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Sample records for eastern democratic republic

  1. Background Report on Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Tracy A [ORNL

    2011-05-01

    Each month, approximately 45,000 people die from violence, hunger, disease, and other effects of displacement as a result of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The country is often said to be plagued by a 'resource curse.' During each period in history since its discovery by the West, the DRC has possessed the resources the world craves and the world has sought these without regard for the consequences to the Congolese people. The catastrophic consequences of Congo's history of natural resource exploitation are the direct and indirect death of millions of Congolese people. The current war in Congo is multi-causal in nature but explanations are often reduced to describing it as an ethic conflict based on objective grievance. Objective grievance such as inequality, ethnic tensions, land disputes, and lack of democracy do exist, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the cause of the violent conflict, and more importantly, they fall short in explaining why this conflict has continued for years. The reality is the conflict is an economic war in which the trade of conflict minerals, gold and the 3Ts (tin, tantalum, tungsten), is directly linked to the financial sustainability of the groups fighting each other in eastern DRC. Objective grievance is a by-product of the conflict, used to create a false but plausible moral justification to continue violence. This paper examines the history of conflict in the DRC and the socio-economic variables contributing to the current war fought over conflict minerals.

  2. Increased mining activities in the eastern Democratic Republic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-20

    Oct 20, 2009 ... Keywords: malnutrition; children under-five-years-old; mining; DRC; corporate social responsibility ... underdeveloped parts of the world, there are a multitude of factors ..... Determinants of infant growth in eastern Uganda: A.

  3. Dorstenialuamensis (Moraceae), a new species from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Miguel E

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Dorstenia L. (Moraceae), Dorstenialuamensis M.E.Leal, is described from the Luama Wildlife Reserve, west of Lake Tanganyika and north of the town of Kalemie in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This species is endemic to the region and differs from any of the other species by its fernlike lithophytic habit and lack of latex. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenialuamensis M.E.Leal inhabits moist and shady vertical rock faces close to small waterfalls in the forest; the species is distributed in small populations within the type locality, and merits the conservation status of endangered (EN).

  4. Impact of sexual violence on children in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brett D; Collins, Lisa; VanRooyen, Michael J; Joyce, Nina; Mukwege, Denis; Bartels, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The conflict in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been particularly devastating for children and has been typified by high levels of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). In this study, we seek to characterize the patterns and impact of sexual violence on children in the Eastern DRC. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered among a convenience sample of women armed combatants decreased by 70% between 2004 and 2008. Qualitative analysis of the narratives revealed common themes, such as physical signs and symptoms among SGBV survivors (23.9%), pregnancy resulting from rape (19.3%), perpetrators being brought to justice (18.3%), and neighbourhood men as perpetrators (17.7%). Children in the Eastern DRC continue to face significant threats of sexual violence. By understanding the patterns of this violence, local and international approaches could be more effectively implemented to protect these vulnerable children.

  5. Stigmatisation and rejection of survivors of sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albutt, Katherine; Kelly, Jocelyn; Kabanga, Justin; VanRooyen, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Studies report that between 6 per cent and 29 per cent of survivors of sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) are rejected by their families and communities. This research project was designed to provide insights into survivors' experiences of stigmatisation and rejection. Surveys were conducted with 310 women as they sought psychosocial services in eastern DRC. In total, 44.3 per cent of women reported suffering rejection after sexual violence. The majority of women felt that their status in the household (58.0 per cent) and community (54.9 per cent) diminished after rape. The odds of rejection were greater among women reporting ongoing displacement, pregnancy owing to sexual violence, worsening family relations, and diminished community status. This work highlights the extremely high levels of loss associated with the war in eastern DRC, particularly among survivors of sexual violence. The rejection of a survivor of rape has concrete and devastating psychosocial consequences.

  6. Battles on women's bodies: war, rape and traumatisation in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholm, J E; Olsson, P; Ahlberg, B M

    2011-01-01

    Rape has been used as a weapon in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in unprecedented ways. Research into the phenomenon of war-rape is limited, particularly in this context. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of local leaders in eastern DRC concerning rape and raped women in the war context. Local leaders were chosen for their ability to both reflect and influence their constituencies. Interviews were conducted with 10 local leaders and transcripts subjected to qualitative content analysis. The study suggests that mass raping and the methods of perpetration created a chaos effectively destroying communities and the entire society and that humanitarian aid was often inappropriate. Furthermore, an exclusive focus on raped women missed the extent of traumatisation entire communities suffered. More significantly, the lack of political will, corruption, greed and inappropriate aid creates a tangled web serving to intensify the war. This complexity has implications for humanitarian interventions including public health.

  7. Studies of crustal structure, seismic precursors to volcanic eruptions and earthquake hazard in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mavonga, T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, civil wars in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo have caused massive social disruptions, which have been exacerbated by volcanic and earthquake disasters. Seismic data were gathered and analysed as part...

  8. Occupational radiation exposures of artisans mining columbite-tantalite in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, A O; Mbuzukongira, P; Mangala, M J

    2007-06-01

    Artisans in Masisi and other parts of the North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) mine columbite-tantalite mineral ores (also called 'coltan') for the tantalum content. The potential occupational radiation exposures in the course of this operation, due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), have been investigated in this screening survey. Activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides in samples of coltan were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average values in Bq g(-1) are 10.75 +/- 5.11 for (238)U, 7.06 +/- 3.39 for (226)Ra, 1.75 +/- 0.85 for (232)Th, and 1.63 +/- 0.52 for (40)K. Based on these values and the working scenarios involved in artisanal coltan mining, the occupational doses that may accrue from a variety of exposure pathways were determined by model calculations. The results, assuming conservative dust load and dilution factors, indicate that grinding and sieving coltan can give rise to high occupational doses, up to 18 mSv per annum on average.

  9. Occupational radiation exposures of artisans mining columbite-tantalite in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, A O [Department of Physics, University of Nairobi, PO Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya); Mbuzukongira, P [Department of Physics, University of Nairobi, PO Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya); Mangala, M J [Institute of Nuclear Science, University of Nairobi, PO Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2007-06-01

    Artisans in Masisi and other parts of the North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) mine columbite-tantalite mineral ores (also called 'coltan') for the tantalum content. The potential occupational radiation exposures in the course of this operation, due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), have been investigated in this screening survey. Activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides in samples of coltan were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average values in Bq g{sup -1} are 10.75 {+-} 5.11 for {sup 238}U, 7.06 {+-} 3.39 for {sup 226}Ra, 1.75 {+-} 0.85 for {sup 232}Th, and 1.63 {+-} 0.52 for {sup 40}K. Based on these values and the working scenarios involved in artisanal coltan mining, the occupational doses that may accrue from a variety of exposure pathways were determined by model calculations. The results, assuming conservative dust load and dilution factors, indicate that grinding and sieving coltan can give rise to high occupational doses, up to 18 mSv per annum on average.

  10. Sexual violence toward children and youth in war-torn eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Malemo Kalisya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and youth in eastern DRC. METHODS: Medical records of patients treated for sexual assault at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, DRC between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Information extracted from the chart record was summarized using descriptive statistics, with comparative statistics to examine differences between pediatric (≤ 18 yrs and adult patients. FINDINGS: 440 pediatric and 54 adult sexual abuse cases were identified. Children and youth were more often assaulted by someone known to the family (74% vs 30%, OR 6.7 [95%CI 3.6-12], p72 hours after the assault was more common in pediatric patients (53% vs 33%, OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.2-4.0], p = 0.007. Physical signs of sexual abuse, including lesions of the posterior fourchette, hymeneal tears, and anal lesions, were more commonly observed in children and youth (84% vs 69%, OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.3-4.4], p = 0.006. Nine (2.9% pediatrics patients were HIV-positive at presentation, compared to 5.3% of adults (p = 0.34. INTERPRETATION: World media attention has focused on violent rape as a weapon of war in the DRC. Our data highlight some neglected but important and distinct aspects of the ongoing epidemic of sexual violence: sexual abuse of children and youth.

  11. A Qualitative Analysis of Disclosure Patterns among Women with Sexual Violence-Related Pregnancies in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Monica Adhiambo

    2016-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has experienced nearly two decades of civil conflict in the Eastern regions of North and South Kivu. This conflict has been notorious for the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war, leading in many cases to pregnancy after rape. The objectives of this analysis were: 1) to describe patterns of sexual violence-related pregnancy (SVRP) disclosure; 2) to consider why survivors chose to disclose to particular individuals; and 3) to examine the dialogue around SVRPs between women with SVRPs and their confidants. In South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, two sub-groups of sexual violence survivors completed qualitative interviews, those currently raising a child from an SVRP (parenting group, N = 38) and those who had terminated an SVRP (termination group, N = 17). The findings show that a majority of SVRPs were conceived when participants were held in sexual captivity for prolonged periods of time. The SVRPs were disclosed to friends, family members, other sexual violence survivors, community members, spouses, health care providers, or perpetrators. The confidants were most often chosen because they were perceived by the participants as being discreet, trusted, and supportive. The confidants often provided advice about continuing or terminating the SVRP. Trust and discretion are the most important factors determining to whom women with SVRPs disclose their pregnancies. The vital role of confidants in giving support after disclosure cannot be overlooked. Providing opportunities for survivors to safely disclose their SVRPs, including to health care providers, is a necessary first step in allowing them to access safe and comprehensive post-assault care and services. PMID:27741262

  12. Healthcare providers' perspectives on the social reintegration of patients after surgical fistula repair in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Lin, Nichole; Namugunga, Esperance N; Lussy, Justin P; Benfield, Nerys

    2015-08-01

    To understand perspectives of local health providers on the social reintegration of patients who have undergone fistula repair in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. In a qualitative study, semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with patient-care professionals working with women with fistula at HEAL Africa Hospital (Goma) and Panzi Hospital (Bukavu) between June and August 2011. The interviews were transcribed and themes elicited through manual coding. Overall, 41 interviews were conducted. Successful surgical repair was reported to be the most important factor contributing to patients' ability to lead a normal life by all providers. Family acceptance-especially from the husband-was deemed crucial for reintegration by 39 (95%) providers, and 29 (71%) believed this acceptance was more important than the ability to work. Forty (98%) providers felt that, on the basis of African values, future childbearing was key for family acceptance. Because of poor access and the high cost of cesarean deliveries, 28 (68%) providers were concerned about fistula recurrence. Providers view postsurgical childbearing as crucial for social reintegration after fistula repair. However, cesarean deliveries are costly and often inaccessible. More work is needed to improve reproductive health access for women after fistula repair. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experiences of female survivors of sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: a mixed-methods study

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    Kelly J T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC is the deadliest since World War II. Over a decade of fighting amongst an array of armed groups has resulted in extensive human rights abuses, particularly the widespread use of sexual violence against women. Methods Using a mixed-methods approach, we surveyed a non-random sample of 255 women attending a referral hospital and two local non-governmental organizations to characterize their experiences of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. We then conducted focus groups of 48 women survivors of SGBV to elaborate on survey findings. Quantitative and qualitative data underwent thematic and statistical analysis respectively. Findings Of the women surveyed, 193 (75.7% experienced rape. Twenty-nine percent of raped women were rejected by their families and 6% by their communities. Thirteen percent of women had a child from rape. Widowhood, husband abandonment, gang rape, and having a child from rape were significant risk factors for social rejection. Mixed methods findings show rape survivors were seen as "contaminated" with HIV, contributing to their isolation and over 95% could not access prophylactic care in time. Receiving support from their husbands after rape was protective against survivors' feelings of shame and social isolation. Interpretation Rape results not only in physical and psychological trauma, but can destroy family and community structures. Women face significant obstacles in seeking services after rape. Interventions offering long-term solutions for hyper-vulnerable women are vital, but lacking; reintegration programs on SGBV for women, men, and communities are also needed.

  14. Facing medical care problems of victims of sexual violence in Goma/Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

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    Dünser Martin W

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1998, the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo has been torn by a military conflict. A particular atrocity of the war is widespread sexual violence. Methods In this combined retrospective analysis and prospective survey, we sought to identify hospital facilities and resources available to treat victims of sexual violence in Goma, the capital city of the North Kivu province. Results Of twenty-three acute care hospitals registered in the area of Goma, four (17% regularly cared for victims of sexual violence. One hospital had all resources always available to appropriately care for victims of sexual violence. From Jan 2009 until Oct 2010, 7,048 females sought medical care because of physical or psychological sequelae from sexual violence in the four hospitals of Goma. Only half of the hospitals had physicians specialized in gynaecology or gynaecological surgery available. Similarly, anaesthetists and psychiatrists/psychologists were available in two (50% and one (25% hospital, respectively. Post-discharge care facilities, material resources, such as surgical and anaesthesiological equipment and drugs, were inconsistently available in the hospitals caring for sexually abused females. At one selected hospital, acyclovir and/or antibiotics were administered to 1,202 sexually abused females (89.5%, whereas post-exposure HIV prophylaxis and surgery because of vesico-vaginal fistula was provided to only 75 (5.6% and 121 (9% patients, respectively. Conclusions This study provides data that only few hospitals in Goma care for victims of sexual violence. In addition, these hospitals suffer from a relevant shortage of human and material resources to provide adequate care for sexually abused females. Aside from establishment of adequate protection strategies, steps must be taken to increase the availability of trained health care professionals and resources to provide adequate care for victims of sexual violence in Goma and the

  15. United Nations-Led Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    the disarmament, demobilization, repatriation, reintegration and resettlement (DDRRR) of foreign armed groups. Although there has been some success ... success of the reintegration of ex-combatants, and cast doubt on the viability of DDR as a tool for achieving peace in the eastern DRC. Scholars and...Broadcasting, 2009). 10 Shane R Doolan, “Coercive Disarmament Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) can it be Successful ?” (MA thesis, Naval Postgraduate

  16. Family and community rejection and a Congolese led mediation intervention to reintegrate rejected survivors of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Tosha, Maphie; Ramazani, Paul; Safari, Octave; Bachunguye, Richard; Zahiga, Isaya; Iragi, Aline; Glass, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in this study is to describe the multiple and inter-related health, economic, and social reasons for rejection and to provide an example of a Congolese-led family mediation program to reintegrate survivors into their families. We conducted this study in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and included two focus group discussions and twenty-seven interviews. Rejection extends beyond physical dislocation to include economic and social aspects. Family mediation is a process requiring knowledge of traditions and norms. Understanding the context of rejection and supporting promising local reintegration efforts will likely improve health, economic, and social outcomes for the survivor, her family, and her community.

  17. Surgical care for the direct and indirect victims of violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Nathan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of surgical assistance in conflict is often associated with care for victims of violence. However, there is an increasing appreciation that surgical care is needed for non-traumatic morbidities. In this paper we report on surgical interventions carried out by Médecins sans Frontières in Masisi, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo to contribute to the scarce evidence base on surgical needs in conflict. Methods We analysed data on all surgical interventions done at Masisi district hospital between September 2007 and December 2009. Types of interventions are described, and logistic regression used to model associations with violence-related injury. Results 2869 operations were performed on 2441 patients. Obstetric emergencies accounted for over half (675, 57% of all surgical pathology and infections for another quarter (160, 14%. Trauma-related injuries accounted for only one quarter (681, 24% of all interventions; among these, 363 (13% were violence-related. Male gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 20.0, p Conclusions In this study, most surgical interventions were unrelated to violent trauma and rather reflected the general surgical needs of a low-income tropical country. Programs in conflict zones in low-income countries need to be prepared to treat both the war-wounded and non-trauma related life-threatening surgical needs of the general population. Given the limited surgical workforce in these areas, training of local staff and task shifting is recommended to support broad availability of essential surgical care. Further studies into the surgical needs of the population are warranted, including population-based surveys, to improve program planning and resource allocation and the effectiveness of the humanitarian response.

  18. Patterns of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: reports from survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipton Robert I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the signing of international peace agreements, a deadly war continues in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC and sexual violence is a prominent modus operandi of many military groups operating in the region. Methods Retrospective cohort study of women who presented to Panzi Hospital in 2006 requesting post-sexual violence care. Data was extracted and analyzed to describe the patterns of sexual violence. Results A total of 1,021 medical records were reviewed. A majority of attacks occurred in individual homes (56.5%, with the fields (18.4% and the forest (14.3% also being frequent locations of attack. In total, 58.9% of all attacks occurred at night. Of the four primary types of sexual violence, gang rape predominated (59.3% and rape Not Otherwise Specified (NOS was also common (21.5%. Sexual slavery was described by 4.9% of the survivors and a combination of gang rape and sexual slavery was described by 11.7%. The mean number of assailants per attack was 2.5 with a range of one to > 15. There were several demographic predictors for sexual slavery. Controlling for age, education level and occupation, a marital status of "single" increased the risk of sexual slavery (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.12-7.85. Similarly, after controlling for other variables, age was a significant predictor of sexual slavery with older women being at a slightly reduced risk (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99. Women who experienced sexual slavery were 37 times more likely to have a resultant pregnancy in comparison to those who reported other types of sexual violence (OR = 37.50, 95% CI = 14.57-99.33. Conclusions Among sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006, the majority of attacks occurred in women's own homes, often at night. This represents a pattern of violence that differs from other conflict settings and has important implications regarding protection strategies. Sexual violence in South Kivu was also marked with a

  19. Effective community-based protection programming: lessons from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Nunn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxfam’s work with local communities in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has prompted the organisation to develop guidance for themselves and for others working in similar situations.

  20. A Congolese-US participatory action research partnership to rebuild the lives of rape survivors and their families in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Ramazani, Paul; Tosha, Mafille; Mpanano, Mitima; Cinyabuguma, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) remains an all-too-potent reminder of how war, human rights violations and their related health and economic impacts can devastate a society. The last decade has seen the use of rape as a weapon of war in the DRC, where rebels and soldiers subject women and girls to brutalising attacks, rape, torture and mutilation. Survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) are often further traumatised by infections, disease, poverty, stigma and social isolation. Substantial evidence exists showing an association between social determinants (e.g., poverty, stress and trauma, stigma, lack of access to health care) and health; however, limited research has been conducted to elucidate these relationships or to develop and test interventions to change social determinants of health, especially in conflict and post-conflict settings such as the DRC. The purpose of this article is to present a Congolese-US community-academic research partnership to obtain evidence to develop and implement a sustainable intervention to begin to address the social determinants of health, including poverty and traumatic stress for survivors of SGBV and their families in the South Kivu province of eastern DRC.

  1. A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John

    2014-07-01

    Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398.

  2. Democratic Republic of Congo A Fertile Ground for Instability in the Great Lakes Region States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO-A FERTILE GROUND FOR INSTABILITY IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION STATES A thesis presented to the Faculty of...From - To) AUG 2016 – JUNE 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Democratic Republic of Congo-A Fertile Ground for Instability in the Great Lakes Region ...caused instability and chaos in the eastern provinces of the Congo, known as the Great Lakes Region . The DRC holds a strategic geographical position

  3. A molecular phylogeny of Equatorial African Lacertidae, with the description of a new genus and species from eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

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    Greenbaum, Eli; Villanueva, Cesar O.; Kusamba, Chifundera; Aristote, Mwenebatu M.; Branch, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, four species of the lacertid lizard genus Adolfus are known from Central and East Africa. We sequenced up to 2,825 bp of two mitochondrial (16S and cyt b) and two nuclear (c-mos and RAG1) genes from 41 samples of Adolfus (representing every species), two species each of Gastropholis and Holaspis, and in separate analyses combined this data with GenBank sequences of all other Eremiadini genera and four Lacertini outgroups. Data from DNA sequences were analyzed with maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum-likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) criteria. Results demonstrated that Adolfus is not monophyletic: A. africanus (type species), A. alleni and A. jacksoni are sister taxa, whereas A. vauereselli and a new species from the Itombwe Plateau of Democratic Republic of the Congo are in a separate lineage. Holaspis and Gastropholis were recovered in separate clades. Based on this molecular data, relatively substantial sequence divergence and multiple morphological differences, we describe a new genus of lacertid for the lineage including A. vauereselli and the new Itombwe species. The recognition of this new, endemic genus underscores the conservation importance of the Albertine Rift, especially the Itombwe Plateau, a unique region that is severely threatened by unchecked deforestation, mining and poaching. PMID:22121299

  4. Religious Networks in Post-conflict Democratic Republic of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religious Networks in Post-conflict Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Prognosis. ... The role of religion and religious networks in public life is gaining increasing attention in contemporary social science discourses against ... Article Metrics.

  5. Obesity and diabetes mellitus association in rural community of Katana, South Kivu, in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: Bukavu Observ Cohort Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchunga, Philippe Bianga; Cikomola, Justin; Tshongo, Christian; Baleke, Arsene; Kaishusha, David; Mirindi, Patrick; Tamburhe, Théodore; Kluyskens, Yves; Sadiki, Antoine; Bwanamudogo, Socrate; Kashongwe, Zacharie; Twagirumukiza, Marc

    2016-11-11

    Factual data exploring the relationship between obesity and diabetes mellitus prevalence from rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa remain scattered and are unreliable. To address this scarceness, this work reports population study data describing the relationship between the obesity and the diabetes mellitus in the general population of the rural area of Katana (South Kivu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo). A cohort of three thousand, nine hundred, and sixty-two (3962) adults (>15 years old) were followed between 2012 and 2015 (or 4105 person-years during the observation period), and data were collected using the locally adjusted World Health Organization's (WHO) STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS) methodology. The hazard ratio for progression of obesity was calculated. The association between diabetes mellitus and obesity was analyzed with logistic regression. The diabetes mellitus prevalence was 2.8 % versus 3.5 % for obese participants and 7.2 % for those with metabolic syndrome, respectively. Within the diabetes group, 26.9 % had above-normal waist circumference and only 9.8 % were obese. During the median follow-up period of 2 years, the incidence of obesity was 535/100,000 person-years. During the follow-up, the prevalence of abdominal obesity significantly increased by 23 % (p diabetes mellitus was independently associated with age, waist circumference, and blood pressure but not body mass index. This study confirms an association between diabetes mellitus and abdominal obesity but not with general obesity. On the other hand, the rapid increase in abdominal obesity prevalence in this rural area population within the follow-up period calls for the urgent promoting of preventive lifestyle measures.

  6. Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic Of Congo

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    P. Dorny

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium eggs, is a zoonotic disease whose consequences can be severe especially in the cerebral localisation (neuorcysticercosis. Indeed, neurocysticercosis is the first cause of epilepsy amongst the infectious etiology group. Following the increase of epilepsy cases in Kinshasa and Bas-Congo, it was important to assess the fraction attributable to neurocysticercosis especially as data on cysticercosis in Democratic Republic Of Congo (DRC dating from 1970.A joint study between veterinary and human doctors was conducted in the provinces of Bas-Congo and Kinshasa between 2008 and 2010. Blood samples were collected from the general population, patients with epilepsy and pigs. These samples were analysed using ELISA antigen in the laboratory of the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp. Patients positive to ELISA antigen took the CT scan exam for the confirmation of neurocysticercosis. In the province of Kinshasa, of 530 epileptic patients, 6.3% were identified as neurocysticercosis cases. Out of a total of 498 pigs, 38.9% were positive for cysticercosis. In the province of Bas- Congo, of 943 inhabitants from Malanga village, 21.6% were positive with predominance in males (26.4% versus 17.5%. A total of 145 pigs from 5 villages were examined and 41.2% found positive.We can conclude that cysticercosis in the DRC has been neglected for a long time and cysticercosis could be a real major public health problem. Prospective studies addressing the consequences of cysticercosis in communities are needed in order to prevent epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis.

  7. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

  8. Respondent-driven sampling to assess mental health outcomes, stigma and acceptance among women raising children born from sexual violence-related pregnancies in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jennifer; Rouhani, Shada; Greiner, Ashley; Albutt, Katherine; Kuwert, Philipp; Hacker, Michele R; VanRooyen, Michael; Bartels, Susan

    2015-04-08

    Assess mental health outcomes among women raising children from sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs) in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and stigma toward and acceptance of women and their children. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo in 2012. 757 adult women raising children from SVRPs were interviewed. A woman aged 18 and older was eligible for the study if she self-identified as a sexual violence survivor since the start of the conflict (∼1996), conceived an SVRP, delivered a liveborn child and was currently raising the child. A woman was ineligible for the study if the SVRP ended with a spontaneous abortion or fetal demise or the child was not currently living or in the care of the biological mother. Trained female Congolese interviewers verbally administered a quantitative survey after obtaining verbal informed consent. Symptom criteria for major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and suicidality were assessed, as well as stigma toward the woman and her child. Acceptance of the woman and child from the spouse, family and community were analysed. 48.6% met symptom criteria for major depressive disorder, 57.9% for post-traumatic stress disorder, 43.3% for anxiety and 34.2% reported suicidality. Women who reported stigma from the community (38.4%) or who reported stigma toward the child from the spouse (42.9%), family (31.8%) or community (38.1%) were significantly more likely to meet symptom criteria for most mental health disorders. Although not statistically significant, participants who reported acceptance and acceptance of their children from the spouse, family and community were less likely to meet symptom criteria. Women raising children from SVRPs experience symptoms of mental health disorders. Programming addressing stigma and acceptance following sexual violence may improve mental health outcomes in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  9. The Democratic People`s Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pae Sang Hak [Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Korea, Republic of). Inst. for Disarmament and Peace

    1996-12-31

    The attitude of the Democratic People`s Republic of Korea to the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTB) treaty is reviewed in the context of the denuclearization of the whole of North East Asia is stated in terms of strict adherence to disarmament and non-proliferation. The influence of Japanese and USA foreign policy on formulating these views is also considered. (UK).

  10. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of Congo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Liya

    2016-01-01

    At the invitation of Andre Kimbuta,mayor of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo,and Jean Marie Ewengue,mayor of Oyo city,Republic of Congo,a CPAFFC delegation led by Lin Yi,the group’s vice-president,visited the two countries from Sept 22 to 30.During the visit to the DRC,the delegation met with Edouard Mokolo

  11. Ethnic Struggle, Coexistence, and Democratization in Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Cianetti, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Struggle, Coexistence, and Democratization in Eastern Europe. By Sherrill Stroschein. Pp. 289. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2012. £60.00. Hardback. ISBN: 9781107005242. Click here to read the review

  12. The Democratic Republic of Congo: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    Seko began in the city of Goma in the mid-1990s. The second rebellion in the late 1990s began also in eastern Congo. The root causes of the current...Democratic Rally (RCD- Goma ), the Movement for the Congolese Liberation (MLC), and representatives of the unarmed political groups. The agreement...from the border until a solution is found. In January 2007, several dozen rebel groups and the DRC government signed the Goma Accord, primarily

  13. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Gabon, Republic of the Congo and Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Gabon-China Friendship Association (GCFA), the Congolese Association of Friendship Among the Peoples (CAFP) and the Mzee Laurent Desire Kabila Foundation of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku led a friendship delegation to visit the above three countries from September 20 to October 2, 2007. The delegation met with Prime Minister Jean Eye-ghe Ndong, Senate President Rene Radembino

  14. Republic of Moldova – the success story of the Eastern Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Rotaru

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The power change in Ukraine and the violent crackdown on the post electoral protestors in Belarus jeopardize the Eastern Partnership. The EU’s efforts to democratize and stabilize its eastern border could become more and more difficult if Brussels does not find quickly a solution to keep the six partners interested in its projects. This paper examines the latest challenges of the Eastern Partnership and the reasons why the Republic of Moldova could be the successful story the Eastern Partnership is seeking.

  15. Democratic Change in Central and Eastern Europe 1989-90

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the European Parliament’s archival documents (reports, resolutions and debates) undoubtedly demonstrates that the EP has been in the front-row when it comes to debating the events leading to democratic change in Central and Eastern European countries. Clearly voicing its concerns abo

  16. The bushmeat market in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie; Nebesse, Casimir; Gambalemoke, Sylvestre

    2012-01-01

    Given the important contribution of urban consumption in bushmeat trade, information on bushmeat sales in urban markets can provide valuable insights for understanding the dynamics of this trade and its implications for conservation and food security. We monitored bushmeat traded in the market...... bushmeat was one of the cheapest sources of protein available year-round, together with caterpillars, which were only available during the rainy season, and pork. Prices of other domestic meat were significantly higher. This study identified an increase in the market of highly threatened species...... of Kisangani (the provincial capital of the Province Orientale in the Democratic Republic of Congo) and compared data collected in surveys in 2002 and 2008–2009. In both periods more than two-thirds of the carcasses sold were of rodents and ungulates. From 2002 to 2008–2009 the number of carcasses increased...

  17. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary

    2016-01-01

    During July–November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  18. Current status of human taeniasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-04-01

    Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality.

  19. The state of emergency care in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Malemo Kalisya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC is the second largest country on the African continent with a population of over 70 million. It is also a major crossroad through Africa as it borders nine countries. Unfortunately, the DRC has experienced recurrent political and social instability throughout its history and active fighting is still prevalent today. At least two decades of conflict have devastated the civilian population and collapsed healthcare infrastructure. Life expectancy is low and government expenditure on health per capita remains one of the lowest in the world. Emergency Medicine has not been established as a specialty in the DRC. While the vast majority of hospitals have emergency rooms or salle des urgences, this designation has no agreed upon format and is rarely staffed by doctors or nurses trained in emergency care. Presenting complaints include general and obstetric surgical emergencies as well as respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses. Most patients present late, in advanced stages of disease or with extreme morbidity, so mortality is high. Epidemics include HIV, cholera, measles, meningitis and other diarrhoeal and respiratory illnesses. Lack of training, lack of equipment and fee-for-service are cited as barriers to care. Pre-hospital care is also not an established specialty. New initiatives to improve emergency care include training Congolese physicians in emergency medicine residencies and medic ranger training within national parks.

  20. Democratic People`s Republic of Korea LWR project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, J.B.

    1996-07-01

    In October 1994, at Geneva, the United States and the Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) signed an Agreed Framework as a first step toward resolving international concerns about nuclear activities in the DPRK. This Agreement, when implemented, will ultimately lead to the complete dismantlement of those aspects of the DPRK`s nuclear program, including reprocessing-related facilities, that have undermined the viability of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and the stability of the Asia-Pacific region. The essence of the Agreement is that the DPRK will take near-term action to cease the activities of concern and permit some International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) verification inspection. In the future, it will dismantle its production reactors and accept full-scope IAWA safeguards. In return, the United Stated agreed to lead an international effort to supply the DPRK with light-water reactors which are less of proliferation concern than are graphite-moderated production reactors. Until the first LWR is in operation the DPRK will receive shipments of heavy oil to replace the energy lost by shutting down the production reactors.

  1. [History of Medical Mycology in the former German Democratic Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, C; Blaschke-Hellmessen, Renate; Kielstein, P

    2002-01-01

    After the Second World War the development of medical mycology in Germany had taken a very different course in the east and west parts depending on the political division. In this respect our contribution deals with the situation in the former German Democratic Republic. Efficient mycological centres were founded step by step almost in all medical universities on the basis of the mycological laboratories in dermatological hospitals competent for diagnostic work, but also for teaching and scientific research. In this context biologists were the main stay of mycology, they finally were integrated to the same degree in the universities like physicians. The effectiveness of the Gesellschaft für Medizinische Mykologie der DDR (GMM), its board of directors and its working groups as well as the topics of human and animal mycology during this period are described. Especially the merger of the GMM with the Deutschsprachige Mykologische Gesellschaft after the reunification of Germany without problems and the kind co-operation of Prof. Dr. Johannes Müller during this procedure are emphasized.

  2. Ocular pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Sulyok

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ocular pentastomiasis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of pentastomids, an unusual group of crustacean-related parasites. Zoonotic pentastomids have a distinct geographical distribution and utilize reptiles or canids as final hosts. Recently, an increasing number of human abdominal infections have been reported in Africa, where pentastomiasis is an emerging, though severely neglected, tropical disease. Here we describe four ocular infections caused by pentastomids from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Two cases underwent surgery and an Armillifer grandis infection was detected by morphological and molecular approaches. Thus far, 15 other cases of ocular pentastomiasis have been reported worldwide. Twelve cases were caused by Armillifer sp., recorded almost exclusively in Africa, where such infections occur as a consequence of hunting and consuming snakes, their final hosts. Seven further cases were caused by Linguatula serrata, a cosmopolitan pentastomid whose final hosts are usually canids. Intraocular infections caused permanent visual damage in 69% and a total loss of vision in 31% of reported cases. In contrast, ocular adnexal cases had a benign clinical course. Further research is required to estimate the burden, therapeutic options and pathogenesis of this neglected disease.

  3. Diphtheria outbreak in Lao People's Democratic Republic, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Carolyn; Tiwari, Tejpratap; Macneil, Adam; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Soulaphy, Chanthavy; Souliphone, Phouthone; Reyburn, Rita; Ramirez Gonzalez, Alejandro; Watkins, Margaret; Goodson, James L

    2016-08-05

    Diphtheria is a vaccine-preventable disease. When vaccination coverage and population immunity are low, outbreaks can occur. We investigated a diphtheria outbreak in Lao People's Democratic Republic that occurred during 2012-2013 and highlighted challenges in immunization services delivery to children in the country. We reviewed diphtheria surveillance data from April 1, 2012-May 31, 2013. A diphtheria case was defined as a respiratory illness consisting of pharyngitis, tonsillitis, or laryngitis, and an adherent tonsillar or nasopharyngeal pseudomembrane. To identify potential risk factors for diphtheria, we conducted a retrospective case-control study with two aged-matched neighborhood controls per case-patient in Houaphan Province, using bivariate analysis to calculate matched odds ratio (mOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Reasons for non-vaccination among unvaccinated persons were assessed. Sixty-two clinical cases of diphtheria and 12 diphtheria-related deaths were reported in seven of 17 provinces. Among case-patients, 43 (69%) were diphtheria case-patients from Houaphan province and 79 matched-controls were enrolled. Five (12%) case-patients and 20 (25%) controls had received DTP3 (mOR=0.4, CI=0.1-1.7). No diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine was received by 20 (48%) case-patients and 38 (46%) controls. Among case-patients and controls with no DTP dose, 43% of case-patients and 40% of controls lacked access to routine immunization services. Suboptimal DTP3 coverage likely caused the outbreak. To prevent continued outbreaks, access to routine immunization services should be strengthened, outreach visits need to be increased, and missed opportunities need to be minimized. In the short term, to rapidly increase population immunity, three rounds of DTP immunization campaign should be completed, targeting children aged 0-14years in affected provinces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Civic education and religious education in the function of democratization of education in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemenović Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the socio-political context of changes that have affected the education systems of Eastern European countries, the authors summarize the specific nature of the process of democratization of education in Europe at the turn of the century. The paper analyzes the purpose of democratization of education and of introduction of Civic Education and Religious Education classes in the education system of the Republic of Serbia, observing the idea that education may serve as a generator of social changes, and stating that school is an important support pillar in promoting and accepting the values of the community, as well as in personal growth and the development of every individual. The presented theoretical concepts are supported by the summary of results of empirical studies that have been focused on the analysis of the pedagogical aspects of the implementation of teaching these subjects at the secondary level of education from the perspective of teachers, pupils and parents. Based on the insight into the topic, the authors suggest searching for a “common tangent” in Civic Education and Religious Education teaching process via an open and tolerant dialogue of participants of both subjects, which would enable the exchange of experiences, attitudes, and opinions of pupils, as well as coinciding and permeating of spiritual and democratic values as a foundation for further democratization of school in general. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179036: Pedagogical Pluralism as the Basis for Education Policy

  5. An outbreak of West Nile fever among migrants in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.A. Nur; J. Groen (Jan); H. Heuvelmans; W. Tuynman; C. Copra (Cederick); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn February 1998, an outbreak of acute febrile illness was reported from the Kapalata military camp in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of Congo. The illness was characterized by an acute onset of fever associated with severe headache, arthralgia, backache, neurologic

  6. An outbreak of West Nile fever among migrants in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.A. Nur; J. Groen (Jan); H. Heuvelmans; W. Tuynman; C. Copra (Cederick); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn February 1998, an outbreak of acute febrile illness was reported from the Kapalata military camp in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of Congo. The illness was characterized by an acute onset of fever associated with severe headache, arthralgia, backache, neurologic signs, abdominal

  7. The Role of Track Two Diplomacy in the Democratic Republic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the outbreak of the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), on 2 August 1998, ... quences of a military “solution”, governments in Africa and abroad urged all ... The role and impact of track two diplomacy in achieving a cease-fire was, .... Children and Greenpeace) in facilitating human security in the realm of.

  8. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Vibrio cholerae, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwanda, Berthe; Moore, Sandra; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kabangwa, Ickel Kakongo; Ndjakani, Daniel Yassa; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Thefenne, Helene; Garnotel, Eric; Tshapenda, Gaston; Kakongo, Denis Kandolo; Kalambayi, Guy; Piarroux, Renaud

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed 1,093 Vibrio cholerae isolates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo during 1997-2012 and found increasing antimicrobial drug resistance over time. Our study also demonstrated that the 2011-2012 epidemic was caused by an El Tor variant clonal complex with a single antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile.

  9. Scorpion envenomation in pygmies from Democratic Republic of Congo, the example of Pelenge Center, Lomela, DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Biezakala Mudiandambu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a survey among the pygmies of central Democratic Republic of Congo, the incidence of scorpion stings seemed very high with a severity greater than expected. Species responsible were not identified. Specific studies are needed to clarify the risk emerging in the equatorial African forest.

  10. Description and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duroch Françoise

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to conquer and destroy communities, but it is now unfortunately prevalent in times of relative calm. Methods We describe the characteristics and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province of Democratic Republic of Congo through the retrospective analysis of 2,565 patients who received medical care in the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence clinic in the capital of Ituri province, Bunia, between September 2005 and December 2006. Using a standardised questionnaire, we report patients' demographics, number and status of aggressor(s, forced detention and violent threats among other variables for all patients presenting for medical consultation after a sexually violent event during this period. Results Ninety-six percent of our cohort were female and 29.3% minors, 18-29 years was the most represented age group. Acts of sexual violence (n = 2,565 were reported to be mainly perpetrated by men with military affiliations (73%, although civilians were implicated in 21% of crimes. The attack was perpetrated by two or more persons in over 74% of cases and most commonly perpetrators were unknown armed males, (87.2%. Male victims accounted for 4% (n = 103 of our cohort. Forty-eight percent of our patients reported being attacked whilst performing daily domestic duties outside the home and 18% of victims being detained by their perpetrators, the majority of whom were held for less than 2 weeks (61.6%. Conclusions The characteristics of sexually violent acts in Ituri province during this period cannot be simply explained as a 'weapon of war' as described in the literature, meaning the use of sexual violence within a military strategy where it is employed under the orders of a commander to harm a particular community. Whilst the

  11. Description and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duroch, Françoise; McRae, Melissa; Grais, Rebecca F

    2011-04-19

    The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to conquer and destroy communities, but it is now unfortunately prevalent in times of relative calm. We describe the characteristics and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province of Democratic Republic of Congo through the retrospective analysis of 2,565 patients who received medical care in the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence clinic in the capital of Ituri province, Bunia, between September 2005 and December 2006. Using a standardised questionnaire, we report patients' demographics, number and status of aggressor(s), forced detention and violent threats among other variables for all patients presenting for medical consultation after a sexually violent event during this period. Ninety-six percent of our cohort were female and 29.3% minors, 18-29 years was the most represented age group. Acts of sexual violence (n = 2,565) were reported to be mainly perpetrated by men with military affiliations (73%), although civilians were implicated in 21% of crimes. The attack was perpetrated by two or more persons in over 74% of cases and most commonly perpetrators were unknown armed males, (87.2%). Male victims accounted for 4% (n = 103) of our cohort. Forty-eight percent of our patients reported being attacked whilst performing daily domestic duties outside the home and 18% of victims being detained by their perpetrators, the majority of whom were held for less than 2 weeks (61.6%). The characteristics of sexually violent acts in Ituri province during this period cannot be simply explained as a 'weapon of war' as described in the literature, meaning the use of sexual violence within a military strategy where it is employed under the orders of a commander to harm a particular community. Whilst the majority of aggressions were by armed men there was an

  12. Peoples Democratic Party in the Fourth Republic of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Mukhtar Katsina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Their nature and functions make political parties central to democratic governance especially in the new democracies of Africa that face the challenge of building strong and enduring democratic institutions. It is accepted that the existing trend in most of these democracies of one big party dominating the political space weakens democracy and undermines its prospects for consolidation. Big parties—usually the ruling ones—exhibit tendencies such as absence of internal democracy that are antithetical to democratic governance. While observations such as these are incontestable, there is little understanding into the nature, character, ideology, and internal structure of big parties generally. In this article, I attempt to address this concern. Specifically, I examine the nature, structure, and ideology of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP, Nigeria’s ruling party at the federal level with considerable strength at local level between 1999 and 2015. Relying on data obtained from multiple sources, I investigate the process of its formation, the nature of its ideology, internal organization, its electoral strength, and how absence of internal democracy contributed significantly to its defeat in 2015 general elections.

  13. Perceived ethical leadership in relation to employees’ organisational commitment in an organisation in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitonga-Monga, Jeremy; Cilliers, Frans

    2016-01-01

    ... quantitative survey approach was used, with a non-probability purposive sample of 839 employees from a railway organisation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The results indicate that ethical ...

  14. Rape as a weapon of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carly

    2012-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been appropriately acknowledged as "the rape capital of the world." While the country has been trapped in conflict, the use of rape as a weapon of war has been rampant and unyielding. The sexual violence inflicted upon women has been nothing less than brutal and destructive, physically, socially, and psychologically. This paper analyzes the use of rape as a weapon of war in the Congo, taking into context the ongoing war, cultural and social situations that facilitate its existence, and the many consequences the victims are forced to endure. Drawing information from various academic journals, articles, and field research from international organizations, this paper paints a concise picture of the sexual atrocities occurring in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

  15. FOOD CONSUMPTION AND PREFERENCES OF THE BONGANDO PEOPLE IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAGUCHI, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    People living in the Congo basin forest have developed a variety of ways to use natural resources. Thus, the increase in conservation projects must be accompanied by efforts to clarify the livelihood-related conditions of local people. This paper provided a detailed investigation of the utilization of natural resources by the Bongando people living in the great ape habitat of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Specifically, the paper examined food acquisition and consumption based on...

  16. Fatal Chromobacterium violaceum bacteraemia in rural Bandundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bottieau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the first case of bacteraemia caused by Chromobacterium violaceum in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This diagnosis was made in an apparently healthy adult who was admitted to a rural hospital of the province of Bandundu with severe community-acquired sepsis. The patient developed multi-organ failure and died; to our knowledge, this is the first reported fatal case in an adult in Africa.

  17. TABOO OF EATING BONOBO AMONG THE BONGANDO PEOPLE IN THE WAMBA REGION, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

    OpenAIRE

    Lingomo, Bongoli; Kimura, Daiji

    2009-01-01

    Among the Bongando, an ethnic group living in and around the village of Wamba, a well-known base for research on the bonobo (Pan paniscus) in the Democratic Republic of Congo, it has traditionally been taboo to eat bonobo. In Bongando folk taxonomy, bonobos are categorized not as animals, but as human beings. The resemblance of bonobo bodily characteristics and behaviors to those of humans is the main reason for this categorization. While this recognition has helped in the conservation of thi...

  18. Referral hospitals in the Democratic Republic of Congo as complex adaptive systems: similar program, different dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karemere, Hermès; Ribesse, Nathalie; Kahindo, Jean-Bosco; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    In many African countries, first referral hospitals received little attention from development agencies until recently. We report the evolution of two of them in an unstable region like Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo when receiving the support from development aid program. Specifically, we aimed at studying how actors' network and institutional framework evolved over time and what could matter the most when looking at their performance in such an environment. We performed two cases studies between 2006 and 2010. We used multiple sources of data: reports to document events; health information system for hospital services production, and "key-informants" interviews to interpret the relation between interventions and services production. Our analysis was inspired from complex adaptive system theory. It started from the analysis of events implementation, to explore interaction process between the main agents in each hospital, and the consequence it could have on hospital health services production. This led to the development of new theoretical propositions. Two events implemented in the frame of the development aid program were identified by most of the key-informants interviewed as having the greatest impact on hospital performance: the development of a hospital plan and the performance based financing. They resulted in contrasting interaction process between the main agents between the two hospitals. Two groups of services production were reviewed: consultation at outpatient department and admissions, and surgery. The evolution of both groups of services production were different between both hospitals. By studying two first referral hospitals through the lens of a Complex Adaptive System, their performance in a context of development aid takes a different meaning. Success is not only measured through increased hospital production but through meaningful process of hospital agents'" network adaptation. Expected process is not necessarily a change; strengthened

  19. Target Gutahuka: The UN’s Strategic Information Intervention in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Udo-Udo Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nature and impacts of two information intervention radio programmes broadcast on Radio Okapi—the radio service of the UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A matched randomization technique was used to assign Rwandan Hutus and Congolese autochthons in South Kivu to listen to either of the two programmes within their naturalistic contexts for 13 months. At the end of the treatment, participants’ perceptions of barriers to peace; descriptive and prescriptive interventions; victimhood and villainity; opportunities for personal development and civic engagement; and knowledge of repatriation processes were assessed in 16 focus groups across four contexts. The study concludes that international media intervention programmes that provide robust information and a platform for objective analyses within a multiple narrative and participatory framework can enhance greater engagement with nascent democratic reforms, positive perception of long term opportunities for personal development and empathy with the ethnic Other.

  20. First Order Dominance Analysis: Child Wellbeing in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanivazo, Malokele

    This paper performs a multidimensional first order dominance analysis of child wellbeing in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This methodology allows the ordinal ranking of the 11 provinces of the DRC in terms of their wellbeing based upon the probability of their domination. This empirical application obviates the need to adopt a weighting scheme for the deprivation indicators or to rely on the signs of other cross-derivatives for comparison. We execute a bootstrap linear programming algorithm on seven deprivation indicators for three age groups of children derived from the DRC 2007 Standard Demographic and Health Survey. The results reveal widespread disparities in child wellbeing in the DRC.

  1. Basic characteristics of the pollution laws and pollution regulations of the German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammich, S.

    1987-02-02

    The paper abstracted informs about the basic principles characterizing the pollution laws and pollution regulations of the German Democratic Republic. The author deals with the constitutional principles, the National Culture Law valid since 1970 and conceived as a general pollution law, the planning of pollution abatement, legal aspects of water pollution abatement, air pollution abatement, waste management, noise pollution abatement and radiation protection. Particular emphasis is on the legal sanctions devised to ensure the observance of environmental laws and restrictions which are both part of the administrative, civil and economic laws and of the disciplinary and criminal laws. (HSCH).

  2. Rape as a strategy of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukwege, Denis Mukengere; Mohamed-Ahmed, Olaa; Fitchett, Joseph R

    2010-09-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is tremendously wealthy. Abundant in gold, diamonds, tantalum, tin, copper, zinc and cobalt, the natural resources in Africa's third largest country are not equally benefiting the people. The DRC should sustainably be making use of their natural resources to develop the country, whose health, education and transport systems all suffer to this day from the effects of conflict. Instead, the DRC is divided with rebels, corrupt governments and foreign investors all fighting in one way or another for control over the country's wealth. The following article focuses on the emergence of rape as a strategy of war in the DRC.

  3. Comparing the Performance of Faith-Based and Government Schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Backiny-Yetna, Prospere; Wodon, Quentin

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative assessment of the market share, reach to the poor, and performance of faith-based and public schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo using data from the 2004-2005 "123" survey. More than two thirds of primary school students attend faith-based government-assisted schools. Both types of school cater to a similar population that is overwhelmingly poor. Faith-based schools perform slightly better at least in some dimensions than government schools, but the d...

  4. Comparing the Performance of Faith-Based and Government Schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Backiny-Yetna, Prospere; Wodon, Quentin

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative assessment of the market share, reach to the poor, and performance of faith-based and public schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo using data from the 2004-2005 "123" survey. More than two thirds of primary school students attend faith-based government-assisted schools. Both types of school cater to a similar population that is overwhelmingly poor. Faith-based schools perform slightly better at least in some dimensions than government schools, but the ...

  5. [Shock therapy and psychosurgery in the early German Democratic Republic (GDR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzesnitzek, L

    2015-11-01

    Patient files, textbooks and published articles of the time show that the wide range of psychiatric therapies of the 1950s and 1960s was also used in the early German Democratic Republic (GDR). The use of insulin coma therapy, cardiazol and electroconvulsive therapies and especially of leucotomy in the GDR must not only be seen in the context of the international development and debate concerning these therapies up to the introduction of psychopharmaceutic therapy but also, in a similar way as in the Federal Republic of Germany, in relation to the locally sometimes different availability of insulin and cardiazol in the post-war period, different schools of academic thought and scientific research interest and priorities of the clinics concerned.

  6. Antibiotic prescription behaviours in Lao People's Democratic Republic: a knowledge, attitude and practice survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quet, Fabrice; Vlieghe, Erika; Leyer, Caroline; Buisson, Yves; Newton, Paul N; Naphayvong, Philaysak; Keoluangkhot, Valy; Chomarat, Monique; Longuet, Christophe; Steenkeste, Nicolas; Jacobs, Jan

    2015-04-01

    To assess the antibiotic prescribing practices of doctors working in the Lao People's Democratic Republic and their knowledge of local antibiotic resistance patterns. Doctors attending morning meetings in 25 public hospitals in four provinces were asked to complete a knowledge, attitude and practice survey. The questionnaire contained 43 multiple choice questions that the doctor answered at the time of the meeting. The response rate was 83.4% (386/463). Two hundred and seventy doctors (59.8%) declared that they had insufficient information about antibiotics. Only 14.0% (54/386) recognized the possibility of cephalosporin cross-resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Most participants had no information about local antibiotic resistance for Salmonella Typhi (211/385, 54.8%) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (253/384, 65.9%). Unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions were considered as harmless by 115 participants and 148 considered locally-available generic antibiotics to be of poor quality. Nearly three-quarters (280/386) of participants agreed that it was difficult to select the correct antibiotics. Most participants (373/386) welcomed educational programmes on antibiotic prescribing and 65.0% (249/383) preferred local over international antibiotic guidelines. Doctors in the Lao People's Democratic Republic seem to favour antibiotic prescribing interventions. Health authorities should consider a capacity building programme that incorporates antibiotic prescribing and hospital infection control.

  7. Retinoblastoma in the Democratic Republic of Congo: 20-Year Review from a Tertiary Hospital in Kinshasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Kazadi Lukusa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine clinical profile and management of retinoblastoma among children at Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of Congo. Patients and methods. The medical records of patients with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma seen at the University Hospital of Kinshasa from January 1985 till December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic profile, clinical data, modes of treatment and outcome were analysed. Results. A total of 49 children, of whom 40 had adequate data on record were identified as retinoblastoma (28 males and 12 females. Nine cases had bilateral disease. The median age at the first symptoms was 9 months (range, 1 month to 6 years for unilateral retinoblastoma and 18 months (range, 1 month to 3.5 years for bilateral retinoblastoma. The median age at the first oncology consultation was 2.4 years (range, 6 months to 6 years for unilateral retinoblastoma and 2.4years (range, 9 months to 4 years for bilateral disease. Leukokoria was present in 67.5% of subjects. Seventy-five percent abandoned the treatment. The mortality was 92.5%. Conclusion. In Democratic Republic of Congo, retinoblastoma remains a life threatening disease characterized by late referral to a specialized unit and affordability of chemotherapy; all leading to an extension of the disease and high mortality.

  8. High prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella species in rats and fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laudisoit, A.; Falay, D.; Amundala, N.; de Bellock, J.G.; van Houtte, N.; Breno, M.; Verheven, E.; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, P.; Raoult, D.; C., Socolovschi

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the co

  9. Power Holders and Social Dynamics of Participatory Development and Reconstruction: Cases from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyamusugulwa, P.M.; Hilhorst, D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges of participatory development and reconstruction programs is how and where to engage with power holders. This paper analyses the dynamics of power relations within a community-driven reconstruction program in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It shows that, in some circumstances

  10. Redescriptions of three species of freshwater crabs from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Central Africa (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Potamonautidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberlidge, Neil

    2015-06-16

    The taxonomy of three species of freshwater crabs from the Upper Congo River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Potamonautes congoensis (Rathbun, 1921), P. langi (Rathbun, 1921), and P. stanleyensis (Rathbun, 1921), is revised based on examination of the holotypes. Updated diagnoses, illustrations, and distribution maps are provided for these species, and their conservation status is discussed.

  11. People's Democratic Republic of Yemen - energy situation 1987/88. Demokratische Volksrepublik Jemen - Energiewirtschaft 1987/88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The energy situation of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA).

  12. [Socioeconomic impact of armed conflict on the health of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omba Kalonda, J C

    2011-04-01

    Since 1996, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been the theatre of armed conflict. More than 5.4 millions have died and 500,000 to 1,000,000 women have been raped. As a result of permanent insecurity including frequent massacres, burning of villages and plundering of personal property and crops, millions of Congolese people especially in eastern regions have been displaced with around 1.3 million in internal refugee camps. Rural populations have abandoned farming that was the main source of employment, food, and income. The purpose of this paper is to describe the socioeconomic impact of this armed conflict particularly on the health of women and children. Consequences include i) decreased food production, ii) worsening food insecurity and malnutrition, iii) reduced household income, and iv) inadequate health care leading to epidemic outbreaks of diseases such as cholera, measles, and meningitis. Food insecurity and poverty affect around 70% of the population. Chronic malnutrition and growth retardation affect 38% of children. The mortality rate for children under 5 has reached 205 per 1000 live births. Other than achieving lasting peace that is a prerequisite for development in the DRC, the main priority must be to provide victims with multiform assistance aimed at restarting the economy and ensuring food self-sufficiency, thereby reducing both malnutrition and child mortality. Better access to healthcare and to psychosocial, medical, and legal services is also needed for rape victims.

  13. Rape in Armed Conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabengele Mpinga, Emmanuel; Koya, Mapendo; Hasselgard-Rowe, Jennifer; Jeannot, Emilien; Rehani, Sylvie B; Chastonay, Philippe

    2016-05-19

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature between 1996 and 2013 on rape in war-ridden Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in order to better understand the interest of the scientific community in describing the magnitude and characteristics of the problem. The literature search was conducted in French and English using several databases (Pubmed, PsycInfo, Sapphire, BDSP, Embase, Rero, and Web of Science) with the key words "rape and DRC" combined with several Medical Subject Headings concepts. Our systematic review yielded 2,087 references, among which only 27 are original studies, that is 20 are based on population surveys and the remaining 7 are original data based on case studies and reviews. Ten studies provided prevalence rates of rape victims, 18 provided specific information on the profile of the victims, 10 reported that most of the perpetrators of rape were military personnel, 14 referred to the negligence of the government in protecting victims, and 10 reported a lack of competent health-care facilities. The awareness of rape in conflict-ridden DRC is still limited as reported in the scientific literature: Published scientific papers are scarce. Yet more research would probably help mobilize local authorities and the international community against this basic human rights violation.

  14. [Knowledge of the general population about hypertension and diabetes mellitus in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchunga, P B; Malanda, B; Mweze, M C; Dupont, B; M'Buyamba-Kabangu, J R; Kashongwe, Z; Kabinda, J M; Buysschaert, M

    2012-04-01

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a country in a post-conflict period, high priority cannot be given to non-communicable diseases other than to emergencies. This certainly involves inadequacy in raising awareness for prevention of these diseases. To evaluate the level of knowledge of the Congolese general population on hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Responses to a questionnaire from 3% of the general population aged 15 and older in the city of Bukavu and two rural areas: Hombo and Walungu (South Kivu, eastern DRC), recruited after stratification by ward in the city of Bukavu and a group of prone villages were expected. The questions focused on identification, testing, causes, complications and treatment of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Of the 7770 respondents, screening for hypertension and diabetes mellitus affected only 14.9% and 7.3% of subjects respectively. Knowledge of these two conditions was generally low in the general population, although better in the subgroups of patients and those with higher socioeconomic level (Pknowledge (Pknowledge about hypertension and diabetes mellitus and their testing in South Kivu is low. It is imperative that the Congolese government includes non-communicable diseases in its priorities of the millennium. Similarly, the WHO should actively contribute to screening for them in low-income countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Attitudes Toward Sexual Violence Survivors: Differences Across Professional Sectors in Kenya and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsian, Hope; Kelly, Scott; Burner, Mary; Anastario, Mike; Gohlke, Grace; Mishori, Ranit; McHale, Thomas; Naimer, Karen

    2016-03-27

    Sexual violence survivors who decide to report their assault interact with health care, law enforcement, and legal and judicial professionals. Professionals' attitudes about sexual violence and survivors play an important role in caring for survivors and in the pursuit of justice. Despite evidence showing the relationship between service provider beliefs and survivor outcomes, relatively little is known about professionals' beliefs about sexual violence or their attitudes toward sexual violence survivors. Between June 2012 and December 2014, our study examined the beliefs and attitudes of 181 professionals from the health care, legal, and law enforcement sectors in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the Rift Valley region of Kenya, areas with a high prevalence of sexual violence. To determine correlates of beliefs and attitudes about sexual violence and sexual violence survivors, multiple logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic and occupational characteristics. Respondents who agreed that survivors got what they deserved (7%) or that survivors should feel ashamed (9%) were the minority, while those who would be willing to care for a family member with a history of sexual violence (94%) were the majority. Profession was significantly associated with beliefs and attitudes about sexual violence and survivors. Law enforcement professionals were more likely than health professionals and lawyers to indicate that survivors should feel ashamed. Our findings suggest a need for interventions that adequately address potentially harmful beliefs and attitudes of some professionals serving sexual violence survivors.

  16. Filarial antigenemia and Loa loa night blood microfilaremia in an area without bancroftian filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakajika, Didier K; Nigo, Maurice M; Lotsima, Jean Pierre; Masikini, Germain A; Fischer, Kerstin; Lloyd, Melanie M; Weil, Gary J; Fischer, Peter U

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of incomplete mapping and coendemic loiasis. We mapped two regions in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that were suspected to have LF. Night blood samples were collected from 2,724 subjects in 30 villages. Filarial antigenemia rates by card test exceeded 1% in 28 villages (range = 0-14%). Prevalence rates for large sheathed microfilariae (Mf) ranged from 4% to 40%; Mansonella perstans rates ranged from 22% to 98%. Large Mf were exclusively Loa loa by microscopy, and only 1 of 337 samples tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was positive for Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Filarial antigen positivity was strongly associated with high L. loa Mf counts. Periodicity studies revealed atypical patterns, with no significant diurnal periodicity in some individuals. Thus, methods routinely used for LF mapping may not be reliable in areas in central Africa that are highly endemic for loiasis. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Persistence of high fertility in tropical Africa: the case of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Anatole

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how geography, history, and society have shaped childbearing behaviors over the last half-century, and how they are now being reshaped by modernity and the exigencies of urban life, in the democratic Republic of the Congo. The decline of prolonged postpartum abstinence and involuntary childlessness initially raised fertility to high levels (6–7 children per woman). More recently, socioeconomic differentials in fertility have emerged, suggesting that the country may be entering a phase of fertility decline. A full-blown transition, however, seems still a remote prospect. Supported both by cultural traditions and by economic rationality, Congo's people remain largely convinced of the benefits of many children for their own and their kin's security. While an eventual fertility transition may be taken for granted, the article examines the many hurdles, contradictions, and tensions that will have to be overcome to achieve that outcome.

  18. Khub traditions in Northern Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Conservation and transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dome Swangarom

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research was conducted in three Northern provinces of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic with the aim of investigating the traditional art of khub music and its conservation and inheritance. Data were collected from documents and field research using interviews, observation and focus group discussions as data collection tools. The results show that Morkhub, musicians, teachers, students and audiences all contribute to the success or failure of conservation and inheritance of traditional Laotian music. The majority of problems with conservation stem from a lack of interest and the dilution of local culture with modern Western influences. As a result of this investigation, a four-point plan was proposed to standardize and support future conservation of khub traditions by inclusion in the education system.

