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Sample records for eastern cape province

  1. Investigating 19th and early 20th century Earthquakes in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa)

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    Albini, Paola; Strasser, Fleur O.; Flint, Nicolette S.

    2014-05-01

    The seismicity for the years between 1820 and 1936 of Grahamstown, a settlement located in the heart of the current Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, is investigated with recourse to contemporaneous documentary sources. This investigation led to the development of a seismic history incorporating consideration of the broader geo-political context of the Eastern Cape colonial territory at that time. Individual studies of five regional events, ranging from Mw 6 to 4, that were felt in Grahamstown during that period are presented. An additional earthquake that was not felt at Grahamstown was included to present the exhaustive approach adopted in the study of the seismicity of the area. Each earthquake study includes the development of a full set of intensity data points (IDPs), which are used to determine reappraised epicentral locations and magnitudes, some of which differ significantly from previously listed parameters. The results thus obtained highlight the value of seeking out additional contemporary sources from a variety of sources in different languages when revisiting the source parameters of earthquakes for which no or only very limited instrumental information is available.

  2. Erosion-land use change-climate change nexus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Kakembo, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Unlike many parts of the world where land recovery has been realised as a response to less dependence on land for a livelihood, soil erosion - mainly on abandoned cultivated and overgrazed communal lands in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa - has intensified. Land abandonment is attributed by most elderly land users to drought that hit the area in the 1960s. The interaction among land-degradation drivers - ranging from soil properties, topography, land-use changes and vegetation to local climate - has given rise to a self-amplifying land degradation feedback loop that has perpetuated severe forms of soil erosion. This has rendered the degraded areas particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts on water. The perpetual degradation calls for developing a dedicated policy on the management and rehabilitation of eroded lands. Restoration approaches should entail promoting disconnectivity on eroded hillslopes. Communal farmers also have to be sensitised and empowered to take ownership of the land-restoration process.

  3. Trends in soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Kakembo, Vincent; Rowntree, Kate M

    2012-03-01

    Woody shrub encroachment severely impacts on the hydrological and erosion response of rangelands and abandoned cultivated lands. These processes have been widely investigated at various spatial scales, using mostly field experimentation. The present study used remote sensing to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion and encroachment by a woody shrub species, Pteronia incana, in a catchment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa between 1998 and 2008. The extreme categories of soil erosion and shrub encroachment were mapped with higher accuracy than the intermediate ones, particularly where lower spatial resolution data were used. The results showed that soil erosion in the worst category increased simultaneously with dense woody shrub encroachment on the hill slopes. This trend is related to the spatial patterning of woody shrub vegetation that increases bare soil patches--leading to runoff connectivity and concentration of overland flow. The major changes in soil erosion and shrub encroachment analysed during the 10-year period took place in the 5-9° slope category and on the concave slope form. Multi-temporal analyses, based on remote sensing, can extend our understanding of the dynamics of soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment. They may help benchmark the processes and assist in upscaling field studies.

  4. Prevalence of lung lesions in slaughtered cattle in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Ishmael F. Jaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Information obtained from abattoirs on the causes of lung condemnation is important in preventing the spread of zoonotic diseases and for promoting food security. In this study, we assessed the causes of lung condemnation in cattle at three abattoirs represented as ANA, QTA and EBA to evaluate the financial losses associated with lung condemnation. A retrospective study (n = 51 302 involving the use of abattoir slaughter records of 2010–2012 and an active abattoir survey (n = 1374 was conducted from July to December 2013. The retrospective study revealed the main causes of lung condemnation as pneumonia (1.09%, 2.21% and 0.77%, emphysema (1.12%, 1.14% and 1.1.6% and abscessation (0.71%, 1.06% and 0.77%, from ANA, QTA and EBA, respectively. The combined monetary loss because of lung condemnation during the period 2010 to 2012 was estimated as ZAR 85 158 (USD 7939 for the abattoirs surveyed. Conversely, during the active abattoir survey, agonal emphysema (15%, 15% and 23% and improper eviscerations with faecal contamination (10%, 38% and 42% were the major factors that led to lung condemnation at ANA, QTA and EBA, respectively. Other causes of lung condemnations were haemorrhage (10% for QTA and pleurisy (12% for EBA. The weight loss of lungs during the active abattoir survey was 6450 kg, while the associated monetary loss was estimated as ZAR 29 025 (USD 2706. This study identified major causes of lung condemnation as pleuritis, improper evisceration, pneumonia, abscesses, haemorrhages and lung worms and their associated monetary losses. The results of this study may be useful as baseline data for future comparison in similar surveys, for tracking of some zoonotic diseases affecting lungs and for further research in the Eastern Cape Province or other provinces of South Africa.

  5. Social media adoption among lecturers at a traditional university in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

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    Obrain T. Murire

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is shortage of critical skills in the South African economy. One of the reasons for this shortage is that many students at traditional universities are not completing their degree within the prescribed time frame. The massification of education at traditional universities compounds this problem as there is a decrease in the interaction between lecturers and students. Information and communication technologies, and specifically social media, have been identified as a possible solution to aid traditional universities to improve their throughput rate. Social media has become an essential tool to increase student–lecturer interaction, collaboration and communication in academic setting.Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine social media adoption among lecturers at a traditional university in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.Method: The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT framework was used as the theoretical foundation of the questionnaire that was distributed to 300 full-time staff members. A response rate of 39% was attained. Factor analysis was used to test the relationship between variables.Contribution: The study’s contribution is to the theoretical body of knowledge that affirms that the UTAUT framework is an appropriate tool to use to test adoption of social media at traditional universities.Conclusion: The findings indicated that academics are conversant with emerging technologies and could incorporate these technologies into academic settings with an aim to increase communication and interaction among lecturers and learners. The results revealed that performance expectancy, social influence, effort expectancy and behavioural intention have a positive influence on social media adoption and continued use by academics in teaching and learning at traditional university. The facilitating condition scale was not statistically significant, but must be considered by management in order to

  6. Risk Factors of Porcine Cysticercosis in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Krecek, Rosina Claudia; Mohammed, Hamish; Michael, Lynne Margaret; Schantz, Peter Mullineaux; Ntanjana, Lulama; Morey, Liesl; Werre, Stephen Rakem; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2012-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in humans and pigs in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in select districts of the ECP. Data were collected in 2003 by interviewing 217 pig producers from the area. Blood samples were collected from 261 of their pigs, which were tested using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies to cysticercosis. Frequencies of both owner- and pig-level characteristics were determined. For pig-level analysis, all bivariable and multivariable associations were determined using the surveylogistic procedure of the SAS/STAT® software to accommodate for the intraclass correlation that exists for clusters of pigs within one owner and for clusters of owners within a district. All tests for significance were performed at the α = 0.05 level, and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. Among the respondents, 48% of their households lacked a latrine, 98% slaughtered pigs at home, and 99% indicated that meat inspection services were not available. On bivariable analysis, there was a significant association between porcine infection and district (p = 0.003), breed (p = 0.041) and the absence of a latrine (p = 0.006). On multivariable analysis, the absence of a latrine was the only variable significantly associated with porcine infection (aOR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.07, 3.35) (p = 0.028). The increased odds of porcine infection with households lacking a latrine contributes to our understanding of the transmission of this parasite in the ECP. Determining and addressing the risk factors for T. solium infection can potentially lower the very high prevalence in humans and pigs in this endemic area. PMID:22655065

  7. Collaboration or renunciation? The role of traditional medicine in mental health care in Rwanda and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Schierenbeck, Isabell; Johansson, Peter; Andersson, Lena M; Krantz, Gunilla; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2016-10-07

    Traditional medicine (TM) and biomedicine represent parallel health systems in many developing countries; the latter dominating in public policies, while the former still retain considerable influence among the general public. This study investigates how mental health care professionals responsible for mental health care implementation comprehend and relate to the intersection between TM and biomedicine in the cases of Rwanda and the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The material is based on semi-structured interviews with mental health care stakeholders in Eastern Cape, South Africa and Rwanda. The findings confirm an impact of TM in the treatment of mental health issues in Rwanda and South Africa due to TM being more accessible than biomedical medicine, widespread traditional perceptions of mental illness in society, and the lack of knowledge of biomedical treatments. Furthermore, the respondents identified three strategies to manage the impact of TM; improved accessibility of biomedical facilities, outreach education about mental illness, and, in the Eastern Cape case, collaboration between traditional healers and biomedicine. The study points to the necessity to take TM into consideration as an important component of health systems and policies in the Global south.

  8. Ecology of the tick Amblyomma hebraeum Koch in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. I. Distribution and seasonal activity.

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    Norval, R A

    1977-08-01

    In the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa larvae of Amblyomma hebraeum Koch occur in well-drained, shaded habitats, with a ground cover of grass. The life cycle is normally of 3 years duration. Peak larval activity occurs in the summer of the 1st year, peak nymphal activity in the spring of the 2nd year, and peak adult activity in the summer of the 3rd year. Larval activity shows no direct correlation with macroclimate. Adult activity is correlated with, in the following order of signficance, daylength, temperature, and rainfall. Nymphal activity appears to be regulated by the same factors.

  9. The prevalence and distribution of Argas walkerae (Acari: Argasidae in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : research communications

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    N. Nyangiwe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and geographic distribution of the fowl tampan, Argas walkerae Kaiser & Hoogstraal, 1969 was determined in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa by inspecting two fowl houses in the vicinity of each of 72 randomly selected communal cattle dip-tanks. Tampans were collected from 102 (70.8 % of the 144 fowl houses in the neighbourhood of 57 (79.2 % of the 72 selected dip-tanks, and the localities of the collections were mapped. Argas walkerae was present in fowl houses from the warm coastal regions of the Indian Ocean in the south to the cold and mountainous Drakensberg in the north-east of the Province. Taking into account the probable sensitivity of the sampling method, it is estimated that A. walkerae is likely to be present in fowl houses belonging to between 74 and 84 % of communities making use of cattle dip-tanks in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, and that when it is present, between 64 and 75 % of fowl houses will be infested. The geographic distribution of A. walkerae seemed to be more strongly associated with the presence of fowls and fowl houses containing raw or processed wood in their structure than with climate.

  10. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 12. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of the Eastern Cape Province

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    Mariette Marais

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil-inhabiting nematodes, including plant-parasitic nematodes, are considered to be the most abundant multicellular organisms in the soil, and of particular interest since they are an integral part of the interlocking chain of nutrient conversions. Because of their abundance and relative susceptibility to both physical and chemical changes, these organisms are used as indicator organisms. The National Collection of Nematodes (NCN consists of a core collection, the Meloidogyne Collection and the Juan Heyns Collection, which are housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Council in Pretoria. Vast amounts of biodiversity data are contained in NCN, and the digitising of the collection from 2007 to 2014 yielded unpublished locality information, especially datasets of plant nematodes reported from protected areas of the Eastern Cape. Two hundred and thirty plant nematode species belonging to 36 genera were reported from the Eastern Cape. Of these, only 80 were from protected areas, whilst 163 were from uncultivated areas (outside protected areas and 148 from cultivated areas. Ten species were described from protected areas, namely Criconemoides silvicola, Meloinema silvicola, Ogma tuberculatum, Paralongidorus cebensis, Paralongidorus hanliae, Scutellonema tsitsikamense, Trichodorus vandenbergae, Xiphinema erriae, Xiphinema ornatizulu and Xiphinema simplex. Only M. silvicola, O. tuberculatum, P. cebensis and S. tsitsikamense were not reported from other provinces, suggesting endemism.Conservation implications: The diversity of nematode fauna is not adequately protected as most nematode biodiversity in the Eastern Cape lies outside protected areas, with only 80 of the 230 plant-feeding nematode species in the province being reported from protected areas.

  11. What are we measuring? Comparison of household food security indicators in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Hendriks, Sheryl L; van der Merwe, Corné; Ngidi, Mjabuliseni S; Manyamba, Christopher; Mbele, Mondli; McIntyre, Angela M; Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Molefe, Queeneth N; Mphephu, Mulalo Q; Ngwane, Lithle

    2016-01-01

    The development of national food security information systems is constrained by a lack of guidance on which indicators to use. This paper compares food security indicators across two seasons (summer and winter) in one of the most deprived areas of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The results show that only anthropometric indicators are sensitive enough to differentiate levels of food insecurity. The lack of consistent classification across indicators means that surveys must use a combination of food consumption and experience of hunger measures backed up by anthropometric measures. Targeting interventions is difficult if the measures cannot be relied on. Further investigation is needed to identify a suite of appropriate indicators for a national information and surveillance system.

  12. Contribution to the Diatom flora of Southern Africa. II. Diatoms from the Hog's Back Region of the Amatola Mountains, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malcolm, HG

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the diatoms flora of the Hog's Back region of the Amatola Mountains in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. These mountains form part of the Great winterberg Range which constitutes a portion of the escarpment...

  13. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

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    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Recreational Waters and Beach Sand in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

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    Akanbi, Olufemi Emmanuel; Njom, Henry Akum; Fri, Justine; Otigbu, Anthony C; Clarke, Anna M

    2017-09-01

    Background: Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to commonly used antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial-resistant determinants in nature, and the marine environment may serve as a reservoir for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study determined the antibiotic sensitivity profile of S.aureus isolated from selected beach water and intertidal beach sand in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: Two hundred and forty-nine beach sand and water samples were obtained from 10 beaches from April 2015 to April 2016. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the samples using standard microbiological methods and subjected to susceptibility testing to 15 antibiotics. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected by susceptibility to oxacillin and growth on Brilliance MRSA II agar. Antibiotic resistance genes including mecA, femA rpoB, blaZ, ermB, ermA, ermC, vanA, vanB, tetK and tetM were screened. Results: Thirty isolates (12.3%) were positive for S. aureus by PCR with over 50% showing phenotypic resistance to methicillin. Resistance of S. aureus to antibiotics varied considerably with the highest resistance recorded to ampicillin and penicillin (96.7%), rifampicin and clindamycin (80%), oxacillin (73.3%) and erythromycin (70%). S.aureus revealed varying susceptibility to imipenem (96.7%), levofloxacin (86.7%), chloramphenicol (83.3%), cefoxitin (76.7%), ciprofloxacin (66.7%), gentamycin (63.3%), tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (56.7%), and vancomycin and doxycycline (50%). All 30 (100%) S. aureus isolates showed multiple antibiotic-resistant patterns (resistant to three or more antibiotics). The mecA, femA, rpoB, blaZ, ermB and tetM genes were detected in 5 (22.7%), 16 (53.3%), 11 (45.8%), 16 (55.2%), 15 (71.4%), and 8 (72.7%) isolates respectively; Conclusions: Results from this study indicate that beach water and sand from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa may be potential

  15. Drought preparedness, impact and response: A case of the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa

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    Makala J. Ngaka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major disaster in South Africa in terms of total economic loss and number of people affected. This study investigated and analysed the preparedness, impact of and response by the farming community to the 2007/2008 drought using the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa as case studies. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in this study. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews with sampled recipients of the 2007/2008 drought relief scheme. These were analysed using MedCalc® software and various statistical tests and correlations were performed to test for statistical differences on key variables. Major findings of this study included inadequacy of the extension support service, particularly as a vehicle for disseminating early-warning information. The most significant impact was livestock losses, and t-test results supported the hypothesis that there was a significant difference in terms of drought impact for the three categories of farmers (i.e. small, medium and large scale, particularly with regard to the proportion of livestock lost. A Logit analysis showed that the decision to reduce livestock during drought was influenced by access to land and race. The main constraint to the drought relief scheme, as perceived by the respondents, was the turnaround time − they felt that the relief was provided long after the disaster had occurred.

  16. 'Secrets' that kill: crisis, custodianship and responsibility in ritual male circumcision in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Kepe, Thembela

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyses a tension between traditional leaders and the post-apartheid government in South Africa, concerning the crisis in ritual male circumcision. Over the last two decades, following ritual male circumcision, thousands of youth have been admitted to hospitals, hundreds have undergone penile amputations and hundreds have died. Following the government's intervention through legislation and other health measures, traditional leaders allege that this is a violation of cultural rights enshrined in the Constitution. Drawing on newspaper and journal articles, books, policy documents, and legislation, as well as informal interviews with initiates and their parents and field observations in the Eastern Cape Province (2002-2009), this paper explores the validity of the traditional leaders' challenge, arguing that the crisis in the ritual should be seen in a broader context than the tension between traditional leaders and the state. Finally, the paper argues the tension between traditional leaders and government, and the sensational reporting of this by the media, unfortunately takes away focus from the health crisis in the ritual.

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC PROPERTIES OF PENTANISIA PRUNELLOIDES FROM THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

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    Mathews, Miya Gugulethu; Ajayi, Oyemitan Idris; Opeoluwa, Oyedeji Oyehan; Oluwatobi, Oluwafemi Samuel; Benedicta N, Nkeh-Chungag; Phindile, Songca Sandile; Oyedeji; Omowumi, Adebola

    2016-01-01

    Pentanisia prunelloides is a medicinal plant widely used to remedy various ailments including infections, fever and rheumatism in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. There is scanty report on the phytochemical and biological properties of the plant; hence various solvent extracts of the dried plant materials were phytochemically screened, and its aqueous extract evaluated for acute toxicity effect, analgesic and antiinflammatory properties in rodents. Different extracts of both leaf and rhizome were obtained separately with ethanol, methanol and water. Portions of the filtrate were used for qualitative screening of secondary metabolites and remaining portions were concentrated and dried. Dried grounded leaf and rhizome of the plant were also used for quantitative screening for some major components. The aqueous extract of the leaf and rhizome were used for acute toxicity (LD50) test, antiinflammatory and analgesic activities in rodents. The qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of several phytoconstituents with saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids constituting highest constituents in the leaf and rhizome. The LD50: of the aqueous extracts (from leaf or rhizome) was found to be ≥5000 mg/kg orally. The leaf and rhizome aqueous extract (250-500 mg/kg) significantly (pantiinflammatory activities respectively. It is concluded that the leaf and rhizome of P. prunelloides are rich in various phytochemicals which could be associated with their medicinal uses. The aqueous leaf and rhizome extracts are similarly non-toxic orally, showed antiinflammatory and analgesic potentials thus rationalizing its use in folkloric medicine.

  18. Relating vegetation condition to grazing management systems in the central Keiskamma catchment, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Kakembo, Vincent; Ndou, Naledzani

    2017-04-01

    An investigation of the temporal changes in vegetation condition across the communal villages of the central Keiskamma catchment, Eastern Cape Province, in relation to local grazing management systems was conducted. Landsat TM images of 1984 and 1999, in conjunction with SPOT imagery of 2011 were used to assess the spatial trends in vegetation. Information regarding the functionality of local grazing management structures was obtained through structured interviews. Vegetation condition was related to grazing management systems using the logistic regression in Idrisi Selva remote sensing software. Analysis of vegetation condition trends revealed a consistent deterioration of vegetation condition in villages with weak grazing management systems. A statistically significant correlation between vegetation condition and grazing management systems was identified. High levels of vegetation degradation were associated with villages that did not adhere to sound grazing management practices. The introduction of another layer governance in the form of elected municipal committees weakened traditional village management structures. Strengthening traditional management committees should be the point of departure for vegetation restoration.

  19. Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Humberto Foyaca-Sibat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%-48%. Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%-71.9% and 69.2% (52.4%-83.0%, respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%-95.3% for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC

  20. Tick communities at the expanding wildlife / cattle interface in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : implications for Corridor disease

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    E.R. Smith

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Corridor disease, transmitted by the brown ear tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, is one of Africa's most pathogenic tick-borne diseases for cattle. With a focus on this species, we investigated the community parameters (richness, diversity and abundance of ticks in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, and how this may be linked to the increasing wildlife / cattle interface in the region. There were significantly more ticks of a greater diversity and richness at sites positioned at the wildlife / cattle interface ('treatment sites' compared to sites where wildlife was absent (controls. Significantly, R. appendiculatus was only found at the treatment sites. Therefore, it is believed that the wildlife / cattle interface may be playing a crucial role in increasing the occurrence, abundance and distribution of R. appendiculatus in the Eastern Cape. The implications of a Corridor disease outbreak in the region are discussed.

  1. Mapping Soil Erosion in a Quaternary Catchment in Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temp

    2017-04-06

    Apr 6, 2017 ... Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing ... Raster calculator in ArcMap10.2 was used to classify soil erosion features based on ..... in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa', Physics and Chemistry of the.

  2. ICT applications as e-health solutions in rural healthcare in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

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    Ruxwana, Nkqubela L; Herselman, Marlien E; Conradie, D Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions (e.g. e-health, telemedicine, e-education) are often viewed as vehicles to bridge the digital divide between rural and urban healthcare centres and to resolve shortcomings in the rural health sector. This study focused on factors perceived to influence the uptake and use of ICTs as e-health solutions in selected rural Eastern Cape healthcare centres, and on structural variables relating to these facilities and processes. Attention was also given to two psychological variables that may underlie an individual&s acceptance and use of ICTs: usefulness and ease of use. Recommendations are made with regard to how ICTs can be used more effectively to improve health systems at fi ve rural healthcare centres where questionnaire and interview data were collected: St. Lucy&s Hospital, Nessie Knight Hospital, the Tsilitwa Clinic, the Madzikane Ka-Zulu Memorial Hospital and the Nelson Mandela General Hospital.

  3. Occurrence of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in two commercial swine farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Iwu, Chinwe Juliana; Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2016-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most significant causes of food-borne infections capable of causing serious health complications in humans. Even though ruminants are known to be the major reservoirs of STEC, other non-ruminant food producing animals may also harbour pathogenic E. coli strains. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of E. coli serogroups O26, O111, O121, O145, and O157 and their associated virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA) in swine faecal samples obtained from the two major commercial farms located in the Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa. The proportions of serogroups detected were O26; 35 (7%), O145; 14 (2.8%), and O157:H7; 43 (8.6%) of the total animals sampled. Out of the 500 animals sampled, 22 isolates of E. coli (1.4%) tested positive for the stx2 gene, and 7 of these isolates belonged to E. coli O26 serogroup, while the remaining 15 most likely belonged to serogroups untargeted in this study. Other virulence genes (stx1, eae, and ehxA) that we screened for were not detected. These findings reveal that pigs within the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa can harbour Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

  4. Magnetic and Electromagnetic Signatures around Polile Tshisa Hot Spring in the Northern Neotectonic Belt in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Madi, Kakaba; Nyabeze, Peter K.; Gwavava, Oswald; Sekiba, Matome; Zhao, Baojin

    2016-08-01

    Finding productive boreholes in the Karoo fractured aquifers has never been an easy task. Fractured Karoo aquifers in the neotectonic zones in the Eastern Cape Province can be targeted for groundwater exploration. The Polile Tshisa hot spring is located in a seismo-tectonic region beset by neotectonics. Hot springs are indicative of circulation of groundwater at great depths along fault zones, and accordingly of neotectonics. The characterisation of hot springs by means of magnetic and electromagnetic methods can help infer the occurrence of structures which are favourable for groundwater potential. The Polile Tshisa hot spring is characterised by faults, fractures, and dolerite dykes. All these structures make the hot spring a good case study for groundwater exploration.

  5. Genetic profiling for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in ticks collected in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

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    Iweriebor, Benson C; Mmbaga, Elia J; Adegborioye, Abiodun; Igwaran, Aboi; Obi, Larry C; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-02-27

    Anaplasma and Ehrlichia are emerging tick-borne pathogens that cause anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in humans and other animals worldwide. Infections caused by these pathogens are deadly if left untreated. There has been relatively no systematic survey of these pathogens among ticks in South Africa, thus necessitating this study. The presence of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species were demonstrated by PCR in ticks collected from domestic ruminants at some selected communities in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. The ticks were identified by morphological characteristics and thereafter processed to extract bacterial DNA, which was analyzed for the presence of genetic materials of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia. Three genera of ticks comprising five species were identified. The screening yielded 16 positive genetic materials that were phylogenetically related to Ehrlichia sequences obtained from GenBank, while no positive result was obtained for Anaplasma. The obtained Ehrlichia sequences were closely related to E. chaffeensis, E. canis, E. muris and the incompletely described Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV and Ehrlichia sp. UFMT. The findings showed that ticks in the studied areas were infected with Ehrlichia spp. and that the possibility of transmission to humans who might be tick infested is high.

  6. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Hospital and Domestic Wastewater Effluents in Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Chuks Iweriebor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms are on the increase worldwide and are responsible for substantial cases of therapeutic failures. Resistance of species of Enterococcus to antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistance determinants in nature, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are considered to be one of the main reservoirs of such antibiotic resistant bacteria. We therefore determined the antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of some common Enterococcus spp that are known to be associated with human infections that were recovered from hospital wastewater and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant in Alice, Eastern Cape. Methods: Wastewater samples were simultaneously collected from two sites (Victoria hospital and final effluents of a municipal WWTP in Alice at about one to two weeks interval during the months of July and August 2014. Samples were screened for the isolation of enterococci using standard microbiological methods. The isolates were profiled molecularly after targeted generic identification and speciation for the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Results: Out of 66 presumptive isolates, 62 were confirmed to belong to the Enterococcus genusof which 30 were identified to be E. faecalis and 15 E. durans. The remaining isolates were not identified by the primers used in the screening procedure. Out of the six virulence genes that were targeted only three of them; ace, efaA, and gelE were detected. There was a very high phenotypic multiple resistance among the isolates and these were confirmed by genetic analyses. Conclusions: Analyses of the results obtained indicated that hospital wastewater may be one of the sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria to the receiving WWTP. Also, findings revealed that the final effluent discharged into the environment was contaminated with multi-resistant enterococci species thus

  7. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants: a survey of plants used in the ethnoveterinary control of gastro-intestinal parasites of goats in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphosa, Viola; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2010-06-01

    Conventional drugs have become expensive and therefore unaffordable to resource-limited farmers, causing farmers to seek low cost alternatives, such as use of medicinal plants. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to document information on medicinal plants used by farmers in the control of internal parasites in goats in the Eastern Cape Province. Structured questionnaires and general conversation were used to collect the information from farmers and herbalists. The survey revealed 28 plant species from 20 families that are commonly used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites in goats. The plant family Asphodelaceae was frequent in usage, comprising 21.4% of the plants, and the Aloe was the most utilized species (50%). Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts (45.9%), and decoctions constituted the majority of medicinal preparations (70%). Medicinal plants are generally used in combination with other plants, and/or non-plant substances, but a few plants are used on their own. These medicinal plant remedies are administered orally, mainly by use of bottles and this is done twice in summer at intervals of one month, only once in winter and when need arises thereafter. Some of the mentioned plants have been reported in literature to possess anthelmintic properties, while others possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, purgative, anti-edema to immuno-regulation. If their safety and efficacy could be confirmed, these plants could form an alternative cost effective strategy in managing helminthiasis in the province.

  8. Comparison of 3 tests to detect acaricide resistance in Boophilus decoloratus on dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mekonnen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the larval offspring of engorged female Boophilus decoloratus, and of the engorged females, collected from cattle on the dairy farms Brycedale, Sunny Grove and Welgevind in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, was tested against the acaricides amitraz, chlorfenvinphos and cypermethrin. Resistance was determined by means of the Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT for larvae and the Reproductive Estimate Test (RET and Egg Laying Test (ELT for adults. At Brycedale the tests all indicated resistance to chlorfenvinphos, and RET and ELT indicated resistance to amitraz and emerging resistance to cypermethrin. At Sunny Grove, B. decoloratus was resistant to cypermethrin using SLIT and exhibited emerging resistance to chlorfenvinphos with SLIT and to cypermethrin with both RET and ELT. At Welgevind, resistance was recorded against chlorfenvinphos (SLIT and against cypermethrin (ELT, and emerging resistance against permethrin (RET. The results obtained with RET and ELT were generally comparable, but often differed from those obtained with SLIT. Resistance could be detected within 7 days with ELT compared to 42 days with RET and 60 days with SLIT.

  9. Supporting Teacher Professional Development to Use Tablets in Resource Constrained Schools: A Case Study of Cofimvaba Schools, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Botha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of three years, 360 teachers at 26 resource constrained schools in Cofimvaba, which lies in the Nciba district of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, have received training on how to integrate mobile tablets in their classrooms to support teaching and learning. The training modules combined the use of teaching strategies and fun with practical hands-on exercises which can be used in any type of subject for any grade when training teachers. Teachers embarked on a learning path attached to badges to reward their efforts and evidence of how they have applied their training in their classrooms. The purpose of this paper is to share this novel approach to teacher training in a unique context where schools are deprived of resources but still managed to successfully integrate mobile tablets in their classroom practices. These practices have changed the way teachers teach from standing with a textbook and chalk in front of a class sitting in rows, to standing with a tablet and learners are engaged in group work and using the tablets as a resource in a disconnected environment. The success of these training modules lies in the application of an approach of teach with and not to, earn as you learn and not just give technology, respect and humility, flexibility, innovation, creativity and co-creation.

  10. Serum Oxidized LDL Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy in Mthatha Region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

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    Farzana Ganjifrockwala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL is a powerful natural prooxidant derived from native LDL by cell-mediated oxidation. Such oxidation occurs more easily in glycated LDL as observed in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated and compared selected biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant (TAO levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with and without retinopathy in the Mthatha region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The participants totaled to 140 and this number comprised 98 diabetic patients on treatment, stratified by diabetes (54 and diabetes with retinopathy (44. Forty-two nondiabetic healthy controls made up the 140. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, lipid profile, serum ox-LDL, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, and TAO levels were measured. A statistically significant increase in FPG, HbA1c, TBARS, and ox-LDL and a significant decrease in TAO levels were seen in T2DM patients with retinopathy as compared to controls. A significant negative correlation was observed between TAO and ox-LDL levels in the diabetic group. In multiple linear regression analyses, duration of diabetes, triglyceride, TAO, and LDL cholesterol were found to be significantly associated with ox-LDL. In multiple logistic regression analyses, ox-LDL [OR 1.02 (1.01–1.03, P=0.005] was the only risk factor and was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy.

  11. Perceived causes, diagnosis and treatment of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle by livestock farmers in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Masika

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceived causes, diagnosis and treatment of redwater (babesiosis and gallsickness (anaplasmosis in cattle by livestock farmers in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape Province were investigated by means of participatory methods, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey. Most livestock owners relate the causes of these diseases to excessive grazing of lush green grass, which is thought to bring about an accumulation of bile in the body. The majority of livestock owners diagnose gallsickness and redwater on the basis of presenting signs and post mortem findings. Eighty nine percent of a total of 343 livestock owners participating in the study claimed to administer herbal remedies to treat the 2 tick-borne diseases; 75 % of these combine herbal remedies with conventional medicines and 25 % use herbal remedies only. Application of herbal remedies was reportedly aimed mainly at the removal of excess bile. However, some plant species used to prepare herbal remedies are reported to possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-pyretic and purgative, and may be effective in the treatment of gallsickness and redwater. A lack of understanding of the causes and transmission of gallsickness and redwater, leading to ill-directed treatment, and widespread deviation from the directions of use when administering conventional medicines, were identified as problems that could be addressed by farmer training and the supply of appropriate information.

  12. How front-line healthcare workers respond to stock-outs of essential medicines in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, R; Price, I; Bungane, N; Toska, E; Cluver, L

    2017-08-25

    Shortages of essential medicines are a daily occurrence in many of South Africa (SA)'s public health facilities. This study focuses on the responses of healthcare workers to stock-outs, investigating how actors at the 'front line' of public health delivery understand, experience and respond to shortages of essential medicines and equipment in their facilities. Findings are based on focus groups, observations and interviews with healthcare workers and patients at healthcare facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of SA, conducted as part of the Mzantsi Wakho study. The research revealed a discrepancy between 'informal' definitions of stock-outs and their reporting through formal stock-out management channels. Front-line healthcare workers had designed their own systems for classifying the severity of stock-outs, based on the product in question, and on their potential to access stocks from other facilities. Beyond formal systems of procurement and supply, healthcare workers had established vast networks of alternative communication and action, often using personal resources to procure medical supplies. Stock-outs were only reported when informal methods of stock-sharing did not secure top-up supplies. These findings have implications for understanding the frequency and severity of stock-outs, and for taking action to prevent and manage stock-outs effectively.

  13. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVI. Oestrid fly larvae of sheep, goats, springbok and black wildebeest in the Eastern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G

    2005-12-01

    Merino sheep in Thornveld, Dorper sheep and Angora goats in inland Valley Bushveld, Angora goats and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau, and springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis, and black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou, in Karroid Mountainveld, all in the Eastern Cape Province, were examined for the larvae of nasal bot flies. The sheep and goats were infested with the larvae of Oestrus ovis, and Dorper sheep and Boer goats harboured more larvae than Angora goats on the same farms. Most infestation was present from November to May in Merino sheep in Thornveld, from February to June in Dorper sheep in inland Valley Bushveld, and from May to September in Angora and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau. These patterns of seasonality appeared to be regulated by the severity of the summer temperatures at the various localities. The springbok were infested with the larvae of Rhinoestrus antidorcitis, most of which seemed to mature from June to August. All larval sages of Oestrus variolosus and Gedoelstia hässleri were present in the black wildebeest, and large numbers of 1st instar larvae of G. hässleri appeared to accumulate on the dura of the wildebeest from June to August.

  14. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVI. Oestrid fly larvae of sheep, goats, springbok and black wildebeest in the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Merino sheep in Thornveld, Dorper sheep and Angora goats in inland Valley Bushveld, Angora goats and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau, and springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis, and black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou, in Karroid Mountainveld, all in the Eastern Cape Province, were examined for the larvae of nasal bot flies. The sheep and goats were infested with the larvae of Oestrus ovis, and Dorper sheep and Boer goats harboured more larvae than Angora goats on the same farms. Most infestation was present from November to May in Merino sheep in Thornveld, from February to June in Dorper sheep in inland Valley Bushveld, and from May to September in Angora and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau. These patterns of seasonality appeared to be regulated by the severity of the summer temperatures at the various localities. The springbok were infested with the larvae of Rhinoestrus antidorcitis, most of which seemed to mature from June to August. All larval sages of Oestrus variolosus and Gedoelstia hässleri were present in the black wildebeest, and large numbers of 1st instar larvae of G. hässleri appeared to accumulate on the dura of the wildebeest from June to August.

  15. Palaemon pacijicus (Stimpson) in eastern Cape tidal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-09-25

    Sep 25, 1984 ... pools, estuaries and in near -shore waters of the eastern Cape ... growth, ~ Wt is the increase in shrimp mean mass over time .... females were plotted to show changes in population structure ..... Monthly plankton tows in.

  16. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Gareth F; Penrith, Mary-Louise; Leask, Rhoda

    2016-08-31

    A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities.

  17. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth F. Bath

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities.

  18. Antioxidant and phytochemical properties of Carpobrotus edulis (L. bolus leaf used for the management of common infections in HIV/AIDS patients in Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoruyi Beauty E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpobrotus edulis (Mesembryanthemaceae, also known as igcukuma in Xhosa language is a medicinal plant used by the traditional healers to treat common infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Based on this information, we researched on the plant phytoconstituents, as well as its inhibitory effect using aqueous and three different organic solvent extracts in order to justify its therapeutic usage. Methods Antioxidant activity of the extracts were investigated spectrophotometrically against 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS diammonium salt, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, nitric oxide (NO, and ferric reducing power, Total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, tannins, alkaloids and saponins were also determined using the standard methods. Results Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the four solvent extracts revealed a high percentage of phenolics (55.7 ± 0.404% in the acetone extract, with appreciable amount of proanthocyanidins (86.9 ± 0.005% and alkaloids (4.5 ± 0.057% in the aqueous extract, while tannin (48.9 ± 0.28% and saponin (4.5 ± 0.262% were major constituents of the ethanol extract. Flavonoids (0.12 ± 0.05% and flavonols (0.12 ± 0.05% were found at higher level in the hexane extract in comparison with the other extracts. The leaf extracts demonstrated strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, with the exception of water and ethanol extracts. IC50 values of the aqueous and ethanolic extract against DPPH, ABTS, and NO were 0.018 and 0.016; 0.020 and 0.022; 0.05 and 0.023 mg/ml, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. Conclusion The inhibitory effect of the extracts on free radicals may justify the traditional use of this plant in the management of common diseases in HIV/AIDs patients in Eastern Cape Province. Overall, both aqueous and ethanol were found to be the best

  19. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates from a public tertiary teaching hospital in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnge, P; Okeleye, B I; Vasaikar, S D; Apalata, T

    2017-05-15

    Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections, and over the past decade there has been an increased isolation of drug resistant Candida species. This study aimed to identify the species distribution of Candida isolates and to determine their unique antifungal susceptibility and resistance patterns. During a cross-sectional study, 209 Candida isolates (recovered from 206 clinical samples) were collected and their species distribution was determined using ChromAgar Candida. The Vitek-2 system (Biomerieux, South Africa) was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azoles (fluconazole, voriconazole), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin), polyenes (amphotericin B) and flucytosine. Four species of Candida were isolated, of which C. albicans was the most frequent, isolated in 45.4% (95/209) of the isolates, followed by C. glabrata: 31.1% (65/209). The MICs of the different antifungal drugs varied amongst the species of Candida. From the 130 isolates tested for MICs, 90.77% (112/130) were susceptible to all antifungal drugs and 6.9% (9/130) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. C. dubliniensis (n=2) isolates were susceptible to all the above mentioned antifungal drugs. There was no significant difference in species distribution amongst clinical specimens and between patients' genders (P>0.05). An increase in MIC values for fluconazole and flucytosine towards the resistance range was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surveillance of Candida species distribution and antifungal susceptibility at a public tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

  20. Diatoms of the marine littoral of Steenberg's cove in St. Helena Bay, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malcolm, HG

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of previous investigation of the marine littoral of the South African coast, the author has made observations at the various localities along the shores of the Eastern Cape Province. All these stations are situated along the shores...

  1. Notes on Ceramiaceae (Rhodophyta) from the eastern Cape Province, South Africa. II. Zonariophila semiendophytica nov. gen., nov. spec., a minute epi/endophyte of Zonaria subarticulata (Lamour.) Papenf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, H.; Kemperman, Th.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    Zonariophila semiendophytica is described as a new genus and species from the coast of the East Cape, South Africa. It is characterized by a single large elongate basal cell immersed in the thallus of Zonaria subarticulata (Lamour.) Papenf.; this laterally compressed cell gives rise, on both edges,

  2. Incidence and Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis E Virus from Swine in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusesan Adeyemi Adelabu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus-mediated infection is a serious public health concern in economically developing nations of the world. Globally, four major genotypes of HEV have been documented. Hepatitis E has been suggested to be zoonotic owing to the increase of evidence through various studies. Thus far, this paper reports on prevalence of hepatitis E virus among swine herd in selected communal and commercial farms in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A total of 160 faecal samples were collected from swine herds in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities of Eastern Cape Province for the presence of HEV. Of the 160 faecal samples screened, only seven were positive (4.4% for HEV. The nucleotide sequences analyses revealed the isolates as sharing 82% to 99% identities with other strains (KX896664, KX896665, KX896666, KX896667, KX896668, KX896669, and KX896670 from different regions of the world. We conclude that HEV is present among swine in the Eastern Cape Province, albeit in low incidence, and this does have public health implications. There is a need for maintenance of high hygienic standards in order to prevent human infections through swine faecal materials and appropriate cooking of pork is highly advised.

