.

  5. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt. II. Irrigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evett, Steven R; Zalesny, Ronald S; Kandil, Nabil F; Stanturf, John A; Soriano, Chris

    2011-01-01

    An Egyptian national program targets annual reuse of 2.4 billion m3 of treated wastewater (TWW) to irrigate 84,000 ha of manmade forests in areas close to treatment plants and in the desert. To evaluate the feasibility of such afforestation efforts, we describe information about TWW irrigation strategies based on (1) water use of different tree species, (2) weather conditions in different climate zones of Egypt, (3) soil types and available irrigation systems, and (4) the requirement to avoid deep percolation losses that could lead to groundwater contamination. We conclude that drip irrigation systems are preferred, that they should in most cases use multiple emitters per tree in order to increase wetted area and decrease depth of water penetration, that deep rooting should be encouraged, and that in most situations irrigation system automation is desirable to achieve several small irrigations per day in order to avoid deep percolation losses. We describe directed research necessary to fill knowledge gaps about depth of rooting of different species in sandy Egyptian soils and environments, tree crop coefficients needed for rational irrigation scheduling, and depth of water penetration under different irrigation system designs. A companion paper addresses recommendations for afforestation strategies (see Zalesny et al. 2011, this issue).

  6. Bryozoan Nodules as a Frame-Builder of Bryozoan-Microreef, Middle Miocene Sediments, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdelbaset S. El-Sorogy

    2015-01-01

    Bryozoan nodules, coralline algae, scleractinian corals and oysters form an important or-ganic buildup, 1.2–4.5 m thick in the Langhian-Serravaliann sediments of Egypt. Based on type, shape and size of the substrate, bryozoan nodules take tree-like and globular morphologies. Tree-like speci-mens reach 10 cm in maximum height and 3 cm in diameter, while Globular ones attain 9 cm in maxi-mum diameter. Most tree-like nodules are perforated with wide or narrow pores, few are non-perforated. Globulars and few tree-like forms are with mamelon-like structures. Perforations on the outer surfaces may indicate a symbiotic relationship between bryozoans and a live plant substrate. Nod-ules from Homiera and Gharra areas of the Cairo-Suez District with wider perforations may indicate growth in slightly lighter or turbid areas of the continental shelf than those of North Western Desert of narrower perforations. Non-perforated nodules may assume an incrustation on ephemeral substrate.

  7. Distribution of sand dunes and sand shifts along the southern fringe of the Mu Us Desert since the Ming Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This article takes the two segments of the Ming Great Walls, Dabian and Erbian, and their associated barracks and forts as geographical references. Based on a detailed scrutiny of historical records of the Ming and Qing dynasties, and on field surveys, the southern boundaries of the sand dunes and sand shifts of the Mu Us Desert in the Ming and Qing dynasties are carefully reconstructed. A comparison of the southern boundaries of the sand dunes and sand shifts of the Mu Us Desert in Ming and Qing with the modern boundary revealed in remote sensing imagery clearly shows that the southern boundary of dunes and shifts in the Mu us Desert has expanded only in a few areas and on a small scale. In the area to the south of Changle Fort, along the direction of annually prevailing winds, sand drifts have penetrated through the Jialu River valley into the loess region and have formed a sand strip of 32 km long and 3 km wide. To the east of Qingping Fort, sand drifts penetrated toward the eastern loess region through the Luhe River valley and have formed another sand strip of 8 km long and 2 km wide. Generally speaking, though the intensity of human activity has been increasing in this area since the Ming Dynasty, the Mu Us Desert has not significantly expanded toward the southeast or southwest. The sand-loess boundary in the southern fringe of the Mu Us Desert has been almost unchanged since the Ming Dynasty.

  8. [The relationship between teenage pregnancy and school desertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Marta; Ferrada, Cristina; Pérez, Ruth; Cid, Luis; Casanueva, Víctor; García, Apolinaria

    2004-01-01

    In Chile, the prevalence of teenage pregnancy is 17%. To assess relationship between adolescent pregnancy and school desertion. At the Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente's Departament of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in Concepción, Chile, 2001 a comparative, cross sectional and correlational study was conducted. The study group were pregnant adolescents who deserted from school system, divided in two subgroups: 86 adolescents who deserted before pregnancy and 130 who deserted during pregnancy. Twenty percent of teenagers that deserted from school before pregnancy belonged to a sublevel of poverty, compared with 5% of those who deserted during pregnancy. Flunk was frequent in both but higher in girls that deserted before pregnancy (46.5 and 36.9% respectively, (prelationship between teenage pregnancy and school desertion. Adolescents who deserted from school before pregnancy are more vulnerable.

  9. Atmospheric Electricity Effects of Eastern Mediterranean Dust Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Shai; Yair, Yoav; Yaniv, Roy; Price, Colin

    2016-04-01

    We present atmospheric electrical measurements conducted at the Wise Observatory (WO) in Mizpe-Ramon (30035'N, 34045'E) and Mt. Hermon (30024'N, 35051'E), Israel, during two massive and unique dust storms that occurred over the Eastern Mediterranean region on February 10-11 and September 08-12, 2015. The first event transported Saharan dust from Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula in advance of a warm front of a Cyprus low pressure system. In the second event, dust particles were transported from the Syrian desert, which dominates the north-east border with Iraq, through flow associated with a shallow Persian trough system. In both events the concentrations of PM10 particles measured by the air-quality monitoring network of the Israeli Ministry of the Environment in Beer-Sheba reached values > 2200 μg m-3. Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) obtained from the AERONET station in Sde-Boker reached values up to 4.0. The gradual intensification of the first event reached peak values on the February 11th > 1200 μg m-3 and an AOT ~ 1.8, while the second dust storm commenced on September 8th with a sharp increase reaching peak values of 2225 μg m-3 and AOT of 4.0. Measurements of the fair weather vertical electric field (Ez) and of the vertical current density (Jz) were conducted continuously with a 1 minute temporal resolution. During the February event, very large fluctuations in the electrical parameters were measured at the WO. The Ez values changed between +1000 and +8000 V m-1 while the Jz fluctuated between -10 and +20 pA m-2 (this is an order of magnitude larger compared to the fair weather current density of ~2 pA m-2. In contrast, during the September event, Ez values registered at WO were between -430 and +10 V m-1 while the Jz fluctuated between -6 and +3 pA m2. For the September event the Hermon site showed Ez and Jz values fluctuating between -460 and +570 V m-1 and -14.5 and +18 pA m-2 respectively. The electric field and current variability, amplitude and the

  10. Assessment and management of water resources in Egypt to face drought and water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Wouter; El Guindy, Samia; Salah El Deen, Magdy; Roest, Koen; Smit, Robert; Froebrich, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Egypt is one of the countries hardest hit by global and climate change. Challenges include population growth; increased demands for food, water, and energy; as well as changing land use patterns and urbanization. Egypt's part of the Mediterranean is characterized by a very complex hydrological system, as it lacks rainfall (Cairo average 30 mm/year) and it is completely dependent on the Nile river flow. The growth of the Egyptian population and its economy in the near future leads to an increase in the demand for water and the overall water allocation priority basically is: first drinking water, then industry, and whatever is remaining will be available for agriculture and nature. Because the agricultural sector uses more than 80 per cent of available water, the main option available to reduce water scarcity in the priority sectors of the economy is to allocate less to the agriculture sector. Scientifically based advances in facing future drought and water scarcity through innovations increasing yields and food security by measures leading to "more crop per drop" are required. New and modern large- and medium-scale agriculture is being developed in desert areas with participation of the private sector for investments. To prepare the farming community and others elsewhere, for the future situation of water shortages, a paradigm shift is needed. New farming systems under tight water supply conditions are in development to prepare for a future with less water. Egyptian farming systems need a major transition to prevent further marginalization of agriculture, which would also have a major impact on food security. Central to this transition should be the increase of value generated per volume available water, also referred to as "more crop per drop" or "more cash per splash". There is room for the urgently required improvement: the present return on water in agriculture in Egypt is about US 0.25 /m3, where values of over US 1 /m3 are "easily" reached elsewhere. Moreover

  11. Evidence against a Pleistocene desert refugium in the Lower Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Camille A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Peñalba, M. Cristina; Delgadillo, José; Zuravnsky, Kristin; Hunter, Kimberly L.; Rylander, Kate A.; Weiss, Jeremy L.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The absence of Sonoran Desert plants in late Pleistocene-aged packrat middens has led to speculation that they survived glacial episodes either in refugia as intact associations (Clementsian community concept) or in dry microsites within chaparral or woodland according to individualistic species responses (Gleasonian community concept). To test these hypotheses, we developed a midden record from one likely refugium in north-eastern Baja California, Mexico. We also measured stomatal guard cell size in fossil leaves to further evaluate site-level individualistic responses of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) ploidy races to climatic changes, including monsoonal history, over the late Quaternary.

  12. Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

    This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

  13. New Media and Political Dissent in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschkind, Charles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the ways that the Internet, and particularly the practice of blogging, has opened up new political possibilities in Egypt. As I examine, political bloggers in this country (Islamist as well as secularist have pioneered new language forms and video styles in order to articulate an arena of political life they refer to as “the street.” Egyptian bloggers render visible and publicly speakable practices of state violence that other media outlets cannot easily disclose. In discussing the sensory epistemology informing these blogging practices, I give particular attention to the way traditions concerning the sonority of the Arabic language and the relation of written to spoken forms are exploited and reworked by some of Egypt’s most prominent political bloggers. I also examine how these language practices find a visual and aural analogy in the grainy cellphone video recordings found on many of Egypt’s political blogs. This paper analyzes such practices in relation to emergent forms of political agency and contestation in contemporary Egypt.

    El autor explora algunos de los modos como Internet, en particular el escribir y publicar en un blog, ha abierto nuevas posibilidades políticas en Egipto. El estudio revela que los blogueros políticos en este país (que incluye tanto a islamistas como a laicistas han creado nuevas formas de lenguaje y nuevos estilos de vídeo con los que vertebrar un espacio de vida política al que se refieren como “la calle”. Los blogueros egipcios hacen visibles y motivo de debate público acciones violentas del Estado que otros medios informativos no pueden divulgar con la misma facilidad. El autor se detiene especialmente en el modo como los blogueros políticos más sobresalientes del país recurren y adaptan las tradiciones relativas a la sonoridad de la lengua árabe y a la conexión que existe en ella entre las formas habladas y las escritas. Asimismo, examina el modo como

  14. Identifying the Practice of Tattooing in Ancient Egypt and Nubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey J. Tassie

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Tattooing was practised by many ancient societies, including the ancient Egyptians and Nubians. Egypt, for example, boasts iconographic and physical evidence for tattooing for a period spanning at least 4000 years – the longest known history of tattooing in the world. The second oldest physical evidence for tattooing worldwide was recovered from Middle Kingdom contexts in Egypt and C-Group contexts in Nubia (the Hanslabjoch ice man being the oldest. It has been suggested that tattooing was also practised in the Predynastic period as evidenced by figurines with geometric designs, however, no physical evidence for tattooing has yet been found for this early period. Strangely there is almost no mention of tattooing in ancient Egyptian written records. Historical and ethnographic records indicate that tattooing was also practised much more recently in the Coptic, Islamic and modern eras. Unlike many past societies, tattooing in Egypt appears to have been a custom practised almost exclusively on women. Tattooing tools have not yet been positively identified from ancient Egypt. Ethnographic sources suggest that bundles of metal rods were used in Egypt’s more recent history. This paper discusses physical and iconographic evidence for tattooing in ancient Egypt and investigates whether five copper rods found at Kafr Hassan Dawood, a Predynastic to Early Dynastic site in the East Delta, could be physical evidence for tattooing during this early period.

  15. Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-11-01

    Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

  16. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Diversity in Cephalosporium maydis from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Amgad A; Zeller, Kurt A; Ismael, Abou-Serie M; Fahmy, Zeinab M; El-Assiuty, Elhamy M; Leslie, John F

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Cephalosporium maydis, the causal agent of late wilt of maize, was first described in Egypt in the 1960s, where it can cause yield losses of up to 40% in susceptible plantings. We characterized 866 isolates of C. maydis collected from 14 governates in Egypt, 7 in the Nile River Delta and 7 in southern (Middle and Upper) Egypt, with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The four AFLP primer-pair combinations generated 68 bands, 25 of which were polymorphic, resulting in 52 clonal haplotypes that clustered the 866 isolates into four phylogenetic lineages. Three lineages were found in both the Nile River Delta and southern Egypt. Lineage IV, the most diverse group (20 haplotypes), was recovered only from governates in the Nile River Delta. In some locations, one lineage dominated (up to 98% of the isolates recovered) and, from some fields, only a single haplotype was recovered. Under field conditions in Egypt, there is no evidence that C. maydis reproduces sexually. The nonuniform geographic distribution of the pathogen lineages within the country could be due to differences in climate or in the farming system, because host material differs in susceptibility and C. maydis lineages differ in pathogenicity.

  17. Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, Edgar

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

  18. "Breaking the bureaucracy": drug registration and neocolonial relations in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, R A

    1998-06-01

    According to the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the per capita use of prescription drugs in Egypt is amongst the highest in the world. Multinational pharmaceutical companies license their proprietary products for manufacture and sale in Egypt through their Egyptian subsidiaries. A Ministry of Health Committee reviews and approves for sale all drugs marketed in the country. Aside from being an extremely lucrative market itself, approval of a drug for sale and manufacture in Egypt also opens to the pharmaceutical companies other markets in the Arab world. The Egyptian drug approval process is thus both important for assuring the health of Egyptian nationals and a high-stakes activity for the pharmaceutical companies. This paper examines the social relations and interactions of multinational pharmaceutical representatives in Egypt with Egyptian researchers in relation to the Ministry of Health's drug approval process. From time-to-time events focus attention on the huge financial rewards reaped by multinational pharmaceutical companies from their activities in lesser developed countries. This attention not infrequently has revealed the "drugging of the Third World" as a result of actions by expatriate multinational pharmaceutical officials. Indigenous review procedures such as those established by the Egyptian Ministry of Health might guard against such external exploitation. This paper shows how in place of external exploitation, indigenous pharmaceutical company officials have manipulated local patterns of social interaction to construct a system of reciprocal obligations which may frustrate intended safeguards, and by reconstructing colonial institutional structures, creates a pattern of neocolonialism in Egypt.