  19. Diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection with Handheld Microscopy in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Sayasone, Somphou; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Meister, Isabel; Utzinger, Jürg; Odermatt, Peter; Andrews, Jason R; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease, yet it is of considerable public health importance in Southeast Asia given the predilection for chronically infected persons to develop cholangiocarcinoma. We evaluated a handheld microscope for the diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini in a community-based setting in Lao People's Democratic Republic in comparison with conventional light microscopy. In stool samples collected from 104 individuals, handheld microscopy revealed a sensitivity of 70.6% and a specificity of 89.5% for O. viverrini infection. Pearson's correlation for quantitative fecal egg counts between the two devices was 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.98-0.99). With small adjustments to further increase diagnostic sensitivity, a handheld microscope may become a helpful tool to screen for O. viverrini and other helminth infections in public health settings.

  20. Human monkeypox -- Kasai Oriental, Democratic Republic of Congo, February 1996-October 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-12

    Human monkeypox is a severe smallpox-like illness caused by monkeypox virus (MPV); monkeypox occurs in sporadic outbreaks, and infection is enzootic among squirrels and monkeys in the rainforests of western and central Africa. In 1996, cases of monkeypox were reported from villages in the Katako-Kombe Health Zone, Kasai Oriental, Zaire (i.e., Democratic Republic of Congo). The World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, investigated this outbreak and identified 92 suspected cases with onset during February 1996-February 1997, and isolated MPV from lesions of active cases. Cases continued to be reported, and a new investigation was initiated by WHO and CDC in October 1997. This report summarizes the results of the field investigation, which indicate that this is the largest human monkeypox outbreak ever recorded.

  1. Bushmeat consumption among rural and urban children from Province Orientale, Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie; Nebesse, Casimir; Nasi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    of other meat (from the wild, such as fish and caterpillars, or from domestic sources, such as beef, chicken, pork, goat and mutton) among children from Province Orientale, Democratic Republic of Congo. Our results show that urban and rural households consume more meat from the wild than from domestic...... sources. Of the various types of wild meat, bushmeat and fish are the most frequently consumed by children from Kisangani and fish is the most frequently consumed in villages. Poorer urban households eat meat less frequently but consume bushmeat more frequently than wealthier households. In urban areas...... monkeys), probably because rural households tend to consume the less marketable species or the smaller animals. We show that despite the tendency towards more urbanized population profiles and increased livelihood opportunities away from forest and farms, wildlife harvest remains a critical component...

  2. Visualizing Armed Groups: The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s M23 in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Nangini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New information technologies can help unpack the relationships and tendencies that persist in complex networks. We present an interactive, web-based visualization that captures interlocking networks related to the Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23 rebel group in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC to demonstrate the utility of visually summarizing relationships in a multi-dimensional dataset. We draw exclusively from the findings the UN Group of Governmental Experts report S/2012/843 documenting the procurement of weapons and ammunition by the M23 network. The visualization was built using a hierarchical edge bundling algorithm (Holten 2006 implemented in Data-Driven Documents (d3 (Bostock 2011, an open-source JavaScript-based library for interactive web visualizations. We contend that such visualizations can provide improved understanding of complex social networks both within and beyond the confines of war.

  3. Search for the Ebola virus reservoir in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Mills, James N.; Krebs, John W.

    1999-01-01

    A 3-month ecologic investigation was done to identify the reservoir of Ebola virus following the 1995 outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Efforts focused on the fields where the putative primary case had worked but included other habitats near Kikwit, Samples were collected from...... 3066 vertebrates and tested for the presence of antibodies to Ebola (subtype Zaire) virus: All tests were negative, and attempts to isolate Ebola virus were unsuccessful. The investigation was hampered by a lack of information beyond the daily activities of the primary case, a lack of information...... on Ebola virus ecology, which precluded the detailed study of select groups of animals, and sample-size limitations for rare species, The epidemiology of Ebola hemorrhagic fever suggests that humans have only intermittent contact with the virus, which complicates selection of target species. Further study...

  4. Seasonal hematocrit variation and health risks in the adult population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Makena Hightower

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available C Makena Hightower1, Joyce D Hightower2, Beatriz Y Salazar Vázquez1,3, Marcos Intaglietta11Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; 2Group de Reflection, Actions et Etude de Culture, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 3Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Durango, Durango, MéxicoAbstract: Hematocrit (Hct as an indicator of blood viscosity and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP were assessed according to the season in adult participants of health screenings conducted throughout Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Data was collected at the end of summer (April and the end of winter (August and identified by gender. Male Hcts in August were significantly higher (P < 0.0001 than in April (48.3% ± 4.2% and 45.7% ± 2.3%, respectively while male MAP (85.0 ± 8.4 mm Hg was identical to that recorded in April (85.4 ± 7.7 mm Hg. August female Hcts (41.4% ± 3.1% were statistically higher than those recorded in April (39.6% ± 1.9%, P = 0.001, MAP being 82.3 ± 7.3 vs 87.9 ± 6.6 mm Hg, respectively (P = 0.0001. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, body mass indices, ages, and personal and familial medical histories of the August and April groups were not significantly different. This study offers further support for the assertion that the relationship between blood viscosity and pressure of a healthy population shows that increased Hct, and therefore increased blood viscosity is associated with lowered MAP, and presumably peripheral vascular resistance.Keywords: blood pressure, African adults, blood viscosity, cardiovascular, shear stress

  5. Water supply interruptions and suspected cholera incidence: a time-series regression in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandron, Aurélie; Saidi, Jaime Mufitini; Kapama, Alois; Burhole, Manu; Birembano, Freddy; Vandevelde, Thierry; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2015-10-01

    The eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been identified as endemic areas for cholera transmission, and despite continuous control efforts, they continue to experience regular cholera outbreaks that occasionally spread to the rest of the country. In a region where access to improved water sources is particularly poor, the question of which improvements in water access should be prioritized to address cholera transmission remains unresolved. This study aimed at investigating the temporal association between water supply interruptions and Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC) admissions in a medium-sized town. Time-series patterns of daily incidence of suspected cholera cases admitted to the Cholera Treatment Centre in Uvira in South Kivu Province between 2009 and 2014 were examined in relation to the daily variations in volume of water supplied by the town water treatment plant. Quasi-poisson regression and distributed lag nonlinear models up to 12 d were used, adjusting for daily precipitation rates, day of the week, and seasonal variations. A total of 5,745 patients over 5 y of age with acute watery diarrhoea symptoms were admitted to the CTC over the study period of 1,946 d. Following a day without tap water supply, the suspected cholera incidence rate increased on average by 155% over the next 12 d, corresponding to a rate ratio of 2.55 (95% CI: 1.54-4.24), compared to the incidence experienced after a day with optimal production (defined as the 95th percentile-4,794 m3). Suspected cholera cases attributable to a suboptimal tap water supply reached 23.2% of total admissions (95% CI 11.4%-33.2%). Although generally reporting less admissions to the CTC, neighbourhoods with a higher consumption of tap water were more affected by water supply interruptions, with a rate ratio of 3.71 (95% CI: 1.91-7.20) and an attributable fraction of cases of 31.4% (95% CI: 17.3%-42.5%). The analysis did not suggest any association between levels of residual

  6. Water supply interruptions and suspected cholera incidence: a time-series regression in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Jeandron

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been identified as endemic areas for cholera transmission, and despite continuous control efforts, they continue to experience regular cholera outbreaks that occasionally spread to the rest of the country. In a region where access to improved water sources is particularly poor, the question of which improvements in water access should be prioritized to address cholera transmission remains unresolved. This study aimed at investigating the temporal association between water supply interruptions and Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC admissions in a medium-sized town.Time-series patterns of daily incidence of suspected cholera cases admitted to the Cholera Treatment Centre in Uvira in South Kivu Province between 2009 and 2014 were examined in relation to the daily variations in volume of water supplied by the town water treatment plant. Quasi-poisson regression and distributed lag nonlinear models up to 12 d were used, adjusting for daily precipitation rates, day of the week, and seasonal variations. A total of 5,745 patients over 5 y of age with acute watery diarrhoea symptoms were admitted to the CTC over the study period of 1,946 d. Following a day without tap water supply, the suspected cholera incidence rate increased on average by 155% over the next 12 d, corresponding to a rate ratio of 2.55 (95% CI: 1.54-4.24, compared to the incidence experienced after a day with optimal production (defined as the 95th percentile-4,794 m3. Suspected cholera cases attributable to a suboptimal tap water supply reached 23.2% of total admissions (95% CI 11.4%-33.2%. Although generally reporting less admissions to the CTC, neighbourhoods with a higher consumption of tap water were more affected by water supply interruptions, with a rate ratio of 3.71 (95% CI: 1.91-7.20 and an attributable fraction of cases of 31.4% (95% CI: 17.3%-42.5%. The analysis did not suggest any association between levels of

  7. Water Supply Interruptions and Suspected Cholera Incidence: A Time-Series Regression in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandron, Aurélie; Saidi, Jaime Mufitini; Kapama, Alois; Burhole, Manu; Birembano, Freddy; Vandevelde, Thierry; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been identified as endemic areas for cholera transmission, and despite continuous control efforts, they continue to experience regular cholera outbreaks that occasionally spread to the rest of the country. In a region where access to improved water sources is particularly poor, the question of which improvements in water access should be prioritized to address cholera transmission remains unresolved. This study aimed at investigating the temporal association between water supply interruptions and Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC) admissions in a medium-sized town. Methods and Findings Time-series patterns of daily incidence of suspected cholera cases admitted to the Cholera Treatment Centre in Uvira in South Kivu Province between 2009 and 2014 were examined in relation to the daily variations in volume of water supplied by the town water treatment plant. Quasi-poisson regression and distributed lag nonlinear models up to 12 d were used, adjusting for daily precipitation rates, day of the week, and seasonal variations. A total of 5,745 patients over 5 y of age with acute watery diarrhoea symptoms were admitted to the CTC over the study period of 1,946 d. Following a day without tap water supply, the suspected cholera incidence rate increased on average by 155% over the next 12 d, corresponding to a rate ratio of 2.55 (95% CI: 1.54–4.24), compared to the incidence experienced after a day with optimal production (defined as the 95th percentile—4,794 m3). Suspected cholera cases attributable to a suboptimal tap water supply reached 23.2% of total admissions (95% CI 11.4%–33.2%). Although generally reporting less admissions to the CTC, neighbourhoods with a higher consumption of tap water were more affected by water supply interruptions, with a rate ratio of 3.71 (95% CI: 1.91–7.20) and an attributable fraction of cases of 31.4% (95% CI: 17.3%–42.5%). The analysis did not suggest any

  8. Assessing the trade impacts of the ASEAN+6 FTA : the case of Lao People’s Democratic Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Suvannaphakdy, Sithanonxay; Tang, Hsiao Chink; DiCaprio, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    Using an unbalanced panel dataset of bilateral exports from 1992 to 2009, this paper assesses the potential trade impacts of the expansion of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to ASEAN+3 and ASEAN+6 on the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). It finds that bilateral exports are positively related to the overall bilateral country size and similarity in country size, but inversely related to the relative factor endowment differences, transportation costs, and import tari...

  9. Should I Get Screened for Sleeping Sickness? A Qualitative Study in Kasai Province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Mpanya; David Hendrickx; Mimy Vuna; Albert Kanyinda; Crispin Lumbala; Valéry Tshilombo; Patrick Mitashi; Oscar Luboya; Victor Kande; Marleen Boelaert; Pierre Lefèvre; Pascal Lutumba

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Control of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in the Democratic Republic of Congo is based on mass population active screening by mobile teams. Although generally considered a successful strategy, the community participation rates in these screening activities and ensuing treatment remain low in the Kasai-Oriental province. A better understanding of the reasons behind this observation is necessary to improve regional control activities. METHODS: Thirteen focus group...

  10. Occurrence and Distribution of Banana bunchy top virus Related Agro-Ecosystem in South Western, Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Mukwa Fama Tongo, Lyna; Muengula, Marcel; Zinga, I; Kalonji, Adrien; Iskra-Caruana, M.L.; Bragard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most severe and widespread virus limiting produc- tion and distribution of planting material of banana (Musa spp.) crops in the world. In Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), these crops play a major role in daily life of almost 70% of citizen. Many factors influence banana production negatively such as Banana bunchy top disease. Epidemiol- ogical survey was conducted in experimental stations and farmers’ fields for two consecutive sea- sons coverin...

  11. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): does geographic location matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Nzita Kikhela PD; Emina Jacques BO; Madungu Tumwaka P; Kandala Ngianga-Bakwin; Cappuccio Francesco P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. Methods We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-ad...

  12. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC: does geographic location matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nzita Kikhela PD

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. Methods We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures. Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Results Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Conclusion Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in

  13. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): does geographic location matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Madungu, Tumwaka P; Emina, Jacques B O; Nzita, Kikhela P D; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2011-04-25

    Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures.Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in provinces such as Bas-Congo that produce foods, childhood malnutrition is

  14. A review of tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment system in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, John A; Tan, Bernard; Casey, Michael

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence of tuberculosis and its management in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. A review of technical reports of NGOs' experience working in North Korea with Democratic People's Republic of Korea officials, tuberculosis healthcare personnel and tuberculosis patients. Site visits, observations and experiences are also included. Until 2001, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, was predominately isolated with an unknown healthcare system but has since allowed NGOs, WHO and international agencies to rehabilitate the healthcare infrastructure involving 200 people's Country Hospitals, 13 Prophylactic Hospitals, 62 Sanitariums and 4 Special Hospitals. The mid 1990s witnessed a resurgence of tuberculosis in North Korea with 100,000 new cases reported yearly. Preliminary analysis revealed that poverty, neglect, lack of resources and isolation resulted in the overall deterioration of public health services. Present estimates suggest a prevalence of 220 per 100,000 with 45,000 new cases. Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in North Korea that will require increased efforts by the national government and international agencies to control

  15. The role of major donors in health aid to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haewon; Ahn, Deborah Y; Choi, Soyoung; Kim, Youngchan; Choi, Hyunju; Park, Sang Min

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the major trends in health aid financing in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) by identifying the primary donor organizations and examining several data sources to track overall health aid trends. We collected gross disbursements from bilateral donor countries and international organizations toward the DPRK according to specific health sectors by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development creditor reporting system database and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs financial tracking service database. We analyzed sources of health aid to the DPRK from the Republic of Korea (ROK) using the official records from the ROK's Ministry of Unification. We identified the ROK, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) as the major donor entities not only according to their level of health aid expenditures but also their growing roles within the health sector of the DPRK. We found that health aid from the ROK is comprised of funding from the Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund, private organizations, local governments, and South Korean branches of international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF. We also distinguished medical equipment aid from developmental aid to show that the majority of health aid from the ROK was developmental aid. This study highlights the valuable role of the ROK in the flow of health aid to the DPRK, especially in light of the DPRK's precarious international status. Although global health aid from many international organizations has decreased, organizations such as GFATM and UNFPA continue to maintain their focus on reproductive health and infectious diseases.

  16. Rapid identification of paragonimiasis foci by lay informants in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Peter Odermatt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematodiasis leading to lung disease. Worldwide, an estimated 21 million people are infected. Foci of ongoing transmission remain often unnoticed. We evaluated a simple questionnaire approach using lay-informants at the village level to identify paragonimiasis foci and suspected paragonimiasis cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was carried out in an endemic area of Lao People's Democratic Republic. Leaders of 49 remote villages in northern Vientiane Province were asked to notify suspected paragonimiasis patients using a four-item questionnaire sent through administrative channels: persons responding positively for having chronic cough (more than 3 weeks and/or blood in sputum with or without fever. We validated the village leaders' reports in ten representative villages with a door-to-door survey. We examined three sputa of suspected patients for the presence of Paragonimus eggs and acid fast bacilli. 91.8% of village leaders participated and notified a total of 220 suspected patients; 76.2% were eventually confirmed; an additional 138 suspected cases were found in the survey. Sensitivity of village leaders' notice for "chronic cough" and "blood in sputum" was 100%; "blood in sputum" alone reached a sensitivity of 85.7%. SIGNIFICANCE: Our approach led to the identification of three previously unknown foci of transmission. A rapid and simple lay-informant questionnaire approach is a promising low-cost community diagnostic tool of paragonimiasis control programs.

  17. Results of growing relatively smoke resistant types of trees and their practical use. [German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzschacksch, O.

    1985-01-01

    Achievements in cultivating sulfur dioxide resistant conifers in the German Democratic Republic are summarized. These conifers will be planted in afforestation programs in smoke damage zones I, i.e. in conifer forests at high elevations with maximum pollution damage. Nurseries with the most promising tree types have been established for harvesting seeds for propagation. Cultivation of cuttings and tree grafting is carried out in experimental nurseries along with laboratory gas treatment tests. Smoke resistant varieties of the common spruce Picae abies (L.) show vigorous growth in smoke damage zone I. Other spruce types suitable for cultivation are Picea pungens Engelm., Picea omorica (Panc.) Purk. with the highest vitality in 15 to 20 year old trial plantings in smoke damage zone I extreme, and Picea glanca, rubens and orientalis. Suitable pines are Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. (Murray pine), Pinus mugo Turra, and others; resistant larches are Larix decidua and Larix leptolepis. Deciduous trees being cultivated for afforestation are aspens (Populus tremula L.) and mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.). 11 references.

  18. Mosquito-borne viruses circulating in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanzulu, Kennedy Makola; Wumba, Roger; Mukendi, Jean-Pierre Kambala; Zanga, Josué Kikana; Shija, Fortunate; Bobanga, Thierry Lengu; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Misinzo, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Diseases caused by mosquito-borne viruses are among the most important emerging diseases that threaten human and animal health, particularly in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to these diseases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The present cross-sectional study was undertaken between March and May 2014 to investigate the presence of mosquito-borne viruses in mosquitoes collected from five municipalities of Kinshasa, DRC. Mosquitoes were collected using BG-Sentinel traps and battery-powered aspirators. Female mosquitoes were pooled according to their genera and sampling locations, preserved in RNAlater, and later screened for viruses using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays. A total of 2922 mosquitoes were collected and 29 pools of female mosquitoes, containing approximately 30 mosquitoes each, were tested. Twelve of the 29 (41.4%) mosquito pools were found to be infected with at least one arbovirus, with eight (27.5%) pools positive for Alphavirus, nine (31%) for Flavivirus, and five (17.2%) for Bunyaviridae. Chikungunya, o'nyong'nyong, and Rift valley fever viruses were detected. The present study shows that mosquitoes in Kinshasa carry mosquito-borne viruses that may have serious public health implications. Further investigations on the presence of mosquito-borne viruses in the human and livestock populations of Kinshasa and DRC are recommended. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Crystal structure study of a cobaltoan dolomite from Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchiazzi, Natale

    2015-03-01

    A structural study has been undertaken on a cobaltoan dolomite, with chemical formula CaMg0.83Co0.17(CO3)2 (cal-cium magnesium cobalt dicarbonate), from Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Pale-pink euhedral cobaltoan dolomite was associated with kolwezite [(Cu1.33Co0.67)(CO3)(OH)2] and cobaltoan malachite [(Cu,Co)2(CO3)(OH)2]. A crystal with a Co:Mg ratio of 1:5.6 (SEM/EDAX measurement), twinned on (11 -2 0) was used for crystal structural refinement. The refinement of the structural model of Reeder & Wenk [Am. Mineral. (1983 ▶), 68, 769-776; Ca at site 3a with site symmetry -3; Mg site at site 3b with site symmetry -3; C at site 6c with site symmetry 3; O at site 18f with site symmetry 1] showed that Co is totally incorporated in the Mg site, with refined occupancy Mg0.83Co0.17, which compares with Mg0.85Co0.15 from chemical data. The Co substitution reflects in the expansion of the cell volume, with a pronounced increasing of the c cell parameter.

  20. Smallpox and its eradication in the Democratic Republic of Congo: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Mulembakani, Prime; Lekie, René Botee; Szczeniowski, Mark; Ježek, Zdeněk; Doshi, Reena; Hoff, Nicole; Rimoin, Anne W

    2011-12-30

    Smallpox eradication is considered to be one of the most remarkable accomplishments of the 20th century. Lessons learned from the campaign during the 1960s and 1970s in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) can provide important information for the development of other eradication programs including polio. The DRC is the third largest country in Africa; the population suffers from extreme poverty, deteriorating infrastructure and health systems, and long periods of civil strife. Despite these challenges, DRC's smallpox eradication campaign was successful, eradicating smallpox only 41 months after initiation. DRC had been polio free since 2001; however, in 2006, imported cases were identified in the country. Polio transmission has since been re-established and DRC now has the second greatest number of reported polio cases in the world. Challenges which existed during the smallpox campaign in DRC are still present today; additionally, the polio vaccine itself poses unique challenges which include requiring multiple doses to confer immunity. In the fight against polio in DRC, it will be important to draw from the smallpox eradication experience. A number of important themes emerged during the campaign that could be beneficial to eradicating polio and future eradication programs that may follow. During the smallpox campaign, a standard vaccination program was implemented, surveillance was intensified, and there were strong collaborative programs with community involvement. These successful elements of the smallpox campaign should be adapted and applied in DRC in polio eradication programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-31

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by December 31, 2000 (1). Although progress has been extraordinary (2), full implementation of polio eradication strategies has been delayed in several countries affected by war. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has experienced continual armed conflict since October 1996. As a result, DRC is the last country in the African Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) to implement National Immunization Days (NIDs*). DRC is an important global reservoir for wild poliovirus and shares more than 5580 miles (9000 km) of border with nine countries; in at least seven of these countries polio is endemic. The large area of DRC, substantial amount of poverty, weak health-care infrastructure, poor transportation and communication, and competing demands for resources present considerable challenges to polio eradication. This report summarizes information on the existing health-care infrastructure and routine coverage, information from NIDs carried out in 1999, and results from the recently established surveillance system for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP).

  2. [How to optimize the efficiency of international sanitary aid in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwekita, Joseph Manzambi; Bruyère, Olivier; Guillaume, Michèle; Gosset, Christiane; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularlyfor thefunding ofgeneral referral hospitals, the management of inpatients with AIDS, administration of health zones andfunding of preventive care providers. It The targeted changes described in this article could possibly optimize the efficiency ofinternational aidfor the DRC population, mainly for disorders considered to be a health care priority (i.e. malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis) as well as in the fight against malnutrition. Recommendations target the implementation of procedures for control offood chain security, changes in lifestyle and dietary habits of the population but also comprise extensive restructuring of the health care administration. A dramatic change of the structure in charge of drug distribution as well as eradication of the transfer of part of public health structure income to public health administrative personnel could result in the allocation of significantfunds to thefight against the most important diseases. Better collaboration between the various departments in charge of health care professional training, together with enhanced responsibility of health care personnel is essential. Independent and respected non-governmental organizations should be involved in an audit process, targeting all aspects of the current DRC health system. Eventually, in an equal opportunity perspective, taking into consideration the very high degree of poverty ofDRC inhabitants, implementation of health insurance programmes, use ofgeneric drugs and generalization ofmicro-credit initiatives should also be implemented.

  3. Growing healthy children and communities: Children's insights in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    A diverse group of 103 children aged 7-11 years old living in family and residential care in rural and urban settings in two northern provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic participated in group discussions using images and community mapping. Children's identified sources of risk and protection illustrate primary public health and protection concerns and resources. Young children worried about lack of hygiene, unintentional injuries, corporal punishment, and domestic violence. They also expressed concern about gambling and children sleeping in the streets, even if they had never seen any of the latter in their communities. In contrast, food and shelter; artistic, religious, and cultural practices; supportive interpersonal relationships; and schooling largely evoked feelings of safety and belonging. Images that prompted conflicting interpretations surfaced individual and contextual considerations that nuanced analysis. Researchers and decision-makers will benefit from using this developmentally appropriate, context-sensitive child-centred visual method to elicit young children's views of risk and protection. It may also serve as a tool for public health education. Involving young children in the initial selection of images would further enhance the efficiency of the method.

  4. Prevalence of River Epilepsy in the Orientale Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colebunders

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An increased prevalence of epilepsy has been reported in many onchocerciasis endemic areas.To determine the prevalence and distribution of epilepsy in an onchocerciasis endemic region in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC.An epilepsy prevalence study was carried out in 2014, in two localities of the Bas-Uélé district, an onchocerciasis endemic region in the Orientale Province of the DRC. Risk factors for epilepsy were identified using a random effects logistic regression model and the distribution of epilepsy cases was investigated using the Moran's I statistic of spatial auto-correlation.Among the 12,776 individuals of Dingila, 373 (2.9% individuals with epilepsy were identified. In a house-to-house survey in Titule, 68 (2.3% of the 2,908 people who participated in the survey were found to present episodes of epilepsy. Epilepsy showed a marked spatial pattern with clustering of cases occurring within and between adjacent households. Individual risk of epilepsy was found to be associated with living close to the nearest fast flowing river where blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae-the vector of Onchocerca volvulus-oviposit and breed.The prevalence of epilepsy in villages in the Bas-Uélé district in the DRC was higher than in non-onchocerciasis endemic regions in Africa. Living close to a blackflies infested river was found to be a risk factor for epilepsy.

  5. Subtype identification of human Blastocystis spp. isolated from Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Phosuk, Issarapong; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2017-04-01

    Blastocystis sp. is the most common protist found in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. Blastocystis subtypes (STs) are classified based on the molecular phylogeny of the small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA). At least 17 Blastocystis STs have been reported and, of these, STs 1-9 have been found in humans. This study revealed the presence of human Blastocystis STs in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). Fecal samples were collected from apparently healthy people from the central province of Khammouane and the southern province of Champasak. Fresh fecal samples, found to be positive for Blastocystis using microscopy, were individually cultured in Jones' medium and each sample was used for the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of SSU rDNA. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the distribution of four Blastocystis STs: ST1 (64%), ST2 (8%), ST3 (24%) and ST7 (4%). This is the first report to provide molecular data revealing the prevalence of Blastocystis STs in apparently healthy people from Lao PDR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Seroprevalence of Q fever, Brucellosis, and Bluetongue in Selected Provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Soukvilay, Vilayvahn; Senaphanh, Chanthana; Phithacthep, Kamphok; Phomhaksa, Souk; Yingst, Samuel; Lombardini, Eric; Hansson, Eric; Selleck, Paul W.; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2016-01-01

    This study has determined the proportional seropositivity of two zoonotic diseases, Q fever and brucellosis, and bluetongue virus (BTV) which is nonzoonotic, in five provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) (Loungphabang, Luangnumtha, Xayaboury, Xiengkhouang, and Champasak, and Vientiane Province and Vientiane capital). A total of 1,089 samples from buffalo, cattle, pigs, and goats were tested, with seropositivity of BTV (96.7%), Q fever (1.2%), and brucellosis (0.3%). The results of this survey indicated that Q fever seropositivity is not widely distributed in Lao PDR; however, Xayaboury Province had a cluster of seropositive cattle in seven villages in four districts (Botan, Kenthao, Paklaiy, and Phiang) that share a border with Thailand. Further studies are required to determine if Xayaboury Province is indeed an epidemiological hot spot of Q fever activity. There is an urgent need to determine the levels of economic loss and human health-related issues caused by Q fever, brucellosis, and BTV in Lao PDR. PMID:27430548

  7. [Change management: An analysis of actors; perceptions about technical assistance in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribesse, Nathalie; Iyeti, Alain; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Technical assistance (TA) is a common component of health system strengthening interventions. This type of intervention is too often designed and evaluated according to a logic that fails to take into account social complexity. Actors' perceptions are one element of this complexity. This article presents a study conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo designed to identify perceptions concerning two types of technical support providers for health system strengthening: long-term technical assistants (agents of development agencies) and provincial technical advisors (agents of the Ministry of Health). Interviews were conducted with an innovative tool inspired by the principles of systems thinking. Interviewees were actors involved in a TA intervention in the province of Bandundu. Their expectations regarding TA providers were identified in terms of personal characteristics (knowledge, know-how and interpersonal skills), roles, and styles of interaction for capacity building ("interventionist/ prescriptive axes"). Interviewees emphasized the importance of mutual learning and the quality of interactions, which depends on TA provider's interpersonal skills and mutual willingness. Perceptions of TA provider's characteristics tend to be similar, but several differences were observed concerning the expectations about the roles of TAs, and the style that should be adopted for capacity building. Ignoring these differences in expectations may be a threat to the effectiveness of TA.

  8. The EU’s Security Sector Reform Policies in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Keukeleire

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we approach the functioning of bureaucracy in ESDP from a governance perspective that also focuses on informal patterns of interaction between the relevant bureaucratic actors. Following the governance and related network governance approaches, the interplay between formal and informal patterns of interaction can help to overcome deadlock in policy-making and to procure effective problem-solving. This perspective is applied to security sector reform (SSR in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. SSR is one of the major emerging fields of activity within the civilian crisis management dimension of ESDP, that also in the DRC became a focal point in the EU’s new security and defence policy since its inception. However, as the EU involvement in the Congolese security sector reform policies illustrates, coordination and negotiation among European actors to overcome deadlock and produce effective problem-solving is not self-evident or even desirable for all actors. In the case of the EU’s SSR policies in Congo, coordination indeed occurs between the actors that are dependent upon each other in terms of resources and have the willingness to jointly tackle the problems related to the SSR in the DRC. However, it is also often undermined by actors that prefer to engage bilaterally because they possess the resources to do so and the personal relationships with the Congolese authorities to act more efficiently and effectively.

  9. Seed predation by bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Kokolopori, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Alexander V; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Lokasola, Albert Lotana; Wrangham, Richard W

    2011-10-01

    We compared the feeding ecology of the Hali-Hali community of bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Kokolopori, a new field site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, between two periods 5 months apart. During the first study period (SP1), bonobos relied heavily on the dry seeds of Guibourtia (Caesalpiniaceae), mostly eaten from the ground. The second period (SP2) was characterized by high consumption of ripe tree fruit. Terrestrial herbaceous vegetation (THV) contributed little to the diet in either study period. The low amount of ripe fruit and the high reliance on seeds in the diet during SP1 were associated with high cortisol production and low levels of urinary C-peptide in females, suggesting nutritional stress. However, female gregariousness was not constrained during the fruit-poor period, probably because high seed abundance on the ground ameliorated scramble feeding competition. This is the first description of extensive seed predation by bonobos. It suggests that bonobo feeding ecology may be more similar to that of chimpanzees than previously recognized.

  10. Population, behavioural and environmental drivers of malaria prevalence in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshefu Antoinette K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is highly endemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, but the limits and intensity of transmission within the country are unknown. It is important to discern these patterns as well as the drivers which may underlie them in order for effective prevention measures to be carried out. Methods By applying high-throughput PCR analyses on leftover dried blood spots from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS for the DRC, prevalence estimates were generated and ecological drivers of malaria were explored using spatial statistical analyses and multilevel modelling. Results Of the 7,746 respondents, 2268 (29.3% were parasitaemic; prevalence ranged from 0-82% within geographically-defined survey clusters. Regional variation in these rates was mapped using the inverse-distance weighting spatial interpolation technique. Males were more likely to be parasitaemic than older people or females (p Conclusions This research demonstrates the feasibility of using population-based behavioural and molecular surveillance in conjunction with DHS data and geographic methods to study endemic infectious diseases. This study provides the most accurate population-based estimates to date of where illness from malaria occurs in the DRC and what factors contribute to the estimated spatial patterns. This study suggests that spatial information and analyses can enable the DRC government to focus its control efforts against malaria.

  11. Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women:High seroprevalence and risk factors in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doudou Yobi; Marleen Boelaert; Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden; Pascal Lutumba; Renaud Piarroux; Coralie LOllivier; Jacqueline Franck; Hypolite Situakibanza; Hypolite Muhindo; Patrick Mitashi; Raquel Andreia Inocncio da Luz; Marc Van Sprundel

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, as well as the proportion of acutely infected and risk factors in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods:Thirty maternities in Kinshasa were randomly selected and women attending antenatal consultation were invited to participate. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about known risk factors (age, meat consumption, contact with soil, and presence of cat) and a venous blood sample was taken. Sera were analysed for total immunoglobulins (Ig) by VIDAS Toxo Competition using Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay. IgM was determined by VIDIA Toxo IgM and IgG avidity by VIDAS Toxo IgG avidity. Results: A total of 781 women were included. Median age was 28 years old (IQR: 8.5). And 627 women (80.3%; 95%CI: 77.5-83.1) were found to be positive to total Ig and 17 out of 387 (4.4%;95%CI: 2.3-6.4) were positive to IgM. IgG avidity was low for 2 (11.8%) women, intermediate for 2 (11.8%) and high for 13 women (76.4%). There was no statistically significant association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and any risk factors assessed. Conclusion: In Kinshasa, toxoplasmosis endemicity is highly prevalent. One woman out of twenty five had a recent toxoplasmosis infection and 20%were not protected against primo-infection, indicating a need for measures to prevent and control toxoplasmosis during pregnancy.

  12. A cholera epidemic in Sekong Province, Lao People's Democratic Republic, December 2007-January 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenglet, Annick; Khamphaphongphane, Bouaphanh; Thebvongsa, Phetsamay; Vongprachanh, Phengta; Sithivong, Noikaseumsy; Chantavisouk, Chitsavang; Tsuyuoka, Reiko

    2010-05-01

    Recent large-scale outbreaks in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) were reported in 1993 and 1994 and from 2000 to 2002. On December 23, 2007, a drastic increase in acute watery diarrhea patients at a health center in Sekong Province was reported to the provincial health office. An outbreak investigation was initiated to understand the magnitude of the outbreak, identify new cases, identify the suspected causal agent, implement control measures, and prevent new cases. Through active village based surveillance, 370 cases and 3 deaths were reported from 31 villages between December 15, 2007 and January 29, 2008. Of these reported cases, 29% were under the age of 5. From 28 fresh stool samples taken, 17 (58.6%) were positive for Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa strain. Two water sources close to affected villages were found to be contaminated with the same strain of V. cholerae. Control measures implemented included health education for safe household water consumption and early identification and treatment of suspected cholera patients at village level. The cause of the outbreak was suspected to be a combination of contaminated drinking water and person-to-person transmission.

  13. Estimates and determinants of sexual violence against women in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amber; Palermo, Tia; Bredenkamp, Caryn

    2011-06-01

    We sought to provide data-based estimates of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and describe risk factors for such violence. We used nationally representative household survey data from 3436 women selected to answer the domestic violence module who took part in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey along with population estimates to estimate levels of sexual violence. We used multivariate logistic regression to analyze correlates of sexual violence. Approximately 1.69 to 1.80 million women reported having been raped in their lifetime (with 407 397-433 785 women reporting having been raped in the preceding 12 months), and approximately 3.07 to 3.37 million women reported experiencing intimate partner sexual violence. Reports of sexual violence were largely independent of individual-level background factors. However, compared with women in Kinshasa, women in Nord-Kivu were significantly more likely to report all types of sexual violence. Not only is sexual violence more generalized than previously thought, but our findings suggest that future policies and programs should focus on abuse within families and eliminate the acceptance of and impunity surrounding sexual violence nationwide while also maintaining and enhancing efforts to stop militias from perpetrating rape.

  14. Salmonella typhi in the democratic republic of the congo: fluoroquinolone decreased susceptibility on the rise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavie Lunguya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drug resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi to first-line antibiotics is emerging in Central Africa. Although increased use of fluoroquinolones is associated with spread of resistance, Salmonella Typhi with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS has rarely been reported in Central Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As part of a microbiological surveillance study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo, Salmonella Typhi isolates from bloodstream infections were collected prospectively between 2007 and 2011. The genetic relationship of the Salmonella Typhi isolates was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolates was determined and mutations associated with DCS were studied. In total, 201 Salmonella Typhi isolates were collected. More than half of the Salmonella Typhi isolates originated from children and young adults aged 5-19. Thirty different PFGE profiles were identified, with 72% of the isolates showing a single profile. Multidrug resistance, DCS and azithromycin resistance were 30.3%, 15.4% and 1.0%, respectively. DCS was associated with point mutations in the gyrA gene at codons 83 and 87. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study describes the first report of widespread multidrug resistance and DCS among Salmonella Typhi isolates from DR Congo. Our findings highlight the need for increased microbiological diagnosis and surveillance in DR Congo, being a prerequisite for rational use of antimicrobials and the development of standard treatment guidelines.

  15. A review of taeniasis and cysticercosis in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James; Khounsy, Syseng; Inthavong, Phouth; Fenwick, Stanley; Blacksell, Stuart; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2008-09-01

    Taeniasis and cysticercosis are important but underreported parasitic zoonoses in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). Reports of human and pig cysticercosis are rather limited and based largely on anecdotal evidence. To date, no structured surveys of disease prevalence or incidence have been reported. However, one unpublished pilot survey of pig cysticercosis in a slaughterhouse in northern Laos estimated prevalence to be 1.7%, without speciation of parasite cysts. Over the past 20 years, nine surveys of intestinal helminthic infection have been conducted; the prevalence of human taeniasis ranged from 0 to 14.0%. The study designs and sample sizes varied greatly, however a high degree of spatial and age variation in taeniasis prevalence was evident. These results are however inconclusive as the species of tapeworm infecting the people was not determined. To further our knowledge of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Lao PDR, structured community-based surveys in high-risk areas are required in combination with the use of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests capable of identifying the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. This will enable the development and implementation of control measures that are both appropriate and sustainable if T. solium is shown to be a public health threat.

  16. An assessment of caprine tuberculosis prevalence in Lubumbashi slaughterhouse, Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Luboya, Luboya Wa; Malangu, Mposhy; Kaleka, Mwenyi; Ngulu, Nsasi; Nkokele, Bimwala; Maryabo, Kazembe; Pourrut, Xavier; Vincent, Tom; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2017-04-01

    Caprine tuberculosis is a major health problem for goats and a major zoonosis of veterinary public health interest. In order to prepare a response to and control of caprine tuberculosis, to evaluate the potential risks to public health, and to assess the prevalence of the disease in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo, 656 goats that were slaughtered at the Kabasele abattoir of Mzee Laurent-Desire Kabila Market in Lubumbashi were subjected to rigorous veterinary inspection during June to August 2012. All goat specimens came from the Kasumbalesa, Kasenga, and Kipushi areas of Katanga province. Consequently, suspected organs presenting signs of tuberculosis were collected and examined using Ziehl-Neelsen stains for diagnosis. Through this investigative inspection in the province, we found an overall prevalence of caprine tuberculosis of 1.68%. Although females showed higher prevalence of caprine tuberculosis (1.07%) compared to males (0.61%), and adults showed higher prevalence (1.22%) than juveniles (0.45%), these comparisons were not statically significant. However, lung and intestine infection by tuberculosis showed significantly higher prevalence of positive cases (1.21 and 0.46%, respectively) (p tuberculosis (1.22%) compared to goats from Kipushi (0.31%) and Kasenga (0.18%). These findings show the risk of caprine tuberculosis in the province for the first time, and we therefore recommend the implementation of strict animal biosecurity and tuberculosis controlling protocols.

  17. Knowledge and attitude of schoolgirls about illegal abortions in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Lussy J. Paluku

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortion and the increase in HIV infection have become major concerns in sub-Saharan Africa and understanding adolescent sexual behaviour remains a challenge. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, the practice of illegal abortions is prevalent among school-going adolescent girls with unplanned pregnancies. Assessing their attitude and knowledge on the subject could be a starting point from which to address the problem.Objectives: To determine the knowledge of schoolgirls in Goma, DRC about the health consequences of illegal abortions and to assess their attitude towards these abortions.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected sample of 328 high school girls aged 16 to 20 years. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Nine out of 55 (11 public and 44 private secondary schools were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. The Epi-Info 2000 computer program was used for data capturing and analysis.Results: The different sources of information were the radio (66.2%, 217, friends (31.7%, 104, parents (1.5%, 5, and the church (0.5%, 2. The health consequences of illegal abortion mentioned were death, infertility, infection and bleeding. Of the participants, 9.8% (32 had committed an abortion before and 46% (151 knew where to obtain it; 76.2% (250 of participants were against illegal abortion, while 23.8% (78 supported it.Conclusion: Girls in secondary school in Goma had good knowledge of the illegal abortion practice and its consequences. A fifth of them were in support of the procedure. The DRC government may need to consider legalising abortion to secure a healthy future for affected girls.

  18. Antecedent causes of a measles resurgence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobie, Heather Melissa; Ilunga, Benoît Kebela; Mulumba, Audry; Shidi, Calixte; Coulibaly, Tiekoura; Obama, Ricardo; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Simbu, Elisabeth Pukuta; Smit, Sheilagh Brigitte; Masresha, Balcha; Perry, Robert Tyrrell; Alleman, Mary Margaret; Kretsinger, Katrina; Goodson, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite accelerated measles control efforts, a massive measles resurgence occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) starting in mid-2010, prompting an investigation into likely causes. Methods We conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis using measles immunization and surveillance data to understand the causes of the measles resurgence and to develop recommendations for elimination efforts in DRC. Results During 2004-2012, performance indicator targets for case-based surveillance and routine measles vaccination were not met. Estimated coverage with the routine first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 57% to 73%. Phased supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted starting in 2002, in some cases with sub-optimal coverage (≤95%). In 2010, SIAs in five of 11 provinces were not implemented as planned, resulting in a prolonged interval between SIAs, and a missed birth cohort in one province. During July 1, 2010-December 30, 2012, high measles attack rates (>100 cases per 100,000 population) occurred in provinces that had estimated MCV1 coverage lower than the national estimate and did not implement planned 2010 SIAs. The majority of confirmed case-patients were aged measles virus strains that were previously identified in the region. Conclusion The resurgence was likely caused by an accumulation of unvaccinated, measles-susceptible children due to low MCV1 coverage and suboptimal SIA implementation. To achieve the regional goal of measles elimination by 2020, efforts are needed in DRC to improve case-based surveillance and increase two-dose measles vaccination coverage through routine services and SIAs. PMID:26401224

  19. Yellow Fever Outbreak - Kongo Central Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otshudiema, John O; Ndakala, Nestor G; Mawanda, Elande-Taty K; Tshapenda, Gaston P; Kimfuta, Jacques M; Nsibu, Loupy-Régence N; Gueye, Abdou S; Dee, Jacob; Philen, Rossanne M; Giese, Coralie; Murrill, Christopher S; Arthur, Ray R; Kebela, Benoit I

    2017-03-31

    On April 23, 2016, the Democratic Republic of the Congo's (DRC's) Ministry of Health declared a yellow fever outbreak. As of May 24, 2016, approximately 90% of suspected yellow fever cases (n = 459) and deaths (45) were reported in a single province, Kongo Central Province, that borders Angola, where a large yellow fever outbreak had begun in December 2015. Two yellow fever mass vaccination campaigns were conducted in Kongo Central Province during May 25-June 7, 2016 and August 17-28, 2016. In June 2016, the DRC Ministry of Health requested assistance from CDC to control the outbreak. As of August 18, 2016, a total of 410 suspected yellow fever cases and 42 deaths were reported in Kongo Central Province. Thirty seven of the 393 specimens tested in the laboratory were confirmed as positive for yellow fever virus (local outbreak threshold is one laboratory-confirmed case of yellow fever). Although not well-documented for this outbreak, malaria, viral hepatitis, and typhoid fever are common differential diagnoses among suspected yellow fever cases in this region. Other possible diagnoses include Zika, West Nile, or dengue viruses; however, no laboratory-confirmed cases of these viruses were reported. Thirty five of the 37 cases of yellow fever were imported from Angola. Two-thirds of confirmed cases occurred in persons who crossed the DRC-Angola border at one market city on the DRC side, where ≤40,000 travelers cross the border each week on market day. Strategies to improve coordination between health surveillance and cross-border trade activities at land borders and to enhance laboratory and case-based surveillance and health border screening capacity are needed to prevent and control future yellow fever outbreaks.

  20. Knowledge and attitude of schoolgirls about illegal abortions in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Lussy J. Paluku

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortion and the increase in HIV infection have become major concerns in sub-Saharan Africa and understanding adolescent sexual behaviour remains a challenge. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, the practice of illegal abortions is prevalent among school-going adolescent girls with unplanned pregnancies. Assessing their attitude and knowledge on the subject could be a starting point from which to address the problem.Objectives: To determine the knowledge of schoolgirls in Goma, DRC about the health consequences of illegal abortions and to assess their attitude towards these abortions.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected sample of 328 high school girls aged 16 to 20 years. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Nine out of 55 (11 public and 44 private secondary schools were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. The Epi-Info 2000 computer program was used for data capturing and analysis.Results: The different sources of information were the radio (66.2%, 217, friends (31.7%, 104, parents (1.5%, 5, and the church (0.5%, 2. The health consequences of illegal abortion mentioned were death, infertility, infection and bleeding. Of the participants, 9.8% (32 had committed an abortion before and 46% (151 knew where to obtain it; 76.2% (250 of participants were against illegal abortion, while 23.8% (78 supported it.Conclusion: Girls in secondary school in Goma had good knowledge of the illegal abortion practice and its consequences. A fifth of them were in support of the procedure. The DRC government may need to consider legalising abortion to secure a healthy future for affected girls.

  1. Factors that influence contraceptive use amongst women in Vanga health district, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Kangale Izale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contraception is often necessary in order to plan for children and without it there is a risk of unplanned pregnancies. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, this often results in abortions by untrained persons with resultant morbidity and mortality. Aim: To investigate the factors that influence contraceptive use amongst women of childbearing age in the Vanga health zone. Methods: Cross-sectional survey using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results: Of the 384 women recruited, a majority (46.1% were in the 31–40 year age group;52% had reached primary school and 88% did not have formal employment. One hundredand forty of the participants reported current use of contraception, with 60% of them using modern methods of contraception; 36.1% of them had begun using contraception before the age of 20; and the most common methods were oral contraceptive pills and injection, each accounting for 22.9%. There was variation in the duration of contraceptive use and the main reason for using contraception was to space children. Of the participants, 20.7% had been using contraception for more than two years. Seventy-seven (31.5% of the women reported they did not use contraception because of a fear of side effects. Forty-four (18% reported that they are unable to afford contraception, 38 (15.6% had husbands who disapproved of contraceptive usage, 26 (10.6% had a fear of infertility, 18 (7.4% practised a religion that did not allow them to use contraception and 12 of the women (4.9% did not use contraception because it was unavailable to them. Conclusion: Barriers to contraception in our study were fears of side effects and infertility, cost, male partner’s objection, unavailability of contraception and religious beliefs.

  2. Anemia and Related Factors in Preschool Children in the Southern Rural Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounnavong, Sengchanh; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Hashizume, Masahiro; Okumura, Junko; Moji, Kazuhiko; Boupha, Boungnong; Yamamoto, Taro

    2011-12-01

    Anemia is a severe public health problem in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Consequently, a new control strategy to reduce the burden of anemia has been introduced for preschool children (aged 6-52 months). The objective of this study was to assess the current prevalence of anemia and related factors in preschool children in southern rural Lao PDR. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in six communities in Songkhone district, Savannakheth province, in February 2009. As a result, the prevalence of anemia was found to be 48.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 43.5-54.3), although most cases were mild. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that there was no protective effect of breastfeeding against anemia. The anemia prevalence was higher in 1) children aged 6-23 months (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.73, 95% CI, 1.02-2.90) than in older children, 2) children in large families (6 or more members) (OR = 1.96, 95% CI, 1.17-3.29), and 3) children in three remote villages with relatively difficult access to markets (OR = 3.01, 95% CI, 1.25-7.47).In Lao PDR, improvement of food practices and home-fortified food supplementation interventions are essential. High-risk groups should be targeted and a long-term health education program that aims to modify food habits implemented. Furthermore, in settings where iron deficiency is not the only cause of anemia, combining an iron supplement with other measures is necessary.

  3. Seroprevalence of major bovine-associated zoonotic infectious diseases in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Vongxay, Khamphouth; Conlan, James V; Khounsy, Syseng; Dorny, Pierre; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2012-10-01

    Bovine-associated zoonotic infectious diseases pose a significant threat to human health in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). In all, 905 cattle and buffalo serum samples collected in northern Lao PDR in 2006 were used to determine seroprevalence of five major bovine zoonotic infectious diseases that included Taenia saginata cysticercosis, bovine tuberculosis, Q-fever, bovine brucellosis, and bovine leptospirosis. Five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to test for the presence of antibodies to the diseases, except Taenia saginata, for which we tested for the presence of Taenia metacestode circulating antigens. The overall highest prevalence was for T. saginata (46.4%), with lower prevalence for Q-fever (4%), leptospirosis (3%), tuberculosis (1%), and brucellosis (0.2%). Although there were no significant differences in the proportion of seroprevalence between sex and age of the animals sampled, there were significant differences between the provincial distributions. Further studies are required to determine the seroprevalence of these infections in other locations in Lao PDR, as well as other animal species including humans, in order to develop effective prevention and control strategies. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of bovine zoonotic infectious agents in the Lao PDR. Positivity was demonstrated for all diseases investigated, with the highest prevalence for T. saginata antigen and Coxiella burnetti antibodies. For T. saginata, there were significant differences in the provincial distribution. Approximately 16% seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetti was noted in Xayabuly Province; however, there are no clear reasons why this was the case, and further studies are required to determine risk factors associated with this observation.

  4. Onchocerciasis control in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): challenges in a post-war environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makenga Bof, J-C; Maketa, V; Bakajika, D K; Ntumba, F; Mpunga, D; Murdoch, M E; Hopkins, A; Noma, M M; Zouré, H; Tekle, A H; Katabarwa, M N; Lutumba, P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate onchocerciasis control activities in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in the first 12 years of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI). Data from the National Programme for Onchocerciasis (NPO) provided by the National Onchocerciasis Task Force (NOTF) through the annual reports of the 21 CDTI projects for the years 2001-2012 were reviewed retrospectively. A hypothetical-inputs-process-outputs-outcomes table was constructed. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin expanded from 1968 communities in 2001 to 39 100 communities by 2012 while the number of community-directed distributors (CDD) and health workers (HW) multiplied. By 2012, there were ratios of 1 CDD per 262 persons and 1 HW per 2318 persons at risk. More than 80% of the funding came from the fiduciary funds of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. The cost of treatment per person treated fell from US$ 1.1 in 2001 to US$ 0.1 in 2012. The therapeutic coverage increased from 2.7% (2001) to 74.2% (2012); the geographical coverage, from 4.7% (2001) to 93.9% (2012). Geographical coverage fell in 2005 due to deaths in loiasis co-endemic areas, and the therapeutic coverage fell in 2008 due to insecurity. Challenges to CDTI in DRC have been serious adverse reactions to ivermectin in loiasis co-endemic areas and political conflict. Targets for personnel or therapeutic and geographical coverages were not met. Longer term funding and renewed efforts are required to achieve control and elimination of onchocerciasis in DRC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Antiretroviral treatment program retention among HIV-infected children in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    John Ditekemena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retaining patients with HIV infection in care is still a major challenge in sub- Saharan Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC where the antiretroviral treatment (ART coverage is low. Monitoring retention is an important tool for evaluating the quality of care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A review of medical records of HIV-infected children was performed in three health facilities in the DRC: the Amo-Congo Health center, the Monkole Clinic in Kinshasa, and the HEAL Africa Clinic in Goma. Medical records of 720 children were included. Kaplan Meier curves were constructed with the probability of retention at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years. Retention rates were: 88.2% (95% CI: 85.1%-90.8% at 6 months; 85% (95% CI: 81.5%-87.6% at one year; 79.4% (95%CI: 75.5%-82.8% at two years and 74.7% (95% CI: 70.5%-78.5% at 3 years. The retention varied across study sites: 88.2%, 66.6% and 92.5% at 6 months; 84%, 59% and 90% at 12 months and 75.7%, 56.3% and 85.8% at 24 months respectively for Amo-Congo/Kasavubu, Monkole facility and HEAL Africa. After multivariable Cox regression four variables remained independently associated with attrition: study site, CD4 cell count <350 cells/µL, children younger than 2 years and children whose caregivers were member of an independent church. CONCLUSIONS: Attrition remains a challenge for pediatric HIV positive patients in ART programs in DRC. In addition, the low coverage of pediatric treatment exacerbates the situation of pediatric HIV/AIDS.

  6. Local perceptions of cholera and anticipated vaccine acceptance in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    2013-01-01

    Background In regions where access to clean water and the provision of a sanitary infrastructure has not been sustainable, cholera continues to pose an important public health burden. Although oral cholera vaccines (OCV) are effective means to complement classical cholera control efforts, still relatively little is known about their acceptability in targeted communities. Clarification of vaccine acceptability prior to the introduction of a new vaccine provides important information for future policy and planning. Methods In a cross-sectional study in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), local perceptions of cholera and anticipated acceptance of an OCV were investigated. A random sample of 360 unaffected adults from a rural town and a remote fishing island was interviewed in 2010. In-depth interviews with a purposive sample of key informants and focus-group discussions provided contextual information. Socio-cultural determinants of anticipated OCV acceptance were assessed with logistic regression. Results Most respondents perceived contaminated water (63%) and food (61%) as main causes of cholera. Vaccines (28%), health education (18%) and the provision of clean water (15%) were considered the most effective measures of cholera control. Anticipated vaccine acceptance reached 97% if an OCV would be provided for free. Cholera-specific knowledge of hygiene and self-help in form of praying for healing were positively associated with anticipated OCV acceptance if costs of USD 5 were assumed. Conversely, respondents who feared negative social implications of cholera were less likely to anticipate acceptance of OCVs. These fears were especially prominent among respondents who generated their income through fishing. With an increase of assumed costs to USD 10.5, fear of financial constraints was negatively associated with anticipated vaccine acceptance as well. Conclusions Results suggest a high motivation to use an OCV as long as it seems affordable. The

  7. Spatial Patterns of Forest Cover Loss in the Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Molinario, G.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.; Justice, C. O.

    2013-12-01

    Three groups of metrics of spatial patterns of forest cover loss were calculated for the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). While other studies had previously assessed landscape patterns in the Congo Basin, they had done so for small areas due to data limitations. The input data for this study, the Forets d;Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection(FACET), allowed the analysis to be performed at the national level. FACET is a landsat-scale dataset giving an unprecedented synoptic view of forest cover and forest cover loss for the DRC for three time periods: 2000, 2005 and 2010. The three groups of metrics evaluated the following spatial characteristics of forest cover loss for the same standard 1.5km unit of area: proportions of typologies of forest lost, forest fragmentation and proximity of forest loss patches from other land cover types. Results indicate that there are several different typologies of forest cover loss in the DRC, and offer quantitative explanations of these differences, providing a valuable locally-relevant tool for land use planning, available at the national level. Spatial patterns of forest cover loss highlight differences between areas of high primary forest loss due to agriculture conversion in frontier deforestation, such as in the east of the country, areas of equivalent primary and secondary forest loss emanating from the rural complex and areas of variable proportions of primary and secondary forest loss but important ecological repercussions of forest fragmentation due to isolated, but systematic forest perforations. Typologies of spatial patterns of forest cover loss are presented as well as their correlated drivers, and ecological, conservation and land use planning considerations are discussed.

  8. Helminth and intestinal protozoa infections, multiparasitism and risk factors in Champasack province, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Somphou Sayasone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detailed investigations of multiparasitism are scarce in the Mekong River basin. We assessed helminth (trematode, nematode, and cestode, and intestinal protozoa infections, and multiparasitism in random population samples from three different eco-epidemiological settings in Champasack province, southern Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, and determined underlying risk factors. METHODOLOGY: Two stool samples were collected from 669 individuals aged ≥ 6 months over consecutive days and examined for helminth infections using the Kato-Katz method. Additionally, one stool sample per person was subjected to a formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique for diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. Questionnaires were administered to obtain individual and household-level data pertaining to behavior, demography and socioeconomic status. Risk factors for hepato-biliary and intestinal parasitic infections and multiparasitism were determined using multiple logistic regressions analyses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MULTIPLE SPECIES INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS WERE COMMON: 86.6% of the study participants harbored at least two and up to seven different parasites concurrently. Regarding nematode infections, hookworm was the most prevalent species (76.8%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (31.7% and Trichuris trichiura (25.0%. Regarding trematodes, Opisthorchis viverrini and Schistosoma mekongi infections were found in 64.3% and 24.2% of the participants, respectively. Infections with intestinal protozoa were rare. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a pressing need to intensify and sustain helminth control interventions in the southern part of Lao PDR. Given the high prevalence with nematode and trematode infections and the extent of multiparasitism, preventive chemotherapy is warranted. This intervention should be coupled with health education and improved access to clean water and adequate sanitation to consolidate morbidity

  9. The geography of malaria genetics in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A complex and fragmented landscape.

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    Carrel, Margaret; Patel, Jaymin; Taylor, Steve M; Janko, Mark; Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Escalante, Ananias A; McCollum, Andrea; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Meshnick, Steven; Emch, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Understanding how malaria parasites move between populations is important, particularly given the potential for malaria to be reintroduced into areas where it was previously eliminated. We examine the distribution of malaria genetics across seven sites within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and two nearby countries, Ghana and Kenya, in order to understand how the relatedness of malaria parasites varies across space, and whether there are barriers to the flow of malaria parasites within the DRC or across borders. Parasite DNA was retrieved from dried blood spots from 7 Demographic and Health Survey sample clusters in the DRC. Malaria genetic characteristics of parasites from Ghana and Kenya were also obtained. For each of 9 geographic sites (7 DRC, 1 Ghana and 1 Kenya), a pair-wise RST statistic was calculated, indicating the genetic distance between malaria parasites found in those locations. Mapping genetics across the spatial extent of the study area indicates a complex genetic landscape, where relatedness between two proximal sites may be relatively high (RST > 0.64) or low (RST < 0.05), and where distal sites also exhibit both high and low genetic similarity. Mantel's tests suggest that malaria genetics differ as geographic distances increase. Principal Coordinate Analysis suggests that genetically related samples are not co-located. Barrier analysis reveals no significant barriers to gene flow between locations. Malaria genetics in the DRC have a complex and fragmented landscape. Limited exchange of genes across space is reflected in greater genetic distance between malaria parasites isolated at greater geographic distances. There is, however, evidence for close genetic ties between distally located sample locations, indicating that movement of malaria parasites and flow of genes is being driven by factors other than distance decay. This research demonstrates the contributions that spatial disease ecology and landscape genetics can make to

  10. Combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements to assess forest carbon stocks in Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Beaumont, Benjamin; Bouvy, Alban; Stephenne, Nathalie; Mathoux, Pierre; Bastin, Jean-François; Baudot, Yves; Akkermans, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring tropical forest carbon stocks changes has been a rising topic in the recent years as a result of REDD+ mechanisms negotiations. Such monitoring will be mandatory for each project/country willing to benefit from these financial incentives in the future. Aerial and satellite remote sensing technologies offer cost advantages in implementing large scale forest inventories. Despite the recent progress made in the use of airborne LiDAR for carbon stocks estimation, no widely operational and cost effective method has yet been delivered for central Africa forest monitoring. Within the Maï Ndombe region of Democratic Republic of Congo, the EO4REDD project develops a method combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements. This combination is done in three steps: [1] mapping and quantifying forest cover changes using an object-based semi-automatic change detection (deforestation and forest degradation) methodology based on very high resolution satellite imagery (RapidEye), [2] developing an allometric linear model for above ground biomass measurements based on dendrometric parameters (tree crown areas and heights) extracted from airborne stereoscopic image pairs and calibrated using ground measurements of individual trees on a data set of 18 one hectare plots and [3] relating these two products to assess carbon stocks changes at a regional scale. Given the high accuracies obtained in [1] (> 80% for deforestation and 77% for forest degradation) and the suitable, but still to be improved with a larger calibrating sample, model (R² of 0.7) obtained in [2], EO4REDD products can be seen as a valid and replicable option for carbon stocks monitoring in tropical forests. Further improvements are planned to strengthen the cost effectiveness value and the REDD+ suitability in the second phase of EO4REDD. This second phase will include [A] specific model developments per forest type; [B] measurements of afforestation, reforestation and natural regeneration processes and

  11. Overview of Animal Rabies in Kinshasa Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Augustin Tshibwabwa Twabela

    Full Text Available Rabies is one of the major public health problems mostly affecting developing countries in Africa and Asia where 99.9% of all rabies related human deaths are recorded each year. In Democratic Republic of Congo, repeated outbreaks have been reported. Despite this, there is little reliable epidemiological data about rabies in the country for the development of effective control strategies.A retrospective study was carried out in Kinshasa Province during a period of five years (2009-2013 to describe the proportion of rabid animals and the species involved in rabies transmission and maintenance. The survey also aimed at describing the spatial-temporal distribution of rabies. To gather information, the daily registers of institutions involved in rabies diagnosis were reviewed and each rabies case was traced back to area of occurrence for collection of geographic coordinates.A total of 5,053 attacks were registered involving six animal species including dog, cat, monkey, rabbit, rat, and pig. Based on clinical observations, rabies was reported in dogs and cats while data obtained from the laboratory confirmed rabies cases included dogs, cats and a goat. The annual distribution showed a significant decrease of rabies cases from 2009 up to 2011 and a later increase up to 2013. There was no difference in rabies occurrence between seasons (p = 0.721. Rabies cases were three times higher in peri-urban zone than in urban zone OR = 3.4 (95% CI: 2.3-5.1. The positive proportion of rabies was 2.6% (95% CI: 2.1-3 based on clinical evidence and 65.9% (95% CI: 50-79.5 for laboratory confirmed cases.This study confirms the endemicity of rabies in Kinshasa where occurrence of rabies cases was related to human population density and lifestyle. In order to control rabies, there is need to set up a surveillance program and implement efficient mass vaccination campaigns of susceptible animals.