  3. THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARC-Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Private Bag X293, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. 'Bathurst ... forecast a possibility of major shortage in basic energy foods in South ..... adaptation to cooler weather, and would enable.

  4. STRATEGIC MILITARY COLONISATION: THE CAPE EASTERN FRONTIER 1806–1872

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Oranje

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi met, and in many respects, key decisions taken on this frontier were seminal in the shaping of South Africa. This article seeks to analyse this frontier in a spatial manner, to analyse how British settlement patterns on the ground were influenced by strategy and policy. The time frame of the study reflects the truly imperial colonial era, from the second British occupation of the Cape colony in 1806 until representative self-governance of the Cape colony in 1872.

  5. Age and origin of cold climate landforms from the Eastern Cape Drakensberg, southern Africa: palaeoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stephanie C.; Barrows, Timothy T.; Fifield, L. Keith

    2014-05-01

    Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Journal of Quaternary Science 16, 365-374.

  6. Exploring recruitment and selection trends in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit J. Louw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The recruitment, selection and development of suitable candidates are crucial strategic functions to ensure the competitiveness of corporate and public sector organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether targeted organisations have a clear recruitment and selection policy by means of a preliminary exploratory study. In addition to this, the objective was the need to establish the various techniques or methods in use to recruit and select candidates for vacant posts. Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the trends in the application of recruitment and selection methods within the Eastern Cape. Research design, approach and method: This study has a non-experimental design. Methodological processes followed a qualitative and quantitative mixed approach. Structured interviews were used to collect data followed by a descriptive statistical analysis, summary and interpretation of results. Main findings: Whereas newspaper advertising and recruitment agencies are the most popular recruitment methods, the application blank and interviews were mostly preferred for selection purposes. Although assessment centres and psychological assessments were also regarded as popular selection methods, assessment centres were; however, the most prominent selection method to follow of the above two mentioned selection methods. Practical/managerial implications: The research findings could provide corporate leaders and their human resource functionaries with a theoretical pointer relative to recruitment and selection trends within the Province which could guide more effective skills attraction and selection decisions. Contribution/value-add: The study provided valuable strategic information to improve on organisational competiveness via effective recruitment and selection processes. In addition, training and educational programmes could eventually fill the needs and gaps identified in

  7. Farmers’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Cattle Adaptation to Heat Stress and Tick Resistance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4...

  8. Comparative study of the topography and sediments of the western and eastern continental shelves around Cape Comorin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Kidwai, R.M.; Nair, R.R.

    Western and eastern continental shelves around Cape Comorin show 3 well-defined regions of depositional environments each having its own characteric features. The environments extend from Cochin to Quilon Quilon to Cape Comorin and Cape Comorin...

  9. An investigation into possibilities for implementation of a virtual community of practice delivered via a mobile social network for rural community media in the Eastern Cape South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how a virtual community of practice can be delivered via a mobile social networking framework to support rural community media in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The article...

  10. Description of four new species of Gulella Pfeiffer, 1856 from Eastern Cape, South Africa, with additional notes on two poorly known species (Mollusca: Eupulmonata: Streptaxidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, M.L.; Herbert, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Gulella bruggeni spec. nov., G. bomvana spec. nov., G. tietzae spec. nov. and G. ndibo spec. nov. are described from the Transkei region of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. All are minute, smooth-shelled species with complex apertural dentition. Due to their limited ranges and continuing decline

  11. Coping, stress and suicide ideation in the South African Police Service in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Meyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between coping and stress on the one hand and suicide ideation among police members on the other. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The study population (N = 307 consisted of uniformed police members in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The COPE, Police Stress Inventory, Adult Suicide Ideation Questionnaire and a Biographical Questionnaire were used as measuring instruments. The results showed that passive coping strategies are related to suicide ideation. A discriminant analysis showed that suicide attempt, passive coping strategies, medical conditions, use of alcohol, problem-focused coping strategies and police-specific demands correctly classified 64.29 per cent of participants who scored high on suicide ideation.

  12. Flora of the Kap River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Cloete

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis ot the flora of the newly proclaimed Kap River Reserve (600 ha is given. The reserve is adjacent to the Fish River and some 5 km from the Fish River Mouth It consists of a coastal plateau up to 100 m a.s.I. which is steeply dissected by the two rivers that partially form the boundary of the reserve. The flora of the reserve was sampled over a period o f three years and plants were collected in all the vegetation types of grassland, thicket and forest. 488 species were collected with a species to family ratio of 4:4. The majority of the taxa recorded represent the major phytochoria of the region. Nineteen species are endemic to the Eastern Cape, two are classed as vulnerable, five are rare, six are protected and a further seventeen are of uncertain status. The flora of the Kap River has closest affinities to that of the Alexandria Forest.

  13. Ethical business practices in the Eastern Cape automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Lloyd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High profile scandals have brought about a renewed interest in business ethics and, in particular, inunderstanding the factors that promote ethical behaviour. Business ethics is about identifying andimplementing values, rules and standards of conduct for guiding morally right behaviour in an organisation’sinteraction with its stakeholders. Against this background a quantitative analysis of the ethical practices of46 companies operating in the Eastern Cape automotive industry was conducted to determine the extent towhich ethics-related interventions contributed to establishing and maintaining an ethical organisationalenvironment. A structured online questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data collected wassubjected to extensive statistical analyses, including Cronbach Alpha coefficients and item total correlations,and various descriptive statistics were included as a quantitative summary of the data. A constant referencevalue for the study was also calculated to allow inferences regarding the significance of the tested variablesto the study. The results revealed that the organisations in the sample are highly ethical due to the presenceof ethics-related interventions, including a code of ethics, committed leadership, adherence to internal andexternal governance requirements, compliance with legislation and encouragement and disclosure ofunethical behaviour. In light of the high number of ethical scandals internationally, this study will add to theempirical body of business ethics research, as it provides organisations with a framework to establish andmaintain an ethical business environment.

  14. Surficial Sediment Distributions off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts (CC_SEDDIST.SHP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set shows the distribution of surficial sediments offshore of northern and eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This interpretation is based on data collected...

  15. Kalkkop Crater, Cape Province, South Africa: Confirmation of impact origin using osmium isotope systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Shirey, Steven B.; le Roux, F. G.

    1994-02-01

    The Kalkkop structure, a circular depression with a diameter of 640 m, is situated in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. In 1992, a bore hole was drilled in the center of the crater to a depth of 151.8 m. To assess a possible impact origin of this structure, the abundances and isotopic ratios of osmium and rhenium were measured in breccias and in sandstones and shales derived from the basement. The basement rocks show rhenium and osmium abundances and isotopic compositions of osmium and neodymium ( 187Os /188Os = 0.61 to 0.92 and ɛNd = -6 to-7) that are typical for continental crust. One of the breccia samples shows a significantly elevated osmium content and a much lower ( 187Os /188Os ratio of about 0.215 (( 187Os /188Os ratio = 1.79 ). This ratio is much closer to meteoritic compositions than to crust, indicating the presence of about 0.05% of an extraterrestrial component in the breccia. This is the first time that osmium isotope systematics have been used to confirm the impact origin of a crater structure, and demonstrates their sensitivity for impact studies.

  16. Black economic empowerment in the Eastern Cape automotive industry: Challenges and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Horn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs in South Africa are under pressure to meet the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE policies and charters of the South African government by giving BEE suppliers additional opportunities to tender. However, many BEE suppliers, due to being historically disadvantaged, experience various problems which make it difficult for them to win tenders, including lack of finances, opportunities to tender and management and business skills, and problems with quality and capacity. This paper outlines these practical problems experienced by BEE suppliers, the effects of these problems on risk and complexity in the South African automotive industry and policies that address these problems and assist BEE suppliers to become A-rated suppliers. Data for the paper was obtained from interviews with: senior employees of the AIDC involved with supplier development training; middle managers of supplier quality and development departments at the three OEMs in the Eastern Cape Province; and BEE and small suppliers identified to undergo AIDC training. The findings of the study are that unless sufficient training is given to BEE and potential BEE suppliers, supply to OEMs will remain in the hands of existing established suppliers and very little transformation will occur within the automobile industry in South Africa.

  17. The diet of brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea in Shamwari Game Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Slater

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea were introduced to Shamwari Game Reserve in the Eastern Cape Province during 2002, but their feeding ecology is poorly understood. Feeding observations of brown hyaena by field guides and the collection of 31 scats from the study area took place over an 11 month period. Standard techniques were used to analyse the scats and identify prey items present. Ten dietary categories were identified from the scats, with a mean of 3.2 dietary categories per scat. Large mammal remains were found in 30 of the 31 scats, with kudu being the most abundant (61.0% of scats. Overall the two methods indicated at least 14 mammal species being fed on by the brown hyaena. The presence of mainly large mammal remains and invertebrates (in 38.7% of all scats, together with the feeding observations of mainly large mammals by field guides, suggests that brown hyaena in Shamwari are mainly scavengers and that sufficient carrion is available, thereby reducing the need for them to hunt. A 52.0% occurrence of plant matter was found in the scats, suggesting that plant material is an important component of their diet. Further studies are underway to investigate the feeding ecology of brown hyaena in Shamwari and surrounding areas.Conservation implications: Comprehensive scat analysis over a number of years, monitoring of individual movement patterns and population numbers of brown hyaena in and around conservation areas will be beneficial in quantifying resource use of this species.

  18. Late quaternary paleotemperatures derived from a speleothem from Cango caves, Cape Province, South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Talma, AS

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available An oxygen isotope temperature record over a large part of the past 30,000 yr has been obtained for the southern Cape Province of South Africa by combining data on the isotopic composition of a stalagmite from a deep cave with that of a confined...

  19. strategic military colonisation: the cape eastern frontier 1806 – 1872

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linda

    British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern ... In brief, the history can be explained as initially a conflict ..... were breached and 400 women and children were taken into custody. .... Approach, methodology and impact”.

  20. The biomes of the eastern Cape with emphasis on their conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Lubke

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The four major phytochoria of southern Africa, the Cape. Tongoland-Pondoland. Karoo-Namib and Afromontane regions, converge in the complex transition zone of the eastern Cape. The area is rich in species and communities with a complex vegetation in which are represented all the major vegetation formations of southern Africa — Cape Fynbos. Cape Transitional Shrublands, Subtropical Thicket. Karoo, Savanna, Afromontane Forest, Grasslands and Littoral Strand Vegetation. Our results support previous findings that, although species-rich and of great diversity, the flora has fewer endemics (205 or 5,6% than the Cape (73% or Karoo-Namib (35%.  The communities with the largest proportion of endemics (30%, and threatened plants (18% are those of the Subtropical Thicket. On the basis of these data and an index of conserv ation status, the Subtropical Thicket was determined to be highest on the priority list for conservation in the eastern Cape. Subtropical Thicket is being cleared at an increasing rate and is most vulnerable due to changing farming practice.

  1. The biomes of the eastern Cape with emphasis on their conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Lubke

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The four major phytochoria of southern Africa, the Cape. Tongoland-Pondoland. Karoo-Namib and Afromontane regions, converge in the complex transition zone of the eastern Cape. The area is rich in species and communities with a complex vegetation in which are represented all the major vegetation formations of southern Africa — Cape Fynbos. Cape Transitional Shrublands, Subtropical Thicket. Karoo, Savanna, Afromontane Forest, Grasslands and Littoral Strand Vegetation. Our results support previous findings that, although species-rich and of great diversity, the flora has fewer endemics (205 or 5,6% than the Cape (73% or Karoo-Namib (35%.  The communities with the largest proportion of endemics (30%, and threatened plants (18% are those of the Subtropical Thicket. On the basis of these data and an index of conserv ation status, the Subtropical Thicket was determined to be highest on the priority list for conservation in the eastern Cape. Subtropical Thicket is being cleared at an increasing rate and is most vulnerable due to changing farming practice.

  2. Individual- and Neighbourhood-Level Indicators of Subjective Well-Being in a Small and Poor Eastern Cape Township: The Effect of Health, Social Capital, Marital Status, and Income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); V. Møller (Valerie); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOur study used multilevel regression analysis to identify individual- and neighbourhood-level factors that determine individual-level subjective well-being in Rhini, a deprived suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The Townsend index and Gini coefficient wer

  3. Individual- and Neighbourhood-Level Indicators of Subjective Well-Being in a Small and Poor Eastern Cape Township: The Effect of Health, Social Capital, Marital Status, and Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, J. M.; Moller, V.; Nieboer, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Our study used multilevel regression analysis to identify individual- and neighbourhood-level factors that determine individual-level subjective well-being in Rhini, a deprived suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The Townsend index and Gini coefficient were used to investigate whether contextual neighbourhood-level…

  4. Private sector community forestry partnerships in the Eastern Cape – Lambazi case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sisitka, L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This Umzimkulu case study forms part of a broader investigation into community – private sector forestry partnerships in the Eastern Cape. This provincial study in turn, contributes to one of the three major research themes of a wider national...

  5. Private-sector community forestry partnerships in the Eastern Cape – Overview report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available ..............................................................................................6 2.3 Tourism development ............................................................................................7 2.4 Agricultural Sector..................................................................................................9 2... in the Eastern Cape have been managed by the provincial Department of Economic Affairs, Environment and Tourism through its Nature Conservation directorate. To date there has been little opportunity for the private sector or communities to take an active role...

  6. Eastern Cape hybrid mini-grid systems - a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -GRID SYSTEMS A CASE STUDY WIND POWER AFRICA 2010 S Szewczuk CSIR May 2010 PRESENTATION OUTLINE • Rationale for Projects • Renewable Energy for Rural Electrification in E Cape • Integrated Energy/Economic Framework • Hybrid mini-grid energy systems... • Impact of research work RATIONALE FOR OFF-GRID PROJECTS • Poverty Reduction: • Sustainable economic and social benefits • Meeting of Millennium Development Goals • Appropriate technology choice: • 500 million African people without access to modern...

  7. Toxoplasmosis in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the Cape Hyrax, Procavis capensis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly1,4, Nagwan El-Habashi2, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass3,4, Hiroki Sakai4 and Tokuma Yanai4,*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis was investigated in an eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, and four cape hyraxes, Procavia capensis, in a Japanese zoo. Clinically, the kangaroo showed neurological signs, emaciation, diarrhea, elevated AST and CK, and subjected to coma before death. One young cape hyrax had severe anorexia, while the other three died without exhibiting clinical signs. Grossly, lungs of the kangaroo were dark red in color, while hyraxes, besides, showed hepatic multifocal white foci, and intestinal multifocal hemorrhages. Histologically, the kangaroo had frequent Toxoplasma gondii pseudocysts in brain, heart and skeletal muscles. All hyraxes had multifocal necrosis with cysts containing numerous bradyzoites in liver and spleen, along with necrotic gastroenteritis and intestinal hemorrhages. Immunohistochemically, cysts showed positive reaction to anti-T. gondii antibodies. These findings indicate possible outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes, zoo habitants; therefore, they could be susceptible intermediate hosts for T. gondii in terms of zoonosis. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes in Japanese zoos.

  8. Unpacking the geography of tourism innovation in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booyens Irma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the geography of tourism innovation in the Western Cape, South Africa. In particular, innovations by tourism firms are mapped and local tourism innovation networks are analysed. Networking behaviour is examined since it is regarded as indispensable for accessing knowledge and learning for innovation purposes. The analysis draws on a broader investigation of tourism innovation and networking within the Western Cape province. It is revealed that the main tourist regions in the Western Cape are also the most innovative. Whilst external networking relations are observed to be highly significant for tourism innovation, local embeddedness remains critical for stimulating path creation and exploiting local core competencies for the competitiveness and survival of tourism firms and destinations.

  9. The symptom experience of people living with HIV and AIDS in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaswana-Mafuya Nancy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptom management for persons living with HIV (PLHIV or AIDS is an important part of care management. Limited information about symptom prevalence exists about HIV infected persons in South Africa, in particular in the context of antiretroviral treatment (ART. The aim of this study was to assess HIV symptoms and demographic, social and disease variables of people living with HIV in South Africa. Methods In 2007 607 PLHIV, sampled by all districts in the Eastern Cape Province and recruited through convenience sampling, were interviewed by PLHIV at health facilities, key informants in the community and support groups. Results Two-thirds of the PLHIV (66% classified themselves with being given an AIDS (advanced stage of HIV diagnosis, 48% were currently on ART, 35% were currently on a disability grant for HIV/AIDS and for 13% the disability grant had been stopped. Participants reported that on the day of the interview, they were experiencing an average of 26.1 symptoms out of a possible 64. In a regression model with demographic and social variables, higher HIV symptom levels were associated with lower educational levels, higher age, urban residence and not on a disability grant, lack of enough food and having a health insurance, and in a regression model with demographic, social and disease variables only being on ART, lack of enough food and having a health insurance were associated with HIV symptoms. Conclusion Symptom assessment provides information that may be valuable in evaluating AIDS treatment regimens and defining strategies to improve quality of life. Because of the high levels of symptoms reported, the results imply an urgent need for effective health care, home- and community-based as well as self-care symptom management to help patients and their families manage and control AIDS symptoms.

  10. Barriers to accessing and receiving mental health care in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Isabell; Johansson, Peter; Andersson, Lena; van Rooyen, Dalena

    2013-12-12

    The right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health is enshrined in many international human rights treaties. However, studies have shown that people with mental disabilities are often marginalized and discriminated against in the fulfillment of their right to health. The aim of this study is to identify and reach a broader understanding of barriers to the right to mental health in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Eleven semi-structured interviews were carried out with health professionals and administrators. The researchers used the Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability, and Quality (AAAQ) framework from the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to structure and analyze the material. The framework recognizes these four interrelated and partly overlapping elements as necessary for implementation of the right to health. The study identifies eleven barriers to the enjoyment of the right to health for people with mental disabilities. Three categories of barriers relate to availability: lack of staff, lack of facilities, and lack of community services and preventive care. Four barriers relate to accessibility: lack of transport, lack of information, stigmatization, and traditional cultural beliefs of the community. Two barriers relate to acceptability: lack of cross-cultural understanding among staff and traditional cultural beliefs of staff. Finally, two barriers relate to quality: lack of properly trained staff and lack of organizational capacity. The results, in line with earlier research, indicate that the implementation of the right to health for people with mental disabilities is far from achieved in South Africa. The findings contribute to monitoring the right to mental health in South Africa through the identification of barriers to the right to health and by indicating the importance of building monitoring procedures based on the experiences and knowledge of staff involved in mental health

  11. The symptom experience of people living with HIV and AIDS in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2008-12-22

    Symptom management for persons living with HIV (PLHIV) or AIDS is an important part of care management. Limited information about symptom prevalence exists about HIV infected persons in South Africa, in particular in the context of antiretroviral treatment (ART). The aim of this study was to assess HIV symptoms and demographic, social and disease variables of people living with HIV in South Africa. In 2007 607 PLHIV, sampled by all districts in the Eastern Cape Province and recruited through convenience sampling, were interviewed by PLHIV at health facilities, key informants in the community and support groups. Two-thirds of the PLHIV (66%) classified themselves with being given an AIDS (advanced stage of HIV) diagnosis, 48% were currently on ART, 35% were currently on a disability grant for HIV/AIDS and for 13% the disability grant had been stopped. Participants reported that on the day of the interview, they were experiencing an average of 26.1 symptoms out of a possible 64. In a regression model with demographic and social variables, higher HIV symptom levels were associated with lower educational levels, higher age, urban residence and not on a disability grant, lack of enough food and having a health insurance, and in a regression model with demographic, social and disease variables only being on ART, lack of enough food and having a health insurance were associated with HIV symptoms. Symptom assessment provides information that may be valuable in evaluating AIDS treatment regimens and defining strategies to improve quality of life. Because of the high levels of symptoms reported, the results imply an urgent need for effective health care, home- and community-based as well as self-care symptom management to help patients and their families manage and control AIDS symptoms.

  12. Invasive alien woody plants of the eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 69.9% (151/216 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 101 species of which the most prominent (in order of prominence in roadside and veld habitats were:  Opuntia ficus-indica, Acacia meamsii and A. cyclops. The most prominent species (in order of prominence in streambank habitats were:  A. meamsii, Populus x  canescens, Salix babylonica and  S. fragilis (fide R.D. Meikle.The greatest intensity of invasion was recorded in the wetter eastern parts and particularly in the vicinity of Port Elizabeth. Uitenhage, East London, Grahamstown, Hogsback and Stutterheim. There was relatively little invasion in the central and western dry interior except along watercourses.

  13. Desertification of subtropical thicket in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: Are there alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, G I; Knight, M H; de Kock, M

    1995-01-01

    The Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket (ECST) froms the transition between forest, semiarid karroid shrublands, and grassland in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Undegraded ECST forms an impenetrable, spiny thicket up to 3 m high consisting of a wealth of growth forms, including evergreen plants, succulent and deciduous shrubs, lianas, grasses, and geophytes. The thicket dynamics are not well understood, but elephants may have been important browsers and patch disturbance agents. These semiarid thickets have been subjected to intensive grazing by domestic ungulates, which have largely replaced indigenous herbivores over the last 2 centuries. Overgrazing has extensively degraded vegetation, resulting in the loss of phytomass and plant species and the replacement of perennials by annuals. Coupled with these changes are alterations of soil structure and secondary productivity. This rangeland degradation has largely been attributed to pastoralism with domestic herbivores. The impact of indigenous herbivores differs in scale, intensity, and nature from that of domestic ungulates. Further degradation of the ECST may be limited by alternative management strategies, including the use of wildlife for meat production and ecotourism. Producing meat from wildlife earns less income than from domestic herbivores but is ecologically sustainable. The financial benefits of game use can be improved by developing expertise, technology, and marketing. Ecotourism is not well developed in the Eastern Cape although the Addo Elephant National Park is a financial success and provides considerable employment benefits within an ecologically sustainable system. The density of black rhinoceros and elephant in these thickets is among the highest in Africa, with high population growth and the lowest poaching risk. The financial and ecological viability of ecotourism and the conservation status of these two species warrant expanding ecotourism in the Eastern Cape, thereby reducing the probability of

  14. A new Cyrtanthus species(Amaryllidaceae: Cyrtantheae endemic to the Albany Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtanthus macmasteri Snijman is a rare new species from the Albany Centre of endemism. Eastern Cape. South Africa. Most closely related to C.  galpinii Baker, and autumn-flowering species with a single or rarely-flowered inflorescence from the northern regions of southern Africa. C macmasteri is distinguished by a 3 to 6-flowered inflorescence. It grows on steep banks of the Great Kei River and its tributaries and flowers in summer.

  15. A new Cyrtanthus species(Amaryllidaceae: Cyrtantheae endemic to the Albany Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtanthus macmasteri Snijman is a rare new species from the Albany Centre of endemism. Eastern Cape. South Africa. Most closely related to C.  galpinii Baker, and autumn-flowering species with a single or rarely-flowered inflorescence from the northern regions of southern Africa. C macmasteri is distinguished by a 3 to 6-flowered inflorescence. It grows on steep banks of the Great Kei River and its tributaries and flowers in summer.

  16. Sedimentary Environments of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts (CC_ENVIRON.SHP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes the sedimentary environments for the sea floor offshore of northern and eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This interpretation is based on data...

  17. Sedimentary Environments of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts (CC_ENVIRON.SHP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes the sedimentary environments for the sea floor offshore of northern and eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This interpretation is based on data...

  18. Quality service delivery for the community, by the community: an innovative Eastern Cape infrastructure and job creation success

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of pilot projects in the Eastern Cape have demonstrated how the institutionally innovative and very practical social franchising partnership approach can successfully be used for the routine maintenance of low-technology water...

  19. Coping, stress and suicide ideation in the South African Police Services in the Eastern Cape / René Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, René

    2002-01-01

    The suicide rate in the South African Police Services is relatively high compared with other suicide statistics. The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between coping, stress and suicide ideation within the SAPS in the Eastern Cape. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The study population consisted of 307 uniformed police members from the job level of constable to that of senior superintendent in the Eastern Cape. The COPE Questionnaire, Police Stres...

  20. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  1. Heavy metal contamination of vegetables cultivated in home gardens in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callistus Bvenura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of some essential (copper, manganese and zinc and toxic metals (lead and cadmium in cultivated vegetables – Brassica oleracea (cabbage, Daucus carota (carrot, Allium cepa (onion, Spinacia oleracea(spinach and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato – was examined. The vegetables were locally cultivated in home gardens in Alice, a small town in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Samples of these vegetables were randomly collected from residential areas, dried, digested and analysed for the heavy metals using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The concentrations of heavy metals in the vegetables were in the range of 0.01 mg/kg – 1.12 mg/kg dry weight for cadmium, 0.92 mg/kg – 9.29 mg/kg for copper, 0.04 mg/kg – 373.38 mg/kg for manganese and 4.27 mg/kg – 89.88 mg/kg for zinc. Lead was undetectable in all the samples. Results of analysis of soils from the area revealed that cadmium in soil was in the range of 0.01 mg/kg – 0.08 mg/kg, copper levels were 4.95 mg/kg – 7.66 mg/kg, lead levels were 5.15 mg/kg – 14.01 mg/kg and zinc levels were 15.58 mg/kg – 53.01 mg/kg. The concentration of manganese was the highest of all the metals, ranging between 377.61 mg/kg and 499.68 mg/kg, at all three residential sites. Although the concentrations in soils and vegetables of the critical heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium, may not pose a threat (according to FAO/WHO standards, the concentration of manganese was very high in spinach and soils, whilst that of zinc exceeded safe levels in spinach, onions and tomatoes. However, neither the soils nor the vegetables were consistently found to pose a risk to human health.

  2. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Grewar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  3. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    adverse environmental impacts in South Africa. Little is known about the effects of black wattle encroachment on soil carbon, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of black wattle encroachment of natural grassland on soil carbon stocks and dynamics. Focussing on two sites...... in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the study analysed carbon stocks in soil and litter on a chronosequence of black wattle stands of varying ages (up to >50 years) and compared these with adjacent native grassland. The study found that woody encroachment of grassland at one site had an insignificant effect...

  4. The Eastern Cape labour market in transition: Key issues and debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Wood

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This study represents an assessment of key issues relating to the labour market based on survey research conducted in an Eastern Cape secondary urban centre. This study was conducted at a time when South Africa was undergoing rapid social, economic and political transition. The primary focus of this study is on the specific implications of structural unemployment. Key sub-dimensions include the nature of divisions in the labour market, the extent of migrancy, survival strategies by the structurally unemployed, and perceptions of the union movement at a time when the latter’s role has become increasingly institutionalised.

  5. Health research in the Western Cape province, South Africa: Lessons and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie London

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health research can play a critical role in strengthening health systems.However, little monitoring of health research is conducted in African countries to identify whether research contributes to addressing local health priorities.Aim/Setting: To review the profile of research on the health service platform in the Western Cape province of South Africa which was approved by the health authorities over the period January 2011 to December 2012.Methods: Databases held by both the Provincial and City of Cape Town health departments were reviewed. Descriptions of research institution, location of research, topic and funding size and source were analysed.Results: Of the health research approved in the province, 56% of projects were located on the District Health Services platform and 70% were based in the Cape Metropolitan area. For projects reporting budgetary information, the total funding was US $29.2 million. The primary focus of research was on HIV and tuberculosis (TB, whilst relatively few studies addressed nutrition, mental health or injury and there was little health systems research. Research funding was dominated by very large grants from foreign funders for HIV and/or TB research. South African government sources comprised less than 8% of all health research funding.Conclusion: There is a partial mismatch of donor funding to local health priorities. Greater focus on neglected areas such as mental health, trauma, nutrition and non-communicable disease, as well as greater investment in health systems research, is needed. Unless governments increase funding for research and a culture of research translation is achieved, health research will have limited impact on both local and national priorities.

  6. Changing Livelihoods and Landscapes in the Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: Past Influences and Future Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheona Shackleton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to understand the drivers and pathways of local livelihood change and the prospects for transformation towards a more sustainable future. Data are used from several studies, and a participatory social learning process, which formed part of a larger project in two sites in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Secondary information from a wealth of related work is used to place our results within the historic context and more general trends in the country. Findings indicate that livelihoods in the rural Eastern Cape are on new trajectories. Agricultural production has declined markedly, at a time when the need for diversification of livelihoods and food security seems to be at a premium. This decline is driven by a suite of drivers that interact with, and are influenced by, other changes and stresses affecting local livelihoods. We distil out the factors, ranging from historical processes to national policies and local dynamics, that hamper peoples’ motivation and ability to respond to locally identified vulnerabilities and, which, when taken together, could drive households into a trap. We end by considering the transformations required to help local people evade traps and progress towards a more promising future in a context of increasing uncertainty.

  7. Farmers’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Cattle Adaptation to Heat Stress and Tick Resistance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    C. L. F. Katiyatiya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality, gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3% reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%, and Nguni (45.3% cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%, tick resistance (54.7%, and milking ability (28.2% traits. Excessive panting (56.6% and disease transmission (76% were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%, and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance.

  8. Farmers' perceptions and knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance in the eastern cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyatiya, C L F; Muchenje, V; Mushunje, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance.

  9. Towards measuring the transaction costs of co-management in Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blore, M L; Cundill, G; Mkhulisi, M

    2013-11-15

    During the last three decades, there has been an increased pursuit of participatory approaches to managing natural resources. In South Africa, this has been evident in the management of protected areas. In particular, land claims, which affect much of the conservation estate in South Africa, frequently result in co-management of protected areas by claimant communities and conservation agencies. This is occurring against a backdrop of declining state subsidies and growing expectations that South African conservation agencies will finance themselves while simultaneously stimulating local economic opportunities. In this context, it is important for co-management partners to understand and monitor the cost-effectiveness of management processes in achieving both the socio-economic and ecological targets of conservation management. Transaction costs are useful in gauging the cost-effectiveness of policies and institutions; however there is little methodological guidance for measuring transaction costs empirically. This study develops and tests a transaction costs model for a co-managed nature reserve in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Transaction costs were quantified by taking into account the total time spent in meetings annually, the daily opportunity cost of participants' time and the travel costs associated with attending such meetings. A key limitation in the development of this model was a lack of record keeping by the conservation agency. The model developed in this study offers a practical means for co-management partners in similar contexts to monitor how transaction costs change over time.

  10. Barriers to implementing evidence-based practice in a private intensive care unit in the Eastern Cape

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    Portia Janine Jordan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence-based practices (EBPs have been promoted to enhance the delivery of patient care, reduce cost, increase patient and family satisfaction and contribute to professional development. Individual and organisational barriers can hamper the implementation of EBP, which can be detrimental to healthcare delivery. Objective. To determine the individual and organisational implementation barriers of EBP among nurses in a private intensive care unit (ICU. Methods. A quantitative research design was used to collect data from nurses in a private ICU in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The structured questionnaire (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.72 was administered to 70 respondents, with a response rate of 93%. Results. Barriers at individual level were identified, and include lack of familiarity with EBP, individual perceptions that underpin clinical decision-making, lack of access to information required for EBP, inadequate sources to access evidence, inability to synthesise the literature available, and resistance to change. Barriers related to organisational support, change and operations were identified. Conclusion. Although the findings were similar to other studies, this study showed that nurses younger than 40 years of age were more familiar with the concepts of EBP. Physicians were perceived as not being very supportive of EBP implementation. In order to enhance healthcare delivery in the ICUs, nurse managers need to take cognisance of the individual and organisational barriers that might hamper the implementation of EBP.

  11. Survival of eight woody sprouting species following an autumn fire in Swartboskloof, Cape Province, South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available an autumn fire in montane fynbos near Stellenbosch in the Cape Province, South Africa. Discriminant and correlation analyses were used to determine the relationships between measures of pre-fire plant size and vigour, the degree of damage caused by the fire...

  12. The epidemiology of major incidents in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoving, Daniël Jacobus; Lategan, Hendrick J; Wallis, Lee Allen; Smith, Wayne Patrick

    2015-09-19

    Major incidents put pressure on any health system. There are currently no studies describing the epidemiology of major incidents in South Africa (SA). The lack of data makes planning for major incidents and exercising of major incident plans difficult. To describe the epidemiology of major incidents in the Western Cape Province, SA. A retrospective analysis of the Western Cape Major Incident database was conducted for the period 1 December 2008-30 June 2014. Variables collected related to patient demographics and incident details. Summary statistics were used to describe all variables. Seven hundred and seventy-seven major incidents were reviewed (median n=11 per month). Most major incidents occurred in the City of Cape Town (57.8%, n=449), but the Central Karoo district had the highest incidence (11.97/10 000 population). Transport-related incidents occurred most frequently (94.0%, n=730). Minibus taxis were involved in 312 major incidents (40.2%). There was no significant difference between times of day when incidents occurred. A total of 8,732 patients were injured (median n=8 per incident); ten incidents involved 50 or more victims. Most patients were adults (80.0%, n=6 986) and male (51.0%, n=4,455). Of 8,440 patients, 630 (7.5%) were severely injured. More than half of the patients sustained minor injuries (54.6%, n=4,605). Major incidents occurred more often than would have been expected compared with other countries, with road traffic crashes the biggest contributor. A national database will provide a better perspective of the burden of major incidents.

  13. Frequency and Distribution of Tuberculosis Resistance-Associated Mutations between Mumbai, Moldova, and Eastern Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georghiou, S B; Seifert, M; Catanzaro, D; Garfein, R S; Valafar, F; Crudu, V; Rodrigues, C; Victor, T C; Catanzaro, A; Rodwell, T C

    2016-07-01

    Molecular diagnostic assays, with their ability to rapidly detect resistance-associated mutations in bacterial genes, are promising technologies to control the spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Sequencing assays provide detailed information for specific gene regions and can help diagnostic assay developers prioritize mutations for inclusion in their assays. We performed pyrosequencing of seven Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene regions (katG, inhA, ahpC, rpoB, gyrA, rrs, and eis) for 1,128 clinical specimens from India, Moldova, and South Africa. We determined the frequencies of each mutation among drug-resistant and -susceptible specimens based on phenotypic drug susceptibility testing results and examined mutation distributions by country. The most common mutation among isoniazid-resistant (INH(r)) specimens was the katG 315ACC mutation (87%). However, in the Eastern Cape, INH(r) specimens had a lower frequency of katG mutations (44%) and higher frequencies of inhA (47%) and ahpC (10%) promoter mutations. The most common mutation among rifampin-resistant (RIF(r)) specimens was the rpoB 531TTG mutation (80%). The mutation was common in RIF(r) specimens in Mumbai (83%) and Moldova (84%) but not the Eastern Cape (17%), where the 516GTC mutation appeared more frequently (57%). The most common mutation among fluoroquinolone-resistant specimens was the gyrA 94GGC mutation (44%). The rrs 1401G mutation was found in 84%, 84%, and 50% of amikacin-resistant, capreomycin-resistant, and kanamycin (KAN)-resistant (KAN(r)) specimens, respectively. The eis promoter mutation -12T was found in 26% of KAN(r) and 4% of KAN-susceptible (KAN(s)) specimens. Inclusion of the ahpC and eis promoter gene regions was critical for optimal test sensitivity for the detection of INH resistance in the Eastern Cape and KAN resistance in Moldova. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT02170441.).

  14. Observations on inshore and pelagic Dolphins on the South-Eastern Cape coast of South Africa

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    G. S Saayman

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, size and seaward distribution of schools of inshore and pelagic dolphins is described for three study areas on the south-eastern Cape coast (Algoa Bay; the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park and Plettenberg Bay. Inshore dolphins {Tursiops and Sousa sp. frequented the coastline in relatively small schools whereas pelagic dolphins {Delphinus delphis and Stenella caeruleoalba occurred in very large schools far out to sea. Different ecological zones were used by Sousa for feeding and for social behaviour and maintenance activities. The frequency of occurrence of Sousa at Plettenberg Bay was not affected by seasonal fluctuations in sea surface temperatures. The role of dolphins as predators and their implication in the regulation of the ecosystem of the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park is discussed.

  15. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Charles Bitamazire Businge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.

  16. Ambiguities of resistance and collaboration on the Eastern Cape frontier : the Kat River settlement 1829-1856

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, R.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter unravels the complexities of resistance to, and collaboration with, the British colonizers of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, by the inhabitants of the Upper Kat River Valley. Since the Khoikhoi landholders of the valley had received their land as a result of British action against the

  17. Supporting rural teachers 21st century skills development through mobile technology use: A case in Cofimvaba, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available . The ICT4RED initiative is supporting rural teachers to integrate tablets in teaching mathematics and science in schools in Cofimvaba in the Nciba district of the Eastern Cape in South Africa. The teachers have to “learn to earn” the technology and have...

  18. Immunisation coverage in the rural Eastern Cape – are we getting the basics of primary care right? Results from a longitudinal prospective cohort study

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    K le Roux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Immunisations are one of the most cost-effective public health interventions available and South Africa (SA has implemented a comprehensive immunisation schedule. However, there is disagreement about the level of immunisation coverage in the country and few studies document the immunisation coverage in rural areas. Objective. To examine the successful and timely delivery of immunisations to children during the first 2 years of life in a deeply rural part of the Eastern Cape Province of SA. Methods. From January to April 2013, a cohort of sequential births (N=470 in the area surrounding Zithulele Hospital in the OR Tambo District of the Eastern Cape was recruited and followed up at home at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months post birth, up to May 2015. Immunisation coverage was determined using Road-to-Health cards. Results. The percentages of children with all immunisations up to date at the time of interview were: 48.6% at 3 months, 73.3% at 6 months, 83.9% at 9 months, 73.3% at 12 months and 73.2% at 24 months. Incomplete immunisations were attributed to stock-outs (56%, lack of awareness of the immunisation schedule or of missed immunisations by the mother (16% and lack of clinic attendance by the mother (19%. Of the mothers who had visited the clinic for baby immunisations, 49.8% had to make multiple visits because of stock-outs. Measles coverage (of at least one dose was 85.2% at 1 year and 96.3% by 2 years, but 20.6% of babies had not received a second measles dose (due at 18 months by 2 years. Immunisations were often given late, particularly the 14-week immunisations. Conclusions. Immunisation rates in the rural Eastern Cape are well below government targets and indicate inadequate provision of basic primary care. Stock-outs of basic childhood immunisations are common and are, according to mothers, the main reason for their children’s immunisations not being up to date. There is still much work to be done to ensure that the basics of

  19. Biogeography and molar morphology of Pleistocene African elephants: new evidence from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Stynder, Deano D.