  19. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-08-01

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor.

  20. GROUND PENETRATING RADAR INVESTIGATIONS FOR ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE PRESERVATION OF THE HABIB SAKAKINI PALACE, CAIRO, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern architectural heritage of Egypt is both varied and vast. It covers all nonecclesiastical buildings, important monumental structures (mansions, municipal buildings in the history of architecture, as well as more common buildings. They include houses (from mansions to simple dwellings, public buildings (schools, administrative buildings, hospitals, industrial buildings (factories, warehouses, mills, bridges, monastic dependencies (drinking foundations, gardens and any other modern structures that fall within the category of monuments and comprise the Egyptian cultural heritage. We present herein a comprehensive Ground Penetration Radar (GPR investigation and hazard assessment for the rehabilitation and strengthening of Habib Sakakini’s Palace, in Cairo, considered one of the most significant architectural heritage sites in Egypt. The palace is located on an ancient water pond at the eastern side of the Egyptian gulf, beside the Sultan Bebris Al-Bondoqdary mosque, a place also called “Prince Qraja al-Turkumany pond”. That pond was drained by Habib Sakakini in 1892, to construct his famous palace in 1897. Eight hundred meters of Ground Penetration Radar (GPR profiling were conducted, to monitor the subsurface conditions. 600 meters were made in the surrounding area of the Palace and 200 m at the basement. The aim was to monitor the soil conditions beneath and around the Palace and to identify potential geological discontinuities, or the presence of faults and cavities. A suitable single and dual antenna were used (500-100 MHZ to penetrate to the desired depth of 7 meters (ASTM D6432. The GPR was also used to detect the underground water. At the building basement the GPR was used to identify the foundation thickness and the soil - basement interface, as well as for the inspection of cracks in some supporting columns, piers and masonry walls. All the results, together with the seismic hazard analysis, will be used for a complete

  1. Introduction and domestication of woody plants for sustainable agriculture in desert areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Oren; Soloway, Elaine; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2014-05-01

    High radiation in hot deserts results in high salinity, especially in irrigated fields. Whenever not treated properly, this salinization may harm crops and eventually bring to soil destruction, field abandonment, or literally desertification. Furthermore, the range of crops that can be grown commercially in hot deserts is limited (Nerd et al. 1990). With the globalization of the last century, Introduction of exotic species for commercial use became more accessible. However, these attempts may involve extreme land changes including establishment of potential invasive species. Therefore domestication of native species should be preferred rather than introduction of exotics. In the last six years we did first steps of domesticating several native species, searching for commercial potential (pharmaceutics, food, biomass for energy and desalination of constructed wetlands). We studied aspects of desert plant physiology in drought and saline conditions. We wish to share the knowledge we gained regarding the physiology and commercial potential of the following desert plant species: 1) Bassia indica is an annual halophyte. We proposed to use it for salt phytoremediation in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and as feed for livestock; 2) Commiphora gileadensis is considered as the balm tree of Judea, praised for its use as holy oil and in perfumes but also considered as a cure for many diseases. C. gileadensis today grows naturally in southwest Arabia and Somaliland. We found anti-proliferative and apoptotic effect of C. gileadensis extracts on several human cancer cells. Ben Gurion University of the Negev has patented these findings. 3) Artemisia sieberi and A. judaica are both known for various therapeutic traits. While studying effects of irrigation intensity on these traits, some allopathic characters were discovered. 4) Fichus palmate disappeared from Israel, but remind in neighbouring Jordan and Egypt. This tree may serve as a robust stand for fig

  2. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Magdy G

    2014-03-01

    Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

  3. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy G. Samuel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

  4. Seismic hazard assessments at Islamic Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A. E.; Deif, A.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Islamic Cairo is one of the important Islamic monumental complexes in Egypt, near the center of present-day metropolitan Cairo. The age of these buildings is up to one thousand years. Unfortunately, many of the buildings are suffering from huge mishandling that may lead to mass damage. Many buildings and masjids were partially and totally collapsed because of 12th October 1992 Cairo earthquake that took place at some 25 km from the study area with a magnitude Mw = 5.8. Henceforth, potential damage assessments there are compulsory. The deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to predict the expected future large earthquakes' strong-motion characteristics in the study area. The current study started with compiling the available studies concerned with the distribution of the seismogenic sources and earthquake catalogs. The deterministic method is used to provide a description of the largest earthquake effect on the area of interest, while the probabilistic method, on the other hand, is used to define the uniform hazard curves at three time periods 475, 950, 2475 years. Both deterministic and probabilistic results were obtained for bedrock conditions and the resulted hazard levels were deaggregated to identify the contribution of each seismic source to the total hazard. Moreover, the results obtained show that the expected seismic activities combined with the present situation of the buildings pose high alert to rescue both the cultural heritage and expected human losses.

  5. Desert basins of the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Konieczki, Alice D.; Rees, Julie A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation’s most important natural resources. It provides drinking water to urban and rural communities, supports irrigation and industry, sustains the flow of streams and rivers, and maintains riparian and wetland ecosystems. In many areas of the Nation, the future sustainability of ground-water resources is at risk from overuse and contamination. Because ground-water systems typically respond slowly to human actions, a long-term perspective is needed to manage this valuable resource. This publication is one in a series of fact sheets that describe ground-water-resource issues across the United States, as well as some of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey that provide information to help others develop, manage, and protect ground-water resources in a sustainable manner. Ground-water resources in the Southwest are among the most overused in the United States. Natural recharge to aquifers is low and pumping in many areas has resulted in lowering of water tables. The consequences of large-scale removal of water from storage are becoming increasingly evident. These consequences include land subsidence; loss of springs, streams, wetlands and associated habitat; and degradation of water quality. Water managers are now seeking better ways of managing ground-water resources while looking for supplemental sources of water. This fact sheet reviews basic information on ground water in the desert basins of the Southwest. Also described are some activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that are providing scientific information for sustainable management of ground-water resources in the Southwest. Ground-water sustainability is defined as developing and using ground water in a way that can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences.

  6. THE FIRST TURKISH GOVERNOR OF EGYPT IN EARLY MIDDLE AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik ISMAYILOV

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to Egypt in the early medieval period, the governor was given information about Abu Salih al-Haresi. Abbasid rule during the administration of the state’s role in the Turks spoke of Turkey’s first governor of Egypt from the previous situation was briefly explained. Abu-l-Abbas es-Seffah of the first Abbasid caliph in time, the Turks took place in the army while during the second Caliph Abu Jafar Al-Mensur was brought up to the task state. The third caliph al-Mahdi gave the Egyptian governor to Abu Salih al-Haresi, having Turkish origin. Abu Salih’s personality, his beeing governor to Egypt and the information about his activities were analysed basing on international resources.

  7. Television minidramas: social marketing and evaluation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S D

    1997-06-01

    Television has been extensively used to communicate health messages for over a decade in Egypt. Viewers of the evening soap operas have been seeing six commercials for family planning, oral rehydration solution (ORS), and immunizations. People of all social classes can sing the jingles of the most popular ads. The producers of these health spots use increasingly sophisticated story lines, settings, and characters representing rural peasants, played by popular and well-liked actors. Evaluation of the content and impact of these messages has lagged behind the creative sophistication of their production. This article reviews the context and content of televised health messages in Egypt during the 1980s, critically assesses the evaluation of mass media health education, and suggests strategies for more effective evaluation. The author worked for some years with a private donor agency that funded the production of a number of televised health commercials in Egypt.

  8. Ruminant brucellosis in the Kafr El Sheikh Governorate of the Nile Delta, Egypt: prevalence of a neglected zoonosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamen M Hegazy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a neglected tropical zoonosis allegedly reemerging in Middle Eastern countries. Infected ruminants are the primary source of human infection; consequently, estimates of the frequency of ruminant brucellosis are useful elements for building effective control strategies. Unfortunately, these estimates are lacking in most Middle East countries including Egypt. Our objectives are to estimate the frequency of ruminant brucellosis and to describe its spatial distribution in Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Nile Delta, Egypt. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 791 sheep, 383 goats, 188 cattle milk tanks and 173 buffalo milk tanks were randomly selected in 40 villages and tested for the presence of antibodies against Brucella spp. The seroprevalence among different species was estimated and visualized using choropleth maps. A spatial scanning method was used to identify areas with significantly higher proportions of seropositive flocks and milk tanks. We estimated that 12.2% of sheep and 11.3% of goats in the study area were seropositive against Brucella spp. and that 12.2% and 12% of cattle and buffalo milk tanks had antibodies against Brucella spp. The southern part of the governorate had the highest seroprevalence with significant spatial clustering of seropositive flocks in the proximity of its capital and around the main animal markets. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Our study revealed that brucellosis is endemic at high levels in all ruminant species in the study area and questions the efficacy of the control measures in place. The high intensity of infection transmission among ruminants combined with high livestock and human density and widespread marketing of unpasteurized milk and dairy products may explain why Egypt has one of the highest rates of human brucellosis worldwide. An effective integrated human-animal brucellosis control strategy is urgently needed. If resources are not

  9. Ecological stability of Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhibin; XU Xinwen; LEI Jiaqiang; LI Shengyu

    2006-01-01

    The Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt,located in hinterland of Taklimakan Desert, is irrigated by underground saline water, with three to thirty gram per litter mineral degrees. The sustainability and stability are affected by multifarious stress.The structural and functional characteristics of shelterbelt are studied to probe into correlation between environment and shelterbelt. On basis, decision analysis is applied to study ecological stability of the Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt, to screen out limited factors, to establish general index system, and to evaluate the stability of the shelterbelt nowadays.Finally, the concept of ecological stability is utilized to manage the artificial ecosystem. The results show that the artificial ecosystem is relatively flimsy, whose stability can be increased by adjusting stand structure and improving the nutrient cycle.

  10. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: Past, present and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iman F Abou-El-Naga

    2013-09-01

    The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the

  11. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2013-09-01

    The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the

  12. Long-term accumulation of atmospheric dust in rocky deserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.; Offer, Z.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial pattern of long-term (hundreds to thousands of years) accumulation of dust in rocky deserts was investigated in the northern Negev Desert of Israel. The concentration of dust in the desert subsoil was measured at 41 locations in a 53 ha test area for which detailed information exists on

  13. The Punitive Paradox: Desert and the Compulsion to Punish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear, Todd R.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the concept of a "just deserts" justice paradox in which carrying out a deserved penalty breaches the values that undergird the theory of just deserts. Examines whether it might ever be proper, from a desert perspective, to choose not to impose a deserved punishment. (KW)

  14. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; de La Rosa, J.

    2011-07-01

    An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands) shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  15. Mapping Palaeohydrography in Deserts: Contribution from Space-Borne Imaging Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Paillou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR has the capability to image subsurface features down to several meters in arid regions. A first demonstration of this capability was performed in the Egyptian desert during the early eighties, thanks to the first Shuttle Imaging Radar mission. Global coverage provided by recent SARs, such as the Japanese ALOS/PALSAR sensor, allowed the mapping of vast ancient hydrographic systems in Northern Africa. We present a summary of palaeohydrography results obtained using PALSAR data over large deserts such as the Sahara and the Gobi. An ancient river system was discovered in eastern Lybia, connecting in the past the Kufrah oasis to the Mediterranean Sea, and the terminal part of the Tamanrasett river was mapped in western Mauritania, ending with a large submarine canyon. In southern Mongolia, PALSAR images combined with topography analysis allowed the mapping of the ancient Ulaan Nuur lake. We finally show the potentials of future low frequency SAR sensors by comparing L-band (1.25 GHz and P-band (435 MHz airborne SAR acquisitions over a desert site in southern Tunisia.

  16. An Agent-Based Modeling for Pandemic Influenza in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Khaled M.; Abdel-Aziz, M.; Nazmy, Taymour T.; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M.

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic influenza has great potential to cause large and rapid increases in deaths and serious illness. The objective of this paper is to develop an agent-based model to simulate the spread of pandemic influenza (novel H1N1) in Egypt. The proposed multi-agent model is based on the modeling of individuals' interactions in a space time context. The proposed model involves different types of parameters such as: social agent attributes, distribution of Egypt population, and patterns of agents' i...

  17. Exporting a Scandinavian Learning Model to Egypt and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Youssef, Sandra Safwat; Bygholm, Ann; Jæger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    many challenges. In this paper, we will present findings from an ethnographic study of the learning systems in higher education in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The sample includes undergraduate level classes taught in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The selected learning setting include an 'Academic......The recent advances in technology have made the process of exporting Western education more easy, and Blended Learning techniques is often the method of choice for exported educational programs. Although, in theory, this make perfect sense, yet in practice, the export of education has encountered...

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Lamyaa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

  19. Women's Status, Autonomy, and Fertility in Transitional Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Samari, Goleen

    2015-01-01

    Among the 22 Arab countries, Egypt ranks amongst the worst for the treatment of women. Additionally, in the last 6 years, fertility surged to a 20-year high of 3.5 births per woman. Poorer women’s status and autonomy is often linked to high fertility; however, little is known about the factors that shape women’s autonomy and fertility in Egypt. This study evaluates determinants of women’s autonomy and the relationship between autonomy and fertility over time in a representative, longitudinal ...