  12. Intestinal parasites infections in hospitalized AIDS patients in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Wumba R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and the species spectrum of intestinal parasites (IP involved in hospitalized AIDS patients, a prospective observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in the four main hospitals in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. From November 2006 through September 2007, a single stool sample was collected from 175 hospitalized AIDS patients older than 15 years. Parasites were detected by light microscopy, including Ziehl-Neelsen, Fungi-Fluor, modified trichrome stains, and by immunofluorescence antibody tests and PCR for species diagnosis of microsporidia. At baseline, 19 patients (10.8 % were under antiretroviral therapy and 156 (89.2 % were eligible for ART. The main diagnosis for justifying hospitalization was intestinal infection associated with diarrhea in 87 out of 175 (49.7 %. 47 out of 175 (26.9 % were found to harbor an IP, and 27 out of 175 (15.4 % were infected with at least one opportunistic IP (OIP. Prevalence rate for OIP were 9.7 %, 5.1 %, 1.7 % and 0.6 % for Cryptosporidium sp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Isospora belli and Encephalitozoon intestinalis respectively. Considering patients with diarrhea only, prevalence rate were 12.6 %, 4.6 %, 3.4 % and 1.1 % respectively. The other IP observed were Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in nine cases (5.1 %, Ascaris lumbricoïdes in seven cases (4.0 %, Giardia intestinalis in three cases (1.7 %, hookworm in two cases (1.1 % and Trichiuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Schistosoma mansoni in one patient each (0.6 %. No significant relationship was established between any individual IP and diarrhea. These results underline the importance of OIP in symptomatic AIDS patients regardless of diarrhea at the time of the hospitalisation, and showed that routine microscopic examination using stains designed for Cryptosporidium spp. or the microsporidia should be considered due to the absence of clinical markers.

  13. Geospatial Information Informs Bonobo (pan Paniscus) Conservation Efforts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackoney, J.; Hickey, J.; Williams, D.; Facheux, C.; Dupain, J.

    2014-12-01

    The bonobo (Pan paniscus), a great ape that is endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), has been listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2007. Hunting and habitat loss are primary threats. Two recent wars and ongoing conflicts in the DRC have resulted in political and economic instability that hampers on-the-ground work, thereby accentuating the importance of spatial data and maps as tools for monitoring threats remotely and prioritizing locations for safeguarding bonobo habitat. Several regional and rangewide efforts have leveraged the utility of existing spatial data to help focus limited resources for effective broad-scale conservation of these great apes. At local scales, we developed spatial models to identify locations of highest hunting pressure, predict future human settlement and agricultural expansion, map areas of highest conservation value to bonobos, and identify the connective corridors linking them. We identified 42 least-disturbed wildland blocks meeting the minimum home range size needed for bonobos, and 32 potential corridors. At the range-wide scale, we developed a first range-wide spatial model of suitable conditions for the bonobo; this was a major contribution to the development of a Bonobo Conservation Strategy for 2012-2022, recently published by IUCN. The model used a forest edge density metric and other biotic and abiotic variables in conjunction with bonobo nest data collected during 2003-2010 by over 40 bonobo researchers. Approximately 28% of the range was predicted suitable; of that, about 27.5% was located in official protected areas. Highlighting these examples, this presentation will discuss the conservation status of bonobos and how spatial data and models are being utilized for the formation of strategic conservation plans.

  14. Sensibility analysis of VORIS lava-flow simulations: application to Nyamulagira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    A. M. Syavulisembo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga area in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1–4 years – mostly in the form of lava flows – at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than two years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano, thereby affecting very large areas and having a serious impact on the region of Virunga. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at the Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO, we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007, a freely available software (http://www.gvb-csic.es based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling lava flow propagation. We tested different Digital Elevation Models (DEM – SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM – to analyze the sensibility of the input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1 in simulation of recent historical lava-flow for which the pre-eruption topography is known. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS model for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management.

  15. Risk profiling of hookworm infection and intensity in southern Lao People's Democratic Republic using Bayesian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Vounatsou, Penelope; Sayasone, Somphou; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Utzinger, Jürg; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Among the common soil-transmitted helminth infections, hookworm causes the highest burden. Previous research in the southern part of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) revealed high prevalence rates of hookworm infection. The purpose of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of hookworm infection and intensity, and to investigate risk factors in the Champasack province, southern Lao PDR. A cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire survey was conducted in 51 villages. Data on demography, socioeconomic status, water, sanitation, and behavior were combined with remotely sensed environmental data. Bayesian mixed effects logistic and negative binomial models were utilized to investigate risk factors and spatial distribution of hookworm infection and intensity, and to make predictions for non-surveyed locations. A total of 3,371 individuals were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and revealed a hookworm prevalence of 48.8%. Most infections (91.7%) were of light intensity (1-1,999 eggs/g of stool). Lower hookworm infection levels were associated with higher socioeconomic status. The lowest infection levels were found in preschool-aged children. Overall, females were at lower risk of infection, but women aged 50 years and above harbored the heaviest hookworm infection intensities. Hookworm was widespread in Champasack province with little evidence for spatial clustering. Infection risk was somewhat lower in the lowlands, mostly along the western bank of the Mekong River, while infection intensity was homogeneous across the Champasack province. Hookworm transmission seems to occur within, rather than between villages in Champasack province. We present spatial risk maps of hookworm infection and intensity, which suggest that control efforts should be intensified in the Champasack province, particularly in mountainous areas.

  16. Using fragmentation to assess degradation of forest edges in Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Aurélie C; Aguilar-Amuchastegui, Naikoa; Hostert, Patrick; Bastin, Jean-François

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that fragmentation is an increasing threat to global forests, which has major impacts on biodiversity and the important ecosystem services provided by forested landscapes. Several tools have been developed to evaluate global patterns of fragmentation, which have potential applications for REDD+. We study how canopy height and above ground biomass (AGB) change across several categories of forest edges determined by fragmentation analysis. We use Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as an example. An analysis of variance of different edge widths and airborne estimated canopy height found that canopy heights were significantly different in forest edges at a distance of 100 m from the nonforest edge. Biomass was significantly different between fragmentation classes at an edge distance of 300 m. Core forest types were found to have significantly higher canopy height and greater AGB than forest edges and patches, where height and biomass decrease significantly as the level of fragmentation increases. A change analysis shows that deforestation and degradation are increasing over time and biomass loss associated with degradation account for at least one quarter of total loss. We estimate that about 80 % of primary forests are intact, which decreases 3.5 % over the 15 year study period, as primary forest is either deforested or transitioned to forest edge. While the carbon loss per hectare is lower than that of deforestation, degradation potentially affects up to three times more area than deforestation alone. When defining forest degradation by decreased biomass without any loss in forest area, assessing transitions of core forest to edges over time can contribute an important element to REDD+MRV systems. The estimation of changes between different forest fragmentation types and their associated biomass loss can provide an estimate of degradation carbon emission factors. Forest degradation and emissions due to fragmentation are often

  17. Pilot Research as Advocacy: The Case of Sayana Press in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2016-12-23

    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Ministry of Health authorizes only physicians and nurses to give injections, with one exception-medical and nursing students may also give injections if supervised by a clinical instructor. The emergence of the injectable contraceptive Sayana Press in some African countries prompted the DRC to test the acceptability and feasibility of distributing Sayana Press and other contraceptive methods at the community level through medical and nursing students. Sayana Press is similar in formulation to the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera but contains a lower dose and is administered subcutaneously using a single-use syringe with a short needle called the Uniject system. The Uniject system allows Sayana Press to be administered by community health workers without clinical training or by self-injection. In this pilot, the advocacy objective was to obtain approval from the Ministry of Health to allow medical and nursing students to inject Sayana Press, as a first step toward authorization for community health workers to provide the method. The pilot described in this article documents a process whereby an innovative approach moved from concept to implementation to replication in less than 2 years. It also paved the way for testing additional progressive strategies to increase access to contraception at the community level. Because the pilot project included a research component designed to assess benefits and challenges, it provided the means to introduce the new task-shifting approach, which might not have been approved otherwise. Key pilot activities included: (1) increasing awareness of Sayana Press among family planning stakeholders at a national conference on family planning, (2) enlisting the support of key decision makers in designing the pilot, (3) obtaining marketing authorization to distribute Sayana Press in the DRC, (4) implementing the pilot from July to December 2015, (5) conducting quantitative and

  18. Agricultural Production and Trade Structure Profile in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.- P. E. Lubanda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The African region represents the weak point of the world economy. Many African countries have still not finished the process of transforming their economy. Agriculture represents only a minor portion of their economies’ performance – however it is still a key sector of the economy (especially considering the number of people working in agriculture or people representing the agricultural population. The agricultural sector in many sub-Saharan countries is extremely sensitive and its stability affects the stability of the whole region. A very good example representing sub-Saharan Africa is the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. It is a country with a lot of potential, but it is classified among the poorest countries in the world. Its economy is extremely weak (despite its significant share in total GDP formation value, and underdeveloped. The share of agriculture in total GDP formation is over 42.5%. The number of people living in rural areas represents over 45 million out of a total of 75 million. The number of people working in agriculture is over 60% of the total economically active population. The economy of the country is extremely poor and fragile, mainly because of political instability. The aim of this paper is firstly to specify the position of agriculture in the DRC economy, and also to specify the production and trade commodity structure in relation to other African countries. The paper’s ambition is to identify the most perspective commodities (groups of commodities, both for production and also for trade, and to recommend such a production and trade profile which would allow the DRC the possibility of improving its competitiveness - not only in relation to other African countries, but also in relation to the global market. The production and trade commodity structures are analysed through the application of the BCG method and competitiveness analysis. In relation to these objectives, the paper provides the following conclusions

  19. External quality assessment of malaria microscopy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokombe Jean

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background External quality assessments (EQA are an alternative to cross-checking of blood slides in the quality control of malaria microscopy. This study reports the findings of an EQA of malaria microscopy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Methods After validation, an EQA slide panel and a questionnaire were delivered to diagnostic laboratories in four provinces of DRC. The panel included three samples for diagnosis (sample 1: Plasmodium falciparum, 177,000/μl, sample 2: P. falciparum, 2,500/μl, sample 3: no parasites seen, one didactic sample (Howell-Jolly bodies and one sample for assessing the quality of staining. Participating laboratories were addressed and selected through the network of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. Participants were asked to return the responses together with a stained thin and thick blood film for evaluation of Giemsa stain quality. Results Among 174 participants (response rate 95.1%, 26.2% scored samples 1, 2 and 3 correctly and 34.3%, 21.5% and 5.8% of participants reported major errors in one, two or three samples respectively. Major errors included reporting "no malaria" or "non-falciparum malaria" for Plasmodium falciparum-positive samples 1 and 2 (16.1% and 34.9% of participants respectively and "P. falciparum" for Plasmodium negative sample 3 (24.0%. Howell-Jolly bodies (didactic sample were not recognized by any of the participants but reported as "P. falciparum" by 16.7% of participants. With parasite density expressed according to the "plus system", 16.1% and 21.5% of participants scored one "+" different from the reference score for samples 1 and 2 respectively and 9.7% and 2.9% participants scored more than two "+" different. When expressed as counts of asexual parasites/μl, more than two-thirds of results were outside the mean ± 2SD reference values. The quality of the Giemsa stain was poor, with less than 20% slides complying with all criteria assessed. Only one

  20. Pilot Research as Advocacy: The Case of Sayana Press in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Ministry of Health authorizes only physicians and nurses to give injections, with one exception—medical and nursing students may also give injections if supervised by a clinical instructor. The emergence of the injectable contraceptive Sayana Press in some African countries prompted the DRC to test the acceptability and feasibility of distributing Sayana Press and other contraceptive methods at the community level through medical and nursing students. Sayana Press is similar in formulation to the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera but contains a lower dose and is administered subcutaneously using a single-use syringe with a short needle called the Uniject system. The Uniject system allows Sayana Press to be administered by community health workers without clinical training or by self-injection. In this pilot, the advocacy objective was to obtain approval from the Ministry of Health to allow medical and nursing students to inject Sayana Press, as a first step toward authorization for community health workers to provide the method. The pilot described in this article documents a process whereby an innovative approach moved from concept to implementation to replication in less than 2 years. It also paved the way for testing additional progressive strategies to increase access to contraception at the community level. Because the pilot project included a research component designed to assess benefits and challenges, it provided the means to introduce the new task-shifting approach, which might not have been approved otherwise. Key pilot activities included: (1) increasing awareness of Sayana Press among family planning stakeholders at a national conference on family planning, (2) enlisting the support of key decision makers in designing the pilot, (3) obtaining marketing authorization to distribute Sayana Press in the DRC, (4) implementing the pilot from July to December 2015, (5) conducting quantitative

  1. The malaria testing and treatment market in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpanya, Godéfroid; Tshefu, Antoinette; Likwela, Joris Losimba

    2017-02-28

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is one of the two most leading contributors to the global burden of disease due to malaria. This paper describes the malaria testing and treatment market in the nation's capital province of Kinshasa, including availability of malaria testing and treatment and relative anti-malarial market share for the public and private sector. A malaria medicine outlet survey was conducted in Kinshasa province in 2013. Stratified multi-staged sampling was used to select areas for the survey. Within sampled areas, all outlets with the potential to sell or distribute anti-malarials in the public and private sector were screened for eligibility. Among outlets with anti-malarials or malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) in stock, a full audit of all available products was conducted. Information collected included product information (e.g. active ingredients, brand name), amount reportedly distributed to patients in the past week, and retail price. In total, 3364 outlets were screened for inclusion across Kinshasa and 1118 outlets were eligible for the study. Among all screened outlets in the private sector only about one in ten (12.1%) were stocking quality-assured Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) medicines. Among all screened public sector facilities, 24.5% had both confirmatory testing and quality-assured ACT available, and 20.2% had sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) available for intermittent preventive therapy during pregnancy (IPTp). The private sector distributed the majority of anti-malarials in Kinshasa (96.7%), typically through drug stores (89.1% of the total anti-malarial market). Non-artemisinin therapies were the most commonly distributed anti-malarial (50.1% of the total market), followed by non quality-assured ACT medicines (38.5%). The median price of an adult quality-assured ACT was $6.59, and more expensive than non quality-assured ACT ($3.71) and SP ($0.44). Confirmatory testing was largely not available in the private

  2. [Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 outbreak in Democratic Republic of Congo 2011-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazira, L; Coulibaly, T; Mayenga, M; Ncharre, C; Yogolelo, R; Mbule, A; Moudzeo, H; Lwamba, P; Mulumba, A W; Cabore, J

    2015-10-01

    According to the WHO records of 2013, the incidence of poliomyelitis was reduced by more than 99%, the number of endemic countries decreased from 125 in 1988 to 3 in 2013 and over 10 million cases were prevented from poliomyelitis thanks to the intensive use of Oral polio vaccine (OPV). However, the emergence of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus strains (cVDPV), causing serious epidemics like the wild poliovirus, is a major challenge on the final straight towards the goal of eradication and OPV cessation. This paper describes the cVDPVoutbreak that occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) from November 2011 to April 2012. All children under 15 years of age with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and confirmed presence of cVDPV in the stool samples were included. Thirty (30) children, all from the administrative territories of Bukama and Malemba Nkulu in the Katanga Province (south-east DRC), were reported. The virus responsible was the cVDPV type 2 (0.7% -3.5% divergent from the reference Sabin 2 strain) in 29 children (97%) and the ambiguous vaccine-derived poliovirus strain (0.7% divergent) was confirmed in one case (3%), a boy seventeen months old and already vaccinated four times with OPV. Twentyfive children (83%) were protected by any of the routine EPI vaccines and 3 children (10%) had never received any dose of OPV. In reaction, DRC has conducted five local campaigns over a period of 10 months (from January to October 2012) and the epidemic was stopped after the second round performed in March 2012. As elsewhere in similar conditions, low immunization coverage, poor sanitation conditions and the stop of the use of OPV2 have favoured the emergence of the third cVDPV epidemic in DRC. The implementation of the Strategic Plan for Polio eradication and endgame strategic plan 2013-2018 will prevent the emergence of cVDPV and set up the conditions for a coordinated OPV phase out.

  3. Molecular malaria epidemiology: mapping and burden estimates for the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M Taylor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data on malaria are scant in many high-burden countries including the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, which suffers the second-highest global burden of malaria. Malaria control efforts in regions with challenging infrastructure require reproducible and efficient surveillance. We employed new high-throughput molecular testing to characterize the state of malaria control in the DRC and estimate childhood mortality attributable to excess malaria transmission. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Demographic and Health Survey was a cross-sectional, population-based cluster household survey of adults aged 15-59 years in 2007 employing structured questionnaires and dried blood spot collection. Parasitemia was detected by real-time PCR, and survey responses measured adoption of malaria control measures and under-5 health indices. The response rate was 99% at the household level, and 8,886 households were surveyed in 300 clusters; from 8,838 respondents molecular results were available. The overall prevalence of parasitemia was 33.5% (95% confidence interval [C.I.] 32-34.9; P. falciparum was the most prevalent species, either as monoinfection (90.4%; 95% C.I. 88.8-92.1 or combined with P. malariae (4.9%; 95% C.I. 3.7-5.9 or P. ovale (0.6%; 95% C.I. 0.1-0.9. Only 7.7% (95% CI 6.8-8.6 of households with children under 5 owned an insecticide-treated bednet (ITN, and only 6.8% (95% CI 6.1-7.5 of under-fives slept under an ITN the preceding night. The overall under-5 mortality rate was 147 deaths per 1,000 live births (95% C.I. 141-153 and between clusters was associated with increased P. falciparum prevalence; based on the population attributable fraction, 26,488 yearly under-5 deaths were attributable to excess malaria transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Adult P. falciparum prevalence is substantial in the DRC and is associated with under-5 mortality. Molecular testing offers a new, generalizable, and efficient approach to characterizing

  4. The effect of war on infant mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskog, Elina Elveborg

    2016-10-06

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has suffered from war and lingering conflicts in East DRC and has one of the highest infant mortality rates in the world. Prior research has documented increases in infant and child mortality associated with war, but the empirical evidence is limited in several respects. Measures of conflict are quite crude or conflict is not tightly linked to periods of exposure to infant death. Few studies have distinguished between the effects of war on neonatal versus post-neonatal infants. No study has considered possible differences between women who give birth during wartime and those who do not that may be related to greater infant mortality. The analysis used the nationally representative sample of 15,103 mothers and 53,768 children from the 2007 and 2013/2014 Demographic Health Survey in the DRC and indicators of conflict events and conflict deaths from the 2013 Uppsala Conflict Data. To account for unobserved heterogeneity across women, a multi-level modeling approach was followed by grouping all births for each woman and estimating random intercepts in discrete time event history models. Post-neonatal mortality increased during the Congolese wars, and was highest where conflict events and deaths were extreme. Neonatal mortality was not associated with conflict levels. Infant mortality was not higher in East DRC, where conflicts continued during the post Congolese war period. Models specifying unobserved differences between mothers who give birth during war and those who have children in peacetime did not reduce the estimated effect of war, i.e., no support was found for selectivity in the sample of births during war. Differences in effects of the Congolese war on neonatal versus post-neonatal mortality suggest that conflict influences the conditions of infants' lives more than the aspects of mothers' pregnancy conditions and delivery that are relevant for infant mortality. These differences may, however, be specific to the nature

  5. Public Expenditure Review of the Education Sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo: An Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Equity Analysis. Report No. ACS14542

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollag, Burton, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    A sound education sector is fundamental for the economic, social, and political transformation of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC has achieved significant progress in its education sector over the last decade, demonstrating strong resilience following a particularly violent period in its history. The DRC's development trajectory…

  6. The Republic of Blogs: a new phase in the development and democratization of knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Dunleavy, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    After a long period of monopolising academic discourse, European universities went into decline. Intellectual development moved outside the walled gardens of academia creating a Republic of Letters. Patrick Dunleavy argues that we are experiencing a similar shift towards a ‘Republic of Blogs’ that enlarges communication and evidence beyond the halls of universities.

  7. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis Using Optical Satellite Imagery and GIS Data for the Detection of Mining Sites in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritjof Luethje

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation is an important source of information in areas that are too remote, too insecure or even both for traditional field surveys. A multi-scale analysis approach is developed to monitor the Kivu provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC to identify hot spots of mining activities and provide reliable information about the situation in and around two selected mining sites, Mumba-Bibatama and Bisie. The first is the test case for the approach and the detection of unknown mining sites, whereas the second acts as reference case since it is the largest and most well-known location for cassiterite extraction in eastern Congo. Thus it plays a key-role within the context of the conflicts in this region. Detailed multi-temporal analyses of very high-resolution (VHR satellite data demonstrates the capabilities of Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA techniques for providing information about the situation during a mining ban announced by the Congolese President between September 2010 and March 2011. Although the opening of new surface patches can serve as an indication for activities in the area, the pure change between the two satellite images does not in itself produce confirming evidence. However, in combination with observations on the ground, it becomes evident that mining activities continued in Bisie during the ban, even though the production volume went down considerably.

  8. Object-based image analysis for the assessment of mineral extraction in conflict regions - a case study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Olaf; Schoepfer, Elisabeth; Spröhnle, Kristin; Lang, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    In this study object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques were applied to assess land cover changes related to mineral extraction in a conflict-affected area of the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) over a period of five years based on very high resolution (VHR) satellite data of different sensors. Object-based approaches explicitly consider spatio-temporal aspects which allow extracting important information to document mining activities. The use of remote sensing data as an independent, up-to-date and reliable data source provided hints on the general development of the mining sector in relation to socio-economic and political decisions. While in early 2010, the situation was still characterised by an intensification of mineral extraction, a mining ban between autumn 2010 and spring 2011 marked the starting point for a continuous decrease of mining activities. The latter can be substantiated through a decrease in the extend of the mining area as well as of the number of dwellings in the nearby settlement. A following demilitarisation and the mentioned need for accountability with respect to the origin of certain minerals led to organised, more industrialized exploitation. This development is likewise visible on satellite imagery as typical clearings within forested areas. The results of the continuous monitoring in turn facilitate non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to further foster the mentioned establishment of responsible supply chains by the mining industry throughout the entire period of investigation.

  9. Object-based image analysis for the assessment of mineral extraction in conflict regions – a case study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kranz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study object-based image analysis (OBIA techniques were applied to assess land cover changes related to mineral extraction in a conflict-affected area of the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC over a period of five years based on very high resolution (VHR satellite data of different sensors. Object-based approaches explicitly consider spatio-temporal aspects which allow extracting important information to document mining activities. The use of remote sensing data as an independent, up-to-date and reliable data source provided hints on the general development of the mining sector in relation to socio-economic and political decisions. While in early 2010, the situation was still characterised by an intensification of mineral extraction, a mining ban between autumn 2010 and spring 2011 marked the starting point for a continuous decrease of mining activities. The latter can be substantiated through a decrease in the extend of the mining area as well as of the number of dwellings in the nearby settlement. A following demilitarisation and the mentioned need for accountability with respect to the origin of certain minerals led to organised, more industrialized exploitation. This development is likewise visible on satellite imagery as typical clearings within forested areas. The results of the continuous monitoring in turn facilitate non-governmental organisations (NGOs to further foster the mentioned establishment of responsible supply chains by the mining industry throughout the entire period of investigation.

  10. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  11. High prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella species in rats and fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area.

  12. Two new genera of nematode (Oxyurida, Hystrignathidae parasites of Passalidae (Coleoptera from the Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Jans Morffe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera and species parasitizing passalid beetles from the Democratic Republic of Congo are described. Kongonema meyeri gen. n. sp. n. is characterized byfemales with the cervical cuticle unarmed, first cephalic annule cone-like and truncate, sub-cylindrical procorpus and genital tract didelphic-amphidelphic. The males of K. meyeri gen. n. sp. n. have the procorpus sub-cylindrical, the dorsal cuticle of the tail end thickened, a single large, median mammiform pre-cloacal papilla and a pair of small, pre-cloacal, sub-lateral papillae at a short distance before the level of the cloaca. Lubanema decraemerae gen. n. sp. n. is characterized by the body markedly fusiform, cuticle unarmed and strongly annulated, procorpus sub-cylindrical, isthmus as a constriction between procorpus and basal bulb, genital tract monodelphic-prodelphic and the posterior end rounded with a very short tail appendage.

  13. Two new genera of nematode (Oxyurida, Hystrignathidae) parasites of Passalidae (Coleoptera) from the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morffe, Jans; García, Nayla

    2013-01-01

    Two new genera and species parasitizing passalid beetles from the Democratic Republic of Congo are described. Kongonema meyeri gen. n. sp. n. is characterized by having females with the cervical cuticle unarmed, first cephalic annule cone-like and truncate, sub-cylindrical procorpus and genital tract didelphic-amphidelphic. The males of Kongonema meyeri gen. n. sp. n. have the procorpus sub-cylindrical, the dorsal cuticle of the tail end thickened, a single large, median mammiform pre-cloacal papilla and a pair of small, pre-cloacal, sub-lateral papillae at a short distance before the level of the cloaca. Lubanema decraemerae gen. n. sp. n. is characterized by the body markedly fusiform, cuticle unarmed and strongly annulated, procorpus sub-cylindrical, isthmus as a constriction between procorpus and basal bulb, genital tract monodelphic-prodelphic and the posterior end rounded with a very short tail appendage.

  14. Surrendering to the Big Picture: Historical and Legal Perspectives on Accountability in the Democratic Republic of Congo Following the Defeat of the March 23 Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet McKnight

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It remains to be seen whether the past few months will mark a genuine turning point in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, as the rebel faction March 23 Movement (M23 announced the end of its 20-month insurgency against the government on 5 November 2013. News of the rebel group’s surrender following its political and military defeat signals an important moment of hope and renewed prospects of peace and stability in a region prone to protracted armed conflict. However, long-term stability in the country and in the region will require a multi-faceted process consisting of comprehensive accountability for human rights violations that have been committed by all parties to the conflict. In this article, I will first lay out the historical context of the fighting and the root causes of conflict present long before M23’s entrance onto the scene as a splintered rebel faction so as to understand M23’s place within the country’s history of protracted violence. Next, I will explain the violations of international humanitarian and human rights law committed by all possible parties, including rebel and government groups, as well as individual criminal responsibility and corporate liability. Lastly, I will chart the pathways of criminal and social accountability at various levels of international and domestic justice systems to see how the DRC may continue to build long-term local stability in the eastern parts of the country by addressing the question of accountability for international crimes. This brief analysis aims to provide a broader understanding of a complex conflict beyond the defeat and disarmament of M23, albeit a key group in a region of contentious cross-border conflict.

  15. Economic Revival: The Key to the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea’s Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    and alloy steel to China , whereas China sent coal, oil, cotton , raw rubber, sugar, and structural steel to the DPRK.80 China’s economic aid to the...71 viii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Loan Distribution from China ...Cooperation and Development PDS production distribution system PRC People’s Republic of China R&D research and development ROK Republic of Korea

  16. Military and Security Developments Involving the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Korea 2012 A Report to Congress Pursuant to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 Section 1236 of the...by these commitments, the Department of Defense will continue to manage the North Korean security challenge through close coordination and... Korea 3 CHAPTER ONE: ASSESSMENT OF THE SECURITY SITUATION KEY DEVELOPMENTS IN NORTH KOREAN AND PENINSULAR SECURITY The Democratic People’s

  17. His Excellency Mr Shanker Das Bairagi, Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2012-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Shanker Das Bairagi, Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  18. His Excellency Mr Deepak Dhital Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Deepak Dhital Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  19. Democratic Republic of Congo Reforming the Public Service Wage System : Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The civil service management model in the Demorcatic Republic of Congo (DRC) still conforms to the old institutional order. The legislation governing employment in the public sector is unchanged and still responds to centralized administration. The public administration categorizes public employees in two main groups: civil servants and local public employees. Civil servants are governed b...

  20. Field Assessment of a Novel Household-Based Water Filtration Device: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Boisson, S; Kiyombo, M; Sthreshley, L; Tumba, S; Makambo, J; Clasen, T

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Household water treatment can improve the microbiological quality of drinking water and may prevent diarrheal diseases. However, current methods of treating water at home have certain shortcomings, and there is evidence of bias in the reported health impact of the intervention in open trial designs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial among 240 households (1,144 persons) in rural Democratic Republic of Congo to assess the field...

  1. Dynamics of phytoestrogen, isoflavonoids, and its isolation from stems of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi growing in Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Chol Mun; Gwan-Sim Mun

    2015-01-01

    Four isoflavonoids were isolated from stems of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi growing in Democratic People's Republic of Korea and identified as daidzein (1), genistin (2), daidzin (3), and puerarin (4), structures, which were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis. Isoflavonoids were isolated using silica gel chromatography and purified with organic solvents. Isoflavonoid contents in P. lobata were determined using reliable high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated ...

  2. Resource Wars and Conflict Ivory: The Impact of Civil Conflict on Elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo - The Case of the Okapi Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Beyers, Rene L.; Hart, John A.; Sinclair, Anthony R. E.; Falk Grossmann; Brian Klinkenberg; Simeon Dino

    2011-01-01

    Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to doc...

  3. An innovative approach to using both cellphones and the radio to identify young people’s sexual concerns in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Nsakala, Gabriel Vodiena; Coppieters, Yves; Kayembe, Patrick Kalambayi

    2014-01-01

    Background As teenagers have easy access to both radio programs and cell phones, the current study used these tools so that young people could anonymously identify questions about sex and other related concerns in the urban environment of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The purpose of this healthcare intervention was to identify and address concerns raised by young people, which are related to sexual health, and which promote youth health. Methods This healthcare intervention was conducted ...

  4. ASEAN-China Free Trade Area and the Competitiveness of Local Industries: A Case Study of Major Industries in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Leebouapao, Leebeer; INSISIENMAY, Sthabandith; Vanthana NOLINTHA

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an evaluation of the impact of the ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA) on industries in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). In general, the paper finds that price competitiveness in the three industries under review falls substantially if tariffs are completely removed. However, the degree of impact varies substantially across industries. In the wood processing and cement industries, of which the latter benefits from import substitution policies, competiti...

  5. High heterogeneity in Plasmodium falciparum risk illustrates the need for detailed mapping to guide resource allocation: a new malaria risk map of the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phompida Samlane

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate information on the geographical distribution of malaria is important for efficient resource allocation. The Lao People's Democratic Republic has experienced a major decline in malaria morbidity and mortality in the past decade. However, efforts to respond effectively to these changes have been impeded by lack of detailed data on malaria distribution. In 2008, a countrywide survey on Plasmodium falciparum diagnosed in health centres and villages was initiated to develop a detailed P. falciparum risk map with the aim to identify priority areas for malaria control, estimate population at risk, and guide resource allocation in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Methods P. falciparum incidence data were collected from point-referenced villages and health centres for the period 2006-2008 during a country-wide survey between December 2008 and January 2009. Using the highest recorded annual rate, continuous surfaces of P. falciparum incidence were produced by the inverse distance weighted interpolation technique. Results Incidence rates were obtained from 3,876 villages and 685 health centres. The risk map shows that P. falciparum is highly heterogeneous in the northern and central regions of the country with large areas of no transmission. In the southern part, transmission is pervasive and the risk of P. falciparum is high. It was estimated that 3.4 million people (60% of the population live at risk of malaria. Conclusions This paper presents the first comprehensive malaria risk map of the Lao People's Democratic Republic based entirely on empirical data. The estimated population at risk is substantially lower than previous estimates, reflecting the presence of vast areas with focal or no malaria transmission as identified in this study. These findings provide important guidance for malaria control interventions in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, and underline the need for detailed data on malaria to accurately

  6. Geospatial and age-related patterns of Taenia solium taeniasis in the rural health zone of Kimpese, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    OpenAIRE

    Madinga Ntwan, Joule; Kanobana, Kirezi; Lukanu, Philippe; Abatih, Emmanuel; Baloji, Sylvain; Linsuke, Sylvie; Praet, Nicolas; Kapinga, Serge; Polman,Katja; Lutumba, Pascal; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Wendy; Gabriel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Taenia solium infections are mostly endemic in less developed countries where poor hygiene conditions and free-range pig management favor their transmission. Knowledge on patterns of infections in both human and pig is crucial to design effective control strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution of taeniasis in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), in the prospect of upcoming control activities. METHODS:...

  7. Child mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: cross-sectional evidence of the effect of geographic location and prolonged conflict from a national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Mandungu, Tumwaka P; Mbela, Kisumbula; Nzita, Kikhela P D; Kalambayi, Banza B; Kayembe, Kalambayi P; Emina, Jacques B O

    2014-03-20

    The child mortality rate is a good indicator of development. High levels of infectious diseases and high child mortality make the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) one of the most challenging environments for health development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recent conflicts in the eastern part of the country and bad governance have compounded the problem. This study aimed to examine province-level geographic variation in under-five mortality (U5M), accounting for individual- and household-level risk factors including environmental factors such as conflict. Our analysis used the nationally representative cross-sectional household sample of 8,992 children under five in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey. In the survey year, 1,005 deaths among this group were observed. Information on U5M was aggregated to the 11 provinces, and a Bayesian geo-additive discrete-time survival mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) at the province level, accounting for observable and unobservable risk factors. The overall U5MR was 159 per 1,000 live births. Significant associations with risk of U5M were found for geographic patterns in rates of U5M in the DRC and shows the potential role of individual child, household and environmental factors, which are unexplained by the ongoing conflict. The displacement of mothers to safer areas may explain the lower U5MR observed at the epicentre of the conflict in North Kivu, compared with rates in conflict-free areas. Overall, the U5M maps point to a lack of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal of reducing U5M by half by 2015.

  8. Fluvial braidplain evolving into lagoonal environment in the coarse marginal facies of the lower buntsandstein relicts in saxony (German Democratic Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Siegfried

    The Lower Buntsandstein in Saxony (German Democratic Republic) is present in mainly isolated relicts in the Zeitz-Schmölln Syncline, the Borna Syncline and the Mügeln Basin where the Nordhausen-Folge and the lower part of the Bernburg-Folge are preserved. The separate occurrences are the remnants of a formerly continuous and extensive distribution of the Buntsandstein which was dissolved and split into pieces by erosion and tectonics. The Buntsandstein overlies the Zechstein; only in the eastern parts of the Mügeln Basin, the Triassic red beds lap on the crystalline basement. Palaeocurrents as revealed from cross-stratification and composition of the gravel-size clasts were directed towards the north and northwest. As most of the pebbles derived from provenance areas that are located some 10 - 30 km south of the occurrences, the Buntsandstein remnants in Saxony represent a marginal part of the basin, as also indicated by the coarse facies. Conglomerates were formed in highly- to moderately-braided river systems operating in braidplain belts or even alluvial-fan chains seaming the basement at the boundary of the depositional area. Towards the centre of the basin, the conglomerate train gives rapidly way to a sand flat in front of the braidplain belt or fan chain where the rivers are no longer capable to transport gravel-size material as a consequence of lowering of the palaeoslope gradient. Accumulation of sand by infilling of shallow watercourses and accretion of mud by plugging of overbank lakes and ponds take place at the margin of a lagoonal sea. The Buntsandstein onlapping on the crystalline basement buries a fossil block package in the granodiorite of the Meißen Massif which originated by weathering and pedogenesis in a semi-arid climate with alternating dry and wet periods. The temporarily brakish lagoonal sea is repeatedly refreshed by influx from braided rivers in the marginal parts that come from the continent.

  9. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyers, Rene L; Hart, John A; Sinclair, Anthony R E; Grossmann, Falk; Klinkenberg, Brian; Dino, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats.

  10. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene L Beyers

    Full Text Available Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats.

  11. Heterogenite vs asbolane: a mineralogical study of cobalt oxides from the DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlet, Christian; Vanbrabant, Yves; Decree, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    The largest cobalt ore reserves are located in DRC, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Most of cobalt is observed as black cobaltic oxide minerals: heterogenite [HCoO2] and asbolane [(Ni,Co)2-xMn(O,OH)4.nH2O] which are hardly differentiable since they exhibit similar macroscopic habit and textures. These minerals are frequently observed in similar environment (oxidized horizon of ore deposits) and they are commonly poorly-crystallized limiting their study with XRD. Their chemical composition is also not very well-constrained since they exhibit significant chemical substitutions with cations as Cu, Co, Ni, Mn. Our observations on a set of heterogenite and asbolane samples from DRC combined with samples from other localities shows that each phase, even under an amorphous form, can be readily distinguished by Raman microspectrometry. This technique is therefore attractive during ore deposit characterization campaigns or during the follow-up extraction operations where it is important to distinguish the main constituting Co-phase(s). The main advantage of this technique is its speed since no sample preparation is required during the collection Raman spectra that usually last few tens of seconds. The method provides information at a μm-scale and several points are thus required to fully characterize ore batches composed of different mineralogical phases. Our petrographical observations show also that asbolane and heterogenite mineralogical phases can coexist at a μm-scale as two distinct phases into 'heterogenite' ore. The distinction between heterogenite and asbolane from our sample set can also be conducted on a chemical base showing that heterogenite represents the richer Co-phase with variable Cu concentrations. By contrast, only Mn traces are usually observed in heterogenite minerals from DRC except in few samples, but always in lower concentration than in asbolane. The latter shows variable Mn/(Mn+Co) ratio between 0.85 and 0.3 and the decrease of this value is

  12. [On the history of the German Democratic Republic Journal Psychiatry, Neurology and Medical Psychology (1949-1990)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitge, M; Kumbier, E

    2015-05-01

    Scientific journals were established in the Soviet occupied zone following WWII in order to distinguish themselves from the other occupying powers. Starting in 1949 a journal with the title "Psychiatry, Neurology and Medical Psychology" was founded as no publishing house existed in the field of psychiatry and neurology and it became necessary to establish a new journal that was competitive. The journal was primarily distributed in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) until 1990 but the interest internationally was very limited. State affairs had a great influence from the very beginning so that the political involvement was reflected in the selection of staff, such as the publishers and the head of the editorial department and by the close interconnection between the Society for Psychiatry and Neurology of the GDR and the editorship of the journal. The publishers who were primarily responsible and the authors were at the interface of politics and science. Nevertheless, in an international comparison many parallels can be found in the orientation with respect to the content.

  13. The relevance of human capital to firm performance: A focus on the retail industry in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and problem: Human capital represents an investment in education and skills. However, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC the ability of small-scale retailers to grow and increase firm performance is restricted by the scarcity of education and prior work experience.Methodology: Survey data were collected from 126 owner-managers in the retail industry in Kinshasa, DRC, in order to investigate the proposed relationship between the human capital components of education, work experience and venture performance.Findings: Several variables pertaining to education and prior work experience were related to different aspects of venture performance, allowing for support of the hypotheses. Nonetheless, when clustering was conducted some surprising results were observed in that owner-managers tended to have little work experience even where their venture was performing well.Implications: Research into human capital and links to performance in Africa and emerging markets is valuable as recent research has found that the matching of entrepreneurial human capital with opportunities for growth is the essence of economic development.

  14. Ethno-entomological observations from North Korea (officially known as the “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer-Rochow V Benno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In terms of scientific activities generally and ethnobiological pursuits in particular, North Korea, officially known as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, is an almost blank entity on the quilt of global research. During a sabbatical semester at Pyongyang University of Science and Technology the author used this opportunity to gather some information on the uses of insect and other terrestrial arthropods as human food and components of traditional healing methods in that country. Despite the widely publicised shortcomings in the supply of food stuffs to the population of North Korea, insects are not generally seen as a source of food worthy of exploitation. However, the therapeutic use of insects, centipedes and scorpions to treat illnesses as diverse as the common cold, skin rashes, constipation, dysentery, nervous prostration, whooping cough, osteomyelitis, tetanus, and various forms of cancer is apparently still popular. The arthropods used therapeutically are credited with anti-inflammatory, immunological and other health-promoting effects, because they are said to contain hormones, steroids, lipids and plant-derived alkaloids, all of which capable of exerting their effects on the human body.

  15. Rediscovery of Glauconycteris superba Hayman, 1939 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae after 40 years at Mbiye Island, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Van Cakenberghe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the rediscovery of the Pied Butterfly Bat, Glauconycteris superba Hayman, 1939, 40 years after this species was last recorded. The new specimen from Mbiye Island, Democratic Republic of the Congo, is compared with the type specimens of G. s. superba and G. superba sheila Hayman, 1947 and a specimen from Matonguiné, Ivory Coast. The variation in the striking colouration of the pelage as well as in morphometric data is considered to be individual rather than geographic variation and we tentatively regard G. s. sheila as a synonym of the nominate form. Despite the wide distribution of this species in the tropical forest zone of West and Central Africa, only four specimens from four localities are known to date, which might indicate very specific habitat preferences. Contemporary land cover information around historic collection sites shows degraded landscapes. Given the highly uncertain area of occupancy of this species, we suggest changing the status of G. superba in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species from “Least Concern” to “Data Deficient”.

  16. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2015-05-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region.

  17. Analysis of a pilot program to implement physical therapy for women with gynecologic fistula in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Laura; McKinney, Jessica; Salmon, Chris; Furaha, Cathy; Kinsindja, Rogatien; Benfield, Nerys

    2014-11-01

    To describe components of a physical therapy pilot program for women with gynecologic fistula, and to report prospective data from the first 2 years of program implementation. A single-cohort observational study with repeated measures was conducted at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo. Hospital staff received training in pelvic floor physical therapy. Guidelines for exercise, functional training, and reproductive health education were integrated into the existing program. Demographics, clinical findings, and functional outcomes were recorded. Key stakeholders were interviewed to understand the perceived strengths and limitations of the program. A total of 205 women were followed up; 161 participated in physical therapy, with an average of 9.45 sessions. Of 161 women examined postoperatively, 102 (63.4%) reported no incontinence; they remained continent at discharge. Of 21 who indicated a change in level of incontinence during postoperative physical therapy, 15 (71.4%) improved. The program was feasible and well received by staff and patients. Pelvic floor physical therapy could have significant results in women with gynecologic fistula, may be an important adjunctive treatment in comprehensive fistula care, and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HIV type 1 pol gene diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, N; Mulanga, C; Bazepeo, S Edidi; Mwamba, J Kasali; Tshimpaka, J; Kashi, M; Mama, N; Valéa, D; Delaporte, E; Lepira, F; Peeters, M

    2006-02-01

    To study recombination and the natural polymorphism in pol of HIV-1 strains in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) we sequenced the protease and RT genes for 70 HIV-1 strains previously characterized in the env V3-V5 region from a sentinel surveillance study in 2002. For 41 of the 70 (58.6%) strains, the same subtype/ CRF designations were observed in pol and env. Twenty-three (32.9%) of 70 pol sequences were complex recombinants involving two to five subtypes as well as fragments that could not be classified into any of the known subtypes. All subtypes were involved in recombination events. Unclassified (U) and env subtype H strains were very likely to be recombinant strains. Overall, many minor mutations were identified in the protease sequences. Although at the time of our study ARV use was not yet widespread in DRC, three strains were identified with one major mutation associated with drug resistance: L90M and M46L in protease and K103N in RT.

  19. REDD+ Policy Approaches in the Congo Basin: A Comparative Analysis of Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalame Fobissie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Congo Basin forests are a prime location for implementing REDD+. National REDD+ policy processes are ongoing and many REDD+ pilot initiatives are being demonstrated. However, the level of national engagement, progress and distribution of REDD+ activities varies considerably in the different Congo Basin countries. This study therefore uses a set of criteria to assess national and international policy initiatives and approaches for advancing REDD+ implementation in Cameroon and the Democratic Republic Congo (DRC, two countries where more than two thirds of the Congo Basin forests are concentrated. Our findings show that (i both countries have shown the highest political presence at the international climate negotiations but DRC has invested more in the size of its delegation and side events; (ii REDD+ donors, initiatives, and funding are disproportionately skewed towards DRC making it technically more advanced; (iii the high political interest and institutional reforms in DRC favors private sector investments in REDD+ programs; and (iv the REDD+ policy process is internally-driven in Cameroon with a strong national ownership, while it is externally-driven in DRC with weak national ownership. To advance REDD+, the government of DRC should embark on capacity building programs that ensure the transfer of REDD+ technical know-how from international to national actors while Cameroon needs to speed-up governance reforms and be more flexible in order to attract influential international REDD+ actors. This paper further provides specific recommendations.

  20. Lead exposure and early child neurodevelopment among children 12-24 months in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashala-Abotnes, Espérance; Mumbere, Pépé Penghele; Mishika, Jeannette Mukanya; Ndjukendi, Ally Omba; Mpaka, Davin Beya; Bumoko, Makila-Mabe Guy; Kayembe, Tharcisse Kalula; Tshala-Katumbay, Désiré; Kazadi, Théodore Kayembe; Okitundu, Daniel Luwa E-Andjafono

    2016-12-01

    Childhood lead exposure remains a problem in developing countries, and little is known about its effects on early child neurodevelopment and temperament in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We, therefore, conducted this study to determine the association between lead exposure and the neurodevelopment and behaviour of children aged 12-24 months in Kinshasa, DRC. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2012, and parents of 104 children were invited to participate. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of each child were tested using the flame atomic spectrophotometry method. All children were subject to a clinical examination and assessed with two selected early child neurodevelopmental tools, the Gensini-Gavito and the baby characteristics questionnaire, to measure their neurodevelopment and temperament. Detectable BLLs ranged from 1 to 30 μg/dl with a geometric mean of 6.9 (SD 4.8) μg/dl. BLLs at 5-9 and ≥10 μg/dl were significantly associated with the child temperament (p lead were reported with more temperament difficulties at even blood lead levels lead exposure among children in Kinshasa, DRC.

  1. Current status of human hookworm infections, ascariasis, trichuriasis, schistosomiasis mekongi and other trematodiases in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymanivong, Sakhone; Hangvanthong, Bouasy; Keokhamphavanh, Boualy; Phommasansak, Manisak; Phinmaland, Baunphone; Sanpool, Oranuch; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2014-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, and schistosomiasis and other trematodiases often have a high prevalence in developing countries. Here, we present updated information on the prevalence of these parasites in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) in 2012, arising from the annual national helminthiasis survey. Fecal specimens were collected from 8,610 inhabitants of 12 provinces and one municipality (Bokeo, Houaphan, Luang Namtha, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, and Phongsaly Provinces from northern Lao PDR; Bolikhamxay and Xieng Khouang Provinces and Vientiane Municipality from the central part of the country; and Attapeu, Champasak, Saravan, and Sekong Provinces from southern Lao PDR). The overall prevalence of three major STHs, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) were 11.6%, 8.5%, and 25.0%, respectively. Prevalence of Schistosoma mekongi infection was 0.1%, and of miscellaneous trematodiases (including opisthorchiasis) was 14.0%. Clearly, the nationwide parasite control project is still necessary to reduce morbidity caused by helminthic diseases.

  2. Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm infection in Japanese traveler who presented chronic diarrhea after return from Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Nakatani, Toshiya; Tomo-Oka, Fumimasa; Fujimoto, Yuki; Ishida, Koji; Fujinaga, Yukihisa; Aihara, Yosuke; Nagamatsu, Shinsaku; Matsuo, Eijo; Tokoro, Masaharu; Ouji, Yukiteru; Kikuchi, Eiryo

    2016-12-01

    Ancylostoma (A.) ceylanicum, one of the most common species of hookworms infecting dogs and cats, also causes patent infections in humans and is now considered to be the second most common hookworm species infecting populations in southeast Asia. A Japanese patient who returned from a visit to Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) was presented with intermittent watery diarrhea with eosinophilia. Hookworm eggs were found in feces samples, and adult worms were confirmed to be present in the jejunum with capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy. A diagnosis of A. ceylanicum infection was made based on the morphology of the adult worms along with findings of a PCR-based molecular study using larvae obtained from a fecal sample culture. The infection was considered likely to have been obtained during a 1-month stay in a Laotian village, where the patient had eaten local food, worn sandals on bare feet, and lived as a local native villager, though he had stayed in modern hotels during the visit to Thailand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. International energy assistance needs and options for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippel, David F. von [Nautilus Institute, University of San Francisco Center for the Pacific Rim, 2130 Fulton Street LM 200, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States)], E-mail: dvonhip@igc.org; Hayes, Peter [Nautilus Institute, University of San Francisco Center for the Pacific Rim, 2130 Fulton Street LM 200, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, University of San Francisco Center for the Pacific Rim, 2130 Fulton Street LM 200, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Williams, James H. [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Greacen, Chris [Nautilus Institute, University of San Francisco Center for the Pacific Rim, 2130 Fulton Street LM 200, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Sagrillo, Mick [Sagrillo Power and Light, E3971 Bluebird Road, Forestville, WI 54213 (United States); Savage, Timothy [Nautilus Institute, University of San Francisco Center for the Pacific Rim, 2130 Fulton Street LM 200, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Recent agreements between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the other countries involved in the six-party talks on the future of the DPRK's nuclear weapons program have focused attention on the North Korean energy sector, and, specifically, what the international community can or should do to assist the DPRK in energy sector redevelopment. During two visits to North Korea in 1998 and 2000, a team of American and North Korean researchers conducted a unique rural energy use survey in a flood-affected rural village in the DPRK-the farming village of Unhari. The information gathered during the survey has important implications on how to properly approach the ongoing rural energy crisis in the DPRK, and, more broadly, to provide overall energy sector assistance. The results of the Unhari survey are described briefly, followed by suggestions of internal policy and legal reforms, approaches to international cooperation, key and attractive energy sector technologies and processes for energy sector redevelopment in the DPRK.

  4. International energy assistance needs and options for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Hippel, David F.; Greacen, Chris; Savage, Timothy [The Nautilus Institute, University of San Francisco Center for the Pacific Rim, 2130 Fulton Street LM 200, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Hayes, Peter [The Nautilus Institute, University of San Francisco Center for the Pacific Rim, 2130 Fulton Street LM 200, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, University of San Francisco Center for the Pacific Rim, 2130 Fulton Street LM 200, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Williams, James H. [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sagrillo, Mick [Sagrillo Power and Light, E3971 Bluebird Road, Forestville, WI 54213 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Recent agreements between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the other countries involved in the six-party talks on the future of the DPRK's nuclear weapons program have focused attention on the North Korean energy sector, and, specifically, what the international community can or should do to assist the DPRK in energy sector redevelopment. During two visits to North Korea in 1998 and 2000, a team of American and North Korean researchers conducted a unique rural energy use survey in a flood-affected rural village in the DPRK - the farming village of Unhari. The information gathered during the survey has important implications on how to properly approach the ongoing rural energy crisis in the DPRK, and, more broadly, to provide overall energy sector assistance. The results of the Unhari survey are described briefly, followed by suggestions of internal policy and legal reforms, approaches to international cooperation, key and attractive energy sector technologies and processes for energy sector redevelopment in the DPRK. (author)

  5. Detailed multidisciplinary monitoring reveals pre- and co-eruptive signals at Nyamulagira volcano (North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Benoît; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Kervyn, François; Kervyn, Matthieu; Albino, Fabien; Arellano, Santiago R.; Bagalwa, Montfort; Balagizi, Charles; Carn, Simon A.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Fernández, José; Galle, Bo; González, Pablo J.; Head, Elisabet; Karume, Katcho; Kavotha, Deogratias; Lukaya, François; Mashagiro, Niche; Mavonga, Georges; Norman, Patrik; Osodundu, Etoy; Pallero, José L. G.; Prieto, Juan F.; Samsonov, Sergey; Syauswa, Muhindo; Tedesco, Dario; Tiampo, Kristy; Wauthier, Christelle; Yalire, Mathieu M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a thorough description of Nyamulagira's January 2010 volcanic eruption (North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo), based on a combination of field observation and ground-based and space-borne data. It is the first eruption in the Virunga Volcanic Province that has been described by a combination of several modern monitoring techniques. The 2010 eruption lasted 26 days and emitted ˜45.5 × 106 m3 of lava. Field observations divided the event into four eruptive stages delimited by major changes in effusive activity. These stages are consistent with those described by Pouclet (1976) for historical eruptions of Nyamulagira. Co-eruptive signals from ground deformation, seismicity, SO2 emission and thermal flux correlate with the eruptive stages. Unambiguous pre-eruptive ground deformation was observed 3 weeks before the lava outburst, coinciding with a small but clear increase in the short period seismicity and SO2 emission. The 3 weeks of precursors contrasts with the only precursory signal previously recognized in the Virunga Volcanic Province, the short-term increase of tremor and long period seismicity, which, for example, were only detected less than 2 h prior to the 2010 eruption. The present paper is the most detailed picture of a typical flank eruption of this volcano. It provides valuable tools for re-examining former—mostly qualitative—descriptions of historical Nyamulagira eruptions that occurred during the colonial period.

  6. A cross-sectional survey of Plasmodium falciparum pfcrt mutant haplotypes in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonia, Alejandro L; Taylor, Steve M; Janko, Mark; Emch, Michael; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Meshnick, Steven R

    2014-06-01

    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), artesunate-amodiaquine is first-line therapy for falciparum malaria; little is known about the prevalence of molecular markers of parasite drug resistance. Across the DRC, we genotyped 166 parasites in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Of these parasites, 73 (44%) parasites were pure wild-type CVMNK, 55 (31%) parasites were chloroquine-resistant CVIET: , 35 (21.1%) parasites were mixed CVMNK and CVIET: , and 3 parasites were other genotypes. Ninety-two infections (55.4%) harbored the pfcrt K76T: substitution that is highly correlated with chloroquine failure. The amodiaquine-resistant S: VMNT: haplotype was absent. Geographically, pfcrt haplotypes were not clearly clustered. Chloroquine accounted for 19.4% of antimalarial use, and amodiaquine accounted for 15.3% of antimalarial use; there were no associations between drug use and mutant haplotype prevalence. In the DRC, our molecular survey indicates that resistance to chloroquine is substantial but that resistance to amodiaquine is absent. These contrasting findings highlight the need for molecular surveillance of drug resistance to inform malaria control policies.

  7. Quantifying gas emissions from the "Millennium Eruption" of Paektu volcano, Democratic People's Republic of Korea/China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovino, Kayla; Ju-Song, Kim; Sisson, Thomas; Lowenstern, Jacob; Kuk-Hun, Ri; Jong-Nam, Jang; Kun-Ho, Song; Song-Hwan, Ham; Oppenheimer, Clive; Hammond, James O S; Donovan, Amy; Liu, Kosima W; Kum-Ran, Ryu

    2016-11-01

    Paektu volcano (Changbaishan) is a rhyolitic caldera that straddles the border between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and China. Its most recent large eruption was the Millennium Eruption (ME; 23 km(3) dense rock equivalent) circa 946 CE, which resulted in the release of copious magmatic volatiles (H2O, CO2, sulfur, and halogens). Accurate quantification of volatile yield and composition is critical in assessing volcanogenic climate impacts but is challenging, particularly for events before the satellite era. We use a geochemical technique to quantify volatile composition and upper bounds to yields for the ME by examining trends in incompatible trace and volatile element concentrations in crystal-hosted melt inclusions. We estimate that the ME could have emitted as much as 45 Tg of S to the atmosphere. This is greater than the quantity of S released by the 1815 eruption of Tambora, which contributed to the "year without a summer." Our maximum gas yield estimates place the ME among the strongest emitters of climate-forcing gases in the Common Era. However, ice cores from Greenland record only a relatively weak sulfate signal attributed to the ME. We suggest that other factors came into play in minimizing the glaciochemical signature. This paradoxical case in which high S emissions do not result in a strong glacial sulfate signal may present a way forward in building more generalized models for interpreting which volcanic eruptions have produced large climate impacts.

  8. Seroprevalence of antibodies against dengue virus among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tsai-Ying; Trovoada dos Santos, Maria de Jesus; Tseng, Lien-Feng; Chang, Shu-Feng; Cheng, Chien-Fu; Carvalho, Arlindo Vicente de Assunção; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lien, Jih-Ching; Tsai, Kun-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Dengue fever has become a worldwide public health concern, threatening an estimated 40% of the world's population. However, most resources and attention are still focused on malaria, while dengue statuses are poorly recognized in many African countries. In this serological survey, dengue virus (DENV) transmission was demonstrated by using serum samples collected from 78 pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe (DRSTP) during 2003 to 2004. Immunofluorescence assay was performed and 31 samples (39.74%) were found positive for DENV antibodies. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that 53 samples (67.95%) were positive for dengue E IgG, and 38 samples (48.72%) were positive for NS1 IgG. A prevalence of 35.90% was therefore determined for dengue IgG by considering samples that yielded positive results by all three tests. Cross-reactions with other flaviviruses were examined by indirect ELISA against Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus. Only one sample exhibited stronger absorbance against Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. Moreover, one sample was positive for dengue IgM. These results agreed with the previous researches in neighboring countries and suggested DENV exposure. The study contributes to raising public awareness of dengue and supporting future control strategies.

  9. Simple school questionnaires can map both Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengeler, C; Makwala, J; Ngimbi, D; Utzinger, J

    2000-01-05

    The use of self-administered questionnaires has been shown in different African countries to be inexpensive and reliable for the rapid identification of communities at highest risk of urinary schistosomiasis. For intestinal schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni there is a clear need for a similar approach. We report the results from a large-scale study undertaken in the western part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, formerly Zaire). Within 4 weeks questionnaires were correctly completed in 136 out of 160 schools (85%). In 57 of these schools children were screened for infections with schistosomes and geohelminths. The prevalence of 'schistosomiasis' as reported in the questionnaires showed the best correlation with the prevalence of S. mansoni infections (r = 0.77, P schools with a high risk of intestinal schistosomiasis gave positive predictive values of 87 and 62%, and negative predictive values of 74 and 87% for moderate and high infection thresholds, respectively. Reported 'blood in stool' was another useful indicator for intestinal schistosomiasis. Reported 'blood in urine' showed the best correlation with urinary schistosomiasis (r = 0.75, P school children in DRC have a distinct perception of intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis and that questionnaires could be useful to identify high-risk schools for both parasites.