    2015-05-01

    Elandsfontein (EFT) is a Middle Pleistocene archaeological/paleontological site located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The largest herbivore in the assemblage is Loxodonta atlantica zulu, an extinct member of the genus that includes modern African elephants. No Elephas recki specimens were recovered at EFT, despite their common occurrence in other regions of Africa at the same time. Because E. recki and L. atlantica molars are similar in appearance, but the two species are traditionally viewed as dominating different regions of Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated molars may on occasions have been assessed to species level on the basis of geography rather than morphology. The last morphologic evaluation of EFT elephants was conducted in the 1970s, and revisiting this issue with new specimens provides added insight into the evolution of elephants in Africa. Reevaluating morphological characteristics of EFT elephant molars, through qualitative and quantitative description and comparison with Middle Pleistocene E. recki recki, L. atlantica atlantica, and L. atlantica zulu molar morphology, corroborates assessment of EFT elephants as L. a. zulu. Two recently discovered, previously undescribed molars from EFT show that molars of L. a. zulu exhibit greater variation in enamel thickness, lamellar frequency, and occlusal surface morphology than previously reported. An update of the Pleistocene biogeography of Loxodonta and Elephas indicates that fossil remains of both are often found at the same localities in eastern Africa. Their rare co-occurrences in the north and south, however, suggest geographic separation of the two genera in at least some regions of Africa, which may have been based on habitat preference.

  20. Ixodid ticks on domestic dogs in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and in Namibia : short communication

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    S. Matthee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the species composition of ixodid ticks infesting domestic dogs in the northwestern region of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and in Namibia. Ticks were collected from February 2008 to January 2009 from dogs presented for a variety of reasons at a veterinary clinic in the Northern Cape Province and at 3 clinics in Namibia. The ticks collected at each place were pooled separately for each month at each locality. Eleven ixodid tick species were collected from dogs in the Northern Cape Province and new locality records for Haemaphysalis colesbergensis and Ixodes rubicundus, new locality and host records for Hyalomma glabrum, and a new host record for Rhipicephalus neumanni are reported. Six tick species were collected from dogs at the 3 clinics in Namibia. The most numerous species on dogs in both countries was R. sanguineus. The present results increase the total number of ixodid tick species collected from dogs in South Africa from 25 to 28.

  1. Characterizing Degradation Gradients through Land Cover Change Analysis in Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Zahn Münch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Land cover change analysis was performed for three catchments in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa, for two time steps (2000 and 2014, to characterize landscape conversion trajectories for sustained landscape health. Land cover maps were derived: (1 from existing data (2000; and (2 through object-based image analysis (2014 of Landsat 8 imagery. Land cover change analysis was facilitated using land cover labels developed to identify landscape change trajectories. Land cover labels assigned to each intersection of the land cover maps at the two time steps provide a thematic representation of the spatial distribution of change. While land use patterns are characterized by high persistence (77%, the expansion of urban areas and agriculture has occurred predominantly at the expense of grassland. The persistence and intensification of natural or invaded wooded areas were identified as a degradation gradient within the landscape, which amounted to almost 10% of the study area. The challenge remains to determine significant signals in the landscape that are not artefacts of error in the underlying input data or scale of analysis. Systematic change analysis and accurate uncertainty reporting can potentially address these issues to produce authentic output for further modelling.

  2. Body weight, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst university nursing students, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeyo, Alice P.; Dannhauser, Andre; Nel, Mariette

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Health care workers need to be equipped to deal with the increasing obesity and obesity-related morbidity occurring in developing countries. Objectives To assess weight status, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst nursing students at the University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape. Method A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted on 161 undergraduate (51 male and 110 female) students of the Department of Nursing Sciences at the University of Fort Hare. Body mass index, waist and hip circumferences and waist hip ratio were determined. Nutritional knowledge and eating practices were investigated by structured interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results Statically, 49.7% were overweight or obese (58.2% of the females; 31.4% of the males) and 65.2% had waist circumferences putting them at risk for non-communicable diseases. Most did not meet the recommendations for intakes from the vegetable group (97.5% ate students had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, poor eating habits and inadequate knowledge on key nutrition issues, which may impact negatively on their efficacy as future health ambassadors to the public.

  3. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

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    Jie Fang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. C. (Z. parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas W. wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  4. PEDIATRIC OCULAR TOXOCARIASIS IN JIANGSU PROVINCE, EASTERN CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Fang; Hua, Hai-Yong; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ocular toxocariasis is caused by migration of a Toxocara larva through the posterior eye. We report the first case of pediatric ocular toxocariasis caused by T. canis in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. A 6-year-old girl presented to Suzhou Municipal Children's Hospital with a complaint of right eye redness, minimal white discharge, no photophobia, eye pain, visual impairment, fever or arthralgia. She was initially diagnosed as having conjunctivitis; however, a 2-month treatment with lomefloxacin 0.3% eye drops gave no improvements. The diagnosis was made based on medical history (contact with dogs), clinical features and detection of T. canis IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anthelmintic therapy with albendazole in combination with prednisolone resulted in improvement of the ocular symptoms. Ocular toxocariasis is rarely reported in China. However, the rapid economic development in China, could mean an increase in pet dogs with the potential increased risk of contracting toxocariasis if no control measures are taken. Disposal of pet litter, deworming of infected pets, complete cooking of meats, thorough rinsing of fruits and vegetables, and good hand-washing may help prevent human infections. Ocular toxocariasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with conjunctivitis that does not resolve with treatment.

  5. Male Participation in Contraception in an Eastern Province of Turkey

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    Nevin Hotun Sahin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine men’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning in a province of north-eastern Turkey. Materials and Methods: This descriptive research was carried on 801 volunteers amongst men of reproductive age living in a city with a total population of 80,000 men. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire that addressed men’s roles, attitudes and behaviors towards family planning. Results: The most commonly used contraceptives were condom (36.8% and withdrawal (27.3% methods in single men. Married men reported relying more on female methods and they were more satisfied with the method they used. The idea of shared responsibility in family planning was more appreciated by single men. The role of family as a source of knowledge about family planning was low in both groups. Married men were more against vasectomy and condom while single men had more negative attitudes towards using hormone pills for men if produced in the future.Conclusion: Comprehensive projects are needed to improve male participation in family planning, especially in male dominant cultures. This must be seen as a golden key in the reproductive health programs.

  6. Shale Gas characteristics of Permian black shales (Ecca group, Eastern Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geel, Claire; Booth, Peter; Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; de Wit, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    This study involves a comprehensive and detailed lithological, sedimentalogical, structural and geochemical description of the lower Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The Ecca group hosts a ~ 245 million year old organic-rich black shale, which has recently been the focus of interest of petroleum companies worldwide. The shale was deposited under anoxic conditions in a setting which formed as a consequence of retro-arc foreland basin development related to the Cape Fold Belt. This sedimentary/tectonic environment provided the conditions for deeply buried black shales to reach maturity levels for development in the gas window. The investigation site is called the Greystone Area and is situated north of Wolwefontein en route to Jansenville. The area has outcrops of the Dwyka, the Ecca and the lower Beaufort Groups. The outcrops were mapped extensively and the data was used in conjunction with GIS software to produce a detailed geological map. North-south cross sections were drawn to give indication of bed thicknesses and formation depths. Using the field work, data two boreholes were accurately sited on the northern limb of a shallow easterly plunging syncline. The first borehole reached 100m and the second was drilled to 292m depth (100m percussion and 192m core). The second borehole was drilled 200m south of the first, to penetrate the formations at a greater depth and to avoid surface weathering. Fresh core from the upper Dwyka Group, the Prince Albert Formation, the Whitehill Formation, Collingham Formation and part of the Ripon Formation were successfully extracted and a detailed stratigraphic log has been drawn up. The core was sampled during extraction and the samples were immediately sent to the GFZ in Potsdam, Germany, for geochemical analyses. As suspected the black shales of the the Whitehill Formation are high in organic carbon and have an average TOC value of 4.5%, whereas the Prince Albert and Collingham Formation are below 1%. Tmax values

  7. Body weight, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst university nursing students, Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Violet L. van den Berg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care workers need to be equipped to deal with the increasing obesity and obesity-related morbidity occurring in developing countries.Objectives: To assess weight status, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst nursing students at the University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted on 161 undergraduate (51 male and 110 female students of the Department of Nursing Sciences at the University of Fort Hare. Body mass index, waist and hip circumferences and waist hip ratio were determined. Nutritional knowledge and eating practices were investigated by structured intervieweradministered questionnaires.Results: Statically, 49.7% were overweight or obese (58.2% of the females; 31.4% of the males and 65.2% had waist circumferences putting them at risk for non-communicable diseases. Most did not meet the recommendations for intakes from the vegetable group (97.5% ate <3 servings per day, the fruit group (42.2% ate <2 servings per day, and the dairy group (92.6% ate <2 servings per day; whilst 78.3% ate ≥4 serving per day of sugar or sweets. Most consumed margarine, oil or fat (68.3%, sugar (59.0% and bread (55.9% daily, but few reported daily intakes of vegetables (12.4%, fruit (23.6%, fruit juice (21.2% and milk (15.6%. Fewer than 50% knew the recommended intakes for vegetables, fruit, dairy, starchy foods and meat or meat alternatives.Conclusions: These nursing students had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, poor eating habits and inadequate knowledge on key nutrition issues, which may impact negatively on their efficacy as future health ambassadors to the public.

  8. Body weight, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst university nursing students, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet L. van den Berg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care workers need to be equipped to deal with the increasing obesity and obesity-related morbidity occurring in developing countries.Objectives: To assess weight status, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst nursing students at the University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted on 161 undergraduate (51 male and 110 female students of the Department of Nursing Sciences at the University of Fort Hare. Body mass index, waist and hip circumferences and waist hip ratio were determined.Nutritional knowledge and eating practices were investigated by structured interviewer-administered questionnaires.Results: Statically, 49.7% were overweight or obese (58.2% of the females; 31.4% of the malesand 65.2% had waist circumferences putting them at risk for non-communicable diseases.Most did not meet the recommendations for intakes from the vegetable group (97.5% ate <3 servings per day, the fruit group (42.2% ate <2 servings per day, and the dairy group (92.6% ate <2 servings per day; whilst 78.3% ate ≥4 serving per day of sugar or sweets. Most consumed margarine, oil or fat (68.3%, sugar (59.0% and bread (55.9% daily, but few reported daily intakes of vegetables (12.4%, fruit (23.6%, fruit juice (21.2% and milk (15.6%. Fewer than 50% knew the recommended intakes for vegetables, fruit, dairy, starchy foods and meat or meat alternatives.Conclusions: These nursing students had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, poor eating habits and inadequate knowledge on key nutrition issues, which may impact negatively on their efficacy as future health ambassadors to the public.

  9. Body weight, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst university nursing students, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet L. van den Berg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care workers need to be equipped to deal with the increasing obesity and obesity-related morbidity occurring in developing countries.Objectives: To assess weight status, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst nursing students at the University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted on 161 undergraduate (51 male and 110 female students of the Department of Nursing Sciences at the University of Fort Hare. Body mass index, waist and hip circumferences and waist hip ratio were determined. Nutritional knowledge and eating practices were investigated by structured intervieweradministered questionnaires.Results: Statically, 49.7% were overweight or obese (58.2% of the females; 31.4% of the males and 65.2% had waist circumferences putting them at risk for non-communicable diseases. Most did not meet the recommendations for intakes from the vegetable group (97.5% ate <3 servings per day, the fruit group (42.2% ate <2 servings per day, and the dairy group (92.6% ate <2 servings per day; whilst 78.3% ate ≥4 serving per day of sugar or sweets. Most consumed margarine, oil or fat (68.3%, sugar (59.0% and bread (55.9% daily, but few reported daily intakes of vegetables (12.4%, fruit (23.6%, fruit juice (21.2% and milk (15.6%. Fewer than 50% knew the recommended intakes for vegetables, fruit, dairy, starchy foods and meat or meat alternatives.Conclusions: These nursing students had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, poor eating habits and inadequate knowledge on key nutrition issues, which may impact negatively on their efficacy as future health ambassadors to the public.

  10. Attitudes, knowledge and treatment of low back pain amongst nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel Cilliers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the high-risk professions for the development of musculoskeletal problems is nursing. Studies have reported that there is a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP amongst South African nurses, but very little is known regarding the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP in this group.Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP amongst nursing staff in Cecilia Makiwane Hospital, Eastern Cape.Methods: The study population consisted of all qualified nurses employed at the hospital. A cross-sectional survey with a purposive convenience sampling method was used. A questionnaire was designed using literature from established sources. The questionnaire was distributed manually and data obtained were analysed using EPI-INFO4.Results: The study found that the majority of the participants experienced LBP on a regular basis. The participants could identify the most important physical risk factors associated with the development of LBP, but neglected the psychological risk factors. Action taken after the development of LBP included professional consultations as well as medication and bed rest.The participants identified the different components of a preventative exercise programme but only focused on the physical and not psychological components associated with LBP.Conclusions: LBP is a serious problem amongst the nurses at the hospital, but no proactiveapproach is taken in order to address this problem. Policy guidelines and a comprehensive prevention and treatment programme need to be designed and implemented to address this issue.

  11. Early adolescent pregnancy increases risk of incident HIV infection in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: a longitudinal study

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    Nicola J Christofides

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents having unprotected heterosexual intercourse are at risk of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to indicate whether pregnancy in early adolescence increases the risk of subsequent HIV infection. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that adolescent pregnancy (aged 15 or younger increases the risk of incident HIV infection in young South African women. Methods: We assessed 1099 HIV-negative women, aged 15–26 years, who were volunteer participants in a cluster-randomized, controlled HIV prevention trial in the predominantly rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. All of these young women had at least one additional HIV test over two years of follow-up. Outcomes were HIV incidence rates per 100 person years and HIV incidence rate ratios (IRRs estimated by Poisson multivariate models. Three pregnancy categories were created for the Poisson model: early adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 15 years or younger; later adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 16 to 19 years; and women who did not report an adolescent pregnancy. Models were adjusted for study design, age, education, time since first sexual experience, socio-economic status, childhood trauma and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Results: HIV incidence rates were 6.0 per 100 person years over two years of follow-up. The adjusted IRR was 3.02 (95% CI 1.50–6.09 for a pregnancy occurring at age 15 or younger. Women with pregnancies occurring between 16 and 19 years of age did not have a higher incidence of HIV (IRR 1.08; 95% CI 0.64–1.84. Early adolescent pregnancies were associated with higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners. Conclusions: Early adolescent pregnancies increase the incidence of HIV among South African women. The higher risk is associated with sexual risk behaviours such as higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners rather than a

  12. Complications of traditional circumcision amongst young Xhosa males seen at St Lucy’s Hospital, Tsolo, Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Ugochukwu Anike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional circumcision of males is common amongst many societies in sub-Saharan Africa. Circumcision amongst the Xhosa people of South Africa represents a rite of passage to manhood. Traditional male circumcision has an increased risk for complications that include sepsis, genitalmutilation, gangrenous penis, excessive bleeding, dehydration, renal failure and death. The aim of this study was to describe the complications of traditional circumcisions amongst Xhosa men as seen at St. Lucy’s Hospital in the Eastern Cape Province.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive quantitative study was conducted in 2008. Records of 105 malesadmitted to St. Lucy’s Hospital with complications following traditional circumcision were reviewed. Data collected included age, education level, race, reasons for circumcision, complications, the period of circumcision, duration of hospital stay and the outcomes. Descriptive data analysis was performed using statistical software SPSS 17.0.Results: The ages ranged from 15–35 years with 68 (64.8% between 15–19 years. 83 (79% had a secondarylevel of education, 16 (15.2% primary, 5 (4.8% tertiary and 1% had no education. 60 (57% werecircumcised as initiation to manhood, 21 (20.0% due to peer pressure, 20 (19.0% for cultural reasons, and 1(1.0% was forced. The complications were sepsis (59 [56.2%], genital mutilation (28 [26.7%], dehydration(12 [11.4%] and amputation of genitalia (6 [5.7%].Fifty-nine (56.2% patients were circumcised in winter.79 (75.2% were circumcised in the forest, and 25 (23.8% in initiation centres. Fifty-eight (55.2% werecircumcised by traditionalists, and 47 (44.8% by tribal elders (initiators. Hospital stays ranged from 8 to28 days. 66% were healed and discharged, and 29 (27.6% were referred to higher centres of care.Conclusion: Genital sepsis was the most common complication of traditional male circumcision.Complications were related to the circumciser, advanced age of the patient

  13. Complications of traditional circumcision amongst young Xhosa males seen at St Lucy’s Hospital, Tsolo, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugochukwu Anike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional circumcision of males is common amongst many societies in sub-Saharan Africa. Circumcision amongst the Xhosa people of South Africa represents a rite of passage to manhood. Traditional male circumcision has an increased risk for complications that include sepsis, genitalmutilation, gangrenous penis, excessive bleeding, dehydration, renal failure and death. The aim of this study was to describe the complications of traditional circumcisions amongst Xhosa men as seen at St. Lucy’s Hospital in the Eastern Cape Province.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive quantitative study was conducted in 2008. Records of 105 malesadmitted to St. Lucy’s Hospital with complications following traditional circumcision were reviewed. Data collected included age, education level, race, reasons for circumcision, complications, the period of circumcision, duration of hospital stay and the outcomes. Descriptive data analysis was performed using statistical software SPSS 17.0.Results: The ages ranged from 15–35 years with 68 (64.8% between 15–19 years. 83 (79% had a secondarylevel of education, 16 (15.2% primary, 5 (4.8% tertiary and 1% had no education. 60 (57% werecircumcised as initiation to manhood, 21 (20.0% due to peer pressure, 20 (19.0% for cultural reasons, and 1(1.0% was forced. The complications were sepsis (59 [56.2%], genital mutilation (28 [26.7%], dehydration(12 [11.4%] and amputation of genitalia (6 [5.7%].Fifty-nine (56.2% patients were circumcised in winter.79 (75.2% were circumcised in the forest, and 25 (23.8% in initiation centres. Fifty-eight (55.2% werecircumcised by traditionalists, and 47 (44.8% by tribal elders (initiators. Hospital stays ranged from 8 to28 days. 66% were healed and discharged, and 29 (27.6% were referred to higher centres of care.Conclusion: Genital sepsis was the most common complication of traditional male circumcision.Complications were related to the circumciser, advanced age of the patient

  14. Complications of traditional circumcision amongst young Xhosa males seen at St Lucy's Hospital, Tsolo, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anike, Ugochukwu; Ndimande, John V.; Tumbo, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Traditional circumcision of males is common amongst many societies in sub-Saharan Africa. Circumcision amongst the Xhosa people of South Africa represents a rite of passage to manhood. Traditional male circumcision has an increased risk for complications that include sepsis, genital mutilation, gangrenous penis, excessive bleeding, dehydration, renal failure and death. The aim of this study was to describe the complications of traditional circumcisions amongst Xhosa men as seen at St. Lucy's Hospital in the Eastern Cape Province. Method A cross-sectional descriptive quantitative study was conducted in 2008. Records of 105 males admitted to St. Lucy's Hospital with complications following traditional circumcision were reviewed. Data collected included age, education level, race, reasons for circumcision, complications, the period of circumcision, duration of hospital stay and the outcomes. Descriptive data analysis was performed using statistical software SPSS 17.0. Results The ages ranged from 15–35 years with 68 (64.8%) between 15–19 years. 83 (79%) had a secondary level of education, 16 (15.2%) primary, 5 (4.8%) tertiary and 1% had no education. 60 (57%) were circumcised as initiation to manhood, 21 (20.0%) due to peer pressure, 20 (19.0%) for cultural reasons, and 1 (1.0%) was forced. The complications were sepsis (59 [56.2%]), genital mutilation (28 [26.7%]), dehydration (12 [11.4%]) and amputation of genitalia (6 [5.7%]).Fifty-nine (56.2%) patients were circumcised in winter. 79 (75.2%) were circumcised in the forest, and 25 (23.8%) in initiation centres. Fifty-eight (55.2%) were circumcised by traditionalists, and 47 (44.8%) by tribal elders (initiators). Hospital stays ranged from 8 to 28 days. 66% were healed and discharged, and 29 (27.6%) were referred to higher centres of care. Conclusion Genital sepsis was the most common complication of traditional male circumcision. Complications were related to the circumciser, advanced age of

  15. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

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    Bvudzai P Magadzire

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. South Africa (SA has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. Objective. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM in the Western Cape Province, SA. Methods. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers. We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Results. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii suppliers’ inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i health facility operations; (ii the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU, which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU’s prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were

  16. Nematode parasites of some reptiles (Sauria: Testudines: Ophidia) from the northern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R; Freed, Paul S

    2010-10-01

    One hundred and seven reptiles (11 families, 32 species) from the Northern and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa were examined for helminths. Twenty-three (22%) individual reptiles were found to harbor at least 1 species of nematode; 3 (7%) reptiles harbored multiple infections of 2 nematode species. Eight species within 5 families of Nematoda were found in the reptiles surveyed including 1 atractid, 1 diaphanocephalid, 1 heterakid, 3 pharyngodonids, and 2 physalopterans. Ten new host records are reported. A summary of the nematode parasites identified from South African reptiles is provided.

  17. Measuring and modelling the water use of fruit tree orchards in the Western Cape province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, Mark B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available the water use of fruit tree orchards in the Western Cape province of South Africa M GUSH, S DZIKITI AND V NAIKEN CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Email: mgush@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION...) and total evaporation (orchard water use). This knowledge can aid on-farm water management planning, irrigation scheduling, and the development of decision support tools such as models for predicting water use by fruit tree orchards. In a project...

  18. Provincial logistics costs in South Africa’s Western Cape province: Microcosm of national freight logistics challenges

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    Jan H. Havenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Logistics costs are most commonly measured on a national level. An understanding of the provincial logistics landscape can add significant value both to provincial and national policy interventions; such measurements are however scarce. South Africa’s national freight logistics survey points to significant challenges in the structure of the freight transport market, most importantly the dominance of road freight transport on dense, longdistance corridors. The Cape Town-Gauteng corridor is the main economic artery linking the Western Cape province to the rest of the country.Objectives: The provincial government commissioned this research to develop an understanding of the province’s contribution to the national logistics challenges in order to alleviate both provincial and national logistics challenges.Results: The research results provide a distinct description of the key action required – to provide an intermodal solution for the dense flows of fast-moving consumer goods on the Cape Town-Gauteng corridor in order to reduce the significant transport and externality costs related to these flows and reduce exposure to exogenous cost drivers.Conclusion: Collaborative research between government and private industry into appropriate intermodal technologies must be prioritised within the ambit of South Africa’s socioeconomic environment. This shift can be further supported through the internalisation of road transport externalities to enable a total cost decision between modes, as well as through appropriate regulation of the freight transport industry.

  19. Issues and opportunities for small-scale sawmilling in South Africa – An Eastern Cape case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyl, L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available . This to some extent opened up the market for small-scale sawmillers that are more flexible to supply in the fluctuating demand for sawn timber. When analysing the data presented in Figure 1.1 it is clear that the following economic segments are the key... options for outsourcing. • Heyl, L., von Maltitz, G., Evans, J. and Segoale, R. 2000. Issues and opportunities for small- scale sawmilling in South Africa: an Eastern Cape case study. This report describes the scale, structure and market niche...

  20. Overview of the Northeast States and Eastern Canadian Provinces mercury study: A framework for action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, M. [Consultant to the Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management, Boston, MA (United States)

    1998-11-01

    An overview and update of the Northeast States and the Eastern Canadian Provinces Mercury Study was provided, including compilation of mercury levels in fish in the Northeast states, inventory of contemporary sources of mercury emissions, analyses of public health approaches designed to address consumption of mercury contaminated fresh water fish, and regulatory control strategies to reduce mercury release to the environment. Detailed findings of this research project are contained in a comprehensive report, published in February 1998. Related activities in the eastern provinces of Canada are also summarized.

  1. Ecology and distribution of large branchiopods (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anostraca, Notostraca, Laevicaudata, Spinicaudata) of the Eastern Cape Karoo, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabidi, Annah; Bird, Matthew S.; Perissinotto, Renzo; Rogers, D. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A survey of the large branchiopod fauna of the Eastern Cape Karoo region of South Africa was undertaken to provide baseline biodiversity information in light of impending shale gas development activities in the region. Twenty-two waterbodies, including nine dams and thirteen natural depression wetlands, were sampled during November 2014 and April 2015. A total of 13 species belonging to four orders were collected, comprising five anostracans, one notostracan, six spinicaudatans and one laevicaudatan. Cyzicus australis was most common, occurring in 46% of the waterbodies. Species co-occurred in 87% of the waterbodies, with a maximum number of six species recorded from the same waterbody. Our new distribution records for Lynceus truncatus, Streptocephalus spinicaudatus and Streptocephalus indistinctus represent substantial expansions of the previously known ranges for these species. Tarkastad is now the westernmost record for Streptocephalus spinicaudatus, while Jansenville now constitutes the southernmost record for Streptocephalus indistinctus. Large branchiopod distribution data from previous Eastern Cape records were combined with our current data, demonstrating that a total of 23 large branchiopod species have been recorded from the region to date. As the Karoo is one of the few major shale basins in the world where the natural baseline is still largely intact, this survey forms a basis for future reference and surface water quality monitoring during the process of shale gas exploration/extraction. PMID:27853398

  2. Container terminal spatial planning - A 2041 paradigm for the Western Cape Province in South Africa

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    Jan Havenga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitable location for an intermodal inland container terminal (IICT in the city of Cape Town. A container market segmentation approach is used to project growth for container volumes over a 30-year period for all origin and destination pairings on a geographical district level in an identified catchment area. The segmentation guides the decision on what type of facility is necessary to fulfil capacity requirements in the catchment area and will be used to determine the maximum space requirements for a future IICT. Alternative sites are ranked from most suitable to least suitable using multi-criteria analysis, and preferred locations are identified. Currently, South Africa’s freight movement is dominated by the road sector. Heavy road congestion is thus prevalent at the Cape Town Container Terminal (CTCT. The paper proposes three possible alternative sites for an IICT that will focus on a hub-and-spoke system of transporting freight.

  3. The vegetation of the southern Langeberg, Cape Province. 1. The plant communities of the Boosmansbos Wilderness Area

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    D. J Mcdonald

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the fynbos shrublands and forests of the Boosmansbos Wilderness Area, southern Langeberg, Cape Province, South Africa, is presented. Data were collected at 119 sites in mature fynbos vegetation (>10 years old and at five sites in patches of Afromontane Forest. Emphasis was placed on the fynbos shrublands and sample sites were subjectively located along a transect from south to north across the Langeberg range in the study area. This south to north orientation follows a complex gradient of changes in aspect, slope, geology, soil form and climate. Data were initially analysed using TWINSPAN and the resulting classification refined using Braun-Blanquet procedures. One forest subassociation and 12 fynbos communities were identified and described. A proposed hierarchical classification of the fynbos communities is presented.

  4. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Gas Resources of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey Eastern Oregon and Washington Province Assessment Team, (compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province of Oregon and Washington (USGS Province 5005). The province is a priority Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) province for the National Assessment because of its potential for oil and gas resources. The assessment of this province is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). In the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province, the USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and two assessment units within the total petroleum system, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered gas resources within each assessment unit.

  5. Negotiated identities: dynamics in parents' participation in school governance in rural Eastern Cape schools and implication for school leadership

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    Byron Brown

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available School governance is a feature of school leadership in schools in South Africa. Currently, there is a dearth of research examining the dynamics in, and how parents navigate their way through, the process of school governance. Using a qualitative approach, we investigated these dynamics. The sample was parents in rural communities in secondary schools in the Eastern Cape. The parents responded to questions in semi-structured phenomenological interviews. Multiple factors linked to gender politics and African traditions shaped how parents participated in school governance. School governance practices were imbued with a tension between values inherent in African traditions/ customs and values of modern school policies/legislations. While outlining the implications for school leadership, we argue that conflict and tension in school governance is likely to continue unless leadership practices and policy provisions reflect more of people's customs/traditions.

  6. An evaluation of the procedures required to ensure consistent material supply in the Eastern Cape automotive industry

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    GS Horn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a common perception that logistics practice and supply chain management have not yet reached the required international standards among all the supply chain members in the South African automotive industry. This article is based on a research study that investigated possible reasons for the inconsistent supply of materials in the Eastern Cape automotive industry specifically. Problems identified include the fact that suppliers are not evaluated on a regular basis and do not receive sufficient logistics training, while a commitment and will to development local suppliers is lacking. Recommendations made to the South African automotive industry include the improvement of development programmes to assist local suppliers in becoming world-class suppliers, better logistics training, more regular supplier assessments, as well as improved mutual communication among suppliers and motor vehicle assemblers.

  7. The relationship between wellbeing indicators and teacher psychological stress in Eastern Cape public schools in South Africa

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    Malik L.M. Vazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Positive psychological and subjective wellbeing indicators have proven to be protective against certain physical illnesses but have been rarely assessed in teacher stress.Research purpose: The main objective of this study was to assess the relationship between indicators of wellbeing and stress and to further assess the relative importance of these wellbeing indicators in explaining stress variance in a large sample of Eastern Cape primary and high school teachers in South Africa.Motivation for the study: The majority of teacher stress studies focus on the misfit between the individual’s resources and the environmental demands. There is a scarcity of studies reporting on protective factors in teaching and we know little about their possible role as possible protective factors against stress. This is important in developing stress prevention strategies.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey was used targeting public school teachers in the Eastern Cape. The sample size was 562 randomly selected teachers from both public primary and high schools.Main findings: The results revealed that stress is prevalent amongst teachers. Subjective and psychological wellbeing factors added significantly to the explained stress variance. Also, both negative affect and role problems had significant positive correlations with stress, whilst psychological wellbeing had a strong inverse relationship with stress.Practical/managerial implications: The results implied that interventions focusing on improving psychological wellbeing and reduction of negative affect can contribute to stress prevention.Contribution/value-add: The results contributed towards a better understanding of the relative importance of wellbeing constructs as protective factors against teacher stress.

  8. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... enforced by the Commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida and/or such persons or agencies... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  9. New geological estimates of Pliocene sea levels from the Western and Northern Cape Provinces, Republic of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, P. J.; O'Leary, M.; Raymo, M. E.; Rovere, A.; Inglis, J.; Roberts, D.; Bergh, E.

    2012-12-01

    The mid-late Pliocene warm period (MPWP) is the most recent geologic interval when global atmospheric CO2 reached ~400 ppmv. The MPWP is of great interest to paleoclimatologists and modelers because accurate geological data would help to explain the behavior of sea level (SL) and ice sheets in a past warmer climates. Our modern industrial Earth is rapidly approaching this ominous benchmark (395.77 ppmv 6/2012). The trailing continental margin and far-field sites of western and southern Republic of South Africa (RSA) yield abundant coastal imprints of Miocene to Pleistocene seastands. Existing literature identifies zone fossils, and a few unpublished Sr-isotope ages that correlate these shoreline deposits with Pliocene highstands. Younger Pleistocene SL benchmarks provide indications of the regional tectonic stability, with MIS 5e (125 ka) deposits widely correlated along RSA coasts at about +3 m asl. Precise elevations of geomorphic, sedimentary, and biological SL indicators were measured in Western and Northern Cape Provinces of RSA with decimeter accuracy using an OmniStar differential GPS. High-resolution SL indicators (within 0.5 m of paleo-SL) include abrasion platforms (Fig 1), marine terraces, sub-, inter-, and supratidal sedimentary structures, and in situ marine invertebrates such as shallow water oysters and intertidal barnacles. The coastal geomorphic expression of the MPWP is profound. For more than 0.5 Ma, we hypothesize that high frequency (20-40 ka), low amplitude oscillations of Pliocene SL acted as a shoreline "buzz saw", laterally incising older bedrock, forming extensive planation surfaces along the coastline. We propose these broad geomorphic features are diagnostic of this prolonged interval of low amplitude but consistent SL along relatively stable, non-sediment-dominated coastlines of the world. Although currently uncorrected for post-depositional effects including GIA and dynamic topography, our PLIOMAX team (www.pliomax.org) has documented

  10. The supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape Province - What is the status quo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mornay Roberts-Lombard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to explore the supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape province. The article wants to establish the current supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the province and to identify limitations in supplier market relationships which might exist in the industry. Problem investigated: Relationships are the basis on which trade in the travel industry is built (George, 2006:224. The establishment and management of these relationships must be to the advantage of all parties in the relationship (Swart, 2003:120. Townes (2007 indicated that the current level of relationships that exists between travel agencies and their suppliers, especially the South African Airways (SAA, the Protea and Southern Sun hotel groups and motor vehicle rental companies such as AVIS is fragmented and negatively impairs on the ability of travel agents to deliver a quality service to their customers. To improve their overall level of service delivery to both corporate and leisure customers, it is important for travel agencies to know and understand the current level of their relationships with suppliers. It is against this background that the research was undertaken. Methodology: The target population for this study was 118 travel agencies of which 61 managers and/or owners participated through personal interviews in the completion of questionnaires. Data analysis was done by calculating averages and standard deviations, Explorative Factor Analysis (EFA, Cronbach Alpha-values and practical significance by means of effect sizes. Findings: The owners and managers of travel agencies are of the opinion that the strengthening of their existing relationships with suppliers must be prioritised. More emphasis should be placed on the strengthening of existing communication channels between travel agencies and their suppliers to secure the faster resolution of queries and complaints and to enhance the sharing

  11. Franchising O&M water services infrastructure in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available and nurtured. The research and concept development in this very little-explored field has been conducted not by academics but by practitioners who possess day-to-day understanding of water services delivery, and who have consulted with inter alia like..., reliability and efficiency through introducing a new (to water services) supply- side operation and maintenance provider mechanism. The team has found that a franchise partnership concept can assist the owners of water services infrastructure...

  12. Surviving change by changing violently: Ukuthwala in South Africa's Eastern Cape province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, W.J.; Notermans, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade a comeback of the apparently extinct marriage practice called ukuthwala has been noted and has found much attention in the South African media. It has been raised as a particular concern that, apparently, ukuthwala increasingly entails the abduction and rape of underage girls

  13. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Isolates from Swine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwu, Chinwe Juliana; Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Basson, Albertus Kotze; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2016-07-01

    The exposure of farm animals to antimicrobials for treatment, prophylaxis, or growth promotion can select for resistant bacteria that can be transmitted to humans, and Salmonella as an important zoonotic pathogen can act as a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. We assessed the antibiogram profiles of Salmonella species isolated from pig herds in two commercial farms in South Africa. Two hundred fifty-eight presumptive Salmonella isolates were recovered from the fecal samples of 500 adult pigs. Specific primers targeting Salmonella serogroups A, B, C1, C2, and D were used to determine the prevalence of different serogroups. Only serogroup A (n = 48) was detected, while others were not. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the confirmed Salmonella serogroup A isolates was performed by using the disk diffusion method against a panel of 18 antibiotics. All the 48 isolates were resistant to tetracycline and oxytetracycline, while 75% were resistant to ampicillin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, and streptomycin. All the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance, with the predominant phenotype being against 11 antibiotics, and multiple antibiotic resistance index ranged between 0.3 and 0.6. The incidence of genes encoding resistance against ampicillin (ampC), tetracycline (tetA), and streptomycin (strA) were 54, 61, and 44%, respectively. We conclude that healthy pigs are potential reservoirs of multidrug-resistant Salmonella that could be transmitted to humans through the food chain and, hence, a significant public health threat.

  14. Molecular Characteristics and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Klebsiella Isolates in Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Sandeep Vasaikar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL- producing Klebsiella species has become a serious problem worldwide, because of their incrimination in antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to investigate the resistance genes responsible for ESBL-producing Klebsiella species and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella (CRE isolated in Mthatha and to study their epidemiology. A prospective, descriptive study of 202 nonrepetitive samples from patients was obtained from Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. The cultured Klebsiella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaKPC, and blaNDM genes. Overall K. pneumoniae were the majority with 169 (83.7% species isolates, followed by K. oxytoca with 29 (14.4%, while K. ozaenae and Raoultella ornithinolytica were 2 (0.9% each. The prevalence of ESBL production in all Klebsiella species was 117 (57.9%. ESBL-genotypic resistance is driven in Mthatha by blaSHV 121 (77.1% followed by blaTEM 105 (66.9% and blaCTX-M at 89 (56.7%. The most common ESBL genotype combination among the Klebsiella was blaTEM+blaSHV + blaCTX-M at 79 (50.3%. There is a steady increase in the rate of ESBL genes in the last five years.

  15. Poverty and Disability in Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Mitchell; Eide, Arne H.; Jelsma, Jennifer; Toni, Mzolisi ka; Maart, Soraya

    2008-01-01

    The impact of disability on the living conditions of people living in specifically resource-poor areas in South Africa has not previously been addressed. This paper presents a comparison of people with a disability and their non-disabled peers with respect to some key poverty indicators among a sample of Xhosa speaking individuals in resource-poor…

  16. The Transkei region of the Eastern Cape Province has one of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    lations were replaced in 1991 with regulations pro- mulgated by the Transkei ..... Fishers. Number of patrols counted fish caught. Fine. 58. 370. 422. Fair. 65. 323. 183. Poor. 52 ...... estimates of fishing effort and economic value. Am. Fish. Soc.

  17. Alien plant species list and distribution for Camdeboo National Park, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmoto L. Masubelele

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas globally are threatened by the potential negative impacts that invasive alien plants pose, and Camdeboo National Park (CNP, South Africa, is no exception. Alien plants have been recorded in the CNP since 1981, before it was proclaimed a national park by South African National Parks in 2005. This is the first publication of a list of alien plants in and around the CNP. Distribution maps of some of the first recorded alien plant species are also presented and discussed. To date, 39 species of alien plants have been recorded, of which 13 are invasive and one is a transformer weed. The majority of alien plant species in the park are herbaceous (39% and succulent (24% species. The most widespread alien plant species in the CNP are Atriplex inflata (= A. lindleyi subsp. inflata, Salsola tragus (= S. australis and cacti species, especially Opuntia ficus-indica. Eradication and control measures that have been used for specific problematic alien plant species are described. Conservation implications: This article represents the first step in managing invasive alien plants and includes the collation of a species list and basic information on their distribution in and around the protected area. This is important for enabling effective monitoring of both new introductions and the distribution of species already present. We present the first species list and distribution information for Camdeboo National Park.

  18. Antibiotic Producing Potentials of Three Freshwater Actinomycetes Isolated from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Sibanda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of three actinomycetes species belonging to Saccharopolyspora (TR 046 and TR 039 and Actinosynnema (TR 024 genera were screened for antibacterial activities against a panel of several bacterial strains. The extracts showed antibacterial activities against both gram-negative and gram-positive test bacteria with inhibition zones ranging from 8 to 28 mm (TR 046; 8 to15 mm (TR 039; and 10 to 13 mm (TR 024. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.078 to 10 mg/mL (TR 046; 5 to >10 mg/mL (TR 039; and 1.25 to 5 mg/mL (TR 024. Time-kill studies revealed that crude extract of TR 046 showed strong bactericidal activity against Bacillus pumilus (ATCC14884, reducing the bacterial load by 104 cfu/mL and 102 cfu/mL at 4× MIC and 2× MIC, respectively, after 6 h of exposure. Similarly, against Proteus vulgaris (CSIR 0030, crude extract of TR 046 achieved a 0.9log10 and 0.13log10 cfu/mL reduction at 5 mg/mL (4× MIC and 1.25 mg/mL (2× MIC after 12 h of exposure. The extract was however weakly bactericidal against two environmental bacterial strains (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis; and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 19582: the extract showed bacteriostatic activities at all concentrations tested. These freshwater actinomycetes appear to have immense potential as a source of new antibacterial compound(s.