  20. Food gap and food security of sugar in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    SHEHATA, Gaber Ahmed Bassyouni

    2015-01-01

    The research aims mainly to study food gap and food security of sugar in Egypt through studying of several sub-goals represented in: estimating models of general trends function for some economic indicators of sugar in Egypt during the period (1995- 2012), studying of the most important indicators of food security of sugar, estimating the size of the food gap of sugar and knowledge of the most important factors responsible for, and studying the policies and means to achieve food security of s...

  1. Women in Post-Revolutionary Egypt - Can Behavior Be Controlled"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter; Nielsen, Mette Toft

    and in drawings. Based on the analysis of this material the reader gets insights into personal experiences, believes and opinions of a diverse group of women in terms of age, economic class, education, geography, culture, religion, ethnicity, marital status, and political orientation. The detail-rich empirical......This book addresses how identity, structures, and agency affect women’s everyday lives in post-revolutionary Egypt. The authors analyse the topic both on a macro- as well as on a micro-level. Through interviews and workshops, women around Egypt express their own experiences in dialogue, in groups...

  2. Jojoba could stop the desert creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-25

    The Sahara desert is estimated to be expanding at a rate of 5km a year. The Sudanese government is experimenting with jojoba in six different regions as the bush has the potential to stop this ''desert creep''. The plant, a native to Mexico, is long known for its resistance to drought and for the versatile liquid wax that can be extracted from its seeds. It is estimated that one hectare of mature plants could produce 3000 kg of oil, currently selling at $50 per litre, and so earn valuable foreign currency.

  3. Rocks, climate and the survival of human societies in hyper-arid and arid environments - Are the human civilization in deserts at a permanent risk of collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoav, Avni; Noa, Avriel-Avni

    2017-04-01

    The great challenges of living in the arid and hyper arid regions worldwide are the shortage of water, limited resources and the permanent uncertainty of the desert climate. These challenges are known as the main weaknesses of desert societies that are prone, according to the existing paradigm, to a permanent risk of collapse. However, in the Middle East deserts, human societies are known since prehistoric times and during the entire hyper-dry Holocene. This hints that the simple paradigm of desert societies' high vulnerability to harsh desert environments needs to be better examined. In this context we examine three case studies: 1. The Southern Sinai region in Egypt: In this region, the annual precipitation fluctuates between 20-50 mm/y. However, in this highly mountainous area, desert agriculture plots including orchards were constructed, located mainly around the byzantine monastery of Santa Katerina. During the last 1500 years, much of the water supply needed for humans and agriculture was generated from runoff developed on exposed granite rocks. 2. The southern Jordan region south of Petra: Much of this wide area connecting the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula and southern Jordan receive only 20-30 mm/y. However, the main caravan route established by the Arabian tribes during the first millennia BC managed to cross this land, supplying the water needs of many camels. Most of this water was stored in large cisterns dug into the sandstone rock formations exposed along the route, especially within the Disi Formation. 3. The Negev Highlands of southern Israel: This region is divided between the hyper arid region to the south, receiving 70-80 mm/y, and the arid region to the north receiving 90-130 mm/y. During the last two millennia, the hyper arid area was used for camel grazing and goats herds, while the northern sector was used for the construction of agriculture plots, agriculture farms and even desert towns. All these activities were sustained by runoff

  4. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  5. Differences in health and religious beliefs about tobacco use among waterpipe users in the rural male population of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramil N; Neergaard, Jim; Job, Jayakaran S; El Setouhy, Maged; Israel, Ebenezer; Mohammed, Mostafa K; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2012-12-01

    Waterpipe use is a highly prevalent form of tobacco use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region that is rooted in long-held cultural traditions that predate the use of cigarettes and present a particular challenge for tobacco control efforts. We did a stratified sampling of 4,994 Egyptian men from rural households of Egypt in order to conduct an interviewer-administered prevalence survey to identify differences in attitudes and beliefs toward smoking and smoking cessation between waterpipe users, cigarette smokers, mixed users (cigarette + waterpipe), and non-smokers. We found that cigarette smokers, mixed users, and/or non-smokers were (1) two- to ninefold more likely to believe that smoking decreased adult life expectancy and harmed a fetus than waterpipe users, (2) significantly more likely to believe that smoking is a sin ("haram") than were waterpipe users. Among tobacco users, we found that cigarette smokers and/or mixed users were significantly more likely to indicate pre-contemplation, contemplation, or intention to quit tobacco than waterpipe users. Our findings from rural Egyptian men indicate that waterpipe users are distinct from cigarette smokers in their perception that their form of tobacco use is less harmful and/or less subject to religious proscription. These beliefs may explain why waterpipe users seem less inclined to quit their tobacco habit and need to be considered in the design of tobacco cessation and prevention methods in Egypt and the region.

  6. Seismic hazard assessment in Aswan, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deif, A.; Hamed, H.; Ibrahim, H. A.; Abou Elenean, K.; El-Amin, E.

    2011-12-01

    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment around Aswan is very important due to the proximity of the Aswan High Dam. The Aswan High Dam is based on hard Precambrian bedrock and is considered to be the most important project in Egypt from the social, agricultural and electrical energy production points of view. The seismotectonic settings around Aswan strongly suggest that medium to large earthquakes are possible, particularly along the Kalabsha, Seiyal and Khor El-Ramla faults. The seismic hazard for Aswan is calculated utilizing the probabilistic approach within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for eight ground motion spectral periods and for a return period of 475 years, which is deemed appropriate for structural design standards in the Egyptian building codes. The results were also displayed in terms of uniform hazard spectra for rock sites at the Aswan High Dam for return periods of 475 and 2475 years. In addition, the ground-motion levels are also deaggregated at the dam site, in order to provide insight into which events are the most important for hazard estimation. The peak ground acceleration ranges between 36 and 152 cm s-2 for return periods of 475 years (equivalent to 90% probability of non-exceedance in 50 years). Spectral hazard values clearly indicate that compared with countries of high seismic risk, the seismicity in the Aswan region can be described as low at most sites to moderate in the area between the Kalabsha and Seyial faults.

  7. New Insights in Preservation of Meteorites in Hot Deserts: The Oldest Hot Desert Meteorite Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, A.; Rochette, P.; Bourlès, D.; Gattacceca, J.; Merchel, S.; Jull, A. J. T.; Valenzuela, M.

    2016-08-01

    Terrestrial ages of a subset of a chilean meteorite collection have been determined with cosmogenic nuclides. We show here that provided the environnement is favorable enough, hot desert meteorites can survive over a million year.

  8. Adaptation to climate change in desertified lands of the marginal regions in Egypt through sustainable crop and livestock diversification systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan M. El Shaer

    2015-01-01

    Environmental degradation resulting from current climate changes, including prolonged drought, land degradation, desertification, and loss of biodiversity, is presenting enormous challenges to achieve food security and eradication of poverty in the marginal regions (about 90%of the total area) of Egypt. In addition to the natural constraints of high temperature, wind erosion, sand dune movement, and recurrent drought, such regions are subjected to improper land and water management. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge, technologies, and experiences to match with the current severe climatic changes. There is a great need for establishing sustainable integrated ecosystem rehabilitation and management programs to overcome such problems in the marginal areas, particularly in the Sinai Peninsula due to its strategic and social importance. A series of research and development programs have been conducted in 2006 to im-prove the livelihoods of smallholders through enhancing the efficient management and utilization of local resources that can cope with the drastic changes of climate in the Sinai Peninsula. An integrated livestock/salt-tolerant fodder crop system was introduced, in 2010 by the project teamwork of Desert Research center, Egypt, to many smallholders in the South Sinai region, where studies were conducted at both the general research and individual farmer levels. The most important results were:(1) adoption of the most salt-tolerant genotypes of three forage crops:pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.); two cereal crops (triticale and barley);and two oil crops:safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and Brassica (Mustard). Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Medicago arborium), cowpeas (Vigna sinensis L.), fodder beets (Beta vulgaris L.), clumping desert bunchgrass (Panicum turgedum), ryegrass (Lolium perenne) Ray grass, forage shrubs (Kochia indica, Atriplex num-mularia, Sesbania sesban L

  9. [Study on estimation of deserts soil total phosphorus content from thermal-infrared emissivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yan-jun; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Zhang, Fei; Sawut, Mamat; Nurmemet, Ilyas

    2015-02-01

    Soil phosphorus provides nutrient elements for plants, is one of important parameters for evaluating soil quality. The traditional method for soil total phosphorus content (STPC) measurement is not effective and time-consuming. However, remote sensing (RS) enables us to determine STPC in a fast and efficient way. Studies on the estimation of STPC in near-infrared spectroscopy have been developed by scholars, but model accuracy is still poor due to the low absorption coefficient and unclear absorption peak of soil phosphorus in near-infrared. In order to solve the deficiency which thermal-infrared emissivity estimate desert soil total phosphorus content, and could improve precision of estimation deserts soil total phosphorus. In this paper, characteristics of soil thermal-infrared emissivity are analyzed on the basis of laboratory processing and spectral measurement of deserts soil samples from the eastern Junggar Basin. Furthermore, thermal-infrared emissivity based RS models for STPC estimation are established and accuracy assessed. Results show that: when STPC is higher than 0.200 g x kg(-1), the thermal-infrared emissivity increases with the increase of STPC on the wavelength between 8.00 microm and 13 microm, and the emissivity is more sensitive to STPC on the wavelength between 9.00 and 9.6 microm; the estimate mode based on multiple stepwise regression was could not to estimate deserts soil total phosphorus content from thermal-infrared emissivity because the estimation effects of them were poor. The estimation accuracy of model based on partial least squares regression is higher than the model based on multiple stepwise regression. However, the accuracy of second-order differential estimation model based on partial least square regression is higher than based on multiple stepwise regression; The first differential of continuous remove estimation model based on partial least squares regression is the best model with R2 of correction and verification are up to

  10. Sedimentary Environment of the Early Pleistocene Gravels of the Edfu formation from the Saqqara Archaeological Site (Egypt – Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysocka Anna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A gravel horizon is preserved in several locations within the world-wide known archaeological site in Saqqara (northern Egypt. It is characterized by a variable thickness, composed of coarse, quartz, quartzitic and flint pebbles, and considered to correspond to gravels of the Edfu Formation, deposited in the Early Pleistocene by the early phase of the Nile development (Protonile Phase. This relatively short (ca. 200 ka and at the same time very dynamic period of Protonile activity during the Edfu Pluvial is one of the most poorly recognized hydrological-climatic episodes of the Quaternary in north-eastern Africa. This paper is focused on the preliminary sedimentological-petrographic characteristics of these deposits and an attempt to indicate their source areas as well as mechanisms of transportation and deposition in the context of Pleistocene pluvial episodes.

  11. Microflora in soils of desert regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    Desert soil samples, collected using aseptic techniques, are low in organic matter and cation exchange capacity. Aerobic and microaerophilic bacteria are most abundant, next are algae and molds. Chemical and physical properties are determined by standard procedures, including the Kjeldahl method and the use of Munsell soil color charts.

  12. From desert to deluge in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    Some time between five and six million years ago, the Mediterranean Sea became isolated from the Atlantic Ocean. In consequence some areas dried out -- hence the title of Kenneth Hsü’s book The Mediterranean was a Desert 1 -- and large salty lakes recharged by rivers flowing through deep canyons rep

  13. Extrafloral nectar fuels ant life in deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Rickert, Adriana; Diez, Patricia; Marazzi, Brigitte

    2014-11-07

    Interactions mediated by extrafloral nectary (EFN)-bearing plants that reward ants with a sweet liquid secretion are well documented in temperate and tropical habitats. However, their distribution and abundance in deserts are poorly known. In this study, we test the predictions that biotic interactions between EFN plants and ants are abundant and common also in arid communities and that EFNs are only functional when new vegetative and reproductive structures are developing. In a seasonal desert of northwestern Argentina, we surveyed the richness and phenology of EFN plants and their associated ants and examined the patterns in ant-plant interaction networks. We found that 25 ant species and 11 EFN-bearing plant species were linked together through 96 pairs of associations. Plants bearing EFNs were abundant, representing ca. 19 % of the species encountered in transects and 24 % of the plant cover. Most ant species sampled (ca. 77 %) fed on EF nectar. Interactions showed a marked seasonal pattern: EFN secretion was directly related to plant phenology and correlated with the time of highest ant ground activity. Our results reveal that EFN-mediated interactions are ecologically relevant components of deserts, and that EFN-bearing plants are crucial for the survival of desert ant communities. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  14. Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Sinha, Tushar; Bowling, Laura C.; Schoups, Gerrit H.W.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Campana, Michael E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Fuller, Pam L.; Graf, William L.; Hopmans, Jan W.; Kominoski, John S.; Taylor, Carissa; Trimble, Stanley W.; Webb, Robert H.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing human appropriation of freshwater resources presents a tangible limit to the sustainability of cities, agriculture, and ecosystems in the western United States. Marc Reisner tackles this theme in his 1986 classic Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. Reisner's analysis paints a portrait of region-wide hydrologic dysfunction in the western United States, suggesting that the storage capacity of reservoirs will be impaired by sediment infilling, croplands will be rendered infertile by salt, and water scarcity will pit growing desert cities against agribusiness in the face of dwindling water resources. Here we evaluate these claims using the best available data and scientific tools. Our analysis provides strong scientific support for many of Reisner's claims, except the notion that reservoir storage is imminently threatened by sediment. More broadly, we estimate that the equivalent of nearly 76% of streamflow in the Cadillac Desert region is currently appropriated by humans, and this figure could rise to nearly 86% under a doubling of the region's population. Thus, Reisner's incisive journalism led him to the same conclusions as those rendered by copious data, modern scientific tools, and the application of a more genuine scientific method. We close with a prospectus for reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert, including a suite of recommendations for reducing region-wide human appropriation of streamflow to a target level of 60%.