  10. Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Hayley R; Kuang, Brandon; Gadoth, Adva; Alfonso, Vivian H; Mukadi, Patrick; Doshi, Reena H; Hoff, Nicole A; Sinai, Cyrus; Mossoko, Mathias; Kebela, Benoit Ilunga; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-09-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be clinically severe and highly fatal, making surveillance efforts for early disease detection of paramount importance. In areas with limited access to laboratory testing, the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may be a vital tool in improving outbreak response. Using DRC IDSR data from the nation's four EVD outbreak periods from 2007-2014, we assessed trends of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) and EVD differential diagnoses reportable through IDSR. With official case counts from active surveillance of EVD outbreaks, we assessed accuracy of reporting through the IDSR passive surveillance system. Although the active and passive surveillance represent distinct sets of data, the two were correlated, suggesting that passive surveillance based only on clinical evaluation may be a useful predictor of true cases prior to laboratory confirmation. There were 438 suspect VHF cases reported through the IDSR system and 416 EVD cases officially recorded across the outbreaks examined. Although collected prior to official active surveillance cases, case reporting through the IDSR during the 2007, 2008 and 2012 outbreaks coincided with official EVD epidemic curves. Additionally, all outbreak areas experienced increases in suspected cases for both malaria and typhoid fever during EVD outbreaks, underscoring the importance of training health care workers in recognising EVD differential diagnoses and the potential for co-morbidities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2011-14 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Republic of Senegal and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacou-Ndouba, A; Revathi, G; Mwathi, P; Seck, A; Diop, A; Kabedi-Bajani, M J; Mwiti, W; Anguibi-Pokou, M J; Morrissey, I; Torumkuney, D

    2016-05-01

    To assess antibiotic susceptibility of community-acquired respiratory tract isolates from Ivory Coast, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Senegal in 2011-14. Bacterial isolates were collected and MICs determined using Etest(®) for all antibiotics except erythromycin, for which testing was by disc diffusion. Susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. For macrolide interpretation, CLSI breakpoints were adjusted for incubation in CO2. Susceptibility to penicillin (using CLSI oral or EUCAST breakpoints) was low among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the DRC and Kenya (17.4% and 19%, respectively) but higher among isolates from the Ivory Coast (70%) and Senegal (85.7%). Penicillin susceptibility using CLSI iv breakpoints was higher in all countries, but still only 69.6% in the DRC. Macrolide susceptibility (based on CLSI erythromycin disc diffusion breakpoints) was also low in Kenya (∼65%) but 87%-100% elsewhere. Haemophilus influenzae were only collected in the DRC and Senegal, with β-lactamase prevalence of 39% and 4%, respectively. Furthermore, β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) isolates were found in DRC (four isolates, 17%), but only two isolates were found in Senegal (by EUCAST definition). Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in vitro susceptibility was 73.9% in the DRC and 100% in Senegal based on CLSI breakpoints, but this reduced to 65.2% in the DRC when BLNAR rates were considered. Clarithromycin susceptibility was >95% in both countries. There was considerable variability in antibiotic susceptibility among the African countries participating in the surveillance programme. Thus, continued surveillance is necessary to track future changes in antibiotic resistance. Use of EUCAST versus CLSI breakpoints showed profound differences for cefaclor and ofloxacin against S. pneumoniae, with EUCAST showing lower susceptibility. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University

  12. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2011–14 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Republic of Senegal and Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacou-Ndouba, A.; Revathi, G.; Mwathi, P.; Seck, A.; Diop, A.; Kabedi-Bajani, M. J.; Mwiti, W.; Anguibi-Pokou, M. J.; Morrissey, I.; Torumkuney, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess antibiotic susceptibility of community-acquired respiratory tract isolates from Ivory Coast, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Senegal in 2011–14. Methods Bacterial isolates were collected and MICs determined using Etest® for all antibiotics except erythromycin, for which testing was by disc diffusion. Susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. For macrolide interpretation, CLSI breakpoints were adjusted for incubation in CO2. Results Susceptibility to penicillin (using CLSI oral or EUCAST breakpoints) was low among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the DRC and Kenya (17.4% and 19%, respectively) but higher among isolates from the Ivory Coast (70%) and Senegal (85.7%). Penicillin susceptibility using CLSI iv breakpoints was higher in all countries, but still only 69.6% in the DRC. Macrolide susceptibility (based on CLSI erythromycin disc diffusion breakpoints) was also low in Kenya (∼65%) but 87%–100% elsewhere. Haemophilus influenzae were only collected in the DRC and Senegal, with β-lactamase prevalence of 39% and 4%, respectively. Furthermore, β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) isolates were found in DRC (four isolates, 17%), but only two isolates were found in Senegal (by EUCAST definition). Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in vitro susceptibility was 73.9% in the DRC and 100% in Senegal based on CLSI breakpoints, but this reduced to 65.2% in the DRC when BLNAR rates were considered. Clarithromycin susceptibility was >95% in both countries. Conclusions There was considerable variability in antibiotic susceptibility among the African countries participating in the surveillance programme. Thus, continued surveillance is necessary to track future changes in antibiotic resistance. Use of EUCAST versus CLSI breakpoints showed profound differences for cefaclor and ofloxacin against S. pneumoniae, with EUCAST showing lower susceptibility. PMID

  13. The Banyamulenge of the Democratic Republic of Congo: A cultural community in the making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Rukundwa

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the name Banyamulenge has become associated with a warrior group in Eastern Congo because of the role some of its community members played in the war against the Mobutu regime. Researchers have been intrigued by the political motivations which unfortunately do not cover the cultural aspects of this community. This article attempts to document the cultural heritage of the Banyamulenge community. Many of the practices and traditions have become obsolete. The article explains the Banyamulenge cultural way of living, and how the divine was traditionally revealed to them in the form of human deities. Burnt sacrifice was part of community worship. The article documents what has been learnt from elders about the oral tradition, the cultural and religious realities of the community.

  14. [Inaccurate information about the size of the penis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: about 21 information sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenga, Philippe Cilundika; Kazadi, Alex Bukasa

    2016-01-01

    Penis size is a huge topic of anxiety for a lot of men. Some of them are unhappy with their penis size as shown in the study conducted by Tiggemann in 2008. There are relatively few studies on erect penis size. This may reflect cultural taboos of researchers or doctors interacting with men who are in a state of sexual arousal. On the other hand, it is important for people who announce details on penis size to give the average penis size first and then sizes suggested by the researchers. We performed a cross-sectional survey in the two major urban centres of the Democratic Republic of Congo namely Kinshasa and Lubumbashi over a period of two years from May 2014 to May 2016. A total of 21 information sources constituted our sample, 8 in Kinshasa and 13 in Lubumbashi. We found it sufficient because in our culture discussing about sexual matter is rare. The parameters studied were: the nature of the source, the accuracy of the measurement method, the presence of bibliographical reference, the announced penis size. The majority of information sources used were radio or television broadcastings (23,8%); this can be explained by the fact that there are an increasing number of radio and television stations in our country and especially in large cities. With regard to accuracy of information about penis measurement method when sharing the message about penis size, our study showed that the majority of information sources did not indicate it when they announced penis size to the public (85,7%). Several sources did not report bibliographical references (57,1%). Announced data analysis on penis size showed that the average penis size was: 14 cm (28,6%), 15 cm (23,8%) and 15-20 cm (19%). All these results are intended to offer a warning to all players responsible for diffusing information on sexual health (penis size): scientific rigor consists in seeking information from reliable sources.

  15. High Prevalence and Diversity of Hepatitis Viruses in Suspected Cases of Yellow Fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Frédéric; Ngwaka-Matsung, Nadine; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Onanga, Richard; Pukuta-Simbu, Elisabeth; Gerber, Athenaïs; Abbate, Jessica L.; Mwamba, Dieudonné; Berthet, Nicolas; Leroy, Eric Maurice; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The majority of patients with acute febrile jaundice (>95%) identified through a yellow fever surveillance program in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) test negative for antibodies against yellow fever virus. However, no etiological investigation has ever been carried out on these patients. Here, we tested for hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis D (HDV), and hepatitis E (HEV) viruses, all of which can cause acute febrile jaundice, in patients included in the yellow fever surveillance program in the DRC. On a total of 498 serum samples collected from suspected cases of yellow fever from January 2003 to January 2012, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques were used to screen for antibodies against HAV (IgM) and HEV (IgM) and for antigens and antibodies against HBV (HBsAg and anti-hepatitis B core protein [HBc] IgM, respectively), HCV, and HDV. Viral loads and genotypes were determined for HBV and HVD. Viral hepatitis serological markers were diagnosed in 218 (43.7%) patients. The seroprevalences were 16.7% for HAV, 24.6% for HBV, 2.3% for HCV, and 10.4% for HEV, and 26.1% of HBV-positive patients were also infected with HDV. Median viral loads were 4.19 × 105 IU/ml for HBV (range, 769 to 9.82 × 109 IU/ml) and 1.4 × 106 IU/ml for HDV (range, 3.1 × 102 to 2.9 × 108 IU/ml). Genotypes A, E, and D of HBV and genotype 1 of HDV were detected. These high hepatitis prevalence rates highlight the necessity to include screening for hepatitis viruses in the yellow fever surveillance program in the DRC. PMID:28202798

  16. High prevalence and diversity of hepatitis viruses in suspected cases of yellow fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiala-Mandanda, Sheila; Le Gal, Frédéric; Ngwaka-Matsung, Nadine; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Onanga, Richard; Bivigou-Mboumba, Berthold; Pukuta-Simbu, Elisabeth; Gerber, Athenaïs; Abbate, Jessica L; Mwamba, Dieudonné; Berthet, Nicolas; Leroy, Eric Maurice; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Becquart, Pierre

    2017-02-15

    The majority of patients with acute febrile jaundice (>95%) identified through a yellow fever surveillance program in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) test negative for antibodies against yellow fever virus. However, no etiological investigation has ever been carried out on these patients. Here, we tested for hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D (HDV) and E (HEV) viruses, all of which can cause acute febrile jaundice, in patients included in the yellow fever surveillance program in the DRC. On a total of 498 serum samples collected from suspected cases of yellow fever from January 2003 to January 2012, ELISA techniques were used to screen for antibodies against HAV (IgM) and HEV (IgM) and for antigens and antibodies against HBV (HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM), HCV and HDV. Viral loads and genotypes were determined for HBV and HVD. Viral hepatitis serological markers were diagnosed in 218 (43.7%) patients. Seroprevalence was 16.7% for HAV, 24.6% HBV, 2.3% HCV and 10.4% for HEV and 26.1% of HBV-positive patients were also infected with HDV. Median viral loads were 4.19 x 10(5) IU/mL for HBV (range: 769 to 9.82 x 10(9) IU/mL) and 1.4 x 10(6) IU/mL for HDV (range: 3.1 x 10(2) to 2.9 x 10(8) IU/mL). Genotypes A, E and D of HBV and genotype 1 of HDV were detected. These high hepatitis prevalence rates highlight the necessity to include screening for hepatitis viruses in the yellow fever surveillance program in the DRC.

  17. New Constraints on the Geochemistry of the Millennium Eruption of Mount Paektu (Changbaishan), Democratic People's Republic of Korea/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovino, K.; Kim, J. S.; Sisson, T. W.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Jang, J. N.; Song, K. H.; Ham, H. H.; Ri, K. H.; Donovan, A. R.; Oppenheimer, C.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Weber Liu, K.; Ryu, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Mount Paektu (also known as Changbaishan) is a large caldera located on the border between China and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Circa 946 AD, Paektu produced one of the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded history, the so-called Millennium Eruption (ME), whose combined fall and pyroclastic flow deposits total approximately 25 km3 dense rock equivalent (95% commendite, 5% late stage trachyte). Despite its recent and potentially destructive history, the volcano is not well studied due to its relative inaccessibility. A seismic swarm beneath the volcano's summit in 2002-2005 spurred a unique collaboration between scientists from the DPRK, US, and the UK with the goals of characterizing Paektu's eruptive history and assessing its current state of activity. We present new results from this collaboration, including major and trace element (XRF, EMP and SHRIMP-RG) and volatile data (SHRIMP-RG and FTIR) on feldspar-, clinopyroxene-, and olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI), matrix glasses, and bulk pumices from four ME comendites and one ME trachyte. MI are halogen rich (F≤4000 ppm, Cl≤5000 ppm) with moderate S (≤250 ppm) and H2O (≤4 wt%) and minimal CO2 (≤15 ppm, detection limit ~2 ppm). H2O contents in comendite MI indicate saturation pressures (at 725 °C) of ~150 MPa, corresponding to a magma chamber depth of ~6 km, similar to the depth inferred for the magmatic injection thought to have resulted in the 2002-05 earthquake swarm. ME comendite is consistent with a ca. 25% residual melt by fractional crystallization from an ME trachyte parent. Published U-series zircon ages from ME comendite indicate a magma residence time of 11ky. Thus, the late stage ME trachyte likely represents a mafic recharge event of a melt separate from but geochemically similar to the original ME comendite parent.

  18. Improving financial access to health care in the Kisantu district in the Democratic Republic of Congo: acting upon complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Stasse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Comzmercialization of health care has contributed to widen inequities between the rich and the poor, especially in settings with suboptimal regulatory frameworks of the health sector. Poorly regulated fee-for-service payment systems generate inequity and initiate a vicious circle in which access to quality health care gradually deteriorates. Although the abolition of user fees is high on the international health policy agenda, the sudden removal of user fees may have disrupting effects on the health system and may not be affordable or sustainable in resource-constrained countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods and Results: Between 2008 and 2011, the Belgian development aid agency (BTC launched a set of reforms in the Kisantu district, in the province of Bas Congo, through an action-research process deemed appropriate for the implementation of change within open complex systems such as the Kisantu local health system. Moreover, the entire process contributed to strengthen the stewardship capacity of the Kisantu district management team. The reforms mainly comprised the rationalization of resources and the regulation of health services financing. Flat fees per episode of disease were introduced as an alternative to fee-for-service payments by patients. A financial subsidy from BTC allowed to reduce the height of the flat fees. The provision of the subsidy was made conditional upon a range of measures to rationalize the use of resources. Conclusions: The results in terms of enhancing people access to quality health care were immediate and substantial. The Kisantu experience demonstrates that a systems approach is essential in addressing complex problems. It provides useful lessons for other districts in the country.

  19. Prevalence study of yaws in the Democratic Republic of Congo using the lot quality assurance sampling method.

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    Sibylle Gerstl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Until the 1970s the prevalence of non-venereal trepanomatosis, including yaws, was greatly reduced after worldwide mass treatment. In 2005, cases were again reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We carried out a survey to estimate the village-level prevalence of yaws in the region of Equator in the north of the country in order to define appropriate strategies to effectively treat the affected population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a community-based survey using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method to classify the prevalence of active yaws in 14 groups of villages (lots. The classification into high, moderate, or low yaws prevalence corresponded to World Health Organization prevalence thresholds for identifying appropriate operational treatment strategies. Active yaws cases were defined by suggestive clinical signs and positive rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination serological tests. The overall prevalence in the study area was 4.7% (95% confidence interval: 3.4-6.0. Two of 14 lots had high prevalence (>10%, three moderate prevalence (5-10% and nine low prevalence (<5%.. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although yaws is no longer a World Health Organization priority disease, the presence of yaws in a region where it was supposed to be eradicated demonstrates the importance of continued surveillance and control efforts. Yaws should remain a public health priority in countries where previously it was known to be endemic. The integration of sensitive surveillance systems together with free access to effective treatment is recommended. As a consequence of our study results, more than 16,000 people received free treatment against yaws.

  20. Burden of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer and the underreporting ratio in the territory of Songololo, Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Delphin Mavinga Phanzu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium ulcerans, also known as Buruli ulcer (BU, represents the third most common mycobacterial disease in the world after tuberculosis and leprosy. Data on the burden of BU disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo are scanty. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence rate and the distribution of BU in the Songololo Territory, and to assess the coverage of the existing hospital-based reporting system. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey (July-August 2008 using the door-to-door method simultaneously in the two rural health zones (RHZ of the Songololo Territory (RHZ of Kimpese and Nsona-Mpangu, each containing twenty health areas. Cases were defined clinically as active BU and inactive BU in accordance with WHO-case definitions. RESULTS: We detected 775 BU patients (259 active and 516 inactive in a total population of 237,418 inhabitants. The overall prevalence of BU in Songololo Territory was 3.3/1000 inhabitants, varying from 0 to 27.5/1000 between health areas. Of the 259 patients with active BU, 18 (7% had been reported in the hospital-based reporting system at Kimpese in the 6-8 months prior to the survey. CONCLUSION: The survey demonstrated a huge variation of prevalence between health areas in Songololo Territory and gross underreporting of BU cases in the hospital-based reporting system. Data obtained may contribute to better targeted and improved BU control interventions, and serve as a baseline for future assessments of the control program.

  1. Micromapping of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in diferent regions of northeast Thailand and Vientiane, Laos People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritipsombut, Jaruwan; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Phollarp, Prachatip; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Schelp, Frank P

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in different regions of northeast (NE) Thailand and Vientiane, Laos People's Democratic Republic (PDR), a total of 1,809 blood samples were collected consecutively from individuals attending antenatal care services at 11 community hospitals in different regions of NE Thailand and three hospitals in Vientiane, Laos PDR, from May 2009 to April 2010. All individuals were investigated for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies using standard methods. For individuals from NE Thailand, the carrier frequencies were 41.7% for Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG], 5.8% for α(0)-thalassemia (α(0)-thal), and 0.9% for β-thal. The THAI deletion type of α(0)-thal was found in one individual from an ethnic minority. From a group of pregnant Laotian women, 30.1% were Hb E carriers. The prevalence of α(0)-thal of 8.6% for the Laotian women was similar to that found in the upper northeastern part of Thailand. The frequency of β-thal was 2.3 %. The proportion of carriers of α(+)-thal and Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, α142, Term→Gln (TAA>CAA in α2)] ) from Thailand and Laos was significantly different. The frequency of Hb Paksé [α142, Term→Tyr (TAA>TAT in α2)] was relatively low for Thailand as well as for Laos. The results indicate that thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are a significant health burden in the region and that a prevention and control program for severe thalassemia diseases should be established in Laos.

  2. Mapping and characterizing the vegetation types of the Democratic Republic of Congo using SPOT VEGETATION time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancutsem, C.; Pekel, J.-F.; Evrard, C.; Malaisse, F.; Defourny, P.

    2009-02-01

    The need for quantitative and accurate information to characterize the state and evolution of vegetation types at a national scale is widely recognized. This type of information is crucial for the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains the majority of the tropical forest cover of Central Africa and a large diversity of habitats. In spite of recent progress in earth observation capabilities, vegetation mapping and seasonality analysis in equatorial areas still represent an outstanding challenge owing to high cloud coverage and the extent and limited accessibility of the territory. On one hand, the use of coarse-resolution optical data is constrained by performance in the presence of cloud screening and by noise arising from the compositing process, which limits the spatial consistency of the composite and the temporal resolution. On the other hand, the use of high-resolution data suffers from heterogeneity of acquisition dates, images and interpretation from one scene to another. The objective of the present study was to propose and demonstrate a semi-automatic processing method for vegetation mapping and seasonality characterization based on temporal and spectral information from SPOT VEGETATION time series. A land cover map with 18 vegetation classes was produced using the proposed method that was fed by ecological knowledge gathered from botanists and reference documents. The floristic composition and physiognomy of each vegetation type are described using the Land Cover Classification System developed by the FAO. Moreover, the seasonality of each class is characterized on a monthly basis and the variation in different vegetation indicators is discussed from a phenological point of view. This mapping exercise delivers the first area estimates of seven different forest types, five different savannas characterized by specific seasonality behavior and two aquatic vegetation types. Finally, the result is compared to two recent land cover maps derived from

  3. Presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in waste waters, Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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    De Boeck, H; Lunguya, O; Muyembe, J-J; Glupczynski, Y; Jacobs, J

    2012-11-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a major public health concern. We previously demonstrated the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in sachet-packaged water bags sold in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In complement to the previous study, we aimed to assess the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in waste waters in Kinshasa.Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from environmental water samples were screened and phenotypically confirmed as ESBL-producers by disk diffusion according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines (CLSI M100-S21). Final identification to the species level and further antimicrobial susceptibility testing were carried out with MicroScan® NBC42 panels and the identification of bla (ESBL) coding genes was performed by a commercial multiplex ligation polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microarray (Check-Points CT 101, Wageningen, the Netherlands). Overall, 194 non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae were recovered from several sewer and river sites in nine out of 24 municipalities of Kinshasa. Fourteen isolates (7.4 %) were confirmed as ESBL-producers, the main species being Enterobacter cloacae (46.6 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (40.0 %). Associated resistance to both aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone antibiotics was observed in ten isolates; the remaining isolates showed co-resistance to either fluoroquinolone (n = 3) or to aminoglycoside (n = 1) alone. All but one isolate carried bla (CTX-M) genes belonging to the CTX-M-1 group. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly being reported from various sources in the community. The present results suggest that ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are widespread in the environment in the community of Kinshasa. Cities in Central Africa should be added to the map of potentially ESBL-contaminated environments and highlight the need to reinforce safe water supply and public sanitation.

  4. National-scale estimation of gross forest aboveground carbon loss: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S. V.; Potapov, P. V.; Turubanova, S. A.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing enable the mapping and monitoring of carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where national forest inventories (NFI) are either non-existent or out of date. Here we demonstrate a method for estimating national-scale gross forest aboveground carbon (AGC) loss and associated uncertainties using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Lidar data were used as a surrogate for NFI plot measurements to estimate carbon stocks and AGC loss based on forest type and activity data derived using time-series multispectral imagery. Specifically, DRC forest type and loss from the FACET (Forêts d’Afrique Centrale Evaluées par Télédétection) product, created using Landsat data, were related to carbon data derived from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Validation data for FACET forest area loss were created at a 30-m spatial resolution and compared to the 60-m spatial resolution FACET map. We produced two gross AGC loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a map-scale estimate (53.3 ± 9.8 Tg C yr-1) accounting for whole-pixel classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a sub-grid estimate (72.1 ± 12.7 Tg C yr-1) that took into account 60-m cells that experienced partial forest loss. Our sub-grid forest cover and AGC loss estimates, which included smaller-scale forest disturbances, exceed published assessments. Results raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and validation, and subsequent impacts on remotely sensed carbon stock change estimation, particularly for smallholder dominated systems such as the DRC.

  5. Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests

  6. Health care seeking and financial behaviours of the elderly during wartime in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prosper Lutala

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health and social services utilisation is seen to be more closely related to age than to other socio-demographic characteristics. Many health problems are known to increase with age and this demographic trend may lead to an increase in the absolute number of health conditions in this population. However, questions are still emerging as to how the elderly seek care in response to their needs in the context of a war-torn region. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the behaviour of the elderly in seeking care during a time of conflict.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the health district Goma, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, using a multistage sampling of 500 senior citizens. Eight trained field-workers were deployed in the field where they administered a structured questionnaire.Results: The public health sector was well known and preferred by 186 participants (37.2%, but only used by 16 (3.2% participants. Financial support received by the elderly came from their own relatives and fellow believers in 33.5% and 20.2% of cases, respectively. Almost 71% of monetary support is the result of begging and unknown sources – there is no government involvement whatsoever. Much of the external support that the elderly receive involves support in the form of food. Disease expenses remain a main concern of the elderly themselves.Conclusion: Government support for the elderly in the DRC is non-existent. There is an overuse of private sector and traditional medicine, despite the preference indicated for the public health sector. As a recommendation, a general increase in income-related activities could contribute to alleviating the health state of the elderly in a war situation. Further studies might explore in future the contribution of those results on the health of elders.

  7. Improving financial access to health care in the Kisantu district in the Democratic Republic of Congo: acting upon complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasse, Stéphanie; Vita, Dany; Kimfuta, Jacques; da Silveira, Valèria Campos; Bossyns, Paul; Criel, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Comzmercialization of health care has contributed to widen inequities between the rich and the poor, especially in settings with suboptimal regulatory frameworks of the health sector. Poorly regulated fee-for-service payment systems generate inequity and initiate a vicious circle in which access to quality health care gradually deteriorates. Although the abolition of user fees is high on the international health policy agenda, the sudden removal of user fees may have disrupting effects on the health system and may not be affordable or sustainable in resource-constrained countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo. Between 2008 and 2011, the Belgian development aid agency (BTC) launched a set of reforms in the Kisantu district, in the province of Bas Congo, through an action-research process deemed appropriate for the implementation of change within open complex systems such as the Kisantu local health system. Moreover, the entire process contributed to strengthen the stewardship capacity of the Kisantu district management team. The reforms mainly comprised the rationalization of resources and the regulation of health services financing. Flat fees per episode of disease were introduced as an alternative to fee-for-service payments by patients. A financial subsidy from BTC allowed to reduce the height of the flat fees. The provision of the subsidy was made conditional upon a range of measures to rationalize the use of resources. The results in terms of enhancing people access to quality health care were immediate and substantial. The Kisantu experience demonstrates that a systems approach is essential in addressing complex problems. It provides useful lessons for other districts in the country.

  8. Adherence to Artemisinin Combination Therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M Ruby; Willis, Andrew; Bil, Karla; Singh, Jatinder; Mukomena Sompwe, Eric; Ariti, Cono

    2015-01-01

    Between 2011 and 2013 the number of recorded malaria cases had more than doubled, and between 2009 and 2013 had increased almost 4-fold in MSF-OCA (Médecins sans Frontières - Operational Centre Amsterdam) programmes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The reasons for this rise are unclear. Incorrect intake of Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) could result in failure to treat the infection and potential recurrence. An adherence study was carried out to assess whether patients were completing the full course of ACT. One hundred and eight malaria patients in Shamwana, Katanga province, DRC were visited in their households the day after ACT was supposed to be completed. They were asked a series of questions about ACT administration and the blister pack was observed (if available). Sixty seven (62.0%) patients were considered probably adherent. This did not take into account the patients that vomited or spat their pills or took them at the incorrect time of day, in which case adherence dropped to 46 (42.6%). The most common reason that patients gave for incomplete/incorrect intake was that they were vomiting or felt unwell (10 patients (24.4%), although the reasons were not recorded for 22 (53.7%) patients). This indicates that there may be poor understanding of the importance of completing the treatment or that the side effects of ACT were significant enough to over-ride the pharmacy instructions. Adherence to ACT was poor in this setting. Health education messages emphasising the need to complete ACT even if patients vomit doses, feel unwell or their health conditions improve should be promoted.

  9. Cassava Mosaic Disease Yield Loss Assessment under Various Altitude Agroecosystems in the Sud Kivu Region, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Bisimwa, E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava mosaic disease (CMD is reported as the most important constraint on cassava production in Sub­Saharan Africa. Yield losses of 25­95% are reported. The use of resistant genotypes is one of the components for its integrated management. However its impact on genotype behavior depends on infection period, age of the infected plants, environment and virus species or strain. This study was carried out to assess its impact in farmers' fields and the behavior of 14 genotypes under high epidemic pressure in the Sud­Kivu province, in the East of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. Early infections have induced 77.5% to 97.3% of yield losses whereas 44.9 to 80% were recorded for cassava plants infected during thirteenth to twenty­fourth weeks after planting. The highest yield losses were recorded in low altitude where more EACMV­UG and dual infections were reported. Improved resistant genotypes MM96/002, MM96/0157 and MM96/1920 allowed harvesting more than 30 T/ha and didn't show any symptoms whereas MM96/6967 and Mvuama have developed symptoms at harvest. Local landraces were susceptible to CMD and developed symptoms during the whole season until harvest. However two of them, Pharmakina and Cizinduka yielded more than 50 T/ha of tubers and associated symptoms were moderate. Two improved and two local cassava genotypes are recommended in this area always making sure to use healthy cuttings.

  10. Association between oral health habits and dental caries among children in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvonen, P-L; Suominen, A L; Yang, G S; Ri, Y S; Sipilä, K

    2016-05-26

    To evaluate the self-reported oral health habits and their association with the occurrence of dental caries among children in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), after 6 years of activities under the auspices of the Children's Oral Health Promotion Programme (COHPP). The data were collected in September 2013 in two of the most central districts of Pyongyang City, DPRK. The sample consisted of 492 children aged 10 and 13 years who had participated in the COHPP for 6 years. The children filled in a self-completed, structured questionnaire on oral health habits and were examined clinically by a dentist. The differences in mean (SD) number of decayed primary (dt) and permanent teeth (DT) and their sum (dt + DT) subdivided according to genders, age groups, districts and self-reported oral health habits were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U-test. The associations between self-reported oral health habits and the occurrence of dental caries were evaluated with chi-square test and logistic regression analyses. The school-aged children commonly reported healthy oral hygiene habits but sweet snacks were commonly used. The occurrence of dental caries associated statistically significantly with the frequency of sweet snacking (p=0.011) but not with the frequency of tooth brushing (p=0.725) or the use of water for thirst instead of sugary beverages (p=0.189). A more effective promotion of healthy dietary habits with innovative approaches and close collaboration with different social actors will be needed in future. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Availability and Quality of Family Planning Services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: High Potential for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpunga, Dieudonné; Lumbayi, J P; Dikamba, Nelly; Mwembo, Albert; Ali Mapatano, Mala; Wembodinga, Gilbert

    2017-06-27

    To determine the availability and quality of family planning services within health facilities throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Data were collected for the cross-sectional study from April 2014 to June 2014 by the Ministry of Public Health. A total of 1,568 health facilities that reported data to the National Health Information System were selected by multistage random sampling in the 11 provinces of the DRC existing at that time. Data were collected through interviews, document review, and direct observation. Two dependent variables were measured: availability of family planning services (consisting of a room for services, staff assigned to family planning, and evidence of client use of family planning) and quality of family planning services (assessed as "high" if the facility had at least 1 trained staff member, family planning service delivery guidelines, at least 3 types of methods, and a sphygmomanometer, or "low" if the facility did not meet any of these 4 criteria). Pearson's chi-square test and odds ratios (ORs) were used to test for significant associations, using the alpha significance level of .05. We successfully surveyed 1,555 facilities (99.2%) of those included in the sample. One in every 3 facilities (33%) offered family planning services as assessed by the index of availability, of which 20% met all 4 criteria for providing high-quality services. Availability was greatest at the highest level of the health system (hospitals) and decreased incrementally with each health system level, with disparities between provinces and urban and rural areas. Facilities in urban areas were more likely than in rural areas to meet the standard for high-quality services (Pplanning services in health facilities in the DRC remain low, with inequitable distribution of services throughout the country. To improve access to and use of family planning, efforts should focus on improving availability and quality at lower health system levels and in

  12. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Acharya, Pawan; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Hatløy, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013-14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother's age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother's BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother's education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address modifiable determinants such as reducing socioeconomic disparity. Nutrition

  13. Health care seeking and financial behaviours of the elderly during wartime in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prosper Lutala

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health and social services utilisation is seen to be more closely related to age than to other socio-demographic characteristics. Many health problems are known to increase with age and this demographic trend may lead to an increase in the absolute number of health conditions in this population. However, questions are still emerging as to how the elderly seek care in response to their needs in the context of a war-torn region. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the behaviour of the elderly in seeking care during a time of conflict.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the health district Goma, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, using a multistage sampling of 500 senior citizens. Eight trained field-workers were deployed in the field where they administered a structured questionnaire.Results: The public health sector was well known and preferred by 186 participants (37.2%, but only used by 16 (3.2% participants. Financial support received by the elderly came from their own relatives and fellow believers in 33.5% and 20.2% of cases, respectively. Almost 71% of monetary support is the result of begging and unknown sources – there is no government involvement whatsoever. Much of the external support that the elderly receive involves support in the form of food. Disease expenses remain a main concern of the elderly themselves.Conclusion: Government support for the elderly in the DRC is non-existent. There is an overuse of private sector and traditional medicine, despite the preference indicated for the public health sector. As a recommendation, a general increase in income-related activities could contribute to alleviating the health state of the elderly in a war situation. Further studies might explore in future the contribution of those results on the health of elders.

  14. Should I get screened for sleeping sickness? A qualitative study in Kasai province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mpanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Control of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of Congo is based on mass population active screening by mobile teams. Although generally considered a successful strategy, the community participation rates in these screening activities and ensuing treatment remain low in the Kasai-Oriental province. A better understanding of the reasons behind this observation is necessary to improve regional control activities. METHODS: Thirteen focus group discussions were held in five health zones of the Kasai-Oriental province to gain insights in the regional perceptions regarding sleeping sickness and the national control programme's activities. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sleeping sickness is well known among the population and is considered a serious and life-threatening disease. The disease is acknowledged to have severe implications for the individual (e.g., persistence of manic periods and trembling hands, even after treatment, at the family level (e.g., income loss, conflicts, separations and for communities (e.g., disruption of community life and activities. Several important barriers to screening and treatment were identified. Fear of drug toxicity, lack of confidentiality during screening procedures, financial barriers and a lack of communication between the mobile teams and local communities were described. Additionally, a number of regionally accepted prohibitions related to sleeping sickness treatment were described that were found to be a strong impediment to disease screening and treatment. These prohibitions, which do not seem to have a rational basis, have far-reaching socio-economic repercussions and severely restrict the participation in day-to-day life. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A mobile screening calendar more adapted to the local conditions with more respect for privacy, the use of less toxic drugs, and a better understanding of the origin as well as better communication about the prohibitions

  15. Taenia solium cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: how does pork trade affect the transmission of the parasite?

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    Nicolas Praet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC, makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. METHODS: An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1 on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2 in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. FINDINGS: The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI 95%: 34-43] versus 41.2% [CI 95%: 33-49], respectively. However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA. INTERPRETATION: Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map.

  16. [The career of the psychiatrist Dietfried Müller-Hegemann (1910-1989) : Example of a politically motivated rise and fall in the German Democratic Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, H

    2017-01-12

    Dietfried Müller-Hegemann was one of the prominent figures in East German psychiatry and psychotherapy of the 1950s and 1960s. Having been a communist prior to 1933, a resistance fighter during the National Socialist regime and having gone through political training during his exile in Soviet Russia, he proved to be a committed member of the new ruling SED socialist party in Eastern Germany. As such both governmental and party organs regarded him as a promising and reliable party member to be supported and implemented as executive staff within the new, socialist scientific system. Also, due to the fact that he supported the Pavlovian school of thought for modern psychiatry, Müller-Hegemann was installed as the new head of the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry at Leipzig University by the state secretary for higher education, notably against the clear opposition of the university medical faculty. Soon thereafter however Müller-Hegemann fell from favor due to the fact that he supported views that did not follow the strict ideological guidelines, e. g. with regard to the emergence of fascism. Moreover, he strongly opposed the separation of neurology from psychiatry as ruled by the ministry. An attempt in 1963 by junior party members and ministerial staff to remove him from office failed, but still managed to make Müller-Hegemann resign from his Leipzig post and take over that of director of the Griesinger hospital for the mentally ill in East Berlin. In May 1971, after new conflicts with party officials, he did not return from a business trip to Essen in West Germany. This study does not review the scientific and medical merits of Müller-Hegemann, but concentrates on how his career as a leading psychiatrist was manipulated, both supported and sabotaged, and ideologically controlled by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) system. His development is documented proof that party officials did not tolerate opposition, neither in ideological nor in

  17. The Adf Insurgency Network in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: Spillover Effects Into Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    30 4. Peace Deal of 2003 ..............................................................................30 5. Goma Peace Agreement of 2008...31 6. Goma Peace Accord of 2009...of two factions: RCD- Goma backed by Rwanda, 133 Autesserre, The Trouble with the Congo, 48. 134 The

  18. Capacity builders for governance: community-driven reconstruction in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyamusugulwa, P.M.; Hilhorst, D.; Haar, van der G.

    2014-01-01

    Community-driven reconstruction (CDR) has become a new paradigm in post-conflict development. It combines infrastructure restoration with introducing good governance at the local level. Recent evaluations show that governance objectives are not easily met and significant change cannot be demonstrate

  19. Capacity builders for governance: community-driven reconstruction in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyamusugulwa, P.M.; Hilhorst, D.; Haar, van der G.

    2014-01-01

    Community-driven reconstruction (CDR) has become a new paradigm in post-conflict development. It combines infrastructure restoration with introducing good governance at the local level. Recent evaluations show that governance objectives are not easily met and significant change cannot be demonstrate

  20. Capacity builders for governance: community-driven reconstruction in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyamusugulwa, P.M.; Hilhorst, D.; Haar, van der G.

    2014-01-01

    Community-driven reconstruction (CDR) has become a new paradigm in post-conflict development. It combines infrastructure restoration with introducing good governance at the local level. Recent evaluations show that governance objectives are not easily met and significant change cannot be

  1. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  2. Frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related road traffic accident (RTA) in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangana, Luzitu Severin; Monga, Ben; Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Mbelambela, Etongola Papy; Mbutshu, Lukuke Hendrick; Malonga, Kaj Francoise

    2016-09-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA)-related trauma remains a public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related RTA in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the first semester of the year 2015 in which 288 drivers (144 RTA-causing drivers and 144 control drivers who have been declared not guilty by road safety agents) involved in 144 motor vehicle-related RTA were interviewed, and only data on all RTA involving two motor vehicles with at least four wheels were recorded and analyzed. Results showed a total of 144 RTA that involved two motor vehicles with four wheels occurring during the study period which affected 104 people, including 93 injury and 11 fatality cases. The mean age of RTA-causing drivers was 33.8 ± 7.4, whereas it was 35 ± 8.8 for control drivers. The majority of RTA-causing drivers (53.4 %) did not attend a driving school. Over speeding (32 %), distracted driving (22 %), overtaking (16 %) and careless driving/risky maneuver (15 %) and driving under the influence of alcohol (9 %) were the main causes of RTA occurrence. In addition, the absence of a valid driving license [aOR = 12.74 (±2.71); 95 % CI 3.877-41.916; p = 0.015], unfastened seat belt for the RTA-causing driver [aOR = 1.85 (±0.62); 95 % CI 1.306-6.661; p = 0.048] and presence of damages on RTA-causing vehicle [aOR = 33.56 (24.01); 95 % CI 1.429-78.352; p = 0.029] were associated with the occurrence of RTA-related fatality. This study showed a relatively high frequency of RTA occurring in Lubumbashi and suggests the necessity to reinforce road traffic regulation.

  3. Novel simian foamy virus infections from multiple monkey species in women from the Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Switzer William M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in Central Africa is ongoing and can result in pandemic human infection. While simian foamy virus (SFV infection was reported in primate hunters in Cameroon and Gabon, little is known about the distribution of SFV in Africa and whether human-to-human transmission and disease occur. We screened 3,334 plasmas from persons living in rural villages in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC using SFV-specific EIA and Western blot (WB tests. PCR amplification of SFV polymerase sequences from DNA extracted from buffy coats was used to measure proviral loads. Phylogenetic analysis was used to define the NHP species origin of SFV. Participants completed questionnaires to capture NHP exposure information. Results Sixteen (0.5% samples were WB-positive; 12 of 16 were from women (75%, 95% confidence limits 47.6%, 92.7%. Sequence analysis detected SFV in three women originating from Angolan colobus or red-tailed monkeys; both monkeys are hunted frequently in DRC. NHP exposure varied and infected women lived in distant villages suggesting a wide and potentially diverse distribution of SFV infections across DRC. Plasmas from 22 contacts of 8 WB-positive participants were all WB negative suggesting no secondary viral transmission. Proviral loads in the three women ranged from 14 – 1,755 copies/105 cells. Conclusions Our study documents SFV infection in rural DRC for the first time and identifies infections with novel SFV variants from Colobus and red-tailed monkeys. Unlike previous studies, women were not at lower risk for SFV infection in our population, providing opportunities for spread of SFV both horizontally and vertically. However, limited testing of close contacts of WB-positive persons did not identify human-to-human transmission. Combined with the broad behavioral risk and distribution of NHPs across DRC, our results suggest that SFV infection may have a wider geographic

  4. Use of facility assessment data to improve reproductive health service delivery in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

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    Aveledi Blandine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged exposure to war has severely impacted the provision of health services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Health infrastructure has been destroyed, health workers have fled and government support to health care services has been made difficult by ongoing conflict. Poor reproductive health (RH indicators illustrate the effect that the prolonged crisis in DRC has had on the on the reproductive health (RH of Congolese women. In 2007, with support from the RAISE Initiative, the International Rescue Committee (IRC and CARE conducted baseline assessments of public hospitals to evaluate their capacities to meet the RH needs of the local populations and to determine availability, utilization and quality of RH services including emergency obstetric care (EmOC and family planning (FP. Methods Data were collected from facility assessments at nine general referral hospitals in five provinces in the DRC during March, April and November 2007. Interviews, observation and clinical record review were used to assess the general infrastructure, EmOC and FP services provided, and the infection prevention environment in each of the facilities. Results None of the nine hospitals met the criteria for classification as an EmOC facility (either basic or comprehensive. Most facilities lacked any FP services. Shortage of trained staff, essential supplies and medicines and poor infection prevention practices were consistently documented. All facilities had poor systems for routine monitoring of RH services, especially with regard to EmOC. Conclusions Women's lives can be saved and their well-being improved with functioning RH services. As the DRC stabilizes, IRC and CARE in partnership with the local Ministry of Health and other service provision partners are improving RH services by: 1 providing necessary equipment and renovations to health facilities; 2 improving supply management systems; 3 providing comprehensive competency

  5. Use of facility assessment data to improve reproductive health service delivery in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sara E; Mitchell, Kathleen T; Amisi, Immaculée Mulamba; Haliza, Martin Migombano; Aveledi, Blandine; Kalenga, Prince; Austin, Judy

    2009-12-21

    Prolonged exposure to war has severely impacted the provision of health services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Health infrastructure has been destroyed, health workers have fled and government support to health care services has been made difficult by ongoing conflict. Poor reproductive health (RH) indicators illustrate the effect that the prolonged crisis in DRC has had on the on the reproductive health (RH) of Congolese women. In 2007, with support from the RAISE Initiative, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) and CARE conducted baseline assessments of public hospitals to evaluate their capacities to meet the RH needs of the local populations and to determine availability, utilization and quality of RH services including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and family planning (FP). Data were collected from facility assessments at nine general referral hospitals in five provinces in the DRC during March, April and November 2007. Interviews, observation and clinical record review were used to assess the general infrastructure, EmOC and FP services provided, and the infection prevention environment in each of the facilities. None of the nine hospitals met the criteria for classification as an EmOC facility (either basic or comprehensive). Most facilities lacked any FP services. Shortage of trained staff, essential supplies and medicines and poor infection prevention practices were consistently documented. All facilities had poor systems for routine monitoring of RH services, especially with regard to EmOC. Women's lives can be saved and their well-being improved with functioning RH services. As the DRC stabilizes, IRC and CARE in partnership with the local Ministry of Health and other service provision partners are improving RH services by: 1) providing necessary equipment and renovations to health facilities; 2) improving supply management systems; 3) providing comprehensive competency-based training for health providers in RH and infection

  6. Asymptomatic malaria, growth status, and anaemia among children in Lao People’s Democratic Republic: a cross-sectional study

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    Takeshi Akiyama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asymptomatic malaria can be observed in both stable endemic areas and unstable transmission areas. However, although much attention has been given to acute malaria infections, relatively little attention has been paid to asymptomatic malaria. Nonetheless, because the asymptomatic host serves as a reservoir for the malaria parasite, asymptomatic malaria is now recognized as an important obstacle to malaria elimination. Asymptomatic malaria is also associated with anaemia, a global public health problem with serious consequences on human health as well as social and economic development. In Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, malaria, anaemia, and malnutrition are serious public health concerns. However, few studies have focused on the relationship between these variables. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between asymptomatic malaria, growth status, and the prevalence of anaemia among children aged 120 months old or younger in rural villages in Lao PDR. Methods In December 2010 and March 2011, data were collected from five villages in Savannakhet province. Anthropometric measurements, blood samples, and malaria rapid diagnostic tests were conducted. The presence of malaria was confirmed with polymerase chain reaction assays for Plasmodium falciparum. Underweight status, stunting, and anaemia were defined according to World Health Organization standards. Results The mean age of participants (n = 319 was 88.3 months old (Standard Deviation: 20.6, ranged from 30–119 months old, and 20 participants (6.3 % had an asymptomatic malaria infection, 92 (28.8 % were anaemic, 123 (38.6 % were underweight, and 137 (42.9 % were stunted. Stunted children were more likely to be infected with asymptomatic malaria [odds ratio (OR 3.34, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.25–8.93], and asymptomatic malaria was associated with anaemia [OR 5.17, 95 % CI 1.99–13.43]. Conclusions These results suggest a

  7. Sensitive Next-Generation Sequencing Method Reveals Deep Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Eduan; Vallari, Ana; McArthur, Carole; Sthreshley, Larry; Brennan, Catherine A.; Cloherty, Gavin; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT As the epidemiological epicenter of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a reservoir of circulating HIV strains exhibiting high levels of diversity and recombination. In this study, we characterized HIV specimens collected in two rural areas of the DRC between 2001 and 2003 to identify rare strains of HIV. The env gp41 region was sequenced and characterized for 172 HIV-positive specimens. The env sequences were predominantly subtype A (43.02%), but 7 other subtypes (33.14%), 20 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs; 11.63%), and 20 unclassified (11.63%) sequences were also found. Of the rare and unclassified subtypes, 18 specimens were selected for next-generation sequencing (NGS) by a modified HIV-switching mechanism at the 5′ end of the RNA template (SMART) method to obtain full-genome sequences. NGS produced 14 new complete genomes, which included pure subtype C (n = 2), D (n = 1), F1 (n = 1), H (n = 3), and J (n = 1) genomes. The two subtype C genomes and one of the subtype H genomes branched basal to their respective subtype branches but had no evidence of recombination. The remaining 6 genomes were complex recombinants of 2 or more subtypes, including subtypes A1, F, G, H, J, and K and unclassified fragments, including one subtype CRF25 isolate, which branched basal to all CRF25 references. Notably, all recombinant subtype H fragments branched basal to the H clade. Spatial-geographical analysis indicated that the diverse sequences identified here did not expand globally. The full-genome and subgenomic sequences identified in our study population significantly increase the documented diversity of the strains involved in the continually evolving HIV-1 pandemic. IMPORTANCE Very little is known about the ancestral HIV-1 strains that founded the global pandemic, and very few complete genome sequences are available from patients in the Congo Basin, where HIV-1 expanded early in the global pandemic

  8. Asymptomatic malaria, growth status, and anaemia among children in Lao People's Democratic Republic: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takeshi; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Phrommala, Souraxay; Taniguchi, Tomoyo; Inamine, Yuba; Takeuchi, Rie; Watanabe, Tadashi; Nishimoto, Futoshi; Moji, Kazuhiko; Kano, Shigeyuki; Watanabe, Hisami; Kobayashi, Jun

    2016-10-18

    Asymptomatic malaria can be observed in both stable endemic areas and unstable transmission areas. However, although much attention has been given to acute malaria infections, relatively little attention has been paid to asymptomatic malaria. Nonetheless, because the asymptomatic host serves as a reservoir for the malaria parasite, asymptomatic malaria is now recognized as an important obstacle to malaria elimination. Asymptomatic malaria is also associated with anaemia, a global public health problem with serious consequences on human health as well as social and economic development. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), malaria, anaemia, and malnutrition are serious public health concerns. However, few studies have focused on the relationship between these variables. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between asymptomatic malaria, growth status, and the prevalence of anaemia among children aged 120 months old or younger in rural villages in Lao PDR. In December 2010 and March 2011, data were collected from five villages in Savannakhet province. Anthropometric measurements, blood samples, and malaria rapid diagnostic tests were conducted. The presence of malaria was confirmed with polymerase chain reaction assays for Plasmodium falciparum. Underweight status, stunting, and anaemia were defined according to World Health Organization standards. The mean age of participants (n = 319) was 88.3 months old (Standard Deviation: 20.6, ranged from 30-119 months old), and 20 participants (6.3 %) had an asymptomatic malaria infection, 92 (28.8 %) were anaemic, 123 (38.6 %) were underweight, and 137 (42.9 %) were stunted. Stunted children were more likely to be infected with asymptomatic malaria [odds ratio (OR) 3.34, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.25-8.93], and asymptomatic malaria was associated with anaemia [OR 5.17, 95 % CI 1.99-13.43]. These results suggest a significant association between asymptomatic malaria and anaemia in

  9. Reduced perinatal mortality following enhanced training of birth attendants in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a time-dependent effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Dennis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, the majority of births are attended by traditional birth attendants, who lack formal training in neonatal resuscitation and other essential care required by the newly born infant. In these countries, the major causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, infection, and low-birth-weight/prematurity. Death from these causes is potentially modifiable using low-cost interventions, including neonatal resuscitation training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on perinatal mortality of training birth attendants in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC using two established programs. Methods This study, a secondary analysis of DRC-specific data collected during a multi-country study, was conducted in two phases. The effect of training using the WHO Essential Newborn Care (ENC program was evaluated using an active baseline design, followed by a cluster randomized trial of training using an adaptation of a neonatal resuscitation program (NRP. The perinatal mortality rates before ENC, after ENC training, and after randomization to additional NRP training or continued care were compared. In addition, the influence of time following resuscitation training was investigated by examining change in perinatal mortality during sequential three-month increments following ENC training. Results More than two-thirds of deliveries were attended by traditional birth attendants and occurred in homes; these proportions decreased after ENC training. There was no apparent decline in perinatal mortality when the outcome of all deliveries prior to ENC training was compared to those after ENC but before NRP training. However, there was a gradual but significant decline in perinatal mortality during the year following ENC training (RR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96, which was independently associated with time following training. The decline was attributable to a decline in early neonatal mortality

  10. Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Isiro, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012: Signs and Symptoms, Management and Outcomes.

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    Thomas Kratz

    Full Text Available Data collected during the 2012 Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo were analysed for clinical signs, symptoms and case fatality of EVD caused by Bundibugyo virus (BDBV, establishment of differential diagnoses, description of medical treatment and evaluation of the quality of clinical documentation. In a quantitative observational prospective study, global epidemiological data from 52 patients (34 patients within the community, 18 patients treated in the Ebola Treatment Centre were entered anonymously into a database, subsequently matched and analysed. Relevant findings include an over-representation of females among community EVD cases (85.3% and of community EVD cases in the age group of 15-54 years (82.4%. All ETC patients had fever (55.6% of all 18 ETC patients during their hospital stay or self-reported fever (88.2% upon admission at some point of time during their illness. Major symptoms of ETC patients during hospital stay included asthenia (82.4%, anorexia (82.4%, myalgia (70.6%, sore throat/difficulty swallowing (70.6%, arthralgia (76.5% and nausea (70.6%. Gastrointestinal signs and symptoms (nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting (76.4% as well as general pain (94.1% were frequent in ETC patients. The median duration of EVD was 18 days, while the mean incubation period was 11.3 days. Differential diagnosis of EVD included malaria (28.3%, intestinal parasitosis (10.9%, and infectious syndrome (10.9%. There was also an important variation in clinical evolvement. Quality of documentation was adversely affected by the way patient file contents were transferred from inside to outside the high-risk zone, entailing a mean mismatch value of 27.3% between patient file contents inside vs. outside the high-risk zone. This study adds further description of EVD (frequently non-specific signs and symptoms, non frequent bleeding, a long incubation period, long duration of disease and emphasizes the need for improving

  11. Development of an efficient callus proliferation system for Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant growing in Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

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    Song-Chol Mun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A clonal mass propagation to obtain mountainous sources of Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant in Democratic People’s Republic of Korea was established by rhizome tissue culture. Whole plants were selected and collected as a vigorous individual free from blights and harmful insects among wild plants of R. coreanum grown on the top of Mt. Langrim (1.540 m above the sea situated at the northern extremity of Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Induction of the callus was determined using four organs separated from the whole plant and different plant growth regulators. The callus was successfully induced from rhizome explant on MS medium containing 2.4-D (0.2–0.3 mg/l. In the MS medium supplemented with a combination of BAP (2 mg/l and NAA (0.2 mg/l, single NAA (0.5 mg/l, or IBA (0.5 mg/l, a higher number of shoot, root and plantlets was achieved. The survival rate on the mountainous region of the plantlets successfully acclimatized (100% in greenhouse reached 95%, and yields of crude drug and contents of active principles were higher than those obtained by sexual and vegetative propagation. This first report of R. coreanum tissue culture provides an opportunity to control extinction threats and an efficient callus proliferation system for growing resources rapidly on a large scale.

  12. Development of an efficient callus proliferation system for Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant growing in Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Song-Chol; Mun, Gwan-Sim

    2016-07-01

    A clonal mass propagation to obtain mountainous sources of Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant in Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established by rhizome tissue culture. Whole plants were selected and collected as a vigorous individual free from blights and harmful insects among wild plants of R. coreanum grown on the top of Mt. Langrim (1.540 m above the sea) situated at the northern extremity of Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Induction of the callus was determined using four organs separated from the whole plant and different plant growth regulators. The callus was successfully induced from rhizome explant on MS medium containing 2.4-D (0.2-0.3 mg/l). In the MS medium supplemented with a combination of BAP (2 mg/l) and NAA (0.2 mg/l), single NAA (0.5 mg/l), or IBA (0.5 mg/l), a higher number of shoot, root and plantlets was achieved. The survival rate on the mountainous region of the plantlets successfully acclimatized (100%) in greenhouse reached 95%, and yields of crude drug and contents of active principles were higher than those obtained by sexual and vegetative propagation. This first report of R. coreanum tissue culture provides an opportunity to control extinction threats and an efficient callus proliferation system for growing resources rapidly on a large scale.

  13. High School Students Are a Target Group for Fight against Self-Medication with Antimalarial Drugs: A Pilot Study in University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Ramsès Kabongo Kamitalu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the self-medication against malaria infection in population of Congolese students in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Medical records of all students with malaria admitted to Centre de Santé Universitaire of University of Kinshasa from January 1, 2008, to April 30, 2008, were reviewed retrospectively. Results. The median age of the patients was 25.4 years (range: from 18 to 36 years. The majority of them were male (67.9%. Artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs was the most used self-prescribed antimalarial drugs. However, self-medication was associated with the ingestion of quinine in 19.9% of cases. No case of ingestion of artesunate/artemether in monotherapy was found. All the medicines taken were registered in DRC. In this series, self-prescribed antimalarial was very irrational in terms of dose and duration of treatment. Conclusion. This paper highlights self-medication by a group who should be aware of malaria treatment protocols. The level of self-prescribing quinine is relatively high among students and is disturbing for a molecule reserved for severe disease in Congolese health care policy in management of malaria.

  14. Resolving Bad Loans in Central and Eastern Europe: The Cases of Hungary, Poland and Czech Republic

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    Jeong-Chul Han

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In the process of transformation in old socialist country in Eastern Europe in 1989, a large scale insolvent debenture emerges. Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic which drove Eastern Europe's economy, use insolvent loan to solve this insolvent debenture and these three countries also make the government bonds as money supply funding patterns. But Hungary and Poland use decentralized solution and leading banks to deal with the bad creditor. On the contrary, Czech has no special way of dealing with that, but let some certain bank mainly focusing on the bad creditor which is called centralized solution. Now, Korean government is using the similar method like Czech. In this point of view, in order avoid insolvent debenture becoming the burden of economy, Korea has to work out the same plan to deal with insolvent debenture with Poland.

  15. Case note: ICC (T. Ch. I) (Situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Prosecutor v Lubanga Dyilo (Thomas), Judgment pursuant to Article 74 of the Statute, Case No ICC-01/04-01/06)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Whether the use of intermediaries affected the accused’s right to a fair trial. Whether the armed conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was of an international or non-international character. Whether the definition of ‘actively participating in hostilities’ could be used with respect to c

  16. Case note: ICC (T. Ch. I) (Situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Prosecutor v Lubanga Dyilo (Thomas), Judgment pursuant to Article 74 of the Statute, Case No ICC-01/04-01/06)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Whether the use of intermediaries affected the accused’s right to a fair trial. Whether the armed conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was of an international or non-international character. Whether the definition of ‘actively participating in hostilities’ could be used with respect to

  17. Batwanema gen. n. and Chokwenema gen. n. (Oxyurida, Hystrignathidae), new nematode genera as parasites of Passalidae (Coleoptera) from the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morffe, Jans; García, Nayla

    2013-01-01

    Two new genera and species parasitizing passalid beetles from the Democratic Republic of Congo are described. Batwanema congo gen. n. et sp. n. is characterized by having females with the cervical cuticle armed with scale-like projections, arranged initially in rows of eight elements that gradually divide and form pointed spines toward the end of the spiny region, two cephalic annuli, clavate procorpus and genital tract monodelphic-prodelphic. Two Malagasian species of Artigasia Christie, 1934 were placed in this genus as B. latum (Van Waerebeke, 1973) comb. n. and B. annulatum (Van Waerebeke, 1973) comb. n. Chokwenema lepidophorum gen. n. et sp. n. is characterized by having females with the cervical cuticle armed with scale-like projections, arranged initially in rows of eight elements (similar to Batwanema) that divide gradually, forming spines; a single cephalic annule cone-like, truncated, moderately inflated; procorpus sub-cylindrical and genital tract didelphic-amphidelphic.

  18. Batwanema gen. n. and Chokwenema gen. n. (Oxyurida, Hystrignathidae, new nematode genera as parasites of Passalidae (Coleoptera from the Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Jans Morffe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera and species parasitizing passalid beetles from the Democratic Republic of Congo are described. Batwanema congo gen. n. et sp. n. is characterized byfemales with the cervical cuticle armed with scale-like projections, arranged initially in rows of eight elements that gradually divide and form pointed spines toward the end of the spiny region, two cephalic annuli, clavate procorpus and genital tract monodelphic-prodelphic. Two Malagasian species of Artigasia Christie, 1934 were placed in this genus as B. latum (Van Waerebeke, 1973 comb. n. and B. annulatum (Van Waerebeke, 1973 comb.n. Chokwenema lepidophorum gen. n. et sp. n. is characterized byfemales with the cervical cuticle armed with scale-like projections, arranged initially in rows of eight elements (similar to Batwanema that divide gradually, forming spines; a single cephalic annule cone-like, truncated, moderately inflated; procorpus sub-cylindrical and genital tract didelphic-amphidelphic.

  19. Eight hundred-year-old human remains from the Ituri tropical forest, Democratic Republic of Congo: the rock shelter site of Matangai Turu Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, J; Garralda, M D; Pearson, O M; Bailey, R C

    2001-05-01

    Little is known about human prehistory in the central African lowland tropical forest due to a paucity of archaeological evidence. Here we report results from our archaeological investigations of a late Holocene site in the northeast Congo Basin, with emphasis on a single skeleton from the rock shelter site of Matangai Turu Northwest, in the Ituri Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo. The skeleton dates from approximately 810 BP (1235 calibrated AD) and is associated with Later Stone Age lithics, animal bone and shell remains from wild taxa, fruit endocarps from forest trees, phytoliths from tropical forest plants, Late Iron Age ceramics, and a single iron artifact. Phytolith analysis indicates that the habitat was dense tropical forest, without evidence of domesticated food.

  20. Pulmonary localization of Mansonella perstans in a 16 months-old male patient in a tertiary care hospital in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabego, Landry; Kasengi, Joe Bwija; Mirindi, Patrick; Ruhanya, Vurayai; Lupande, David; Bulabula, André; Ngoma, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    Mansonella perstans is a human filarial parasite transmitted by biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) belonging to the genus Culicoides and it is widely spread in sub-Saharan Africa. While most cases are asymptomatic, mansonelliasis can be associated with angioedema, arthralgia, swellings, pain in the scrotum or in serous cavities such as the pleura, the peritoneum, the pericardium, etc. Mansonelliasis can be really hard to treat, but it has been shown that an intensive treatment using albendazole can clear the parasite. Here we describe a case of a 16 months-old malnourished child with pneumonia due to M. perstans in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Although our investigations confirmed M. perstans infection, this case shows that it is very difficult to come to a conclusive diagnosis.