  19. Cultural Resources, Studies, Eastern North Carolina Above Cape Lookout, Literature Review and Preliminary Research Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    inhabitants and activities of New Bern in the years im- mediately following the War of 1812. Most enlightening ; usually reliable. Mobley 1981 is an...Virginia upon the development of the [- Albemarle would be highly enlightening . 2-67 1 CHAPTER 3 ARCHITECTURAL RESOURCES OF THE EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA...trends. Georgian, Federal, Greek Revival, Gothic Revival, and Italianate styles, though sometimes retarditaire in nature, predominated. Builders and

  20. Stochastic decadal climate simulations for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas, Western Cape province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Arthur M.; Hellmuth, Molly; Lumsden, Trevor

    2012-06-01

    A method is described for the generation of multivariate stochastic climate sequences for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The sequences, based on joint modeling of precipitation and minimum and maximum daily temperatures, are conditioned on annualized data, the aim being to simulate realistic variability on annual to decadal time scales. A vector autoregressive (VAR) model is utilized for this purpose and reproduces well those statistical attributes, including intervariable correlation and serial autocorrelation in individual variables, most relevant for the regional climate in this setting. The sequences incorporate nonlinear climate change trends, inferred using an ensemble of global climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Subannual variability is simulated using a block resampling scheme based on the k-nearest-neighbor approach, preserving both temporal patterns and spatial correlations. Downscaling to a network of quinary-level catchments enables distributed runoff, streamflow, and crop simulations and the assessment and integration of impacts. Final output takes the form of daily sequences, structured for driving the ACRU agrohydrological model of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

  1. Hydrology of area 15, Eastern Coal province, Kentucky and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, David W.; Quinones, Ferdinand; Mull, D.S.; Young, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Area 15, in Eastern Kentucky and Tennessee consists of 3,095 square miles in the Cumberland, Rockcastle and Laurel River basins. The area is underlain by Permian, Pennsylvanian, Mississippian rocks. The Breathitt Formation of Pennsylvanian age crops out in about 75% of the area and contains most of the coal. About 22 million tons of coal were produced in the area in 1978, 52% from surface mines. The terrain is steep with acidic soils. Forestry and pastures are the principal land uses. Precipitation ranges from 47 to 54 inches per year, and the 24-hour 10-year frequency storm averages 4.5 inches. Flood prone areas along the rivers have been defined or can be determined from relations with drainage area and physiography. Low flows are poorly sustained, with most streams draining less than 100 square miles approaching a 7-day 10-year minimum flow of zero. Ground water is generally of good quality, although high iron concentrations are common. Sandstones are the principal aquifers. Water levels fluctuate seasonally, and yields of wells are usually less than 50 gallons per minute but range from about 1 to 250. Mine drainage affects the quality of streamflow at most sites in mined basins. Sulfate concentrations are as high as 1,000 milligrams per liter. Other constituents such as iron and manganese also occur in higher concentrations in waters of mined basins. Acid mine drainage generally is neutralized near its source. Most of the water in streams has pH values in the 7-8 range. (USGS)

  2. A survey of plants responsible for causing irritant contact dermatitis in the Amathole district, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otang, Wilfred M; Grierson, Donald S; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2014-11-18

    Potentially harmful plants grow almost everywhere, hence, it is not practical to eradicate them all. However, a basic understanding of adverse cutaneous reactions and the common plants that cause each type can enable vulnerable individuals to discover the source of their dermatitis and thus prevent re-exposure. The aim of this study therefore, was to document the plants responsible for irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in the Eastern Cape, along with their respective irritants and clinical presentations. Study participants (161) in 12 locations were selected by convenient sampling with particular focus on local people who regularly interact with plants or plant products. Interview questions were focused on the local names of plants that contain irritating chemicals and physical characteristics that cause ICD. Forty four plant species distributed in 24 families and 34 genera were reported as causative agents of irritant contact dermatitis. Herbs constituted 67.35%, trees 24.49% and shrubs 8.16%. Mechanical ICD was reported to be caused by 23 species, closely followed by chemical ICD (20 species) and mechanico-chemical ICD (6 species). Species with the highest frequency of citations were Allium cepa, Acacia karroo, Capsicum annuum, Citrus limon and Zea mays. The most representative families were Euphorbiaceae (for chemical ICD), Urticaceae (for mechanico-chemical ICD), Fabaceae and Rutaceae for mechanical ICD. Most of the classes of chemical compounds identified as being responsible for chemical ICD were restricted to plants of specific genera such as the diterpenes in Euphorbia spp., disulphides in Allium spp., terpenes in Citrus spp. and isothiocyanates in Brassica spp. Thorns and hairs were reported for causing Mechanical ICD in 6 plant species each, including widely cultivated plants such as Acacia karoo and Citrus reticulata. Irritant contact dermatitis is a common cutaneous disorder in individuals exposed to plants in the Eastern Cape, especially among workers

  3. Procurement Adjudication and the Rights of Children: Freedom Stationery (Pty Ltd v MEC for Education, Eastern Cape 2011 JOL 26927 (E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Couzens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are heavily reliant on the services provided by the government and irregularities in public procurement processes are bound to affect the realisation of children's rights. In the Freedom Stationery (Pty Ltd v The Member of the Executive Council for Education, Eastern Cape the Court was urged by the Centre for Child Law acting as an amicus curiae to consider children's right to education and their best interests when deciding on an interim interdict which would result in a delay in the provision of stationery to several schools in the Eastern Cape. This case note contains a summary of the case, some comments on the court's approach to the rights of children in procurement adjudication, and an assessment of the significance of the case for the development of children's rights in South Africa.

  4. Evaluation of a safer male circumcision training programme for traditional surgeons and nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Nqeketo, Ayanda; Petros, George; Kanta, Xola

    2008-06-18

    Training designed to improve circumcision knowledge, attitude and practice was delivered over 5 days to 34 traditional surgeons and 49 traditional nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Training included the following topics: initiation rites; statutory regulation of traditional male circumcision and initiation into Manhood (TCIM); structure and function of the male sex organs; procedure of safe circumcision, infection control; sexually transmitted infections (STIs); HIV/AIDS; infection control measures; aftercare of the initiate including after care of the circumcision wound and initiate as a whole; detection and early management of common complications of circumcision; nutrition and fluid management; code of conduct and ethics; and sexual health education. The evaluation of the training consisted of a prospective assessment of knowledge and attitude immediately prior to and after training. Significant improvement in knowledge and/or attitudes was observed in legal aspects, STI, HIV and environmental aspects, attitudes in terms of improved collaboration with biomedical health care providers, normal and abnormal anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections and including HIV, circumcision practice and aftercare of initiates. We concluded that safer circumcision training can be successfully delivered to traditional surgeons and nurses.

  5. Macro- and meso-fabric structures of peritidal tufa stromatolites along the Eastern Cape coast of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark Joseph Kalahari; Anderson, Callum Robert; Perissinotto, Renzo; Rishworth, Gavin Midgley

    2017-08-01

    Stromatolites are rare in modern ecosystems due to factors associated with seawater chemistry or biological competition that restrict their formation. Actively calcifying stromatolites, near the Kei Mouth in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, were discovered in the early 2000s. Similar deposits were later described along a 200 km stretch on the south coast of Port Elizabeth. This study aims to describe the environmental setting, the macro- and meso-structures, as well as the evolution of the deposits near Port Elizabeth compared to other similar formations. Results show that the general environmental setting is consistent amongst peritidal stromatolites, including those described in this study. In all instances stromatolite growth occurs on a wave-cut rocky platform in and around rock pools. Growth is maximal within the intertidal to supratidal zone, as a result of freshwater inflow via emerging mineral springs at the base of landward slopes, and the periodic intrusion of seawater via storm surges or wave splash. In comparison with other systems, the South African stromatolite formations exhibit an additional macro-structure (beachrock/conglomerate) and four previously undescribed meso-structures: wrinkled laminar, laminar flat, rhizoliths, and blistered types. The South African stromatolites are also larger and more concentrated than other peritidal stromatolites, which could be due to this area having more suitable growth conditions.

  6. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, V H; Majewski, M S; Foreman, W T; Genualdi, S A; Mohammed, A; Massey Simonich, S L

    2014-01-15

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9-126 ng/m(3) (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05-0.71 ng/m(3) (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses.

  7. Measuring evapotranspiration using an eddy covariance system over the Albany Thicket of the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwate, O.; Mantel, Sukhmani K.; Palmer, Anthony R.; Gibson, Lesley A.

    2016-10-01

    Determining water and carbon fluxes over a vegetated surface is important in a context of global environmental changes and the fluxes help in understanding ecosystem functioning. Pursuant to this, the study measured evapotranspiration (ET) using an eddy covariance (EC) system installed over an intact example of the Albany Thicket (AT) vegetation in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Environmental constraints to ET were also assessed by examining the response of ET to biotic and abiotic factors. The EC system comprised of an open path Infrared Gas Analyser and Sonic anemometer and an attendant weather station to measure bi-meteorological variables. Post processing of eddy covariance data was conducted using EddyPro software. Quality assessment of fluxes was also performed and rejected and missing data were filled using the method of mean diurnal variations (MDV). Much of the variation in ET was accounted for by the leaf area index (LAI, p < 0.001, 41%) and soil moisture content (SWC, p < 0.001, 32%). Total measured ET during the experiment was greater than total rainfall received owing to the high water storage capacity of the vegetation and the possibility of vegetation accessing ground water. Most of the net radiation was consumed by sensible heat flux and this means that ET in the area is essentially water limited since abundant energy was available to drive turbulent transfers of energy. Understanding the environmental constraints to ET is crucial in predicting the ecosystem response to environmental forces such as climate change.

  8. Trends in vegetation degradation in relation to land tenure, rainfall, and population changes in Peddie district, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakembo, V

    2001-07-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in vegetation are examined in relation to land tenure, population increase, and rainfall variation in a part of Peddie district, Eastern Cape. Sequential aerial photographs between 1938 and 1988 are analyzed to determine trends in vegetation and population change in three different land-tenure units. The areal extent at each date of four distinct vegetation categories is determined using PC ARC/INFO GIS. Long-term annual rainfall trends for the area are analyzed and juxtaposed with vegetation changes. Extensive ground-truthing exercises are carried out to verify the present condition of vegetation condition in terms of cover and species composition. Differences in land-tenure systems are discerned as the dominant factor controlling variations in vegetation degradation. The study also reveals that neither population changes nor rainfall variations can explain the observed trends in vegetation degradation. Earlier injudicious land-use practices, sustained since the turn of the last century, may provide plausible explanations for the trends and present status of vegetation degradation in the area.

  9. 4-m Image of the Southern Half of the Backscatter Intensity Mosaic of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod from USGS Cruise 98015 (CAPESOUTHMOS_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping...

  10. Image of the 4-m Sun-illuminated Topography of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPENORTHSUN_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes sun-illuminated of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping...

  11. Image of the 4-m Sun-illuminated Topography of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPESOUTHSUN_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes sun-illuminated of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping...

  12. CAPENORTH_GEO4M_XYZ.TXT: ASCII formatted file of the 4-m bathymetry from the northern half of USGS survey 98015 of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes bathymetry of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping system...

  13. 4-m Image of the Southern Half of the Backscatter Intensity Mosaic of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod from USGS Cruise 98015 (CAPESOUTHMOS_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping...

  14. ASCII formatted file of the 4-m bathymetry from the northern half of USGS survey 98015 of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPENORTH_GEO4M_XYZ.TXT, Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes bathymetry of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping system...

  15. Image of the 4-m Sun-illuminated Topography of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPESOUTHSUN_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes sun-illuminated of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping...

  16. Image of the 4-m Sun-illuminated Topography of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPENORTHSUN_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes sun-illuminated of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping...

  17. ASCII formatted file of the 4-m bathymetry from the southern half of USGS Survey 98015 of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPESOUTH_GEO4M_XYZ.TXT, Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes bathymetry of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping system...

  18. 4-m Image of the Southern Half of the Backscatter Intensity Mosaic of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod from USGS Cruise 98015 (CAPESOUTHMOS_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor...

  19. Lithic technology and behavioural modernity: new results from the Still Bay site, Hollow Rock Shelter, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Anders; Larsson, Lars

    2011-08-01

    The Hollow Rock Shelter site in Western Cape Province, South Africa, was excavated in 1993 and 2008. This study presents new results from a technological analysis of Still Bay points and bifacial flakes from the site. The results show that Still Bay points from the site are standardized tools. The points in the assemblage consist of a complex mixture of whole and fragmented points in all phases of production. The fragmentation degree is high; approximately 80% of the points are broken. A high proportion of bending fractures shows that several of the points were discarded due to production failures, and points with impact damage or hafting traces show that used points were left in the cave. This illustrates that the production of points as well as replacement of used points took place at the site. The result also shows that worked but not finished preforms and points were left at the site, suggestive of future preparation. The points were produced within the framework of three different chaînes opératoires, all ending up in a typologically uniform tool. This shows that the manufacture of Still Bay points should be regarded as a special bifacial technology, only partly comparable with other bifacial technologies. A raw material analysis shows that locally available quartz and quartzite were used in the production, and that points made of silcrete were brought to the site. Based on the technological analysis, a discussion of behavioural modernity, focusing on hypotheses about social interaction, experimentation, different strategies for learning to knap, and landscape memories, results in an interpretation that behavioural modernity was established at Hollow Rock Shelter in the Still Bay phase of the southern African Middle Stone Age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (PChlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (PChlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  1. Bio-optical provinces in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and their biogeographical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Taylor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between phytoplankton assemblages and the associated optical properties of the water body is important for the further development of algorithms for large-scale remote sensing of phytoplankton biomass and the identification of phytoplankton functional types (PFTs, which are often representative for different biogeochemical export scenarios. Optical in-situ measurements aid in the identification of phytoplankton groups with differing pigment compositions and are widely used to validate remote sensing data. In this study we present results from an interdisciplinary cruise aboard the RV Polarstern along a north-to-south transect in the eastern Atlantic Ocean in November 2008. Phytoplankton community composition was identified using a broad set of in-situ measurements. Water samples from the surface and the depth of maximum chlorophyll concentration were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, flow cytometry, spectrophotometry and microscopy. Simultaneously, the above- and underwater light field was measured by a set of high spectral resolution (hyperspectral radiometers. An unsupervised cluster algorithm applied to the measured parameters allowed us to define bio-optical provinces, which we compared to ecological provinces proposed elsewhere in the literature. As could be expected, picophytoplankton was responsible for most of the variability of PFTs in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Our bio-optical clusters agreed well with established provinces and thus can be used to classify areas of similar biogeography. This method has the potential to become an automated approach where satellite data could be used to identify shifting boundaries of established ecological provinces or to track exceptions from the rule to improve our understanding of the biogeochemical cycles in the ocean.

  2. Marine littoral diatoms from the Gordon’s bay region of False Bay, Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available and Comic/i for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (Received: 5.2. 1970) The Gordon?s Bay region occupies the north western corner of False Bay, a large rectangular bay, bounded on the west by the Cape Peninsula ending at Cape Point...

  3. Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Iversen

    Full Text Available Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008. Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed. Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013% and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%. Three of the 20 seed samples (15% included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603 intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10% included genes for insect resistance (from MON810. In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system.

  4. Assessment of chlorine tolerance profile of Citrobacter species recovered from wastewater treatment plants in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoseni, Mojisola; Okoh, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    This present study assessed the chlorine tolerance of some Citrobacter species recovered from secondary effluents from the clarifiers of two wastewater treatment plants in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The bacterial survival, chlorine lethal dose and inactivation kinetics at lethal doses were examined. Inactivation of the test bacteria (n = 20) at the recommended dose of 0.5 mg/l for 30 min exposure showed a progressive reduction in bacterial population from 4 to 5 log reduction and residuals ranged between 0.12 and 0.46 mg/l. The bactericidal activity of chlorine increased at higher dosages with a substantial reduction in viability of the bacteria and complete inactivation of the bacterial population at a lethal dose of 0.75 and 1.0 mg/l in 30 min. For the inactivation kinetics, bactericidal activity of chlorine increased with time showing a 3.67-5.4 log reduction in 10 min, 4.0-5.6 log reduction in 20 min and above 6.3 log reductions to complete sterilization of bacterial population over 30 min for all the entire test Citrobacter isolates used in this study. Furthermore, there was a strong correlation (R (2) > 0.84) between bacteria inactivation and increase in contact time. This study appears to have provided support for laboratory evidence of bacterial tolerance to chlorine disinfection at current recommended dose (0.5 mg/l for 30 min), and chlorine concentration between 0.75 and 1.0 mg/l was found to have a better disinfecting capacity to check tolerance of Citrobacter species.

  5. Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (χ(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p food insecurity (χ(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (χ(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (χ(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that renewed efforts should be made to improve sexual risk behaviour within this group.

  6. Investigating a green economy transition of the electricity sector in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosthuizen, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Government in South Africa has identified the concept of a green economy as a way to transform the Province’s economy to one that is more sustainable from an economic, social, and environmental perspective. System dynamics modelling was used to develop a better understanding of the implications of different green economy policies and investments in the electricity sector of the Western Cape Province. The results suggest that continuing on the current policy path would increase the gap between demand and supply, increase the carbon footprint of the electricity sector, and not provide growth in employment in the sector. Strategic green economy investments are therefore expected to impact positively on a number of indicators across a number of sectors.

  7. Associations between depressive symptoms, sexual behaviour and relationship characteristics: a prospective cohort study of young women and men in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nduna Mzikazi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors are often neglected in HIV research, although psychological distress is common in low- to middle-income countries, such as South Africa. There is a need to deepen our understanding of the role of mental health factors in the HIV epidemic. We set out to investigate whether baseline depressive symptomatology was associated with risky sexual behaviour and relationship characteristics of men and women at baseline, as well as those found 12 months later. Methods We used prospective cohort data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of an HIV prevention intervention in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Our subjects were 1002 female and 976 male volunteers aged 15 to 26. Logistic regression was used to model the cross-sectional and prospective associations between baseline depressive symptomatology, risky sexual behaviors and relationship characteristics. The analysis adjusted for the clustering effect, study design, intervention and several confounding variables. Results Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 21.1% among women and 13.6% among men. At baseline, women with depressed symptoms were more likely to report lifetime intimate partner violence (AOR = 2.56, 95% CI 1.89-3.46 and have dated an older partner (AOR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.03-1.83. A year later, baseline depressive symptomatology was associated with transactional sex (AOR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.37, 4.92 and intimate partner violence (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.18-2.36 in the previous 12 months. Men with depressive symptoms were more likely to report ever having had transactional sex (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.01-2.17, intimate partner violence perpetration (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI 0.98-2.28 and perpetration of rape (AOR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.14-2.87. They were less likely to report correct condom use at last sex (AOR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.32-0.78. A year later, baseline depressive symptomatology was associated with failure to use a condom at last sex among men (AOR = 0

  8. Bio-optical provinces in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and their biogeographical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Taylor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between phytoplankton assemblages and the associated optical properties of the water body is important for the further development of algorithms for large-scale remote sensing of phytoplankton biomass and the identification of phytoplankton functional types (PFTs, which are often representative for different biogeochemical export scenarios. Optical in-situ measurements aid in the identification of phytoplankton groups with differing pigment compositions and are widely used to validate remote sensing data. In this study we present results from an interdisciplinary cruise aboard the R/V Polarstern along a north-to-south transect in the eastern Atlantic Ocean in November 2008. Phytoplankton community composition was identified using a broad set of in-situ measurements. Water samples from the surface and the depth of maximum chlorophyll concentration were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, flow cytometry, spectrophotometry and microscopy. Simultaneously, the above- and underwater light field was measured by a set of high spectral resolution (hyperspectral radiometers. An unsupervised cluster algorithm applied to the measured parameters allowed us to define bio-optical provinces, which are compared to ecological provinces proposed elsewhere in the literature. This method has the potential to become an automated approach where satellite data could be used to identify shifting boundaries of established ecological provinces or to track exceptions from the rule to improve our understanding of the biogeochemical cycles in the ocean.

  9. Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Western Cape Province, South Africa) in context: The Cape Floral kingdom, shellfish, and modern human origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marean, Curtis W

    2010-01-01

    Genetic and anatomical evidence suggests that Homo sapiens arose in Africa between 200 and 100ka, and recent evidence suggests that complex cognition may have appeared between ~164 and 75ka. This evidence directs our focus to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6, when from 195-123ka the world was in a fluctuating but predominantly glacial stage, when much of Africa was cooler and drier, and when dated archaeological sites are rare. Previously we have shown that humans had expanded their diet to include marine resources by ~164ka (±12ka) at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (PP13B) on the south coast of South Africa, perhaps as a response to these harsh environmental conditions. The associated material culture documents an early use and modification of pigment, likely for symbolic behavior, as well as the production of bladelet stone tool technology, and there is now intriguing evidence for heat treatment of lithics. PP13B also includes a later sequence of MIS 5 occupations that document an adaptation that increasingly focuses on coastal resources. A model is developed that suggests that the combined richness of the Cape Floral Region on the south coast of Africa, with its high diversity and density of geophyte plants and the rich coastal ecosystems of the associated Agulhas Current, combined to provide a stable set of carbohydrate and protein resources for early modern humans along the southern coast of South Africa during this crucial but environmentally harsh phase in the evolution of modern humans. Humans structured their mobility around the use of coastal resources and geophyte abundance and focused their occupation at the intersection of the geophyte rich Cape flora and coastline. The evidence for human occupation relative to the distance to the coastline over time at PP13B is consistent with this model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonality and Trend Forecasting of Tuberculosis Prevalence Data in Eastern Cape, South Africa, Using a Hybrid Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeboye Azeez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is a deadly infectious disease caused by Mycobacteria tuberculosis. Tuberculosis as a chronic and highly infectious disease is prevalent in almost every part of the globe. More than 95% of TB mortality occurs in low/middle income countries. In 2014, approximately 10 million people were diagnosed with active TB and two million died from the disease. In this study, our aim is to compare the predictive powers of the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA and neural network auto-regression (SARIMA-NNAR models of TB incidence and analyse its seasonality in South Africa. Methods: TB incidence cases data from January 2010 to December 2015 were extracted from the Eastern Cape Health facility report of the electronic Tuberculosis Register (ERT.Net. A SARIMA model and a combined model of SARIMA model and a neural network auto-regression (SARIMA-NNAR model were used in analysing and predicting the TB data from 2010 to 2015. Simulation performance parameters of mean square error (MSE, root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute error (MAE, mean percent error (MPE, mean absolute scaled error (MASE and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE were applied to assess the better performance of prediction between the models. Results: Though practically, both models could predict TB incidence, the combined model displayed better performance. For the combined model, the Akaike information criterion (AIC, second-order AIC (AICc and Bayesian information criterion (BIC are 288.56, 308.31 and 299.09 respectively, which were lower than the SARIMA model with corresponding values of 329.02, 327.20 and 341.99, respectively. The seasonality trend of TB incidence was forecast to have a slightly increased seasonal TB incidence trend from the SARIMA-NNAR model compared to the single model. Conclusions: The combined model indicated a better TB incidence forecasting with a lower AICc. The model also indicates the need for resolute

  11. Seasonality and Trend Forecasting of Tuberculosis Prevalence Data in Eastern Cape, South Africa, Using a Hybrid Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Adeboye; Obaromi, Davies; Odeyemi, Akinwumi; Ndege, James; Muntabayi, Ruffin

    2016-07-26

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly infectious disease caused by Mycobacteria tuberculosis. Tuberculosis as a chronic and highly infectious disease is prevalent in almost every part of the globe. More than 95% of TB mortality occurs in low/middle income countries. In 2014, approximately 10 million people were diagnosed with active TB and two million died from the disease. In this study, our aim is to compare the predictive powers of the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and neural network auto-regression (SARIMA-NNAR) models of TB incidence and analyse its seasonality in South Africa. TB incidence cases data from January 2010 to December 2015 were extracted from the Eastern Cape Health facility report of the electronic Tuberculosis Register (ERT.Net). A SARIMA model and a combined model of SARIMA model and a neural network auto-regression (SARIMA-NNAR) model were used in analysing and predicting the TB data from 2010 to 2015. Simulation performance parameters of mean square error (MSE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean percent error (MPE), mean absolute scaled error (MASE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were applied to assess the better performance of prediction between the models. Though practically, both models could predict TB incidence, the combined model displayed better performance. For the combined model, the Akaike information criterion (AIC), second-order AIC (AICc) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) are 288.56, 308.31 and 299.09 respectively, which were lower than the SARIMA model with corresponding values of 329.02, 327.20 and 341.99, respectively. The seasonality trend of TB incidence was forecast to have a slightly increased seasonal TB incidence trend from the SARIMA-NNAR model compared to the single model. The combined model indicated a better TB incidence forecasting with a lower AICc. The model also indicates the need for resolute intervention to reduce infectious disease

  12. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  13. Current forest conditions of older stands of the mixed mesophytic forest region on the Appalachian Plateaus Province of eastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Jr. Rosson

    2008-01-01

    E. Lucy Braun coined the term "mixed mesophytic forest" in 1916. These forests are structurally complex and occur extensively across the Appalachian Plateaus Province. This region is considered the epicenter of highest development of the eastern deciduous forest. I used U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to study current forest...

  14. Self-induction of abortion among women accessing second-trimester abortion services in the public sector, Western Cape Province, South Africa: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, D; Grossman, D; Lince, N; Harries, J

    2014-04-01

    Despite South Africa's liberal abortion law permitting abortion on request in the first trimester and under restricted conditions for second-trimester pregnancies, the practice of unsafe self-induced abortion persists. However, the prevalence of this practice, the methods used and the reasons behind it are relatively under-researched. As part of a larger study seeking to improve abortion services in the Western Cape Province, we explored reports of prior attempts to self-induce abortion among women undergoing legal second-trimester abortion. To describe the prevalence and methods of and factors related to unsuccessful attempts at self-induction of abortion by women presenting without complications and seeking second-trimester abortion at public health facilities in the Western Cape. In a cross-sectional study from April to August 2010, 194 consenting women undergoing second-trimester abortion were interviewed by trained fieldworkers using structured questionnaires at four public sector facilities near Cape Town. Thirty-four women (17.5%; 95% confidence interval 12.7 - 23.4) reported an unsuccessful attempt to self-induce abortion during the current pregnancy before going to a facility for second-trimester abortion. No factors were significantly associated with self-induction, but a relatively high proportion of this small sample were unemployed and spoke an indigenous African language at home. A readily available herbal product called Stametta was most commonly used; other methods included taking tablets bought from unlicensed providers and using other herbal remedies. No use of physical methods was reported. The prevalence of unsafe self-induction of abortion is relatively high in the Western Cape. Efforts to inform women in the community about the availability of free services in the public sector and to educate them about the dangers of self-induction and unsafe providers should be strengthened to help address this public health issue.

  15. Numerical modeling of geothermal groundwater flow in karst aquifer system in eastern Weibei, Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming; LI GuoMin; YANG Liao; DANG XueYa; ZHAO ChunHu; HOU GuangCai; ZHANG MaoSheng

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of geothermal water resources is important to the exploitation and utilization of geothermal resources. In the geothermal water systems the density of groundwater changes with the temperature, therefore the variations in hydraulic heads and temperatures are very complicated. A three-dimensional density-dependent model coupling the groundwater flow and heat transport is established and used to simulate the geothermal water flow in the karst aquifers in eastern Weibei,Shaanxi Province, China. The multilayered karst aquifer system in the study area is cut by some major faults which control the regional groundwater flow. In order to calibrate and simulate the effect of the major faults, each fault is discretized as a belt of elements with special hydrological parameters in the numerical model. The groundwater dating data are used to be integrated with the groundwater flow pattern and calibrate the model. Simulation results show that the calculated hydraulic heads and temperature fit with the observed data well.

  16. Brucellosis in nomadic pastoralists and their goats in two provinces of the eastern Algerian high plateaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabli, Abdelhafid; Agabou, Amir; Gabli, Zahra

    2015-08-01

    A 31-months study was conducted to elucidate the prevalence of brucellosis in nomadic pastoralists and their goats in two provinces of the eastern Algerian high plateaus. Five hundred eight human and 4955 animal sera were screened with the Rose Bengal plate test and the complement fixation test for confirmation. Uterine fluids from aborting goats were subjected to microbiological analyses to determine the biovars responsible for abortions. The overall seroprevalence was 0.98% among animals and 15.84% among herds. A significant correlation was recorded between occurrence of brucellosis and herd size (r = 0.4046, P Brucella melitensis biovar 3 was the only aetiology of brucellosis-associated abortion in goats of the studied region.

  17. Trends in Residential Energy Consumption in Saudi Arabia with Particular Reference to the Eastern Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farajallah Alrashed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential buildings are vital in the energy scenario of Saudi Arabia as they account for 52% of the total electricity consumption. The Eastern Province, due to its harsh weather conditions, is one of the most challenging areas in Saudi Arabia in terms of residential energy consumption. The province is vital also because of its large land area, accounting for almost one third of the entire country. This article investigates some of the important factors related to the residential energy consumption i.e. weather conditions, types of dwellings, building envelops, air-conditioning (A/C systems and domestic appliances especially cooking ovens. The work is based upon an analysis of the actual monthly electricity consumption for 115 dwellings in Dhahran for the year 2012. The investigated buildings include 62 apartments, 28 villas, and 25 traditional houses. The annual average electricity consumption for the surveyed dwellings was found to be 176.5 kWh/m2, a value higher than international energy-efficiency benchmarks. It is found that the use of mini-split A/C systems, thermal insulation and double-glazed windows can help reduce the electricity consumption by over 30%.

  18. Human resource management practices in a medical complex in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: assessing their impact on the retention of doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, Bruce; Ronnie, Linda

    2014-03-26

    Human resource management (HRM) practices have the potential to influence the retention of doctors in the public health sector. To explore the key human resource (HR) practices affecting doctors in a medical complex in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. We used an open-ended questionnaire to gather data from 75 doctors in this setting. The most important HR practices were paying salaries on time and accurately, the management of documentation, communication, HR staff showing that they respected and valued the doctors, and reimbursement for conferences and special leave requests. All these practices were judged to be poorly administered. Essential HR characteristics were ranked in the following order: task competence of HR staff, accountability, general HR efficiency, occupation-specific dispensation adjustments and performance management and development system efficiency, and availability of HR staff. All these characteristics were judged to be poor. HRM practices in this Eastern Cape medical complex were inadequate and a source of frustration. This lack of efficiency could lead to further problems with regard to retaining doctors in public sector service.

  19. The cold climate geomorphology of the Eastern Cape Drakensberg: A reevaluation of past climatic conditions during the last glacial cycle in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, S. C.; Barrows, T. T.; Telfer, M. W.; Fifield, L. K.

    2017-02-01

    Southern Africa is located in a unique setting for investigating past cold climate geomorphology over glacial-interglacial timescales. It lies at the junction of three of the world's major oceans and is affected by subtropical and temperate circulation systems, therefore recording changes in Southern Hemisphere circulation patterns. Cold climate landforms are very sensitive to changes in climate and thus provide an opportunity to investigate past changes in this region. The proposed existence of glaciers in the high Eastern Cape Drakensberg mountains, together with possible rock glaciers, has led to the suggestion that temperatures in this region were as much as 10-17 °C lower than present. Such large temperature depressions are inconsistent with many other palaeoclimatic proxies in Southern Africa. This paper presents new field observations and cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages from putative cold climate landforms. We discuss alternative interpretations for the formation of the landforms and confirm that glaciers were absent in the Eastern Cape Drakensberg during the last glaciation. However, we find widespread evidence for periglacial activity down to an elevation of 1700 m asl, as illustrated by extensive solifluction deposits, blockstreams, and stone garlands. These periglacial deposits suggest that the climate was significantly colder ( 6 °C) during the Last Glacial Maximum, in keeping with other climate proxy records from the region, but not cold enough to initiate or sustain glaciers or rock glaciers.

  20. Platinum-group elements in the Eastern Deccan volcanic province and a comparison with platinum metals of the western Deccan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    James Crocket; Dalim Paul; Trisha Lala

    2013-08-01

    This study is the first detailed investigation of the platinum-group elements (PGE) at the eastern margin of the Deccan volcanic province of India. One of the PGE, osmium, is not included largely because of analytical problems. The study is focused on mafic volcanics and dykes from four areas including Amarkantak, Umaria, Shahdol and Chirimiri. The first two localities represent two lava piles of about 170 and 400 m thickness respectively. In Umaria, 16 flows have been demarcated based on petrography and field studies. The Shahdol samples are basal lava formations overlying Gondwana sediments (Carboniferous) and the Chirimiri samples are dykes. In this study, the western Deccan province is defined as the Western Ghats plus Kutch. On average, the PGE are ∼20% higher in Amarkantak than Umaria and the flows are ∼13% higher in PGE than the dykes. A Zr vs. Pd scattergram found a strong positive correlation for these two elements except for one Umaria sample which indicated severe Pd loss. A comparison of west and east parts of the Deccan volcanic province using primitive mantle normalization showed that higher values prevailed in the western province suite in the Ni-Ir-Ru-Pt region. In contrast, eastern province values dominated in the Pd-Au-Cu region at the ‘Cu’ end of the profiles. A strong dominance of Pd in the eastern Deccan was also of interest. A number of factors, for example, percentage partial melting of the source rock and the temperature and pressure of partial melting strongly influence the character of these profiles. The observed PGE profile characteristics probably result in part from a long distance of subsurface transport of Deccan magma from the western to eastern regions.

  1. Agricultural land purchases for alternative uses - evidence from two farming areas in the Western Cape Province, South Africa - AEASA Conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Reed_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6559 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Reed_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Agricultural land purchases for alternative... District Municipality Minimal crops, extensive farming related to natural grazing LAND USE IN INTENSIVE AND EXTENSIVE AREAS: WESTERN CAPE METHOD (cont.) Survey: • Questionnaire ranking importance of specific characteristics in purchase decision...

  2. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  3. K-Ar Geochronology of Mesozoic Mafic Dikes in Shandong Province, Eastern China:Implications for Crustal Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shen; HU Ruizhong; ZHAO Junhong; FENG Caixia

    2004-01-01

    Based on K-Ar isotope analyses, Mesozoic mafic (and alkali ultramafic) dikes from western and eastern Shandong Province, China, are dated at 88.2±1.70 Ma to 169.5±3.7 Ma with the majority of ages ranging from 90 Ma to 140 Ma. The emplacement of the dikes suggests a major Yanshanian (Cretaceous) crustal extension in Shandong province.Together with other available age data, this study suggests four periods of crustal extension at about 80 Ma, 100 Ma, 120 Ma and 140 Ma, respectively. Besides the effect of collapse of the Yanshanian orogenic belt on the emplacement of the mafic dikes in Shandong in the Cretaceous, the mantle plume and the extensive left-lateral advection and extension of the Tanlu fault also have controlled the crustal extension and the emplacement of the mafic dikes in eastern Shandong and western Shandong, respectively.

  4. Studies of crustal structure, seismic precursors to volcanic eruptions and earthquake hazard in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mavonga, T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, civil wars in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo have caused massive social disruptions, which have been exacerbated by volcanic and earthquake disasters. Seismic data were gathered and analysed as part...

  5. Small mammal utilization by Middle Stone Age humans at Die Kelders Cave 1 and Pinnacle Point Site 5-6, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Aaron

    2016-12-01

    Reported here are the results of a taphonomic analysis of the small mammals (between 0.75 kg and 4.5 kg adult body weight) and size 1 bovids (≤20 kg adult body weight) from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites of Die Kelders Cave 1 (DK1) and Pinnacle Point Site 5-6 (PP5-6), Western Cape Province, South Africa. This study provides a comprehensive taphonomic analysis of MSA small mammals with a focus on discerning the role of humans in their accumulation and the implications for human behavioral adaptations. Based on comparisons with control assemblages of known accumulation, it is evident that humans accumulated many of the Cape dune mole-rats, hares, and size 1 bovids at DK1. The patterning of cut-marked and burned mole-rat remains at DK1 provides evidence in the MSA for the systematic utilization of small mammals for their skins and as a protein source. Unlike DK1, small mammals and size 1 bovids constitute only a small portion of the PP5-6 mammals and they exhibit little evidence of human accumulation. Nocturnal and diurnal raptors accumulated most of the small fauna at PP5-6. The nominal presence of small mammals in the PP5-6 fauna is atypical of MSA sites in the Cape Floristic Region, where they are abundant and often constitute large portions of MSA archaeofaunas. DK1 humans maximized the environmental yield by exploiting low-quality resources, a strategy employed possibly in response to localized environmental conditions and to greater human population densities. In comparison, the MIS5-4 humans at PP5-6 did not exploit small mammals and instead focused on higher-quality resources like shellfish and large ungulates. Humans and predators accumulated few small mammals at PP5-6, suggesting that these taxa may have been less abundant near the site and/or that humans could afford to concentrate on high-quality resources, perhaps because of a higher-yield local environment. This study suggests that an adaptive response to the environmental conditions of MIS4 was

  6. Adoption and Barriers to Adoption of Electronic Health Records by Nurses in Three Governmental Hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mahalli, Azza El.

    2015-01-01

    Although electronic health records (EHRs) have been implemented in many hospitals and healthcare providers benefit from their effective and efficient data processing, their evaluation from nurses has received little attention. This project aimed to assess the adoption and barriers to the use of an EHR system by nurses at three governmental hospitals implementing the same EHR software and functionalities in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. The study was a cross-sectional, paper-based questionna...

  7. Trends and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Sustainability in Eastern Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes and evaluates the status and long-term trend of regional economic sustainability in eastern Anhui Province, China. Based on the triangle model and the definition of economic sustainable development, this study evaluates the interrelationship among regional economic development, resource-energy consumption, environmental pollution, and ecological performance. The sustainable and comprehensive utilization situation in the study region from 1975–2012 is examined. The results show that in 2012, the comprehensive development in the study region had a general status in terms of sustainability. The sustainable development trend of the seven administrative subunits inside the region had a weak and general status in terms of sustainability, while the status of sustainability in the southeastern part of the region was better than that in the northwest. During the period from 1975–1998, the study region’s comprehensive development presented a trend of general sustainability. In the period from 1998–2012, the region experienced a trend of very strong sustainability in its development. These statuses and trends have a certain relationship with the study region’s strong economic development and environmental protection over the past 37 years. The triangle method, as an intuitive platform for illustrating sustainability status and trends in economic development, seems to hold promise as an analytical management tool given its simplicity, ease of use, and flexibility.