  15. Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Sinha, Tushar; Bowling, Laura C.; Schoups, Gerrit H. W.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Campana, Michael E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Fuller, Pam L.; Graf, William L.; Hopmans, Jan W.; Kominoski, John S.; Taylor, Carissa; Trimble, Stanley W.; Webb, Robert H.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing human appropriation of freshwater resources presents a tangible limit to the sustainability of cities, agriculture, and ecosystems in the western United States. Marc Reisner tackles this theme in his 1986 classic Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. Reisner's analysis paints a portrait of region-wide hydrologic dysfunction in the western United States, suggesting that the storage capacity of reservoirs will be impaired by sediment infilling, croplands will be rendered infertile by salt, and water scarcity will pit growing desert cities against agribusiness in the face of dwindling water resources. Here we evaluate these claims using the best available data and scientific tools. Our analysis provides strong scientific support for many of Reisner's claims, except the notion that reservoir storage is imminently threatened by sediment. More broadly, we estimate that the equivalent of nearly 76% of streamflow in the Cadillac Desert region is currently appropriated by humans, and this figure could rise to nearly 86% under a doubling of the region's population. Thus, Reisner's incisive journalism led him to the same conclusions as those rendered by copious data, modern scientific tools, and the application of a more genuine scientific method. We close with a prospectus for reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert, including a suite of recommendations for reducing region-wide human appropriation of streamflow to a target level of 60%. PMID:21149727

  16. Spectral reflectance in the Tunisian desert.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epema, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    .Satellites provide the possibility to give a synoptical view of the earth surface at regular time intervals. Satellites operating in the optical wavelengths have however as disadvantage that monitoring of the surface characteristics becomes impossible as soon as clouds are present. Deserts and dese

  17. Liquid Water Restricts Habitability in Extreme Deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Brown, Sarah; Landenmark, Hanna; Samuels, Toby; Siddall, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Liquid water is a requirement for biochemistry, yet under some circumstances it is deleterious to life. Here, we show that liquid water reduces the upper temperature survival limit for two extremophilic photosynthetic microorganisms (Gloeocapsa and Chroococcidiopsis spp.) by greater than 40°C under hydrated conditions compared to desiccated conditions. Under hydrated conditions, thermal stress causes protein inactivation as shown by the fluorescein diacetate assay. The presence of water was also found to enhance the deleterious effects of freeze-thaw in Chroococcidiopsis sp. In the presence of water, short-wavelength UV radiation more effectively kills Gloeocapsa sp. colonies, which we hypothesize is caused by factors including the greater penetration of UV radiation into hydrated colonies compared to desiccated colonies. The data predict that deserts where maximum thermal stress or irradiation occurs in conjunction with the presence of liquid water may be less habitable to some organisms than more extreme arid deserts where organisms can dehydrate prior to being exposed to these extremes, thus minimizing thermal and radiation damage. Life in extreme deserts is poised between the deleterious effects of the presence and the lack of liquid water. Key Words: Deserts-Extremophiles-Stress-High temperatures-UV radiation-Desiccation. Astrobiology 17, 309-318.

  18. Preventing desert locust plagues: optimizing management interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Cressman, K.; Magor, J.I.

    2007-01-01

    Solitarious desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), inhabit the central, arid, and semi-arid parts of the species¿ invasion area in Africa, the Middle East, and South-West Asia. Their annual migration circuit takes them downwind to breed sequentially where winter, sp

  19. Impact of the Desert dust on the summer monsoon system over Southwestern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiative forcing of dust emitted from the Southwest United States (US deserts and its impact on monsoon circulation and precipitation over the North America monsoon (NAM region are simulated using a coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model (WRF-Chem for 15 years (1995–2009. During the monsoon season, dust has a cooling effect (−0.90 W m−2 at the surface, a warming effect (0.40 W m−2 in the atmosphere, and a negative top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA forcing (−0.50 W m−2 over the deserts on 24-h average. Most of the dust emitted from the deserts concentrates below 800 hPa and accumulates over the western slope of the Rocky Mountains and Mexican Plateau. The absorption of shortwave radiation by dust heats the lower atmosphere by up to 0.5 K day−1 over the western slope of the Mountains. Model sensitivity simulations with and without dust for 15 summers (June-July-August show that dust heating of the lower atmosphere over the deserts strengthens the low-level southerly moisture fluxes on both sides of the Sierra Madre Occidental. It also results in an eastward migration of NAM-driven moisture convergence over the western slope of the Mountains. These monsoonal circulation changes lead to a statistically significant increase of precipitation by up to ~40 % over the eastern slope of the Mountains (Arizona-New~Mexico-Texas regions. This study highlights the interaction between dust and the NAM system and motivates further investigation of possible dust feedback on monsoon precipitation under climate change and the mega-drought conditions projected for the future.

  20. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodríguez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL. The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2 receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  1. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodríguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed to identify the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the Southern slope of Atlas emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria and Tunisia appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least a 60% of the sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90% of sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions observed in the SAL is linked to soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  2. Ploidy race distributions since the Last Glacial Maximum in the North American desert shrub, Larrea tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, K.L.; Betancourt, J.L.; Riddle, B.R.; Van Devender, T. R.; Cole, K.L.; Geoffrey, Spaulding W.

    2000-01-01

    1 A classic biogeographic pattern is the alignment of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid races of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) across the Chihuahuan, Sonoran and Mohave Deserts of western North America. We used statistically robust differences in guard cell size of modern plants and fossil leaves from packrat middens to map current and past distributions of these ploidy races since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). 2 Glacial/early Holocene (26-10 14C kyr BP or thousands of radiocarbon years before present) populations included diploids along the lower Rio Grande of west Texas, 650 km removed from sympatric diploids and tetraploids in the lower Colorado River Basin of south-eastern California/south-western Arizona. Diploids migrated slowly from lower Rio Grande refugia with expansion into the northern Chihuahuan Desert sites forestalled until after ???4.0 14C kyr BP. Tetraploids expanded from the lower Colorado River Basin into the northern limits of the Sonoran Desert in central Arizona by 6.4 14C kyr BP. Hexaploids appeared by 8.5 14C kyr BP in the lower Colorado River Basin, reaching their northernmost limits (???37??N) in the Mohave Desert between 5.6 and 3.9 14C kyr BP. 3 Modern diploid isolates may have resulted from both vicariant and dispersal events. In central Baja California and the lower Colorado River Basin, modern diploids probably originated from relict populations near glacial refugia. Founder events in the middle and late Holocene established diploid outposts on isolated limestone outcrops in areas of central and southern Arizona dominated by tetraploid populations. 4 Geographic alignment of the three ploidy races along the modern gradient of increasingly drier and hotter summers is clearly a postglacial phenomenon, but evolution of both higher ploidy races must have happened before the Holocene. The exact timing and mechanism of polyploidy evolution in creosote bush remains a matter of conjecture. ?? 2001 Blackwell Science Ltd.

  3. Surface Macrofabric of Boulder Dominated Desert Mountain Slopes, California, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald A. FRIEND

    2005-01-01

    Rhyolite domes formed over a million year continuum in eastern California are used to study boulder dominated slopes. Slopes in this study are steep (~25° to ~35°) and are made of coarse boulder sized blocks. These slopes include well varnished vertically oriented eolluvial deposits that have been likened to relict periglacial stone stripes, or as indicated in this study, are the result of ongoing desert slope processes. The deposits are common throughout the arid southwestern US, but their morphometric character, fabric, and rates of formation have not been assessed systematically.Results indicate that boulder deposits examined here are remnant from the original surface formed during volcanic eruption and that these boulder slope deposits evolve slowly. Grain size, grain shape and grain angularity do not change significantly from genesis to ~0.6 Ma; trends in the data change markedly after that time. Mean eigenvectors indicate a fabric oriented downhill, parallel to the slope,consistent with the visual impression that long thin to plate-like rocks orient themselves similarly; however,fabric is actually randomly dispersed, similar to that at slope genesis, as indicated by the eigenvalue analysis resultants of C and K. Interestingly, grains remain or become more angular over the million-year time scale of the study as they decrease in size,indicating active in situ weathering processes on individual grains; this result is counter to the common assumption that as grains weather they become more rounded over time.

  4. Wood decay in desert riverine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas; Stricker, Craig A.; Nelson, S. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain forests and the woody debris they produce are major components of riverine ecosystems in many arid and semiarid regions (drylands). We monitored breakdown and nitrogen dynamics in wood and bark from a native riparian tree, Fremont cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. wislizeni), along four North American desert streams. We placed locally-obtained, fresh, coarse material [disks or cylinders (∼500–2000 cm3)] along two cold-desert and two warm-desert rivers in the Colorado River Basin. Material was placed in both floodplain and aquatic environments, and left in situ for up to 12 years. We tested the hypothesis that breakdown would be fastest in relatively warm and moist aerobic environments by comparing the time required for 50% loss of initial ash-free dry matter (T50) calculated using exponential decay models incorporating a lag term. In cold-desert sites (Green and Yampa rivers, Colorado), disks of wood with bark attached exposed for up to 12 years in locations rarely inundated lost mass at a slower rate (T50 = 34 yr) than in locations inundated during most spring floods (T50 = 12 yr). At the latter locations, bark alone loss mass at a rate initially similar to whole disks (T50 = 13 yr), but which subsequently slowed. In warm-desert sites monitored for 3 years, cylinders of wood with bark removed lost mass very slowly (T50 = 60 yr) at a location never inundated (Bill Williams River, Arizona), whereas decay rate varied among aquatic locations (T50 = 20 yr in Bill Williams River; T50 = 3 yr in Las Vegas Wash, an effluent-dominated stream warmed by treated wastewater inflows). Invertebrates had a minor role in wood breakdown except at in-stream locations in Las Vegas Wash. The presence and form of change in nitrogen content during exposure varied among riverine environments. Our results suggest woody debris breakdown in desert riverine ecosystems is primarily a microbial process with rates determined by landscape position

  5. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Nasser’s Egypt, Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 1971. Meisel, J.H., The Myth of the Ruling Class: Gaetano Mosca and the Elite, Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan... Mosca called the "second strata of the ruling class" - the strata without which the leadership could not 27 rule (Meisel 1962, p. 217]. The clientage

  6. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  7. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  8. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  9. The Politics of Educational Transfer and Policymaking in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2010-01-01

    For the past two centuries, western modern education has informed education policies and practices in Egypt. However, few researchers have analyzed the historical or current politics of educational transfer in this country. This article investigates the ways in which foreign transfer has influenced Egyptian education, both historically and…

  10. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  11. 77 FR 33439 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Arab country with a population of 90 million, Egypt is the fourth largest export market for U.S...-revolution), airports and seaports will need upgraded security systems. Police and customs authorities will... fencing and intruder sensing, industrial access controls, maritime surveillance and protection,...

  12. Political Exclusion and Violence: The Islamist movement in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Islamist Social Movements. Edited by Quintan Wiktorowicz, Islamic Activism, a Social Movement Theory Approach, (Bloomington; Indiana University Press...East International, 16 April 2004, 25. Singerman, Diane. The Networked World of Islamist Social Movements. Edited by Quintan Wiktorowicz, Islamic...Mobilizing Islam: Religion, Activism, and Political Change in Egypt. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. 104 Wiktorowicz, Quintan

  13. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  14. Angles of Elevation of the Pyramids of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur F.

    1982-01-01

    The nature and history of the construction of pyramids in Egypt is detailed. It is noted that one can only theorize about why the Egyptians used particular angles of elevation. It is thought, perhaps, that new clues will provide a clear solution to this mystery as additional artifacts and hieroglyphics are discovered. (MP)

  15. Archaeocidaris M’Coy (Echinoidea) from the Carboniferous of Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, D.N.; Donovan, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Collections in museums usually have boxes of specimens which remain ‘undiscovered’ and yet which may be of importance or interest. The recent rediscovery of specimens of Archaeocidaris in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, from the Carboniferous of Egypt illustrates this point. These spe

  16. Metropolitan food supply in Egypt : hydroponics production of leafy vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldhauer, N.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study incorporates the follow up activities of the two earlier missions of Wageningen UR/Food & Biobased Research (FBR) to Egypt, the exploration mission of 2013 (Broek and Boerrigter, 2014a) and the commitment mission of 2014 (Broek, Boerrigter and Waldhauer, 2014b), targeting the

  17. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  18. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  19. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  20. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I also participated in…

  1. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I…

  2. [Egypt: Selected Readings, Egyptian Mummies, and the Egyptian Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This resource packet presents information and resources on ancient Egypt. The bibliography includes readings divided into five sections: (1) "General Information" (46 items); (2) "Religion" (8 items); (3) "Art" (8 items); (4) "Hieroglyphics" (6 items); and (5) selections "For Young Readers" (11…

  3. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  4. Communicative English Language Teaching in Egypt: Classroom Practice and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mona Kamal; Ibrahim, Yehia A.