  1. Acute crises and complications of sickle cell anemia among patients attending a pediatric tertiary unit in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Michel Ntetani Aloni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the incidence of sickle cell anemia (SCA is estimated to affect 30,000 to 40,000 neonates per year. However, there is paucity of data on acute clinical manifestations in sickle cell children. In these circumstances, it is difficult to develop a health care policy for an adequate management of sickle cell patients. This was a seven years’ retrospective study of children admitted with acute sickle cell crisis in the Department of Pediatrics in University Hospital of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. A total of 108 patients were identified as having SCA. There were 56 (51% girls and 52 (49% boys. Median age was 10.5 years (range 1-24 years. No child was diagnosed by neonatal screening. The median age of diagnosis of sickle cell anemia was 90 months (range: 8-250 months. The median age at the first transfusion was 36 months (range 4-168. In this series, 61 (56.5% patients were eligible for hydroxyurea. However, this treatment was only performed in 4 (6.6% of them. Pain episodes, acute anemic crisis and severe infection represent respectively 38.2%, 34.3% and 21.9% of events. Altered sensorium and focal deficit were encountered occasionally and represented 3.4% of acute events. Acute renal manifestations, cholelithiasis and priapism were rarely reported, in this cohort. In Kinshasa, the care of patients suffering from sickle cell anemia is characterized by the delayed diagnosis and low detection of organ complications compared to reports of Western countries. This situation is due to resources deficiencies.

  2. The Influence of Individual and Contextual Socioeconomic Status on Obstetric Care Utilization in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Population-based Study

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    Olatunde Aremu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal health care utilization continues to focus on the agenda of health care planners around the world, with high attention being paid to the developing countries. The devastating effect of maternal death at birth on the affected families is untold. This study examines the utilization of obstetric care in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: We have used the nationally representative data from the 2007. Democratic Republic of Congo Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel regression analysis has been applied to a nationally representative sample of 6,695 women, clustered around 299 communities in the country. Results: The results show that there are variations in the use of antenatal care and delivery care. Individual-level characteristics, such as women′s occupation and household wealth status are shown to be associated with the use of antenatal care. Uptake of facility-based delivery has been seen to be dependent on the household wealth status, women′s education, and partner′s education. The effect of the neighborhoods′ socioeconomic disadvantage on the use of antenatal care and facility-based delivery are the same. Women from highly socioeconomically disadvantaged communities, compared to their counterparts from less socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, are less likely to utilize both the antenatal services and healthcare facility for child delivery. The result of this study has shown that both individual and contextual socioeconomic status play an important role in obstetric care uptake. Conclusion: Thus, intervention aimed at improving the utilization of obstetrics care should target both the individual economic abilities of the women and that of their environment when considering the demand side.

  3. The Influence of Individual and Contextual Socioeconomic Status on Obstetric Care Utilization in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Population-based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aremu, Olatunde; Lawoko, Stephen; Dalal, Koustuv

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal health care utilization continues to focus on the agenda of health care planners around the world, with high attention being paid to the developing countries. The devastating effect of maternal death at birth on the affected families is untold. This study examines the utilization of obstetric care in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: We have used the nationally representative data from the 2007. Democratic Republic of Congo Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel regression analysis has been applied to a nationally representative sample of 6,695 women, clustered around 299 communities in the country. Results: The results show that there are variations in the use of antenatal care and delivery care. Individual-level characteristics, such as women's occupation and household wealth status are shown to be associated with the use of antenatal care. Uptake of facility-based delivery has been seen to be dependent on the household wealth status, women's education, and partner's education. The effect of the neighborhoods’ socioeconomic disadvantage on the use of antenatal care and facility-based delivery are the same. Women from highly socioeconomically disadvantaged communities, compared to their counterparts from less socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, are less likely to utilize both the antenatal services and healthcare facility for child delivery. The result of this study has shown that both individual and contextual socioeconomic status play an important role in obstetric care uptake. Conclusion: Thus, intervention aimed at improving the utilization of obstetrics care should target both the individual economic abilities of the women and that of their environment when considering the demand side. PMID:22624085

  4. Human Seroprevalence indicating Hantavirus Infections in Tropical Rainforests of Côte d´Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Peter T Witkowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d´Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing.Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687 and 2.4% (7/295, respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d´Ivoire and the Democratic Republic of Congo. In Côte d´Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required.

  5. The Eastern Enlargement of the European Union: Public Discourses in the Czech and Slovak Republics

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    Tereza Novotna

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the so-called Eastern enlargement of the European Union from the point of view of the Czech and Slovak Republics. Although they joined the EU at the same time, the experience of both states is diverse. The author argues that the chief obstacles on the “way back to Europe” were not so much the implementation of the acquis, but internal political weakness and unsatisfactory public discourse on the merits of joining the the EU. Slovakia, with its incorporation into the second wave of candidate countries due to its unacceptable political situation during Meciar’s government, is used as the best exemplar of the political weakness. The Czech Republic illustrates, with its initial sense of exceptionalism that turned into nationalistic-populist rhetoric of political parties’ leaders and eventually mounted into relatively low level of “yes-votes” in the closing referendum, represents the poor public discourse. Methodologically, the author analyses discursive interactions and institutional capacity using an actor-centered approach.

  6. 中东欧民主化与市场化关系初探%A Primary Study of Relations between Democratization and Marketization in Central & Eastern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高歌

    2014-01-01

    In Central & Eastern Europe, the democratization and marketization are in a malignant interactive relationship when both of them are caught in difficult positions. Marketization during political unrest and democratization under economic recession bring adverse effects to each other and intensify difficulties for each other. However, the two sides have a benign interaction when both democratization and marketization processes are in smooth development. The higher degree of democratization and marketization makes the two sides promote each other and makes them step forward together. Therefore, generally speaking, countries with fast democratization, solid democratic systems and stable political situation have a faster pace of marketization, a more mature market economy and more rapid economic development. In addition to the compatibility between democratic systems and market economies, the positive relationship between the democratization and marketization of Central & Eastern Europe also benefits from the regulating and driving functions of the European Union.%中东欧国家的民主化与市场化遭遇困境时呈恶性互动关系,政治动荡中的市场化和经济衰退中的民主化给彼此带来不利影响,加剧各自的困难;民主化与市场化发展顺畅时呈良性互动关系,民主化和市场化程度越高,越是相互促进,共同进步。因此,民主化进度较快、民主制度较为巩固、政局较为稳定的国家一般也是市场化步子较大、市场经济较为成熟、经济发展较为迅速的国家。中东欧国家民主化与市场化的这种正相关关系得益于民主制度与市场经济之间的兼容性,更得益于欧盟在其中所起的规范和推动作用。

  7. The Quest for Regime Legitimacy and Stability in the GDR (German Democratic Republic): The Determinant of Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    the new Social Democrats under Chancellor Willy Brandt came to power in the FRG in 1969, a willingness to normalize relations with the Soviet Union... Brandt and the West German leadership in 1969? The answers possibly lie in the prerequisites demanded by the GDR leadership before normal relations...Soviet Intervention in Czechoslovakia. 1968: Anatomy of a Decision. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1979. Wettigp. Gerhard . Communism and

  8. The School as a Democratic Institution: The Problems of Teaching Social Studies in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsback, Marlene

    1974-01-01

    In recent years, political and social studies have been under revision in the individual states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Many states have issued framework guidelines for the various school branches and levels to provide teachers with orientation aids. Progressive educators see the goal of political and social studies as being more than…

  9. Water pollution abatement programme. The Czech Republic. Project 4.2. Assessing critical loads of acidity to surface waters in the Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity to surface waters, north-eastern Bohemia and northern Moravia, The Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, L.; Raclavsky, K.; Raclavska, H.; Matysek, D.; Hovind, H.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses estimates of critical loads of acidity to surface waters and their exceedances, for north-eastern Bohemia and Moravia in The Czech Republic. The survey covers 13 400 km{sup 2}, or 17% of the area of the country. Varying critical loads were observed within the examined region. 19% of the examined area showed exceedance of critical load and another 11% was close to exceedance. The survey should continue in Bohemia. 24 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. External quality assessment of reading and interpretation of malaria rapid diagnostic tests among 1849 end-users in the Democratic Republic of the Congo through Short Message Service (SMS.

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    Pierre Mukadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT are simple to perform, they remain subject to errors, mainly related to the post-analytical phase. We organized the first large scale SMS based external quality assessment (EQA on correct reading and interpretation of photographs of a three-band malaria RDT among laboratory health workers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo. METHODS AND FINDINGS: High resolution EQA photographs of 10 RDT results together with a questionnaire were distributed to health facilities in 9 out of 11 provinces in DR Congo. Each laboratory health worker answered the EQA by Short Message Service (SMS. Filled-in questionnaires from each health facility were sent back to Kinshasa. A total of 1849 laboratory health workers in 1014 health facilities participated. Most frequent errors in RDT reading were i failure to recognize invalid (13.2-32.5% or negative test results (9.8-12.8%, (ii overlooking faint test lines (4.1-31.2% and (iii incorrect identification of the malaria species (12.1-17.4%. No uniform strategy for diagnosis of malaria at the health facility was present. Stock outs of RDTs occurred frequently. Half of the health facilities had not received an RDT training. Only two thirds used the RDT recommended by the National Malaria Control Program. Performance of RDT reading was positively associated with training and the technical level of health facility. Facilities with RDT positivity rates >50% and located in Eastern DR Congo performed worse. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed that errors in reading and interpretation of malaria RDTs are widespread and highlighted the problem of stock outs of RDTs. Adequate training of end-users in the application of malaria RDTs associated with regular EQAs is recommended.

  11. Adult and adolescent livestock productive asset transfer programmes to improve mental health, economic stability and family and community relationships in rural South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy A; Remy, Mitima Mpanano; Alfred, Mirindi Bacikenge; Arsene, Kajabika Binkurhorhwa; Nadine, Mwinja Bufole; Heri, Banyewesize Jean; Clovis, Mitima Murhula; Glass, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction People living in poverty have limited access to traditional financial institutions. Microfinance programmes are designed to meet this gap and show promise in improving income, economic productivity and health. Our Congolese–US community academic research partnership developed two livestock productive asset transfer programmes, Pigs for Peace (PFP) and Rabbits for Resilience (RFR), to address the interlinked health, social and economic well-being of individuals, their families and communities. The community-based randomised controlled trials examine the effectiveness of PFP and RFR to improve health, economic stability, and family and community relationships among male and female adults and adolescents living in 10 rural, postconflict villages of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods and analysis PFP participants include adult permanent residents of rural villages; adolescent participants in RFR include male and female adolescents 10–15 years old living in the selected rural villages. Participants were randomised to intervention or delayed control group. Participants in PFP completed baseline interview prior to intervention and follow-up interview at 6, 12 and 18 months postintervention. In RFR, participants completed baseline interview prior to intervention and follow-up interview at 6, 12 and 18 months postbaseline. The primary outcome of both trials, the change in baseline mental health distress at 18 months in the intervention group (adults, adolescents) compared to control group, is used to calculate sample size. Ethics and dissemination The Johns Hopkins Medical Institute Internal Review Board approved this protocol. A committee of respected Congolese educators and community members (due to lack of local ethics review board) approved the study. The findings will provide important information on the potential for community-led sustainable development initiatives to build on traditional livelihood (livestock raising, agriculture

  12. The impact of hospital and urban wastewaters on the bacteriological contamination of the water resources in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Kayembe, John M; Laffite, Amandine; Thevenon, Florian; Devarajan, Naresh; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mubedi, Josué I; Yav, Zéphirin G; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-10-14

    Although the United Nations General Assembly recognized in 2010 the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all other human rights, the contamination of water supplies with faecal pathogens is still a major and unsolved problem in many parts of the world. In this study, faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT), were quantified over the period of June/July 2014 and June/July 2015 to assess the quality of hospital effluents (n = 3: H1, H2 and H3) and of rivers receiving wastewaters from the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The water and sediment samples from the river-receiving systems were collected in, upstream and downstream of the hospital outlet pipe (HOP) discharge. The analysis of E. coli and ENT in water and sediment suspension was performed using the cultural membrane filter method. The FIB characterization was performed for general E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis(E. faecalis) and human-specific Bacteroides by PCR using specific primers. The results revealed very high FIB concentration in the hospital effluent waters, with E. coli reaching the values of 4.2 × 10(5), 16.1 × 10(5) and 5.9 × 10(5) CFU 100 mL(-1), for the hospital effluents from H1, H2, and H3, respectively; and Enterococcus reaching the values of 2.3 × 10(4), 10.9 × 10(4) and 4.1 × 10(4) CFU 100 mL(-1), respectively. Interestingly, the FIB levels in the water and sediment samples from river-receiving systems are spatially and temporally highly variable and present in some samples with higher values than the hospital effluents. The PCR assays for human-specific Bacteroides HF183/HF134 further indicate that more than 98% of bacteria were from human origin. The results of this research therefore confirm the hypothesis of our previous studies, indicating that in developing countries (e.g., Democratic Republic of Congo and South India), the

  13. Paris on the Mekong: using the aid effectiveness agenda to support human resources for health in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

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    Hill Peter S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines the potential of aid effectiveness to positively influence human resources for health in developing countries, based on research carried out in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR. Efforts to make aid more effective – as articulated in the 2005 Paris Declaration and recently reiterated in the 2008 Accra Agenda for Action – are becoming an increasingly prominent part of the development agenda. A common criticism, though, is that these discussions have limited impact at sector level. Human resources for health are characterized by a rich and complex network of interactions and influences – both across government and the donor community. This complexity provides a good prism through which to assess the potential of the aid effectiveness agenda to support health development and, conversely, possibilities to extend the impact of aid-effectiveness approaches to sector level. Methods The research adopted a case study approach using mixed research methods. It draws on a quantitative analysis of human resources for health in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, supplementing this with a documentary and policy analysis. Qualitative methods, including key informant interviews and observation, were also used. Results The research revealed a number pathways through which aid effectiveness is promoting an integrated, holistic response to a range of human resources for health challenges, and has identified further opportunities for stronger linkages. The pathways include: (1 efforts to improve governance and accountability, which are often central to the aid effectiveness agenda, and can be used as an entry point for reforming workforce planning and regulation; (2 financial management reforms, typically linked to provision of budget support, that open the way for greater transparency and better management of health monies and, ultimately, higher salaries and revenues for health facilities; (3 commitments

  14. Development of Democratic Processes in the People’s Republic of China: Prospects of Transformation of the Political Regime

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    Alexey Alexandrovich Semenov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth of the PRC has brought new challenges and promoted social transformation in Chinese society. China suffers profound changes involving fundamental principles of public relations. The political regime in China is in a changeable condition, and continues to transform. Some decisions of the Chinese government affect not only the economy and public administration, but also in some ways human rights and political changes. Chinese political regime takes on the pending social problems and begins to gently lift old political bans. There is development of processes which at least by the formal features can be attributed to be democratic or quasi-democratic. However, despite a number of political changes and improving of human rights situation in last decades, China is still an illiberal state. Moreover, the level of repression in China has increased in the last few years. All of these actions raise questions about the political future of China. The scale of the socio-economic changes that have occurred in the PRC is so significant, that the maintaining of the existing governance structure is not possible. Rapid economic growth reduced public discontent at the disregard to fundamental human rights. Yet the “economic miracle” is coming to an end, and the country desperately needs economic and political reforms. Lack of reforms or its incorrect implementation can put the existing system out of balance, which will lead to adverse effects not only in China but also in the world. Depending on the reforms we can assume several scenarios for further development of the PRC.

  15. Dynamics of phytoestrogen, isoflavonoids, and its isolation from stems of Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi growing in Democratic People's Republic of Korea

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    Song-Chol Mun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Four isoflavonoids were isolated from stems of Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi growing in Democratic People's Republic of Korea and identified as daidzein (1, genistin (2, daidzin (3, and puerarin (4, structures, which were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis. Isoflavonoids were isolated using silica gel chromatography and purified with organic solvents. Isoflavonoid contents in P. lobata were determined using reliable high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the contents of puerarin and genistin in the roots are higher than those in the stems (6.19% and 0.04% vs. 1.15% and 0.02%, whereas the stems have higher contents of daidzin and daidzein than the roots (3.17% and 0.06% vs. 1.72% and 0.05%. Accordingly, the root part of the plant is useful for the isolation of puerarin and the stem part for daidzin. This study suggests that the stem of P. lobata is useful as an alternative source of puerarin, daidzin, genistin, and daidzein. In addition, collection of the stem will not sacrifice the plant and thus is beneficial to the natural ecosystems.

  16. Quantifying gas emissions from the “Millennium Eruption” of Paektu volcano, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovino, Kayla; Ju-Song, Kim; Sisson, Thomas; Lowenstern, Jacob; Kuk-Hun, Ri; Jong-Nam, Jang; Kun-Ho, Song; Song-Hwan, Ham; Oppenheimer, Clive; Hammond, James O. S.; Donovan, Amy; Liu, Kosima W.; Kum-Ran, Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Paektu volcano (Changbaishan) is a rhyolitic caldera that straddles the border between the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and China. Its most recent large eruption was the Millennium Eruption (ME; 23 km3 dense rock equivalent) circa 946 CE, which resulted in the release of copious magmatic volatiles (H2O, CO2, sulfur, and halogens). Accurate quantification of volatile yield and composition is critical in assessing volcanogenic climate impacts but is challenging, particularly for events before the satellite era. We use a geochemical technique to quantify volatile composition and upper bounds to yields for the ME by examining trends in incompatible trace and volatile element concentrations in crystal-hosted melt inclusions. We estimate that the ME could have emitted as much as 45 Tg of S to the atmosphere. This is greater than the quantity of S released by the 1815 eruption of Tambora, which contributed to the “year without a summer.” Our maximum gas yield estimates place the ME among the strongest emitters of climate-forcing gases in the Common Era. However, ice cores from Greenland record only a relatively weak sulfate signal attributed to the ME. We suggest that other factors came into play in minimizing the glaciochemical signature. This paradoxical case in which high S emissions do not result in a strong glacial sulfate signal may present a way forward in building more generalized models for interpreting which volcanic eruptions have produced large climate impacts. PMID:28138521

  17. Effects of untreated hospital effluents on the accumulation of toxic metals in sediments of receiving system under tropical conditions: case of South India and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubedi, Josué Ilunga; Devarajan, Naresh; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mputu, John Kayembe; Atibu, Emmanuel K; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mpiana, Pius T; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2013-10-01

    Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses have been performed to assess the quality of sediments receiving untreated hospital effluents from Indian and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) hospitals. The sediments were collected monthly and characterized for grain size, organic matter, total organic carbon, total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, toxic metals and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals from the Indian hospital effluent receiving systems, especially for Cr, Cu, As, Zn and Hg. On the other hand, the metal concentrations in the sediment receiving system from DRC are low (e.g. maximum Hg and Zn concentration were 0.46 and 48.84 mg kg(-1) respectively). Ostracods exposed to sediment samples H2 (September month sample) and H3 (June and September month samples) were found dead after 6d of exposure whereas the higher mortality rate for Congo sediments was 23% but was accompanied with 33 ± 7% of growth inhibition. The results of this study show the variation of sediment composition on toxic metal levels as well as toxicity related to both, the type of hospitals and the sampling period. Additionally, hospital effluent disposal practices at the study sites can lead to the pollution of water resources and may generate risks for aquatic organisms and human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multistakeholder partnerships with the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea to improve childhood immunisation: A perspective from global health equity and political determinants of health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hani; Marks, Florian; Novakovic, Uros; Hotez, Peter J; Black, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    To examine the current partnerships to improve the childhood immunisation programme in the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (DPRK) in the context of the political determinants of health equity. A literature search was conducted to identify public health collaborations with the DPRK government. Based on the amount of publicly accessible data and a shared approach in health system strengthening among the partners in immunisation programmes, the search focused on these partnerships. The efforts by WHO, UNICEF, GAVI and IVI with the DPRK government improved the delivery of childhood vaccines (e.g. pentavalent vaccines, inactivated polio vaccine, two-dose measles vaccine and Japanese encephalitis vaccine) and strengthened the DPRK health system by equipping health centres, and training all levels of public health personnel for VPD surveillance and immunisation service delivery. The VPD-focused programmatic activities in the DPRK have improved the delivery of childhood immunisation and have created dialogue and contact with the people of the DPRK. These efforts are likely to ameliorate the political isolation of the people of the DPRK and potentially improve global health equity. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of caesarean sections in a post-conflict environment: a case study of Bunia, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboutte, Danielle; O'Dempsey, Tim; Mann, Gillian; Faragher, Brian

    2013-07-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of health services research in an unstable environment during the transition from crisis to development and its importance for future planning. Effectiveness and the cost of caesarean sections (CSs) were investigated in Bunia, a town affected by conflict and insecurity, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 2008. The CS rate was 9.7 per cent of expected deliveries. All CSs in the study sample were emergency procedures. A humanitarian non-governmental organisation (NGO) hospital, offering free services, performed 75 per cent of all CSs. The estimated provider cost for CS in 2008 at this hospital was USD 103,514 (that is, USD 144 per CS). With a cost of between USD 3.8 and 9.2 per year of health adjusted life expectancy (HALE) gained, CSs at the NGO hospital were very cost-effective. The estimates give an indication of funding requirements to maintain adequate access to CS after the departure of the humanitarian organisation.

  20. Lesula: a new species of Cercopithecus monkey endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and implications for conservation of Congo's central basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Hart

    Full Text Available In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as "lesula" was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo's interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range.

  1. Characterization of an old complex circulating recombinant form, CRF27_cpx, originating from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and circulating in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Nicole; Frange, Pierre; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Mulanga, Claire; Lepira, François; Bazepeo, Samuel Edidi; Goujard, Cecile; Meyer, Laurence; Rouzioux, Christine; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2008-02-01

    Full-length genomes were characterized for two samples, 02CD-LBR024 from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and 04FR-CD-KZS from France, that formed a separate subcluster with a previously characterized env subtype E isolate from DRC with a recombinant structure different from CRF01-AE. Since the three viruses are clearly epidemiologically unlinked and share the same complex recombinant structure, they represent a circulating recombinant form, designated as CRF27-cpx. The recombination pattern involves six different HIV-1 subtypes (A, E, G, H, J, and K) and a small unclassified fragment. The genetic distances are relatively high, indicating that CRF27-cpx evolved over a long time. Their prevalence is low (0.75%) and remained stable over time in the DRC. The existence of the 04FR.CD.KZS virus, in a patient who recently seroconverted in France, confirmed that these strains now circulate outside the DRC. Continuous monitoring of HIV-1 strains thus remains important to allow early identification of the introduction of new variants.

  2. Discovery of a leptospirosis cluster amidst a pneumonic plague outbreak in a miners' camp in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertherat, Eric; Mueller, Melissa J; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2014-02-07

    Conditions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo provide an ideal environment for leptospirosis and plague, both of which can cause severe pulmonary manifestations. In December 2004, an outbreak of lethal pneumonia occurred in a local mining camp, affecting 130 persons and killing 57 of them. Clinical signs, fast disease spread, and initial laboratory investigations suggested pneumonic plague. While leptospirosis had not recently been described in the region, it was considered as a differential diagnosis. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). A confirmed case of leptospirosis was defined as having consistent clinical signs and any one of the following: seroconversion or four-fold increase in MAT titre for paired serum samples, or a MAT titre ≥ 1:400 for acute-phase serum samples. Twenty-nine of the 54 patients or convalescents tested for leptospirosis were seropositive. Two cases showed a confirmed infection for both plague and leptospirosis. While evidence supports the plague nature of this outbreak, the results suggest that some of the suspected plague cases might be due to leptospirosis. In any case, this diagnosis will have to be evoked in the future if a similar outbreak occurs in this region of Africa.

  3. Adaptation of a U.S. evidence-based Positive Prevention intervention for youth living with HIV/AIDS in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L; Maman, S; Pettifor, A; Chalachala, J L; Edmonds, A; Golin, C E; Moracco, K; Behets, F

    2013-02-01

    Effective HIV prevention programs for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) are important to reduce new infections and to ensure PLWH remain healthy. This paper describes the systematic adaptation of a U.S.-developed Evidence Based Intervention (EBI) using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of Adaption Process for use at a Pediatric Hospital in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The adapted intervention, Supporting Youth and Motivating Positive Action or SYMPA, a six-session risk reduction intervention targeted for youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWH) in Kinshasa was adapted from the Healthy Living Project and guided by the Social Action Theory. This paper describes the process of implementing the first four steps of the ADAPT framework (Assess, Select, Prepare, and Pilot). Our study has shown that an EBI developed and implemented in the U.S. can be adapted successfully for a different target population in a low-resource context through an iterative process following the CDC ADAPT framework. This process included reviewing existing literature, adapting and adding components, and focusing on increasing staff capacity. This paper provides a rare, detailed description of the adaptation process and may aid organizations seeking to adapt and implement HIV prevention EBIs in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond.

  4. From health advice to taboo: community perspectives on the treatment of sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpanya, Alain; Hendrickx, David; Baloji, Sylvain; Lumbala, Crispin; da Luz, Raquel Inocêncio; Boelaert, Marleen; Lutumba, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    Socio-cultural and economic factors constitute real barriers for uptake of screening and treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Better understanding and addressing these barriers may enhance the effectiveness of HAT control. We performed a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions in the Bandundu and Kasaï Oriental provinces, two provinces lagging behind in the HAT elimination effort. Our study population included current and former HAT patients, as well as healthcare providers and program managers of the national HAT control program. All interviews and discussions were voice recorded on a digital device and data were analysed with the ATLAS.ti software. Health workers and community members quoted a number of prohibitions that have to be respected for six months after HAT treatment: no work, no sexual intercourse, no hot food, not walking in the sun. Violating these restrictions is believed to cause serious, and sometimes deadly, complications. These strong prohibitions are well-known by the community and lead some people to avoid HAT screening campaigns, for fear of having to observe such taboos in case of diagnosis. The restrictions originally aimed to mitigate the severe adverse effects of the melarsoprol regimen, but are not evidence-based and became obsolete with the new safer drugs. Correct health information regarding HAT treatment is essential. Health providers should address the perspective of the community in a constant dialogue to keep abreast of unintended transformations of meaning.

  5. Experience of the air medical evacuation team of Serbian armed forces in the united nations mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo - deployment stress and psychological adaptation

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    Joković Danilo B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Wars of the nineties in former Yugoslavia, Somalia, Rwanda imposed new tasks to the United Nations (UN forces, such as providing humanitarian aid, protection of civilians, peacekeeping, and in many instances providing armed enforcement of peace. The aim of this study was an observational analysis of Serbian participation in the UNs Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo with the emphasis on stress and coping techniques. Methods. Serbian contribution in this mission dates back to April 2003 till the present days with a military contingent consisting of six members as a part of Air Medical Evacuation Team. The observed stressogenous factors acted before arrival to the mission area and in the mission area. In this paper we analysed ways to overcome them. Results. The productive ways of overwhelming stress used in this mission were: honesty and openness in interpersonal communications, dedication to work, maintaining discipline and order, strict following of appropriate regime of work, diet, rest and recreation; regular communication with family and organizing and participation in various social, cultural and sports manifestations. Conclusion. This analysis indicates that out of all the observed factors, the most important is appropriate selection of personnel.

  6. Child soldiers as zones of violence in The Democratic Republic of Congo: three cases of medico-legal evidence of torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kitwe Mulunda

    2009-01-01

    This article sets medico legal light on torture of three former child soldiers by comparing torture methods, consequences of torture and medical observations. It is focused on these child soldiers as representatives of the many abuses of children as soldiers in armed groups. The three persons were child soldiers during 12 years in The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as members of three different armed groups. They were exposed to armed conflict events, experienced torture, and participated in atrocities, sexual abuse and traditional rituals during their role in armed conflict. They were psychologically distressed with unhealthy physical and mental states. The principles for working with child soldiers are described. The model addresses basic items: The confluence of the dimensions of the items will determine the specifics of medico legal evidence of torture in child soldiers, taking into consideration inputs that are required at the macro, community and individual levels. A primary goal is to prevent violence from occurring in child soldiers. Thus, much more deliberate effort is made to address the underlying causes of recruitment of children in armed groups in DRC and to invest more resources in conflict resolution before there is an outbreak of violence. Peace education tends to be introduced too late and does little to alleviate the use of children in armed conflict in DRC.

  7. 2.5D change detection from satellite imagery to monitor small-scale mining activities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Olaf; Lang, Stefan; Schoepfer, Elisabeth

    2017-09-01

    Mining natural resources serve fundamental societal needs or commercial interests, but it may well turn into a driver of violence and regional instability. In this study, very high resolution (VHR) optical stereo satellite data are analysed to monitor processes and changes in one of the largest artisanal and small-scale mining sites in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is among the world's wealthiest countries in exploitable minerals To identify the subtle structural changes, the applied methodological framework employs object-based change detection (OBCD) based on optical VHR data and generated digital surface models (DSM). Results prove the DSM-based change detection approach enhances the assessment gained from sole 2D analyses by providing valuable information about changes in surface structure or volume. Land cover changes as analysed by OBCD reveal an increase in bare soil area by a rate of 47% between April 2010 and September 2010, followed by a significant decrease of 47.5% until March 2015. Beyond that, DSM differencing enabled the characterisation of small-scale features such as pits and excavations. The presented Earth observation (EO)-based monitoring of mineral exploitation aims at a better understanding of the relations between resource extraction and conflict, and thus providing relevant information for potential mitigation strategies and peace building.

  8. Investigation on possible transmission of monkeys' Plasmodium to human in a populations living in the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic republic of Congo

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    Dieudonné Makaba Mvumbi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodiums are protozoa that may infect various hosts. Only five species are now recognized as naturally parasitizing humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium knowlesi. This fifth species, P. knowlesi, previously identified as naturally parasitizing the monkey Macaca fascicularis, has been microscopically confused for a long time with P. malariae or P. falciparum and it was not possible to correctly differentiate them until the advent of molecular biology. To date, natural human infections with P. knowlesi only occur in Southeast Asia and a similar phenomenon of natural transmission of simian plasmodium to humans has not been reported elsewhere. This study was conducted to investigate a possible transmission of African small monkey's plasmodium to humans in populations living near the rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC where several species of non-human primates are living. Two successive real-time PCRs were identified in the literature and used in combination for purpose. Only P. falciparum was found in this study. However, studies with larger samples and with more advanced techniques should be conducted.

  9. Observed Differences in the Human Footprint and Forest Fragmentation in the Primary Forest Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Remote Sensing Study for 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinario, G.

    2015-12-01

    Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighboring countries has caused the displacement of people internally and internationally sometimes leading to drastic changes in the impact that traditional slash and burn shifting cultivation has on the forest ecosystem. In other areas, the lack of infrastructure and governance has isolated and protected areas of core forest from large scale exploitation. Observing specific patterns of forest fragmentation caused either by the expansion of existing rural complex areas or of isolated forest perforations has allowed us to track the differential growth of the human footprint throughout forested area of the country during the period 2000-2010. Our methodological approach involved the development of a model of shifting cultivation and forest fragmentation in which spatial rules applied morphological image processing to the Forets d'Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection (FACET) product. The result is a disaggregated classification of the primary forest into patch, edge, perforated, fragmented and core forest subtypes which we subsequently re-aggregated into homogenous anthropogenic macro-areas of rural complex and isolated forest perforations. We tracked how subsequent forest loss observed in 2005 and 2010 grew or shrunk these areas, presumably with differential impacts on the forest ecosystem. Using this approach we were able to map forest degradation by contextualizing the contribution of forest loss to change in different types of areas, highlighting how it can be greatly underestimated by a non contextualized per-pixel assessment of forest cover loss.

  10. Voluntary Counseling and Testing for HIV in Rural Area of Democratic Republic of the Congo: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey among Service Users

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    Mida Kautako-Kiambi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To determine the prevalence of HIV, the level of sexual risk for HIV, and determinants of VCT attendance among adult population living in a rural area. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mbanza-Ngungu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. An anonymous questionnaire was designed to extract relevant data. Results. In our cohort, 69% were respondents of more than 24 years of age and the single marital status was most represented (64.1%. A high proportion of respondents (90.6% visited VCT service for requiring information (good acceptability. Positive test for HIV was reported in 9.4% of respondents. In this cohort, 49.6% of respondents had declared themselves to never use condom. In binary analysis, there was association between positive HIV test and age (p=0.04 and religions (p=0.02. In this cohort, it was observed that positive HIV test was significantly associated with confidentiality (p=0.02. However, there was no association between positive HIV test and condom use (p=0.25, knowledge of VCT (p=0.81, service requested (p=0.20, and previous HIV test (p=0.68. Conclusions. Preventive information for AIDS should be recommended in the population living in rural zone.

  11. Predictors of Persistent Anaemia in the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Goma, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilimali, Pierre Zalagile; Kashala-Abotnes, Espérance; Musumari, Patou Masika; Kayembe, Patrick Kalambayi; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Mapatano, Mala Ali

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia is associated with adverse outcomes including early death in the first year of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study reports on the factors associated with persistent anaemia among HIV-infected patients initiating ART in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). We conducted a retrospective cohort study and analyzed data from patients receiving HIV care between January 2004 and December 2012 at two major hospitals in Goma, DR Congo. Haemoglobin concentrations of all patients on ART regimen were obtained prior to and within one year of ART initiation. A logistic regression model was used to identify the predictors of persistent anaemia after 12 months of ART. Of 756 patients, 69% of patients were anaemic (IC95%: 65.7-72.3) at baseline. After 12 months of follow up, there was a 1.2 g/dl average increase of haemoglobin concentration (P anaemia at the beginning, 33% (147/445) had the condition resolved. Among patients with anaemia at ART initiation, those who did not receive cotrimoxazole prophylaxis before starting ART(AOR 3.89; 95% CI 2.09-7.25; P anaemia. More than two thirds of patients had anaemia at baseline. The AZT-containing regimen and absence of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis before starting ART were associated with persistent anaemia 12 months, after initiation of treatment. Considering the large proportion of patients with persistence of anaemia at 12 months, we suggest that it is necessary to conduct a large study to assess anaemia among HIV-infected patients in Goma.

  12. Characterizing uncertainties of the national-scale forest gross aboveground biomass (AGB) loss estimate: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Modern remote sensing techniques enable the mapping and monitoring of aboveground biomass (AGB) carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where a national forest inventory (NFI) has yet to be established due to a lack of infrastructure and political instability. We demonstrate a method for producing national-scale gross AGB loss estimates and quantifying uncertainty of the estimates using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Forest cover type and loss were characterized using published Landsat-based data sets and related to LIDAR-derived biomass data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). We produced two gross AGB loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a conservative estimate accounting for classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a maximal estimate that also took into consideration omitted change at the 30m spatial resolution. Omitted disturbances were largely related to smallholder agriculture, the detection of which is scale-dependent. The use of LIDAR data as a substitute for NFI data to estimate AGB loss based on Landsat-derived activity data was demonstrated. Comparisons of our forest cover loss and AGB estimates with published studies raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and its impact on carbon stock change estimation using remotely sensed data.

  13. The Effect of Cognitive Therapy on Structural Social Capital: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial Among Sexual Violence Survivors in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Paul A.; Annan, Jeannie; Kaysen, Debra; Robinette, Katie; Cetinoglu, Talita; Wachter, Karin; Bass, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated changes in social capital following group-based cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for female survivors of sexual violence. Methods. We compared CPT with individual support in a cluster-randomized trial in villages in South Kivu province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Local psychosocial assistants delivered the interventions from April through July 2011. We evaluated differences between CPT and individual support conditions for structural social capital (i.e., time spent with nonkin social network, group membership and participation, and the size of financial and instrumental support networks) and emotional support seeking. We analyzed intervention effects with longitudinal random effects models. Results. We obtained small to medium effect size differences for 2 study outcomes. Women in the CPT villages increased group membership and participation at 6-month follow-up and emotional support seeking after the intervention compared with women in the individual support villages. Conclusions. Results support the efficacy of group CPT to increase dimensions of social capital among survivors of sexual violence in a low-income conflict-affected context. PMID:25033113

  14. Discovery of a Leptospirosis Cluster Amidst a Pneumonic Plague Outbreak in a Miners’ Camp in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertherat, Eric; Mueller, Melissa J.; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Conditions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo provide an ideal environment for leptospirosis and plague, both of which can cause severe pulmonary manifestations. In December 2004, an outbreak of lethal pneumonia occurred in a local mining camp, affecting 130 persons and killing 57 of them. Clinical signs, fast disease spread, and initial laboratory investigations suggested pneumonic plague. While leptospirosis had not recently been described in the region, it was considered as a differential diagnosis. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). A confirmed case of leptospirosis was defined as having consistent clinical signs and any one of the following: seroconversion or four-fold increase in MAT titre for paired serum samples, or a MAT titre ≥ 1:400 for acute-phase serum samples. Twenty-nine of the 54 patients or convalescents tested for leptospirosis were seropositive. Two cases showed a confirmed infection for both plague and leptospirosis. While evidence supports the plague nature of this outbreak, the results suggest that some of the suspected plague cases might be due to leptospirosis. In any case, this diagnosis will have to be evoked in the future if a similar outbreak occurs in this region of Africa. PMID:24514425

  15. Methodological approach and tools for systems thinking in health systems research: technical assistants' support of health administration reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo as an application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribesse, Nathalie; Bossyns, Paul; Marchal, Bruno; Karemere, Hermes; Burman, Christopher J; Macq, Jean

    2017-03-01

    In the field of development cooperation, interest in systems thinking and complex systems theories as a methodological approach is increasingly recognised. And so it is in health systems research, which informs health development aid interventions. However, practical applications remain scarce to date. The objective of this article is to contribute to the body of knowledge by presenting the tools inspired by systems thinking and complexity theories and methodological lessons learned from their application. These tools were used in a case study. Detailed results of this study are in process for publication in additional articles. Applying a complexity 'lens', the subject of the case study is the role of long-term international technical assistance in supporting health administration reform at the provincial level in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Methods section presents the guiding principles of systems thinking and complex systems, their relevance and implication for the subject under study, and the existing tools associated with those theories which inspired us in the design of the data collection and analysis process. The tools and their application processes are presented in the results section, and followed in the discussion section by the critical analysis of their innovative potential and emergent challenges. The overall methodology provides a coherent whole, each tool bringing a different and complementary perspective on the system.

  16. Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: global tantalum processing plants, a critical part of the tantalum supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzes mineral and metal supply chains to identify and describe major components of mineral and metal material flows from ore extraction, through intermediate forms, to a final product. Supply chain analyses may be used (1) to identify risks to the United States associated with the supply of critical and strategic minerals and metals and (2) to provide greater supply chain transparency so that policymakers have the fact-based information needed to formulate public policy. This fact sheet focuses on the post-mining/pre-consumer-product part of the tantalum supply chain. The USGS National Minerals Information Center (NMIC) has been asked by governmental and non-governmental organizations to provide information about tantalum, tin, tungsten, and gold (collectively known as “3TG minerals”) processing facilities worldwide in response to U.S. legislation aimed at identifying and removing the supply chain links between the trade in these minerals and civil unrest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjacent countries.

  17. Malaria in primary school children and infants in kinshasa, democratic republic of the congo: surveys from the 1980s and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi, Walter; Sexton, John D; Bigonsa, Makengo; W'Okanga, Bompela; Way, Matezo

    2004-08-01

    Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, has been a perennial malarious area and has grown almost 14 times from 380,000 people in 1960 to 5,293,000 in 2003. The most complete information on malaria prevalence in Kinshasa was first acquired in 1981-1983. Blood smears were obtained from 25,135 children (ages 5-15 years) from 245 schools in 16 of 24 zones. The mean Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate was 17%; the parasite rate was similar for both sexes and was higher (P schools from selected health zones. A mean parasite rate of 34% was found among school children 5-9 years old. The parasite rate varied from 14% (central urban zone) to 65% (peri urban zone). Plasmodium falciparum was not the only species found, but accounted for more than 97% of the infections. Malaria incidence may have increased in Kinshasa during the last two decades due to difficulties in provision of control and prevention measures. Along with deployment of insecticide-treated bed nets and improved patient management, currently ongoing, other measures that could impact the disease are being considered, including vector control, water management, and proper urban planning.

  18. Correlates of ever had sex and of recent sex among teenagers and young unmarried adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayembe, Kalambayi Patrick; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Busangu, Fatuma Alphonsine; Nyandwe, Kyloka Jean; Mashinda, Kulimba Désiré; Musema, Mulakilwa Godefroid; Kibungu, Jocelyne Pemba; Matamba, Tshingombe Léonard; Mayala, Mabasi Godefroid

    2008-07-01

    The future of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo will depend on the behavior that teenagers and young adults are likely to adopt. Documenting teenagers and young adults behavior can help design effective interventions. The premarital sexual activity of 13,091 teenagers and young adults aged 15-24 years was examined. Logistic regression models were used to identify the correlates of ever had sex and recent sex. Ever had sex and recent sex were associated with older individuals, males, school dropouts, those addicted to alcohol and drug use, those living alone or with friends, those involved in an income generating activity, those with low capacity to resist sex, those with low socio-economic status and those living in permissive milieu. Controlling access to alcohol and drugs, teaching teenagers skills to resist sex, getting schools involved in teaching values of abstinence and delayed sex, could impact the age at first sex and trigger the adoption of lower risk behavior.

  19. Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: global tungsten processing plants, a critical part of the tungsten supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzes supply chains to identify and define major components of mineral and material flows from ore extraction, through intermediate forms, to a final product. Two major reasons necessitate these analyses: (1) to identify risks associated with the supply of critical and strategic minerals to the United States and (2) to provide greater supply chain transparency so that policymakers have the information necessary to ensure domestic legislation compliance. This fact sheet focuses on the latter. The USGS National Minerals Information Center has been asked by governmental and non-governmental organizations to provide information on tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold (collectively known as “3TG minerals”) processing facilities worldwide in response to U.S. legislation aimed at removing the link between the trade in these minerals and civil unrest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Post beneficiation processing plants (smelters and refineries) of 3TG mineral ores and concentrates were identified by company and industry association representatives as being the link in the 3TG mineral supply chain through which these minerals can be traced to their source of origin (mine); determining the point of origin is critical to establishing a transparent conflict mineral supply chain. This fact sheet, the first in a series of 3TG mineral fact sheets, focuses on the tungsten supply chain by listing plants that consume tungsten concentrates to produce ammonium paratungstate and ferrotungsten worldwide.

  20. The Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan and the Formation of Modern Uyghur Identity in Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    minted under the republic also represented a dichotomy of opinions. The front of one coin had the name “Uyghurstan” in Uyghur...which included support of the British. In the minds of Soviet leaders, Turkestan was to be a model Soviet republic, ‘a flower garden wherein the

  1. Effectiveness of routine BCG vaccination on buruli ulcer disease: a case-control study in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana and Togo.

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    Richard Odame Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The only available vaccine that could be potentially beneficial against mycobacterial diseases contains live attenuated bovine tuberculosis bacillus (Mycobacterium bovis also called Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG. Even though the BCG vaccine is still widely used, results on its effectiveness in preventing mycobacterial diseases are partially contradictory, especially regarding Buruli Ulcer Disease (BUD. The aim of this case-control study is to evaluate the possible protective effect of BCG vaccination on BUD.The present study was performed in three different countries and sites where BUD is endemic: in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, and Togo from 2010 through 2013. The large study population was comprised of 401 cases with laboratory confirmed BUD and 826 controls, mostly family members or neighbors.After stratification by the three countries, two sexes and four age groups, no significant correlation was found between the presence of BCG scar and BUD status of individuals. Multivariate analysis has shown that the independent variables country (p = 0.31, sex (p = 0.24, age (p = 0.96, and presence of a BCG scar (p = 0.07 did not significantly influence the development of BUD category I or category II/III. Furthermore, the status of BCG vaccination was also not significantly related to duration of BUD or time to healing of lesions.In our study, we did not observe significant evidence of a protective effect of routine BCG vaccination on the risk of developing either BUD or severe forms of BUD. Since accurate data on BCG strains used in these three countries were not available, no final conclusion can be drawn on the effectiveness of BCG strain in protecting against BUD. As has been suggested for tuberculosis and leprosy, well-designed prospective studies on different existing BCG vaccine strains are needed also for BUD.

  2. Field assessment of a novel household-based water filtration device: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Sophie; Kiyombo, Mbela; Sthreshley, Larry; Tumba, Saturnin; Makambo, Jacques; Clasen, Thomas

    2010-09-10

    Household water treatment can improve the microbiological quality of drinking water and may prevent diarrheal diseases. However, current methods of treating water at home have certain shortcomings, and there is evidence of bias in the reported health impact of the intervention in open trial designs. We undertook a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial among 240 households (1,144 persons) in rural Democratic Republic of Congo to assess the field performance, use and effectiveness of a novel filtration device in preventing diarrhea. Households were followed up monthly for 12 months. Filters and placebos were monitored for longevity and for microbiological performance by comparing thermotolerant coliform (TTC) levels in influent and effluent water samples. Mean longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea was estimated among participants of all ages. Compliance was assessed through self-reported use and presence of water in the top vessel of the device at the time of visit. Over the 12-month follow-up period, data were collected for 11,236 person-weeks of observation (81.8% total possible). After adjusting for clustering within the household, the longitudinal prevalence ratio of diarrhoea was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.61-1.20). The filters achieved a 2.98 log reduction in TTC levels while, for reasons that are unclear, the placebos achieved a 1.05 log reduction (pwater the previous day. The filter maintained a constant flow rate over time, though 12.4% of filters were damaged during the course of the study. While the filter was effective in improving water quality, our results provide little evidence that it was protective against diarrhea. The moderate reduction observed nevertheless supports the need for larger studies that measure impact against a neutral placebo. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03844341.

  3. Emergence of chikungunya in Moonlapamok and Khong Districts, Champassak Province, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, May to September 2012

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    Viengsavanh Kitthiphong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chikungunya is a vector-borne disease transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes, which are widespread in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. However, chikungunya virus (CHIKV had not been detected in the country before outbreaks reported in July 2012. The first outbreaks were detected through health care worker event-based surveillance. Methods: The case definition for the outbreaks was defined as a person with acute onset of fever (> 38 °C and severe arthralgia (joint pain or arthritis from 1 May 2012 in Champassak Province. Rapid response teams conducted active case finding, performed an environmental assessment including an entomological survey and implemented control measures. Descriptive analysis was undertaken in Microsoft Excel. Results: There were 197 cases (attack rate 3.4% of suspected chikungunya reported from 10 villages in Moonlapamok and Khong Districts of Champassak Province. All age groups (age range: seven months–74 years were affected with slightly more female (56% than male cases. Thirty-one per cent (16 of 52 of serum samples tested positive for CHIKV by polymerase chain reaction. The environmental assessment found poor water storage practices and high entomological indices. Discussion: These outbreaks show the effectiveness of health care worker event-based surveillance and the importance of sharing of information across borders for detecting emerging diseases. Public health education is an important measure to prevent epidemics of chikungunya. Information about chikungunya should be supplied to health care workers in the region so they are alert to the potential spread and are able to implement control measures for this disease.

  4. Emergence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses with reduced sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors and novel reassortants in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, David A.; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Sinthasak, Settha; Mondry, Ricarda; Obert, Caroline; Seiler, Patrick; Keating, Rachael; Suzuki, Yasuo; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Govorkova, Elena A.; Webster, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic influenza viruses can emerge through continuous evolution and the acquisition of specific mutations or through reassortment. This study assessed the pandemic potential of H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry outbreaks occurring from July 2006 to September 2008 in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). We analyzed 29 viruses isolated from chickens and ducks and two from fatal human cases in 2007. Prior to 2008, all H5N1 isolates in Lao PDR were from clade 2.3.4; however, clade 2.3.2 was introduced in September 2008. Of greatest concern was the circulation of three isolates that showed reduced sensitivity to the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor oseltamivir in an enzyme inhibition assay, each with different NA mutations – V116A, I222L and K150N, and a previously unreported S246N mutation. In addition, six isolates had an S31N mutation in the M2 protein, which conferred resistance to amantadine not previously reported in clade 2.3.4 viruses. Two H5N1 reassortants were isolated whose polymerase genes, PB1 and PB2, were homologous to those of Eurasian viruses giving rise to a novel H5N1 genotype, genotype P. All H5N1 viruses retained avian-like receptor specificity, but four had altered affinities for α2,3-linked sialic acid. This study shows that, in a genetically similar population of H5N1 viruses in Lao PDR, mutants emerged with natural resistance to antivirals and altered affinities for α2,3-linked sialic acids, together with reassortants with polymerase genes homologous to Eurasian viruses. These changes may contribute to the emergence of a pandemic influenza strain and are critical in devising surveillance strategies. PMID:20016036

  5. [Stab wounds of the hand and forearm due to Kuluna in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo): types of injuries and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibadi, K; Portaels, F; Pichot, Y; Kapinga, M; Moutet, F

    2015-01-01

    Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a particular form of juvenile delinquency and insecurity intensifies in the city of Kinshasa. This is the phenomenon Kuluna. It is organized gangs equipped with machetes and other weapons. The main objective of this study is to know the phenomenon Kuluna and describe the upper limb injuries caused by machetes, while insisting on the specifics of the management of these lesions in our communities. This retrospective descriptive study examines 14 cases of wounds of the hand and forearm due to stab phenomenon Kuluna, in Kinshasa. It covers the period from 1 November 2010 to 1 November 2013. Among the 14 patients with lesions in the hand and forearm admitted and treated at the Unit of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns, University Clinics of Kinshasa to attacks due to the phenomenon Kuluna. We have 11 men and 3 women. The average age was 33, 5 years (extremes of 21 and 56 years). The right upper limb is reached that the left upper limb, respectively 12 patients and 2 patients. The lesions are localized to the wrist in the majority of cases (10 patients) in the palm of hand and in 3 patients in the fingers in 1 patient. The palmar surface is reached (10 cases) and the dorsal (4 cases). Zone 5 of the International Classification of flexor and Zone 8 topographic classification extensors at hand are the predilection sites of lesions respectively the palmar surface (6 out of 10) and the dorsal (2 case 4). The median nerve at the wrist is cut in half the cases. On bone lesions localized to the forearm, we observed a high incidence of fracture of the ulna (62.5%). The treatment begins with the stabilization of bone pieces, gestures revascularization and nerve sutures and suture tendon and finally skin coverage. Rehabilitation was mandatory, she supervises the actions of repair and it continues until the recovery of function.

  6. Abducted children and youth in Lord's Resistance Army in Northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): mechanisms of indoctrination and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jocelyn Td; Branham, Lindsay; Decker, Michele R

    2016-01-01

    Globally, an estimated 300,000 children under the age of 18 participate in combat situations; those in armed groups in particular suffer prolonged exposure to psychological and physical abuse. The Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) is a rebel movement known for its widespread conscription of children; yet little is known about this process once the group moved beyond northern Uganda. In this paper, we describe the processes related to abduction and indoctrination of youth by the LRA in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo ( DRC). In-depth interviews were conducted with formerly abducted children, their family members, community leaders, and service providers (total n = 34) in four communities in LRA-affected areas of northeastern DRC. Inductive coding of transcripts was undertaken to identify salient themes. Informants articulated a range of practices by the LRA to exert high levels of control over new recruits, including strict social isolation from recent abductees; control of communication; promoting new identity formation; and compelling children to act out strictly defined gendered roles. Witchcraft and secrecy are used to intimidate recruits and to magnify perception of the group's power. These methods promote de-identification with one's civilian and family life; and eventually the assimilation of a new language and identity. Indoctrination of newly abducted children into the LRA occurs via a complex system of control. This study provides one of the first detailed explorations of social and psychological mechanisms through which this is achieved, and focuses particularly on the gendered differences in the indoctrination process. Results support past findings that the LRA is a strategic and well-organized organization in its approach to enlisting child soldiers. Understanding some of the ways in which the LRA controls its recruits and the psychological impact of indoctrination enables reintegration programs to more effectively address these issues

  7. Prototype Positive Control Wells for Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests: Prospective Evaluation of Implementation Among Health Workers in Lao People's Democratic Republic and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Bwanika, John Baptist; Cunningham, Jane; Gatton, Michelle; González, Iveth J; Hopkins, Heidi; Kibira, Simon Peter S; Kyabayinze, Daniel J; Mayxay, Mayfong; Ndawula, Bbaale; Newton, Paul N; Phommasone, Koukeo; Streat, Elizabeth; Umlauf, René

    2017-02-08

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for malaria diagnosis, but lack of quality control at point of care restricts trust in test results. Prototype positive control wells (PCW) containing recombinant malaria antigens have been developed to identify poor-quality RDT lots. This study assessed community and facility health workers' (HW) ability to use PCWs to detect degraded RDTs, the impact of PCW availability on RDT use and prescribing, and preferred strategies for implementation in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) and Uganda. A total of 557 HWs participated in Laos (267) and Uganda (290). After training, most (88% to ≥ 99%) participants correctly performed the six key individual PCW steps; performance was generally maintained during the 6-month study period. Nearly all (97%) reported a correct action based on PCW use at routine work sites. In Uganda, where data for 127,775 individual patients were available, PCW introduction in health facilities was followed by a decrease in antimalarial prescribing for RDT-negative patients ≥ 5 years of age (4.7-1.9%); among community-based HWs, the decrease was 12.2% (P malaria-endemic areas are able to use prototype PCWs for quality control of malaria RDTs. PCW availability can improve HWs' confidence in RDT results, and benefit malaria diagnostic programs. Lessons learned from this study may be valuable for introduction of other point-of-care diagnostic and quality-control tools. Future work should evaluate longer term impacts of PCWs on patient management. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Effect of daily versus weekly home fortification with multiple micronutrient powder on haemoglobin concentration of young children in a rural area, Lao People's Democratic Republic: a randomised trial

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    Kounnavong Sengchanh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple micronutrient deficiencies, in particular iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is a severe public health problem in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR. Because of the practical difficulties encountered in improving the nutritional adequacy of traditional complementary foods and the limitations associated with the use of liquid iron supplementation for the treatment and prevention of IDA in infants and young children, recently, home-fortification with multivitamins and minerals sprinkles was recommended. This study aims to compare the effect of twice weekly versus daily supplementation with multivitamins and minerals powder (MMP on anaemia prevalence, haemoglobin concentration, and growth in infants and young children in a rural community in Lao PDR. Methods A randomized trial was conducted in six rural communities. Children aged 6 to 52 months (n = 336 were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 110 or to one of two intervention groups receiving either two sachets per week (n = 115 or a daily sachet (n = 111 of MMP for 24 weeks; 331 children completed the study. A finger prick of blood was taken at baseline, at week 12, and again at week 24 to determine haemoglobin concentration. Anthropometric measurements were taken every 4 weeks. The McNemar test was used to assess within group differences at three time points in the study subjects with anaemia and one-way ANOVA was used to assess changes in mean haemoglobin concentration in the treatment groups. Results MMP supplementation resulted in significant improvements in haemoglobin concentration and in the reduction of anaemia prevalence in the two treatment groups compared with the control group (p Conclusions MMP supplementation had positive effects in reduction of anaemia prevalence and in improving haemoglobin concentration. For severely to moderately anaemic children, daily MMP supplementation was more effective in improving haemoglobin concentration and reducing

  9. Species protection, the changing informal economy, and the politics of access to the bushmeat trade in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Merode, Emmanuel; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2006-08-01

    Our understanding of the linkages between the bushmeat trade and the wider informal economy is limited. This lack of knowledge is particularly problematic for conservation under conditions of political instability, when the informal economy can be highly dynamic and impacts on wildlife populations can be severe. To explore these interlinked processes, we conducted a study of the bushmeat trade in Garamba National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, through a combination of market surveys, semistructured interviews, and direct observation. We focused on the sale of protected and unprotected species in urban and rural markets, and the bushmeat commodity chains that supplied these markets, under conditions of political stability and armed conflict. During peacetime, protected species from the park (predominantly elephant and buffalo) rarely appeared in the rural markets, but they comprised more than half of all bushmeat sales in the urban markets. This pattern reflected differences in the rural and urban commodity chains. Automatic weapons were urban trade. The use of such weapons was discouraged by the traditional chiefs, who administered the village markets. During wartime, the sales of protected species in the urban markets increased fivefold because the military officers fled, leaving behind an open-access system that led to a massive increase in the exploitation of protected species. In contrast, the rural markets remained relatively stable because of the continued authority of the village chiefs. Our results indicate that sociopolitical factors can be an important determinant of species offtake and, therefore, that knowledge of the bushmeat commodity chain can be vital to controlling theprocesses that drive species extraction. In addition, our findings suggest that traditional authorities can be potentially valuable partners for bushmeat management.

  10. First molecular identification and report of genetic diversity of Strongyloides stercoralis, a current major soil-transmitted helminth in humans from Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymanivong, Sakhone; Hangvanthong, Bouasy; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Vanisaveth, Viengxay; Laxachack, Pinnakhone; Jongthawin, Jurairat; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Phosuk, Issarapong; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2016-08-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) disease that affects people worldwide. We present updated data on prevalence in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) in 2015, arising from a community cross-sectional helminthiasis survey. Fecal samples were collected from 327 individuals across three provinces in Lao PDR (Luang Prabang in the north, Khammouane in the center, and Champasack in the south). Agar plate culture and Kato-Katz methods were used to examine duplicate stool samples from each participant to detect Strongyloides stercoralis and co-infecting helminths. Overall prevalences of S. strercoralis human hookworm, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Enterobius vermicularis were 41.0, 28.1, 4.9, 4.0, 1.5, and 0.9 %, respectively. The prevalence of miscellaneous trematodiases (including opisthorchiasis) was 37.9 % and of Schistosoma mekongi infection was 0.3 %. Strongyloidiasis is a current major STH disease in Lao PDR. We also report the molecular-phylogenetic identification of S. stercoralis adult males collected from 40 representative human strongyliodiasis fecal samples. DNA was extracted, amplified, and sequenced from a portion of the mitochondrial cox1 gene and the nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that all specimens sequenced belonged to S. stercoralis (Bavay, 1876) Stiles and Hassall, 1902. The cox1 sequences exhibited great diversity (24 haplotypes) in Lao PDR. This is the first molecular identification and report of genetic diversity of S. stercoralis in humans from Lao PDR. An effective parasite control program is needed to reduce the serious health impacts.

  11. Anemia and Micronutrient Status of Women of Childbearing Age and Children 6–59 Months in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Harvey-Leeson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK and Kongo Central (KC. We determined hemoglobin (Hb, serum zinc, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, retinol binding protein (RBP, C-reactive protein, and α-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations. Anemia prevalence was determined using Hb adjusted for altitude alone and Hb adjusted for both altitude and ethnicity. Anemia prevalence was lower after Hb adjustment for altitude and ethnicity, compared to only altitude, among women (6% vs. 17% in SK; 10% vs. 32% in KC, children 6–23 months (26% vs. 59% in SK; 25% vs. 42% in KC, and children 24–59 months (14% vs. 35% in SK; 23% vs. 44% in KC, respectively. Iron deficiency was seemingly higher with sTfR as compared to inflammation-adjusted ferritin among women (18% vs. 4% in SK; 21% vs. 5% in KC, children 6–23 months (51% vs. 14% in SK; 74% vs. 10% in KC, and children 24–59 months (23% vs. 4% in SK; 58% vs. 1% in KC. Regardless of indicator, iron deficiency anemia (IDA never exceeded 3% in women. In children, IDA reached almost 20% when sTfR was used but was only 10% with ferritin. Folate, B12, and vitamin A (RBP deficiencies were all very low (<5%; RBP was 10% in children. The prevalence of anemia was unexpectedly low. Inflammation-adjusted zinc deficiency was high among women (52% in SK; 58% in KC, children 6–23 months (23% in SK; 20% in KC, and children 24–59 months (25% in SK; 27% in KC. The rate of biochemical zinc deficiency among Congolese women and children requires attention.