  8. Platinum and Palladium in Coal Rock and Geochemical Anomaly in Eastern Yunnan Province,Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Cheng Qiuming; Chen Yongqing; Zhang Shengyuan

    2008-01-01

    A series of geochemical anomalies of Pt and Pd were found in 1 358 recombined samples from a geochemical stream sediment survey in eastern Yunnan (云南) Province, China. Chemical optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and inductively coupled plasmas atomic emission spectrometry analyses of 22 elements and chemical compositions of 21 samples from coal-bearing strata from the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic show Pt and Pd concentrated to some extent in coal rocks, with Pd/Pt

  9. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Goz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae and fleas (Siphonaptera are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer.Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively.Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus and fleas (A. erinacei in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. 

  10. Geological Model of Member 3 of Shahejie Formation Reservoir in Liuzan Oilfield, Eastern Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new geological model of Member 3 of Shahejie Formation reservoir in the Liuzan Oilfield, eastern Hebei Province was constructed by using modern reservoir modeling technology as sequence stratigraphy and conditional simulation combined with traditional geological analysis. The model consists of a stratigraphic framework model, a structural model, a sedimentary model and a reservoir model. The study shows that the reservoir is a relatively integrated nose structure, whose strata can be divided into 4 sets of parasequence, 12 parasequences. The submerged branched channel of fan delta front is the favorable microfacies, which controls the geometric shape and physical properties of reservoir sandstone. Oil is distributed in premium reservoir sandstones at structural high positions. According to the new geological model, not only the geological contradictions appearing during oil field development are resolved, but also the oil-bearing area is enlarged by 2.7km2 and geological reserves increased by 156.9 million tons. The production capacity of the Liuzan Oilfield is increased by 0.27 million tons per year.

  11. Assessment of Pharmacy Information System Performance in Three Hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mahalli, Azza; El-Khafif, Sahar H; Yamani, Wid

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacy information system is one of the central pillars of a hospital information system. This research evaluated a pharmacy information system according to six aspects of the medication process in three hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. System administrators were interviewed to determine availability of functionalities. Then, system users within the hospital were targeted to evaluate their level of usage of these functionalities. The study was cross-sectional. Two structured surveys were designed. The overall response rate of hospital users was 31.7 percent. In all three hospitals studied, the electronic health record is hybrid, implementation has been completed and the system is running, and the systems have computerized provider order entry and clinical decision support. Also, the pharmacy information systems are integrated with the electronic health record, and computerized provider order entry and almost all prescribing and transcription functionalities are available; however, drug dispensing is a mostly manual process. However, the study hospitals do not use barcode-assisted medication administration systems to verify patient identity and electronically check dose administration, and none of them have computerized adverse drug event monitoring that uses the electronic health record. The numbers of users who used different functionalities most or all of the time was generally low. The highest frequency of utilization was for patient administration records (56.8 percent), and the lowest was for linkage of the pharmacy information system to pharmacy stock (9.1 percent). Encouraging users to use different functionalities was highly recommended.

  12. Patient views on determinants of compliance with tuberculosis treatment in the eastern cape, South Africa: an application of q-methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane Murray; van Exel, Job; Møller, Valerie; Finkenflügel, Harry

    2010-09-01

    : Tuberculosis (TB) constitutes one-quarter of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. In the Eastern Cape, South Africa, TB is a public health problem of epidemic proportion. Poor compliance and frequent interruption to treatment are associated with increased transmission rates, morbidity, and costs to TB control programs. This study explored determinants of (non-)compliance from the patients' perspective. : Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (33 treatment compliers and 34 treatment non-compliers) and 14 community health workers from local community clinics and the hospital in the township of Grahamstown, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Q-methodology was used. Patients rank ordered 32 opinion statements describing determinants of treatment compliance from the TB adherence model. By-person factor analysis was used to explore patterns in the rankings of statements by compliers and non-compliers. These patterns were interpreted and described as patient views on determinants of compliance with treatment. Patients and community health workers selected the top five determinants of compliance and non-compliance. : Compliers believed that completing treatment would cure them of TB. Economic prospects were crucial for compliance. Compliers felt that the support of the government disability grant helped with compliance. Non-compliers believed that stigmatization had the greatest impact on non-compliance, together with the burden of disease, the arrangements involved with receiving treatment, restrictions accompanying treatment, and the association of TB with HIV/AIDS infection. : Stigmatization makes TB a 'social disease'. Individual motivation and self-efficacy appear to have a considerable effect on compliance, but, for non-compliers, the general lack of job prospects and being able to provide for themselves or their family also makes TB very much an 'economic disease'.

  13. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from pigeon excreta in Chon Buri Province, Eastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangwattanachuleeporn, Marut; Somparn, Poorichaya; Poolpol, Kulwara; Gross, Uwe; Weig, Michael; Bader, Oliver

    2013-01-01

     The prevalence of cerebral meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans in HIV-infected patients in Eastern Thailand is high. However, little is known about the occurrence of this pathogenic yeast in the environment of this region.  The aim of our study was to characterize the prevalence of C. neoformans, its serotypes and antifungal drug susceptibilities in environmental isolates from Chon Buri, Eastern Thailand.  C. neoformans was isolated from 10% of fifty pigeon excreta examined from this province. All C. neoformans isolates were of serotype A and although the isolates displayed slightly decreased susceptibility towards fluconazole, all tested sensitive to amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole. This study is the first report of the occurrence of C. neoformans in pigeon excreta in eastern Thailand.

  14. The late Oligocene Cevizlidere Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Tunceli Province, eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    İmer, Ali; Richards, Jeremy P.; Creaser, Robert A.; Spell, Terry L.

    2015-02-01

    The Cevizlidere deposit, located in the Tunceli Province of eastern Anatolia, is the largest porphyry Cu-Au-Mo system in Turkey. The deposit is spatially related to a composite stock, which was emplaced into Paleozoic limestones and Paleogene andesitic rocks to the southeast of the Munzur mountains, near the southwestern margin of the Ovacık pull-apart basin. The host plutonic rocks at Cevizlidere are porphyritic, medium-K calc-alkaline diorites and granodiorites. 40Ar/39Ar incremental step-heating analysis of two igneous biotite separates obtained from syn-mineral diorite porphyry yielded late Oligocene cooling ages of 25.49 ± 0.10 and 25.10 ± 0.14 Ma, whereas hydrothermal biotite yielded an age of 24.73 ± 0.08 Ma. Re-Os ages obtained from two molybdenite separates (24.90 ± 0.10 and 24.78 ± 0.10 Ma) indicate that porphyry-style alteration and mineralization developed shortly after magma emplacement. The whole-rock geochemical composition of the Cevizlidere porphyry intrusions is consistent with derivation from partial melting of the metasomatized supra-subduction zone mantle. However, based on regional tectonic reconstructions, Oligocene magmatic activity in this area appears to be related to a major kinematic reorganization that took place at around 25 Ma, during the switch from subduction to collisional tectonics in eastern Anatolia. This kinematic switch may be attributed to break-off of the Southern Neo-Tethys oceanic slab prior to the Arabia-Eurasia continent-continent collision (~12-10 Ma) following widespread middle Eocene (50-43 Ma) arc/back-arc magmatism. In this respect, the subduction-related tectonic setting of the late Oligocene Cevizlidere porphyry deposit is similar to that of the middle Eocene Çöpler epithermal Au deposit. The late timing of Cevizlidere with respect to the Southern Neo-Tethys subduction may be comparable to some early to late Miocene porphyry-epithermal systems that lie within the contiguous Urumieh-Dokhtar belt in central

  15. Linking mortuary data improves vital statistics on cause of death of children under five years in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Pam; Bradshaw, Debbie; Neethling, Ian; Martin, Lorna J; Dempers, Johan; Morden, Erna; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Coetzee, David

    2016-01-01

    Reducing child mortality requires good information on its causes. Whilst South African vital registration data have improved, the quality of cause-of-death data remains inadequate. To improve this, data from death certificates were linked with information from forensic mortuaries in Western Cape Province. A local mortality surveillance system was established in 2007 by the Western Cape Health Department to improve data quality. Cause-of-death data were captured from copies of death notification forms collected at Department of Home Affairs Offices. Using unique identifiers, additional forensic mortuary data were linked with mortality surveillance system records. Causes of death were coded to the ICD-10 classification. Causes of death in children under five were compared with those from vital registration data for 2011. Cause-of-death data were markedly improved with additional data from forensic mortuaries. The proportion of ill-defined causes was halved (25-12%), and leading cause rankings changed. Lower respiratory tract infections moved above prematurity to rank first, accounting for 20.8% of deaths and peaking in infants aged 1-3 months. Only 11% of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections occurred in hospital, resulting in 86% being certified in forensic mortuaries. Road traffic deaths increased from 1.1-3.1% (27-75) and homicides from 3 to 28. The quality and usefulness of cause-of-death information for children in the WC was enhanced by linking mortuary and vital registration data. Given the death profile, interventions are required to prevent and manage LRTI, diarrhoea and injuries and to reduce neonatal deaths. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Geocemical provinces of magmatism in the south-eastern part of the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Belyatsky, Boris; Teterin, Dmitry

    2010-05-01

    Comparison of geochemical signatures of island magmatism in the south-eastern part of the Pacific Ocean and tholeiites of the Bransfield and Powell rift zones revealed the similar character of the enrichment which reflects the melting of a close mantle source. But alkaline magmatism of the islands in the west of Antarctic and Marie Byrd Land differs from the enriched basalts of the northern province (Bransfield, Powell, BTJ) by showing more radiogenic Sr values and non-radiogenic Nd. The tectonic development of the South Ocean is characterized by its formation under stationary conditions of Antarctic continent. As a result of this, for the volcanic islands distributed at the western part of the Antarctic we observe no long mountain ridges typical for their development under conditions of the moving plate. Intraplate magmatism evolution was coincided with the extinction of the old subduction zones, formation of the new rift zones and separation of South America from Antarctic [Udintsev, Schenke, 2007; Teterin, 2008]. Such complicated geodynamics caused the possibility of formation of rupture cracks reaching the underlying metasomatizated mantle and decompression melting with further island formation. In Oligocene due to migration of asthenospheric flow from the west to east in the result of destruction of previously united continental blocks there was formed the Scotia Sea, South Sandwich island arc as well as Drake Passage. This caused the mechanical weakening of South Atlantic lithosphere and the starting at the end of Oligocene - beginning Miocene of the new plate border formation - American-Antarctic ridge, which propagated in the eastern direction till the Bouvet triple junction [Dubinin et al., 1999]. The close geochemical signatures of mantle source for islands basalts including the Bouvet Island and the enriched tholeiites of the western extremity of the SW Indian Ridge proves the development of a specific geochemical province enveloping the southeastern

  17. Indoor air quality levels in a University Hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud F El-Sharkawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: The complex hospital environment requires special attention to ensure a healthy indoor air quality (IAQ to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections and occupational diseases. Poor hospital IAQ may cause outbreaks of building-related illness such as headaches, fatigue, eye, and skin irritations, and other symptoms. The general objective for this study was to assess IAQ inside a large University hospital at Al-Khobar City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Different locations representing areas where most activities and tasks are performed were selected as sampling points for air pollutants in the selected hospital. In addition, several factors were studied to determine those that were most likely to affect the IAQ levels. The temperature and relative percent humidity of different air pollutants were measured simultaneously at each location. Results: The outdoor levels of all air pollutant levels, except volatile organic compounds (VOCs, were higher than the indoor levels which meant that the IAQ inside healthcare facilities (HCFs were greatly affected by outdoor sources, particularly traffic. The highest levels of total suspended particulates (TSPs and those less than 10 microns (PM 10 inside the selected hospital were found at locations that are characterized with m4ore human activity. Conclusions:Levels of particulate matter (both PM 10 and TSP were higher than the Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs. The highest concentrations of the fungal species recorded were Cladosporium and Penicillium. Education of occupants of HCF on IAQ is critical. They must be informed about the sources and effects of contaminants and the proper operation of the ventilation system.

  18. Knee problems and its associated factors among active cyclists in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althunyan, Abdullatif K.; Darwish, Magdy A.; Abdel Wahab, Moataza M.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bicycling is one of the most enjoyable aerobic exercises recommended for the promotion of an individual's health. The Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia has seen a huge increase in the number of people who cycle. People have different goals for bicycling, but the injuries they sustain are common. Most of them relate to overuse, particularly of lower body joints. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of knee problems and factors associated with knee pain in cyclists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2015, using an online self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on pertinent literature, was piloted, and validated. A web link was sent to 513 cyclists (professional and amateur) using E-mail, WhatsApp application, or SMS. Three hundred and eleven responses were received, 283 of which were included in the analysis. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of knee pain was 25.8%; 27.6% for amateur cyclists and 15.9% for professional cyclists. Only 17.2% knee pain was attributed to cycling, whereas in 32.8% it happened spontaneously and in 25% of cases it occurred while running. Majority of the cyclists reported pain as mild (61.6%) or moderate (28.7%); anterior knee pain accounted for 58.1% knee pain. Different goals of cycling and different bicycle types had statistically significant difference on the rate of knee pain. Of underweight cyclists, 62.2% reported knee pain. Cyclists who run more or participated in football had a higher rate of pain. CONCLUSION: Knee injuries are common with cyclists. Factors such as the type of the bicycle, the goal of bicycling, club type, body mass index, and participation in other sports play a significant role in the rate of knee pain. PMID:28163572

  19. The Institution of a Standardized Investigation Protocol for Sudden Infant Death in the Eastern Metropole, Cape Town, South Africa(,)().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempers, Johan J; Coldrey, Jean; Burger, Elsie H; Thompson, Vonita; Wadee, Shabbir A; Odendaal, Hein J; Sens, Mary Ann; Randall, Brad B; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Kinney, Hannah C

    2016-11-01

    The rate for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Cape Town, South Africa, is estimated to be among the highest in the world (3.41/1000 live births). In several of these areas, including those of extreme poverty, only sporadic, nonstandardized infant autopsy, and death scene investigation (DSI) occurred. In this report, we detail a feasibility project comprising 18 autopsied infants with sudden and unexpected death whose causes of death were adjudicated according to the 1991 NICHD definitions (SIDS, n = 7; known cause of death, n = 7; and unclassified, n = 4). We instituted a standardized autopsy and infant DSI through a collaborative effort of local forensic pathology officers and clinical providers. The high standard of forensic investigation met international standards, identified preventable disease, and allowed for incorporation of research. We conclude that an effective infant autopsy and DSI protocol can be established in areas with both high sudden unexpected infant death, and elsewhere. (SUID)/SIDS risk and infrastructure challenges.

  20. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  1. Traditional remedies used for the treatment of cattle wounds and myiasis in Amatola Basin, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.T. Soyelu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey was carried out to document traditional remedies used in the treatment of cattle wounds and myiasis in Amatola Basin. Eighty-three cattle farmers from nine villages were interviewed. The majority of respondents (67.9 % use traditional remedies for treatment of these conditions. However, 25.9 % of them use a combination of traditional remedies with conventional medicines. The survey revealed that 13 medicinal plants belonging to 11 families were used. Aloe ferox, Prunus persica and Phytolacca heptandra were, however, the most commonly used. Leaves are the most frequently used plant part, often prepared as an infusion. Other non-plant remedies used include disinfectants, antiseptics as well as diesel and petrol. Manual removal of maggots from wounds was also practise and treatment is usually continued until the wound heals.

  2. Performance of four European hemp cultivars cultivated under different agronomic experimental conditions in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blouw, LS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available of Fibre Hemp, Publication Agricultural Engineering, 31, University of Helsinki, 2001. 8. H.S. Sankari, Comparison of Bast Fibre Yield and Mechanical Fibre Properties of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L) cultivars, Industrial Crops and Products, 11, 73-84, 2000...

  3. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.;

    Program (WAsP 10). The wind-climatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and roughness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts for the reference period October 2010 to September 2011. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has been verified...

  4. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.;

    Program (WAsP 11). The wind-climatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and roughness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  5. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.;

    Program (WAsP 11). The windclimatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and rough-ness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  6. New and Interesting Cyanophytes from the Kowie river system in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa) II.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, CGM

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Gapensis in Africa Meridionale. Typus: no. KW 1-12 in collectione G.S.I.R., Pretoria. Iconotypus: flgurae nostrae no. 1?3. I Nova )Iedwigia XIII, 3/4. Archibald 391 NOSTOC VAUCHER 1803 Nostoc undulatum n. sp. This species does not appear to be very... closely related to any other knwon species but the diagnosis is similar in some respects to that of Nostoc hatei Dixir 1936 (ci. DESIKACRARY, 1959: 389, P1. 67, Fig. 2). The thallus is generally spherical but sometimes may be oval in shape...

  7. The development of an implementation framework for service-learning during the undergraduate nursing programme in the Western Cape Province

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    Hester Julie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Service-learning (SL is a contested field of knowledge and issues of sustainability and scholarship have been raised about it. The South African Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC has provided policy documents to guide higher education institutions (HEIs in the facilitation of SL institutionalisation in their academic programmes. An implementation framework was therefore needed to institutionalise the necessary epistemological shifts advocated in the national SL policy guidelines.Objectives: This article is based on the findings of a doctoral thesis that aimed at developing an SL implementation framework for the School of Nursing (SoN at the University of the Western Cape (UWC.Method: Mixed methods were used during the first four phases of the design and developmenti ntervention research model developed by Rothman and Thomas.Results: The SL implementation framework that was developed during Phase 3 specified the intervention elements to address the gaps that had been identified by the core findings of Phases 1 and 2. Four intervention elements were specified for the SL implementation framework. The first intervention element focused on the assessment of readiness for SL institutionalisation. The development of SL capacity and SL scholarship was regarded as the pivotal intervention element for three of the elements: the development of a contextual SL definition, an SL pedagogical model, and a monitoring and evaluation system for SL institutionalisation.Conclusion: The SL implementation framework satisfies the goals of SL institutionalisation, namely to develop a common language and a set of principles to guide practice, and to ensure the allocation of resources in order to facilitate the SL teaching methodology.The contextualised SL definition that was formulated for the SoN contributes to the SL operationalisation discourse at the HEI.

  8. The development of an implementation framework for service-learning during the undergraduate nursing programme in the Western Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, Hester

    2015-11-13

    Service-learning (SL) is a contested field of knowledge and issues of sustainability and scholarship have been raised about it. The South African Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC) has provided policy documents to guide higher education institutions (HEIs) in the facilitation of SL institutionalisation in their academic programmes. An implementation framework was therefore needed to institutionalise the necessary epistemological shifts advocated in the national SL policy guidelines. This article is based on the findings of a doctoral thesis that aimed at developing an SL implementation framework for the School of Nursing (SoN) at the University of the Western Cape (UWC). Mixed methods were used during the first four phases of the design and developmenti ntervention research model developed by Rothman and Thomas. The SL implementation framework that was developed during Phase 3 specified the intervention elements to address the gaps that had been identified by the core findings of Phases 1 and 2. Four intervention elements were specified for the SL implementation framework. The first intervention element focused on the assessment of readiness for SL institutionalisation. The development of SL capacity and SL scholarship was regarded as the pivotal intervention element for three of the elements: the development of a contextual SL definition, an SL pedagogical model, and a monitoring and evaluation system for SL institutionalisation. The SL implementation framework satisfies the goals of SL institutionalisation, namely to develop a common language and a set of principles to guide practice, and to ensure the allocation of resources in order to facilitate the SL teaching methodology.The contextualised SL definition that was formulated for the SoN contributes to the SL operationalisation discourse at the HEI.

  9. Sustainable solutions for cooling systems in residential buildings: case study in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foudzai, F.; M' Rithaa, M. [Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Industrial Design

    2010-07-01

    sustainable cooling in residential buildings of Western Cape, South Africa are discussed.

  10. Knowledge and use of emergency contraception among women in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a cross-sectional study

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    Smit Jennifer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency contraception (EC is widely available free of charge at public sector clinics in South Africa. At the same time, rates of teenage and unintended pregnancy in South Africa remain high, and there are few data on knowledge of EC in the general population in South Africa, as in other resource-limited settings. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey among 831 sexually active women at 26 randomly selected public sector clinics in the Western Cape province. Results Overall, 30% of the women had ever heard of EC when asked directly, after the method was described to them. Only 15% mentioned EC by name or description spontaneously. Knowledge of EC was independently associated with higher education, being married, and living in an urban setting. Four percent of women had ever used EC. Discussion These data suggest that knowledge of EC in this setting is more common among women of higher socioeconomic status living in urban areas. For EC to play a role in decreasing unintended pregnancy in South Africa, specific interventions are necessary to increase knowledge of the method, where to get it, and the appropriate time interval for its use before the need for EC arises. Future health promotion campaigns should target rural and low socioeconomic status communities.

  11. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIII. Ixodid ticks of domestic dogs and cats in the Western Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G; Matthee, Sonja

    2003-09-01

    Ticks were collected at monthly intervals for 16 consecutive months from individual dogs by their owners in or close to the town of Stellenbosch, Western Cape Province. They were also collected for 27 consecutive months from dogs presented for a variety of reasons at three veterinary clinics in Stellenbosch, and from dogs upon admission to an animal welfare shelter. At one of the veterinary clinics ticks were also collected from cats. Dog owners collected six ixodid species from their pets and the most numerous of these were Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus gertrudae. Twelve ixodid tick species and the argasid tick, Otobius megnini were collected from dogs at veterinary clinics and the animal shelter, and H. leachi, R. gertrudae and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were the most numerous. A total of nine dogs were infested with the Karoo paralysis tick, Ixodes rubicundus. No clear pattern of seasonality was evident for H. leachi, which was present throughout the year. The largest numbers of adult R. gertrudae were generally present from August to October, while adult R. sanguineus were collected during October 2000, February and March 2001, from January to April 2002 and during October 2002. Five ixodid tick species, of which H. leachi was the most numerous and prevalent, were collected from cats.

  12. A new long-tubed subspecies of Pelargonium dipetalum (section Hoarea (Geraniaceae from the Albertinia-Swellendam area in Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    M. Marianne le Roux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Field studies confirmed that unusually long-tubed populations of Pelargonium dipetalum from between Swellendam and Albertinia, Western Cape Province, South Africa, are a distinct ecotype adapted to pollination by the long-proboscid fly, Prosoeca longipennis. The geographical and morphological isolation of these populations suggests that they are reproductively isolated from short-tubed populations, which are pollinated by bees.Objectives: To determine and describe the floral variation in P. dipetalum, with a view to recognising the long-tubed populations at some taxonomic level.Method: All available collections were measured and compared.Results: Populations of P. dipetalum were segregated into a short-tubed form with hypanthium 3 mm – 24 mm long and mostly pink petals that occurs from Betty’s Bay to Knysna, and a long-tubed form with the hypanthium 34 mm – 54 mm long and consistently white petals that is restricted to a small area east of Swellendam between Suurbraak and Albertinia. We described the long-tubed form as the new subspecies P. dipetalum subsp. stenosiphon.Conclusion: The new subspecies increases our understanding of the diversity in P. dipetalum and represents a new taxon of conservation concern.

  13. Site formation processes at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa): resolving stratigraphic and depositional complexities with micromorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkanas, Panagiotis; Goldberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Site PP13B is a cave located on the steep cliffs of Pinnacle Point near Mossel Bay in Western Cape Province, South Africa. The depositional sequence of the cave, predating Marine Isotopic Stage 11 (MIS 11) and continuing to present, is in the form of isolated sediment exposures with different depositional facies and vertical and lateral variations. Micromorphological analysis demonstrated that a suite of natural sedimentation processes operated during the development of the sequence ranging from water action to aeolian activity, and from speleothem formations to plant colonization and root encrustation. At the same time, anthropogenic sediments that are mainly in the form of burnt remains from combustion features (e.g., wood ash, charcoal, and burnt bone) were accumulating. Several erosional episodes have resulted in a complicated stratigraphy, as discerned from different depositional and post-depositional features. The cave is associated with a fluctuating coastal environment, frequent changes in sea level and climate controlled patterns of sedimentation, and the presence or absence of humans.

  14. Late Permian basalts in the Yanghe area, eastern Sichuan Province, SW China: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan flood basalt province and Permian global mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Lü, Linsu; Han, Liu; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    We report the finding of a ∼20 m thick sequence of massive pyroxene-plagioclase-phyric basalt lava flows in the Yanghe area of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, within the Yangtze craton of SW China, which were previously considered to be located outside the Emeishan flood basalt province. This basaltic sequence above the middle Permian Maokou Formation (Fm.) is overlain by the late Permian Longtan Fm. Thus, the Yanghe basalts should be stratigraphically correlated with the Emeishan flood basalts. The Yanghe basalts show typical oceanic island basalt (OIB) affinity, and geochemically resemble Emeishan basalts, especially in the case of high-Ti (HT) basalts from the eastern domain of the Emeishan flood basalt province. The rocks have low age-corrected (87Sr/86Sr)t (t = 260 Ma) ratios (0.704158-0.704929) and Pb isotopic ratios [206Pb/204Pb(t) (18.264-18.524), 207Pb/204Pb(t) (15.543-15.58), and 208Pb/204Pb(t) (38.147-38.519)], and positive εNd(t) values (+3.15 to +3.61), suggesting that the lavas have not undergone any significant crustal contamination. The crystallization temperature of clinopyroxene is estimated to be 1368-1420 °C, suggesting anomalously thermal inputs from a mantle source and a possible plume-head origin. The fractionation of middle rare earth elements (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) suggests that these rocks were produced by small degrees of partial melting of mantle peridotite within the garnet-spinel transition region. The stratigraphic relationships and similar geochemical signatures with the Emeishan flood basalts suggest that the Yanghe basalts are part of the Emeishan flood basalt province and can be considered as the northeastern limit of the Emeishan flood basalt province. Our finding extends the diameter of the Emeishan flood basalt province to ∼1200-1400 km, covering an area of up to ∼7 × 105 km2, two times more than previously estimated. The larger areal extent and giant eruption volume, incorporating the Sichuan Basin, lend support

  15. Ethno-veterinary control of parasites, management and role of village chickens in rural households of Centane district in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwale, M; Masika, P J

    2009-12-01

    Mwale and Masika 2009 Ethno-veterinary control of parasites, management and role of village chickens in rural households of Centane district in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Tropical Animal Health and Production. Village chickens contribute significantly towards rural livelihood in the African continent through the provision of animal protein, income and socio-cultural uses. However, village chickens are susceptible to parasite infestation. Due to limitations of using western drugs to control these parasites, farmers resort to the use of ethno-veterinary medicine (EVM). However, there is dearth of information on EVM use in chickens. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to document various EVM practices used in controlling gastro-intestinal parasites in village chickens. Stratified random sampling was used to select 62 chicken farmers that were interviewed using a structured questionnaire About 70 and 96.7% of farmers provided housing and water for their chickens respectively whereas the rest did not. The chief role of chickens was meat provision (91.7%). Most households (86%) reported parasite problems in chickens, particularly gastro-intestinal parasites. Eighty-three percent of the interviewed respondents use medicinal plants to control both internal and external parasites in chickens. Use of plants increased with parasite incidences (r=0.347; Pparasites were problematic and were largely controlled by medicinal plants. Further research on pharmacological properties, safety and efficacy of these plants is important for improved chicken productivity and hence rural livelihood.

  16. Movement Behaviour of Traditionally Managed Cattle in the Eastern Province of Zambia Captured Using Two-Dimensional Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubaba, Caesar H; Hidano, Arata; Welburn, Susan C; Revie, Crawford W; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional motion sensors use electronic accelerometers to record the lying, standing and walking activity of cattle. Movement behaviour data collected automatically using these sensors over prolonged periods of time could be of use to stakeholders making management and disease control decisions in rural sub-Saharan Africa leading to potential improvements in animal health and production. Motion sensors were used in this study with the aim of monitoring and quantifying the movement behaviour of traditionally managed Angoni cattle in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. This study was designed to assess whether motion sensors were suitable for use on traditionally managed cattle in two veterinary camps in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. In each veterinary camp, twenty cattle were selected for study. Each animal had a motion sensor placed on its hind leg to continuously measure and record its movement behaviour over a two week period. Analysing the sensor data using principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that the majority of variability in behaviour among studied cattle could be attributed to their behaviour at night and in the morning. The behaviour at night was markedly different between veterinary camps; while differences in the morning appeared to reflect varying behaviour across all animals. The study results validate the use of such motion sensors in the chosen setting and highlight the importance of appropriate data summarisation techniques to adequately describe and compare animal movement behaviours if association to other factors, such as location, breed or health status are to be assessed.

  17. A comparative Study of manufacturing industrial Competitiveness in eastern coastal provinces and cities of China based on shift-share analysis model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Aizhi

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturing industry is an important symbol which weighs a local economy comprehensive strength and modernized level, and a mighty manufacturing industry is a reliable guarantee which realizes the industry modernization.The manufacturing industry in eastern coastal provinces and cities of China, including Shandong, Jiangsu Zhejiang, Shanghai and Guangdong, holds a quite high proportion, and is competitive.But as to the interior, the manufacturing industry competitiveness of five provinces and cities actually has obviously gradient difference.The concrete profession's competitiveness also has the characteristic respectively.This paper analyzes the competitiveness of manufacturing industry in five provinces and cities by the shift-share analysis, obtains a conclusion that Shandong and Zhejiang have the competitive advantage in the traditional manufacturing industry, that Jiangsu's and Guangdong's competitiveness lies in capital, technology-intensive industry, but that Shanghai manufacturing industry's competitive advantage is not obvious, and then proposes strategy to promote the manufacturing industry in the eastern coastal provinces and cities.

  18. The targeting of nutritionally at-risk children attending a primary health care facility in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, S E; Hendricks, M K; Hattingh, S P; Benadé, A J S; Laubscher, J A; Dhansay, M A

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the practices of primary health care (PHC) nurses in targeting nutritionally at-risk infants and children for intervention at a PHC facility in a peri-urban area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Nutritional risk status of infants and children nutrition case management guidelines developed for PHC facilities in the province. Children were identified as being nutritionally at-risk if their weight was below the 3rd centile, their birth weight was less than 2500 g, and their growth curve showed flattening or dropping off for at least two consecutive monthly visits. The study assessed the practices of nurses in identifying children who were nutritionally at-risk and the entry of these children into the food supplementation programme (formerly the Protein-Energy Malnutrition Scheme) of the health facility. Structured interviews were conducted with nurses to determine their knowledge of the case management guidelines; interviews were also conducted with caregivers to determine their sociodemographic status. One hundred and thirty-four children were enrolled in the study. The mean age of their caregivers was 29.5 (standard deviation 7.5) years and only 47 (38%) were married. Of the caregivers, 77% were unemployed, 46% had poor household food security and 40% were financially dependent on non-family members. Significantly more children were nutritionally at-risk if the caregiver was unemployed (54%) compared with employed (32%) (P=0.04) and when there was household food insecurity (63%) compared with household food security (37%) (Pnutritionally at-risk if the caregiver was financially self-supporting or supported by their partners (61%) compared with those who were financially dependent on non-family members (35%) (P=0.003). The weight results of the nurses and the researcher differed significantly (Pnurses' (Pinfants and children as being nutritionally at-risk compared with 14 (10%) by the nurses. The nurses' poor

  19. HIV-1 subtypes B and C unique recombinant forms (URFs and transmitted drug resistance identified in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Graeme Brendon Jacobs

    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest worldwide HIV/AIDS population with 5.6 million people infected and at least 2 million people on antiretroviral therapy. The majority of these infections are caused by HIV-1 subtype C. Using genotyping methods we characterized HIV-1 subtypes of the gag p24 and pol PR and RT fragments, from a cohort of female participants in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. These participants were recruited as part of a study to assess the combined brain and behavioural effects of HIV and early childhood trauma. The partial HIV-1 gag and pol fragments of 84 participants were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Different online tools and manual phylogenetic analysis were used for HIV-1 subtyping. Online tools included: REGA HIV Subtyping tool version 3; Recombinant Identification Program (RIP; Context-based Modeling for Expeditious Typing (COMET; jumping profile Hidden Markov Models (jpHMM webserver; and subtype classification using evolutionary algorithms (SCUEAL. HIV-1 subtype C predominates within the cohort with a prevalence of 93.8%. We also show, for the first time, the presence of circulating BC strains in at least 4.6% of our study cohort. In addition, we detected transmitted resistance associated mutations in 4.6% of analysed sequences. With tourism and migration rates to South Africa currently very high, we are detecting more and more HIV-1 URFs within our study populations. It is still unclear what role these unique strains will play in terms of long term antiretroviral treatment and what challenges they will pose to vaccine development. Nevertheless, it remains vitally important to monitor the HIV-1 diversity in South Africa and worldwide as the face of the epidemic is continually changing.

  20. Evaluation of selected aspects of the Nutrition Therapeutic Programme offered to HIV-positive women of child-bearing age in Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    Tine T. Hansen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Nutrition Therapeutic Programme (NTP involves the provision of food supplements at primary health clinics (PHCs to correct nutritional deficiencies in vulnerable groups. Although previous studies have identified problems with implementing the programme at PHCs, assessments of its efficiency have been scarce.Objective: To evaluate implementation of the NTP at PHCs that provide antiretroviral therapy.Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at 17 PHCs located within 3 districts of Western Cape Province. Two target groups were chosen: 32 staff members working at the sites and 21 women of child-bearing age enrolled in the NTP. Questionnaires were used to obtain data.Results: Only 2 women (10% lived in food-secure households; the rest were either at risk of hunger (29% or classified as hungry (61%. Most of the women knew they had to take the supplements to improve their nutritional status, but the majority only recalled receiving basic nutritional advice, and the information was mainly given verbally. Ten of the women had shared their supplements with others, mostly with their children. The study identified lack of clearly defined NTP responsibilities at the PHCs, causing confusion amongst the staff. Although many staff members expressed problems with the NTP, only 38% of them reported having routine evaluations regarding the programme.Conclusion: Several aspects compromised the effectiveness of the NTP, including socio- economic factors leading to clients’ non-compliance. The strategic organisation and implementation of the NTP varied between different PHCs offering antiretroviral therapy, and staff experienced difficulties with the logistics of the programme.

  1. HIV-1 subtypes B and C unique recombinant forms (URFs) and transmitted drug resistance identified in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Graeme Brendon; Wilkinson, Eduan; Isaacs, Shahieda; Spies, Georgina; de Oliveira, Tulio; Seedat, Soraya; Engelbrecht, Susan

    2014-01-01

    South Africa has the largest worldwide HIV/AIDS population with 5.6 million people infected and at least 2 million people on antiretroviral therapy. The majority of these infections are caused by HIV-1 subtype C. Using genotyping methods we characterized HIV-1 subtypes of the gag p24 and pol PR and RT fragments, from a cohort of female participants in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. These participants were recruited as part of a study to assess the combined brain and behavioural effects of HIV and early childhood trauma. The partial HIV-1 gag and pol fragments of 84 participants were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Different online tools and manual phylogenetic analysis were used for HIV-1 subtyping. Online tools included: REGA HIV Subtyping tool version 3; Recombinant Identification Program (RIP); Context-based Modeling for Expeditious Typing (COMET); jumping profile Hidden Markov Models (jpHMM) webserver; and subtype classification using evolutionary algorithms (SCUEAL). HIV-1 subtype C predominates within the cohort with a prevalence of 93.8%. We also show, for the first time, the presence of circulating BC strains in at least 4.6% of our study cohort. In addition, we detected transmitted resistance associated mutations in 4.6% of analysed sequences. With tourism and migration rates to South Africa currently very high, we are detecting more and more HIV-1 URFs within our study populations. It is still unclear what role these unique strains will play in terms of long term antiretroviral treatment and what challenges they will pose to vaccine development. Nevertheless, it remains vitally important to monitor the HIV-1 diversity in South Africa and worldwide as the face of the epidemic is continually changing.

  2. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Denver; Gibson, Diana; Johnson, Quinton

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study was to identify and document medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. One hundred and twelve (112) respondents were interviewed between August 2014 and September 2015 through semi-structured surveys to gather data on the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to determine the frequency of medicinal plant and allopathic medicine use. Twelve (12) key respondents were subsequently selected, using a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were interviewed in-depth concerning their plant practices and assisted with plant collection. Twenty-four plant (24) species belonging to 15 families were identified for the management of High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The most frequently reported families were Asteraceae (20.8%), Lamiaceae (16.67%), Crassulaceae (8.33%) and Aizoaceae (8.33%). The remaining (45.54%) were evenly split over eleven families- Fabaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Capparaceae, Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, Asphodelaceae and Thymelaeaceae. The most commonly used plant species overall was Lessertia frutescens (96.55%). The most frequently used plant parts included leaves (57.63%) roots/bulbs (15.25%) and stems (11.86%), mostly prepared as infusions or decoctions for oral administration. Medicinal plants are widely used by High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus sufferers. They employ diverse plant species to manage both conditions. In addition, some sufferers often use prescribed allopathic medication, as well as medicinal plants, but at different intervals. Despite high usage the plants identified are not currently threatened (Red Data list status: least concern). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermal history and differential exhumation across the Eastern Musgrave Province, South Australia: Insights from low-temperature thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorie, Stijn; Agostino, Kate; Dutch, Rian; Pawley, Mark; Hall, James; Danišík, Martin; Evans, Noreen J.; Collins, Alan S.

    2017-04-01

    Multi-method geo- and thermochronological data obtained for Palaeo- and Mesoproterozoic granitoids traversing the main structural architecture of the eastern Musgrave Province within South Australia reveal multiphase cooling histories. Apatite U-Pb dating on six samples yield consistent ages of 1075-1025 Ma, suggesting a thermal reset coinciding with mantle-derived magmatism of the greater Warakurna Large Igneous Province ( 1080-1040 Ma). Apatite fission track (AFT) analysis indicate that four discrete thermal events affected the study area, inducing cooling through the AFT partial annealing zone ( 60-120 °C), supported by apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He data. Late Neoproterozoic cooling from deep crustal levels to temperatures recording elevated geothermal gradients at that time, was observed throughout the study area, however, more data is needed to further support this interpretation. The high sample density across the structural architecture of the study area furthermore reveals patterns of fault reactivation and resulting differential exhumation, indicating shallower exhumation levels in the centre and deeper exhumation towards the margins of the sampled transect. The observed differential exhumation patterns match with existing seismic data and fit a model of an inverted graben system for the Phanerozoic evolution of the eastern Musgraves. The results highlight a complex Phanerozoic thermal history for the eastern Musgraves and help to elucidate the poorly appreciated tectonic evolution of inland Australia. This study further demonstrates how high-density sample transects across structural architecture can assess the relative crustal level and associated preservation of the thermal history record within fault-reactivated terranes.