    2017-01-01

    Following a "mixed methods" approach, this research is designed to examine whether teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in Egypt's public schools matches the communicative English language teaching (CELT) approach. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 50 classroom observations, 100 questionnaire responses from…

  5. A new cascaded hydropower plants in El Sheikh Zayed Canal in the new valley in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosny Fahmy, Faten [Electronics Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    With the streaks of the light looming in the horizon, heralding the dawn of the 21st century and the closing of the 20th century, the whole people of the world specially the sons of Egypt are full of hopes and dreams. The south Egypt development project is translation of this concept viewed from comprehensive strategic vision embracing a number of development fields covering activities in the field of agriculture, industry, transport, communication and roads as well as social aspects services such as health and education that would drive Egypt to the horizons of the 21st century. This new projects are: Toshka, New Valley or New Delta, Sheik Zayed which will feed more than a million feddans, transforming the desert into a green carpet, turning the wheels of industries and shedding off the stiffing nightmare of the choking narrow valley. This paper presents a new idea and application to know to use the water flow from the Nasser lake after raising and pumping with certain speed according to the ground slope. A series of hydro power plants are designed on certain interested points on El Sheikh Zayed Canal to generate electrical energy which will be required to feed several projects in this new valley. The results show the comparison between these eight hydro power plants w.r.t: it's generated electrical energy water release, water contents and the head of water inside each one. Also, the study contains the mathematical models of each hydropower station and the mathematical description of each reservoir, barrages and power stations. [Spanish] Con los rayos de luz asomandose en el horizonte, anunciando el amanecer del siglo XXI y el ocaso del siglo XX, todas las personas del mundo, especialmente los hijos de Egipto, estan llenos de suenos y esperanza. El proyecto de desarrollo del sur de Egipto traduce este concepto desde una vision estrategica integral que incluye un gran numero de areas de desarrollo que abarcan actividades en el campo de la agricultura, la

  6. Pathline-calibrated groundwater flow models of Nile Valley aquifers, Esna, upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikowski, Tom H.; Faid, Abdallah

    2006-06-01

    Strongly concentrated agriculture along the River Nile in Egypt, combined with hydrologic changes related to the construction of the Aswan High Dam in the 1970's, has led to increasing salinization and waterlogging of agricultural areas. Successful control and remediation of these problems requires accurate understanding of the shallow Quaternary aquifers within the Nile Valley. While extensive conceptual models have been developed by the Egyptian RIGW, published numerical models have yet to incorporate all features of the conceptual model. In particular, marine affinity of some shallow groundwaters within the valley (Cl -as the predominant anion) indicates significant leakage from deeper Cretaceous aquifers into the shallow Quaternary aquifers, a feature that is not present in current models. In this study, groundwater profile modeling incorporating the bedrock leakage demonstrates that its shallow appearance requires hydraulic separation of surficial from deep-recharged zones of the Quaternary aquifer. This separation occurs near the boundary between reclaimed and traditional agricultural lands, which is also the primary site of waterlogging. Apparently, excessive recharge presumed to occur beneath the reclaimed lands does not penetrate deeply, and therefore might be easily remediated with shallow drains. Profound similarities exist between the Nile Valley salinization cases and the occurrence of shallow 'nuisance water' in desert southwestern U.S. cities (e.g. Las Vegas). The U.S. experience with this problem may provide useful guidance in addressing Nile Valley salinization and waterlogging issues in the future. In general, irrigation-related recharge from the reclaimed lands in the Nile Valley may have a much more localized impact on traditional lands than previously thought.

  7. Distribution patterns of shallow water polychaetes (Annelida along the Alexandria coast, Egypt (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. DORGHAM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shallow hard bottom and intertidal soft bottom polychaete assemblages of the Alexandria coast, southeastern Mediterranean (Levantine Sea, were studied during a complete annual cycle in order to analyze spatial temporal patterns of variation in assemblages, and relevant factors related to polychaete distribution. The present study recorded a total of 73 species, belonging to Syllidae (22 species, Nereididae (9 species, Serpulidae (6 species, Eunicidae (5 species and other 19 families. The assemblages experienced pronounced spatial and temporal variation throughout the study area, but spatial variation appeared more important in determining the observed patterns. Polychaete distribution related to variation of grain size and sessile macrobenthos cover suggesting that these structural variables accounted more than the physical-chemical ones (namely BOD, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon, organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH in influencing the patterns of assemblages’ distribution. The present study is the southeastern-most one dealing with ecology and distribution patterns of hard bottom polychaetes from the Mediterranean Sea, as well as one of the few studies dealing with intertidal soft bottom polychaetes in the Levant Basin.

  8. Distribution patterns of shallow water polychaetes (Annelida along the Alexandria coast, Egypt (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. DORGHAM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shallow hard bottom and intertidal soft bottom polychaete assemblages of the Alexandria coast, southeastern Mediterranean (Levantine Sea, were studied during a complete annual cycle in order to analyze spatial temporal patterns of variation in assemblages, and relevant factors related to polychaete distribution. The present study recorded a total of 73 species, belonging to Syllidae (22 species, Nereididae (9 species, Serpulidae (6 species, Eunicidae (5 species and other 19 families. The assemblages experienced pronounced spatial and temporal variation throughout the study area, but spatial variation appeared more important in determining the observed patterns. Polychaete distribution related to variation of grain size and sessile macrobenthos cover suggesting that these structural variables accounted more than the physical-chemical ones (namely BOD, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon, organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH in influencing the patterns of assemblages’ distribution. The present study is the southeastern-most one dealing with ecology and distribution patterns of hard bottom polychaetes from the Mediterranean Sea, as well as one of the few studies dealing with intertidal soft bottom polychaetes in the Levant Basin.

  9. Anthropogenic wetlands due to over-irrigation of desert areas; A challenging hydrogeological investigation with extensive geophysical input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, A. A.; Teatini, P.; Pedersen, J. B. B.; Auken, E.; Tosatto, O.; Christiansen, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    During the last century, many large irrigation projects have been initiated in arid lands worldwide. Despite a tremendous increase in food production, a common problem when characterizing these zones is land degradation in form of waterlogging. As results, large volumes of water are lost due to surplus irrigation in regions where water availability is extremely challenging for both population survival and economic development. The Nubariya depression, Western Desert (Egypt), is a clear example of this mechanism. Following the reclamation of desert lands for agricultural production, an artificial brackish and contaminated lake developed in the area in the late 1990s and presently extends for about 2.5 km2. Available data provide evidence of a simultaneous general deterioration of the groundwater system. With the main objectives of understanding the hydrological evolution of the area, characterizing the hydrogeological setting and developing scenarios for artificial aquifer remediation and recharge, an extensive hydrogeophysical investigation was carried out in this challenging environment using Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS, also called surface NMR) and ground-based Transient EM (TEM). The integrated interpretation of the geophysical surveys, properly calibrated with a number of boreholes, provides a clear hydrogeological picture of the upper 100 m sedimentary structure, in terms of both lithology and groundwater quality. The information is then used to set up a regional groundwater flow and a local density-dependent flow and transport numerical model to reproduce the past evolution of the aquifer system and develop a few scenarios for artificial aquifer recharge using the treated waters provided by a nearby waste-water treatment plant. The research outcomes point the hydrological challenges that emerge for an effective management of water resources in reclaimed desert areas and highlight the effectiveness of integrating advanced geophysical and modeling

  10. Attenuation of seismic waves in Central Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abbas Morsy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of seismic waves in central Egypt had never been studied before. The results of the research on the seismic attenuation are based upon the information collected by the seismological network from 1998 to 2011. 855 earthquakes were selected from the Egyptian seismological catalog, with their epicenter distances between 15 and 150 km, their magnitudes ranging from 2 and 4.1 and focal depths reaching up to 30 km. The first systematic study of attenuation derived from the P-, S- and coda wave in the frequency range 1–24 Hz is presented. In the interpretation of the results both single and multiple scattering in a half space are considered. The single scattering model proposed by Sato (1977 was used. Two methods, the coda (Qc and the Multiple Lapse Time Window (MLTW method are used. The aim of this study is to validate these interpretations in the region and to try to identify the effects of attenuation due to intrinsic (Qi and scattering attenuation (Qsc. The mean Qc value calculated was Qc = (39 ± 1f1.0±0.009. The average Qc at 1.5 Hz is (53 ± 6 and Qc = (900 ± 195 at 24 Hz with Qo ranging between 23 and 107, where η ranging between 0.9 and 1.3. The quality factor (Q was estimated from spectra of P- and S-waves by applying a spectral ratio technique. The results show variations in Qp and QS as a function of frequency, according to the power law Q = 56η1.1. The seismic albedo is 0.7 at all stations and it mean that the earthquake activity is due to tectonic origin. The attenuation and frequency dependency for different paths and the correlation of the results with the geotectonic of the region are presented. The Qc values were calculated and correlated with the geology and tectonics of the area. The relatively low Qo and the high frequency dependency agree with the values of a region characterized by a low tectonic activity and vise versa.

  11. GIS application to identify the potential for certain irrigated agriculture uses on some soils in Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ismail

    2012-06-01

    The considered land suitability criteria for the aforementioned LUTs are: slope gradient, soil depth, soil erosion, soil drainage, soil infiltration rate, available water holding capacity (AWHC, surface stoniness (gravel, stones and boulders, stones in surface horizon, rock outcrop, soil salinity (EC, exchangeable sodium percent (ESP and calcium carbonate content. The suitability maps for each of the above criteria and the final land suitability maps of the study area for different LUTs were developed by multiplying the reclassified factors map and adding them by Raster calculator technique in spatial analyst module of Arc GIS 9.3 software. The values which are obtained from the result are classified into three classes. These classes were converted to suitability classes: moderately suitable (S2, marginally suitable (S3, and not suitable (NS. The most soil limiting factors in the study area for LUT1 are soil depth and drainage followed by slope gradient, salinity and AWHC. However, the most limiting factors for LUT2 and 3 are surface stones and soil depth followed by stone content of surface horizon and soil salinity. Land improvements are required to improve or reduce the severity of limitations exited in the study area.

  12. Geophysical Investigations of a Proterozoic Carbonatite Terrane, southeast Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, K. M.; Ponce, D. A.; Miller, D. M.; Peacock, J.; Miller, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the world's largest rare-earth element-rich carbonatite deposits is located in the eastern Mojave Desert at Mountain Pass, California. The eastern Mojave Desert carbonatite terrane consists of a ~1.7 Ga gneiss and schist rocks that are host to a ~1.417 Ga (Premo, 2013) ultrapotassic intrusive suite (shonkinite, syenite, and granite) and a ~1.375 Ga (DeWitt, 1983) carbonatite deposit . Regional geophysical data indicate that this carbonatite terrane occurs within a north-northwest trending ~1-km wide bench in a gravity high and along the eastern edge of a prominent magnetic high in the eastern Clark Mountain Range. To improve our understanding of the geophysical and structural framework of the eastern Mojave carbonatite terrane, we collected over 2,300 gravity stations and over 640 physical rock property samples. Carbonatite rocks typically have distinct gravity, magnetic, and radioactive signatures because they are relatively dense, often contain magnetite, and are commonly enriched in thorium and/or uranium. Contrary to this trend, our results show that the carbonatite deposit is essentially nonmagnetic with an average susceptibility of 0.18 x 10-3 SI (n=31), and the ultrapotassic intrusive suite is very weakly magnetic with an average susceptibility of 2.0 x 10-3 SI (n=36). However, these rocks are found along a steep gradient of a prominent aeromagnetic anomaly. The lack of magnetic signature from the rocks of the eastern Mojave carbonatite terrane suggests alteration of magnetic minerals. This is corroborated by its location within a broader alteration zone and observed magnetic low. If so, such an alteration event occurred after emplacement of the carbonatite deposit, which likely remobilized rare earth elements in the surrounding rocks. Further, an alteration event is consistent with geology, high rare-earth element concentration, and unusual geochemistry of the carbonatite deposit. Temporal constraints (DeWitt, 1987; Premo, 2013) also suggest

  13. Activity patterns in the Sahara Desert: an interpretation based on cross-sectional geometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikita, Efthymia; Siew, Yun Ysi; Stock, Jay; Mattingly, David; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2011-11-01

    The Garamantian civilization flourished in modern Fezzan, Libya, between 900 BC and 500 AD, during which the aridification of the Sahara was well established. Study of the archaeological remains suggests a population successful at coping with a harsh environment of high and fluctuating temperatures and reduced water and food resources. This study explores the activity patterns of the Garamantes by means of cross-sectional geometric properties. Long bone diaphyseal shape and rigidity are compared between the Garamantes and populations from Egypt and Sudan, namely from the sites of Kerma, el-Badari, and Jebel Moya, to determine whether the Garamantian daily activities were more strenuous than those of other North African populations. Moreover, sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry are assessed at an intra- and inter-population level. The inter-population comparisons showed the Garamantes not to be more robust than the comparative populations, suggesting that the daily Garamantian activities necessary for survival in the Sahara Desert did not generally impose greater loads than those of other North African populations. Sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry in almost all geometric properties of the long limbs were comparatively low among the Garamantes. Only the lower limbs were significantly stronger among males than females, possibly due to higher levels of mobility associated with herding. The lack of systematic bilateral asymmetry in cross-sectional geometric properties may relate to the involvement of the population in bilaterally intensive activities or the lack of regular repetition of unilateral activities.

  14. Maternal habitat affects germination requirements of Anabasis setifera, a succulent shrub of the Arabian deserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali El-Keblawy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of maternal habitat on light and temperature requirements during germination were assessed for the succulent desert shrub Anabasis setifera. Seeds were collected from the Mediterranean habitats of Egypt and the hyper-arid subtropical habitats of the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Seeds from the two populations were germinated in three temperature treatments in both a light/dark regime and continuous darkness. Seeds from the Egyptian population germinated significantly greater and faster than those of UAE. Seeds stored for four months at room temperatures have little dormancy and germinate at wide range of temperatures and light conditions, but seeds stored four months in the natural habitat lost their ability to germinate and rotted 10 days after incubation. The germination response to temperature depended on the habitat type. Seeds of the Egyptian population attained a significantly greater germination at lower temperatures, compared with seeds from the UAE population, but there was no difference in germination between the two populations at higher temperatures. Germination of A. setifera was very fast; most seeds germinated within four days. These results reflect the adaptive strategy of germination in both populations, and may help explain the wide distribution of this species in different climatic regions.