  12. Trace metals and persistent organic pollutants in sediments from river-reservoir systems in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): Spatial distribution and potential ecotoxicological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Thevenon, Florian; Birane, Niane; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Grandjean, Dominique; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence and spatial distribution of metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs: including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from a river-reservoir system. Surface sediments were sampled from thirteen sites of the Congo River Basin and Lake Ma Vallée, both situated in the vicinity of the capital city Kinshasa (Congo Democratic Republic). Sediment qualities were evaluated using toxicity test based on exposing Ostracods to the sediment samples. The highest metal concentrations were observed in sediments subjected to anthropogenic influences, urban runoff and domestic and industrial wastewaters, discharge into the Congo River basin. Ostracods exposed to the sediments resulted in 100% mortality rates after 6d of incubation, indicating the ultimate toxicity of these sediments as well as potential environmental risks. The POPs and PAHs levels in all sediment samples were low, with maximum concentration found in the sediments (area of pool Malebo): OCP value ranged from 0.02 to 2.50 with ∑OCPs: 3.3μgkg(-1); PCB ranged from 0.07 to 0.99 with Total PCBs (∑7×4.3): 15.31μgkg(-1); PAH value ranged from 0.12 to 9.39 with ∑PAHs: 63.89μgkg(-1). Our results indicate that the deterioration of urban river-reservoir water quality result mainly from urban stormwater runoff, untreated industrial effluents which discharge into the river-reservoirs, human activities and uncontrolled urbanization. This study represents useful tools incorporated to evaluate sediment quality in river-reservoir systems which can be applied to similar aquatic environments.

  13. Forest cover dynamics of shifting cultivation in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a remote sensing-based assessment for 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinario, G.; Hansen, M. C.; Potapov, P. V.

    2015-09-01

    Shifting cultivation has traditionally been practiced in the Democratic Republic of Congo by carving agricultural fields out of primary and secondary forest, resulting in the rural complex: a characteristic land cover mosaic of roads, villages, active and fallow fields and secondary forest. Forest clearing has varying impacts depending on where it occurs relative to this area: whether inside it, along its primary forest interface, or in more isolated primary forest areas. The spatial contextualization of forest cover loss is therefore necessary to understand its impacts and plan its management. We characterized forest clearing using spatial models in a Geographical Information System, applying morphological image processing to the Forets d’Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection product. This process allowed us to create forest fragmentation maps for 2000, 2005 and 2010, classifying previously homogenous primary forest into separate patch, edge, perforated, fragmented and core forest subtypes. Subsequently we used spatial rules to map the established rural complex separately from isolated forest perforations, tracking the growth of these areas in time. Results confirm that the expansion of the rural complex and forest perforations has high variance throughout the country, with consequent differences in local impacts on forest ecology and habitat fragmentation. Between 2000 and 2010 the rural complex grew by 10.2% (46 182 ha), increasing from 11.9% to 13.1% of the total land area (1.2% change) while perforated forest grew by 74.4% (23 856 ha), from 0.8% to 1.5%. Core forest decreased by 3.8% (54 852 ha), from 38% to 36.6% of the 2010 land area. Of particular concern is the nearly doubling of perforated forest, a land dynamic that represents greater spatial intrusion of forest clearing within core forest areas and a move away from the established rural complex.

  14. One size fits all? Standardised provision of care for survivors of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Jerlie Loko Roka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outcomes of sexual violence care programmes may vary according to the profile of survivors, type of violence suffered, and local context. Analysis of existing sexual violence care services could lead to their better adaptation to the local contexts. We therefore set out to compare the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence programmes in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC in a zone of conflict (Masisi, North Kivu and post-conflict (Niangara, Haut-Uélé. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive cohort study, using routine programmatic data from the MSF sexual violence programmes in Masisi and Niangara, DRC, for 2012. RESULTS: In Masisi, 491 survivors of sexual violence presented for care, compared to 180 in Niangara. Niangara saw predominantly sexual violence perpetrated by civilians who were known to the victim (48% and directed against children and adolescents (median age 15 (IQR 13-17, while sexual violence in Masisi was more directed towards adults (median age 26 (IQR 20-35, and was characterised by marked brutality, with higher levels of gang rape, weapon use, and associated violence; perpetrated by the military (51%. Only 60% of the patients in Masisi and 32% of those in Niangara arrived for a consultation within the critical timeframe of 72 hours, when prophylaxis for HIV and sexually transmitted infections is most effective. Survivors were predominantly referred through community programmes. Treatment at first contact was typically efficient, with high (>95% coverage rates of prophylaxes. However, follow-up was poor, with only 49% of all patients in Masisi and 61% in Niangara returning for follow-up, and consequently low rates of treatment and/or vaccination completion. CONCLUSION: This study has identified a number of weak and strong points in the sexual violence programmes of differing contexts, indicating gaps which need to be addressed, and strengths of both programmes that may contribute to future models of context

  15. From health advice to taboo: community perspectives on the treatment of sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mpanya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Socio-cultural and economic factors constitute real barriers for uptake of screening and treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. Better understanding and addressing these barriers may enhance the effectiveness of HAT control.We performed a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions in the Bandundu and Kasaï Oriental provinces, two provinces lagging behind in the HAT elimination effort. Our study population included current and former HAT patients, as well as healthcare providers and program managers of the national HAT control program. All interviews and discussions were voice recorded on a digital device and data were analysed with the ATLAS.ti software.Health workers and community members quoted a number of prohibitions that have to be respected for six months after HAT treatment: no work, no sexual intercourse, no hot food, not walking in the sun. Violating these restrictions is believed to cause serious, and sometimes deadly, complications. These strong prohibitions are well-known by the community and lead some people to avoid HAT screening campaigns, for fear of having to observe such taboos in case of diagnosis.The restrictions originally aimed to mitigate the severe adverse effects of the melarsoprol regimen, but are not evidence-based and became obsolete with the new safer drugs. Correct health information regarding HAT treatment is essential. Health providers should address the perspective of the community in a constant dialogue to keep abreast of unintended transformations of meaning.

  16. Perceptions of health, health care and community-oriented health interventions in poor urban communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maketa, Vivi; Vuna, Mimy; Baloji, Sylvain; Lubanza, Symphorien; Hendrickx, David; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel Andrea; Boelaert, Marleen; Lutumba, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In Democratic Republic of Congo access to health care is limited because of many geographical and financial barriers, while quality of care is often low. Global health donors assist the country with a number of community-oriented interventions such as free distribution of bednets, antihelminthic drugs, vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns, but uptake of these interventions is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of poor urban communities of the capital Kinshasa with regard to health issues in general as well as their experiences and expectations concerning facility-based health services and community-oriented health interventions. Applying an approach rooted in the grounded theory framework, focus group discussions were conducted in eight neighborhoods of poor urban areas in the city of Kinshasa in July 2011. Study participants were easily able to evoke the city's major health problems, with the notable exceptions of malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. They perceive the high out-of-pocket cost of health services as the major obstacle when seeking access to quality care. Knowledge of ongoing community-oriented health interventions seems good. Still, while the study participants agree that those interventions are beneficial; their acceptability seems to be problematic. This is chiefly put down to a lack of information and government communication about the programs and their interventions. Furthermore, the study participants referred to rumors and the deterring effect of stories about alleged harmful consequences of those interventions. Along with improving the provision and quality of general health care, the government and international actors must improve their efforts in informing the communities about disease control programs, their rationale and benefit/risk ratio. Directly engaging community members in a dialogue might be beneficial in terms of improving acceptability and overall access to health services and

  17. Perceptions of health, health care and community-oriented health interventions in poor urban communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Maketa

    Full Text Available In Democratic Republic of Congo access to health care is limited because of many geographical and financial barriers, while quality of care is often low. Global health donors assist the country with a number of community-oriented interventions such as free distribution of bednets, antihelminthic drugs, vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns, but uptake of these interventions is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of poor urban communities of the capital Kinshasa with regard to health issues in general as well as their experiences and expectations concerning facility-based health services and community-oriented health interventions. Applying an approach rooted in the grounded theory framework, focus group discussions were conducted in eight neighborhoods of poor urban areas in the city of Kinshasa in July 2011. Study participants were easily able to evoke the city's major health problems, with the notable exceptions of malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. They perceive the high out-of-pocket cost of health services as the major obstacle when seeking access to quality care. Knowledge of ongoing community-oriented health interventions seems good. Still, while the study participants agree that those interventions are beneficial; their acceptability seems to be problematic. This is chiefly put down to a lack of information and government communication about the programs and their interventions. Furthermore, the study participants referred to rumors and the deterring effect of stories about alleged harmful consequences of those interventions. Along with improving the provision and quality of general health care, the government and international actors must improve their efforts in informing the communities about disease control programs, their rationale and benefit/risk ratio. Directly engaging community members in a dialogue might be beneficial in terms of improving acceptability and overall access to health

  18. Vertical distribution of ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeota and methanogens in the epipelagic waters of Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llirós, Marc; Gich, Frederic; Plasencia, Anna; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Darchambeau, François; Casamayor, Emilio O; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Borrego, Carles

    2010-10-01

    Four stratified basins in Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo) were sampled in March 2007 to investigate the abundance, distribution, and potential biogeochemical role of planktonic archaea. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed-reported deposition microscopic counts (CARD-FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of signature genes for ammonia-oxidizing archaea (16S rRNA for marine Crenarchaeota group 1.1a [MCG1] and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A [amoA]). Abundance of archaea ranged from 1 to 4.5% of total DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) counts with maximal concentrations at the oxic-anoxic transition zone (∼50-m depth). Phylogenetic analysis of the archaeal planktonic community revealed a higher level of richness of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (21 of the 28 operational taxonomic units [OTUs] identified [75%]) over euryarchaeotal ones (7 OTUs). Sequences affiliated with the kingdom Euryarchaeota were mainly recovered from the anoxic water compartment and mostly grouped into methanogenic lineages (Methanosarcinales and Methanocellales). In turn, crenarchaeal phylotypes were recovered throughout the sampled epipelagic waters (0- to 100-m depth), with clear phylogenetic segregation along the transition from oxic to anoxic water masses. Thus, whereas in the anoxic hypolimnion crenarchaeotal OTUs were mainly assigned to the miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group, the OTUs from the oxic-anoxic transition and above belonged to Crenarchaeota groups 1.1a and 1.1b, two lineages containing most of the ammonia-oxidizing representatives known so far. The concomitant vertical distribution of both nitrite and nitrate maxima and the copy numbers of both MCG1 16S rRNA and amoA genes suggest the potential implication of Crenarchaeota in nitrification processes occurring in the epilimnetic waters of the lake.

  19. A large-scale solar greenhouse dryer using polycarbonate cover: Modeling and testing in a tropical environment of Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, Serm; Intawee, Poolsak; Kaewkiew, Jinda; Sritus, Chanoke [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Khamvongsa, Vathsana [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, National University of Laos, P O Box 7322, Vientiane (Lao People' s Democratic Republic)

    2011-03-15

    A large-scale solar greenhouse dryer with a loading capacity of 1000 kg of fruits or vegetables has been developed and tested at field levels. The dryer has a parabolic shape and the dryer is covered with polycarbonate sheets. The base of the dryer is a black concrete floor with an area of 7.5 x 20.0 m{sup 2}. Nine DC fans powered by three 50-W solar cell modules are used to ventilate the dryer. The dryer was installed at Champasak (15.13 N, 105.79 E) in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). It is routinely used to dry chilli, banana and coffee. To assess the experimental performances of the dryer, air temperature, air relative humidity and product moisture contents were measured. One thousand kilograms of banana with the initial moisture content of 68% (wb) was dried within 5 days, compared to 7 days required for natural sun drying with the same weather conditions. Also three hundred kilograms of chilli with the initial moisture content of 75% (wb) was dried within 3 days while the natural sun drying needed 5 days. Two hundred kilograms of coffee with the initial moisture content of 52% (wb) was dried within 2 days as compared to 4 days required for natural sun drying. The chilli, coffee and banana dried in this dryer were completely protected from insects, animals and rain. Furthermore, good quality of dried products was obtained. The payback period of the dryer is estimated to be 2.5 years. A system of partial differential equations describing heat and moisture transfer during drying of chilli, coffee and banana in the greenhouse dryer was developed. These equations were solved by using the finite different method. The simulated results agree well with the experimental data. This model can be used to provide the design data for this type of dryer in other locations. (author)

  20. Anemia and Micronutrient Status of Women of Childbearing Age and Children 6-59 Months in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Leeson, Sarah; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Hawes, Meaghan; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Bahizire, Esto; Akilimali, Pierre Z; Michaux, Kristina D; Lynd, Larry D; Whitfield, Kyly C; Moursi, Mourad; Boy, Erick; Foley, Jennifer; McLean, Judy; Houghton, Lisa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Green, Tim J

    2016-02-17

    Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK) and Kongo Central (KC). We determined hemoglobin (Hb), serum zinc, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein, and α-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations. Anemia prevalence was determined using Hb adjusted for altitude alone and Hb adjusted for both altitude and ethnicity. Anemia prevalence was lower after Hb adjustment for altitude and ethnicity, compared to only altitude, among women (6% vs. 17% in SK; 10% vs. 32% in KC), children 6-23 months (26% vs. 59% in SK; 25% vs. 42% in KC), and children 24-59 months (14% vs. 35% in SK; 23% vs. 44% in KC), respectively. Iron deficiency was seemingly higher with sTfR as compared to inflammation-adjusted ferritin among women (18% vs. 4% in SK; 21% vs. 5% in KC), children 6-23 months (51% vs. 14% in SK; 74% vs. 10% in KC), and children 24-59 months (23% vs. 4% in SK; 58% vs. 1% in KC). Regardless of indicator, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) never exceeded 3% in women. In children, IDA reached almost 20% when sTfR was used but was only 10% with ferritin. Folate, B12, and vitamin A (RBP) deficiencies were all very low (children. The prevalence of anemia was unexpectedly low. Inflammation-adjusted zinc deficiency was high among women (52% in SK; 58% in KC), children 6-23 months (23% in SK; 20% in KC), and children 24-59 months (25% in SK; 27% in KC). The rate of biochemical zinc deficiency among Congolese women and children requires attention.

  1. Prototype Positive Control Wells for Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests: Prospective Evaluation of Implementation Among Health Workers in Lao People's Democratic Republic and Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Bwanika, John Baptist; Cunningham, Jane; Gatton, Michelle; González, Iveth J.; Hopkins, Heidi; Kibira, Simon Peter S.; Kyabayinze, Daniel J.; Mayxay, Mayfong; Ndawula, Bbaale; Newton, Paul N.; Phommasone, Koukeo; Streat, Elizabeth; Umlauf, René

    2017-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for malaria diagnosis, but lack of quality control at point of care restricts trust in test results. Prototype positive control wells (PCW) containing recombinant malaria antigens have been developed to identify poor-quality RDT lots. This study assessed community and facility health workers' (HW) ability to use PCWs to detect degraded RDTs, the impact of PCW availability on RDT use and prescribing, and preferred strategies for implementation in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) and Uganda. A total of 557 HWs participated in Laos (267) and Uganda (290). After training, most (88% to ≥ 99%) participants correctly performed the six key individual PCW steps; performance was generally maintained during the 6-month study period. Nearly all (97%) reported a correct action based on PCW use at routine work sites. In Uganda, where data for 127,775 individual patients were available, PCW introduction in health facilities was followed by a decrease in antimalarial prescribing for RDT-negative patients ≥ 5 years of age (4.7–1.9%); among community-based HWs, the decrease was 12.2% (P < 0.05) for all patients. Qualitative data revealed PCWs as a way to confirm RDT quality and restore confidence in RDT results. HWs in malaria-endemic areas are able to use prototype PCWs for quality control of malaria RDTs. PCW availability can improve HWs' confidence in RDT results, and benefit malaria diagnostic programs. Lessons learned from this study may be valuable for introduction of other point-of-care diagnostic and quality-control tools. Future work should evaluate longer term impacts of PCWs on patient management. PMID:27895267

  2. Predicting the Impact of Intervention Strategies for Sleeping Sickness in Two High-Endemicity Health Zones of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Kat S Rock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two goals have been set for Gambian human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, the first is to achieve elimination as a public health problem in 90% of foci by 2020, and the second is to achieve zero transmission globally by 2030. It remains unclear if certain HAT hotspots could achieve elimination as a public health problem by 2020 and, of greater concern, it appears that current interventions to control HAT in these areas may not be sufficient to achieve zero transmission by 2030. A mathematical model of disease dynamics was used to assess the potential impact of changing the intervention strategy in two high-endemicity health zones of Kwilu province, Democratic Republic of Congo. Six key strategies and twelve variations were considered which covered a range of recruitment strategies for screening and vector control. It was found that effectiveness of HAT screening could be improved by increasing effort to recruit high-risk groups for screening. Furthermore, seven proposed strategies which included vector control were predicted to be sufficient to achieve an incidence of less than 1 reported case per 10,000 people by 2020 in the study region. All vector control strategies simulated reduced transmission enough to meet the 2030 goal, even if vector control was only moderately effective (60% tsetse population reduction. At this level of control the full elimination threshold was expected to be met within six years following the start of the change in strategy and over 6000 additional cases would be averted between 2017 and 2030 compared to current screening alone. It is recommended that a two-pronged strategy including both enhanced active screening and tsetse control is implemented in this region and in other persistent HAT foci to ensure the success of the control programme and meet the 2030 elimination goal for HAT.

  3. Informal workers and access to healthcare: a qualitative study of facilitators and barriers to accessing healthcare for beer promoters in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Vongxay, Viengnakhone; Thammavongsa, Vassana; Thongmyxay, Souksamone; Phummavongsa, Phouthong; Durham, Jo

    2016-04-18

    Informal workers often face considerable risks and vulnerabilities as a consequence of their work and employment conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between the experience of informal work and access to health, using as an example, female beer promoters employed in the informal economy, in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 24 female beer promoters working in beer shops, restaurants and entertainment venues in Vientiane City. The recruitment strategy of snowball sampling was used. Interviews explored the beer promoter's experience of the organization of work, perceived healthcare needs, access to healthcare and insurance, and health seeking practices. The data was analysed thematically and subsequently using Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, capital and field. Most of the beer promoters included in the study were 18 years of age, single, had worked as beer promoters for more than one year and just over half were working to support their higher education. The beer promoters demonstrated a holistic view of health, also viewing good health as contributing to being beautiful - an important attribute in their work. Many reported that their work conditions, including the noisy environment, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, long hours on their feet and sexual harassment negatively affected their physical and mental health. Only four participants had any form of health insurance with access to healthcare constrained by individual characteristics, health system factors and the conditions of their informal employment. Drawing on the work of Bourdieu, the study shows how both employment and illness are linked to habitus embodied in everyday practices, access to capital and the position the female beer promoters hold in the social hierarchy in the field of employment.

  4. Active management of third stage of labour, post–partum haemorrhage and maternal death rate in the Vanga Health Zone, Province of Bandundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

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    Jean-Pierre Fina Lubaki

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH is the single largest cause of maternal death worldwide and a particular burden for developing countries. In Africa, about 33.9 % of maternal deaths are due to PPH. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, the prevalence of PPH is unknown. PPH can be prevented with active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL. Objectives: To describe the practice of AMTSL in Vanga Health Zone and to calculate the incidence of PPH in Vanga Health Zone.Method: An intervention study with post-test-only design was conducted among health maternity wards using a data collection sheet to obtain information. All pregnant women attending Vanga Health maternity wards constituted the study population. Frequencies were determined for variables of interest.Results: From April 2007 to March 2008, 6339 deliveries took place at Vanga Health maternity wards, representing 71% of the institutional delivery rate. The number of deliveries realised with the practice of (AMTSL were 5562; 366 cases of PPH were reported, making an incidence of 5.77%. Three cases of maternal deaths – two of which were related to PPH – were reported during the study period, which means there was a decline of 70% compared with the previous two years.Conclusion: The prevalence of PPH has been estimated to be 5.77%; PPH represents the cause of 67% of all maternal deaths. The extension of AMTSL practice, combined with the assurance of better supplies of oxytocin to enhance drug management, is strongly advised/suggested. As a number of births still take place outside the health maternity wards, the introduction of oral misoprostol could be considered a part of AMTSL for use by patients being treated by traditional midwives.

  5. Randomized comparison of the efficacies and tolerabilities of three artemisinin-based combination treatments for children with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyamboko, M A; Fanello, C I; Wongsaen, K; Tarning, J; Cheah, P Y; Tshefu, K A; Dondorp, A M; Nosten, F; White, N J; Day, N P J

    2014-09-01

    An open-label, randomized controlled trial was carried out in 2011-2012 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the artemisinin-based combination treatments dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, amodiaquine-artesunate, and artemether-lumefantrine. Six hundred eighty-four children aged 3 to 59 months with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were randomly allocated to each study arm. Children were hospitalized for 3 days, given supervised treatment, and followed up weekly for 42 days. All regimens were well tolerated and rapidly effective. The median parasitemia clearance half-life was 2.2 h, and half-lives were similar between arms (P=0.19). The PCR-uncorrected cure rates by day 42 were 73.0% for amodiaquine-artesunate, 70.2% for artemether-lumefantrine, and 86.3% for dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (P=0.001). Early treatment failure occurred in three patients (0.5%), one in each arm. The PCR-corrected cure rates were 93.4% for amodiaquine-artesunate, 92.7% for artemether-lumefantrine, and 94.3% for dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (P=0.78). The last provided a longer posttreatment prophylactic effect than did the other two treatments. The day 7 plasma concentration of piperaquine was below 30 ng/ml in 47% of the children treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, and the day 7 lumefantrine concentration was below 280 ng/ml in 37.0% of children who received artemether-lumefantrine. Thus, although cure rates were all satisfactory, they could be improved by increasing the dose. (This study has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register [www.isrctn.org] under registration no. ISRCTN20984426.).

  6. Effect of a control project on clinical profiles and outcomes in buruli ulcer: a before/after study in Bas-Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Delphin Mavinga Phanzu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is a necrotizing bacterial infection of skin, subcutaneous tissue and bone caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Although the functional impairment caused by BU results in severe suffering and in socio-economic problems, the disease remains largely neglected in Africa. The province of Bas-Congo in Democratic Republic of Congo contains one of the most important BU foci of the country, i.e. the Songololo Territory in the District of Cataractes. This study aims to assess the impact of a BU control project launched in 2004 in the Songololo Territory. METHODS: We used a comparative non-randomized study design, comparing clinical profiles and outcomes of the group of patients admitted at the General Reference Hospital (GRH of the "Institut Médical Evangélique" (IME of Kimpese 3 years before the start of the project (2002-2004 with those admitted during the 3 years after the start of the project (2005-2007. RESULTS: The BU control project was associated with a strong increase in the number of admitted BU cases at the GRH of IME/Kimpese and a fundamental change in the profile of those patients; more female patients presented with BU, the proportion of relapse cases amongst all admissions reduced, the proportion of early lesions and simple ulcerative forms increased, more patients healed without complications and the case fatality rate decreased substantially. The median duration since the onset of first symptoms however remained high, as well as the proportion of patients with osteomyelitis or limitations of joint movement, suggesting that the diagnostic delay remains substantial. CONCLUSION: Implementing a specialized program for BU may be effective in improving clinical profiles and outcomes in BU. Despite these encouraging results, our study highlights the need of considering new strategies to better improve BU control in a low resources setting.

  7. Predicting the Impact of Intervention Strategies for Sleeping Sickness in Two High-Endemicity Health Zones of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, Steve J.; Lumbala, Crispin; Keeling, Matt J.

    2017-01-01

    Two goals have been set for Gambian human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), the first is to achieve elimination as a public health problem in 90% of foci by 2020, and the second is to achieve zero transmission globally by 2030. It remains unclear if certain HAT hotspots could achieve elimination as a public health problem by 2020 and, of greater concern, it appears that current interventions to control HAT in these areas may not be sufficient to achieve zero transmission by 2030. A mathematical model of disease dynamics was used to assess the potential impact of changing the intervention strategy in two high-endemicity health zones of Kwilu province, Democratic Republic of Congo. Six key strategies and twelve variations were considered which covered a range of recruitment strategies for screening and vector control. It was found that effectiveness of HAT screening could be improved by increasing effort to recruit high-risk groups for screening. Furthermore, seven proposed strategies which included vector control were predicted to be sufficient to achieve an incidence of less than 1 reported case per 10,000 people by 2020 in the study region. All vector control strategies simulated reduced transmission enough to meet the 2030 goal, even if vector control was only moderately effective (60% tsetse population reduction). At this level of control the full elimination threshold was expected to be met within six years following the start of the change in strategy and over 6000 additional cases would be averted between 2017 and 2030 compared to current screening alone. It is recommended that a two-pronged strategy including both enhanced active screening and tsetse control is implemented in this region and in other persistent HAT foci to ensure the success of the control programme and meet the 2030 elimination goal for HAT. PMID:28056016

  8. Smallholder pig production systems along a periurban-rural gradient in the Western provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

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    Bienvenu Kambashi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, pigs are raised almost exclusively by smallholders either in periurban areas of major cities such as Kinshasa or in rural villages. Unfortunately, little information is available regarding pig production in the Western part of the DRC, wherefore a survey was carried out to characterize and compare 319 pig production systems in their management and feeding strategies, along a periurban - rural gradient inWestern provinces of the DRC. Pig breeding was the main source of income (43% and half of respondents were active in mixed pig and crop production, mainly vegetable garden. Depending on the location, smallholders owned on average 18 pigs, including four sows. Piglet mortality rate varied from 9.5 to 21.8% while average weaned age ranged between 2.2 and 2.8 months. The major causes of mortality reported by the farmers were African swine fever 98 %, swine erysipelas (60 %, erysipelas trypanosomiasis (31 %, swine worm infection (17 %, and diarrhoea (12 %. The majority of the pigs were reared in pens without free roaming and fed essentially with locally available by-products and forage plants whose nature varied according with the location of the farm. The pig production systems depended on the local environment; particularly in terms of workforces, herd structure and characteristics, production parameters, pig building materials, selling price and in feed resources. It can be concluded that an improvement of Congolese pig production systems should consider (1 a reduction of inbreeding, (2 an improvement in biosafety to reduce the incidence of African swine fever and the spread of other diseases, and (3 an improvement in feeding practices.

  9. A model for analysis, systemic planning and strategic synthesis for health science teaching in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a vision for action

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    Levêque Alain

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of training human resources in health is a real concern in public health in Central Africa. What can be changed in order to train more competent health professionals? This is of utmost importance in primary health care. Methods Taking into account the level of training of secondary-level nurses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, a systemic approach, based on the PRECEDE PROCEED model of analysis, led to a better understanding of the educational determinants and of the factors favourable to a better match between training in health sciences and the expected competences of the health professionals. This article must be read on two complementary levels: one reading, focused on the methodological process, should allow our findings to be transferred to other problems (adaptation of a health promotion model to the educational sphere. The other reading, revolving around the specific theme and results, should provide a frame of reference and specific avenues for action to improve human resources in the health field (using the results of its application in health science teaching in the DRC. Results The results show that it is important to start this training with a global and integrated approach shared by all the actors. The strategies of action entail the need for an approach taking into account all the aspects, i.e. sociological, educational, medical and public health. Conclusions The analysis of the results shows that one cannot bring any change without integrated strategies of action and a multidisciplinary approach that includes all the complex determinants of health behaviour, and to do it within the organization of local structures and institutions in the ministry of health in the DRC.

  10. Repeated stool sampling and use of multiple techniques enhance the sensitivity of helminth diagnosis: a cross-sectional survey in southern Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayasone, Somphou; Utzinger, Jürg; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are common in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). We investigated the accuracy of the Kato-Katz (KK) technique in relation to varying stool sampling efforts, and determined the effect of the concurrent use of a quantitative formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT) for helminth diagnosis and appraisal of concomitant infections. The study was carried out between March and May 2006 in Champasack province, southern Lao PDR. Overall, 485 individuals aged ≥6 months who provided three stool samples were included in the final analysis. All stool samples were subjected to the KK technique. Additionally, one stool sample per individual was processed by FECT. Diagnosis was done under a light microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. Analysis of three stool samples with KK plus a single FECT was considered as diagnostic 'gold' standard and resulted in prevalence estimates of hookworm, Opisthorchis viverrini, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mekongi infection of 77.9%, 65.0%, 33.4%, 26.2% and 24.3%, respectively. As expected, a single KK and a single FECT missed a considerable number of infections. While our diagnostic 'gold' standard produced similar results than those obtained by a mathematical model for most helminth infections, the 'true' prevalence predicted by the model for S. mekongi (28.1%) was somewhat higher than after multiple KK plus a single FECT (24.3%). In the current setting, triplicate KK plus a single FECT diagnosed helminth infections with high sensitivity. Hence, such a diagnostic approach might be utilised for generating high-quality baseline data, assessing anthelminthic drug efficacy and rigorous monitoring of community interventions.

  11. Is maternal education a social vaccine for childhood malaria infection? A cross-sectional study from war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cary; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Kibendelwa, Zacharie Tsongo; Brooks, Hannah; Zheng, Xiaonan; Hawkes, Michael

    2017-03-01

    In zones of violent conflict in the tropics, social disruption leads to elevated child mortality, of which malaria is the leading cause. Understanding the social determinants of malaria transmission may be helpful to optimize malaria control efforts. We conducted a cross-sectional study of healthy children aged 2 months to 5 years attending well-child and/or immunization visits in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Six hundred and forty-seven children were tested for malaria antigenemia by rapid diagnostic test and the accompanying parent or legal guardian simultaneously completed a survey questionnaire related to demographics, socioeconomic status, maternal education, as well as bednet use and recent febrile illness. We examined the associations between variables using multivariable logistic regression analysis, chi-squared statistic, Fisher's exact test, and Spearman's rank correlation, as appropriate. One hundred and twenty-three out of the 647 (19%) children in the study tested positive for malaria. Higher levels of maternal education were associated with a lower risk of malaria in their children. The prevalence of malaria in children of mothers with no education, primary school, and beyond primary was 41/138 (30%), 41/241 (17%), and 39/262 (15%), respectively (p = 0.001). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for the effect of a child's age and study site, the following remained significant predictors of malaria antigenemia: maternal education, number of children under five per household, and HIV serostatus. Higher maternal education, through several putative causal pathways, was associated with lower malaria prevalence among children in the DRC. Our findings suggest that maternal education might be an effective 'social vaccine' against malaria in the DRC and globally.

  12. Perceived ill-health and health seeking behavior in two communities in the nam theun 2 hydroelectric project area in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayasone S; Erlanger TE; Kaul S; Sananikhom P; Tanner M; Utzinger J; Odermatt P

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To compare perceived ill-health and health seeking behavior between two communities affected by the large Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in central Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR).Methods:Two different affected areas:Nakai plateaubeing remote,sparcely populated and mountainous,and Xe Bang Fai lowland plains,more densely populated and comparatively affluent were included.Data were obtained from two cross-sectional household-based health and socio-economic surveys.Results:We found pronounced differ-ences in the frequency of self-reported fever,cough,headache and myalgia according to location.On the Na-kai plateau,45.1 % of the individuals with ill-health report (recall period:2 weeks)went to a local health volunteer compared to only 7.2 % in the Xe Bang Fai area (P <0.001).In Nakai,there were disproportion-ately more illiterates seeking help from local health volunteers when compared to those who attended at least primary schooling (49.2 % versus 17.5 %,P <0.01).Self-medication with antimalarials was more common in Xe Bang Fai than on Nakai (32.3 % versus 7.0 %,P <0.001).The mean amount of money spent per health consultation was US $1.7 in Nakai and US $7.2 in Xe Bang Fai.Conclusion:The observed differ-ences in self-reported ill-health and health seeking behavior among these two Lao communities need to be con-sidered when implementing setting-specific mitigation measures as part of the public health action plan of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project.

  13. Adult and adolescent livestock productive asset transfer programmes to improve mental health, economic stability and family and community relationships in rural South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy A; Remy, Mitima Mpanano; Alfred, Mirindi Bacikenge; Arsene, Kajabika Binkurhorhwa; Nadine, Mwinja Bufole; Heri, Banyewesize Jean; Clovis, Mitima Murhula; Glass, Nancy

    2017-03-14

    People living in poverty have limited access to traditional financial institutions. Microfinance programmes are designed to meet this gap and show promise in improving income, economic productivity and health. Our Congolese-US community academic research partnership developed two livestock productive asset transfer programmes, Pigs for Peace (PFP) and Rabbits for Resilience (RFR), to address the interlinked health, social and economic well-being of individuals, their families and communities. The community-based randomised controlled trials examine the effectiveness of PFP and RFR to improve health, economic stability, and family and community relationships among male and female adults and adolescents living in 10 rural, postconflict villages of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. PFP participants include adult permanent residents of rural villages; adolescent participants in RFR include male and female adolescents 10-15 years old living in the selected rural villages. Participants were randomised to intervention or delayed control group. Participants in PFP completed baseline interview prior to intervention and follow-up interview at 6, 12 and 18 months postintervention. In RFR, participants completed baseline interview prior to intervention and follow-up interview at 6, 12 and 18 months postbaseline. The primary outcome of both trials, the change in baseline mental health distress at 18 months in the intervention group (adults, adolescents) compared to control group, is used to calculate sample size. The Johns Hopkins Medical Institute Internal Review Board approved this protocol. A committee of respected Congolese educators and community members (due to lack of local ethics review board) approved the study. The findings will provide important information on the potential for community-led sustainable development initiatives to build on traditional livelihood (livestock raising, agriculture) to have a sustained health, economic and social impact on the

  14. United Nations Impact on Child Soldier Use in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: 1999-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-12

    pay, national, or tribal motivations, to highly coercive and abductive involuntary methods. During 2002, RCD elements in Goma allegedly “recruited...Wessells assessed that abductions were not necessarily opportunistic and armed groups would prey upon vulnerable groups of children. In Goma , North Kivu...Nairobi declaration of November 2007, and the Goma peace agreement of January 2008, the actual implementation of these plans has failed. At the time of

  15. Microbiologic and Clinical Features of Salmonella Species Isolated From Bacteremic Children in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberg, Olivier; Nyarukweba, Deo Z.; Ndeba, Prudence M.

    2010-01-01

    ) in this program allowed the improvement of laboratory capacities. In this retrospective study, we describe the first signs of impact the GSS program has had in DRC in the management of bacteremia. Methods: Between 2002 and 2006, we evaluated, in one pediatric hospital, the microbiologic and clinical features...

  16. Navigating obstacles, opportunities and reforms: women’s lives and livelihoods in artisanal mining communities in eastern DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashwira Nyenyezi, Marie Rose

    2017-01-01

    For more than two decades, the exploitation and trade of minerals has fuelled armed conflict and fostered a climate of insecurity that has led to the deaths of thousands of people in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (Katanga, Ituri, Maniema, North and South Kivu). This has been seen as

  17. Field assessment of a novel household-based water filtration device: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Sophie Boisson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Household water treatment can improve the microbiological quality of drinking water and may prevent diarrheal diseases. However, current methods of treating water at home have certain shortcomings, and there is evidence of bias in the reported health impact of the intervention in open trial designs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial among 240 households (1,144 persons in rural Democratic Republic of Congo to assess the field performance, use and effectiveness of a novel filtration device in preventing diarrhea. Households were followed up monthly for 12 months. Filters and placebos were monitored for longevity and for microbiological performance by comparing thermotolerant coliform (TTC levels in influent and effluent water samples. Mean longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea was estimated among participants of all ages. Compliance was assessed through self-reported use and presence of water in the top vessel of the device at the time of visit. Over the 12-month follow-up period, data were collected for 11,236 person-weeks of observation (81.8% total possible. After adjusting for clustering within the household, the longitudinal prevalence ratio of diarrhoea was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.61-1.20. The filters achieved a 2.98 log reduction in TTC levels while, for reasons that are unclear, the placebos achieved a 1.05 log reduction (p<0.0001. After 8 months, 68% of intervention households met the study's definition of current users, though most (73% of adults and 95% of children also reported drinking untreated water the previous day. The filter maintained a constant flow rate over time, though 12.4% of filters were damaged during the course of the study. CONCLUSIONS: While the filter was effective in improving water quality, our results provide little evidence that it was protective against diarrhea. The moderate reduction observed nevertheless supports the need for larger

  18. Late Stone Age human remains from Ishango (Democratic Republic of Congo): New insights on Late Pleistocene modern human diversity in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevecoeur, I; Brooks, A; Ribot, I; Cornelissen, E; Semal, P

    2016-07-01

    Although questions of modern human origins and dispersal are subject to intense research within and outside Africa, the processes of modern human diversification during the Late Pleistocene are most often discussed within the context of recent human genetic data. This situation is due largely to the dearth of human fossil remains dating to the final Pleistocene in Africa and their almost total absence from West and Central Africa, thus limiting our perception of modern human diversification within Africa before the Holocene. Here, we present a morphometric comparative analysis of the earliest Late Pleistocene modern human remains from the Central African site of Ishango in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The early Late Stone Age layer (eLSA) of this site, dated to the Last Glacial Maximum (25-20 Ky), contains more than one hundred fragmentary human remains. The exceptional associated archaeological context suggests these remains derived from a community of hunter-fisher-gatherers exhibiting complex social and cognitive behaviors including substantial reliance on aquatic resources, development of fishing technology, possible mathematical notations and repetitive use of space, likely on a seasonal basis. Comparisons with large samples of Late Pleistocene and early Holocene modern human fossils from Africa and Eurasia show that the Ishango human remains exhibit distinctive characteristics and a higher phenotypic diversity in contrast to recent African populations. In many aspects, as is true for the inner ear conformation, these eLSA human remains have more affinities with Middle to early Late Pleistocene fossils worldwide than with extant local African populations. In addition, cross-sectional geometric properties of the long bones are consistent with archaeological evidence suggesting reduced terrestrial mobility resulting from greater investment in and use of aquatic resources. Our results on the Ishango human remains provide insights into past African modern

  19. Melarsoprol sensitivity profile of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates from cured and relapsed sleeping sickness patients from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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    Patient Pyana Pati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei (T.b. gambiense constitutes a serious health problem in sub-Sahara Africa. In some foci, alarmingly high relapse rates were observed in patients treated with melarsoprol, which used to be the first line treatment for patients in the neurological disease stage. Particularly problematic was the situation in Mbuji-Mayi, East Kasai Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo with a 57% relapse rate compared to a 5% relapse rate in Masi-Manimba, Bandundu Province. The present study aimed at investigating the mechanisms underlying the high relapse rate in Mbuji-Mayi using an extended collection of recently isolated T.b. gambiense strains from Mbuji-Mayi and from Masi-Manimba.Forty five T.b. gambiense strains were used. Forty one were isolated from patients that were cured or relapsed after melarsoprol treatment in Mbuji-Mayi. In vivo drug sensitivity tests provide evidence of reduced melarsoprol sensitivity in these strains. This reduced melarsoprol sensitivity was not attributable to mutations in TbAT1. However, in all these strains, irrespective of the patient treatment outcome, the two aquaglyceroporin (AQP 2 and 3 genes are replaced by chimeric AQP2/3 genes that may be associated with resistance to pentamidine and melarsoprol. The 4 T.b. gambiense strains isolated in Masi-Manimba contain both wild-type AQP2 and a different chimeric AQP2/3. These findings suggest that the reduced in vivo melarsoprol sensitivity of the Mbuji-Mayi strains and the high relapse rates in that sleeping sickness focus are caused by mutations in the AQP2/AQP3 locus and not by mutations in TbAT1.We conclude that mutations in the TbAQP2/3 locus of the local T.b. gambiense strains may explain the high melarsoprol relapse rates in the Mbuji-Mayi focus but other factors must also be involved in the treatment outcome of individual patients.

  20. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and other intestinal parasites in young children in Lobata province, Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe.

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    Maria Luísa Lobo

    Full Text Available Rare systemic studies concerning prevalence of intestinal parasites in children have been conducted in the second smallest country in Africa, the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Fecal specimens from 348 children (214 in-hospital attending the Aires de Menezes Hospital and 134 from Agostinho Neto village in São Tome Island were studied by parasitological and molecular methods. Of the 134 children from Agostinho Neto, 52.2% presented intestinal parasites. 32.1% and 20.2% of these children had monoparasitism and polyparasitism, respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides (27.6%, G. duodenalis (7.5%, T. trichiura (4.5% and Entamoeba coli (10.5% were the more frequent species identified in the children of this village. Giardia duodenalis (7.5% and E. bieneusi (5.2% were identified by PCR. Nested-PCR targeting G. duodenalis TPI identified Assemblage A (60% and Assemblage B (40%. The E. bieneusi ITS-based sequence identified genotypes K (57.1%, KIN1 (28.6% and KIN3 (14.3%. Among the 214 in-hospital children, 29.4% presented intestinal parasites. In 22.4% and 7.0% of the parasitized children, respectively, one or more species were concurrently detected. By microscopy, A. lumbricoides (10.3% and Trichiuris trichiura (6.5% were the most prevalent species among these children, and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR in 8.9% of children. GP60 locus analysis identified 6.5% of C. hominis (subtypes IaA27R3 [35.7%], IaA23R3 [14.3%], IeA11G3T3 [28.6%] and IeA11G3T3R1 [21.4%] and 2.3% of C. parvum (subtypes IIaA16G2R1 [20.0%], IIaA15G2R1 [20.0%], IIdA26G1 [40.0%] and IIdA21G1a [20.0%]. G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi were identified in 0.5% and 8.9% of the in-hospital children, respectively. G. duodenalis Assemblage B was characterized. The E. bieneusi genotypes K (52.6%, D (26.4%, A (10.5% and KIN1 (10.5% were identified. Although further studies are required to clarify the epidemiology of these infectious diseases in this endemic region the significance

  1. Malaria, schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminth burden and their correlation with anemia in children attending primary schools in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Junior R Matangila

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaemia reduces cognitive potential in school children, retards their growth and predisposes them to other diseases. As there is a paucity of data on the current burden of P. falciparum, S. mansoni and soil transmitted helminths (STH infections and their correlation with schoolchildren's anemia in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, we collect these data. METHODS: This study reports baseline data collected from a randomized controlled trial investigating the impact of IPT with SP and SP-PQ on anemia and malaria morbidity in Congolese schoolchildren (Trial registration: NCT01722539; PACTR201211000449323. S. mansoni and STH infections were assessed using kato-katz technique. Malaria infection and hemoglobin concentration were assessed using Blood smear and Hemocontrol device, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 616 primary schoolchildren from 4 to 13 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. infection was 18.5% (95%CI:15.6-21.9. Amongst those infected, 24 (21%, 40 (35.1%, 40 (35.1%, 10 (8.8%, had light, moderate, heavy, very high malaria parasite density, respectively. Above 9 years of age (p = 0.02, male and history of fever (p = 0.04 were both associated with malaria infection. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 6.4% (95%CI:4.4-9.1. Girls were associated with S. mansoni infection (p = 0.04. T. trichiura was the most prevalent STH infection (26.3%, followed by A. lumbricoides (20.1%. Co-infection with malaria-S. mansoni and malaria-STH was, respectively, 1.5% (CI95%:0.7-3.3 and 6.4% (CI95% 4.4-9.1. The prevalence of anemia was found to be 41.6% (95%CI:37.7-45.6 and anemia was strongly related with Plasmodium ssp infection (aOR:4.1; CI95%:2.6-6.5;p<0.001 and S. mansoni infection (aOR:3.3;CI95%:1.4-7.8;p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Malaria and S. mansoni infection were strongly associated with high prevalence of anemia in schoolchildren. Therefore, specific school-based interventions, such as

  2. Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminth Burden and Their Correlation with Anemia in Children Attending Primary Schools in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Matangila, Junior R.; Doua, Joachim Yorokpa; Linsuke, Sylvie; Madinga, Joule; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia reduces cognitive potential in school children, retards their growth and predisposes them to other diseases. As there is a paucity of data on the current burden of P. falciparum, S. mansoni and soil transmitted helminths (STH) infections and their correlation with schoolchildren’s anemia in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we collect these data. Methods This study reports baseline data collected from a randomized controlled trial investigating the impact of IPT with SP and SP-PQ on anemia and malaria morbidity in Congolese schoolchildren (Trial registration: NCT01722539; PACTR201211000449323). S. mansoni and STH infections were assessed using kato-katz technique. Malaria infection and hemoglobin concentration were assessed using Blood smear and Hemocontrol device, respectively. Results A total of 616 primary schoolchildren from 4 to 13 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. infection was 18.5% (95%CI:15.6–21.9). Amongst those infected, 24 (21%), 40 (35.1%), 40 (35.1%), 10 (8.8%), had light, moderate, heavy, very high malaria parasite density, respectively. Above 9 years of age (p = 0.02), male and history of fever (p = 0.04) were both associated with malaria infection. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 6.4% (95%CI:4.4–9.1). Girls were associated with S. mansoni infection (p = 0.04). T. trichiura was the most prevalent STH infection (26.3%), followed by A. lumbricoides (20.1%). Co-infection with malaria-S. mansoni and malaria-STH was, respectively, 1.5% (CI95%:0.7–3.3) and 6.4% (CI95% 4.4–9.1). The prevalence of anemia was found to be 41.6% (95%CI:37.7–45.6) and anemia was strongly related with Plasmodium ssp infection (aOR:4.1; CI95%:2.6–6.5;panemia in schoolchildren. Therefore, specific school-based interventions, such as intermittent preventive treatment or prophylaxis, LLITN distribution, anthelminthic mass treatment and micronutrient supplementation are needed

  3. Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) ownership, use and cost of implementation after a mass distribution campaign in Kasaï Occidental Province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Ntuku, Henry Maggi; Ruckstuhl, Laura; Julo-Réminiac, Jean-Emmanuel; Umesumbu, Solange E; Bokota, Alain; Tshefu, Antoinette Kitoto; Lengeler, Christian

    2017-01-09

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) are a highly effective means for preventing malaria infection and reducing associated morbidity and mortality. Mass free distribution campaigns have been shown to rapidly increase LLIN ownership and use. Around 3.5 million LLINs were distributed free of charge in the Kasaï Occidental Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in September-October 2014, using two different approaches, a fixed delivery strategy and a door-to-door strategy including hang-up activities. Repeated community-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted 2 months before and six months after the mass distribution. Descriptive statistics were used to measure changes in key malaria household indicators. LLIN ownership and use were compared between delivery strategies. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with LLIN use before and after the mass distribution. A comparative financial cost analysis between the fixed delivery and door-to-door distribution strategies was carried out from the provider's perspective. Household ownership of at least one LLIN increased from 39.4% pre-campaign to 91.4% post-campaign and LLIN universal coverage, measured as the proportion of households with at least one LLIN for every two people increased from 4.1 to 41.1%. Population access to LLIN within the household increased from 22.2 to 80.7%, while overall LLIN use increased from 18.0 to 68.3%. Higher LLIN ownership was achieved with the fixed delivery strategy compared with the door-to-door (92.5% [95% CI 90.2-94.4%] versus 85.2% [95% CI 78.5-90.0%]), while distribution strategy did not have a significant impact on LLIN use (69.6% [95% CI 63.1-75.5%] versus 65.7% [95% CI 52.7-76.7%]). Malaria prevalence among children aged 6-59 months was 44.8% post-campaign. Living in a household with sufficient numbers of LLIN to cover all members was the strongest determinant of LLIN use. The total financial cost per

  4. Effects of unconditional cash transfers on the outcome of treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM): a cluster-randomised trial in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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    Grellety, Emmanuel; Babakazo, Pélagie; Bangana, Amina; Mwamba, Gustave; Lezama, Ines; Zagre, Noël Marie; Ategbo, Eric-Alain

    2017-04-26

    Cash transfer programs (CTPs) aim to strengthen financial security for vulnerable households. This potentially enables improvements in diet, hygiene, health service access and investment in food production or income generation. The effect of CTPs on the outcome of children already severely malnourished is not well delineated. The objective of this study was to test whether CTPs will improve the outcome of children treated for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo over 6 months. We conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial in children with uncomplicated SAM who received treatment according to the national protocol and counselling with or without a cash supplement of US$40 monthly for 6 months. Analyses were by intention to treat. The hazard ratio of reaching full recovery from SAM was 35% higher in the intervention group than the control group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10 to 1.69, P = 0.007). The adjusted hazard ratios in the intervention group for relapse to moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and SAM were 0.21 (95% CI = 0.11 to 0.41, P = 0.001) and 0.30 (95% CI = 0.16 to 0.58, P = 0.001) respectively. Non-response and defaulting were lower when the households received cash. All the nutritional outcomes in the intervention group were significantly better than those in the control group. After 6 months, 80% of cash-intervened children had re-gained their mid-upper arm circumference measurements and weight-for-height/length Z-scores and showed evidence of catch-up. Less than 40% of the control group had a fully successful outcome, with many deteriorating after discharge. There was a significant increase in diet diversity and food consumption scores for both groups from baseline; the increase was significantly greater in the intervention group than the control group. CTPs can increase recovery from SAM and decrease default, non-response and relapse rates during and

  5. Identification of different trypanosome species in the mid-guts of tsetse flies of the Malanga (Kimpese sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Simo Gustave

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malanga sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo has shown an epidemic evolution of disease during the last century. However, following case detection and treatment, the prevalence of the disease decreased considerably. No active survey has been undertaken in this focus for a couple of years. To understand the current epidemiological status of sleeping sickness as well as the animal African trypanosomiasis in the Malanga focus, we undertook the identification of tsetse blood meals as well as different trypanosome species in flies trapped in this focus. Methods Pyramidal traps were use to trap tsetse flies. All flies caught were identified and live flies were dissected and their mid-guts collected. Fly mid-gut was used for the molecular identification of the blood meal source, as well as for the presence of different trypanosome species. Results About 949 Glossina palpalis palpalis were trapped; 296 (31.2% of which were dissected, 60 (20.3% blood meals collected and 57 (19.3% trypanosome infections identified. The infection rates were 13.4%, 5.1%, 3.5% and 0.4% for Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, Trypanosoma brucei s.l., Trypanosoma congolense forest type and Trypanosoma vivax, respectively. Three mixed infections including Trypanosoma brucei s.l. and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, and one mixed infection of Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type were identified. Eleven Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections were identified; indicating an active circulation of this trypanosome subspecies. Of all the identified blood meals, about 58.3% were identified as being taken on pigs, while 33.3% and 8.3% were from man and other mammals, respectively. Conclusion The presence of Trypanosoma brucei in tsetse mid-guts associated with human blood meals is indicative of an active transmission of this parasite between tsetse and man. The considerable number of pig blood meals combined

  6. Identification of different trypanosome species in the mid-guts of tsetse flies of the Malanga (Kimpese) sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, Gustave; Silatsa, Barberine; Flobert, Njiokou; Lutumba, Pascal; Mansinsa, Philemon; Madinga, Joule; Manzambi, Emile; De Deken, Reginald; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

    2012-09-19

    The Malanga sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo has shown an epidemic evolution of disease during the last century. However, following case detection and treatment, the prevalence of the disease decreased considerably. No active survey has been undertaken in this focus for a couple of years. To understand the current epidemiological status of sleeping sickness as well as the animal African trypanosomiasis in the Malanga focus, we undertook the identification of tsetse blood meals as well as different trypanosome species in flies trapped in this focus. Pyramidal traps were use to trap tsetse flies. All flies caught were identified and live flies were dissected and their mid-guts collected. Fly mid-gut was used for the molecular identification of the blood meal source, as well as for the presence of different trypanosome species. About 949 Glossina palpalis palpalis were trapped; 296 (31.2%) of which were dissected, 60 (20.3%) blood meals collected and 57 (19.3%) trypanosome infections identified. The infection rates were 13.4%, 5.1%, 3.5% and 0.4% for Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, Trypanosoma brucei s.l., Trypanosoma congolense forest type and Trypanosoma vivax, respectively. Three mixed infections including Trypanosoma brucei s.l. and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, and one mixed infection of Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type were identified. Eleven Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections were identified; indicating an active circulation of this trypanosome subspecies. Of all the identified blood meals, about 58.3% were identified as being taken on pigs, while 33.3% and 8.3% were from man and other mammals, respectively. The presence of Trypanosoma brucei in tsetse mid-guts associated with human blood meals is indicative of an active transmission of this parasite between tsetse and man. The considerable number of pig blood meals combined with the circulation of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in this focus

  7. Marina Caparini and Otwin Marenin (Eds, Transforming Police in Central and Eastern Europe – Process and Progress, DCAF – Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces/ LIT, 2004.

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    Branko Lobnikar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The book is divided in two parts: the introduction and conclusion (by Marina Caparini and Otwin Marenin and several case studies of individual police organizations in Central and Eastern Europe. In the introduction, Caparini and Marenin emphasise the importance of the police in a democratic society. The main function of the police – the provision of security – is one of the basic demands laid against the state by its society. Democratic policing is described in the first part of the introduc...

  8. The Lived Experience of Human Rights and Labour Violations in Select Artisanal Mining Sites in North and South Kivu of the Eastern DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Radley (Ben); D Rothenberg

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report presents the findings of a documentary project on the lives of miners and others working in the artisanal mining industry in select sites in North Kivu and South Kivu in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This work is part of a larger projec

  9. 11 July 2012 - Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador M. Alemu Getahun, Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing the guest book with Head of International relations F. Pauss.

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    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    11 July 2012 - Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador M. Alemu Getahun, Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing the guest book with Head of International relations F. Pauss.

  10. Prediction of Under-Detection of Paediatric Tuberculosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Experience of Six Years in the South-Kivu Province

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    Lufungulo Bahati, Yvette; Mulume Musafiri, Eric; Bahati Rusumba, Olivier; Van der Linden, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In the field of tuberculosis (TB), and particularly in regard to paediatric TB (PedTB), clinical skills of health professionals play an important role in determining quality of care. In an era where novel diagnostic technologies and efficient treatment regimens are being made available for the poorest, we must not divert our attention from the importance of clinical skills, as this deliverable remains the cornerstone of individualized patient care and ultimately the best assurance for optimal use of resources. The aim of our work was to study the epidemiology of PedTB and the determinants of PedTB under-detection in the South-Kivu Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a setting with nearly no technical resources allowing to support the clinical diagnosis of PedTB, i.e. chest X-rays, rapid molecular tests or culture laboratories. Methods We collected TB notification data from 2010 to 2015 and analysed the space-time variations in notification for the different forms of TB among the 113 health facilities (HF) the South-Kivu Province, a region with a low HIV incidence. The different forms of TB notified were: smear positive pulmonary TB (SS+PTB), smear negative pulmonary TB (SS-PTB) and extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB). We further analysed the distribution of these different forms of the disease per age group and explored the possibility to predict the detection of PedTB. Results Significant differences were observed between HF in regard to the proportion of paediatric TB and the proportion of SS-TB among adults. We found a strong correlation between the proportion of PedTB and three major factors: the proportion of TB cases with no bacteriological confirmation (SS-TB) among adults, the number of TB cases notified by the HF and the fact that the HF was supported or not by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). The proportion of SS-TB among adults was found to be a valid indicator for predicting the level of detection of PedTB at the same HF. Conclusion

  11. Evidence of High Out of Pocket Spending for HIV Care Leading to Catastrophic Expenditure for Affected Patients in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available The scaling up of antiviral treatment (ART coverage in the past decade has increased access to care for numerous people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in low-resource settings. Out-of-pocket payments (OOPs represent a barrier for healthcare access, adherence and ART effectiveness, and can be economically catastrophic for PLWHA and their family. We evaluated OOPs of PLWHA attending outpatient and inpatient care units and estimated the financial burden for their households in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. We assumed that such OOPs may result in catastrophic health expenses in this context with fragile economical balance and low health insurance coverage.We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a randomized sample of routine outpatients and a prospective survey of consecutive new inpatients at two referral hospitals (Setthathirat in the capital city, Savannaket in the province. After obtaining informed consent, PLWHA were interviewed using a standardized 82-item questionnaire including information on socio-economic characteristics, disease history and coping strategies. All OOPs occurring during a routine visit or a hospital stay were recorded. Household capacity-to-pay (overall income minus essential expenses, direct and indirect OOPs, OOPs per outpatient visit and per inpatient stay as well as catastrophic spending (greater than or equal to 40% of the capacity-to-pay were calculated. A multivariate analysis of factors associated with catastrophic spending was conducted.A total of 320 PLWHA [280 inpatients and 40 outpatients; 132 (41.2% defined as poor, and 269 (84.1% on ART] were enrolled. Monthly median household income, essential expenses and capacity-to-pay were US$147.0 (IQR: 86-242, $126 (IQR: 82-192 and $14 (IQR: 19-80, respectively. At the provincial hospital OOPs were higher during routine visits, but three fold lower during hospitalization than in the central hospital ($21.0 versus $18.5 and $110.8 versus $329.8 respectively (p<0

  12. Evidence of High Out of Pocket Spending for HIV Care Leading to Catastrophic Expenditure for Affected Patients in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Barennes, Hubert; Frichittavong, Amphonexay; Gripenberg, Marissa; Koffi, Paulin

    2015-01-01

    The scaling up of antiviral treatment (ART) coverage in the past decade has increased access to care for numerous people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in low-resource settings. Out-of-pocket payments (OOPs) represent a barrier for healthcare access, adherence and ART effectiveness, and can be economically catastrophic for PLWHA and their family. We evaluated OOPs of PLWHA attending outpatient and inpatient care units and estimated the financial burden for their households in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. We assumed that such OOPs may result in catastrophic health expenses in this context with fragile economical balance and low health insurance coverage. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a randomized sample of routine outpatients and a prospective survey of consecutive new inpatients at two referral hospitals (Setthathirat in the capital city, Savannaket in the province). After obtaining informed consent, PLWHA were interviewed using a standardized 82-item questionnaire including information on socio-economic characteristics, disease history and coping strategies. All OOPs occurring during a routine visit or a hospital stay were recorded. Household capacity-to-pay (overall income minus essential expenses), direct and indirect OOPs, OOPs per outpatient visit and per inpatient stay as well as catastrophic spending (greater than or equal to 40% of the capacity-to-pay) were calculated. A multivariate analysis of factors associated with catastrophic spending was conducted. A total of 320 PLWHA [280 inpatients and 40 outpatients; 132 (41.2%) defined as poor, and 269 (84.1%) on ART] were enrolled. Monthly median household income, essential expenses and capacity-to-pay were US$147.0 (IQR: 86-242), $126 (IQR: 82-192) and $14 (IQR: 19-80), respectively. At the provincial hospital OOPs were higher during routine visits, but three fold lower during hospitalization than in the central hospital ($21.0 versus $18.5 and $110.8 versus $329.8 respectively (pexpenses; 36

  13. Determinants of maternal health services utilization in urban settings of the Democratic Republic of Congo – A Case study of Lubumbashi City

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    ML Abel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of maternal health services, known as an indirect indicator of perinatal death, is still unknown in Lubumbashi. The present study was therefore undertaken in order to determine the factors that influence the use of mother and child healthcare services in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Methods This was transversal study of women residing in Lubumbashi who had delivered between January and December 2009. In total, 1762 women were sampled from households using indicator cluster surveys in all health zones. Antenatal consultations (ANC, delivery assisted by qualified healthcare personnel (and delivery in a healthcare facility as well as postnatal consultations (PNC were dependent variables of study. The factors determining non-use of maternal healthcare services were researched via logistic regression with a 5% materiality threshold. Results The use of maternal healthcare services was variable; 92.6% of women had attended ANC at least once, 93.8% of women had delivered at a healthcare facility, 97.2% had delivered in the presence of qualified healthcare personnel, while the rate of caesarean section was 4.5%. Only 34.6% postnatal women had attended PNC by 42 days after delivery. During these ANC visits, only 60.6% received at least one dose of vaccine, while 38.1% received Mebendazole, 35.6% iron, 32.7% at least one dose of SulfadoxinePyrimethamine, 29.2% folic acid, 15.5% screening for HIV and 12.8% an insecticide treated net. In comparison to women that had had two or three deliveries before, primiparous and grand multiparous women were twice as likely not to use ANC during their pregnancy. Women who had unplanned pregnancies were also more likely not to use ANC or PNC than those who had planned pregnancies alone or with their partner. The women who had not used ANC were also more likely not to use PNC. The women who had had a trouble-free delivery were more likely not to use PNC than those who had

  14. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits: with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter J in Global mineral resource assessment

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    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region.