  4. Toxocara seroprevalence among clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients and associated risk factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection.Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866 was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445 than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431 and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990 was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05-0.08, P<0.001, contact with cats and dogs (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.53, P<0.001 and exposure with soil (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.49, P<0.001 were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection.The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential

  5. A review of the Pseudobarbus afer (Peters, 1864 species complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae in the eastern Cape Fold Ecoregion of South Africa

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    Albert Chakona

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Cape redfin, Pseudobarbus afer, has long been considered to be a single widespread and variable species occurring in multiple isolated river systems in the Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE at the southern tip of Africa. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and control region sequence data of individuals from populations currently assigned to P. afer across the species’ distribution range revealed existence of four deeply divergent taxonomic units: (i the Mandela lineage confined to the Sundays, Swartkops and Baakens river systems, (ii the Krom lineage endemic to the Krom River system, (iii the St Francis lineage occurring in the Gamtoos and adjacent river systems, and (iv the Forest lineage occurring in several coastal river systems from the Tsitsikamma to the Klein Brak River system. The Forest lineage is closely related to P. phlegethon from the Olifants River system on the west coast of South Africa, suggesting that it does not belong to P. afer s.l. Herein we focus on the three lineages within the P. afer s.l. complex and provide new diagnosis for P. afer s.s (Mandela lineage, revalidate P. senticeps (Krom lineage as a distinct species, and describe a new species P. swartzi (St Francis lineage. The three species exhibit subtle differences, which explains why they were previously considered to represent a single variable and widespread species. Pseudobarbus senticeps differs from both P. afer and P. swartzi by having fewer (i.e. larger scales (25–33, mode 29 lateral line scale series; 10–12, mode 11 circumpeduncular scales and presence of a lateral stripe which terminates in a conspicuous triangular blotch at the base of the caudal fin. Long barbels which reach or surpass the vertical through the posterior edge of the eye further separate P. senticeps from P. afer s.s. which possesses simple short barbels which do not reach the vertical through the posterior margin of the eye. Pseudobarbus afer s.s differs from P. swartzi sp. n. by possession

  6. Various origins of clinopyroxene megacrysts from basanites from the eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Clinopyroxene megacrysts up to few centimetres in size occur in Cenozoic alkaline lavas forming the north-eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). The megacrysts occur, among other, in the Miocene basanite from Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (bulk rock mg# 0.65-0.66) and in that from Lutynia (Pliocene, K-Ar age: 4.56 +/- 0.2 Ma; Birkenmajer et al. 2002; bulk rock mg# 0.64). The megacrysts typically consist of homogeneous core surrounded by patchy and spongy mantle, which is covered by a thin outermost rim of composition similar to that of the groundmass clinopyroxene occurring in the host basanite. The mantles of the megacrysts have been affected by melting, whereas the cores preserve their primary composition. We compare the core parts of megacrysts in the following. The Ostrzyca clinopyroxene megacrysts contain euhedral apatite intergrowths. The clinopyroxene has the composition of Fe-rich diopside (mg# = 0.61 - 0.70), contain significant sodium (to 0.12 a pfu) and are calcium rich (0.89-0.92 a pfu). The Lutynia megacrysts have the composition of augite and diopside (mg# 0.80-0.83). The sodium content is also high (to 0.12 a pfu), but calcium varies from 0.68 to 0.77 a pfu. The REE concentrations for Lutynia (1-10 x PM) are lower relative to Ostrzyca, enriched 10-100 times relative to PM. In both sites the megacrysts are strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE and TE are characterized by positive Th, La and Ce anomalies, slight negative Sr and Y anomalies and strong Pb anomaly in the PM normalised patterns. The megacrysts from Ostrzyca reveal slight negative Ti and strong positive Zr and Hf anomalies, whereas those Lutynia have negative Zr anomaly and Ti anomaly is absent. Major and trace element composition shows that the megacrysts from Ostrzyca formed as coarse-grained cumulate at significant depth (lower crust?) from the LREE enriched alkaline melt. That melt was very rich in phosphorous which enabled its saturation in

  7. Buried Cold-Water Coral Mound Provinces and Contourite Drifts Along the Eastern Atlantic Margin: Controls, Interactions and Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooij, D.; Vandorpe, T.; Delivet, S.; Hebbeln, D.; Wienberg, C.; Martins, I.

    2014-12-01

    The association between cold-water coral mounds and contourite drift deposits has been demonstrated in the Belgica mound province, off Ireland. On that location, IODP expedition 307 was able to drill through the base of a mound, dating mound initiation at 2.65 Ma. However, the Belgica mounds are just one of the many expressions of mound growth. More enigmatic is the buried Magellan mound province, located in the northern part of the Porcupine Basin, featuring over 1000 relatively closely spaced buried mounds, which are all rooted on a common reflector. This indicates a common start-up event, but the true driving forces behind their initial settling, growth and demise are still unknown. The influence of bottom currents cannot be ruled out, since clear obstacle marks are present surrounding the mounds. In 2013, some 3000 km south of the Magellan mounds, a new province of buried mounds was discovered along the Moroccan Atlantic Margin, which may shed new light on the "life" cycle of mounds. Here, we report the preliminary results and propose a first view on the controls, interactions and connectivity between these 2 provinces, assisted by a series of studies of contourite drifts along the Eastern Atlantic Margin. The newly discovered buried mounds can be associated to a vast province of several clusters of seabed mounds. They occur in water depths between 500 and 1000 m, buried under up to 50 m of sediment. With respect to the Magellan mounds, they are smaller, but more importantly, they do not root on one single stratigraphic level. At least 4 different initiation levels were identified. The off-mound reflectors indicate a slight influence of bottom currents, since the mounds are located in a large sediment drift. Moreover, the link between the two buried mound provinces may be found in connecting the evolution of the associated contourite drift systems, respectively in Porcupine Seabight and the Gulf of Cádiz. Intermediate sites on Goban Spur and near Le Danois

  8. An Economic Valuation Of The Water Footprint: A Case Study Of The Citrus Sector In The Lower Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, S. A.; Fraser, G. C. G.; Snowball, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    With the implementation of the South African National Water Act (NWA) currently underway, water intensive sectors, such as the irrigated agriculture sector, can expect reduced water allocations and an increase in water prices. Water footprints (WFs) are increasingly being recognised as a meaningful way by which to represent human appropriation of water resources. This study examines the green and blue WFs of a variety of citrus cultivars in the lower Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape, South Africa. WFs were calculated across dry, humid and long-term average climates and comparisons were made to available global average benchmark WFs. An number of indicators were also explored including; water productivity (ton/m3), economic land productivity (R/ha) and economic water productivity (R/m3) across all three climatic years. Most applications of WF sustainability assessments have focused on examining physical water scarcity as a measure for determining environmental hotspots. This study, therefore, also calculates the marginal product value for the irrigation water using a non-parametric linear programming approach. Marginal product value of irrigation water is not only useful in assisting with water-allocation decision making, but also useful in demonstrating the effects of resource depletion and degradation, and is therefore a useful measure for determining economic water scarcity. The study highlights that both farmers and governments could reduce blue WF's through adopting measures to increase water efficiency and considering economic water and land productivity. It also demonstrates the importance of including both environmental and economic scarcity indicators into water management and planning strategies, and the importance of conducting WF assessments using more accurate, site specific data.

  9. Use of sediment source fingerprinting to assess the role of subsurface erosion in the supply of fine sediment in a degraded catchment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Rowntree, Kate; Kakembo, Vincent; Foster, Ian; Collins, Adrian L

    2017-06-01

    Sediment source fingerprinting has been successfully deployed to provide information on the surface and subsurface sources of sediment in many catchments around the world. However, there is still scope to re-examine some of the major assumptions of the technique with reference to the number of fingerprint properties used in the model, the number of model iterations and the potential uncertainties of using more than one sediment core collected from the same floodplain sink. We investigated the role of subsurface erosion in the supply of fine sediment to two sediment cores collected from a floodplain in a small degraded catchment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The results showed that increasing the number of individual fingerprint properties in the composite signature did not improve the model goodness-of-fit. This is still a much debated issue in sediment source fingerprinting. To test the goodness-of-fit further, the number of model repeat iterations was increased from 5000 to 30,000. However, this did not reduce uncertainty ranges in modelled source proportions nor improve the model goodness-of-fit. The estimated sediment source contributions were not consistent with the available published data on erosion processes in the study catchment. The temporal pattern of sediment source contributions predicted for the two sediment cores was very different despite the cores being collected in close proximity from the same floodplain. This highlights some of the potential limitations associated with using floodplain cores to reconstruct catchment erosion processes and associated sediment source contributions. For the source tracing approach in general, the findings here suggest the need for further investigations into uncertainties related to the number of fingerprint properties included in un-mixing models. The findings support the current widespread use of ≤5000 model repeat iterations for estimating the key sources of sediment samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  10. Incidence of neuropsychiatric side effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive treatment-naïve patients in public-sector clinics in the Eastern Cape

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    Razia Gaida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is acknowledged that almost half of patients initiated on efavirenz will experience at least one neuropsychiatric side effect.Objectives: The aim was to determine the incidence and severity of neuropsychiatric side effects associated with efavirenz use in five public-sector primary healthcare clinics in the Eastern Cape.Method: The study was a prospective drug utilisation study. A total of 126 medical records were reviewed to obtain the required information. After baseline assessment, follow-up reviews were conducted at 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks from 2014 to 2015.Results: The participant group was 74.60% female (n = 94, and the average age was 37.57±10.60 years. There were no neuropsychiatric side effects recorded for any patient. After the full follow-up period, there were a total of 49 non-adherent patients and one patient had demised. A non-adherent patient was defined as a patient who did not return to the clinic for follow-up assessment and medication refills 30 days or more after the appointed date. Some patients (n = 11 had sent a third party to the clinic to collect their antiretroviral therapy (ART. The clinic pharmacy would at times dispense a two-month supply of medication resulting in the patient presenting only every two months.Conclusion: Further pharmacovigilance studies need to be conducted to determine the true incidence of these side effects. Healthcare staff must be encouraged to keep complete records to ensure meaningful patient assessments. Patients being initiated on ART need to personally attend the clinic monthly for at least the first 6 months of treatment. Clinic staff should receive regular training concerning ART, including changes made to guidelines as well as reminders of side effects experienced.Keywords: neuropsychiatric; side effects; efavirenz; HIV-positive patients

  11. The Ambiguity of Militarization : The complex interaction between the Congolese armed forces and civilians in the Kivu provinces, eastern DR Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweijen, J.E.C.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on extensive ethnographic field research, this dissertation explores the interaction between the Congolese armed forces (FARDC) and civilians in the eastern DR Congo’s conflict-ridden Kivu provinces. It uncovers the multidimensionality, reciprocity and complexities of this interaction, which

  12. Using an intervention mapping approach for planning, implementing and assessing a community-led project towards malaria elimination in the Eastern Province of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingabire, Chantal Marie; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Kateera, Fredrick; Rulisa, Alexis; Borne, Van Den Bart; Nieuwold, Ingmar; Muvunyi, Claude; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M.; Vugt, Van Michele; Mutesa, Leon; Alaii, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Active community participation in malaria control is key to achieving malaria pre-elimination in Rwanda. This paper describes development, implementation and evaluation of a community-based malaria elimination project in Ruhuha sector, Bugesera district, Eastern province of Rwanda. Metho

  13. Relationship between ductile shear zone and gold mineralization——Taking Jinchangyu gold mine, Eastern Hebei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林传勇; 何永年; 陈孝德; 史兰斌; 张小鸥; 祁学义; 郝荣; 龚瑞勋; 张继林

    1995-01-01

    Take Jinchangyu gold mine in Eastern Hebei Province, China, for example, the characteristics, formation conditions, evolution process of ductile shear zone, as well as its relation to gold mineralization have been in detail studied. It is suggested that the ductile shear zone developed in source bed may have a close relation to gold mineralization. The stress cycle during the development of the ductile shear zone acts as a driving force of the directional migration of the auriferous fluid, while the associated retrograde metamorphism may provide geochemical conditions necessary to the activation, migration, enrichment and precipitation of gold. The development of ductile shear zone provides not only the channel way for the migration of the auriferous fluid, but also a suitable site for gold precipitation.

  14. Minerogenic System of Magnesian Nonmetallic Deposits in Early Proterozoic Mg-rich Carbonate Formations in Eastern Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In the early Proterozoic the Liryu Formation and Dashiqiao Formation of eastern Liaoning province, China, there are distributed Mg-rich carbonate rock formations, in which large to superlarge deposits of boron, magnesite, talc, Xiuyan jade etc. occur. The formation of these magnesian nonmetallic deposits was related to early Proterozoic evaporates; then these deposits underwent reworking of regional metamorphism and hydrothermal metasomatism during the Lüliang orogeny and tectono-magmatism during the Indosinian-Yanshanian. Among other things, the Mg-rich carbonates formations, minerogenetic structures and ore-forming fluids played a controlling role in the formation of the mineral deposits. The refore, it can be concluded that the mineral deposits are products of combined processes of the coupling of ore source field, fluid field, thermal field (energy field) and stress field under certain time-space conditions in the early Proterozoic and the late-stage superimposed reworking of tectono-magmatism.

  15. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahraoui, A; El-Hilaly, J; Israili, Z H; Lyoussi, B

    2007-03-01

    This survey was undertaken in the Errachidia province in south-eastern Morocco in order to inventory the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Four hundred individuals who knew about and/or had used the medicinal plants for the indicated diseases, including some herbal healers, were interviewed throughout different regions of the province. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common name of the plant, its ecological distribution, the part of the plant and the preparation used and the therapeutic indication. Extensive investigations have brought to light 64 medicinal plants belonging to 33 families; of these, 45 are used for diabetes, 36 for hypertension, and 18 for both diseases. Of these plants, 34% grow in the wild, 44% are cultivated, and 22% are not indigenous to the area and are brought from other parts of Morocco or from outside the country. The survey shows that 78% of the patients regularly use these medicinal plants. In this region, the most frequently used plants to treat diabetes include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Artemisia herba-alba, Carum carvi, Lepidium sativum, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Peganum harmala, Phoenix dactylifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Zygophyllum gaetulum, and those to treat hypertension include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Carum carvi, Nigella sativa, Olea europea, Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, Peganum harmala, and Phoenix dactylifera. The local people recognize the toxic plants and are very careful in using such plants, which are Citrullus colocynthis, Datura stramonium, Nerium oleander, Nigella sativa, Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum gaetulum. Our survey shows that traditional medicine in the south-eastern Moroccan population has not only survived but has thrived in the transcultural environment and intermixture of many ethnic traditions and

  16. Movement Behaviour of Traditionally Managed Cattle in the Eastern Province of Zambia Captured Using Two-Dimensional Motion Sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caesar H Lubaba

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional motion sensors use electronic accelerometers to record the lying, standing and walking activity of cattle. Movement behaviour data collected automatically using these sensors over prolonged periods of time could be of use to stakeholders making management and disease control decisions in rural sub-Saharan Africa leading to potential improvements in animal health and production. Motion sensors were used in this study with the aim of monitoring and quantifying the movement behaviour of traditionally managed Angoni cattle in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. This study was designed to assess whether motion sensors were suitable for use on traditionally managed cattle in two veterinary camps in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. In each veterinary camp, twenty cattle were selected for study. Each animal had a motion sensor placed on its hind leg to continuously measure and record its movement behaviour over a two week period. Analysing the sensor data using principal components analysis (PCA revealed that the majority of variability in behaviour among studied cattle could be attributed to their behaviour at night and in the morning. The behaviour at night was markedly different between veterinary camps; while differences in the morning appeared to reflect varying behaviour across all animals. The study results validate the use of such motion sensors in the chosen setting and highlight the importance of appropriate data summarisation techniques to adequately describe and compare animal movement behaviours if association to other factors, such as location, breed or health status are to be assessed.

  17. Geochemistry of ultramafic xenoliths in Cenozoic alkali basalts from Jiangsu province, eastern China and their geological implication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shao-Wei Huang; Yung-Tan Lee; Ju-Chin Chen; Kung-Suan Ho; Meng-Lung Lin; Yen-Tsui Hu; Ren-Yi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Twelve ultramafic xenoliths in Cenozoic alkali basalts from Jiangsu province, eastern China have been analyzed for major, trace, Sr–Nd isotopic composition and mineral chemical compositions and the origin of these ultramafic xenoliths is discussed based on the geochemical constraints. Based on classification norms, the ultramafic xenoliths in the present study belong to type I xenolith. The Fo-values of the ultramafic xenoliths range from 90.18 to 92.18. The ultramafic xenoliths have higher MgO content, but lower Al2O3, TiO2, CaO and Na2O contents than those of primitive mantle, indicating that they represent residues formed by different degrees of partial melting from the upper mantle. The enrichment of Rb, Ba, U, Nb, K, La, Ce, Sr, P and Zr of ultramafic xenoliths found in Jiangsu province, eastern China may be related to the CO2–H2O-fluids metasomatism. On the basis of Sr–Nd isotopic ratios, we suggest that the lithospheric mantle beneath the study area mostly belongs to depleted-type mantle but with slightly enriched signatures, indicating the heterogeneous characteristics in the mantle source and the influence of different degrees of fluids-metasomatism on the mantle composition. The equilibrium P–T conditions of the spinel lherzolite xenoliths are: T = 913 ∼1045°C, P = 13 ∼22 kb corresponding to depths of 45–83 km. The P–T conditions suggest that the geothermal gradient of the upper mantle beneath the study area is approximately similar to oceanic geotherm which may be caused by asthenosphere upwelling. We suggested that lithospheric mantle thinning accompanied by asthenosphere upwelling has occurred and a newly accreted and cooled asthenospheric mantle may exist beneath the study area.

  18. The costs of accessing abortion in South Africa: women's costs associated with second-trimester abortion services in Western Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Constant, Deborah; Harries, Jane; Blanchard, Kelly; Sinanovic, Edina; Grossman, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    To assess women's costs of accessing second-trimester labor induction and dilation and evacuation (D&E) services at four public hospitals in Western Cape Province, South Africa. From April to August 2010, in interviews immediately after completion of their abortion, we asked women about specific direct and indirect costs incurred. We collected information on recurring costs (i.e., per visit) and one-time expenditures and calculated total costs. In total, 194 patients participated (136 D&E; 58 induction). Their median age was 26; 37.6% reported being employed or doing paid work. Most (73.2%) women visited two different facilities, including the study facility, while seeking the procedure. Induction women reported a median of three required visits [interquartile range (IQR) 2.0-3.0] to the study facility, while D&E women reported two required visits [IQR 1.0-2.0]. Twenty-seven percent of women missed work due to the procedure, and few (4.6%) paid for childcare. At each visit, almost all women (180, 92.8%) paid for transportation costs and reported additional one-time costs (177, 91.2%) such as sanitary supplies or doctor's fees. The total median cost incurred per woman was $21.23 [IQR 11.94-44.68]. Roughly half (49.0%) received help with these costs. Although technically offered freely or low cost in the public sector, women accessing second-trimester abortion lost income and incurred costs for transport, fees, supplies and childcare. Their total costs could be reduced by minimizing the number of required visits to facilities and freely offering supplies such as sanitary pads and pregnancy tests. Limited access to second-trimester, safe abortion services in South Africa may result in some women incurring unnecessary costs. Women make multiple visits in attempting to obtain an abortion, often because of facility or health systems requirements, and incur costs for lost income, child care, transport, fees and supplies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of child nutritional status in the eastern province of Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manda, Julius; Gardebroek, Koos; Khonje, Makaiko G.; Alene, Arega D.; Mutenje, Munyaradzi; Kassie, Menale

    2016-01-01

    Using household survey data from a sample of 810 households, this paper analyses the determinants of children’s nutritional status and evaluates the impacts of improved maize varieties on child malnutrition in eastern Zambia. The paper uses an endogenous switching regression technique, combined w

  20. Toxic heavy metals in sediments, seawater, and molluscs in the eastern and western coastal waters of Guangdong Province, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Zhang, Jingping; Jiang, Zhijian; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and distribution were studied in sediments, seawater, and molluscs, and the possible heavy metal sources in the coastal waters of Guangdong Province, South China were discussed. The results showed that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr in sediments in eastern coastal waters were generally higher than those in the western coastal waters. However, concentrations of most metals in seawater and molluscs in western waters were higher than in the eastern waters, which was tightly related to the local economics and urbanization development, especially, the different industrial structure in two regions. The main heavy metal sources were attributed to the industrial and agricultural effluent, domestic sewage, and even waste gas. Furthermore, heavy metal contamination assessment indicated that high contamination levels of Cd, Zn, and Pb occurred in sediments in local areas, especially in the bays and harbors. The metal accumulation levels by molluscs ranked following the order of Cd > Cu > As > Zn > Pb > Cr, and the ecological risks introduced by heavy metals in different areas were in the order of Zhanjiang > Yangmao > Shantou > Shanhui.

  1. Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds of ancient grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) from Igdir province of Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyduran, Sadiye Peral; Akin, Meleksen; Ercisli, Sezai; Eyduran, Ecevit; Maghradze, David

    2015-01-13

    The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P < 0.01). Among the cultivars investigated, 'Miskali' showed the highest citric acid content (0.959 g/l) while 'Kirmizi Kismis' produced predominant contents in tartaric acid (12.71 g/l). The highest glucose (16.47 g/100 g) and fructose (15.55 g/100 g) contents were provided with 'Beyaz Kismis'. 'Kirmizi Kismis' cultivar had also the highest quercetin (0.55 mg/l), o-coumaric acid (1.90 mg/l), and caffeic acid (2.73 mg/l) content. The highest ferulic acid (0.94 mg/l), and syringic acid (2.00 mg/l) contents were observed with 'Beyaz Kismis' cultivar. The highest antioxidant capacity was obtained as 9.09 μmol TE g(-1) from 'Inek Emcegi' in TEAC (Trolox equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assay. 'Hacabas' cultivar had the highest vitamin C content of 35.74 mg/100 g. Present results illustrated that the historical table grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse

  2. Floristic analysis and distribution pattern of alien plants in Shandong Province,eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Alien plants,along with their ecological invasion and negative impacts on indigenous species diversity and ecosystems,are one of the major topics of current ecological research.The background investigation and floristic analysis of alien plants are very important and form an essential database for invasive species research,control and management.In our study these alien plants,mainly collected from the Flora of Shandong Province,combined with a field survey,were studied and analyzed.We also established a floristic database.Our findings are as follows:1) there are a total of 827 alien species,belonging to 122 families and 416 genera of which 348 species were imported from other countries;2) a high proportion,39.0% of the flora in Shandong Province,is accounted for by alien species,of which 21 dominant families largely belong to the Rosaceae,Leguminosae,Asteraceae and Gramineae;3) the diverse geographical distribution of the genera is characterized by species dominant in the temperate zone which accounts for 52.5% of the alien plants and 44.1% of the plants from the tropics;4) the origins of alien species and their centralized distribution in Shandong together show the anthropogenic effect and unnatural impacts on the environment and 5) in Shandong Province,alien plants originate more from temperate zones than from any other areas of the world.

  3. Mantle xenoliths from Late Cretaceous basalt in eastern Shandong Province: New constraint on the timing of lithospheric thinning in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; CHEN Jiangfeng; XIE Zhi; ZHOU Taixi

    2003-01-01

    The age of the alkali basalt from Daxizhuang in Jiaozhou, eastern Shandong, was determined to be 73.5 ± 0.3Ma by40Ar-39Ar technique. The basalt gave high εNd(t) values of +7.5 and +7.6, suggesting that the primitive magma was derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle with a formation depth of about 65-95 km. Spinel-lherzolite xenoliths have been discovered in the basalt. The Fo values of olivine from the xenoliths range from 88 to 89. The estimated equilibrium P-T conditions of spinel-lherzolite xenoliths are about 2.0 GPa and 1010-1140℃, suggesting an equilibrium depth of about 65 km. Geochemical characteristics of the Late Mesozoic (125-115 Ma) mantle-derived rocks in Shahdong Province suggest an enriched lithospheric mantle along the southern margin of the North China block. However,geochemical characteristics of the Late Cretaceous basalts in Daxizhuang and the equilibrium P-T condition estimated from the xenoliths suggest that the lithosphere at 73 Ma ago was as thick as that of the Cenozoic in the region. Additionally, the xenoliths are rich in basaltic-component, suggesting a derivation from a newly-formed lithosphere. Therefor,lithospheric thinning took place at a time interval between about 120 and 73 Ma along the southern margin of the North China block.

  4. Urban Ecology in Cape Town: South African Comparisons and Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarel S. Cilliers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Little urban ecological research has been done in South Africa. The papers in the Ecology and Society special feature Urban Ecological and Social-Ecological Research in the City of Cape Town make, therefore, an important contribution to the development of urban ecology locally and globally. Different approaches have been used in the study of urban ecology of different urban areas in South Africa. Cape Town is situated in a biodiversity hotspot and is the only South African city which includes a national park. As a result the urban ecological studies were mainly driven by urban nature conservation concerns. In other cities such as Durban, open space planning and environmental management were the major issues which focused ecological studies on urban areas whereas other studies of urban areas in the Eastern Cape and North-West provinces included private and public open spaces and man-made habitats. We reflect on the Cape Town studies in a South African context and highlight conservation of biodiversity, protection of ecosystem services, management of control measures, and the conflict between humans and nature. A brief synthesis has also been given of South African urban ecological research in general.

  5. This Land is Ours. The Shaping of Xhosa Resistance to European Expansion Along the Cape Colony’s Eastern Frontier, 1770-1820

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    deaf ears, as the young prophet told the people to reject witchcraft and bloodshed, for which God was punishing the Xhosa. He further attacked...the danger posed by the Cape Colony. Accesion For NTIS CRA&M DTIC TAB Unannounced Justification .............................. r. -r"r " By...well as to a clear idea among all the chiefdoms of the danger posed by the Cape Colony. "THIS LAND IS OURS!" THE SHAPING OF XHOSA RESISTANCE TO

  6. Sero-Molecular Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis in Zhejiang, an Eastern Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jin-Ren; Yan, Ju-Ying; Zhou, Jia-Yue; Tang, Xue-Wen; He, Han-Qing; Xie, Rong-Hui; Mao, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Xie, Shu-Yun

    2016-08-01

    Sporadic Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases still have been reported in Zhejiang Province in recent years, and concerns about vaccine cross-protection and population-level immunity have been raised off and on within the public health sphere. Genotype I (GI) has replaced GIII as the dominant genotype in Asian countries during the past few decades, which caused considerable concerns about the potential change of epidemiology characteristics and the vaccine effectiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of JE neutralizing antibody and its waning antibody trend after live attenuated JE vaccine immunization. Additionally, this study analyzed the molecular characteristics of the E gene of Zhejiang Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strains, and established genetic relationships with other JEV strains. A total of 570 serum specimens were sampled from community population aged from 0 to 92 years old in Xianju county of Zhejiang Province in 2013-2014. Microseroneutralization test results were analyzed to estimate the population immunity and to observe antibody dynamics in vaccinated children. E genes of 28 JEV strains isolated in Zhejiang Province were sequenced for phylogenetic tree construction and molecular characteristics analysis with other selected strains. Positive JE neutralizing antibody rates were higher in residents ≥35 years old (81%~98%) and lower in residents <35 years old (0~57%). 7 or 8 years after the 2nd live attenuated vaccine dose, the antibodies against for 4 different strains with microseroneutralization test were decreased by 55%~73% on seropositive rates and by 25%~38% on GMTs respectively. JEV strains isolated in recent years were all grouped into GI, while those isolated in the 1980s belonged to GIII. On important amino acid sites related to antigenicity, there was no divergence between the Zhejiang JE virus strains and the vaccine strain (SA14-14-2). JE neutralizing antibody positive rates increase in age ≥10 years old

  7. Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knee injury patterns among young basketball players in. Cape Town. Quinette ... account for 12% of total sports injuries, they represent 25% of the total Injury cost. ..... injuries are con- ducted to identify causal factors that could aid in prevention.

  8. Epidemiological Aspects of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer in Kerman Province, South Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Chamani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Epidemiologic aspects of oral and pharyngeal cancers in Iran have not been studied adequately. We evaluated age-adjusted incidence rates by sex using pathological confirmed cases between 1991 and 2002 in Kerman Province, south east­ern Iran."nMethods: The information of cases was collected actively from all of the 18 histopathology departments around the prov­ince. The standardize risks were estimated using standard world population and the risk ratio for age and sex were estimated us­ing negative binomial model."nResults: The total number of newly diagnosed malignant oral and pharyngeal cancers was 334, represented 3.1% of all newly diagnosed cancers. The age-adjusted incidence rate for oropharyngeal cancers was 2.21 cases per 100 000 popula­tions per year. The results suggested that those age 40 and over were 18.1 times more likely to develop oral and pharyngeal can­cer than the younger group. The risk of developing oral and pharyngeal cancers was 1.75 times more common in males than females."nConclusion: This study showed that the overall incidence of oral and pharyngeal cancers in Kerman Province was lower than that in most parts of the world. The lower incidence might be due to behavioral differences such as low consumption of alco­hol, chewing tobacco, and spicy foods.

  9. HbsAg and antiHCV seroprevalence in an Eastern province of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Demirpençe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalance of the Hepatitis B (HBV and Hepatitis C (HCV viruses among patients living in Tunceli province who had been admitted to the Tunceli State Hospital. Method: The seropositivity rates of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg, n:3640, antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs, n:3941 and HCV antibodies (anti-HCV, n:3489 were retrospectively studied at the Tunceli StateHospital for the period between July 2013 and January 2015. Data was collected from the database of Tunceli State Hospital and analyzed using SPSS 15.00. Results: A total of 3640 patients tested for HBsAg were included in this study. 154 patients (4.23 % were found HBsAg positive. 33 (0.94 % of 3489 patients were found anti-HCV positive and 1829 (46.41% of 3941 patients were found anti-HBs positive. Conclusions:While an earlier study had produced similar results to the current study in Tunceli province, the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV are still high. Therefore, community awareness should be raised through health education about transmission and prevention of HBVand HCV infections.

  10. Sickle cell disease patients in eastern province of Saudi Arabia suffer less severe acute chest syndrome than patients with African haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Genetic studies suggest that the sickle cell mutation has arisen on at least four separate occasions in Africa and as a fifth independent mutation in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia or India. The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD is essentially similar in these different areas although the frequency and severity of complications may vary between areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of acute chest syndrome (ACS in SCD patients from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in comparison with patients with African haplotypes. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study involving 317 SCD patients who were two years or older, admitted to King Fahad Hospital Hofuf between January-May 2003 for different etiologies. Twenty six patients presented with different causes of ACS; 11 patients presented with different pathologies other than ACS, but had past history of ACS; 280 patients presented with different pathologies and never presented with ACS. Clinical features, CBC, Hb-electrophoresis, G6PD activity, cultures, chest X-ray, arterial oxygen saturation, blood transfusion rates and outcome were studied. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were carried out to evaluate influence on ACS. Comparison between SCD patients with ACS from this study and from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to patients with African haplotypes were carried out, using data reported in the literature. Results : During the period of this study, 37 patients with new or previous episodes of ACS were studied (accounting for 11.67% of admitted SCD patients. Most of the patients with ACS had only one episode, but five patients (13.51% had had episodes or more. One patient died giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 1/26 (3.85%. Comparison of recurrence of ACS and mortality between SCD patients in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to that of patients with African haplotype showed that recurrence is

  11. Discovery of agglutinated foraminifers from the Longzhaogou Group in eastern Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; YU Shanmao

    2004-01-01

    The low diversity agglutinated foraminifers are recovered from the Qihulin Formation of the Longzhaogou Group in eastern Heilongjiang, China. The foraminiferal fauna consists of 9 species of 5 genera. The common members are Cribrostomoides nonioninoides (Reuss), Haplophragmoides concavus (Chapman), H. gigas minor Nauss. Although the diagnostic zonal taxa are absent in the agglutinated fauna, according to the global stratigraphic distribution of the above-mentioned species, and the associated Pseudohaploceras ammonite fauna, the foraminiferal fauna may be of a Barremian-Aptian (Early Cretaceous) age.

  12. The Measurement of Technical Efficiency and Effective Factors in Cucumber Greenhouse (Case Study: Eastern Azarbayjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Abdollahi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate technical efficiency of cucumber greenhouses in Eastern Azarbayjan. In economic literature, it means the ratio of maximum output to the inputs. The objective of this research was to determinate the effective factors influencing it's inefficiency. The method of determination of deterministic and stochastic technical efficiency is corrected ordinary least squares (COLS and maximum likelihood (ML respectively. The average of technical efficiency in province’s cucumber greenhouse is approximately about 57 and 93 percent for deterministic and stochastic frontier method respectively. Production types had positive influence on technical inefficiency whereas experience of manager have negative influence on technical inefficiency.

  13. The Impact of Computer and Mathematics Software Usage on Performance of School Leavers in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garth Spencer; Hardman, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In this study the impact of computer immersion on performance of school leavers Senior Certificate mathematics scores was investigated across 31 schools in the EMDC East education district of Cape Town, South Africa by comparing performance between two groups: a control and an experimental group. The experimental group (14 high schools) had access…

  14. CLINICAL PATTERN OF ACNE VULGARIS AND ITS ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS IN THE EASTERN PROVINCE OF KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA: A HOSPITAL-BASED CLINICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ameer, Ali M.; Al-Akloby, Omar M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to review the clinical pattern of acne vulgaris cases referred to one hospital in the Eastern Province. Methods: Two hundred cases diagnosed in the Dermatology Department at King Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU), Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia were studied Results: Inflammatory acne was the predominant type observed in both males and females (76% and, 79%, respectively). Seborrhea (greasy skin) was the most frequently associated condition 22 (11%) followed by dandru...

  15. The phytogeography and ecotourism potential of the eastern province of lower part of the "Köprü river" basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Bastürk; Akis, Ayhan

    2012-04-01

    Köprü River Basin is located in the western Taurus mountains in south-western Turkey. The area is in the Mediterranean phytogeographical region. The climate in the area is typically Mediterranean: mild and rainy in winter, hot and dry in summer. Xerophytic plants can easily grow in this climate. Pinus brutia forests are common in the study area. Maquis and garique elements with sclerophyll character also occur in the region. The study aims to determine the distribution of the vegetation in the eastern province of lower part of the "Köprü River" Basin. The factors which affect the distribution of vegetation are climate, landforms and soils. In order to determine the plant growth and climate relationship, the climatic data were analyzed. As well as the geological and geomorphological conditions, the soils were investigated and the effects of these factors on vegetation cover were analyzed. The region also has various attributes for the development of ecotourism, including canyons, forests and historical places. The region has a great potential for many different social, cultural, and scientific activities related to ecotourism. These are highland tourism, rafting, botanic tourism, trekking, and climbing. In order to make ecotourism available for local people to benefit, ecotourism should be developed and introduced to the world. Moreover, plans for the sustainability of the resources should be made. The study highlights the ecotourism potential of the area which is of social, economic, and ecological importance for the region.

  16. Heavy metals burden in kidney and heart tissues of Scarus ghobban fish from the eastern province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Ashraf

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Levels of selected heavy metals (Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cd in the heart and kidney tissues of parrot fish, collected from the Arabian Gulf, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, were determined by wet-digestion based atomic absorption method. The results showed that accumulation pattern of analyzed metals in the kidney tissues followed the order; Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Ni > Mn > Cd. In the heart tissue the analyzed metals followed similar pattern of metal accumulation. The average Pb (0.85 ± 0.50 ppm, Cd (0.12 ± 0.07 ppm, Ni (0.92 ± 0.35 ppm and Mn (0.86 ± 0.43 ppm were significantly lower in the heart tissue whereas Zn (26.4 ± 12.9 ppm and Cu (3.29 ± 2.18 ppm were higher in the kidney tissues. In general, the data indicated that marine fish from the sampling site of the Arabian Gulf contain relatively less burden of heavy metals in their tissues.

  17. Pattern of skin cancer among Saudi patients attending a tertiary care center in Dhahran, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A 20-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dawsari, Najla A; Amra, Nasir

    2016-12-01

    Skin cancer is the ninth most common malignancy in Saudi Arabia. It represented 3.2% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases in the year 2010. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of skin cancer in relation to age, sex, and anatomic location among Saudi patients attending the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare center in Dhahran, Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. We retrospectively reviewed the surgical pathology records of Saudi nationals from 1995 to 2014 at the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare center, which directly provides for the healthcare needs of Saudi Aramco company employees and dependents in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Tumor metastases to skin, skin involvement by primary breast carcinoma, and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma with secondary involvement by skin were excluded. The total number of primary skin tumors was 204. The commonest cutaneous malignancies were basal cell carcinoma (36%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (23%), with the head and neck being the commonest location for both tumors. Mycosis fungoides (MF) was the third most common malignancy (11%). Malignant melanoma was the fourth commonest skin malignancy (7%) with the lower extremities being the commonest location. The four most common skin cancers in our tertiary center in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, MF, and malignant melanoma. Other regions of Saudi Arabia report a similar pattern of skin cancers as our center, with MF having a higher frequency at our center.

  18. Prevalence, characteristics, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella in retail pork in Jiangsu province, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Chen; Pan, Zhi-Ming; Kang, Xi-Long; Geng, Shi-Zhong; Liu, Zhong-Yi; Cai, Yin-Qiang; Jiao, Xin-An

    2014-02-01

    Salmonella is commonly isolated from raw pork and is a leading cause of foodborne illness. Because China has the highest rate of pork consumption and the largest number of pig breeding facilities in the world, an epidemiological analysis of Salmonella species from pork in China is warranted. In this study, pork samples (n = 1,096) were collected from 20 major free markets in four cities of Jiangsu province from August 2010 to December 2012. A total of 163 Salmonella isolates were recovered from 154 Salmonella-positive samples. Among 14 Salmonella serovars identified, Derby (47.9%) was most prevalent, followed by Typhimurium (10.4%), Meleagridis (9.2%), Anatum (8.6%), and London (6.7%). Antimicrobial sensitivity testing revealed that 134 (82.2%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, and 41 (25.2%) were resistant to more than three antimicrobials. The highest resistance was to tetracycline (66.3% of isolates) followed by ampicillin (39.9%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (31.3%), and nalidixic acid (30.1%). Multilocus sequence typing analysis revealed 14 sequence type (ST) patterns; ST40 was the most common (77 isolates) followed by ST64 (19 isolates). Our research revealed a high prevalence of Salmonella in retail pork. Diversity among the Salmonella isolates was high in terms of serovar and genotype, and multidrug resistance was prevalent. Multilocus sequence type was generally associated with serovar and provided a reliable prediction of the most common Salmonella serovars.