  15. Snow, the Great River, and the Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.

    2005-12-01

    While many major rivers around the world originate from alpine snowpacks in mountain regions, some experience the extreme contrast of flowing through harsh desert environments downriver. One such stream is the Rio Grande which rises in the San Juan and the Sangre de Christo mountains of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. Eventually, the snow fed Rio Grande flows through North America's largest desert, the Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico, and simultaneously becomes part of the border between the United States and Mexico. As is often true, urban areas develop along the river corridors rather than in more inaccessible mountain regions. This demographic preference tends to isolate the vast majority of population in the Rio Grande, who are dependent on water for their livelihoods, from the mountain snowpacks where the flow is generated. Ironically then, snow is seldom viewed as the source of the much needed water flowing through the desert by the majority of the basin's population. In arid regions of the western U.S., water demand far exceeds the water supply, and water use is apportioned under the doctrine of prior appropriation with the oldest right getting the first use of water. The increasing population in urban areas does not usually have a right to use the water flowing through the desert unless water rights have been purchased by municipalities from the major category of water user in these basins, namely, irrigated agriculture. In the entire Rio Grande basin, irrigation makes up 80% of the consumptive use of water. Additionally, basin compacts and international treaties apportion water between states and countries. Because these formal agreements were based on above average runoff years, there is little flexibility in changing the use of water, particularly in dry to normal runoff years. Most of the older water rights in the Rio Grande, especially the upper basin, are supplied by snowmelt. This leaves the lower basin to depend upon

  16. Isotopic values of plants in relation to water availability in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Gideon; Danin, Avinoam

    2010-04-01

    Plant C and N isotope values often correlate with rainfall on global and regional scales. This study examines the relationship between plant isotopic values and rainfall in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The results indicate significant correlations between both C and N isotope values and rainfall in C(3) plant communities. This significant relationship is maintained when plant communities are divided by plant life forms. Furthermore, a seasonal increase in C isotope values is observed during the dry season while N isotope values remain stable across the wet and dry seasons. Finally, the isotopic pattern in plants originating from desert environments differs from those from Mediterranean environments because some desert plants obtain most of their water from secondary sources, namely water channeled by local topographic features rather than direct rainfall. From these results it can be concluded that water availability is the primary factor controlling C and N isotope variability in plant communities in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  17. Geoelectric resistivity sounding for delineating salt water intrusion in the Abu Zenima area, west Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed H.

    2006-09-01

    A direct current (dc) resistivity geoelectric technique is applied in the Abu Zenima area, West Sinai, Egypt to delineate salt water intrusion from the Gulf of Suez and evaluate the quality and some of the petrophysical parameters of the aquifer. Sixteen Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings (VES) with maximum AB/2 = 3000 m are conducted. The interpretation of the one-dimensional (1D) inversion of the acquired resistivity data could map the fresh to slightly brackish aquifer (true resistivity = 52-71 Ω m, thickness = 17-66 m), which floats on denser, more saline, deeper water (<5 Ω m). A number of water samples of the fresh aquifer are analysed to determine the total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations (ppm). A good agreement is observed between the resistivity boundaries and the borehole data. The mutual relations between the aquifer layering, the direction of the groundwater flow and the hydrogeophysical conditions of the aquifer are investigated. The geoelectric (Dar-Zarrouk) parameters are determined and interpreted in terms of the hydraulic conductivity, transimissivity, clay content, grain size distribution and potentiality of the aquifer. The integration of the results indicates a high potentiality and a relatively good quality of the fresh to slightly brackish aquifer in the north-eastern part of the study area.

  18. Large-scale, low-amplitude bedforms (chevrons) in the selima sand sheet, egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T A; Haynes, C V

    1989-03-03

    Landsat images of the Selima sand sheet in southwestern Egypt display alternating light and dark chevron-shaped patterns that occur downwind from low scarps and major dune fields. Images acquired between 1972 and 1988 indicate that these features move as discrete bedforms at a rate of up to 500 meters per year. Extremely long-wavelength (130 to 1200 meters), low-amplitude (10 to 30 centimeters) bedforms were measured in the field; the light chevrons seen in the orbital data may be thin accumulations of active sand sheet deposits in the lee of these bedforms. Dark chevrons contain an admixture of coarse-granule lag deposits that are continually winnowed by aeolian erosion on the windward sides of the large bedforms. Sediment transport budgets derived from orbital and field analyses suggest net movement of up to 83,000 cubic meters per year for a single light chevron; such measurements can be used as a check on similar calculations from dunes and other smaller scale features to determine sand transport budgets for large areas of the eastern Sahara.

  19. Exploration and assessment of the geothermal resources in the Hammam Faraun hot spring, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Mohamed Abdel; Saibi, Hakim; Nishijima, Jun; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Mesbah, Hany; Ehara, Sachio

    2012-02-01

    The tectonic position of Egypt in the northeastern corner of the African continent suggests that it may possess significant geothermal resources, especially along its eastern margin. The most promising areas for geothermal development in the northwest Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift system are located where the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez is characterized by superficial thermal manifestations, including a cluster of hot springs with varied temperatures. Magnetotelluric and gravity-reconnaissance surveys were carried out over the geothermal region of Hammam Faraun to determine the subsurface electric resistivity and the densities that are related to rock units. These surveys were conducted along profiles. One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) inversion model techniques were applied on the MT data, integrating the 2D inversion of gravity data. The objectives of these surveys were to determine and parameterize the subsurface source of the Hammam Faraun hot spring and to determine the origin of this spring. Based on this data, a conceptual model and numerical simulation were made of the geothermal area of Hammam Faraun. The numerical simulation succeeded in determining the characteristics of the heat sources beneath the Hammam Faraun hot spring and showed that the hot spring originates from a high heat flow and deep ground water circulation in the subsurface reservoir that are controlled by faults. These studies were followed by an assessment of the geothermal potential for electric generation from the Hammam Faraun hot spring. The value of the estimated potential is 28.34 MW, as the reservoir is assumed to be only 500 m thick. This value would be enough for the desalination of water for both human and agricultural consumption.

  20. Ecohydrologic function and disturbance of desert ephemeral stream channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, D.; Macias, M.; Miller, D. M.; Newlander, A.; Perkins, K. S.; Sandquist, D. R.; Schwinning, S.

    2011-12-01

    In response to rare high-intensity or long duration rainstorms, runoff in desert ephemeral channels can redistribute water through landscapes and potentially serve as a resource subsidy. We are using transect studies, mapping, monitoring and manipulation experiments to investigate the ecohydrologic relations of these pervasive features with vegetation in the eastern Mojave Desert, USA. We focus on a gently sloping piedmont transected by a ~100 year old railroad that alters natural channel flow by diverting it through staggered culverts to areas downslope of the railroad. This creates three distinct ecohydrologic zones: 1) relatively undisturbed areas above the railroad, 2) areas below the railroad that receive enhanced flow where water is diverted through culverts (enhanced zones), and 3) areas below the railroad where water flow from upslope has been blocked (deprived zones). In all areas we found that vegetation cover and density are higher adjacent to stream channels and decrease with distance from the channels. Relative to the undisturbed areas, vegetation cover is higher in the enhanced areas, and lower in the deprived. Species-specific vegetation changes included higher cover of the drought deciduous sub-shrub Ambrosia dumosa in deprived zones and higher cover of the evergreen drought-tolerant shrub Larrea tridentata in enhanced zones. Using simulated channel runoff experiments, we found that most Larrea within 3 m, and Ambrosia within 1.5 m of an undisturbed stream channel physiologically responded to a water pulse and the responses persisted for over a month. Less pronounced responses were seen adjacent to channels in the deprived zones, and did not persist as long. Electrical resistance imaging of the watering experiments shows that water infiltrates vertically in channels and spreads laterally at depth; vegetation use of channel water in the deprived zones appears to be reduced. While we have no information on the pace of vegetation change due to channel

  1. Obstacles Facing Promoting Tourism for Islamic Landmarks from the Perspective of Tour Operators in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The UNESCO launched a campaign #unite4heritage in Egypt to defeat extremism and intolerance. The message of such campaigne is peace, dialogue and unity embedded in cultural heritage. As culture and tourism are linked together, such message could be delivered through improving culture heritage tourism in Egypt. Islamic landmarks  are considered as a part of human heritage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify how much tour operators in Egypt include Islamic landmarks in their pr...

  2. High performance robotic traverse of desert terrain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, William (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2004-09-01

    This report presents tentative innovations to enable unmanned vehicle guidance for a class of off-road traverse at sustained speeds greater than 30 miles per hour. Analyses and field trials suggest that even greater navigation speeds might be achieved. The performance calls for innovation in mapping, perception, planning and inertial-referenced stabilization of components, hosted aboard capable locomotion. The innovations are motivated by the challenge of autonomous ground vehicle traverse of 250 miles of desert terrain in less than 10 hours, averaging 30 miles per hour. GPS coverage is assumed to be available with localized blackouts. Terrain and vegetation are assumed to be akin to that of the Mojave Desert. This terrain is interlaced with networks of unimproved roads and trails, which are a key to achieving the high performance mapping, planning and navigation that is presented here.

  3. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP ...

  4. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  5. Himalayan Mountain Range, Taklimakan Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Looking north from Kashmir India (27.5N, 76.5E) into the Tibetan Plateau and beyond, the Taklimakan Desert of far western China appears to be covered with an extensive layer of haze that blankets the entire region. Reaching even into the western Siberian Plains of the CIS. This rugged land is one of the world's richest treasure troves of mineral wealth but the accessability into this remote area is so difficult that it is not yet economically feasible.

  6. Index medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shorbaji Najeeb

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study provides the rationale, history and current status of the Index Medicus for the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Index is unique in combining the geographic coverage of peer-reviewed health and biomedical journals (408 titles from the 22 countries of the Region. Compiling and publishing the Index coupled with a document delivery service is an integral part of the WHO Regional Office's knowledge management and sharing programme. In this paper, bibliometric indicators are presented to demonstrate the distribution of journals, articles, languages, subjects and authors as well as availability in printed and electronic formats. Two countries in the Region (Egypt and Pakistan contribute over 50% of the articles in the Index. About 90% of the articles are published in English. Epidemiology articles represent 8% of the entire Index. 15% of the journals in the Index are also indexed in MEDLINE, while 7% are indexed in EMBASE. Future developments of the Index will include covering more journals and adding other types of health and biomedical literature, including reports, theses, books and current research. The challenges and lessons learnt are discussed.

  7. Modeling long distance dispersal of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus as a polydisperse aerosol - Application to the emergence of a new strain from Egypt to Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Ziv; Klement, Eyal; Fattal, Eyal

    2015-12-01

    Long distance dispersal (LDD) of airborne aerosol of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus was extensively modeled in the literature. Most studies modeled this aerosol in simplistic approach as a passive tracer, neglecting physical and biological mechanisms that affect bio-aerosols such as the FMD aerosol. This approach was justified either because under persistent wind these mechanisms lower the extant of downwind hazard or on the grounds that the effect of some of the physical mechanisms on particles as small as the FMD particles (0.015-20 μm) is supposed to be negligible compared to the effect of atmospheric turbulence. Even when the FMD aerosol was treated as aerosol, it was assumed that it is monodisperse, i.e., all its particles are of the same size. The aim of the study is to examine whether these simplistic approaches are indeed justified when dealing with LDD of a bio-aerosol under actual atmospheric conditions. In order to do so, the influence of a more realistic modeling of the FMD aerosol as a polydisperse aerosol was compared to passive tracer and to monodisperse aerosol. The comparison refers to a case of a widespread FMD outbreak that occurred in 2012 in Egypt. This outbreak involved the emergence of a new serotype in Egypt, SAT2 and concern was raised that this serotype will advance further to Asia and Europe. Israel is located on the land bridge between Africa, Asia and Europe, and shares a long desert border with Egypt as well as a long Mediterranean shore adjacent to Egypt's shore. This unique location as well as the fact that Israel does not have any cattle trade with its neighboring countries make Israel an interesting test case for the examination of the necessary conditions for the long distance dispersal (LDD) of a new FMD strains from Africa to Europe. The analysis in this study shows that under quasi-stationary wind conditions modeling FMD dispersal as a passive tracer results in a significantly longer hazard distance. Under non

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of adolescents in Upper Egypt on gender-based violence, with a focus on early girls' marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Alaa El Dine H

    2015-09-01

    A large proportion of the female population all over the world, particularly in developing countries, experience some form of gender-based violence (GBV) during their life. Early marriage, a form of GBV, is particularly highly prevalent in rural Upper Egypt. The aim of the current study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of adolescents in Upper Egypt on domestic GBV, with a focus on early girls' marriage. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive household survey targeting 400 randomly selected adolescent boys and girls aged 11-16 years from five villages of Minya Governorate in Upper Egypt. The proportion of interviewed adolescents who could identify certain practices as forms of GBV was relatively low: the identified practices were mainly deprivation of work (9.0%), deprivation of inheritance (3.3%), arbitrary neglect and desertion (2.8%), and preventing from visiting relatives (0.5%). Abusive sexual behavior was not identified by any of the study participants as a form of domestic GBV. A total of 112 boys (56.0%) reported that they have been perpetrators in domestic GBV events at least once and 118 girls (59.0%) reported that they have been actual victims of domestic GBV. An overall 65.6% of study participants could correctly identify the legal age of marriage as 18 years, yet only 22.0% identified earlier ages of marriage as a form of domestic GBV. The vast majority of girls and boys reported that they would not agree to get married before the age of 18 years (91.0 and 87.0%, respectively). Adolescents in Upper Egypt demonstrated a less than satisfactory knowledge about the forms of GBV. Although early girls' marriage was not universally recognized by adolescents as a form of domestic GBV, they demonstrated satisfactory knowledge about the legal age of marriage, as well as a tendency to abandon the practice. Establishing a community-based awareness program for adolescents of both sexes about GBV with a focus on early girls' marriage is

  9. Seismic and well logging interpretation for evaluation of the lower Bahariya reservoir, southwest Qarun (SWQ) Field, Gindi Basin, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Mohammad Abdelfattah; Basal, A. M. K.; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on seismic and well log interpretations for evaluating the sandstones of the Cenomanian Bahariya Formation in the southwest Qarun Field, Gindi Basin, northern Western Desert of Egypt. The seismic profiles display a clear anticlinal structure intersected by reverse faults in the study area. This faulted anticline has been interpreted to be one of the Syrian arc system folds formed by Upper Cretaceous tectonic inversion, which resulted from the NW movement of the African Plate relative to Laurasia. This anticline has been recommended as a target for exploration by the present work as it may represent a structural trap for hydrocarbon accumulation. The sandstones of the Lower Bahariya Formation in the southwest Qarun Field display good reservoir characteristics. The interpretation of the available well log data for the SWQ-21 and SWQ-25 wells for the Lower Bahariya Formation reflects a good reservoir quality for oil production in its topmost part. This reservoir possesses low SW (<50%), high porosity (16%), low SW/SXO and low BVW (<0.09) which all reflect a high potential for oil production.