  15. Genetic characterization of eight full-length HIV type 1 genomes from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) reveal a new subsubtype, A5, in the A radiation that predominates in the recombinant structure of CRF26_A5U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Nicole; Bazepeo, Samuel Edidi; Mulanga, Claire; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we characterized HIV-1 strains from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), previously described as divergent subtype A (n = 1, 97CD.KMST91) or untypable (n = 7) in the V3-V5 env region. Four strains had the same structure over the entire genome, including alternating fragments of a new subsubtype, A5, within the subtype A radiation and fragments that remain unclassified. Therefore, the cluster of new viruses represents a new circulating recombinant, CRF26_A5U. Three additional strains were unique recombinants with the newly described CRF26_A5U and subtype C. Finally, the nearly full-length sequence of 97CD.KMST91 showed that this strain also consisted of alternating fragments of a divergent subtype A lineage and unclassified fragments, although different from previously reported A and U sequences. The high genetic distances among the different CRF26-A5U strains suggest their longstanding presence in the DRC.

  16. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

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    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  17. From research to field action: example of the fight against cholera in the Democratic Republic of Congo

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    R. Piarroux

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC is the country in the world which reported the highest number of cholera cases to WHO from 2002 to 2007 (128 936 cases out of a worldwide 902 071 cases. We, therefore, implemented research work which intends to understand the epidemiology of cholera in the DRC and to ensure improvements in the strategy to fight against cholera. This broad study enabled us to accurately determine the cholera epidemic’s mechanisms on different scales; to identify the source zones of the disease, and the groups of populations acting as vectors of the spread. It was then possible to demonstrate the role of “sanctuary”, played by some suburbs of lakeside cities. A collaborative network, including several scientific institutions in Europe and in the DRC, local and national government administrations in the field of public health and sanitation, international agencies, NGOs and private foundations, was progressively set up. Following the conclusions of our epidemiological studies, a drastic change of strategy was proposed: the limited curative approach on the one hand, the few existing water/sanitation programs on the other hand, have been merged in a global approach involving a larger scale water and sanitation infrastructure improvement, environmental protection, hygiene awareness and medical surveys targeting a few focus areas playing a central role in the epidemics. In conclusion, by better targeting intervention zones, one can gather human and technical resources previously scattered on the vast territory of the DRC. The strategy presented here revives the hope to eliminate cholera in the DRC.La République Démocratique du Congo (RDC est le pays qui a déclaré le plus grand nombre de cas de choléra à l’OMS entre 2002 et 2007 (128 936 cas sur un nombre total de 902 071 de cas dans le monde. Face à cette situation, nous avons mis en œuvre un travail de recherche qui vise à comprendre l’épidémiologie du

  18. The Democratic Process: Promises and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragaw, Donald, Ed.

    When the Berlin Wall (East Germany) came down, it symbolically foretold the end of the Soviet Union domination of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. This resource guide examines the process toward democratization occurring in those regions. The guide updates the available classroom material on the democratic process. It is divided into three…

  19. Hydrometeorological extremes derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, 1751–1900 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Valášek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751–1900 AD. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage are documented for 1751–1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed. The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types include hailstorm (25.7%, torrential rain (21.7%, flood (21.0%, followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890 and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847. Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816–1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961–2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May–August and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance. Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  20. Genetic Assessment of African Swine Fever Isolates Involved in Outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of Congo between 2005 and 2012 Reveals Co-Circulation of p72 Genotypes I, IX and XIV, Including 19 Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulumba–Mfumu, Leopold K.; Achenbach, Jenna E.; Mauldin, Matthew R.; Dixon, Linda K.; Tshilenge, Curé Georges; Thiry, Etienne; Moreno, Noelia; Blanco, Esther; Saegerman, Claude; Lamien, Charles E.; Diallo, Adama

    2017-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease of domestic pigs. It is a socioeconomically important disease, initially described from Kenya, but subsequently reported in most Sub-Saharan countries. ASF spread to Europe, South America and the Caribbean through multiple introductions which were initially eradicated—except for Sardinia—followed by re‑introduction into Europe in 2007. In this study of ASF within the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 62 domestic pig samples, collected between 2005–2012, were examined for viral DNA and sequencing at multiple loci: C-terminus of the B646L gene (p72 protein), central hypervariable region (CVR) of the B602L gene, and the E183L gene (p54 protein). Phylogenetic analyses identified three circulating genotypes: I (64.5% of samples), IX (32.3%), and XIV (3.2%). This is the first evidence of genotypes IX and XIV within this country. Examination of the CVR revealed high levels of intra-genotypic variation, with 19 identified variants. PMID:28218698

  1. Complex mosaic composition of near full-length genomes of two NED (NIH-ENVA-DOD) subtype panel HIV type 1 strains, BCF-Dioum and BCF-Kita, originating from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Diana D; Foley, Brian T; Tolzmann, Catlin A; Ouma, Annastasia; Bremer, James W

    2009-10-01

    Sequence characterization of the near full-length genomes of HIV-1 isolates BCF-Dioum and BCF-Kita, originating from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), was continued. These NED panel isolates, contributed by F. Brun-Vezinet (ENVA-France), were first identified as subtypes G and H, respectively. Our earlier analyses of portions of their pol genes showed that both were likely to be intersubtype recombinants of different composition. This study analyzed the remainder of each genome, confirming them to be complex recombinants. The BCF-Dioum genome resembles CRF06_cpx strains found in West Africa, composed of subtypes A/G/J/K. The BCF-Kita genome is a unique complex recombinant A-F-G-H-K-U strain. These data support previous observations of the complexity of strains originating from the DRC. BCF-Dioum may be a suitable strain for standards and reagents since it matches a defined circulating recombinant form. Studies and reagents made from BCF-Kita should take into account its complex genome.

  2. Enterocytozoon bieneusi Identification Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in HIV-Infected Humans from Kinshasa Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Wumba

    2012-01-01

    in 242 HIV-infected patients. Typing was based on DNA polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA ITS region of E. bieneusi. PCRRFLP generated with two restriction enzymes (Nla III and Fnu 4HI in PCR-amplified ITS products for classifying strains into different lineages. The diagnosis performance of the indirect immune-fluorescence-monoclonal antibody (IFI-AcM was defined in comparison with real-time PCR as the gold standard. Results. Out of 242 HIV-infected patients, using the real-time PCR, the prevalence of E. bieneusi was 7.9% (n=19 among the 19 E. bieneusi, one was coinfected with E. intestinalis. In 19 E. bieneusi persons using PCR-RFLP method, 5 type I strains of E. bieneusi (26.3% and 5 type IV strains of E. bieneusi (26.3% were identified. The sensitivity of IFI-AcM was poor as estimated 42.1%. Conclusion. Despite different PCR methods, there is possible association between HIVinfection, geographic location (France, Cameroun, Democratic Republic of Congo, and the concurrence of type I and type IV strains.

  3. Performance of Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Malaria and Human African Trypanosomiasis by Diagnostic Laboratories in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Results of a Nation-Wide External Quality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukadi, Pierre; Lejon, Veerle; Barbé, Barbara; Gillet, Philippe; Nyembo, Christophe; Lukuka, Albert; Likwela, Joris; Lumbala, Crispin; Mbaruku, Justin; Vander Veken, Wim; Mumba, Dieudonné; Lutumba, Pascal; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Jacobs, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The present External Quality Assessment (EQA) assessed microscopy of blood parasites among diagnostic laboratories in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The EQA addressed 445 participants in 10/11 provinces (October 2013-April 2014). Participants were sent a panel of five slides and asked to return a routinely stained slide which was assessed for quality of preparation and staining. Response rate was 89.9% (400/445). For slide 1 (no parasites), 30.6% participants reported malaria, mostly Plasmodium falciparum. Only 11.0% participants reported slide 2 (Plasmodium malariae) correctly, 71.0% reported "malaria" or "Plasmodium falciparum" (considered acceptable). Slide 3 contained Plasmodium falciparum (109/μl) and Trypanosoma brucei brucei trypomastigotes: they were each reported by 32.5% and 16.5% participants respectively, 6.0% reported both. Slide 4 (Trypanosoma) was recognised by 44.9% participants. Slide 5 (Plasmodium ovale) was correctly reported by 6.2% participants, another 68.8% replied "malaria" or "Plasmodium falciparum" (considered acceptable). Only 13.6% of routine slides returned were correctly prepared and stained. The proportion of correct/acceptable scores for at least 4/5 slides was higher among EQA-experienced participants compared to first time participants (40.9% versus 22.4%, p = 0.001) and higher among those being trained microscopy including non-falciparum species and Trypanosoma was poor. Recent training and previous EQA participation were associated with a better performance.

  4. 辽宁地区发展对朝边境贸易SWOT分析%A SWOT-based Analysis of the Frontier Trade between Liaoning Province and Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖杨; 刘秀玲; 朱瑞雪

    2011-01-01

    In developing the frontier trade between Liaoning province and Democratic People's Republic of Korea(hereafter referred to as DPRK),Liaoning province is possessed of unique advantages,whether geographically,culturally,or in market.However,disadvantages of Liaoning province,such as unreasonable commodity structures,weak operator entities,lack of export-oriented production bases and disorderly markets all exist in the frontier trade between Liaoning and DPRK.With the economic reform progressing inside DPRK,the DPRK-ROK(Republic of Korea) and DPRK-Japan trade decreasing and the two great development strategies(developing and opening to the world the Liaoning Coastal Economic Belt and building the Shenyang Economic Zone) exercised,Liaoning is meeting a new development opportunity in the Liaoning-DPRK frontier trade.Meanwhile,some negative factors from home and abroad are bringing challenges to the development of the Liaoning-DPRK frontier trade.Therefore,in order to promote the Liaoning-DPRK frontier trade,Liaoning should make full use of its advantages and opportunities,overcome the disadvantages and cope with the challenges.%辽宁发展对朝边境贸易有着特有的地理优势、人文优势和市场优势,但也存在商品结构不尽合理、经营主体实力不强、缺乏边境贸易出口生产基地、市场秩序混乱等劣势;随着朝鲜国内经济改革的推进,朝韩、朝日贸易减少和辽宁沿海经济带开发开放及沈阳经济区两大发展战略的实施,辽宁对朝边境贸易迎来了新的发展机遇,同时,来自国内外的多种不利因素也给辽宁对朝边境贸易发展带来了挑战,辽宁应有效利用自身的优势和良好的发展机遇,克服存在的劣势,应对挑战,推进对朝边境贸易的进一步发展。

  5. Q emocratic Republic of the Congo:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women and Peace-building in the Democratic Republic of the Congo .... Former Yugoslavia, Burundi, Northern Ireland and India and Pakistan. In the ..... we would have thought it was time to talk about sexual violence against women.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of use of complementary and alternative medicine by hypertensive patients attending primary health care facilities in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulebo, Aimée M; Mapatano, Mala A; Mutombo, Paulin B; Mafuta, Eric M; Samba, Gédéon; Coppieters, Yves

    2017-04-08

    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo the control of hypertension is poor, characterized by an increasing number of reported cases of hypertension related complications. Poor control of hypertension is associated with non-adherence to antihypertensive medication. It is well established that the use of complementary and alternative medicine is one of the main factors of non-adherence to antihypertensive medication. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and factors associated with the use of complementary and alternative medicine. A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Kinshasa Primary Health-care (KPHC) facilities network in November 2014. A structured interview questionnaire was administrated to a total of 280hypertensive patients. Complementary and alternative medicine were defined according to the National Institute of Health classification as a group of diverse medical and healthcare systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine. Data were summarized using proportion and mean (with standard deviation). The student's t test and χ(2) test were used respectively for mean and proportion comparison. Logistic regression analysis identified determinants of the use of complementary and alternative medicine. The prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine was 26.1% (95% CI: 20.7% - 31.8%).Determinants of use of complementary and alternative medicine included misperception about hypertension curability (OR = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.1-3.7) and experience of medication side effects (OR = 2.9; 95%CI: 1.7-5.1). The use of CAM for hypertensive patients is a major problem; antihypertensives with fewer side effects must be emphasized. Religious leaders must become involved in the communication for behavioral change activities to improve the quality of life for hypertensive patients.

  7. Varying efficacy of artesunate+amodiaquine and artesunate+sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a report of two in-vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Overmeir Chantal

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few data on anti-malarial efficacy are available from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. DRC changed its anti-malarial treatment policy to amodiaquine (AQ and artesunate (AS in 2005. Methods The results of two in vivo efficacy studies, which tested AQ and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP monotherapies and AS+SP and AS+AQ combinations in Boende (Equatorial province, and AS+SP, AS+AQ and SP in Kabalo (Katanga province, between 2003 and 2004 are presented. The methodology followed the WHO 2003 protocol for assessing the efficacy of anti-malarials in areas of high transmission. Results Out of 394 included patients in Boende, the failure rates on day 28 after PCR-genotyping adjustment of AS+SP and AS+AQ were estimated as 24.6% [95% CI: 16.6–35.5] and 15.1% [95% CI: 8.6–25.7], respectively. For the monotherapies, failure rates were 35.9% [95% CI: 27.0–46.7] for SP and 18.3% [95% CI: 11.6–28.1] for AQ. Out of 207 patients enrolled in Kabalo, the failure rate on day 28 after PCR-genotyping adjustment was 0 [1-sided 95% CI: 5.8] for AS+SP and AS+AQ [1-sided 95% CI: 6.2]. It was 19.6% [95% CI: 11.4–32.7] for SP monotherapy. Conclusion The finding of varying efficacy of the same combinations at two sites in one country highlights one difficulty of implementing a uniform national treatment policy in a large country. The poor efficacy of AS+AQ in Boende should alert the national programme to foci of resistance and emphasizes the need for systems for the prospective monitoring of treatment efficacy at sentinel sites in the country.

  8. Adherence to Artemisinin Combination Therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the Democratic Republic of the Congo [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/596

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruby Siddiqui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Between 2011 and 2013 the number of recorded malaria cases had more than doubled, and between 2009 and 2013 had increased almost 4-fold in MSF-OCA (Médecins sans Frontières – Operational Centre Amsterdam programmes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. The reasons for this rise are unclear. Incorrect intake of Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT could result in failure to treat the infection and potential recurrence. An adherence study was carried out to assess whether patients were completing the full course of ACT. One hundred and eight malaria patients in Shamwana, Katanga province, DRC were visited in their households the day after ACT was supposed to be completed. They were asked a series of questions about ACT administration and the blister pack was observed (if available. Sixty seven (62.0% patients were considered probably adherent. This did not take into account the patients that vomited or spat their pills or took them at the incorrect time of day, in which case adherence dropped to 46 (42.6%. The most common reason that patients gave for incomplete/incorrect intake was that they were vomiting or felt unwell (10 patients (24.4%, although the reasons were not recorded for 22 (53.7% patients. This indicates that there may be poor understanding of the importance of completing the treatment or that the side effects of ACT were significant enough to over-ride the pharmacy instructions. Adherence to ACT was poor in this setting. Health education messages emphasising the need to complete ACT even if patients vomit doses, feel unwell or their health conditions improve should be promoted.

  9. The Limits of the EU as a Peace and Security Actor in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Grenzen der EU bei der Schaffung von Frieden und Sicherheit in der Demokratischen Republik Kongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Froitzheim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU is increasingly aspiring to be a global peace and security actor. Using the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC as a test case to analyse such ambitions, this article reveals that the EU’s attempts to build peace and security are severely compromised by its bureaucratic and organizational complexity as well as by its ineffective policies. In fact, the EU’s state-centred approach in the DRC has resulted in the EU’s inability to deal with 1 the realities of governance in the DRC and 2 the strong transborder dimensions of the conflict. As a result, the EU continues to lack a coherent strategy for the DRC, despite a large budget. The analysis concludes that the EU is more concerned with establishing a symbolic presence and a form of representation than with achieving specific goals.Die Europäische Union (EU bemüht sich zunehmend um eine anerkannte Rolle in der globalen Friedenssicherung. Die Autoren des vorliegenden Beitrags nehmen die Aktivitäten der EU in der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (DRC als Testfall und zeigen auf, dass die Umsetzung ihrer Versuche, dort Frieden und Sicherheit zu schaffen, von einer bürokratischen Herangehensweise, den komplexen EU-Strukturen und einer ineffizienten politischen Zielsetzung stark behindert wird. Tatsächlich hat der staatszentrierte Ansatz der EU dazu geführt, dass sie weder mit den Realitäten des Regierens in der DRC, noch mit den entscheidenden grenzüberschreitenden Dimensionen des Konflikts umzugehen wusste. Im Ergebnis fehlt der EU weiterhin eine kohärente Strategie für die DRC – trotz eines beträchtlichen Budgets. Die Autoren kommen zu dem Schluss, dass es der EU mehr darum geht, eine symbolische Präsenz zu etablieren, als spezifische Ziele zu erreichen.

  10. [Education for self-administered antibiotic therapy: a pragmatic and ethical alternative for the treatment of STDs for the street youth of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (RDC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyka, Mukandu Basua Babintu; Baum, Prof Mylène; Diadié, Maiga; Kiyombo, Mbela; Mupenda, Bavon

    2009-01-01

    All healthcare providers decide in someone else's place, for someone else. In doing so, they take their place in a long long tradition, that of medical paternalism. Patients are treated as children, incapable of making decisions about themselves. How then are we supposed to deal with patients like the street children of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, who are not part of our health-care system, who refuse care and prescriptions? Their refusal of caregivers forces us to seek strategies to dispel the conflicts, adapt outselves to the situation (self-medication, drug sales outside of dispensaries, etc.), but especially to rethink the relation between caregivers and patients. This does not mean abandoning the authoritarian patriarchal model for total relativism; the use of drugs such as antibiotics is and must remain surrounded by all the precautions necessary to avoid the further development of resistance; it does mean training and informing. The task facing us is that of health education and promotion, a long and continuous process, centered on patients and integrated with their care, aimed at making them capable of managing their disease. This procedure is part of a pragmatic approach: beyond the asymmetry involved in any relationship of power, it is essential to establish informed confidence, to look for adhesion and not constraint. Only this pragmatism can incite young people with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) to use modern medicine and comply with the dosage instructions. Effective treatment of STDs is, according to WHO, one of the most powerful weapons in the battle against AIDS transmission.

  11. Food insecurity is associated with increased risk of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patou Masika Musumari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is increasingly reported as an important barrier of patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART in both resource-poor and rich settings. However, unlike in resource rich-settings, very few quantitative studies to date have investigated the association of food insecurity with patient adherence to ART in Sub-Saharan Africa. The current study examines the association between food insecurity and adherence to ART among HIV-infected adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study of patients receiving ART at three private and one public health facilities in Kinshasa, DRC. Participants were consecutively recruited into the study between April and November 2012. Adherence was measured using a combined method coupling pharmacy refill and self-reported adherence. Food insecurity was the primary predictor, and was assessed using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS. Of the 898 participants recruited into the study, 512 (57% were food insecure, and 188 (20.9% were not adherent to ART. Food insecurity was significantly associated with non-adherence to ART (AOR, 2.06; CI, 1.38-3.09. We also found that perceived harmfulness of ART and psychological distress were associated respectively with increased (AOR, 1.95; CI, 1.15-3.32 and decreased (AOR, 0.31; CI, 0.11-0.83 odds of non-adherence to ART. CONCLUSION: Food insecurity is prevalent and a significant risk factor for non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected individuals in the DRC. Our findings highlight the urgent need for strategies to improve food access among HIV-infected on ART in order to ensure patient adherence to ART and ultimately the long-term success of HIV treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Efficacy of fixed-dose combination artesunate-amodiaquine versus artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated childhood Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Democratic Republic of Congo: a randomized non-inferiority trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espié Emmanuelle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC adopted artesunate and amodiaquine (ASAQ as first-line anti-malarial treatment. In order to compare the efficacy of the fixed-dose formulation ASAQ versus artemether-lumefantrine (AL, a randomized, non-inferiority open-label trial was conducted in Katanga. Methods Children aged six and 59 months with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were enrolled and randomly allocated into one of the two regimens. The risk of recurrent parasitaemia by day 42, both unadjusted and adjusted by PCR genotyping to distinguish recrudescence from new infection, was analysed. Results Between April 2008 and March 2009, 301 children were included: 156 with ASAQ and 145 with AL. No early treatment failures were reported. Among the 256 patients followed-up at day 42, 32 patients developed late clinical or parasitological failure (9.9% (13/131 in the ASAQ group and 15.2% (19/125 in the AL group. After PCR correction, cure rates were 98.3% (95%CI, 94.1-99.8 in the ASAQ group and 99.1% (95%CI, 94.9-99.9 in the AL group (difference −0.7%, one sided 95% CI −3.1. Kaplan-Meier PCR-adjusted cure rates were similar. Both treatment regimens were generally well tolerated. Conclusion Both ASAQ and AL are highly effective and currently adequate as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in this area of Katanga, DRC. However, in a very large country, such as DRC, and because of possible emergence of resistance from other endemic regions, surveillance of efficacy of artemisinin-based combination treatments, including other evaluations of the resistance of ASAQ, need to be done in other provinces. Trial registration The protocol was registered with the clinicaltrials.gov, open clinical trial registry under the identifier number NCT01567423.

  13. The Civil Democratic Control on the Army Forces in Romania 1989-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian SOFRONEA

    2016-01-01

    The end of the Cold War meant for the South-Eastern European countries an increased effort for establishing a market based economy and democratic institutions. One raised issue regarding democratization was the reform of the army forces and the democratization of the relationship between the military and the civil society. The civil control on the army forces and the creation of a democratic control system represents key indicators for the process of democratization and stabilizing and legiti...

  14. Democratically Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Goodin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The 'democracy unbound' project aspires to extend democracy in two dimensions: range and scope. The former would give a wider range of people the vote. The latter would give people a wider scope of things to vote on. In practice, no doubt there is room to do much more of both. But whereas it would be democratically justifiable in an ideal world for democracy to be completely unbounded as regards range, even in an ideal world democracy ought be subject to some limits internal to the logic of democracy itself as regards its scope. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837428

  15. Effectiveness of meglumine antimoniate against L. tropica in a recently emerged focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Birjand, eastern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamian, M; Bojd, M S Faroghi; Salehabadi, A; Hemmati, M; Barati, D A

    2015-06-09

    With limited options to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, constant monitoring of the rate of resistance to pentavalent antimony-based drugs is needed. This study identified the infecting Leishmania species and evaluated the results of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) therapy in a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Birjand, eastern Islamic Republic of Iran. Smears from 150 patients showed that 141 patients were infected by L. tropica and 9 by L. major. In total, 141 patients with L. tropica infection completed Glucantime® treatment and follow-up; 63.8% were treated intralesionally and 36.2% by intramuscular administration. The overall success rate after one course of therapy with Glucantime® was 96.5% (136/141), and all the failures (5/141) occurred with intramuscular injections. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the failure rates of intramuscular and intralesional injections. Children < 10 years old had a significantly higher failure rate than adults.

  16. Araneofauna of the Křéby National Nature Monument (Eastern Moravia, Czech Republic with some notes to conservation management of the locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Košulič

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a faunistic contribution to knowledge of spider composition in the xerothermic habitats of the Křéby National Nature Monument which is located in Kroměříž district, eastern Moravia. Spiders were collected by four different methods during 25 April–28 October 2013: pitfall traps, sweeping of herb vegetation, individual collecting and beating the branches of shrubs and trees. In total, 1070 individuals (865 adult spiders were collected and identified as 114 species of 19 families. The species diversity in the Křéby area is rather high, representing approximately 13% of Czech araneofauna. Of the identified species, five are listed in the Red List of Threatened Species in the Czech Republic. These included critically endangered Dysdera hungarica Kulczynski 1897, endangered Alopecosa solitaria (Herman, 1879, Cheiracanthium montanum (C. L. Koch, 1877 and vulnerable Lathys stigmatisata (Menge, 1869 and Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866. The findings of Alopecosa solitaria and Dysdera hungarica belong to the northernmost occurrence of these rare species in the Czech Republic. In general, the great richness of spider fauna and the occurrence of rare and threatened species for Czech region confirm the high biotic value of the investigated area. In addition, the author discussed management methods of the locality and suggest management conservation system for slowing down the succession rate on overgrown places.

  17. Trade in orphans and bushmeat threatens one of the Democratic Republic of the Congo's most important populations of eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hicks, T.C.; Darby, L.; Hart, J.; Swinkels, J.; January, N.; Menken, S.

    2010-01-01

    Following the invasion of the Bili-Uéré Domaine de Chasse by illegal gold miners in June 2007 and the subsequent abandonment of a long-term community conservation and research project there, the first author conducted a survey of chimpanzees and other large mammals on the south side of the Uele Rive

  18. Gender Roles, Masculinity, And Militarism: Factors Contributing To Rape Being Used As A Weapon Of War In The Eastern Democratic Republic Of The Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    mostly located in South Kivu. They have been in the DRC for over 200 years and were able to attain enviable success in the mineral business and farming...the stability in the North and South Kivu Provinces. However, the primary ethnic makeup of the FARDC varies depending on where in the DRC its forces...An example of this was observed when FARDC units engaged with one another based on ethnic makeup of the units.17 Another instance where this is

  19. Civic Education and Democratic Socialisation: From Passive Subject to Active Citizen in Post-Communist States and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Bruen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that some post-communist states or regions such as, for example, the former German Democratic Republic engage in a narrower form of civic education in schools which focuses on the transmission of facts. They also indicate that such civic education produces citizens more likely to accept the status quo than to criticially analyse and attempt to transform it. This paper posits, however, that this is also the case in the Republic of Ireland, a state with an apparently very different historical background. Attitudinal data from the European/World Values Survey and the European Social Survey is used to investigate this possibility by comparing eastern Germany and the Republic of Ireland on key items relating to attitudes towards politics and society. The results provide tentative support for this notion indicating that attitudes in both eastern Germany and the Republic of Ireland tend towards the compliance end of the compliancetransformation spectrum underlining the importance of broader forms of civic education for democratic socialisation both in post-communist states and more generally. Einige Forschungsergebnisse zeigen, dass Staaten, die den Kommunismus durchlaufen haben, eine begrenztere Form von Politikunterricht an Schulen durchfuhren und auf diese Weise Burger heranziehen, die dazu tendieren, den Status Quo zu akzeptieren anstatt politische Entscheidungen kritisch zu hinterfragen und die Politik aktiv mitzugestalten. Die Moglichkeit, jedoch, dass dies auch in einem Staat mit einem ganz anderen geschichtlichen Hintergrund, wie zum Beispiel die Republik Irland, der Fall sein konnte, wird zur Diskussion gestellt. Mit Hilfe von Daten zu politischen Einstellungen aus der European/World Values Survey und der European Social Survey soll diese Frage untersucht werden. Die Ergebnisse unterstutzen zum Teil diese Idee und zeigen, dass Einstellungen in sowohl der fruheren Deutschen Demokratischen Republik als auch in der

  20. Evaluating the comparative effectiveness of different demand side interventions to increase maternal health service utilization and practice of birth spacing in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo: an innovative, mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbaugh, Mari; Bapolisi, Wyvine; van de Weerd, Jennie; Zabiti, Michel; Mommers, Paula; Balaluka, Ghislain Bisimwa; Merten, Sonja

    2017-07-03

    In this protocol we describe a mixed methods study in the province of South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo evaluating the effectiveness of different demand side strategies to increase maternal health service utilization and the practice of birth spacing. Conditional service subsidization, conditional cash transfers and non-monetary incentives aim to encourage women to use maternal health services and practice birth spacing in two different health districts. Our methodology will comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of different approaches against each other and no intervention. This study comprises four main research activities: 1) Formative qualitative research to determine feasibility of planned activities and inform development of the quantitative survey; 2) A community-based, longitudinal survey; 3) A retrospective review of health facility records; 4) Qualitative exploration of intervention acceptability and emergent themes through in-depth interviews with program participants, non-participants, their partners and health providers. Female community health workers are engaged as core members of the research team, working in tandem with female survey teams to identify women in the community who meet eligibility criteria. Female community health workers also act as key informants and community entry points during methods design and qualitative exploration. Main study outcomes are completion of antenatal care, institutional delivery, practice of birth spacing, family planning uptake and intervention acceptability in the communities. Qualitative methods also explore decision making around maternal health service use, fertility preference and perceptions of family planning. The innovative mixed methods design allows quantitative data to inform the relationships and phenomena to be explored in qualitative collection. In turn, qualitative findings will be triangulated with quantitative findings. Inspired by the principles of grounded theory, qualitative

  1. Rapid Contraceptive Uptake and Changing Method Mix With High Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives in Crisis-Affected Populations in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Jesse; Noznesky, Elizabeth; Curry, Dora Ward; Galavotti, Christine; Hwang, Shuyuan; Rodriguez, Mariela

    2016-08-11

    The global health community has recognized that expanding the contraceptive method mix is a programmatic imperative since (1) one-third of unintended pregnancies are due to method failure or discontinuation, and (2) the addition of a new method to the existing mix tends to increase total contraceptive use. Since July 2011, CARE has been implementing the Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative to increase the availability, quality, and use of contraception, with a particular focus on highly effective and long-acting reversible methods-intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants-in crisis-affected settings in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This initiative supports government health systems at primary and referral levels to provide a wide range of contraceptive services to people affected by conflict and/or displacement. Before the initiative, long-acting reversible methods were either unknown or unavailable in the intervention areas. However, as soon as trained providers were in place, we noted a dramatic and sustained increase in new users of all contraceptive methods, especially implants, with total new clients reaching 82,855, or 32% of the estimated number of women of reproductive age in the respective catchment areas in both countries, at the end of the fourth year. Demand for implants was very strong in the first 6 months after provider training. During this time, implants consistently accounted for more than 50% of the method mix, reaching as high as 89% in Chad and 74% in DRC. To ensure that all clients were getting the contraceptive method of their choice, we conducted a series of discussions and sought feedback from different stakeholders in order to modify program strategies. Key program modifications included more focused communication in mass media, community, and interpersonal channels about the benefits of IUDs while reinforcing the wide range of methods available and refresher training for

  2. Toxoplasma gondii infection: relationship between seroprevalence and risk factors among primary schoolchildren in the capital areas of Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Chia-Kwung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The status of Toxoplasma gondii infection among primary schoolchildren (PSC of the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (DRSTP, West Africa, remains unknown to date. Methods A serologic survey and risk factors associated T. gondii infection among PSC in the DRSTP was assessed by the latex agglutination (LA test and a questionnaire interview including parents’ occupation, various uncomfortable symptoms, histories of eating raw or undercooked food, drinking unboiled water, and raising pets, was conducted in October 2010. Schoolchildren from 4 primary schools located in the capital areas were selected, in total 255 serum samples were obtained by venipuncture, of which 123 serum samples were obtained from boys (9.8 ± 1.4 yrs and 132 serum samples were obtained from girls (9.7 ± 1.3 yrs. Results The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 63.1% (161/255. No significant gender difference in seroprevalence was found between boys (62.6%, 77/123 and girls (63.6%, 84/132 (p = 0.9. The older age group of 10 years had insignificantly higher seroprevalence (69.9%, 58/83 than that of the younger age group of 8 year olds (67.7%, 21/31 (p = 0.8. It was noteworthy that the majority of seropositive PSC (75.8%, 122/161 had high LA titers of ≥1: 1024, indirectly indicating acute or repeated Toxoplasma infection. Parents whose jobs were non-skilled workers (73.1% showed significantly higher seroprevalence than that of semiskilled- (53.9% or skilled workers (48.8% (p p  Children who claimed to have had recent ocular manifestation or headache, i.e. within 1 month, seemed to have insignificantly higher seroprevalence than those who did not (p > 0.05. Conclusions Parents’ educational level and cats kept indoors seemed to be the high risk factors for PSC in acquisition of T. gondii infection. While, ocular manifestation and/or headache of PSC should be checked for the possibility of being

  3. Understanding the local context and its possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social accountability initiatives for maternal health services in rural Democratic Republic of the Congo: a contextual factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafuta, Eric M; Hogema, Lisanne; Mambu, Thérèse N M; Kiyimbi, Pontien B; Indebe, Berthys P; Kayembe, Patrick K; De Cock Buning, Tjard; Dieleman, Marjolein A

    2016-11-09

    Social accountability has to be configured according to the context in which it operates. This paper aimed to identify local contextual factors in two health zones in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and discuss their possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social accountability initiatives. Data on local socio-cultural characteristics, the governance context, and socio-economic conditions related to social accountability enabling factors were collected in the two health zones using semi-structured interviews and document reviews, and were analyzed using thematic analysis. The contexts of the two health zones were similar and characterized by the existence of several community groups, similarly structured and using similar decision-making processes. They were not involved in the health sector's activities and had no link with the health committee, even though they acknowledged its existence. They were not networked as they focused on their own activities and did not have enough capacity in terms of social mobilization or exerting pressure on public authorities or providers. Women were not perceived as marginalized as they often occupied other positions in the community besides carrying out domestic tasks and participated in community groups. However, they were still subject to the local male dominance culture, which restrains their involvement in decision-making, as they tend to be less educated, unemployed and suffer from a lack of resources or specific skills. The socio-economic context is characterized by subsistence activities and a low employment rate, which limits the community members' incomes and increases their dependence on external support. The governance context was characterized by imperfect implementation of political decentralization. Community groups advocating community rights are identified as "political" and are not welcomed. The community groups seemed not to be interested in the health center's information and had no access

  4. Toxoplasma gondii infection: relationship between seroprevalence and risk factors among primary schoolchildren in the capital areas of Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chia-Kwung; Lee, Lin-Wen; Liao, Chien-Wei; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Chang, Yu-Tai; da Costa, Ângela dos Santos Ramos José; Gil, Vilfrido; Chi, Li-Hsing; Nara, Takeshi; Tsubouchi, Akiko; Akinwale, Olaoluwa Pheabian

    2012-07-13

    The status of Toxoplasma gondii infection among primary schoolchildren (PSC) of the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (DRSTP), West Africa, remains unknown to date. A serologic survey and risk factors associated T. gondii infection among PSC in the DRSTP was assessed by the latex agglutination (LA) test and a questionnaire interview including parents' occupation, various uncomfortable symptoms, histories of eating raw or undercooked food, drinking unboiled water, and raising pets, was conducted in October 2010. Schoolchildren from 4 primary schools located in the capital areas were selected, in total 255 serum samples were obtained by venipuncture, of which 123 serum samples were obtained from boys (9.8 ± 1.4 yrs) and 132 serum samples were obtained from girls (9.7 ± 1.3 yrs). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 63.1% (161/255). No significant gender difference in seroprevalence was found between boys (62.6%, 77/123) and girls (63.6%, 84/132) (p = 0.9). The older age group of 10 years had insignificantly higher seroprevalence (69.9%, 58/83) than that of the younger age group of 8 year olds (67.7%, 21/31) (p = 0.8). It was noteworthy that the majority of seropositive PSC (75.8%, 122/161) had high LA titers of ≥1: 1024, indirectly indicating acute or repeated Toxoplasma infection. Parents whose jobs were non-skilled workers (73.1%) showed significantly higher seroprevalence than that of semiskilled- (53.9%) or skilled workers (48.8%) (p raising cats also showed significantly higher seroprevalence than those who did not (p 0.05). Parents' educational level and cats kept indoors seemed to be the high risk factors for PSC in acquisition of T. gondii infection. While, ocular manifestation and/or headache of PSC should be checked for the possibility of being T. gondii elicited. Measures such as improving environmental hygiene and intensive educational intervention to both PSC and their parents should be performed immediately so as to

  5. Democratic consolidation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Pérez González

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The contributions made by theory on democratic consolidation in Eastern Europe are also pertinent to analysis of processes of democratization and democratic consolidation in other areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The parameters of analysis highlight the importance of a strong state (organized, with legitimated institutions and a structured society (whether multiethnic or not as necessary conditions for democratization. On the assumption that the colonizing powers basically used two models –the French assimilationist model and the British indirect government model– the study of how these conditions were fulfilled in various sub-Saharan states leads to two conclusions: the first, the possibility of a process of democratization in those states where European (French colonization produced a total assimilation of the colonized society, including above all the colonizer’s political values; and the second, the possibility of processes of democratization in states produced by British colonization where the indigenous structures and those of the metropolis were superimposed, a phenomenon which allowed the application of democratic values by legitimated local institutions.

  6. The Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sssa

    The article is the written version of a lecture given on 5 November 2011 at the ... Thus an institution is necessary which has the authority to make decisions in this ..... cil meetings, their simple attendance may have an effect on local leaders.

  7. Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene shallow-water mixed siliciclastics and carbonates (Yanigua and Los Haitises formations) in eastern Hispaniola (Dominican Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Juan C.; Díaz de Neira, Alberto; Lasseur, Eric; Mediato, José; Aguirre, Julio; Abad, Manuel; Hernaiz-Huerta, Pedro P.; Monthel, Jacques; Pérez-Valera, Fernando; Lopera, Eusebio

    2012-07-01

    The virtually unfolded sedimentary cover of the Cordilleras Central and Oriental in the eastern Dominican Republic (eastern Hispaniola, tropical North Atlantic) largely consists of Pliocene to Early Pleistocene mixed siliciclastics and carbonates. These deposits have been grouped into two laterally interfingering mapping units, the Yanigua and Los Haitises formations. The former (mainly siliciclastics) comprises marl, marly limestone, and minor conglomerate, sandstone, lignite, and carbonaceous clay and crops out closest to the basement. The Los Haitises Formation mainly consists of limestone and intercalating beds of marly limestone and marl. Lithological mapping at the 1:50,000 scale and facies analysis of twelve measured sections and of additional fourteen outcrops suggest that these deposits mainly formed on a shallow-water marine platform fringing the precursor reliefs of the Cordillera Oriental and the southeastern end of the Cordillera Central. Only a limited proportion of sediment formed in floodplains and marshes. Marl and marly limestone dominated the inner platform sediments. Terrigenous mud decreased away from the emergent basement and carbonate sedimentation dominated the more external platform. Corals, molluscs, echinoids, foraminifers, bryozoans, coralline algae, and Halimeda are the main components with varying amounts of carbonate mud. The platform was generally a low-energy environment with seagrass patches. In the inner platform, corals grew as isolated colonies or as small patch reefs dominated by Porites in marly and bioclastic substrates. Branching corals (Stylophora and Acropora) grew in extensive carpets in more distal areas. At least in the last stage of its development (Early Pleistocene), the platform was rimmed by a reef barrier similar to the Holocene Caribbean barrier reefs, with Acropora gr. palmata, A. cervicornis, Porites, Montastrea, Siderastrea, and Diploria as the main reef builders.

  8. Frecuencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual y factores relacionados en Pweto, República Democrática del Congo, 2004 Frequency of sexually transmitted infections and related factors in Pweto, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Luque Fernández

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de ulceración genital y exudado uretral en Pweto, República Democrática del Congo, así como analizar la asociación de las prevalencias estimadas, con la edad, el estado civil, la profesión y el número de parejas sexuales. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y transversal mediante encuesta, realizada a una muestra representativa de 106 varones de Pweto, de entre 15 y 65 años de edad, en mayo de 2004, con una precisión del 9,5%. Las preguntas sobre la presencia actual o antecedentes de ulceración y exudado fueron autoinformadas y referidas al último año a partir del día de la encuesta. Para el estudio de las asociaciones, se calculó la odds ratio (OR cruda y posteriormente la OR ajustada mediante una regresión logística multivariante. Resultados: La prevalencia fue del 39,6% (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 30-49 para el exudado uretral y del 33% (IC del 95%, 24-42 para la ulceración genital. Independientemente de la edad, el número de parejas sexuales durante el último año y el estado civil, los militares fueron identificados como un grupo de riesgo. El análisis multivariante nos muestra una OR ajustada de 3,25 (IC del 95%, 1,10-9,95; p Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of genital ulcer and urethral discharge in Pweto, Democratic Republic of Congo, and to analyze the association between the estimated prevalence and age, marital status, profession, and number of sexual partners. Methods: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study through a survey conducted in May 2004 in a representative sample of 106 men in Pweto aged between 15 and 65 years old, with a precision of 9.5%. Questionnaire items about current or previous ulceration and urethral discharge where self-reported and referred to the previous year as of the date of the survey. To study the associations, crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Results: The prevalence was 39

  9. STUDENT PARLIAMENT IN FUNCTION OF TRAINING FOR DEMOCRATIC ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabije Murati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Macedonia aspires to join the European developed countries and it certainly requires relentless pursuit and persistent hard work in every segment of life especially in the area of education as a initiator of development and modernization of life in general. The changes concerning education certainly that include the school as an institution that organized manner, specified forms and methods training and preparing young people for life and work in more developed and democratic society. I believe that education as a social category should always be updated with social change and of course that in a democratic society should be democratic education. Democratization of society requires and democratization of the school, which in turn inevitably overemphasizes individually oriented model of education. Only with such an model of education can apply the principles of humanity, individuality, diversity education and respect for of the personal interests of students. Within the democratic life in school and preparing young people for democratic life and the need for a working of student parliaments, contemporary school and the characteristics of that school, are one of the basic things about functioning of the democratic life of the school. Democratization of education is not a new and unfamiliar requirement in developed countries as well as in our country. Since the beginning of the independence of the Republic of Macedonia are talking about the democratization of education, upbringing for democracy, basic for Democracy, civil education, etc.. Still until today still do not have comprehensive research relevant to this issue. Young people are not sufficiently prepared for democratic behavior, working and living in a democratic society.

  10. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Case study and scenarios on copper and cobalt in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Report 3.2); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Fallstudie und Szenarien zu Kupfer und Kobalt in der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (Teilbericht 3.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The Democratic Republic of Congo has enormous economic potential thanks to its raw material wealth. However, since 1996 (if not before) DR Congo has been seen as a classic example of the linkage between the exploitation of raw materials and the financing of war. The UN Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources in DR Congo points out that the history of Congo since colonial times has been marked by systematic abuse of natural and human resources (UN Panel 2002). The UN Panel of Experts and the work of NGOs have helped to reveal rebels, senior military figures and private companies as profiteers from the exploitation of raw materials and to identify channels of financing the violent conflict in Congo since 1996 (see reports from the UN Panel, Pole Institute, Global Witness, HRW). Foreign companies mining, trading in or processing raw materials in DR Congo have also been regularly criticised as sharing responsibility for the ongoing violence, principally in the eastern Congo (UN Panel 2002, Cuvelier/Raeymaekers 2002, RAID 2004). Practically every major escalation in conflict in recent years between the various players in Congo has been connected to the management of, or the (legal or illegal) revenues from, natural resources, particularly from mining. This observation was also backed by data from the HIIK's CONIS information system. In 2008, eight of nine conflicts in Congo related at least in part to resources - five being violent and three non-violent (HIIK 2008). Following the coltan boom of 2000/2001, it now primarily profits from the mining and sale of the tin oxide ore cassiterite which continue to serve as the key means of financing violence (see Garrett 2008).1 In DRK it is not only the mining and sale of coltan and cassiterite which represents a nexus of conflict and resources however. Alongside timber, diamonds, oil and gold, it is above all the mining and sale of copper and cobalt from the so-called copper belt in the south

  11. Hydrothermal alteration in volcanic rocks, eastern part of the Lukavice Group, Železné Hory Mountains, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertold, Z.; Watkinson, D. H.; Novotný, L.

    1993-06-01

    Many rocks mapped as felsic metavolcanics in the eastern part of the Lukavice Group are shown to be altered mafic metavolcanics, similar to those in the Noranda and Flin Flon-Snow Lake mining districts, Canada. The relatively fresh rocks of the Lukavice Group are rhyolite, dacite-andesite, and andesite-basalt of calcalka-line character. Assuming no substantial volume change during alteration, Ti, P, La, Ce, Yb, Lu, Th (partly), Sc and V contents remained unchanged. Altered rocks are enriched in (Fe + Mg), K and Si and depleted in Na, Ca and Zr. Some elements show both increased and decreased contents in altered rocks (Mg, Ba, Sm, eu, Tb and Hf). Although hydrothermal alteration in the Lukavice Group is of large extent, it is of the proximal Kuroko style and not of regional ‘Amulet Rhyolite’ style. Implications for a large hydrothermal system within a volcanic pile are discussed in relation to the Ordovician Lukavice Group and its mineral deposits and to some other parts of the Bohemian Massif with volcanosedimentary sequences of the same age.

  12. Hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts, as derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, AD 1751–1900

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    R. Brázdil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period AD 1751–1900. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage is documented for 1751–1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed. The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types include hailstorm (25.7%, torrential rain (21.7%, and flood (21.0%, followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890 and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847. Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816–1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961–2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May–August and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance. Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  13. Democratic contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will be that also for contract law a democratic basis is a necessary condition for legitimacy. A fully democratic basis may also be a sufficient condition for a legitimate and just contract law. However,...

  14. Kırgızistan’da Demokratik Yerinden Yönetim: Reform Uygulamaları ve Sorunlar(Democratic Decentralization In The Kyrgyz Republic: Local Government Reform And Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süreyya SAKINÇ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Law “On Local Government in the Kyrgyz Republic” which was adopted after independency of the Kyrgyz Republic. The Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic adopted in 1993 established local government as one of the components of the government power and identified that the local government in the Kyrgyz Republic is based on the principle of division of powers between the state administrations and local governments. In the first stage (1994-2001 Bishkek city was transferred to local government principles; towns of raion and Oblast subordination. The second stage of the reform is still going on. The weakness of the reform is the fiscal relations and economic base of the local governments. The positive feature of the reform is the introduction of the principles of electiveness of heads of local governments.

  15. The influence of Islamic orientations on democratic support and tolerance in five Arab countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, C.H.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions from empirical analyses on how Islam influences democratic attitudes in Arab countries differ widely, and the field suffers from conceptual ambiguity and largely focuses on “superficial” democratic support. Based on the non-Middle Eastern literature, this study provides a more systematic

  16. The influence of Islamic orientations on democratic support and tolerance in five Arab countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, N.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions from empirical analyses on how Islam influences democratic attitudes in Arab countries differ widely, and the field suffers from conceptual ambiguity and largely focuses on “superficial” democratic support. Based on the non-Middle Eastern literature, this study provides a more systematic

  17. Sistema interactivo como objeto virtual de aprendizaje aplicado a las técnicas de comunicación en comunidades lejanas de la República Democrática del Congo Interactive system as virtual learning object applied to the skils of communication in distant communities of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Rolando Anaguano Jiménez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo contiene la descripción del producto final del proyecto 'Sistema interactivo como objeto virtual de aprendizaje aplicado a las técnicas de comunicación en comunidades lejanas de la República Democrática del Congo.', diseñado a la medida y basado en los requerimientos específicos del usuario final (Misioneros de la Consolata radicados en ese país. Este producto consiste en un prototipo de software orientado por los procesos del ciclo de vida del mismo (Planificación, análisis de requerimientos, diseño, desarrollo e implementación, realizado para aplicar las estrategias postuladas por la teoría de aprendizaje mixto (Blended Learning; las cuales se centran en la combinación de sesiones presenciales con actividades virtuales.This article is the result of the research project: 'Interactive System as a Virtual Learning Object Applied Communication Techniques in Distant Communities of the Democratic Republic of the Congo,' customized and based on the final user's specific requirements (Missionaries of the Consolata living in this country. The system is a prototype of software oriented by the processes of the cycle of life (planning, analysis of requirements, design, development and implementation, performed to apply strategies established by the Theory of Blended Learning, which uses face-to-face classrooms, live e-learning, and self-paced learning.

  18. Algo más que dopaje. El deporte de alto rendimiento en la antigua república democrática alemana (1950 - 1976=Something more than doping. High performance sport in the old German Democratic Republic (1950-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnd Krüger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el uso de sustancias de doping en el deporte de alto rendimiento, en el contexto de la antigua República Democrática Alemana entre os años 1950 y 1976, con el propósito de servir a los intereses políticos del estado y la estructura organizativa que se estableció para poder mantener en secreto los métodos y sistemas de entrenamiento que se empleaban para la consecución de esos éxitos en la alta competición.------------------------------------------------------------------------------The present article analyzes the use of substances of doping in high performance sport, in the context of the old German Democratic Republic between 1950 and 1976 and in order to serve the political interests of the state and the organizational structure that settled down to be able to keep in secret the training methods and systems used for the attainment of great successes in high competition.

  19. "Was it a mistake to tell others that you are infected with HIV?": factors associated with regret following HIV disclosure among people living with HIV in five countries (Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador and Romania). Results from a community-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Emilie; Bernier, Adeline; Lazar, Florin; Matamba, Gaspard; Loukid, Mohamed; Bonifaz, Cesar; Diop, Samba; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie

    2015-02-01

    This study examined regret following HIV serostatus disclosure and associated factors in under-investigated contexts (Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador and Romania). A community-based cross-sectional study was implemented by a mixed consortium [researchers/community-based organizations (CBO)]. Trained CBO members interviewed 1,500 PLHIV in contact with CBOs using a 125-item questionnaire. A weighted multivariate logistic regression was performed. Among the 1,212 participants included in the analysis, 290 (23.9 %) declared that disclosure was a mistake. Female gender, percentage of PLHIV's network knowing about one's seropositivity from a third party, having suffered rejection after disclosure, having suffered HIV-based discrimination at work, perceived seriousness of infection score, daily loneliness, property index and self-esteem score were independently associated with regret. Discrimination, as well as individual characteristics and skills may affect the disclosure experience. Interventions aiming at improving PLHIV skills and reducing their social isolation may facilitate the disclosure process and avoid negative consequences.

  20. The role of “Azeri-Czech society” for the promotion of the national-cultural values in Eastern Europe (by the example of the Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    ASKEROVA SEVINJ

    2016-01-01

    In the formed article, it is showed the main development directions of activity and creation of Azerbaijani diaspora formed in the Czech Republic. Besides, it has also been researched the role of this diaspora for the promotion of Azerbaijani culture and art.

  1. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  2. Pollution control in Eastern and Western Germany. 2. Rev. Ed. Umweltschutz in beiden Deutschen Staaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The various sectors of environmental policy are considered. Reference is made to waters, air, waste processing, noise etc. The respective situations are described and taken a critical look at both in relation to the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. Measures to be taken are scrutinized in the same way. In conclusion environmental experiences gained in the Eastern and Western part of Germany lead to theses such as the following: - The communist ideology, refering to the two parts of Germany, cannot prove that the communist system is bound to promote pollution control whereas the democratic system of the Federal Republic of Germany is bound to smother it. In recent years both the Eastern and Western population has increasingly grown conscious of the enivronment. Attitudes and opinions are increasingly influencing political decision making. On the whole this development is an ideal basis for further positive advancements. According to scientifically proven technological know-how and socio-economic efficiency, conventional environmental loads can be counteracted by measures which will presumably bring about a positive change and trends towards recovery - both parts of Germany are disposing of balances giving proof of the fact that, as a matter of fact, our essential conditions for life are not inevitably bound to be destroyed. Not at all are these balances inferior to international standards. What remains to be done now is to realize the alternatives developed and tested by scientific and technical research. Convenient reorganizations and rearrangements will contribute to prompt, financially and organizationally feasible solutions. (orig./HSCH).

  3. China’s foreign policy towards Central and Eastern Europe: The “16+1” format in the South–South cooperation perspective. Cases of the Czech Republic and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kowalski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the “16+1” format initiated in 2012 as a platform for economic, trade, and cultural cooperation between Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and China. As Chinese authorities claim, the “16+1” initiative is complementary to the “New Silk Road” strategy, being a pragmatic formula without political goals, whose main rationale is to bring mutual benefits to all of its participants (win–win. However, despite the Chinese narratives concerning cooperation with the CEE countries as an economic bridgehead of the “One Road, One Belt” (OBOR initiative, some signs of the political dimension of the project can be noticed. Since at least the 1950s, active participation and promotion of the South–South cooperation has become an important component of China’s foreign relations. Although for Chinese policy makers Sino–South relations have been traditionally defined within the frame of, mostly postcolonial, developing countries of Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Africa, and Latin America, this article tries to examine the “South–South” pattern of China’s diplomacy towards Central and Eastern European states with a focus on the Czech Republic and Hungary.

  4. Democratic design experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehn, Pelle; Brandt, Eva; Halse, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    we here see design engagements which are both controversial in their commitment to agendas of social change and experimental in the sense that they openly probe for what can possibly be enacted. In this conversation we want to explore how such engagements may be seen as democratic design experiments...

  5. Learning Democratic Global Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a model process of developing knowledge from within different groups and cultures to allow more equitable participation of all world societies in the definition of global governance. Reviews concepts relevant to education's contributions toward learning and creating democratic global governance. Discusses the educational utility of…

  6. Democratic design experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehn, Pelle; Brandt, Eva; Halse, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    we here see design engagements which are both controversial in their commitment to agendas of social change and experimental in the sense that they openly probe for what can possibly be enacted. In this conversation we want to explore how such engagements may be seen as democratic design experiments...

  7. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  8. Democratic Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Erik K.; Tate, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, democratic values have called for abandoning coercive approaches and teaching children and youth to be responsible citizens. The authors explore strategies for creating respectful environments and positive group cultures with challenging youth. They offer suggestions to adult group facilitators to support youth in developing…

  9. Democratization in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2013-01-01

    a political conditionality approach. Few countries have felt the weight of conditionality as much as Malawi did in the 1990s. Here, donors were able to use aid sanctions to successfully encourage democratization, while strengthening the demands of domestic opposition forces. This paper argues that three...

  10. The Democratization of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Education Quarterly, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Although adult education is committed to democratic values, its knowledge base reproduces the structures and values of larger academic culture, which excludes many. Although the field speaks of empowerment for others, it has yet to realize such empowerment for itself. (Author/SK)

  11. Disclosure of HIV status and its impact on the loss in the follow-up of HIV-infected patients on potent anti-retroviral therapy programs in a (post-) conflict setting: A retrospective cohort study from Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilimali, Pierre Zalagile; Musumari, Patou Masika; Kashala-Abotnes, Espérance; Kayembe, Patrick Kalambayi; Lepira, François B.; Mutombo, Paulin Beya; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Ali, Mapatano Mala

    2017-01-01

    Background The study aimed to identify the impact of non-disclosure of HIV status on the loss to follow-up (LTFU) of patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy. Methodology A historic cohort of HIV patients from 2 major hospitals in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo was followed from 2004 to 2012. LTFU was defined as not taking an ART refill for a period of 3 months or longer since the last attendance, and had not yet been classified as ‘dead’ or ‘transferred-out’. Kaplan-Meier plots were used to determine the probability of LTFU as a function of time as inclusive of the cohort. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves based on determinants. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to measure predictors of LTFU from the time of treatment induction until December 15th, 2012 (the end-point). Results The median follow-up time was 3.99 years (IQR = 2.33 to 5.59). Seventy percent of patients had shared their HIV status with others (95% CI: 66.3–73.1). The proportion of LTFU was 12% (95%CI: 9.6–14.4). Patients who did not share their HIV status (Adjusted HR 2.28, 95% CI 1.46–2.29), patients who did not live in the city of Goma (Adjusted HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.02–3.77), and those who attained secondary or higher education level (Adjusted HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.02–2.53) had a higher hazard of being LTFU. Conclusion This study shows the relationship between the non–disclosure HIV status and LTFU. Healthcare workers in similar settings should pay more attention to clients who have not disclosed their HIV status, and to those living far from health settings where they receive medication. PMID:28170410

  12. Women of the Second Republic and the Civil War from the present-day democratic perspective | Las mujeres de la República y la Guerra Civil desde la perspectiva democrática actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Moreno Seco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The strong social interest which women of the Second Republic and the civil war arouse, together with the wealth of solid historical works with a gender perspective, justify female experiences having a place in the debate on the memory of these two periods. The survival to the present day of stereotypes and myths about Republican women, despite the historiographical progress, has served to consolidate a depoliticized view of the past, which presents women as heroines without a clear ideological profile and as innocent victims of the changes and upheaval of the 1930s. These myths and stereotypes, which emphasize the idea of change experienced by women, rather than continuity and resistance to change, have influenced the current perception of the extension of female citizenship in Spanish society. | El especial interés social que las mujeres de la República y la Guerra Civil despiertan, así como la existencia de una nutrida y sólida historiografía de género justifican que las experiencias femeninas ocupen un lugar en el debate sobre la memoria de estos dos periodos. La pervivencia, en la actualidad, de estereotipos y mitos sobre las mujeres republicanas, a pesar de los avances historiográficos, contribuye a consolidar una visión despolitizada del pasado, que presenta a las mujeres como heroínas sin un perfil ideológico claro y víctimas inocentes de las transformaciones y convulsiones de los años treinta. Estos mitos y estereotipos, que refuerzan la idea del cambio experimentado por las mujeres, olvidando las permanencias y las resistencias al mismo, influyen en la percepción actual sobre la ampliación de la ciudadanía femenina en la sociedad española.

  13. Role of Plant Dominants on Abandoned Tailings Containment from Manganese-Ore Maining in Chvaletice, Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic (Overview of Long-Term Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefánek Michal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During long-term research (almost forty years of tailings containment in Chvaletice (Eastern Bohemia were also carried out studies on the role of each plant dominants in succession. This review presents the most interesting results of these studies.

  14. Uncivil Speech: Invective and the Rhetorics of Democracy in the Early Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Robert Owen's "Declaration of Mental Independence," declaimed on the Fourth of July, 1826, was one of the most ill-received speeches in the early Republic. The attendant controversy provides an opportunity to theorize invective's role in democratic culture. Invective was useful in the early Republic, and continues to be useful today, because it is…

  15. Uncivil Speech: Invective and the Rhetorics of Democracy in the Early Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Robert Owen's "Declaration of Mental Independence," declaimed on the Fourth of July, 1826, was one of the most ill-received speeches in the early Republic. The attendant controversy provides an opportunity to theorize invective's role in democratic culture. Invective was useful in the early Republic, and continues to be useful today, because it is…

  16. Reunification, democratization and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee-Hun

    1990-06-01

    The division of the nation into two separate political entities and the later development of dependent capitalism in South Korea have created two important eductional tasks, to do with reunification and democratization. Reunification requires liberation from the influence of foreign powers involved in the national partition and the development of dependent capitalism. Reunification-oriented education emphasizes understanding foreign influences in every sphere of the people's life, understanding the true realities of the two Koreas which have developed in different ways, and overcoming anti-communist ideological obfuscation. Democratization implies the enhancement of people's participation in the exercise and control of political and economic power at every level. For this purpose people need to be educated to participate in order to prevent the abuse of highly centralized power. United and collective action by teachers is required to protect schools from the state monopoly in education and to maintain the integrity and independence of a teaching profession so that pupils can learn and practise democratic values at school.

  17. Political Economy of American Education: Democratic Citizenship in the Heart of Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Thomas Michael

    2012-01-01

    Chief among the goals of American education is the cultivation of democratic citizens. Contrary to State catechism delivered through our schools, America was not born a democracy; rather it emerged as a republic with a distinct bias against democracy. Nonetheless we inherit a great demotic heritage. Abolition, the labor struggle, women's…

  18. Democratic Orientations among High School Seniors in the United States and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, William L.; Payne, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates strength of national identity and degrees of democratic orientation among honors high school seniors taking advanced political science courses in 1986 in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. Finds West German students less tolerant of minority free speech, more fearful of consequences of dissent, and less politically…

  19. Is John Locke a democrat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    (Holden, Held, Ball and Dagger) and monographs on Locke (Dunn, Parry, Marshall). In this paper a new approach to the democratic character of John Locke's political theory is suggested, as his Second Treatise is analysed with Robert A. Dahl's conceptual framework on assumptions for a democratic order......, criteria for a democratic process, and the institutions of polyarchy. The conclusion has implications for the relationship between political liberalism and constitutionalism on the one hand and democracy on the other....