  19. Colecta de leguminosas forrajeras en tres provincias orientales de Cuba Collection of forage legumes in three Eastern provinces of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuseika Olivera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una labor de prospección y colecta en la zona oriental del país con el objetivo de colectar germoplasma de leguminosas herbáceas, arbustivas y arbóreas multipropósito para ser utilizadas en el sector ganadero. El trayecto incluyó la costa norte y sur de la provincia de Guantánamo, la costa norte y centro de la provincia Holguín, así como la parte centro-este de la provincia Granma. Se utilizó un sistema de muestreo individual en pequeñas poblaciones, con repetitividad de especies en diferentes sitios, y en ocasiones se muestreó aleatoriamente en poblaciones abundantes. La información se recogió a través de los descriptores relacionados con la localización, el hábitat natural, la vegetación, el suelo y los daños motivados por insectos y enfermedades, entre otros. Se colectaron 95 accesiones pertenecientes a 24 especies, entre las que primaron las de tipo herbáceo (10 géneros. Se encontraron especies utilizadas con diversos propósitos (alimento animal, cobertura, abono verde, cercas vivas, etc., tanto herbáceas como arbustivas y arbóreas. Se recomienda beneficiar las muestras obtenidas; proceder a su rápida reproducción, caracterización morfobotánica y evaluación agronómica (fase I; utilizar este material para diversos fines, entre ellos la conservación y el intercambio; así como continuar la colecta en otras zonas del país.A prospecting and collection work was carried out in the eastern zone of the country with the objective of collecting germplasm of herbaceous, shrubby and tree multipurpose legumes to be used in the livestock production sector. The trip included the northern and southern coast of the Guantanamo province, the northern and central coast of the Holguín province, as well as the central-eastern part of the Granma province. An individual sampling system was used in small populations, with repetitiveness of species in different sites, and sometimes random sampling was performed in abundant

  20. Coastal debris analysis in beaches of Chonburi Province, eastern of Thailand as implications for coastal conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thushari, Gajahin Gamage Nadeeka; Chavanich, Suchana; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2017-03-15

    This study quantified coastal debris along 3 beaches (Angsila, Bangsaen, Samaesarn) in eastern coast of Thailand. Debris samples were collected from lower and upper strata of these beaches during wet and dry seasons. The results showed that Bangsaen had the highest average debris density (15.5m(-2)) followed by Samaesarn (8.10m(-2)), and Angsila (5.54m(-2)). Among the 12 debris categories, the most abundant debris type was plastics (>45% of the total debris) in all beach locations. Coastal debris distribution was related to economic activities in the vicinity. Fishery and shell-fish aquaculture activities were primary sources of debris in Angsila while tourism activities were main sources in Bangsaen and Samaesarn. Site-specific pollution control mechanisms (environmental awareness, reuse and recycling) are recommended to reduce public littering. Management actions in Angsila should focus on fishery and shell-fish culture practices, while Bangsaen and Samaesarn should be directed toward leisure activities promoting waste management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. IMPACT OF MINING WASTES ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE PROVINCE JERADA (EASTERN MOROCCO

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    BATTIOUI MOUNIA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jerada coal mine is located in north east of Morocco, and closed in late 2001.Today the quantity stored is about 15 to 20 million tonnes. These releases contain significant levels of accompanying elements or secondary minerals such as iron sulfides (pyrite and their oxidation products.Monitor the groundwater quality was developed in the region in order to assess the quality of these waters and to estimate the risk of contamination. The study focused on 35 wells spread to cover almost all of the study area.Two main sampling campaigns were conducted, the first one in October 2010, the second in July 2011.The pH of the different measuring points is generally between 6 and alkaline tending 8 show groundwater level in the region.The results obtained by ion chromatography show an average sulphate concentration of about 700mg/l.These concentrations are much higher in the wet season than the dry season. The average nitrate levels are in the range of 300mg/l while those chlorides are of the order of 418 mg/l.The analysis by emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP showed mean concentrations of calcium in the range of 170mg/l,340mg/l for sodium and 309mg/l for magnesium while contents of Al, As, Cd remain negligible or even below the detection limit.The results of physico-chemical analysis of groundwater level in the province of Jerada show high pollution level in the region.

  2. Tectonic juxtaposition of crust and continental growth during orogenesis: Example from the Rengali Province, eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Bose

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The southern boundary of the Singhbhum Craton witnessed multiple orogenies that juxtaposed thin slice of granulite suite of the Rengali Province against the low-grade granite-greenstone belt of the craton along the E–W trending Sukinda Thrust. The strong southerly dipping mylonitic foliation within the granulites along with the prominent down-dip mineral lineation, suggest a northerly-verging thrusting. Mylonitized charnockite at the contact zone contains enclaves of mafic and ultramafic granulite, whereas granitoid gneiss contains enclaves of pelitic granulite. Mafic granulite enclaves preserve an early (S1M foliation that formed during D1M deformation. This rock, along with the host charnockite, were intensely deformed by the D2M thrusting event and resulting S2M foliation development in both rock suites. Geothermobarometric and pseudosection analyses show that the garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-orthopyroxene-ilmenite-quartz assemblage in mafic granulite was stabilized at high-pressure and temperature conditions (10−12 kbar, 860 °C and was overprinted by a fine-grained assemblage of clinopyroxene-plagioclase ± hornblende that developed during decompression (down to 5.5–7.5 kbar. Matrix hornblende shows incipient breakdown to garnet-clinopyroxene-quartz intergrowth due to a granulite facies reworking. A contrasting P-T history is preserved in the pelitic granulite. The peak assemblage garnet-orthopyroxene-cordierite-quartz-rutile was stabilized at ∼6.0 kbar, 730 °C which resulted from heating of the mid crust magma during the D2M thrusting. The contrasting P-T histories could result from the tectonic juxtaposition of lower- and mid-crustal section during the D2M event. Evidences of an early orogenic imprint within the mafic granulite imply involvement of deep continental crust during southward growth of the Singhbhum Craton.

  3. Hospital admission following induced abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea--a descriptive study.

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    Lisa M Vallely

    Full Text Available In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion.Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information.Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119 of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119 of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported.In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion.

  4. Hospital admission following induced abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea--a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D L; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion.

  5. Hospital Admission following Induced Abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea – A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M.; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D. L.; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Methods Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Findings Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. Conclusion In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion. PMID:25329982

  6. Epidemiologic characterization of human papillomavirus infection in rural Chaozhou, eastern Guangdong Province of China.

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    Qiang Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus (HPV infection was the main cause of cervical cancer. There were only a few reports and detailed data about epidemiological research of HPV infection in rural population of China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cervical cells of rural Chaozhou women were collected, and multiplex real time PCR was firstly performed to detect high-risk HPV (HR-HPV infection, which could detect 13 types of HR-HPV (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68. Then, HPV-positive samples were typed by HPV GenoArray test. RESULTS: HR-HPV DNA was detected by multiplex real time-PCR in 3830 of 48559 cases (7.89%. There was a peak incidence in age of 55-60 years group, and a lower incidence in who lived in plain group compared with suburban, mountain and seashore group. 3380 cases of HPV positive sample were genotyped, 11.01% (372/3380 cases could not be classified, among the typed 3008 cases, 101 cases were identified without HR-HPV type infection, 2907 cases were infected with one HR-HPV type at least, the 6 most common HR-HPV types in descending order of infection, were type 52 (33.4%, 16 (20.95%, 58 (15.93%, 33 (9.94%, 68 (9.22% and 18 (8.36%. The combined prevalence of HPV types 16 and 18 accounted for 28.52% of total infection. However, type 52 plus 58 presented 48.23% of total infection. 2209/2907 cases were infected with a single HPV type and 698/2907 cases were infected with multiple types, and multiple infection constituent ratio increased with age, with a peak incidence in age 55-60 years group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed low prevalence of HPV vaccine types (16 and 18 and relatively high prevalence of HPV-52 and -58, support the hypothesis that the second-generation HPV vaccines including HPV-52 and -58 may offer higher protection for women in rural Guangdong Province.

  7. Secondary Magnetization of ZEBRA Dolomites in the Basin and Range Province of Eastern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, R. D.; Dulin, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Zebra dolomites within the Devonian Guilmette Formation of the southern Basin and Range Province, Nevada, are the focus of a paleomagnetic study to determine if a characteristic magnetization exists that will yield insight into the timing of zebra dolomite formation. Zebra dolomites consist of alternating bands of light and dark dolomite, and are found throughout Nevada, often associated with mineralized ore deposits. Although a variety of mechanisms have been suggested for formation, the zebra dolomite throughout Nevada is likely associated with hydrothermal fluid migration. The current study focuses on zebra dolomites that have formed in close stratigraphic proximity and within the Alamo Breccia in the Delamar Range in southeastern Nevada. The Alamo Breccia is an impact generated mega-breccia zone within the Devonian Guilmette Formation. The zebra dolomites, including those in the Alamo Breccia, and host Guilmette in the Delamar Range have a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) with maximum laboratory unblocking temperatures of 480°C that is interpreted to reside in magnetite. The rocks were structurally rotated to remove Cenozoic extension, and the stratigraphic mean direction of the ChRM has a declination of 164.4°, with an inclination of -3°. The calculated pole is at 51.6°N, 90.7°E (dp = 2.2, dm = 4.3) which lies near the late Triassic portion of the apparent polar wander path (APWP) for North America. Based on low burial temperatures, this ChRM is interpreted as a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) that was acquired due to the mobilization of brines possibly associated with the Triassic Sonoma orogeny. Geochemical data are consistent with alteration by externally derived fluids. The presence of a late Triassic magnetization indicates that the zebra dolomite can be no younger than Late Triassic. Preliminary results from zebra dolomites in other areas in southeastern Nevada indicate a more complex magnetization; some locations contain both

  8. Neoarchean tectonics: Insight from the Baijiafen ductile shear zone, eastern Anshan, Liaoning Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yong-Jiang; Jin, Wei; Li, Xian-Hua; Neubauer, Franz; Li, Wei-Min; Liang, Chen-Yue; Wen, Quan-Bo; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    The North China Craton is one of the major Archean to Paleoproterozoic cratons in the world and oldest craton in China, which preserves a large amount of ancient basement and abundant structures showing the early earth tectonics. The controversy over the Archean tectonic regimes has lasted several decades centering around horizontal and vertical tectonics, the two classical tectonic models for Archean times. Thus, more studies of the early crustal growth and tectonic evolution are requisite for better understanding geodynamic regimes in the early Precambrian. This study provides an example for revealing of Archean tectonics. The NWN-trending, ENE-dipping Baijiafen ductile shear zone is located in the eastern Anshan of the northeastern North China Craton and mainly comprises two types of gneisses, including the Chentaigou porphyritic granitic gneiss and the Baijiafen trondhjemitic gneiss. In this study, we have carried out a detailed study on the macrostructure, microstructure and fabric characteristics of the two main types of deformed gneisses within the shear zone. The ribbon structures formed by intensely elongated quartz grains are widespread in these gneisses. Well-developed mineral stretching lineations and asymmetric fabrics indicate an ESE-directed downward shearing. The quartz c-axis fabric patterns obtained by electron backscatter diffraction technique imply low to middle temperature non-coaxial deformation with active rhomb slip and basal slip. Deformation behaviors of minerals and quartz crystallographic preferred orientations demonstrate that the rocks underwent mylonitization at a temperature of 400-500 °C under greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. Dislocation creep is the main rock deformation mechanism within the shear zone. Finite strain measurement results suggest that the strain types of the shear zone are generally related to elongate-plane deformation, and the tectonites change from L-S- to LS-type across the shear zone. The strain

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in raw retail frozen imported freshwater fish to Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadi, Nasreldin

    2014-03-01

    To determine the proportion of imported frozen fish contaminated with Salmonella among retail food stores and supermarkets in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A total of 223 frozen freshwater fish purchased from different supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed for the presence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella. The isolation of Salmonella was determined and confirmed by using the methods of US Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, CHROMagar Salmonella plus, biochemical tests and API 20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, as described by Kirby-Bauer, in accordance with the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Out of the total 223 fish samples (20 of catfish, 18 of carfu, 20 of mirgal, 25 of milkfish, 35 of mackerel, 75 of tilapia, and 30 of rohu), 89 (39.9%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of positive samples were reported for the freshwater fish of pangas (60.0%, n=12), carfu (27.7%, n=5), mirgal (35.0%, n=7), milkfish (52.0%, n=13), mackerel (31.4 %, n=11), tilapia imported from Thailand (64.0%, n=16), tilapia imported from India (28.0%, n=14), rohu imported from Thailand (26.6%, n=4) and rohu imported from Myanmar (46.6%, n=7). A total of 140 isolates of Salmonella spp. were yielded from at least seven different types of frozen freshwater fish imported from 5 different countries and were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents. The highest antibiotic resistance was observed to tetracycline (90.71%) followed by ampicillin (70%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (45%). The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures.

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in raw retail frozen imported freshwater fish to Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasreldin Elhadi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the proportion of imported frozen fish contaminated with Salmonella among retail food stores and supermarkets in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 223 frozen freshwater fish purchased from different supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed for the presence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella. The isolation of Salmonella was determined and confirmed by using the methods of US Food and Drug Administration’s Bacteriological Analytical Manual, CHROMagar Salmonella plus, biochemical tests and API 20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, as described by Kirby-Bauer, in accordance with the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results:Out of the total 223 fish samples (20 of catfish, 18 of carfu, 20 of mirgal, 25 of milkfish, 35 of mackerel, 75 of tilapia, and 30 of rohu), 89 (39.9%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of positive samples were reported for the freshwater fish of pangas (60.0%, n=12), carfu (27.7%, n=5), mirgal (35.0%, n=7), milkfish (52.0%, n=13), mackerel (31.4 %, n=11), tilapia imported from Thailand (64.0%, n=16), tilapia imported from India (28.0%, n=14), rohu imported from Thailand (26.6%, n=4) and rohu imported from Myanmar (46.6%, n=7). A total of 140 isolates of Salmonella spp. were yielded from at least seven different types of frozen freshwater fish imported from 5 different countries and were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents. The highest antibiotic resistance was observed to tetracycline (90.71%) followed by ampicillin (70%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (45%). Conclusions: The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures.

  11. [Aboveground biomass and nutrient distribution patterns of larch plantation in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yang, Kai; Yu, Li-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Larch is the main timber species of forest plantations in North China. Imbalance in nutrient cycling in soil emerged due to single species composition and mono system structure of plantation. Thus it is necessary to grasp its biomass and nutrients allocation for scientific management and nutrient cycling studies of larch plantation. We measured aboveground biomass (stem, branch, bark and leaf) and nutrient concentrations (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn), and analyzed the patterns of accumulation and distribution of 19-year-old larch plantation with diameter at breast height of 12. 8 cm, tree height of 15. 3 m, and density of 2308 trees · hm(-2), in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China. The results showed that aboveground biomass values were 70.26 kg and 162.16 t · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. There was a significant difference between biomass of the organs, and decreased in the order of stem > branch > bark > leaf. Nutrient accumulation was 749.94 g and 1730.86 kg · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. Nutrient accumulation of stem was significantly higher than that of branch, bark and leaf, whether it was macro-nutrient or micro-nutrient. Averagely, 749.94 g nutrient elements would be removed from the system when a 19-year-old larch tree was harvested. If only the stem part was removed from the system, the removal of nutrient elements could be reduced by 40.7%.

  12. Palynology of Yanchang Formation of Middle and Late Triassic in Eastern Gansu Province and Its Paleoclimatic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Liming; Meng Fanwei

    2006-01-01

    Xifeng (西峰) oilfield was recently found in the southwest of the Ordos basin. The oil source rocks are the Chang 7 Section of Yanchang (延长) Formation. In order to study the paleoclimate that controlled the formation of source rocks, a systemically palynological research on related beds in Yanchang Formation has been carried out. The core samples were analyzed with classical palynological techniques and the organic-walled sporomorphs from these samples were observed, identified and photographed under a light microscopy and a fluorescence microscopy. Abundant sporopollen were found in drilling cores from Chang 8 and Chang 7 sections, and two assemblages were distinguished: the Aratisporites-Punctatisporites assemblage and the Asseretospora-Walchiites assemblage. Their characteristics are similar to those of the assemblage of Tongchuan (铜川) Formation and the assemblage of Yanchang Formation in southeast Ordos basin, respectively. Their geological times are Ladinian of late Middle Triassic and Carnian of early Late Triassic, respectively. The correlation of palynoflora with their parent plants suggests the paleoclimate of eastern Gansu (甘肃) Province in the Middle and Late Triassic was warm and rainy with prosperous vegetation. The palynoflora indicated the area was in a temperate to subtropical zone then. Both the ecological types and differentiation degree curves of sporopollen indicated the period during Chang 8 and Chang 7 sections was warm and wet, and the phase accorded with large-scale lake transgression in Chang 8 Section and the largest lake area in Chang 7 Section. North China in Middle and Late Triassic was located in a warm and rainy, temperate and subtropical zone. The palynofloras in Chang 8 and Chang 7 sections have the characteristics of North China flora, however they also indicate wetter and warmer climate due to their proximity to the large lakes. The period of Chang 8 to Chang 7 sections is the climax of the expansion of the lake, and

  13. Telescoping ore targets by geochemical exploration at multiple scales in Eastern Yunnan Pt geochemical province,southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Platinum has been one of the highly needed mineral resources in China.The geochemical exploration at two survey scales was applied in telescoping ore targets for the first time in Eastern Yunnan Pt geochemical province that was delineated using Pt data from flood plain sediments with extra-low sampling density.Our study was based on the delineations and assessments of both regional and local Pt anomalies using the Pt data by analyzing with C-OES the composite samples with two sampling densities.The composite samples were obtained by recomposing at two sampling densities the original stream sediment samples collected by the National Geochemical Mapping Project.Semivariograms were used to quantitatively describe the variability of Pt anomalies and further analyze the factors controlling the variability.Pt resource potentials of both the regional Pt anomalies and the local Pt anomalies in the study area were estimated based on the geochemical block methods,respectively.It comes to the conclusions as follows.(1) From the regional to local Pt anomaly,the factors controlling their variability from the deep seated faults-basalts turn into the basalts-branch faults,which suggest that Semivariograms could identify the geological factors controlling the variability of the Pt anomalies identified by the Pt data from the stream sediments with different sampling densities.(2) There exist two types of Pt anomalies in the study area.One is those displaying at sampling densities,and its average Pt concentration significantly increases with sampling density increasing.The other is getting weaker and/or disappears with sampling density increasing.This shows that TOTGEMS could gradu-ally eliminate non-ore anomalies and keep ore anomalies.(3) The average Pt concentration of the local Pt anomaly blocks delineated using Pt data from stream sediments with sampling density of one composite per 16 km2 is twice as much as that of the regional Pt anomaly blocks delineated using Pt data from

  14. Hf isotopes of the 3.8 Ga zircons in eastern Hebei Province, China: Implications for early crustal evolution of the North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fuyuan; YANG Jinhui; LIU Xiaoming; LI Tiesheng; XIE Liewen; YANG Yueheng

    2005-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the fuchsite quartzite in eastern Hebei Province was derived from weathering and erosion of the 3.6-3.8 Ga granitic rocks. In-situ zircon Hf analyses show that the Lu-Hf isotopic system remained closed during later thermal disturbances. Zircons with concordant ages have Hf isotopic model ages of about 3.8 Ga, suggesting a recycling of this ancient crust. The ~3.8 Ga zircons have similar Hf isotopic compositions to those of chondrite, indicating that their source rocks (granitic rocks) were derived from partial melting of the juvenile crust which originated from a mantle without significant crust-mantle differentiation. Therefore, it is proposed that there was no large-scale crustal growth before ~3.8 Ga in eastern Hebei Province. Considering zircon Hf isotopic data from other areas, it is concluded that the most ancient crust in the North China Craton probably formed at about 4.0 Ga, and the possibility to find crust older than 4.0 Ga is very limited.

  15. Age constraints on deformation of the eastern Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland: new perspectives on the evolution of the northern Tasman Orogenic Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchetto, R.G.; Henderson, R.A.; Davis, B.K. [James Cook University, Townsville, QLD (Australia). Department of Earth Sciences; Wysoczanski, R. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences

    1999-02-01

    Granitic plutons of the Wangetti and Mt Formartine Supersuites intrude the Hodgkinson Formation of the Macalister Range district of the eastern Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland, Australia. Field and microstructural analyses of country-rock fabrics and those of the granites show four deformational events (D{sub 1}-D{sub 4}) for the district, in common with other sectors of the Hodgkinson Province. Structural relationships show that plutons of the two supersuites were emplaced at different times. The Wangetti Granite lacks fabric development, but the deflection of country-rock cleavage trends around it and the microscale crenulation of S{sub 2} on the rims of D{sub 4} porphyroblasts within its aureole indicate syn-D{sub 4} emplacement, consistent with the Early Permian crystallisation age attributed to this pluton from isotopic evidence. Plutons of the Mt Formartine Supersuite show the effects of multiple (D{sub 2}-D{sub 4}) deformation. An emplacement age of 357 {+-} 6 Ma (latest Devonian) was obtained for this granite by SHRIMP U-Pb analyses of zircon. This identifies an early episode of plutonism for the Hodgkinson Province, most granites from which are of Permian age. The new date constrains the age of D{sub 2} for the Macalister Range district and the age of the protolith of the Hodgkinson Formation as pre-Carboniferous. It matches the age previously determined for one of several small, related granitic stocks in the southeastern Camel Creek Subprovince of the Broken River Province. Structural relationships for granites of this age suggest that their emplacement was broadly associated with the first episode of regional-scale orogenesis and the development of penetrative fabrics in the Hodgkinson - Broken River Fold Belt. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 31 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Barriers Associated with the Use of English in the Teaching of Technology in Grade 9 at Some Schools in Eastern Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makgato, Moses

    2015-01-01

    English is the language of learning and teaching in most schools in South Africa. The ability of teachers and students to understand and communicate with each other in English contributes to better performance in Science and Technology subjects. This article explores the challenges posed by the use of English in the teaching and learning of…

  17. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Bulbine abyssinica Used in the Folk Medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibiti, Cromwell Mwiti; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Bulbine abyssinica A. Rich. is used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatism, dysentery, bilharzia, cracked lips, back pain, infertility, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal, vaginal, and bladder infections. Therefore, preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties of the whole plant (acetone and aqueous extracts) were determined using standard procedures. The in vitro antioxidant model assays revealed that the plant possesses free radical scavenging potential varying with free radical species. The species showed significant protein denaturation inhibitory activity with good protection against erythrocyte membrane lysis indicating anti-inflammatory potential. The results also showed that the species was active against the growth of all the selected eight diabetic status opportunistic bacteria except one. Moreover, the species is characterized by appreciable amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, and alkaloids. Traces amounts of saponins and tannins were also observed. Amongst the identified phytochemicals present, empirical searches identified them being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. The identification of these phytochemical constituents with their known pharmacological properties indicates that this plant is a good source of the free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. These findings also account for the multipharmacological use of B. abyssinica in fork medicine.

  18. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Bulbine abyssinica Used in the Folk Medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Cromwell Mwiti Kibiti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulbine abyssinica A. Rich. is used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatism, dysentery, bilharzia, cracked lips, back pain, infertility, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal, vaginal, and bladder infections. Therefore, preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties of the whole plant (acetone and aqueous extracts were determined using standard procedures. The in vitro antioxidant model assays revealed that the plant possesses free radical scavenging potential varying with free radical species. The species showed significant protein denaturation inhibitory activity with good protection against erythrocyte membrane lysis indicating anti-inflammatory potential. The results also showed that the species was active against the growth of all the selected eight diabetic status opportunistic bacteria except one. Moreover, the species is characterized by appreciable amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, and alkaloids. Traces amounts of saponins and tannins were also observed. Amongst the identified phytochemicals present, empirical searches identified them being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. The identification of these phytochemical constituents with their known pharmacological properties indicates that this plant is a good source of the free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. These findings also account for the multipharmacological use of B. abyssinica in fork medicine.

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

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    Igbinosa Etinosa O

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the antibiogram and antibiotic resistance genes of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of South Africa. V. vulnificus (18, V. metschnikovii (3, V. fluvialis (19 and V. parahaemolyticus (12 strains were isolated from final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP located in a rural community of South Africa. The disk diffusion method was used for the characterization of the antibiogram of the isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed to evaluate the presence of established antibiotic resistance genes using specific primer sets. Results The Vibrio strains showed the typical multidrug-resistance phenotype of an SXT element. They were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (Sul, trimethoprim (Tmp, cotrimoxazole (Cot, chloramphenicol (Chl, streptomycin (Str, ampicillin (Amp, tetracycline (Tet nalidixic acid (Nal, and gentamicin (Gen. The antibiotic resistance genes detected includes dfr18 and dfrA1 for trimethoprim; floR, tetA, strB, sul2 for chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole respectively. Some of these genes were only recently described from clinical isolates, demonstrating genetic exchange between clinical and environmental Vibrio species. Conclusions These results demonstrate that final effluents from wastewater treatment plants are potential reservoirs of various antibiotics resistance genes. Moreover, detection of resistance genes in Vibrio strains obtained from the wastewater final effluents suggests that these resistance determinants might be further disseminated in habitats downstream of the sewage plant, thus constituting a serious health risk to the communities reliant on the receiving waterbodies.

  20. Supporting teacher professional development to use tablets in resource constrained schools: a case study of Cofimvaba schools, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adele

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available to support teaching and learning. The training modules combined the use of teaching strategies and fun with practical hands-on exercises which can be used in any type of subject for any grade when training teachers. Teachers embarked on a learning path...

  1. Assessment of the Incidence of Enteric Adenovirus Species and Serotypes in Surface Waters in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: Tyume River as a Case Study

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    Timothy Sibanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TaqMan real-time PCR was used for the detection and quantitation of adenoviruses in Tyume River water samples over a 12-month period. A total of 72 samples were analysed, and 22 samples were positive for adenovirus. Of the positive samples, 18 were collected from downstream sampling points. Among the downstream sampling points, adenovirus detection rate increased with distance downstream, being 28%, 33%, and 39% for Alice, Drayini, and Manqulweni, respectively. The Alice sampling site had the highest concentrations of adenovirus ranging between 6.54×103 genome copies/L and 8.49×104 genome copies/L. The observed trend could have been expected considering the level of anthropogenic activities in areas along the lower stretch of Tyume River, with the major one being the effluent of treated and semi treated sewage from wastewater treatment facilities. Adenovirus detection was sporadic at most sampling sites. Multiplex conventional PCR was used for the detection of clinically important adenovirus species B, C, and F and their serotypes. Species C and F adenoviruses were detected in 77% and 18% of the samples, respectively. Most adenovirus positive samples were obtained from areas of increased population densities. The presence of adenoviruses may confirm the risk of its transmission to the human population.

  2. Foodborne pathogens recovered from ready-to-eat foods from roadside cafeterias and retail outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, Mirriam E; Odjadjare, Collins E; Tanih, Nicoline F; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24). Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%), Enterobacter spp. (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (12%), Klebsiella oxytoca (8%), Proteus mirabilis (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.2%) and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%). Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections.

  3. Foodborne Pathogens Recovered from Ready-to-Eat Foods from Roadside Cafeterias and Retail Outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland N. Ndip

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24. Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%, Enterobacter spp. (18%, Aeromonas hydrophila (12%, Klebsiella oxytoca (8%, Proteus mirabilis (6.3%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.2% and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%. Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 in the prevalence of foodborne pathogens from hygienic and unhygienic cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections.

  4. Lithostratigraphy, Sedimentology, and Provenance of the Balfour Formation (Beaufort Group) in the Fort Beaufort-Alice Area, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David KATEMAUNZANGA; Cornelis Janse GUNTER

    2009-01-01

    The Balfour Formation has a pronounced lithological variation that is characterized by alternating sandstone- and mudstone-dominated members. The sandstone-dominated Oudeberg and Barberskrans Members are composed of lithofacies that range from intraformational conglomerates to fine-grained sediments, whereas the mudstone-dominated members (Daggaboersnek, Elandsberg, and Palingkloof) are dominated by the facies Fm and Fi. Petrography, geochemistry, and a paleocurrent analysis indicated that the source rock of the Balfour Formation was to south east and the rocks had a transitional/dissected magmatic arc signature. The sandstones-rich members were deposited by seasonal and ephemeral high-energy, low-sinuous streams, and the fine-grained-rich members were formed by ephemeral meandering streams. The paleoclimates have been equated to present temperate climates; they were semiarid becoming arid towards the top of the Balfour Formation. This has been determined by reconstructing the paleolatitude of the Karoo Basin, geochemistry, paleontology, sedimentary structures, and other rock properties, like color.

  5. Maintenance of the selected infant feeding methods amongst postnatal mothers at risk of HIV in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Elizabeth M. Yako

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was to explore and describe influences on decision making related to infant feeding methods in the context of HIV and AIDS. Study objectives were: (1 to explore and describe the influences on decision making related to infant feeding methods selected by the mother during the antenatal period and (2 to describe the reasons related to a change in infant feeding method in the postnatal period. This cross-sectional study used the quantitative approach and a descriptive design. A convenience sample of 60 mothers in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme participated in this study. Data were collected six weeks post-delivery and analysed using SPSS 17.0 software for Windows. The mean age of the mothers was 26.5 years, range 19 to 41 years (SD 5.3. At six weeks 73%(n= 44 of the mothers maintained the infant feeding method selected antenatally and 27%(n= 16 had changed methods. Using a Chi-square test, the difference between groups was significant (x2[df 1] = 19, p < 0.000. Every HIV-positive mother (100%, n= 28 continued with the method selected antenatally, compared with 50%(n = 16 of all HIV-negative mothers (n = 32. The reasons for deciding to change methods included going back to school or work; illness of babies; painful breasts; and advice from significant others. Most mothers maintained the feeding methods selected antenatally. HIV-positive mothers were more likely to adhere to the initial decisions made antenatally than HIV-negative mothers.

  6. Occurrence of virulence genes associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from raw cow's milk from two commercial dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Lesley-Anne; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Okoh, Anthony I; Ndip, Roland N; Green, Ezekiel

    2014-11-18

    Escherichia coli remains a public health concern worldwide as an organism that causes diarrhea and its reservoir in raw milk may play an important role in the survival and transport of pathogenic strains. Diarrheagenic E. coli strains are diverse food-borne pathogens and causes diarrhea with varying virulence in humans. We investigated the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli in raw milk from two commercial dairy farms. Four hundred raw milk samples, 200 from each dairy farm, were screened for the presence of fliCH7, eagR, ial, eagg, lt, and papC genes. In dairy farm A, 100 E. coli were identified based on culture, oxidase and Gram staining, while 88 isolates from dairy farm B were identified in the same manner. Gene detection showed fliCH7 27 (54%) to be the highest gene detected from farm A and lt 2 (4%) to be the lowest. The highest gene detected in dairy farm B was fliCH7 16 (43.2%) and papC 1 (2.7%) was the least. The amplification of pathogenic genes associated with diarrheagenic E. coli from cows' raw milk demonstrates that potentially virulent E. coli strains are widely distributed in raw milk and may be a cause of concern for human health.

  7. Inventory of plant communities recorded in the western, southern and eastern Cape Province, South African up to the end of 1980

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boucher, C

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive list of plant communities described by various authors within the Fynbos Biome geographic area is given. The list is divided into two sections. Section I consists of plant communities described over a wide geographical area. Section...

  8. Quantitative RT-PCR Detection of Hepatitis A Virus, Rotaviruses and Enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and Source Water Dams in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

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    Anthony Ifeanyi Okoh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Human enteric viruses (HEntVs are a major cause of water-related diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV, rotaviruses (RoV and enteroviruses (EnV in Buffalo River waters was assessed quantitatively over a period of 12 months (August 2010 to July 2011. Seventy-two samples were collected from six sites, including three dams, and concentrated using the adsorption-elution method. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR. Two or more viruses were detected in 12.5% of the samples. HAV was detected in 43.1% of the samples and in significantly (p < 0.05 varying concentrations of 1.5 × 101–1.9 × 105 genome copies/L compared to RoV and EnV, while RoVs were detected in 13.9% of samples, with concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 101–2.1 × 103 genome copies/L, and EnV were detected in 9.7% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.3 × 101–8.6 × 101 genome copies/L. Only HAV was detected at all the sites, with the Bridle Drift Dam recording significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations. The presence of enteric viruses in Buffalo River may constitute public health risks and the incidence of HAV at all the sites could reflect both the epidemiological status of hepatitis A and HAV persistence in the water environments.

  9. “HealthKick”: Formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

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    de Villiers Anniza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. Methods A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Results Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50% and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24% and underweight (16%. They cited lack of physical activity (33% and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24% as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66% and tobacco use (31% were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%, and then sweets (96%, while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%, crisps (89%, and ice lollies (38%. Very few schools (8% had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. Conclusion The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their

  10. Use of traditional and complementary health practices in prenatal, delivery and postnatal care in the context of HIV transmission from mother to child (PMTCT) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Treger, Latasha

    2009-03-07

    The aim of this study was as part of a baseline assessment in PMTCT in the traditional health sector: a) to determine the views of women who have used the services of traditional practitioners before, during and/or after pregnancy, and b) to conduct formative research with traditional health practitioners (THPs), i.e. herbalists, diviners and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on HIV, pregnancy care, delivery and infant care. The sample included a) 181 postnatal care clients with a child less than 12 months interviewed at postnatal clinic visits from 20 primary care clinics in the Kouga Local Service Area (LSA), Cacadu district, Eastern Cape, and b) 54 traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and 47 herbalists and/or diviners were interviewed from Kouga LSA. Results showed that THP (in particular TBAs and to a certain extend herbalists/diviners) play a significant role in pregnancy and postnatal care, and also with the assistance of delivery. Certain HIV risk practices were reported on the practice of TBAs. THPs also seem to have some role in infant feeding and family planning. THPs should be trained in optimising their services in pregnancy and postnatal care, and preparation for health facility delivery. In addition, they should be trained on HIV risk practices, HIV/AIDS, HIV prevention including PMTCT, infant feeding and family planning.

  11. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Childr

  12. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); Spearman, C.W. (C Wendy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Childr

  13. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross

  14. Estimation of household income diversification in South Africa: A case study of three provinces

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    Jabulani Mathebula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated household income diversification in settlement types of the poorest provinces in South Africa the Eastern Cape, Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal. We obtained data from the 2010/2011 Income and Expenditure Survey from Statistics South Africa and Wave 3 data from the National Income Dynamics Study. We used the number of income sources, the number of income earners and the Shannon Diversity Index to estimate income diversification in the study provinces. The results show that households in the traditional and urban formal areas diversified income sources to a greater extent than households in urban informal and rural formal settlements. The varied degrees of income diversification in the three provinces suggest that targeted policy initiatives aimed at enhancing household income are important in these provinces.

  15. Dietary and physical activity of adult patients with type 2 diabetes in Zhejiang province of eastern China: Data from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaowen; Pan, Jie; Pan, Mingxia; Wang, Jiawei; Dong, Jingfen; Yuan, Hongdi; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Minhua; Chen, Yunfen; Lu, Yiping; Gu, Huiqin; Chen, Yanshu; Wu, Liqin; Chen, Yajuan; Jin, Fubi; Li, Bijun; Gu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Lifestyle management helps improve the clinical outcome of patients with type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed to obtain lifestyle data on the dietary and physical activity of adult type 2 diabetes patients in Zhejiang province of eastern China for better patient education and improvement of clinical management. A cross-sectional survey of 607 adult type 2 diabetes patients was carried out in 12 hospitals within eight cities of Zhejiang province. Data were collected for sex, age, basic physical measurement (blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference), dietary favor and habit (vegetarian diets vs meat diets, preference of salty or light flavors), detailed dietary intake (24-h recall method), as well as the weekly physical activity. The mean age of the patients in the analysis was 56.39 ± 12.29 years, and 38.71% of the patients had higher levels of body mass index than recommended. The average daily total energy intake was 1887.71 ± 575.10 kcal. The percentage of calories from carbohydrate, protein and fat were 61.36 ± 11.59%, 13.29 ± 3.37% and 25.35 ± 11.16%, respectively. For physical activity, the patients generally spent most of their daily time sitting and sleeping, and the time for moderate vigorous activity was limited. Adult patients with type 2 diabetes in Zhejiang province have a relatively high carbohydrate and low protein diet, with very limited physical activity. Patient education to achieve a better lifestyle intervention needs to improve in this region. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Alcohol Use, Working Conditions, Job Benefits, and the Legacy of the “Dop” System among Farm Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Hope Despite High Levels of Risky Drinking

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    J. Phillip Gossage

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes alcohol consumption in five Western Cape Province communities. Cross-sectional data from a community household sample (n = 591 describe the alcohol use patterns of adult males and females, and farm workers vs. others. Data reveal that men were more likely to be current drinkers than women, 75.1% vs. 65.8% (p = 0.033; farm laborers were more likely to be current drinkers than individuals in other occupations 83.1% vs. 66.8% (p = 0.004. Group, binge drinking on weekends was the norm; men were more likely to be binge drinkers in the past week than women 59.8% vs. 48.8% (p = 0.086; farm workers were more likely to binge than others 75.0% vs. 47.5% (p < 0.001. The legacy of “Dop” contributes to current risky drinking behaviors. Farm owners or managers were interviewed on 11 farms, they described working conditions on their farms and how the legacy of “Dop” is reflected in the current use of alcohol by their workers. “Dop” was given to farm workers in the past on six of the 11 farms, but was discontinued for different reasons. There is zero tolerance for coming to work intoxicated; farm owners encourage responsible use of alcohol and assist farm workers in getting help for alcohol problems when necessary. The farm owners report some positive initiatives, were ahead of the movement to provide meaningful wages, and provide other important amenities. Further research is needed to assess whether progressive practices on some farms will reduce harmful alcohol use.

  17. Dating Magmatic Hornblende and Biotite and Hydrothermal Sericite by Laser Probe Technique:Constraints on Genesis of Wangershan Gold Deposit, Eastern Shandong Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianwei; Vasconcelos P M; Zhou M F; Duzgoren-Aydin N S

    2003-01-01

    The Wangershan gold deposit and spatially related Shangzhuang granite, eastern Shandong Province, have been precisely dated by 40 Ar/39 Ar laser incremental heating technique. Magmatic hornblende and biotite, collected from the Shangzhuang granites, yielded well-defined and reproducible plateau ages at 128. 1-127.5 and 124.4-124. 1 Ma (2σ), measuring the cooling ages of the intrusion at ca. 500 ℃ and 300-350 ℃, respectively. Hydrothermal sericite extracted from auriferous vein gave high-quality plateau ages between (120. 6±0.3) Ma and (120. 0±0. 4) Ma (2σ). Given the similarity of the closure temperature for argon diffusion (300-350 ℃ ) in the sericite mineral to the homogenization temperature of primary fluid inclusions in the quartz from gold ores, and the intergrowth of sericite with native gold, present 40Ar/39 Ar sericite ages can be reliably interpreted in terms of the mineralization age for the Wangershan deposit. 40 Ar/39 Ar hornblende and biotite ages permit an estimate for the cooling rate of the Shangzhuang granite at about 50 ℃/Ma. There are abundant intermediate-mafic dikes in most gold camps of eastern Shandong, whose ages of formation have been previously constrained mainly at 121-119 Ma. The temporal association between the Shangzhuang granite, the Wangershan gold deposit, and the widespread dikes confirms that intrusive activity, gold mineralization, and dike emplacement in this region were broadly coeval, reflecting significant continental lithosphere thinning and resulting crustal extension of Early Cretaceous in eastern China.