  10. Rainy Season Assessment of Azraq Basin in Eastern Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Shatnawi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the rainfall pattern in the Azraq basin in the Eastern part of Jordan. Azraq Basin is an extensive inland drainage system lying in the steppe and desert to the east of Jordan. The Azraq area is around 17,000 km2, which accounts for about 15% of the country’s total area, stretching from the lava peaks of Jebel Arab in southern Syria to Wadi Sirhan in northern Saudi Arabia. The Basin is considered part of the desert where the annual precipitation is estimated to be less than 150 mm/year and some areas receiving as little as 50 mm rainfall annually. Dry and hot climate during the summer and very cold winter with little rain falls in the form of thunderstorms and is similar to the continental climate of the desert climate where the big difference in temperature between day and night. The study aimed at assessing the rainy season’s conditions in the basin. The data for three rain gauges with monthly records of rainfall between (1960-2010 are used in the analysis. These stations are: Azraq, Um Alquttein and Deir Alkahf stations. The rainy seasons in the study area seem to get shorter and shifted in their start. The highest percentage of rain falls in the middle stage of the season (i.e., between December and February. This percentage is getting increased for Azraq and Deir Alkahf stations; however Um Alquttein shows a cyclic pattern of rainfall during the different seasons.

  11. Expansion and contraction of Chinese deserts during the Quaternary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东生; 孙继敏

    2002-01-01

    Episodic dune formations during the Quaternary are found in many deserts of China.The causes of desert expansions on different time scales are not the same. Desert extension atabout 1.1 and 0.9 Ma ago were the response to the active tectonic movements, whereas the de-sert evolutions on the ten-thousand years time scale were the response to the orbital scale climaticchanges. Spatial scale studies on desert evolution indicate that desert margins shifted greatly dur-ing the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Holocene optimum, its changing from 125°E of theLGM to 105°E of the climatic optimum. Historical desertification in the semiarid China is not a re-sponse to climate drought but largely associated with the human impacts (mainly over-cultivation)since about 2300 years ago, which leads to the reworking of the underlying LGM sands.

  12. Wind modeling of Chihuahuan Desert dust outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Rivera, Nancy I.; Gill, Thomas E.; Gebhart, Kristi A.; Hand, Jennifer L.; Bleiweiss, Max P.; Fitzgerald, Rosa M.

    The Chihuahuan Desert region of North America is a significant source of mineral aerosols in the Western Hemisphere, and Chihuahuan Desert dust storms frequently impact the Paso del Norte (El Paso, USA/Ciudad Juarez, Mexico) metropolitan area. A statistical analysis of HYSPLIT back trajectory residence times evaluated airflow into El Paso on all days and on days with synoptic (non-convective) dust events in 2001-2005. The incremental probability—a measure of the areas most likely to have been traversed by air masses arriving at El Paso during dusty days—was only strongly positively associated with the region west-southwest of the city, a zone of known dust source areas. Focused case studies were made of major dust events on 15 April and 15 December 2003. Trajectories approached the surface and MM5 (NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model) wind speeds increased at locations consistent with dust sources observed in satellite imagery on those dates. Back trajectory and model analyses suggested that surface cyclones adjacent to the Chihuahuan Desert were associated with the extreme dust events, consistent with previous studies of dust storms in the Southern High Plains to the northeast. The recognition of these meteorological patterns serves as a forecast aid for prediction of dust events likely to impact the Paso del Norte.

  13. Adsorption of dyes on Sahara desert sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlikli, Canan; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Kus, Mahmut; Boduroglu, Numan; Oner, Ilker; Lianos, Panagiotis; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Icli, Siddik

    2009-10-15

    Sahara desert sand (SaDeS) was employed as a mineral sorbent for retaining organic dyes from aqueous solutions. Natural sand has demonstrated a strong affinity for organic dyes but significantly lost its adsorption capacity when it was washed with water. Therefore, characterization of both natural and water washed sand was performed by XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. It was found that water-soluble kyanite, which is detected in natural sand, is the dominant factor affecting adsorbance of cationic dyes. The sand adsorbs over 75% of cationic dyes but less than 21% for anionic ones. Among the dyes studied, Methylene Blue (MB) demonstrated the strongest affinity for Sahara desert sand (Q(e)=11.98 mg/g, for initial dye solution concentration 3.5 x 10(-5)mol/L). The effects of initial dye concentration, the amount of the adsorbent, the temperature and the pH of the solution on adsorption capacity were tested by using Methylene Blue as model dye. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were applied. It was concluded that adsorption of Methylene Blue on Sahara desert sand followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and found -6411 J/mol, -30360 J/mol and -76.58 J/mol K, respectively. These values indicate that the adsorption is an exothermic process and has a spontaneous nature at low temperatures.

  14. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  15. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be trained for dancing or racing. Berella is another heavy and milch breed of camel famous for milk production and can produce upto 10-15 liters of milk per day. This breed is also suitable for draught purpose, though comparatively slow due to heavy body. The present paper also describes the traditional camel rearing system used by nomads of Cholistan desert. Some aspects of camel health, production, feeding, socio-economic values, marketing and some constraints and suggestions are also given so that the policy makers may consider them for the welfare of this animal.

  16. Sonoran Desert: Fragile Land of Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Produced and Directed by Wessells, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    'Sonoran Desert: Fragile Land of Extremes' shows how biologists with the U.S. Geological Survey work with other scientists in an effort to better understand native plants and animals such as desert tortoises, saguaro cacti, and Gila monsters. Much of the program was shot in and around Saguaro National Park near Tucson, Arizona. Genetic detective work, using DNA, focuses on understanding the lives of tortoises. Studies of saguaros over many decades clarify how these amazing plants reproduce and thrive in the desert. Threats from fire, diseases in tortoises, and a growing human population motivate the scientists. Their work to identify how these organisms live and survive is a crucial step for the sound management of biological resources on public lands. This 28-minute program, USGS Open-File Report 03-305, was shot entirely in high definition video and produced by the USGS Western Ecological Research Center and Southwest Biological Science Center; produced and directed by Stephen Wessells, Western Region Office of Communications.

  17. The Nile floodplain, hydroclimatic variability, and its relation with cultural dynamics in ancient Thebes (Luxor, Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Willem H. J.; Graham, Angus; Pennington, Ben; Hunter, Morag; Strutt, Kris; Barker, Dominic; Masson, Aurelia; Emery, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    The western bank of the river Nile in the Luxor region (Egypt) separates New Kingdom divine temple complexes in the central axis of the river valley from contemporaneous sites on the desert edge and limestone plateau. The intermediate Nile floodplain features relatively few known archaeological sites, but played an important role in the ancient ritual landscape by connecting the focal region of the living (floodplain) with that of the dead (desert). All Royal Funerary Temple Complexes of the New Kingdom period (1539-1077 BCE), which played a central role in the cosmogonical landscape, are positioned within a confined 3.5 km long strip of land on the western edge of the present floodplain. This preferential location, together with contemporary textual sources and tomb scenes suggesting the nearby presence of canals, have led to the hypothesis that natural and human-made waterways may have once connected the main channel of the Nile with the desert edge. Until the present research took place, no detailed study of pre-existing channel networks existed in the region, leaving a gap in current knowledge on the configuration and use of the ancient floodplain. This study presents the results of a multi-disciplinary study aimed at mapping and dating ancient waterways in the Theban region and aims to find evidence for the natural or human origin of such channels. Boreholes and Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT) were carried out along a transect that connects the edge of the Holocene floodplain with the current position of the river Nile. Satellite imagery and textual sources were also used to augment the fieldwork. The data indicate the presence of an infilled abandoned channel of the Nile in the western distal part of the current floodplain, adjoining the Funerary Temple complexes. Over 2100 ceramic fragments were analysed from the sedimentary infilling of the silted-up river course, dating it to the end of the New Kingdom, and indicating that the channel and temples

  18. External perforated Solar Screens for daylighting in residential desert buildings: Identification of minimum perforation percentages

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    The desert climate is endowed by clear sky conditions, providing an excellent opportunity for optimum utilization of natural light in daylighting building indoor spaces. However, the sunny conditions of the desert skies, in countries like Egypt and Saudi Arabia, result in the admittance of direct solar radiation, which leads to thermal discomfort and the incidence of undesired glare. One type of shading systems that is used to permit daylight while controlling solar penetration is " Solar Screens" Very little research work addressed different design aspects of external Solar Screens and their influence on daylighting performance, especially in desert conditions, although these screens proved their effectiveness in controlling solar radiation in traditional buildings throughout history.This paper reports on the outcomes of an investigation that studied the influence of perforation percentage of Solar Screens on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room of a building in a desert location. The objective was to identify minimum perforation percentage of screen openings that provides adequate illuminance levels in design-specific cases and all-year-round.Research work was divided into three stages. Stage one focused on the analysis of daylighting illuminance levels in specific dates and times, while the second stage was built on the results of the first stage, and addressed year round performance using Dynamic Daylight Performance Metrics (DDPMs). The third stage addressed the possibility of incidence of glare in specific cases where illuminance levels where found very high in some specific points during the analysis of first stage. The research examined the daylighting performance in an indoor space with a number of assumed fixed experimentation parameters that were chosen to represent the principal features of a typical residential living room located in a desert environment setting.Stage one experiments demonstrated that the screens fulfilled the

  19. Aerosol direct radiative forcing in desert and semi-desert regions of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jinyuan; Gong, Chongshui; Wang, Shigong; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-05-01

    The optical properties of dust aerosols were measured using narrow-band data from a portable sun photometer at four desert and semi-desert stations in northwestern China from 2004 to 2007. Ground-based and satellite observations indicated absorbing dust aerosol loading over the region surrounded by eight large-scale deserts. Radiation forcing was identified by using the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model. The ranges of annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angström exponents, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) were from 0.25 to 0.35, from - 0.73 to 1.18, and from 0.77 to 0.86, respectively. The ranges of annual mean aerosol direct radiative forcing values at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), mid-atmosphere, and on the surface were from 3.9 to 12.0, from 50.0 to 53.1, and from - 39.1 to - 48.1 W/m2, respectively. The aerosols' optical properties and radiative characteristics showed strong seasonal variations in both the desert and semi-desert regions. Strong winds and relatively low humidity will lead dust aerosols in the atmosphere to an increase, which played greatly affected these optical properties during spring and winter in northwestern China. Based on long-term observations and retrieved data, aerosol direct radiative forcing was confirmed to heat the atmosphere (50-53 W/m2) and cool the surface (- 39 to - 48 W/m2) above the analyzed desert. Radiative forcing in the atmosphere in spring and winter was 18 to 21 W/m2 higher than other two seasons. Based on the dust sources around the sites, the greater the AOD, the more negative the forcing. The annual averaged heating rates for aerosols close to the ground (1 km) were approximately 0.80-0.85 K/day.

  20. Effects of climatic variation on field metabolism and water relations of desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henen, B.T.; Peterson, C.C.; Wallis, I.R.; Berry, K.H.; Nagy, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    We used the doubly labeled water method to measure the field metabolic rates (FMRs, in kJ kg-1 day-1) and water flux rates (WIRs, in ml H2O kg-1 day-1) of adult desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) in three parts of the Mojave Desert in California over a 3.5-year period, in order to develop insights into the physiological responses of this threatened species to climate variation among sites and years. FMR, WIR, and the water economy index (WEI, in ml H2O kJ-1, an indicator of drinking of free water) differed extensively among seasons, among study sites, between sexes, and among years. In high-rainfall years, males had higher FMRs than females. Average daily rates of energy and water use by desert tortoises were extraordinarily variable: 28-fold differences in FMR and 237-fold differences in WIR were measured. Some of this variation was due to seasonal conditions, with rates being low during cold winter months and higher in the warm seasons. However, much of the variation was due to responses to year-to-year variation in rainfall. Annual spring peaks in FMR and WIR were higher in wet years than in drought years. Site differences in seasonal patterns were apparently due to geographic differences in rainfall patterns (more summer rain at eastern Mojave sites). In spring 1992, during an El Nino (ENSO) event, the WEI was greater than the maximal value obtainable from consuming succulent vegetation, indicating copious drinking of rainwater at that time. The physiological and behavioral flexibility of desert tortoises, evident in individuals living at all three study sites, appears central to their ability to survive droughts and benefit from periods of resource abundance. The strong effects of the El Nino (ENSO) weather pattern on tortoise physiology, reproduction, and survival elucidated in this and other studies suggest that local manifestations of global climate events could have a long-term influence on the tortoise populations in the Mojave Desert.