  20. Democratic Parenting: Paradoxical Messages in Democratic Parent Education Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John

    2013-01-01

    Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents…

  1. Soviet Economic Policy Towards Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Boot, Pieter, "The German Democratic Republic Between East and West: The Margins of Socialist Dependencia ," University of Amsterdam, Research...West: The Margins of Socialist Dependencia ," University of Amsterdam, Research Memorandum No. 8508, 1985. 74. Ibid. 75. Kazimicrz Poznanski

  2. High prevalence of syphilis among demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutala Prosper

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis, a known major public health issue for soldiers during periods of conflict, is exacerbated in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to widespread sexual violence. However, there has been no previous study to determine the extent of this problem. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of syphilis among young demobilized soldiers. Methods Screening of syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was conducted in three transit sites of soldier reintegration in 2005. The Fisher Exact probability test was used to compare results. Results The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 3.4%, with almost equal distribution in respect to sex, location. Conclusion Syphilis continues to be highly prevalent in demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo. Syphilis screening tests are recommended.

  3. Homegrown Democracy, Homegrown Democrats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman K. Denzin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Written on the eve of the 2004 American presidential election, this political narrative offers a critical reading of two models of democracy: Instant-Mix imperial democracy (bring to a boil, add oil, then bomb, criticized by Arundhati Roy, and Garrison Keillor’s Homegrown Democrat. Keillor’s pastoral view of democracy is anchored in LakeWobegon, his imaginary utopian community. His homegrown democracy is narrow, provincial, and White. The author concludes that he must look elsewhere for his alternative view of democracy.

  4. Sistema interactivo de aprendizaje como elemento de apoyo a los procesos de sustentabilidad y educación inclusiva, aplicado en comunidades lejanas de la República Democrática del Congo Interactive learning system as a support in processes of sustainability and inclusive education, applied in distant communities of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Rolando Anaguano Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente es un artículo de reflexión, el cual resalta la importancia de los ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje como estrategia de apoyo a los lineamientos actuales de las Naciones Unidas, relacionados con los procesos de sustentabilidad global y educación inclusiva. Contiene la reflexión y descripción, de una investigación realizada por dos integrantes del grupo ARKADIUS del programa en Ingeniería de Sistemas de la Universidad de Medellín, cuyo objetivo general consistió en diseñar un sistema interactivo de aprendizaje para La República Democrática del Congo - África. Metodológicamente fue una investigación de tipo aplicativo-experimental la cual generó un prototipo de software diseñado a la medida para apoyar las estrategias postuladas por la teoría de aprendizaje mixto (B-Learning. El modelo pedagógico sugerido, las herramientas tecnológicas utilizadas y la movilización de un equipo investigativo internacional interdisciplinario constituyen igualmente, un aporte a los procesos de internacionalización y proyección social de la educación.This document is a reflection, which highlights the importance of the virtual learning environments as strategy to support the current tendencies of the United Nations, related to the processes of global sustainability and inclusive education. It contains the reflection and description of a research carried out by two members of the ARKADIUS research group of Computer Science Engineering program of Universidad de Medellín; which general target consisted of designing an interactive learning system for the Democratic Republic of Congo - Africa. Methodologically it was an applicative-experimental research, which generated a prototype of software tailored to support the strategies stated by the theory of Blended Learning. The pedagogic model suggested, technological tools used, and the mobilization of an international and interdisciplinary research team, can be considered as a

  5. The business community and the democratic regimes in Spain: the Second Republic and the Transition | Los empresarios ante los regímenes democráticos en España: la II República y la Transición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles González Fernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The attitude of the business community towards the Second Republic in the 1930s and the transition to democracy in the 1970s was remarkably similar, despite the fact that these were different models of change, with different political and socio-economic contexts. This similarity stems from a common acceptance of democracy, although this was not unconditional. It had to be a form of democracy linked to a free market economy, capable of guaranteeing political stability, law and order, and private property, all of which did not necessarily entail opposition to redistributive policies – provided these were not at variance with the defence of their interests, which tended to coincide with the general interests of the Nation. The key lies not so much in the business community itself, but in the consensus that underpinned the democratic transition of the 1970s; in the willingness of the political actors to include the social partners in the agreement to establish a stable and solid institutional framework, based on a free market economy, and guaranteeing the business community adequate business prospects. | La actitud de los empresarios ante la II República y la transición democrática en los años setenta guarda una notable semejanza, pese a tratarse de dos modelos de cambio distintos y a la existencia de contextos políticos y económico-sociales diferentes. Una similitud que proviene de una común aceptación de la democracia, aunque no de forma incondicional. Ha de ser una democracia vinculada a la economía de libre mercado, capaz de garantizar la estabilidad política, el orden público y la propiedad privada, rasgos que no implican oposición a políticas redistributivas –siempre y cuando se hallen supeditadas al respeto y defensa de sus intereses, que suelen ser identificados con el interés general de la Nación–. La clave no reside tanto en los empresarios como en el carácter consensuado de la transición democrática de los a

  6. The Democratic System of Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Thomas J.

    Different researchers have suggested a variety of definitions for democratic leadership. As there is no one generally accepted definition, it is difficult to categorically characterize a style as democratic. Democracy in a pure form is based on the assumption that no member of the group is superior to other members. In operation, no organization…

  7. Howard Zinn on Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Howard

    2004-01-01

    Perhaps no other historian has had a more profound and revolutionary impact on American education than Howard Zinn. This is the first book devoted to his views on education and its role in a democratic society. "Howard Zinn on Democratic Education" describes what is missing from school textbooks and in classrooms--and how we move beyond these…

  8. Optical network democratization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabati, Reza; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-06

    The current Internet infrastructure is not able to support independent evolution and innovation at physical and network layer functionalities, protocols and services, while at same time supporting the increasing bandwidth demands of evolving and heterogeneous applications. This paper addresses this problem by proposing a completely democratized optical network infrastructure. It introduces the novel concepts of the optical white box and bare metal optical switch as key technology enablers for democratizing optical networks. These are programmable optical switches whose hardware is loosely connected internally and is completely separated from their control software. To alleviate their complexity, a multi-dimensional abstraction mechanism using software-defined network technology is proposed. It creates a universal model of the proposed switches without exposing their technological details. It also enables a conventional network programmer to develop network applications for control of the optical network without specific technical knowledge of the physical layer. Furthermore, a novel optical network virtualization mechanism is proposed, enabling the composition and operation of multiple coexisting and application-specific virtual optical networks sharing the same physical infrastructure. Finally, the optical white box and the abstraction mechanism are experimentally evaluated, while the virtualization mechanism is evaluated with simulation.

  9. Civic Education and Democratic Socialisation: From Passive Subject to Active Citizen in Post-Communist States and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Bruen

    2013-01-01

    Several studies suggest that some post-communist states or regions such as, for example, the former German Democratic Republic engage in a narrower form of civic education in schools which focuses on the transmission of facts. They also indicate that such civic education produces citizens more likely to accept the status quo than to criticially analyse and attempt to transform it. This paper posits, however, that this is also the case in the Republic of Ireland, a state with an apparently ver...

  10. The many faces of rare diseases (RD): meeting report on Rare Disease in South-Eastern Europe, 15-16 November 2013, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucev, Z; Tasic, V; Polenakovic, M

    2014-03-01

    The Second meeting on Rare Diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skope, Macedonia on November 15-16, 2013. Objective and main data: Rare diseases (RD) are a major problem in developed and especially in countries without affluence. 6-8% of every population suffers from RD. The cumulative effect of RDs on the health system of a country is increasing. Diagnosis often remains a challenge and requires international collaboration. Treatment in diseases for which medication exist is often inaccessible to patients because of the high costs. All countries of SEE need screening programs that address more diseases. Patient organizations play a major role in increasing awareness and providing the needed pressure on society to treat treatable RDs. On the other hand, RDs are frequently a source of valuable new molecular insights not only on mechanisms of their etiology and pathology, but sometimes provide an insight on mechanisms of frequent diseases in man. Further efforts are needed in improving all the RD aspects mentioned.

  11. Religious Networks in Post-conflict Democratic Republic of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-11-15

    Nov 15, 2006 ... Abstract. The role of religion and religious networks in public life is gaining ... religious groups wield enormous influence in the public space as providers ..... to garner support for the Inter-Congolese Dialogue (ICD) which was.

  12. Sweden's Engagement with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Bae, Jinsun

    2015-01-01

    on semistructured interviews of individuals who have taken part in Swedish engagement programs. Findings: - Besides having its embassy in Pyongyang and serving as a protecting power for the U.S., Sweden has provided capacity building programs for North Korean government officials and scholars and has taken part...

  13. Miocene amber inclusions from the Bitterfeld area. [German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, M.; Hetzer, H.

    1982-07-01

    This paper presents color and black and white photographs enlarged from 1:10 to 1:100 of insect inclusions in amber from a new amber field located in a sandy-silty layer between two brown coal seams, the main Bitterfeld brown coal seam and the Breitenfeld brown coal seam. The amber is 22 million years old, which is 12 million years younger than Baltic amber. The brown coal seams are Miocene formations. The origin of the amber is resin from the Mesozoic conifer Cupressospermum saxonicum Mai. Insect inclusions are well preserved, 55 photographs are provided, showing samples of mosquitoes, spiders, beetles, flies and other insects, from insect groups Arachnida, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda. Each insect sample from the inclusions is described in detail by scientists from the Museum of Natural History in Berlin. Infrared spectrograms of different amber pieces are also analyzed and aspects of amber genesis in the Bitterfeld area are discussed.

  14. Development of Finances in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    cinematography and the cultural-visual enterprises also be- longed to private entrepreneurs. Despite the fact that the state sector of the economy was...directed at a multilateral increase in the output of cooperative unions of the peasants and the handicraft workers, at the perfection of techniques

  15. Malaria epidemiology in the Democratic Republic of East Timor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Afonso de Almeida; Virglio E do Rosrio; Ana Paula Arez; Pedro Cravo

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate malaria prevalence and socio-economic conditions in East Timor. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 650 individuals distributed among six districts in East Timor. 434 and 216 individuals were sampled by passive and active case detection, respectively (PCD, ACD).Results: The results showed that the plasmodium infection prevalence was 18.9% with predominance ofPlasmodium falciparum(P. falciparum) infections (60.2%). The majority of cases were detected in children between 2-14 years old in both PCD and ACD. Participants residing in Same and Lospalos were at a higher risk of malaria. The percentage of infections associated to the lack of bed net use was twice as high as users (25.2% vs 12.5%). The prevalence of malaria among participants who lived in brick/cement houses (8.3%) was two times less than those who lived in other types of houses (3.7%). There was a significantly lower prevalence of infection detected in individuals living in complete housing constructions with absence of domestic animals in or near the houses.Conclusions:The major risk factors for malaria in East Timor are age, lack of bed net use, incomplete housing constructions and exposure to mosquitoes.

  16. Democratic Republic of Congo: Background and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-24

    temporarily captured the key city of Goma , the capital of North Kivu and a hub for international humanitarian and peacekeeping activities. According to a wide...in the FARDC’s command structure following the M23’s seizure of Goma ; support provided to the FARDC by the Intervention Brigade; and an apparent...in several instances of mass rape and during the November 2012 M23 seizure of Goma . U.N. peacekeeping personnel have also periodically been accused

  17. Children of a Lesser Culture: Educators for a Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Muses on reasons why the education community seems to have an inherent inferiority complex when compared to other university fields. Contends that this is the result of refusing to adopt the position that educators must engage the need to control and ethically use the power that comes with their knowledge. (DSK)

  18. Soviet Military Intentions in the German Democratic Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    so recently been de~ va~tated by Naziism . Marshal Zhukov administrated the occupation and presided over extensive purges of residual Nazi elements...ritual denunciation of Neo- Naziism , revanchis~. and militarism as practiced by the FRG, and demanded ratification of the Oder-Neisse line and dejure...responsible for erecting a Socialist showcase on the ashes of Naziism . In a far-ranging analysis of CSCE96 the Soviets point out the finality of European

  19. Transitional justice and peacebuilding in the Democratic Republic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and practitioners have endorsed the definition provided by the former UN ... hold accountable those who bear the greatest responsibility for planning or ordering .... reparation that may be in the form of restitution, compensation, rehabilitation,.

  20. Complex conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Good ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perception that social responsibility is an inevitable part of future economic systems ... dependency and sustaining corrupt governments instead of accelerating nations towards ..... Companies benefit from NGO resources such as credibility, ... the UNDP's Human Development Index (HDI) for 2012, which means that the.

  1. Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum is now by far Timor-Leste’s largest source of income. If well harnessed, Timor-Leste’s petroleum wealth offers the potential for a more prosperous future. This Selected Issues paper provides an overview of how Timor-Leste’s Petroleum Fund functions. It considers the extent of the country’s petroleum wealth, discusses the developmental challenges, and outlines key challenges ahead. The paper depicts the origins of the fund and details its operating mechanisms. It also assesse...

  2. Sweden's Engagement with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Bae, Jinsun

    2015-01-01

    in low-profile human rights advocacy. In short, Sweden is best viewed as a facilitator between DPRK and the outside world. Its motivations are mixed and multiple, including rationalist pursuit of gains and the logic of appropriateness. Practical implications: - Useful for policymakers interested......Purpose: -This article examines Sweden’s engagement with the DPRK as a unique case to understand motivations for engaging in a so-called fragile state. Design/methodology/approach: -The authors apply the constructivist international relations (IR) approach and opt for the case study method based...... of constructivist IR approach in accounting for today’s engagement practices involving more stakeholders and less obvious costbenefit calculation....

  3. Democratic Republic of Congo: Background and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-29

    professionalization and the prevention and treatment of sexual and gender-based violence (e.g., P.L. 111-32, P.L. 111-212); • Restricting certain types... treatment and broken promises by the government. Available information also suggests that the M23 may have acted as a proxy or buffer force for...M23. In July 2012, the State Department suspended FY2012 Foreign Military Financing ( FMF ) assistance for Rwanda, consistent with the FY2012

  4. Migration Issues in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    criticality of state failure (The Failed States Index 2010, 2010). These are: 1) Mounting Demographic Pressures 2) Massive Movement of Refugees or...rule, average income per capita never climbed over $500 (2010 US dollars) per year (The World Bank, 2011). The extreme poverty of the people under...High School in Smithfield, Utah. He entered undergraduate studies at Utah State University in Logan , Utah where he graduated with a Bachelor of

  5. Development of Public Education in the German Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Berlin (East Germany).

    This publication examines public education in Germany. Section I discusses the foundation of educational policy. The second section treats the institutions of the integrated socialist educational system, including a discussion of: preschool education; elementary and secondary education; schools for the handicapped; vocational training; educational…

  6. The Prolonged Downfall of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    authored The Other Side of the Mountain with Ali Ahamd Jalalia. Similar to the The Bear Went Over the Mountain it analyses mujahedeen tactics using...Interim Government (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1991), 11-13. Also Richard P. Cronin , “Afghanistan after the Soviet Withdrawal Contenders for Power...congressional research service: report for congress, Washington, DC, March 2, 1989), 11. 37Khan, Untying the Afghan Knot, 77-80. 38Richard P. Cronin

  7. Democratic Quality in Stable Democracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijphart, Arend

    2011-02-01

    The major predecessor to Ringen's and my own efforts to measure democratic quality in terms of the purpose of democracy is Robert Dahl's seminal book Polyarchy (1971). Measuring the quality of democracy requires two prior judgments: (1) making sure that, in terms of institutional characteristics, a country is sufficiently democratic, and that, as a minimum, it has universal suffrage, and (2) that its democracy has been uninterrupted for a minimum number of years. To an important extent, higher democratic quality can be attributed to institutional characteristics of consensus democracy, especially proportional representation.

  8. Adult education for democratic citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The research literature review was designed as the foundation for the investigation of what is know about how adults can achieve competencies relevant for democratic citizenship in various European countries, what type of educational interventions have proven effective in this regards and how educational......The report presents, in brief, the findings from the study of research literature on Adult Education for Democratic Citizenship, which was carried out in the nine EU member states represented by the project: Austria, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Spain and United Kingdom...... policy intervene in the field of Adult Education for Democratic Citizenship....

  9. Is John Locke a democrat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

      Over recent years there has been a tendency to present John Locke as an equalitarian democrat (Ashcraft) and being close to the political views of the levellers (Waldron). This is not a completely new interpretation (Kendall, 1941), but contrasts with the prevalent view presented in textbooks...... (Holden, Held, Ball and Dagger) and monographs on Locke (Dunn, Parry, Marshall). In this paper a new approach to the democratic character of John Locke's political theory is suggested, as his Second Treatise is analysed with Robert A. Dahl's conceptual framework on assumptions for a democratic order...

  10. Democratic parenting: paradoxical messages in democratic parent education theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John

    2013-06-01

    Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents a textual analysis of two such theories, the Adlerian model of parent education and the Parent Effectiveness Training (PET) model, as they are embodied in two original bestselling textbooks. Through content and argumentation analysis of these influential texts, this study examines the paradoxes inherent in these two theories when they articulate how to implement fully democratic principles within the parent-child relationship. We discover that in spite of their democratic rationale, both books offer communication practices that guide the child to modify misbehaviour, enforce parental power, and manipulate the child to make decisions that follow parental judgment, and thus do not endorse the use of a truly democratic parenting style. We suggest, as an alternative to the democratic parenting style, that parents be introduced to a guardianship management style, in which they do not share authority with children, but seek opportunities for enabling children to make more autonomous decisions and participate in more family decision making.

  11. Democratic Quality in Stable Democracies

    OpenAIRE

    Lijphart, Arend

    2011-01-01

    The major predecessor to Ringen’s and my own efforts to measure democratic quality in terms of the purpose of democracy is Robert Dahl’s seminal book Polyarchy (1971). Measuring the quality of democracy requires two prior judgments: (1) making sure that, in terms of institutional characteristics, a country is sufficiently democratic, and that, as a minimum, it has universal suffrage, and (2) that its democracy has been uninterrupted for a minimum number of years. To an important extent, highe...

  12. Making International Organizations More Democratic

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Bruno S.; Alois Stutzer

    2017-01-01

    World governance today is characterized by international organizations lacking democratic legitimacy and control by the citizens they claim to represent. They are also criticized for being inefficient. This leads to violent protests and to NGOs having great influence. To address these problems, we propose international governance based on the democratic idea of citizen participation: All citizens of the member countries of international organizations have the potential right to participate in...

  13. Democratic theory and comparative politics

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Guillermo

    1999-01-01

    "The present text is, basically, a revision of democratic theory from the perspective of its inadequacies for including into its scope many of the recently democratized countries, as well as some older democracies located outside of the Northwestern quadrant of the world. After warning that it is a first step in a larger and more ambitious endeavor, the paper begins by critically examining various definitions of democracy, especially those that, claiming to follow Schumpeter, a...

  14. 'They have embraced a different behaviour': transactional sex and family dynamics in eastern Congo's conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin, Beth; Kelly, Jocelyn; Kabanga, Justin; VanRooyen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The decades-long conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has resulted in major changes to local economies, strained social networks and insecurity. This environment forces many to pursue unconventional and, at times, socially stigmatised avenues for income. This paper explores the ways in which individuals in eastern DRC engage in, and are affected by, the commoditisation of sex within the context of decades of violent conflict. Focus group discussions conducted with men and women in 2009-2010 highlight how the war in the region has placed individuals, particularly women, in dire economic circumstances, while also changing their roles within families. In the face of severe poverty, women and girls may choose to engage in transactional sex in order to support themselves and their families. Discussants detailed how engaging in transactional sex due to an economic imperative has nonetheless damaged women's relationships with family members between spouses as well as parents and their children through breach of trust and failure to provide. These focus group discussions elucidate how transactional sex is both a symptom of, and a catalyst for, changes within family dynamics in eastern DRC.

  15. Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, J.; Godivier, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic are described including a map of Bouguer anomalies at 1/1,000,000 in two sections (eastern sheet, western sheet) and a map, in color, of Bouguer anomalies at 1/2,000,000. Instrumentation, data acquisition, calibration, and data correction procedures are discussed.

  16. Vincent (Censu) Tabone, an ophthalmologist and a president of the Republic of Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feibel, Robert M

    2012-03-01

    Vincent Tabone may be unique in the history of ophthalmology. He practiced ophthalmology for 40 years in his homeland, the Republic of Malta. During that time, he became well known as a pioneer in the international effort to eradicate trachoma worldwide. At age 53, he began a long and successful political career as a member of parliament, then as a cabinet minister, and, finally, as the democratically elected president of the Republic. He was active in European diplomacy and made important contributions at the United Nations. He may be the only ophthalmologist who has made great contributions in the field of medicine and in the democratic development of his country.

  17. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  18. The impact of democratic transitions on the representation of women in the national parliaments of southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This chapter examines what democratic transition in the 1990s has meant for women in southern Africa. It focuses in particular on the impact of democratization processes on political participation by women, notably women's representation in parliament in Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. This is compared with developments in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, where the introduction of multip...

  19. Radical democratic politics and feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Labrin, Soledad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article I present a reflection around the radical democratic project proposed by Chantal Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau. Specifically, I examine the application of the project in the context of the “new social movements” and especially, of feminist movement. I state the need of drawing attention to universalism and essentialism as the main obstacles to generate a collective proposal without margins. Nevertheless, doubts remind about the possibility of building up a feminism tailored by the radical democratic project, in a stage in which the political action of such a movement is characterized by categories that are closed and crystallized

  20. Democratization of Learning through Thematic Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellu, Christophil S.; Lumingkewas, S.; Walangitan, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of research on learning democratization in Sangihe. This study is the first year of a five-year plan. Long-term goal of this research is to create the democratic science learning in schools. Democratic learning model was developed through thematic assignment, involving the participation of parents and…

  1. Children's Right to Democratic Upbringings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Marita

    2005-01-01

    Western preschools and schools find it important to nurture democracy. However, in order to succeed in nurturing democracy, democratic ideas must be implemented in all situations. Education alone, therefore, is not enough. All children must experience real influence over their situations, and experience the opportunity for self-determination in…

  2. Deliberative Democratic Evaluation in Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreinsdottir, Anna Magnea; Davidsdottir, Sigurlina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the merit of using deliberative democratic evaluations is studied in light of ten questions asked by House and Howe, which defined the approach and raise issues of interests, representation, and choice of stakeholders, power balances and procedures for controlling them, participation, reflection and deliberation. Suggestions by…

  3. Matryoshka of Special Democratic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Devchand, Chandrashekar; Weingart, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    Special p-forms are forms which have components \\phi_{\\mu_1...\\mu_p} equal to +1,-1 or 0 in some orthonormal basis. A p-form \\phi\\in \\Lambda^p R^d is called democratic if the set of nonzero components {\\phi_{\\mu_1...\\mu_p}} is symmetric under the transitive action of a subgroup of O(d,Z) on the indices {1,...,d}. Knowledge of these symmetry groups allows us to define mappings of special democratic p-forms in d dimensions to special democratic P-forms in D dimensions for successively higher P \\geq p and D \\geq d. In particular, we display a remarkable nested stucture of special forms including a U(3)-invariant 2-form in six dimensions, a G_2-invariant 3-form in seven dimensions, a Spin(7)-invariant 4-form in eight dimensions and a special democratic 6-form \\Omega in ten dimensions. The latter has the remarkable property that its contraction with one of five distinct bivectors, yields, in the orthogonal eight dimensions, the Spin(7)-invariant 4-form. We discuss various properties of this ten dimensional form.

  4. BRICS Countries and Democratic Contagion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bruno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article explores whether the interstate dynamics of the BRICS can activate those processes of convergence of politicalregimes and practices known as “democratic contagion.” As this contagion was experienced during the “third wave” ofdemocratization, mainly because of homogeneity among states and structural conditions for democratic attraction, theBRICS are not likely to repeat these dynamics. On the contrary, the only real constitutional homogeneity among the BRICScountries is the standard of non-interference in the internal affairs of each member. Non-interference also means abstainingfrom any initiative to condition the transformation of political regimes in consideration of the same interstate cooperation. Thedynamics of the BRICS shows that different political regimes can promote institutionalized forms of interstate cooperationwithout any mutual contamination at the constitutional level. The theories of “transition” and “democratic contagion” areinsufficient to understand these dynamics in the context of the BRICS; for this reason, the theory of democratic transitioncannot provide an adequate analysis of BRICS. With its members “split in unity,” as an institution the BRICS suggests anevolution toward a model of “not eurocentric dependence” that can overcome the “peripheral realism” of the role of eachstate in its own foreign policy.

  5. The low importance of marriage in eastern Germany - social norms and the role of peoples' perceptions of the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Klärner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern Germany is a region with one of the world's highest percentages of non-marital births. Marriage and childbearing seem to be decoupled. This brings into question people's views on the institution of marriage. Objective: This paper examines eastern Germans' views on cohabitation, marriage, and childbearing. It argues that historical, social, and political contexts shape the social norms of marriage and non-marital childbearing. Methods: This paper presents data from eight qualitative focus group interviews with 74 women and men aged 25-40 in Rostock, a medium-sized city in eastern Germany. Results: The respondents often compared their own motives and incentives for marriage with those which existed in the socialist German Democratic Republic (GDR and held true for their parents. Many of them stated that having children was important for them as individuals and for their partnership. However, they treated the decision to get married and the decision to have children as two separate issues. Respondents often referred to the past and said that the strong legal and financial incentives to marry in the past regime in the socialist GDR no longer exist. Today's incentives were seen as minor, or as irrelevant to their personal situations.

  6. The Civil Democratic Control on the Army Forces in Romania 1989-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian SOFRONEA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War meant for the South-Eastern European countries an increased effort for establishing a market based economy and democratic institutions. One raised issue regarding democratization was the reform of the army forces and the democratization of the relationship between the military and the civil society. The civil control on the army forces and the creation of a democratic control system represents key indicators for the process of democratization and stabilizing and legitimizing elements for these states that, after the fall of the communism, were finding themselves in a complex transition process that inevitably demanded the reevaluation of the military institution. Thus, applying the theory on the case of Romania in the period 1989 – 2007, would allow me to analyze the way in which the reform of the Romanian security system took place, how the civil democratic control was implemented and the progress made for achieving the two main objectives: the accession to NATO and EU.

  7. Shifting to a New Paradigm: School Reform in the Republic of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoumennov, Iouri L.

    1993-01-01

    Explains the Republic of Belarus's new educational system, stressing its universal and democratic values, national-cultural foundation, scientific character, humanistic and ecological orientation, social and practical activities, encouragement of talent and erudition, and compulsory basic (nine-year) education focus. Describes types of educational…

  8. Problems of Modernization of the Industry of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (1960–1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman A. Zhansitov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the problems of the development of the industry of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic in the course of ‘Kosygin’ reform of 1965 realization. The difficulties of the transformation of command-and-control system into more democratic forms of economic administration, which is one of the reasons of reformist initiatives ‘bulk’ are considered.

  9. CABINETS OPERATING RULES AND COALITIONN FORMATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA IRINA IONITA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of communism in the late ’80 in Central and Eastern Europe, due to the appearance of several political parties in each state, there was the need to form coalitions in order to provide support for the governments. This paper aims to identify the institutional features that influence the coalition formation process using the rational choice institutionalism approach. In this case, the political parties, who seek to optimize their benefits in the government formation process, are constrained by the institutional environment. The institutional environment comprises the rules that determine how the governments are formed. Particularly, this paper aim is to identify how the cabinet operating rules affect the outcomes of the coalition formation process. In order to do so, I will develop a quantitative analysis of 110 cabinets in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria formed after the first free elections subsequent to the communist fall until the beginning of 2010. These countries represent the post-communist states that joined the European Union, finalizing the democratization process at least from a formal point a view. This cross-country comparison tries to explain how some institutional features influence the formation of coalitions in new democracies. This research is valuable due to the lack of this type of comparative studies on Central and Eastern European states.

  10. Meritocratic administration and democratic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornell, Agnes; Lapuente, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a hypothesis for understanding democratic stability based on the distinction between politicized and meritocratic bureaucracies. We argue that in a politicized administration, the professional careers of large numbers of government officials depend directly upon which party wins...... the elections. This increases the likelihood that the government will take opportunistic actions aimed at surviving in office at any cost; that is, benefiting core supporters at the expense of other groups. In turn, this may foster pre-emptive actions from the opposition, such as military coups. Conversely...... stability. Empirically, we illustrate the mechanisms with two well-documented cases of democratic transitions that enshrined a politicized administration – Spain (1876–1936) and Venezuela (1958–1998) – and one transition that kept a meritocratic bureaucracy, Spain (1975–)....

  11. Receptivity, possibility, and democratic politics

    OpenAIRE

    Kompridis, Nikolas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I present a model of receptivity that is composed of ontological and normative dimensions, which I argue answer to the critical-diagnostic and to the possibility-disclosing needs of democratic politics. I distinguish between ‘pre-reflective receptivity,’ understood ontologically as a condition of intelligibility, and ‘reflective receptivity,’ understood normatively as a condition of disclosing new possibilities.Keywords: receptivity; change; possibility; critique; reflective dis...

  12. Democratic values, emotions and emotivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranić Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the relation between democratic values and emotions. The author argues that democratic values and emotional judgments are inter-reducible: political agents use emotional judgments to reflexively evaluate normative paradigms of political life. In the first part of the paper, the author describes the state of emotions in contemporary political philosophy and identifies Charles Stevenson’s ethical conception of emotivism as the first comprehensive attempt to neutrally conceptualize emotions in moral and political thinking. The second part of the paper explores the shortcomings of emotivism and finds an adequate alternative in Martha Nussbaum’s concept of emotional judgment as the one that contains beliefs and values about social objects. In the final part of the paper, the author identifies that moral and political disagreements emerge in democracies from ranking of the importance of political objects. The evaluation criteria for this type of ranking is derived from democratic values which are reducible to agents’ emotional judgments. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076

  13. Coping with the New System: Self-Assessment, Role-Definition and Professional Expectations of Journalism Students in Former GDR after Democratization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Romy

    A study investigated what kind of expectations former GDR (German Democratic Republic) journalism students have about their futures as journalists and what their general perceptions of journalism are. About 80 journalism students in their last semester at Leipzig University were administered surveys during the two days directly preceding the…

  14. Religious Freedoms In Republic Of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metaj-Stojanova Albana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the independence of Republic of Macedonia and the adoption of the Constitution of Macedonia, the country went through a substantial socio-political transition. The concept of human rights and freedoms, such as religious freedoms in the Macedonian Constitution is based on liberal democratic values. The Macedonian Constitution connects the fundamental human rights and freedoms with the concept of the individual and citizen, but also with the collective rights of ethnic minorities, respecting the international standards and responsibilities taken under numerous international human rights conventions and treaties, of which the country is a party. Republic of Macedonia has ratified all the so called “core human right treaties” and now the real challenge lies in the implementation of the international standards. Some of these international conventions and treaties of the United Nations and of the Council of Europe are inherited by succession from the former Yugoslavian federation. Religious freedoms are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of human rights (1948, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, the European Convention on Human Rights (1953, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (1981 (all documents ratified by the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia “The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed. The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually or with others, is guaranteed„. After the conflict of 2001 the Ohrid Framework Agreement secured group rights for ethnicities that are not in majority in the Republic of Macedonia. The present Law on the legal status of the church, religious communities and religious groups of 2007, repealed the Law on religion and religious groups of 1997.

  15. The Paraguayan democratization process: advances and opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel UHARTE POZAS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the new conceptions of democracy in Latin America, this work attempts to evaluate the democratization process that is taking place in Paraguay, as a consequence of the historical defeat suffered by the Colorado Party in the presidential elections of 2008. The analysis identifies the reasons for the triumph of the heterogeneous coalition lead by ex-bishop Fernando Lugo and evaluates three aspects of the process: political democratization, social democratization and mass participation.

  16. Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the State?: National machineries

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Shirin M

    2003-01-01

    Democratization has become an important concept in the last ten years. With the end of the Cold War, the spread of globalization, and the extension of economic regulatory regimes, democratization has come to be seen as important to securing long-term political stability. Much has been written about democratization and gender in works on human rights, citizenship, women's movements and challenges to authoritarian regimes. This book, published in association with the United Nations, builds on t...

  17. Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries. It covers 11 countries from Central and Eastern Europe and 11 countries from the New Independent States. The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. Albania Kazakhstan Armenia Latvia Belarus Lithuania Bosnia and Herzegovina Poland Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Croatia Romania Czech Republic Russian Federation Estonia Slovak Republic Former Yugoslav Re

  18. Left behind in a Democratic Society: A Case of Some Farm School Primary Schoolteachers of Natural Science in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantwini, Bongani D.; Feza, Nosisi N.

    2017-01-01

    This case study explores the plight of some farm schoolteachers in a school district in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa and their feelings of neglect in the new democratic society. Through interviews and a teaching observation analysis, this article focuses on five teachers and discusses resource and infrastructure challenges, lack of…

  19. Democratic constraints on demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, J S

    1984-01-01

    The discussion compares the population policies adopted in Sweden during the 1930s to raise fertiity and the policies considered in the US during the 1970s in response to the high fertility experienced in the 1950s. Both sets of policies recommended increased availability of birth control, more liberal abortion laws, and greater employment opportunities for women. It becomes evident that the constraints imposed by a democratic system of government translate into policy recommendations that place individual freedom of choice and equal opportunity for all citizens as higher goals than any specific demographic target. Consequently, the population commissions of Sweden and the US made similar suggestions on how to resolve their opposite demographic problems. The demographic situations in the 2 nations were antipodal, and the countries also had very different social climates. This additional disparity was insufficient to counterbalance the apparently overwhelming influence of the democratic political systems in making virtually identical policy recommendations. Yet, the contrasting social climates of Sweden in 1935 and the US in 1970-72 may explain the different reactions each commission received. In terms of the responses by both citizens and government officials to the commissions' reports, the Swedish commission was more successful. Practically all of their recommendations were enthusiastically received and quickly adopted by the Swedish Riksdag. Yet, when the criterion for success becomes whether or not a demographic target was met, it increased in the 1940s and then dropped again while the same social policies were in effect. Even before the US commission began its study, fertility in the US had fallen and continues to remain low. These findings suggest that commissions in democratic countries will most likely never recommend dramatic measures in population policy. Thus, it is questionable whether such commissions in democratic nations will totally fulfill the

  20. The Democratic Vision of Carl Schmitt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to justify two propositions. One, that Schmitt’s political vision is indeed democratic and second, that Schmitt’s democratic vision, plebiscitary or leadership democracy, is better adapted to our modern political condition and the challenges confronting modern...

  1. Democratic Teaching: An Incomplete Job Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of public education in democratic states is almost beyond dispute. Too often, though, discussions of democratic education focus solely on policies and systems, forgetting the individual teachers who are ultimately responsible for educating future citizens. This paper attempts to illustrate just how complex and significant the role…

  2. Senator James Eastland : Mississippi's Jim Crow Democrat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    In the years following World War II, the national Democratic Party aligned its agenda more and more with the goals of the civil rights movement. By contrast, a majority of southern Democrats remained as committed as ever to a longstanding segregationist ideology. Through the career of Senator James

  3. The School as a Democratic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brandy

    2011-01-01

    Schools may be able to play a particular role in instilling a strong American identity in young people. They can do this by actively practicing democratic community within the school. This practice of democratic community is key to the development of an individual identity that prioritizes the interdependent relationship between individual and…

  4. The International Telephone Network and Democratization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Su-Lien; Barnett, George A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the international telephone network and democratization through network analysis. Highlights include principles of modern democracy; community and global interactions; a country's pattern of communication and its relationship to democratic development; and a country's position in the international telephone…

  5. Improving democratic governance through institutional design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Skelcher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In this article we provide a conceptual and argumentative framework for studying how institutional design can enhance civic participation and ultimately increase citizens' sense of democratic ownership of governmental processes. First, we set out the socio-political context for enhancing the demo......In this article we provide a conceptual and argumentative framework for studying how institutional design can enhance civic participation and ultimately increase citizens' sense of democratic ownership of governmental processes. First, we set out the socio-political context for enhancing...... the democratic governance of regulatory policies in Europe, and highlight the way in which civic participation and democratic ownership is given equal weight to economic competitiveness. We then discuss the potential for institutionalized participatory governance to develop and its prospects for improving...... effective and democratic governance in the multi-layered European polity. We conclude by outlining a research agenda for the field and identifying the priorities for scholars working interactively with civil society and governments....

  6. Fistula and traumatic genital injury from sexual violence in a conflict setting in Eastern Congo: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longombe, Ahuka Ona; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Ruminjo, Joseph

    2008-05-01

    The Eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is currently undergoing a brutal war. Armed groups from the DRC and neighbouring countries are committing atrocities and systematically using sexual violence as a weapon of war to humiliate, intimidate and dominate women, girls, their men and communities. Armed combatants take advantage with impunity, knowing they will not be held to account or pursued by police or judicial authorities. A particularly inhumane public health problem has emerged: traumatic gynaecological fistula and genital injury from brutal sexual violence and gang-rape, along with enormous psychosocial and emotional burdens. Many of the women who survive find themselves pregnant or infected with STIs/HIV with no access to treatment. This report was compiled at the Doctors on Call for Service/Heal Africa Hospital in Goma, Eastern Congo, from the cases of 4,715 women and girls who suffered sexual violence between April 2003 and June 2006, of whom 702 had genital fistula. It presents the personal experiences of seven survivors whose injuries were severe and long-term, with life-changing effects. The paper recommends a coordinated effort amongst key stakeholders to secure peace and stability, an increase in humanitarian assistance and the rebuilding of the infrastructure, human and physical resources, and medical, educational and judicial systems.

  7. The Electronic Republic? Evidence on the Impact of the Internet on Citizenship and Civic Engagement in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanFossen, Phillip J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, Lawrence Grossman wrote that "a new political system is taking shape in the United States. As we approach the twenty-first century, America is turning into an electronic republic, a democratic system that is vastly increasing the people's day-to-day influence on decisions of state." Grossman's forecast implied a sea change in the way…

  8. The Right to Be Included: Homeschoolers Combat the Structural Discrimination Embodied in Their Lawful Protection in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kašparová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    There is a 240-year tradition of compulsory school attendance in the Czech Republic. To many, compulsory school attendance is synonymous with the right to be educated. After the collapse of communism in 1989, along with the democratization of the government, the education system was slowly opened to alternatives, including the right to educate…

  9. Humboldt Goes to the Labour Market: How Academic Higher Education Fuels Labour Market Success in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabian, Petr; Sima, Karel; Kyncilova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the post-communist countries where the transformation from late industrial to knowledge economies and knowledge societies was complicated by the simultaneous transformations from communist centrally planned economies to democratic regimes and market economies. Furthermore, the transformation of higher education itself…

  10. Principles of Workplace Democracy: Cases from The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vopalecký Andy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the concept of management of democratic companies in the Czech Republic with a focus on the principles of workplace democracy. The analysis is based on four case studies of democratic companies. The case studies have been drawn up on the basis of a questionnaire survey among the workers of companies and interviews with their executives. The research has shown the importance of even a high rate of implementation of the various principles in all surveyed companies. The best rated principle is “dialogue and listening”. In the case of the principle of “reflection and assessment”, it will show certain deficiencies in the provision of feedback. Principles of workplace democracy identified in interviews mostly agree with the principles referred to in the literature. Resulting from the research, it proposes recommendations and suggestions for further research.

  11. Whose Canon? Culturalization versus Democratization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Bjurström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Current accounts – and particularly the critique – of canon formation are primarily based on some form of identity politics. In the 20th century a representational model of social identities replaced cultivation as the primary means to democratize the canons of the fine arts. In a parallel development, the discourse on canons has shifted its focus from processes of inclusion to those of exclusion. This shift corresponds, on the one hand, to the construction of so-called alternative canons or counter-canons, and, on the other hand, to attempts to restore the authority of canons considered to be in a state of crisis or decaying. Regardless of the democratic stance of these efforts, the construction of alternatives or the reestablishment of decaying canons does not seem to achieve their aims, since they break with the explicit and implicit rules of canon formation. Politically motivated attempts to revise or restore a specific canon make the workings of canon formation too visible, transparent and calculated, thereby breaking the spell of its imaginary character. Retracing the history of the canonization of the fine arts reveals that it was originally tied to the disembedding of artists and artworks from social and worldly affairs, whereas debates about canons of the fine arts since the end of the 20th century are heavily dependent on their social, cultural and historical reembedding. The latter has the character of disenchantment, but has also fettered the canon debate in notions of “our” versus “their” culture. However, by emphasizing the dedifferentiation of contemporary processes of culturalization, the advancing canonization of popular culture seems to be able to break with identity politics that foster notions of “our” culture in the present thinking on canons, and push it in a more transgressive, syncretic or hybrid direction.

  12. Enhanced democratic learning within the Aalborg Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The Aalborg PBL Model [Kjersdam & Enemark, 1997; Kolmos et al., 2004] is an example of a democratic learning system [Qvist, 2008]. Writing one project each semester in teams is an important element in the model. Medicine with Industrial Specialisation - a study at the Faculties of Engineering......, Science and Medicine at Aalborg University - has combined the Aalborg Model with solving cases as used by other models. A questionnaire survey related to democratic learning indicates that the democratic learning has been enhanced. This paper presents the results....

  13. Enhanced democratic learning within the Aalborg Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The Aalborg PBL Model [Kjersdam & Enemark, 1997; Kolmos et al., 2004] is an example of a democratic learning system [Qvist, 2008]. Writing one project each semester in teams is an important element in the model. Medicine with Industrial Specialisation - a study at the Faculties of Engineering......, Science and Medicine at Aalborg University - has combined the Aalborg Model with solving cases as used by other models. A questionnaire survey related to democratic learning indicates that the democratic learning has been enhanced. This paper presents the results....

  14. DEMOCRATIC ATTITUDES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge TAÇMAN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to determine the democratic attitudes of the classroomteachers. This study is a descriptive research. In this research, democratic attitude scala which was developed by“published for the attitude research labaratory” and adapted to Turkish educational system by Gözütok (1995 wasused. Research group consisted fifty teachers from four private primary schools in Ankara. The data were analyzed byone way ANOVA. According of the results of the research, democratic attitudes of teachers have been discriminated onteachers’ sexuality, seniority and graduate level

  15. Democratizing science and technology education: Perspectives from the philosophy of education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Clayton Todd

    This study examines conceptualizations of science and technology and their relation to ideas of democratic education in the history of philosophy of education. My genealogical analysis begins by tracing the anti-democratic emergence of ideas and values of science and technology that have evolved through ancient and modern periods within the philosophy of education and continue to shape the ways science and technology are understood and treated in educational settings. From my critical engagement with Plato's Republic and Rousseau's Emile, I argue that anti-democratic structures and values have been embedded in philosophy of education through Plato's educational theory of techne and Rousseau's pedagogical theory that involves science and technology as important educational force. Following this theme, I analyze the work of John Dewey and Herbert Marcuse and their shared project for democratizing science and technology through education. Through a critical comparison of both theorists' models, I suggest that each provides positive legacies for philosophy of education to draw upon in rethinking the intersection of science, technology, and education: a strong model for understanding public problems associated with a highly technological and scientific society and a reconstructive framework for values and sensibilities that demands a new value relationship to be developed between humans and science and technology. Finally, I situate my critique and assessment of this history in the philosophy of education within the current science and technology education reform movement in the United States. I claim that the official models of science and technological literacy and inquiry, as constructed by the National Academy of Sciences and a host of governmental policies, shape science and technology education with a decidedly neo-liberal focus and purpose. In response to this anti-democratic movement I offer an alternative position that utilizes a counter-epistemology to the

  16. Laying the Foundations for Democratic Behavior : A Comparison of Three Different Approaches to Democratic Education

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Viola

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates the question: What kind of education supports democratic behavior best? To find out the answer to this question, the author compares three different approaches to democratic education: the Sudbury-approach, the democratic-school-approach and the Konstanz Method of Dilemma Discussion (KMDD). This investigation is not only based on literature but also on participating observation. For this reason, the author visited several different schools in the USA which try to realiz...

  17. Civilian Protection in the Eastern DRC: Evaluation of the MONUSCO Peacekeeping Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    1996–2003),” in Reseau des Femmes pour un Developpement Associatif (RFDA), International Alert, 2005. 123 Woudenberg, “You Will Be Punished,” 52...Violence Against Women and Girls During the War in the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Kivu (1996–2003).” Reseau des Femmes pour un

  18. Fast Scramblers, Democratic Walks and Information Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Magan, Javier M

    2015-01-01

    We study a family of weighted random walks on complete graphs. These `democratic walks' turn out to be explicitly solvable, and we find the hierarchy window for which the characteristic time scale saturates the so-called fast scrambling conjecture. We show that these democratic walks describe well the properties of information spreading in systems in which every degree of freedom interacts with every other degree of freedom, such as Matrix or infinite range models. The argument is based on the analysis of suitably defined `Information fields' ($\\mathcal{I}$), which are shown to evolve stochastically towards stationarity due to unitarity of the microscopic model. The model implies that in democratic systems, stabilization of one subsystem is equivalent to global scrambling. We use these results to study scrambling of infalling perturbations in black hole backgrounds, and argue that the near horizon running coupling constants are connected to entanglement evolution of single particle perturbations in democratic...

  19. Measuring the democratic anchorage of governance networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotel, Trine; Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob

    in what we shall call a model for the democratic anchorage of governance networks. As illustrated by our qualitative case study of a multi-level and cross-border governance network involved in the recent decision to build a bridge between Denmark and Germany, the democratic anchorage model helps to assess......There has been a growing debate about the democratic problems and potentials of governance networks among political scientists and public managers. While some claim that governance networks tend to undermine democracy, others argue that they have the potential to improve and strengthen democracy....... This debate is found wanting in two respects. First of all, there has been far too little discussion about what democracy means in relation to pluricentric governance networks. Second, the current debate builds on the assumption that it is possible to give a clear-cut answer to the question of the democratic...

  20. The Challenges of Democratic Governance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enahoro, N. I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This review sets out to examine the challenges of democratic governance in Nigeria. Specifically, the work focuseS on some inescapable facts, such as concept of governance and politics, democratic governance, corruption as well as erosion of federalism by Nigerian leaders. The study observes that a government that does not recognize that it holds power in trust for the people is one of the challenges of Nigerian democratic governance. In addition, the work highlights the importance of willed, handful of well meaning totally committed and uncompromised people, to turn the tide and bring about the much needed change to a true democracy in Nigerian governance. Sequel to the findings of this work, it is recommended that, consistent audit should be carried out in Nigerian democratic governance, the properties of genuine federalism be enhanced, elected officials must possess and demonstrate excellent leadership qualities and credentials for the offices they occupy.

  1. Dimensions and correlates of negative attitudes toward female survivors of sexual violence in Eastern DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study described in this article is to examine the dimensions and correlates of attitudes toward survivors of sexual violence (SV) in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Four dimensions of attitudes were identified: victim responsibility, victim denigration, victim credibility, and deservingness. Gender roles attitudes represented the most significant correlate of attitudes toward survivors in this population. Other significant correlates of overall attitudes toward survivors included current employment, province of residence, knowledge about the SV law, awareness about where to go for information on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), and the perceived prevalence of SV in own community. There are differences and communalities in the variables associated with the various dimensions of attitudes. For example, sex of the respondent and discussion of SGBV with others were only significantly associated with the tendency to ascribe responsibility to the victim. The findings indicate that changing negative gender norms should be central to efforts aimed at promoting accepting attitudes toward survivors. Furthermore, addressing the various dimensions of attitudes toward survivors may require different strategies.

  2. Coping behaviours and post-traumatic stress in war-affected eastern Congolese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mels, Cindy; Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; García-Pérez, Coral

    2015-02-01

    This study explores coping strategies used by war-affected eastern Congolese adolescents across age and sex, and the association between post-traumatic stress symptoms and engagement and disengagement coping. Cross-sectional data were collected in 11 secondary schools across four areas in the Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo. A total of 952 pupils (45.3% girls, 54.7% boys) aged 13-21 years (M = 15.83, standard deviation = 1.81) participated in self-report assessment, using instruments that were either specifically developed (Adolescent Complex Emergency Exposure Scale, assessing traumatic exposure), validated (Impact of Event Scale Revised, assessing post-traumatic stress symptoms) or reviewed (Kidcope, assessing coping strategies) for the study population. Reported coping strategies varied with age, and boys more frequently reported problem solving and resignation as compared with girls. Disengagement coping was associated with lower symptom scores in younger adolescent girls, as was the interaction effect between engagement and disengagement coping. We conclude that disengagement coping is not necessarily a maladaptive reaction to stressful events in war-affected situations and that future research should aim to better understand the heterogeneous patterns of stress and coping responses, including the role of factors such as the nature and appraisal of stressors, available resources for coping and cultural preferences.

  3. Eventful democratization: why we need methodological pluralism

    OpenAIRE

    Della Porta, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    A keynote for the SCOPE 2014: Science of Politics – International Interdisciplinary Conference of Political Research that took place at the University of Bucharest, Faculty of Political Science between 27 and 29 June 2014, this article assesses at theoretical and methodological level the way in which both agency and structure are relevant in social movements, particularly in processes of eventful democratization. Eventful democratization appears as sudden and unexpected, not only to observers...

  4. Liberalist Variation in Taiwan: Four Democratization Orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Hung-jen Wang

    2012-01-01

    "In this paper the author analyzes how Taiwanese liberalist scholars have discursively and operationally shaped the meanings of Taiwanese democratization via a mix of liberal values and nationalist concerns. He will argue that a valid understanding of democratization in Taiwan has never emerged in a way that adequately responds to a liberalist perspective of the country's ongoing political development. Instead, such an understanding has been subjectively influenced by liberal intellectuals wr...

  5. Democratic Group Signatures with Threshold Traceability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-xue; QIAN Hai-feng; LI Jian-hua

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a concrete democratic group signature scheme which holds (t, n)-threshold trace-ability. In the scheme, the capability of tracing the actual signer is distributed among n group members. It gives a valid democratic group signature such that any subset with more than t members can jointly reconstruct a secret and reveal the identity of the signer. Any active adversary cannot do this even if he can corrupt up to t - 1 group members.

  6. [Dirofilariasis in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V A; Romashova, M F

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents data on the prevalence of dirofilariasis in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea during 5 years from 1999 to 2003. The nematode Dirofilaria repens is a causative agent of the disease. Sporadic cases of helminthiasis are annually registered in some urban and rural areas on the plain of the peninsula. The disease is absent on the foothills and Black sea coast of the southern and eastern parts of Crimea. The localization of the parasite is typical of this helminthiasis. Dirofilariasis in Crimea may be regarded as a transmissible helminthiasis with natural focal trends.

  7. Thermal waters of the Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowgiallo, J.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal waters (30-61/sup 0/C) occur in springs and shallow drill-holes (max. 300 m) in several areas of the Yemen Arab Republic. Their mineral content is generally low ( < 1000-2000 ppm TDS) except for waters with high CO/sub 2/ content and those directly influenced by the evaporitic Baid formation (Tertiary) in the Western Lowlands along the Red Sea. The temperature anomalies occur in areas of Quaternary basaltic volcanism (Aden formation) and in fault zones connected with the eastern margin of the Red Sea graben. In the latter zones radiogenic heat may be contributed by Tertiary granitic intrusions.

  8. Democratic Bodies: Exemplary Practice and Democratic Education in a K-5 Dance Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights a K-5 dance artist-in-residence as a form of democratic and exemplary dance education that ignited collaboration, promoted equity, fostered student autonomy, and demonstrated rigor in school curriculum. Through examining observation, interview, and performance-based data and calling upon critical, democratic education…

  9. Democratic Bodies: Exemplary Practice and Democratic Education in a K-5 Dance Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights a K-5 dance artist-in-residence as a form of democratic and exemplary dance education that ignited collaboration, promoted equity, fostered student autonomy, and demonstrated rigor in school curriculum. Through examining observation, interview, and performance-based data and calling upon critical, democratic education…

  10. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  11. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  12. Poverty correlates and indicator-based targeting in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Grootaert, Christiaan; Braithwaite, Jeanine

    1998-01-01

    The authors compare poverty in three Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland) with poverty in three countries of the former Soviet Union (Estonia, Kyrgyz Republic, and Russia). They find striking differences between the post-Soviet and Eastern European experiences with poverty and targeting. Among patterns detected: a)Poverty in Eastern Europe is significantly lower than in former Soviet Union countries. b) Rural poverty is greater than urban poverty. c) In Eastern Europe th...

  13. NATO Enlargement and Democratic Control of the Armed Forces: The Experience of Poland and Implications for Neighboring "Partnership for Peace" Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    New York, 1957). 89 See Jiri Valenta, "Soviet Policy toward Hungary and Czechoslovakia," in Sarah Meiklejohn Terry, Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe...its ability to mobilize its allies to use 91 A. Ross Johnson, "The Warsaw Pact: Soviet Military Policy in Eastern Europe," in Sarah Meiklejohn ...leader of the ’Union of Democratic Left", Alexander Kwasniewski. 178 In reaction, the pro-Walesa Minister of Defense Okonski resigned and a candidate

  14. Intermediate Conditions of Democratic Accountability: A Response to Electoral Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Maloy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to respond to “democratic deficits” in modern constitutional republics must contend with the broad scholarly trend of electoral skepticism. While generally casting doubt on periodic competitive elections’ suitability as vehicles of accountability, electoral skepticism does not necessarily entail an absolute devaluation of elections. Some normative and empirical research responds to this trend by refocusing attention on values other than popular power, such as civil peace, which might be served by periodic competitive elections. Another response short of abandoning the value of popular power, however, is to draw out possibilities for institutional design from the restricted conditions under which previous study has found electoral accountability to be plausible or likely. This second task requires an empirically informed exercise in political theory. Pursuing it in a programmatic and policy-relevant way requires descending from the grand, systemic level of constitutional structures and electoral formulae to intermediate (or middle-range institutional conditions of accountability, such as rules about parties, campaigns, and election administration. My analysis reinterprets principal-agent models to develop four general types of crucial condition for electoral accountability, and then ramifies this scheme by reference to recent empirical research. The result is a “top ten” list of specific institutional factors that could be theoretically decisive in helping or hindering electoral accountability. These ten conditions could guide future research designs and reform proposals alike.

  15. “All for the sake of Freedom”: Hannah Arendt’s Democratic Dissent, Trauma, and American Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Mehring

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    As an intellectual Jewish immigrant, Hannah Arendt’s work is informed by two key factors: the failures of German intellectuals regarding the rise of fascism and the promise of American democracy. Arendt was haunted by the past and the memories of how the democratic structures of the Weimar Republic had been undermined, manipulated, and finally transformed into a totalitarian terror regime. The issues of freedom, equality, and the shortcomings of democratic societies form a transcultural nexus in her oeuvre. This reading of Arendt will reveal how her efforts to deal with a transatlantic traumatic past shaped the felt need to voice democratic dissent in the United States. While much has been said about her theoretical groundwork on the mechanisms of totalitarian systems, Arendt’s living conditions as a naturalized foreigner, her enthusiasm for American democracy, and her refusal to return to Germany have been largely neglected. Arendt is usually rooted firmly in a European philosophical context. She has been canonized as one of the foremost philosophical thinkers from Germany on the emergence of totalitarian systems and the Holocaust. This transatlantic force field looms large over the second half of the twentieth century in the realm of culture and politics. Among her fellow intellectual émigrés and exiles such as Adorno, Horkheimer, Marcuse, or Fraenkel, Arendt stands out. She decided not to return to the new democratic Germany with its Grundgesetz fashioned along the lines of the American Constitution. Instead, she insisted on becoming naturalized and used her transnational background as a basis to address democratic gaps from the vantage point of an American citizen. First, Mehring shows in which ways Arendt identified herself as an American and wished to become recognized as an American citizen. Second, he reconnects Arendt’s democratic dissent with her efforts to become recognized as an American citizen.

  16. Liberalist Variation in Taiwan: Four Democratization Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-jen Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyse how Taiwanese liberalist scholars have discursively and operationally shaped the meanings of Taiwanese democratization via a mix of liberal values and nationalist concerns. I will argue that a valid understanding of democratization in Taiwan has never emerged in a way that adequately responds to a liberalist perspective of the country’s ongoing political development. Instead, such an understanding has been subjectively influenced by liberal intellectuals writing on the subject. In other words, current discourses in Taiwan represent efforts on the part of scholars to manage connections between liberalist values and nationalist concerns rather than shared views regarding facts emerging from Taiwanese democratization. In this paper I discuss four types of liberalist orientations to Taiwanese democratization – universal, moderate, pragmatic and nationalist – in the contexts of national-identity constraints, a balance between liberal values and national identity, and flexibility regarding liberalist and nationalist concerns. I conclude that democratization research in Taiwan reflects an aspect of knowledge production formulated by the relationship between the researcher and the subject under study.

  17. Deng Xiaoping’s Democratic Methodology from the Perspective of Democratic Confidence%民主自信视域下邓小平民主方法论透视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少东

    2014-01-01

    Deng Xiaoping’s democratic self-confidence towards China’s socialist democratic heritage and foreign democratic posi-tive factors, is embodied in his democratic methodology. Its contents include innovative methodology on the road of the democratic de-velopment; democratic system method on the usage of people democracy; bettering democratic system reform and the prevalent method-ologies, and major dialectical methodology etc. It is the democratic method of Deng Xiaoping theory that makes our Chinese abide tradi-tion socialist democracy in the era of globalization and informatization;after Soviet and Eastern Europe upheaval the socialist democratic belief was still stable;socialist democratic positions did keep ahead of western democracy, but a new type of democracy of socialism with Chinese characteristics appears in the new period. Under the background of globalization, Deng Xiaoping made great contributions to the human democracy.%邓小平对待我国社会主义民主遗产和外国民主积极因素所表现出来的民主自信,集中体现在他的民主方法论上,内容包括民主发展道路上的创新方法论;人民民主运用上的系统方法论;民主制度完善上的改革和借鉴方法论,以及重大民主关系上的辩证方法论等等。正是邓小平的民主方法论,才使我国在全球化、信息化时代没有丢掉社会主义民主传统;在苏东剧变后没有动摇社会主义民主信仰;在西方民主输出面前没有丧失社会主义民主阵地,反而在新时期开创形成了中国特色社会主义新型民主。这是全球化背景下邓小平对我国乃至对人类民主事业做出的重大贡献。

  18. The Republic of Pemberley: Politeness and Citizenship in Digital Sociability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Brideoake

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Early theorists of online networks likened the ideals underpinning emerging cyber-communities to Jürgen Habermas's conception of the bourgeois public sphere. This association is evoked by the online Jane Austen community, 'The Republic of Pemberley', which elaborates its enthusiasm for Austen's oeuvre within the Habermasian rhetoric of eighteenth-century Bluestocking feminism. In its celebration of female sociability and textual production,' The Republic of Pemberley' recalls the female-centred social and intellectual circles that formed in eighteenth-century Britain around Bluestocking hostesses including Elizabeth Vesey, Frances Boscawen and Elizabeth Montagu. This essay explores the extent to which the theoretically democratic spaces of the Bluestocking salon were constituted by rigorous class and sexual standards, these strictures masking the extent to which Bluestocking sociability and scholarship transgressed the gendered and sexual norms of late-eighteenth-century Britain. Pemberley and the eighteenth-century public sphere are moreover linked by an analogous tension between their democratic ideals and their actual social instantiation, each employing rigorous social regulation to quell the embodied and affective energies constitutive of their alternative polities.

  19. The Pied Piper of Neo Liberalism Calls the Tune in the Republic of Ireland: An Analysis of Education Policy Text from 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the rhetoric of education policy text during the timeframe from 2000 to 2012 in the Republic of Ireland. The study was framed within two different discourses of the role of the teacher: one discourse regards the teacher as a professional within a dynamic system of democratic relations (Anyon, 2011; Apple, 2012;…

  20. The Pied Piper of Neo Liberalism Calls the Tune in the Republic of Ireland: An Analysis of Education Policy Text from 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the rhetoric of education policy text during the timeframe from 2000 to 2012 in the Republic of Ireland. The study was framed within two different discourses of the role of the teacher: one discourse regards the teacher as a professional within a dynamic system of democratic relations (Anyon, 2011; Apple, 2012;…