  1. Climate change and predicted trend of fungal keratitis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Hussein, A; El-Mofty, H M; Hassanien, M A

    2011-06-01

    Rising rates of invasive fungal infections may be linked to global climate change. A study was made of the trend of ophthalmic fungal corneal keratitis in the greater Cairo area of Egypt and its association with climate records during the same period. Data on diagnosed cases of fungal keratitis were collected from records of ophthalmic departments of Cairo University hospital and atmospheric temperature and humidity for the greater Cairo area were obtained from online records. Statistical analysis showed a significant increase in the relative frequency of keratomycosis during 1997-2007. The rise correlated significantly with rises n min,mum temperature and the maximum atmospheric humidity in the greater Cairo area over the same period (after exclusion of the effect of the maximum atmos pheric temperature). The predicted increase in keratomycosis up to the year 2030 corresponds to predicted increases in CO2 emissions and surface temperature from climate change models for Egypt.

  2. An Agent-Based Modeling for Pandemic Influenza in Egypt

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic influenza has great potential to cause large and rapid increases in deaths and serious illness. The objective of this paper is to develop an agent-based model to simulate the spread of pandemic influenza (novel H1N1) in Egypt. The proposed multi-agent model is based on the modeling of individuals' interactions in a space time context. The proposed model involves different types of parameters such as: social agent attributes, distribution of Egypt population, and patterns of agents' interactions. Analysis of modeling results leads to understanding the characteristics of the modeled pandemic, transmission patterns, and the conditions under which an outbreak might occur. In addition, the proposed model is used to measure the effectiveness of different control strategies to intervene the pandemic spread.

  3. Resistance to Mobile Banking Adoption in Egypt: A Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehaballah Elbadrawy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile banking (m-banking faces various types of resistance that may hinder customers’ adoption inEgypt. This study identifies three groups of m-banking non-adopters, namely postponers, opponents andrejectors. The objective of the study is to explore the reasons for resisting m-banking services in Egypt andwhether it differs with regards to these customer groups. Accordingly, a questionnaire was distributed, Chisquare tests, Kruskal-Wallis H tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test. Frequencies andcross tabulations were used. The results indicate that the three non-adopter groups differ significantly withrespect to usage, value, and image barriers. On the other hand, risk and tradition barriers did not showany statistical significance; however, risk barrier received the highest overall mean. Significant relationsbetween usage, risk and image barriers with the gender and level of education were noted. Finally, findingsenabled a clear mapping between Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the study’s results.

  4. Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The study investigates the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity distribution, in order to provide a chart of Egypt's embodied water balance in agricultural trade, in relation to distances with its major counterparties. Moreover, our calculations on the amount of the embodied water traded between Egypt and each of its partners take place according to a combination of available data on the blue, green and grey water footprints as well as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) database of traded amounts per crop type. A study on the virtual water trade gravity, enables us to enrich former related studies (Fracasso 2014; Fracasso, Sartori and Schiavo 2014) via examining Egypt's water supply dependence on the Nile River and if comparative advantages -purely from the side of water quantities- can be identified via recognizing which water footprint categories are particularly high. Additionally, this methodology can comprise -from a fundamental level- a guide for revealing the importance of water footprint types for Egypt's agricultural sector; hence, Egypt's potential comparative advantages, as far as quantitative water endowments are exclusively concerned (without consideration of water or crop prices). Although it is pointed out very correctly by various authors (Antonelli and Sartori 2014) that the virtual water trade concept does not incorporate many important aspects of water supply -such as heavy water price subsidizing- to be used accurately for the identification of comparative advantages, we consider that the purely quantitative examination can provide strong fundamental indications -especially for green and grey water footprints, which are hypothesized to be less sensitive to subsidizing. In overall, this effect can very well provide a primary indication on the organization of the global alimentation trade network (Yang et al. 2006). The gravity equation used contains water footprint data for the 15 top traded crops and the distances for Egypt

  5. The practice and politics of archaeology in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskell, L

    2000-01-01

    Archaeologists working in Egypt have rarely considered the local/global ramifications and responsibilities of their field practices: many continue to operate under what might be termed the residual effects of colonialism. Taking an explicitly postcolonial stance I argue that there is much more at stake than the intellectual enterprise. This paper outlines the ways in which scholars could undertake a more engaged archaeology and how we might more closely be involved with the people and pasts of modern Egypt. The connected tensions of tourism and terrorism are foregrounded, demonstrating that heritage issues are salient to both spheres. Finally, I explore the nation's relationship to its pharaonic past over the past few centuries and include some contemporary articulations and representations.

  6. Energy Analysis for New Hotel Buildings in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. George B. Hanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of energy simulation analysis to determine the effectiveness of building characteristics in reducing electrical energy consumption for hotel buildings in Egypt. Specifically, the impact on building envelope performance is investigated for different strategies such as window size, glazing type and building construction for two geographical locations in Egypt (Cairo and Alexandria. This paper also studies the energy savings in hotel buildings with 200 rooms for different Lighting Power Densities (LPD, Energy Input Ratios (EIR, Set point Temperatures (SPT and HVAC systems. The study shows certain findings of practical significance, e.g. that a Window-to-Wall Ratio of 0.20 and reasonably shaded windows lower the total annual electricity use for hotel buildings by more than 20% in the two Egyptian locations.

  7. Monitoring the urbanization of the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultan, M.; Fiske, M.; Stein, T.; Gamal, M.; El Araby, H.; Madani, A.; Mehanee, S.; Becker, R.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Cairo Univ. Center for Environmental Hazard Mitigation

    1999-11-01

    Comparisons of satellite images of the Nile Delta, acquired in 1972, 1984 and 1990, indicate that urban growth is endangering Egypt's agricultural productivity. Urban areas occupied a minimum of 3.6%, 4.7% and 5.7% of the Delta in 1972, 1984 and 1990, respectively, an increase of 58% in 18 years. Approximately half of this increase occurred between 1984 and 1990. If this trend continues, Egypt could lose 12% of its total agricultural area to urbanization by 2010. Despite the fact that growth is pronounced around the cities, it is the growth around the thousands of small villages that poses the largest threat to the agricultural productivity of the Nile Delta. The cumulative growth rate for the cities and large villages between 1972 and 1990 is 37%, and that for the small villages is 77% for the same time period.

  8. The Use of Water During the Crew 144, Mars Desert Research Station, Utah Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Well. from November 29th to December 14th, 2014, the author conducted astrobiological and geological surveys, as analog astronaut member of the international Crew 144, at the site of the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station, located at a remote location in the Utah desert, United States. The use of water for drinking, bathing, cleaning, etc., in the crew was a major issue for consideration for a human expedition to the planet Mars in the future. The author would like to tell about the factors of the rationalized use of water.

  9. Schistosomiasis and the risk of bladder cancer in Alexandria, Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    Bedwani, R.; Renganathan, E.; El Kwhsky, F.; Braga, C.; Abu Seif, H. H.; Abul Azm, T.; Zaki, A.; De Franceschi, S.; Boffetta, P; La Vecchia, C.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between history of schistosomiasis and bladder cancer risk was investigated using data from a case-control study conducted between January 1994 and July 1996 in Alexandria, Egypt. Cases were 190 subjects with incident, histologically confirmed invasive cancer of the bladder, and controls were 187 subjects admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-urinary tract conditions. Eighty-six cases (45%) vs 69 controls (37%) reported a history of urinary schistosomiasis. The ...

  10. Inflation and Inflation Uncertainty Revisited: Evidence from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesbah Fathy Sharaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The welfare costs of inflation and inflation uncertainty are well documented in the literature and empirical evidence on the link between the two is sparse in the case of Egypt. This paper investigates the causal relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty in Egypt using monthly time series data during the period January 1974–April 2015. To endogenously control for any potential structural breaks in the inflation time series, Zivot and Andrews (2002 and Clemente–Montanes–Reyes (1998 unit root tests are used. The inflation–inflation uncertainty relation is modeled by the standard two-step approach as well as simultaneously using various versions of the GARCH-M model to control for any potential feedback effects. The analyses explicitly control for the effect of the Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Program (ERSAP undertaken by the Egyptian government in the early 1990s, which affected inflation rate and its associated volatility. Results show a high degree of inflation–volatility persistence in the response to inflationary shocks. Granger-causality test along with symmetric and asymmetric GARCH-M models indicate a statistically significant bi-directional positive relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty, supporting both the Friedman–Ball and the Cukierman–Meltzer hypotheses. The findings are robust to the various estimation methods and model specifications. The findings of this paper support the view of adopting inflation-targeting policy in Egypt, after fulfilling its preconditions, to reduce the welfare cost of inflation and its related uncertainties. Monetary authorities in Egypt should enhance the credibility of monetary policy and attempt to reduce inflation uncertainty, which will help lower inflation rates.

  11. PREVALENCE OF CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGES IN SOUTH SINAI, EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMAH, G.; ABDEL-RAOUF, E.; Talaat, A; SAAD-HUSSEIN, A.; Hamamy, H.; MEGUID, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 3961 married couples from six major geographical areas representing the South Sinai governorates in Egypt were studied to assess the rate of consanguineous marriage. The population of six selected areas (St Catherines, Nuweiba, Abu Rudeis, Ras Sudr, El Tor and Abu Zenima) were subdivided into Bedouin, urban and mixed populations. A questionnaire-based interview was conducted showing that the consanguinity rate in this region is 37.5%, with the highest rate recorded in Abu Rudeis (5...

  12. On the Formation of the Early Territorial Statein Ancient Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at a reinterpretation of the formation of the earlyterritorial state in ancient Egypt from a multi-perspective. In the light ofthe recent studies on the available written material and new excavations,the author seeks to prove that the emergence of the early territorial statewas the result of the interaction of various elements. In the author'sopinion, the strong political ambition of the Upper Egyptian ruling elitesplayed a decisive role in the process of unification.

  13. Maternal mortality: a tertiary care hospital experience in Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abbas

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Preeclampsia and PPH, as well as their complications are the leading causes of death in one of the biggest tertiary care university hospitals in Egypt. However, there are other important avoidable predisposing factors that should be dealt with including lack of patient education, delayed transfer from other hospitals, and substandard practice. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1466-1471

  14. Governance and Risk Management: Empirical Evidence from Malaysia and Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidah Abdul Rahman; Siti Balqis Noor; Tariq H Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The perceptions of Islamic banking professionals are surveyed through a questionnaire to explore whether the process of risk management mediates board involvement in risk management and risk management practices of Islamic banks in Malaysia and Egypt. The findings of this study identified that the Islamic banks in the selected countries are somewhat efficient in their risk management process. It was noticed that board involvement in risk management, process of risk management and risk managem...

  15. Restoration and Conservation of Islamic Monuments in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-15

    ENGINEERING CENTER for ARCHAEOLOGY and ENVIRONMENT, BACKGROUND THE PRESENT STRUCTURE of the EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES ORGANIZATION ABSTRACTS (AVAILABLE AS OF 8...serve as an outpost in Egypt for American institutions with archaeological programs. ARCE established a perma- nent office in Cairo to assist expedition...catalog of the Luxor Museum. The last decade saw ARCE grow tremendously, with the introduction of lectures, tours and symposia for the Egyptian and American

  16. Adjustment of wheat production to market reform in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Kherallah, Mylène; Minot,Nicholas; Gruhn, Peter

    1999-01-01

    In response to slow growth in the agricultural sector and as part of a general shift towards a more market-oriented economy, the Government of Egypt started liberalizing the agricultural sector in 1987. Controls over wheat production and marketing were eliminated and wheat producer prices were brought closer to international levels. As a result, there has been remarkable increases in wheat crop area and yields, causing wheat production to triple from 1986 to 1998. This study analyzes the resu...

  17. The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Jordan and Syria: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    20, 2007, 25. 90 Helena Cobban, “The Political Ideas Completing for Support in the Arab World,” The Christian Science Monitor, March 20, 2007, 9...must control her.”116 113 Curtis R. Ryan, “Political Strategies and regime Survival in Egypt...history of the modern Middle East. Colorado: Westview Press, 2004. Cobban, Helena . “The political ideas competing for support in the Arab World” The

  18. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus among women older than 18 years in Egypt: a multicenter, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fadel Shaltout

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The overall prevalence of HPV in Egypt was 10.4% and was highest (9.2% amongst women aged 45–54 years. These data provide important reference information for public health authorities considering HPV prevention in Egypt.

  19. Measurement of Women's Agency in Egypt: A National Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; VanderEnde, Kristin E; Dodell, Sylvie; Cheong, Yuk Fai

    2016-09-01

    Despite widespread assumptions about women's empowerment and agency in the Arab Middle East, psychometric research of these constructs is limited. Using national data from 6214 married women ages 16-49 who took part in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey, we applied factor analysis to explore and then to test the factor structure of women's agency. We then used multiple indicator multiple cause structural equations models to test for differential item functioning (DIF) by women's age at first marriage, a potential resource for women's agency. Our results confirm that women's agency in Egypt is multi-dimensional and comprised of their (1) influence in family decisions, including those reserved for men, (2) freedom of movement in public spaces, and (3) attitudes about gender, specifically violence against wives. These dimensions confirm those explored previously in selected rural areas of Egypt and South Asia. Yet, three items showed significant uniform DIF by women's categorical age at first marriage, with and without a control for women's age in years. Models adjusting for DIF and women's age in years showed that women's older age at first marriage was positively associated with the factor means for family decision-making and gender-violence attitudes, but not freedom of movement. Our findings reveal the value of our analytical strategy for research on the dimensions and determinants of women's agency. Our approach offers a promising model to discern "hierarchies of evidence" for social policies and programs to enhance women's empowerment.

  20. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emad A Shalaby

    2011-01-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future.