  18. Mass spectrometric U-series dating of Huanglong Cave in Hubei Province, Central China: evidence for early presence of modern humans in Eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guanjun; Wu, Xianzhu; Wang, Qian; Tu, Hua; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2013-08-01

    Most researchers believe that anatomically modern humans (AMH) first appeared in Africa 160-190 ka ago, and would not have reached eastern Asia until ∼50 ka ago. However, the credibility of these scenarios might have been compromised by a largely inaccurate and compressed chronological framework previously established for hominin fossils found in China. Recently there has been a growing body of evidence indicating the possible presence of AMH in eastern Asia ca. 100 ka ago or even earlier. Here we report high-precision mass spectrometric U-series dating of intercalated flowstone samples from Huanglong Cave, a recently discovered Late Pleistocene hominin site in northern Hubei Province, central China. Systematic excavations there have led to the in situ discovery of seven hominin teeth and dozens of stone and bone artifacts. The U-series dates on localized thin flowstone formations bracket the hominin specimens between 81 and 101 ka, currently the most narrow time span for all AMH beyond 45 ka in China, if the assignment of the hominin teeth to modern Homo sapiens holds. Alternatively this study provides further evidence for the early presence of an AMH morphology in China, through either independent evolution of local archaic populations or their assimilation with incoming AMH. Along with recent dating results for hominin samples from Homo erectus to AMH, a new extended and continuous timeline for Chinese hominin fossils is taking shape, which warrants a reconstruction of human evolution, especially the origins of modern humans in eastern Asia.

  19. Early Proterozoic palaeomagnetism: new results from the intrusives and related rocks of the Karelian, Belomorian and Kola provinces, eastern Fennoscandian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, M. A.; Khramov, A. N.; Pisakin, B. N.; Priyatkin, A. A.

    1999-06-01

    The palaeomagnetic data that are available for the eastern Fennoscandian Shield are too sparse to allow any palaeomagnetic constraints to be determined for intracratonic horizontal movements in this part of the shield. To address this issue we have obtained new palaeomagnetic data from mafic and ultramafic plutons, sills, dykes and basement country rocks in the Kola, Belomorian and Karelian provinces of the Fennoscandian Shield. A number of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) components were isolated, and we associate these with various events of Precambrian tectonomagmatic activity within the eastern Fennoscandian Shield. 36 palaeomagnetic poles were obtained. 12 poles, with ages ranging from 1700 Ma to 2450 Ma, satisfy the accepted reliability criteria (corresponding to the `B-category' of Briden & Duff 1981). Of these, six might be classified as reference poles. For the Kola and Belomorian provinces there are poles from the Main Range gabbro-dolerites (16.7 degS, 304.8 degE, A_95 =8.3 deg U-Pb age of 2436+/-25 Ma), the Voche-Lambina ultramafics and amphibolites (12.9 degN, 314.1 degE, A_95 =8.6 deg Rb-Sr age of 2198+/-172 Ma), and the Kolvitsa peridotites and schists (44.2 degN, 232.6 degE, A_95 =5.4 deg assigned magnetization age of 1900 Ma). For the Karelian Province, reference poles are presented for the Burakovka gabbro-norites (19.5 degS, 262.6 degE, A_95 =7.2 deg Sm-Nd age of 2439+/-22 Ma), the Matozero doleritic dykes (20.6 degS, 308.5 degE, A_95 =12.3 deg U-Pb age of 2150+/-60 Ma), and the Ropruchey Sill gabbro-dolerites (40.5 degN, 229.8 degE, A_95 =8.1 deg U-Pb age of 1770+/-12 Ma). Although some NRM components of other rocks are not as precisely dated, a number of palaeomagnetic poles are in good internal agreement, forming two tracks of the Lower Proterozoic apparent polar wander path (APWP). A preliminary version of the pre-Svecofennian APWP tracks for the Karelian and Kola-Belomorian provinces is proposed. Our results confirm the general drift

  20. Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data contains an account of all thunderstorms reported in weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida between...

  1. New insights into the lowest Xuanwei Formation in eastern Yunnan Province, SW China: Implications for Emeishan large igneous province felsic tuff deposition and the cause of the end-Guadalupian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lixin; Dai, Shifeng; Graham, Ian T.; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Beibei

    2016-11-01

    A previous study suggested that the lowest Xuanwei Formation is derived from weathered clastic materials of silicic composition from the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) based on chemostratigraphic correlations (Al2O3/TiO2 ratios) between the two. In this study, we have adopted the model that the Emeishan mantle plume commenced and terminated within a short duration and have investigated the detailed mineralogy and geochemistry of carefully sampled rocks from the lower sections of the Xuanwei Formation, eastern Yunnan Province, Southwest China. These samples are intensely argillized and characterized by high proportions of clay minerals and quartz. The samples with Al2O3/TiO2 > 7 from the lowest Xuanwei Formation have an anomalous natural gamma response and high concentrations of Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Th, U, Ga and REY (rare earth elements and yttrium). Our results suggest that the samples with Al2O3/TiO2 > 7 from the lowest Xuanwei Formation represent felsic volcanic tuff instead of acidic clasts as originally proposed. The lowest Xuanwei Formation and the Wangpo Bed are the felsic tuffaceous layers interbedded with clastic rocks derived from the Emeishan high-Ti basalts. Such volcanic layers most likely represent ELIP felsic tuff originated from the extrusive equivalent of Nb-Zr-enriched alkaline syenitic magmatism at the waning stage of Emeishan mantle plume activity. This study has verified the existence of extensive alkaline felsic volcanism of early Late Permian age. Such alkaline volcanism may have been catastrophic and have contributed to the end-Guadalupian mass extinction.

  2. Estimating the Curie point depth using aeromagnetic data with a fractal model in the Province of Québec, eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Giroux, Bernard; Bouligand, Claire

    2017-04-01

    New technologies that allow geothermal energy production in colder conditions result in interest for geothermal exploration in low heat flux regions that were previously overlooked. The Province of Québec, eastern Canada, is such a case. It is a large and cold area with a low amount of heat flux measurements, and mapping the Curie point depth is appealing as an exploration tool due to the scarcity of the direct data. For that purpose, we have revisited a methodology to estimate the Curie point depth using a fractal source distribution model and aeromagnetic data. Our methodology relies on a statistical model of crustal magnetization having a constant magnetization direction and random magnetization amplitude. The shape of the radial average of the logarithm of the power spectrum of magnetic anomalies is predicted using this model. The model parameters (thickness and depth to the top of the magnetic layer, the fractal exponent β and the constant C') are obtained by calculating the best fit between the theoretical and observed radial power spectra using a non-linear least-square algorithm. Rather than using a constant value for the fractal exponent β over the whole study area, which would overcorrect the shape of the radially averaged power spectra in some zones, we propose a new calibration workflow based on heat flux measurements and lithology. This workflow includes the use of sequential Gaussian simulations (SGS) of heat flux data to enlarge the limited available dataset. The use of SGS also allows quantifying the uncertainty and the range of the predicted Curie point depths. This work contributes to mapping the Curie point depth at large scale and help identifying potential areas for further detailed exploration programs and potential geothermal energy production in the Province of Québec.

  3. Intimate partner violence in the post-war context: Women’s experiences and community leaders’ perceptions in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruge, Sepali; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen; Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Vathsala; Ganesan, Mahesan; Sivayogan, Sivagurunathan; Kanthasamy, Parvathy; Shanmugalingam, Pushparani; Vithanarachchi, Hemamala

    2017-01-01

    Background Exposure to armed conflict and/or war have been linked to an increase in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. A substantial body of work has focused on non-partner rape and sexual violence in war and post-war contexts, but research about IPV is limited, particularly in Asian settings. This paper presents the finding of a study conducted in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. The study explored women’s experiences of and responses to IPV as well as how health and social service providers perceive the problem. It also explored the IPV-related services and supports available after the end of a 30-year civil war. Method We conducted in-depth, qualitative interviews with 15 women who had experienced IPV and 15 service providers who were knowledgeable about IPV in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. Interviews were translated into English, coded and organized using NVivo8, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results Participants described IPV as a widespread but hidden problem. Women had experienced various forms of abusive and controlling behaviours, some of which reflect the reality of living in the post-war context. The psychological effects of IPV were common, but were often attributed to war-related trauma. Some men used violence to control women and to reinstate power when their gender roles were reversed or challenged due to war and post-war changes in livelihoods. While some service providers perceived an increase in awareness about IPV and more services to address it, this was discordant with women’s fears, feelings of oppression, and perception of a lack of redress from IPV within a highly militarized and ethnically-polarized society. Most women did not consider leaving an abusive relationship to be an option, due to realistic fears about their vulnerability to community violence, the widespread social norms that would cast them as outsiders, and the limited availability of related services and supports. Implications These

  4. Relationship between diversity of forest plant and community dynamics in eastern mountain area of Heilongjiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-gui; XING Ya-juan; ZHOU Xiao-feng; HAN Shi-jie

    2006-01-01

    The biodiversity was studied in 26 communities with different structures in Maoershan National Park and Liangshui Natural Reserve of Northeast Forestry University in Heilongjiang Province, China. Composition index (CI) was taken as a parameter to quantify the community dynamics, which can nicely describe forest community dynamics, meanwhile, the relationship between diversity and community dynamics were also investigated and analyzed. Results showed that the total number species of community, richness, evenness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were obviously different in every community. The richness decreased with the increasing CI of every community, which means richness was in inverse proportion to community dynamics. The Shannon-Wiener index of every community increased from the initial stage to the middle stage of succession, and then decreased in the climax stage. The coverage weighted foliage-height diversity index increased along with the increase of CI, which was similar as the pattern diversity.

  5. Protecting the Foundation and Magnificent Edifice of the Legal Profession: Reflections on Thukwane V Law Society of the Northern Provinces 2014 5 SA 513 (GP) and Mtshabe V Law Society of the Cape of Good Hope 2014 5 SA 376 (ECM)

    OpenAIRE

    Tumo Charles Maloka

    2015-01-01

    The High Court decisions in Thukwane v Law Society of the Northern Provinces 2014 5 SA 513 (GP) and Mtshabe v Law Society of the Cape of Good Hope 2014 5 SA 376 (ECM) dealing with the question whether a parolee could be considered a "fit and proper person" to be admitted and readmitted to the roll of attorneys raise important and interrelated issues demanding definitive and systematic consideration. This contribution seeks to isolate some of the vexed questions concerning the novel issue of w...

  6. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy on Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Multicenter Cross-sectional Survey in Anhui Province, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chen; De-Guang Wang; Liang Yuan; Gui-Ling Liu; Heng-Jie He; Juan Wang; Sen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background:The incidence of diabetic nephropathy (DN) increases year by year.However,clinical characteristics of DN patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) were rarely reported in China.The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of the DN patients on MHD in Anhui Province,Eastern China.Methods:The clinical data of MHD patients in the hemodialysis centers of 26 hospitals in Anhui Province from January 1,2014,to March 31,2014,were examined.The differences between DN patients and non-DN patients were compared regarding vascular access,nutritional status,mineral and bone disorder,and other indexes.Results:Among the selected 2768 adult MHD patients,427 had DN.The incidence of hypertension,coronary heart disease,and cerebral thrombus in DN patients was 94.1%,21.5%,and 15.0%,respectively,which were higher than those in non-DN patients (P < 0.001).Category of vascular access for hemodialysis in DN patients was arteriovenous fistula (AVF) (87.4% [373/427]) and tunneled cuffed catheter (TCC) (11.2% [48/427]).The percentage of AVF was significantly lower than that ofnon-DN patients (P < 0.001),and percentage of TCC was significantly higher than that of non-DN patients (P < 0.001).Hemoglobin achievement rate in DN patients was 32.0%.The incidence of hypoalbuminemia was 24.7%,significantly higher than that in non-DN patients (P < 0.001).The achievement rate of the target range in mineral values was 55.9% in corrected serum calcium level,30.1% in serum phosphorus level,and 49.3% in intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level in DN patients.Compared with non-DN patients,the achievement rate of serum phosphorus was significantly higher in DN patients.Conclusions:DN patients on MHD in Anhui province exhibited different clinical characteristics compared to non-DN hemodialysis patients.They presented higher percentage in TCC use and cardiovascular complication,lower serum albumin and iPTH levels than those in non-DN patients.

  7. Petrogenesis of Cretaceous adakitic and shoshonitic igneous rocks in the Luzong area, Anhui Province (eastern China): Implications for geodynamics and Cu Au mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Xu, Ji-Feng; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Jian, Ping; Xiong, Xiao-Lin; Bao, Zhi-Wei; Li, Chao-Feng; Bai, Zheng-Hua

    2006-07-01

    Both adakitic and shoshonitic igneous rocks in the Luzong area, Anhui Province, eastern China are associated with Cretaceous Cu-Au mineralization. The Shaxi quartz diorite porphyrites exhibit adakite-like geochemical features, such as light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment, heavy REE (HREE) depletion, high Al 2O 3, MgO, Sr, Sr / Y and La / Yb values, and low Y and Yb contents. They have low ɛNd( t) values (- 3.46 to - 6.28) and high ( 87Sr / 86Sr) i ratios (0.7051-0.7057). Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon analyses indicate a crystallization age of 136 ± 3 Ma for the adakitic rocks. Most volcanic rocks and the majority of monzonites and syenites in the Luzong area are K-rich (or shoshonitic) and were also produced during the Cretaceous (140-125 Ma). They are enriched in LREE and large-ion lithophile elements, and depleted in Ti, and Nb and Ba and exhibit relatively lower ɛNd( t) values ranging from - 4.65 to - 7.03 and relatively higher ( 87Sr / 86Sr) i ratios varying between 0.7057 and 0.7062. The shoshonitic and adakitic rocks in the Luzong area have similar Pb isotopic compositions ( 206Pb / 204Pb = 17.90-18.83, 207Pb / 204Pb = 15.45-15.62 and 208Pb / 204Pb = 38.07-38.80). Geological data from the Luzong area suggest that the Cretaceous igneous rocks are distributed along NE fault zones (e.g., Tanlu and Yangtze River fault zones) in eastern China and were likely formed in an extensional setting within the Yangtze Block. The Shaxi adakitic rocks were probably derived by the partial melting of delaminated lower crust at pressures equivalent to crustal thickness of > 50 km (i.e., ˜1.5 GPa), possibly leaving rutile-bearing eclogitic residue. The shoshonitic magmas, in contrast, originated mainly from an enriched mantle metasomatized by subducted oceanic sediments. They underwent early high-pressure (> 1.5 GPa) fractional crystallization at the boundary between thickened (> 50 km) lower crust and lithospheric mantle and late low

  8. Incorporating the Spatial Road Disturbance Index (SPROADI in Ecological Impacts Assessment of Roads at Landscape Scale (Case study: Eastern Part of Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Nematollahi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of roads can have deleterious effects on natural habitats containing species of conservation concern. Fragmentation of habitat into small, non-contiguous patches may result in dramatic population declines. Thus appropriate studies quantifying ecological impacts of roads at landscape scale are essential. In this study, the Spatial Road Disturbance Index (SPROADI was applied for the ecological impact assessment of the roads network in Eastern part of Isfahan Province, including Abassabad wildlife refuge and Siahkouh National park, which are among the most important habitats for Asiatic Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus classified as Critically Endangered (CR on the IUCN Red List. This new landscape index uses three sub-indices including traffic intensity, vicinity impact and fragmentation grade to calculate the ecological impacts of roads network. Results obtained through quantifying the Spatial Road Disturbance Index showed that the degree of disturbance by roads network is between 0 and 54.53. Our results also revealed that 12 percent of Abassabad wildlife refuge and wide range of suitable habitats for Asiatic Cheetah were affected by roads network, which presents a conservation concern for this critically endangered species.

  9. Pilot Study of Reimbursement Practices in Private Healthcare Centers in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia: To What Extent Do They Meet International Best Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Sulaiman; Almutawa, Hanadi Hassan Ali; Alassaf, Nouf Fahad M; Al Hareky, Mai Saad; Hashishi, Aqilah Salman M; Alkhater, Zainab Jassem Hassan; Ajaimi, Jenan Ali M

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examines reimbursement practices in private healthcare centers in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the private healthcare sector in Saudi Arabia follows international best practices in reimbursement, as identified in a literature review. The study examined reimbursement practices in a sample of six private healthcare facilities through the use of similar questionnaire guidelines with each facility. Similarities among the facilities' practices included the use of contracts with insurance companies and the availability of a chargemaster. Differences included the types of reimbursement software used. Bundled payment systems were identified in four facilities but were not examined in all of the facilities studied. International best practices that were not present in any of the facilities in the study included electronic transfer protocols to link healthcare facilities, insurance companies, and banks; the use of reimbursement key performance indicators; the use of diagnosis-related groups; and the integration of disease coding into the reimbursement process. Major findings of this pilot study are that diverse types of reimbursement systems are in use in Saudi healthcare facilities and that these systems are preliminary and are largely unregulated. The authors suggest that regulation and standardization would therefore be easier at this stage than at later stages of the development of private healthcare systems in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Findings in an Eastern Cape psychiatric hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-07-18

    Jul 18, 2017 ... parkinsonism in patients treated with these drugs. ... the safety advantages of SGAs have been called into question because of their tendency ... older drugs.6 This may be an important consideration in our .... chief executive officer of the hospital. .... documentation of drug-induced movement disorders using.

  11. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  12. Genesis types of the Neoproterozoic Molar tooth structures in the southeastern Jilin and eastern Liaoning provinces and its research significances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Molar tooth(briefly called MT) carbonate is one of the Proterozoic carbonates with enigmatic sedimentary structure. According to the morphology of MT,it can be divided into two main genesis-morphology types,i.e.,autochthonous and allochthonous,and each type can be further divided into a series of subtypes. The autochthonous MT can be divided into filamentous(MF1) ,ribbon,nodular and dotted type(MF4) ,in which the ribbon one can be subdivided into simple vertical(MF2) and complex ribbon(MF3) ,broken ribbon by storm in situ(MF5) and MT within nodular limestone(MF6) . Allochthonous MT includes conglomerate clasts and horizontal detritus. Studying on the links between MT and the host rocks on five stratigraphic sections in the southeastern Jilin and eastern Liaoning indicates that the morphology of MT is closely related to host rocks,and seven genetic types by relationships between MT and the host rocks with facies interpretations are classified and discussed in this paper. The sedimentary environments of MT formation will be diverse if their morphologies are different.

  13. 4-m Image of the Southern Half of the Pseudo-colored Backscatter Intensity of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPESOUTHPSEUDO_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes pseudo-colored backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of northeastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a...

  14. Tectonic juxtaposition of crust and continental growth during orogenesis:Example from the Rengali Province, eastern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sankar Bose a; Susmita Guha a; Gautam Ghosh a; Kaushik Das b; Joydip Mukhopadhyay a; c

    2015-01-01

    The southern boundary of the Singhbhum Craton witnessed multiple orogenies that juxtaposed thin slice of granulite suite of the Rengali Province against the low-grade granite-greenstone belt of the craton along the EeW trending Sukinda Thrust. The strong southerly dipping mylonitic foliation within the granulites along with the prominent down-dip mineral lineation, suggest a northerly-verging thrusting. Mylonitized charnockite at the contact zone contains enclaves of mafic and ultramafic granulite, whereas granitoid gneiss contains enclaves of pelitic granulite. Mafic granulite enclaves preserve an early (S1M) foliation that formed during D1M deformation. This rock, along with the host charnockite, were intensely deformed by the D2M thrusting event and resulting S2M foliation development in both rock suites. Geothermobarometric and pseudosection analyses show that the garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-orthopyroxene-ilmenite-quartz assemblage in mafic granulite was stabilized at high-pressure and temperature conditions (10?12 kbar, 860 ?C) and was overprinted by a fine-grained assemblage of cli-nopyroxene-plagioclase ? hornblende that developed during decompression (down to 5.5e7.5 kbar). Matrix hornblende shows incipient breakdown to garnet-clinopyroxene-quartz intergrowth due to a granulite facies reworking. A contrasting P-T history is preserved in the pelitic granulite. The peak assemblage garnet-orthopyroxene-cordierite-quartz-rutile was stabilized at w6.0 kbar, 730 ?C which resulted from heating of the mid crust magma during the D2M thrusting. The contrasting P-T histories could result from the tectonic juxtaposition of lower- and mid-crustal section during the D2M event. Evidences of an early orogenic imprint within the mafic granulite imply involvement of deep continental crust during southward growth of the Singhbhum Craton.

  15. Neogene non-tropical carbonate sedimentation in a warm temperate biogeographic province (Rethymnon Formation, Eastern Crete, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomoni-Papaioannou, F.; Drinia, H.; Dermitzakis, M. D.

    2003-01-01

    The Apostoli Basin, in the central-west part of Crete, was formed as a fore-arc type basin related to the convergent plate boundary between the African and the Eurasian plates. Most of the Neogene sediments filling the basin were deposited in a terrestrial to shallow marine environment. The succession is a transgressive cycle, which culminates in the alternation of Rethymnon bioclastic limestones with marls, documenting the important Tortonian marine transgression. The Rethymnon limestones are classified as a typical non-tropical carbonate lithofacies. Two particular lithofacies have been recognized: (a) a rhodalgal-type lithofacies, characterized by predominance of encrusting coralline algae and bryozoans, and (b) an echinofor-type lithofacies, characterized by predominance of echinoderms and/or benthic foraminifera. The coralline algae occur mostly as in situ spheroidal or branched rhodoliths, whereas benthic foraminifera are mainly represented by larger foraminifera. In both lithofacies, typical tropical carbonate elements are lacking. Skeletal elements consisted of low- and high-Mg calcite. Although the observed lithofacies possess many similarities with facies of non-tropical carbonates, the presence of large benthic foraminifera suggests development in a warm temperate biogeographic province. The depositional environment corresponds to a shallow ramp, the sediments being deposited in a nearshore environment and under conditions analogous to those prevailing in the present-day circalittoral bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea. The main carbonate accumulation area is located at the factory area itself (rhodalgal-type sediments), and downslope from the factory area (echinofor-type sediments). In the classic zonation of Mediterranean benthic assemblages of Peres and Picard [Rec. Trav. Stn. Mar. (1964)], the rhodalgal-type sediments of the Rethymnon Fm correspond to the "Facies a Pralines", developed in areas strongly controlled by currents (e.g., tops of plateaus

  16. Relationship between geohydrology and Upper Pleistocene-Holocene evolution of the eastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capítulo, Leandro Rodrigues; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-07-01

    The Upper Pleistocene-Holocene geological evolution, which is characterized by its landscape-forming energy and is related to geological and geomorphological complexity, has an impact on the groundwater dynamics of coastal aquifers. The geological configuration of a sector of the east coast of the Province of Buenos Aires was analyzed, as well as its connection with the geological and geomorphological history of the region during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, and its influence on the regional and local geohydrological behaviour. This analysis was based on the application of the concept of hydrofacies. Boreholes were drilled and sampled (with depths of up to 40 m), and vertical electrical sounding, electrical tomography and pumping tests were undertaken. The description of the cutting samples by means of a stereo microscope, the interpretation of satellite images, and the construction of lithological and hydrogeological profiles and flow charts were carried out in the laboratory, and then integrated in a GIS. The identification of the lithological units and their distribution in the area allowed the construction of an evolutionary geological model for the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Three aquifer units can be recognized: one of Late Pleistocene age (hydrofacies E) and the other two of Holocene age (hydrofacies A and C); their hydraulic connection depends on the occurrence and thickness variation of the aquitard units (hydrofacies B and D). The approach adopted allows the examination of the possibilities for groundwater exploitation and constitutes an applied conceptual framework to be taken into consideration when developing conceptual and numerical models at the local and regional scales.

  17. Plant roots and anti-scourability of soils in the Shangshe Catchment, Dabie Mountains, Anhui Province, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiayao ZHUANG; Jinchi ZHANG; Bo ZHANG; Hongyan LUO; Xiaying HUANG; Jun FU

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of root biomass was studied in different soil layers (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 cm) by means of a "study plot" method for various plant species in the Shangshe Catchment area in the Dabie Mountains, Anhui Province. The number and lengths of root samples were recorded. In each study plot, anti-scourability of soils in corresponding soil layers was measured with a C.C. Suoboliefu anti-scourability instrument. The results showed the following: 1) The root system was largely distributed in the 0-40 cm soil layer and the number of roots was the largest in the surface soil layer. Fine roots < 1 mm in diameter predominated in root length. 2) In the same section, the anti-scourability indices of the surface soil layer were larger than those of other soil layers in the various plant species. The tree root system, especially the fine roots < 1 mm in diameter, are highly instrumental in controlling soil losses. Correlation coefficients of length, number and density of fine roots and the anti-scourability index were 0.8173, 0.7159 and 0.6434, respectively. The length of fine root is a key factor in the anti-scourability soil index. This index is closely correlated with the non-capillarity of each soil type, indicating that forests have a strong soil stabilizing function, because their root systems improve physical soil properties and ultimately are responsible for the establishment of a biosoil system with an anti-scourability index.

  18. Annual survey on the level and extent of usage of electronic health records in government-related hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Sulaiman; Alharthi, Hana; El Mahalli, Azza Ali; Jabali, Abdelkaream; Al-Qahtani, Mona; Al-kahtani, Nouf

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to determine the level and extent of usage of electronic health records (EHRs) in government-related hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Another aim is to develop a Web site to serve as a forum of exchange on the development of EHRs in Saudi Arabia. All government hospitals (n = 19) in the province were included. The information technology (IT) managers in those hospitals made up the target population. An online questionnaire was developed, and the IT managers in all 19 government hospitals were invited to participate in the survey. The responses from the online survey were downloaded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the 19 hospitals, only three (15.8 percent) use EHRs. These hospitals were established in 1984, 1995, and 2005. All three of these hospitals have implemented the same EHR software and were using it successfully, and all three were using the three core features of laboratory, radiology, and pharmacy electronic modules. Some modules were present in the EHR system but were underutilized. Some of the main challenges faced by the IT managers in implementing EHRs in their hospitals were related to the uncooperative attitudes of some physicians and nurses toward EHRs. In fulfillment of the second aim of the study, a Web site, http://ehr2011.weebly.com, was developed to serve as a forum for exchange of information on the development of EHRs in Saudi Arabia. The government of Saudi Arabia has prioritized the development of eHealth (health information technology) and allocated committed funding for it during 2008-2011. During this period, some sectors of government made highly commendable efforts in developing eHealth services. Along these lines, we had hoped to see higher uptake of EHRs than the 15.8 percent found in this study. The rate of implementing EHRs in government hospitals should be accelerated. The aim should be on achieving some basic EHR functionality in these hospitals, and once this has been achieved

  19. Geochronology and petrogenesis of Middle Permian S-type granitoid in southeastern Guangxi Province, South China: Implications for closure of the eastern Paleo-Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Jun; Wei, Jun-Hao; Santosh, M.; Tan, Jun; Fu, Le-Bing; Zhao, Shao-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The Bangxi-Chenxing suture zone is an important region to address the history of closure of the eastern Paleo-Tethys ocean. Among the widespread S-type granite batholiths in the SE Guangxi Province adjacent to this suture is the Nali granodiorite. Here we report zircon U-Pb ages, major and trace element geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope geochemistry of a newly found Middle Permian S-type granite in this region. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronology yields emplacement ages of 265 ± 2 to 262 ± 2 Ma for the Nali granodiorite. Both the inner and outer phases are characterized by variable SiO2 (66.91-71.39 wt.%), high Al2O3 (12.99-14.04 wt.%), K2O + Na2O (4.78-5.98 wt.%), and A/CNK values (1.11-1.50), resembling those of typical S-type granites. The rocks are enriched in Rb, Th, U and light rare earth elements with weak negative Eu anomalies, and show depletion in Nb, Ta, Ti, with typical arc-like affinity. They have relatively high (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.7228 to 0.7331, low εNd(t) values of - 13.6 to - 11.9, and low zircon εHf(t) values (- 21.9 to - 8.8). High whole-rock Nd isotopic model ages (2.00-2.02 Ga) and zircon Hf isotopic model ages (1.59-2.20 Ga), indicate that they might have been generated by partial melting of ancient lower crust with minor contribution from mantle sources. The granodiorite shows continental arc affinity and likely formed within a subduction setting. By combining previously extant data for Permo-Triassic arc-/collision-related magmatism in the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan-Song Ma and Bangxi-Chenxing suture zones, we propose that the subduction of the eastern Paleo-Tethys might have started during Middle Permian triggered by the northward subduction of the Indochina Block (ICB) beneath the South China Block (SCB) and closure during Middle Triassic.

  20. [Soil microorganisms, nutrients and enzyme activity of Larix kaempferi plantation under different ages in mountainous region of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiao-yun; Sun, Xiao-mei; Chen, Dong-sheng; Zhang, Shou-gong

    2015-09-01

    We studied the community of soil microorganisms, enzyme activity and soil nutrients under 11-, 20-, 34-and 47-year-old Larix kaempferi plantations in mountainous region of eastern Liaoning Province to discuss the soil biological properties of L. kaempferi plantations of different stand ages and their relationships with soil nutrients. The results showed that the indexes reflecting soil micro-organisms, enzyme activity and soil nutrients of L. kaempferi plantations were the highest under the 11- or 47-year-old stand and the lowest in the 20- or 34-year-old stand. Soil productivity appeared in a decline trend with the increasing stand age, and the changes of soil microbial community structure and enzyme activity were responsive to soil degradation. The difference of fungi community was more noticeable than that of bacteria community among the plantations with different stand ages. The results of CCA showed soil nutrient and pH had no effect on seasonal difference of community structure, but had effects on community, structure among different stand ages. The total N, organic carbon, C/N, available nitrogen, exchangeable Mg2+ and pH had greater effects on bacteria community, while available P, total K and pH had greater effect on fungi community among different age forests. The main T-RFs of bacteria and fungi had higher correlation with N and P, and the fungi community had higher correlation with organic carbon and K than bacteria community. The microor-ganism community of the 11- and 47-year-old stands had greater correlation with soil nutrients and enzyme activity than that of 20- and 34-year-old stands. Consequently, soil organisms, in particular soil fungi, could be used to indicate soil degradation.

  1. The Empirical Analysis on the Farmers" Information Utilizing in Eastern Shandong Province%胶东地区农民信息利用的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳敏

    2012-01-01

    农民的信息利用是农业农村信息化的关键环节。文章通过对胶东地区农民信息利用情况的实证研究发现,电视与种植能手是农民获取农业信息的主要来源,由于时效性较低和农民信息技术的限制,网络信息资源并未得到有效利用,各类政府信息化工程在农民中的知晓度较低,进而得出政府需要加强农村信息建设的宣传工作,提高农民应用信息技术的能力,关注基层组织和种植大户的信息枢纽地位,整合各类农业信息资源,简化农业信息获取途径。%The farmers' information utilizing is a key link of the agricultural and rural information. The empirical analysis on the farmers' information utilizing in eastern Shandong Province showed that the 'IV and planting experts were the main sources of farmers' access to agricultural information. Because of the delay of the information and the technological limitations of farmers, the network information resources have not been used effectively. Many government information projects were unknown to farmers. Therefore, the government must strengthen the publicity work of the rural information construction, improve the ability of the farmers' application of information technology, focus on the information hub position of the grassroots organizations and planting experts, and integrate various agricultural information resources, simplify the access to agrieuhural information.

  2. The marine mollusk fauna of the Virginian area as a basis for defining Zoogeographical provinces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1962-01-01

    The marine fauna of the American Atlantic coast between Cape Cod and Cape Hatteras, the Virginian area, is placed by zoogeographers in different provinces: in the Transatlantic, or in the Boreal province. It is sometimes considered to be a province of its own, or only a transition between the Boreal

  3. Miospores from the Frasnian-Famennian Boundary deposits in Eastern Europe (the Pripyat Depression, Belarus and the Timan-Pechora Province, Russia) and comparison with Western Europe (Northern France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhovskaya; Avkhimovitch; Streel; Loboziak

    2000-11-01

    A zonal subdivision of the Frasnian-Famennian transitional deposits in the Pripyat Depression and Timan-Pechora Province, based on a detailed palynological study, has been completed. The data obtained on miospores and conodonts from the Timan-Pechora Province enable a correlation to be made with the Standard Conodont Zonation. The lateral extent of the palynozones in Eastern Europe and the correlation with Western Europe are discussed. The following previously published new combinations are validated: Auroraspora speciosa (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Corbulispora viminea (Nekriata) Obukhovskaya and Nekriata, comb. nov., Cristatisporites imperpetuus (Sennova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Cymbosporites acanthaceus (Kedo) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Grandispora subsuta (Nazarenko) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., and Verrucosisporites evlanensis (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov.

  4. Cape Kennedy Tower Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction, wind speed...

  5. Cape Kennedy Weather Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  6. Cape Peirce field report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1988 Cape Peirce season ran from June 16th to October 14th with volunteers Donna O'Daniel, Gay Sheffield, and, later in the season, Michelle Bourassa stationed...

  7. Development of new bond release criteria for surface coal mines in the eastern and interior coal provinces of the United States. Open file report (final) 18 jul 77-18 jul 78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, W.M.; Fritz, E.L.; Schad, J.A.; Nagle, W.F.

    1978-09-18

    This study involved a review of bonding and bond release practices in the States of the eastern and midwestern coal provinces. Data was collected from regulatory authorities and site visits to document the bonding and release procedures in the States related to achieving successful reclamation. The regulations related to PL95-87 were reviewed. The analysis included suggested modified or new bond release criteria based on a review of applicable bond release inspection techniques, a conceptual graduated bonding system, and incentive procedures for reclamation of surface mine sites to alternative or higher land uses.

  8. 粤东海域口虾蛄遗传多样性%Genetic Diversity Analysis of Mantis Shrimps (Oratosquilla oratoria) from the Eastern Coast of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄映萍; 王莹; 苗素英

    2011-01-01

    As a routine and important polymorphic marker, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (CO I ) gene was used to analyze the genetic diversity for two populations of Oratosquilla oratoria from Shenzhen and Shanwei coast of Guangdong Province. The result revealed that 21 of the 592 bp ( 3.55% ) nucleotides were variable, among which 18 and 3 sites were identified as transition and transversion respectively. The substitution saturation analysis indicated that CO I gene was not satured in O. oratoria and could be used as an effective molecular tool for population genetic studies. Totally, 15 haplotypes were detected. The nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity were 0. 007 55 and 0. 971 respectively. The fixation index (Fsr) was 0.036between two populations, suggesting little differentiation between them. There was no geographic clustering of haplotypes in the UPGAM tree and the network. Genetic distances among haplotypos ranged from 0.047 6 to 0.428 6, with an average value of 0. 214 1. In summary, a high level of genetic diversity and little genetic differentiation are observed in O. oratoria from the eastern coast of Guangdong province.%采用线粒体COI基因序列对粤东汕尾和深圳2个海域口虾蛄(Oratosquilla oratoria)的遗传多样性进行了分析.研究表明,所分析的口虾蛄mtDNA CO I基因(592 by)共检测到21个变异位点,占总位点的3.55%.转换和颠换位点数分别为18和3个,碱基替换的饱和性分析表明,口虾蛄CO I基因碱基替换未达到饱和,CO I基因适合作为分析口虾蛄遗传多样性研究的分子标记.所检测的个体一共有巧个单倍型,单倍型多样性为0.971,核苷酸多样性为0.00755.单倍型之间的遗传距离在0.04760.4286之间,平均遗传距离为0.214 1.两群体间遗传分化系数Fsr为0.036,群体单倍型之间的UPGAM聚类以及NETWORK亲缘关系网状图并未显示明显的地理聚类结果.粤东海域口虾蛄总体遗传多样性水平较高,遗传分化小.

  9. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics and risk factors for death of patients with avian influenza A H7N9 virus infection from Jiangsu Province, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A novel avian influenza A (H7N9 virus has caused great morbidity as well as mortality since its emergence in Eastern China in February 2013. However, the possible risk factors for death are not yet fully known. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Patients with H7N9 virus infection between March 1 and August 14, 2013 in Jiangsu province were enrolled. Data were collected with a standard form. Mean or percentage was used to describe the features, and Fisher's exact test or t-test test was used to compare the differences between fatal and nonfatal cases with H7N9 virus infection. A total of 28 patients with H7N9 virus infection were identified among whom, nine (32.1% died. The median age of fatal cases was significant higher than nonfatal cases (P<0.05. Patients with older age were more strongly associated with increased odds of death (OR = 30.0; 95% CI, 2.85-315.62. Co-morbidity with chronic lung disease and hypertension were risk factors for mortality (OR = 14.40; 95% CI, 1.30-159.52, OR = 6.67; 95% CI, 1.09-40.43, respectively. Moreover, the presence of either bilateral lung inflammation or pulmonary consolidation on chest imaging on admission was related with fatal outcome (OR = 7.00; 95%CI, 1.10-44.61. Finally, dynamic monitoring showed that lymphopenia was more significant in fatal group than in nonfatal group from day 11 to week five (P<0.05. The decrease in oxygenation indexes were observed in most cases and more significantly in fatal cases after week three (P<0.05, and the value of nearly all fatal cases were below 200 mmHg during our evaluation period. CONCLUSIONS: Among cases with H7N9 virus infection, increased age accompanied by co-morbidities was the risk of death. The severity of lung infection at admission, the persistence of lymphocytopenia, and the extended duration of lower oxygenation index all contributed to worsened outcomes of patients with H7N9 virus infection.

  10. Perceptions of malaria and acceptance of rapid diagnostic tests and related treatment practises among community members and health care providers in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, Emma; Asgary, Ramin; Gore-Langton, Georgia; Nahashon, Erupe; Mungai, James; Harrison, Rebecca; Abagira, Abdullahi; Eves, Katie; Grigoryan, Zoya; Soti, David; Juma, Elizabeth; Allan, Richard

    2014-12-17

    Conventional diagnosis of malaria has relied upon either clinical diagnosis or microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears. These methods, if not carried out exactly, easily result in the over- or under-diagnosis of malaria. The reliability and accuracy of malaria RDTs, even in extremely challenging health care settings, have made them a staple in malaria control programmes. Using the setting of a pilot introduction of malaria RDTs in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya, this study aims to identify and understand perceptions regarding malaria diagnosis, with a particular focus on RDTs, and treatment among community members and health care workers (HCWs). The study was conducted in five districts of Garissa County. Focus group discussions (FGD) were performed with community members that were recruited from health facilities (HFs) supported by the MENTOR Initiative. In-depth interviews (IDIs) and FGDs with HCWs were also carried out. Interview transcripts were then coded and analysed for major themes. Two researchers reviewed all codes, first separately and then together, discussed the specific categories, and finally characterized, described, and agreed upon major important themes. Thirty-four FGDs were carried out with a range of two to eight participants (median of four). Of 157 community members, 103 (65.6%) were women. The majority of participants were illiterate and the highest level of education was secondary school. Some 76% of participants were of Somali ethnicity. Whilst community members and HCWs demonstrated knowledge of aspects of malaria transmission, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, gaps and misconceptions were identified. Poor adherence to negative RDT results, unfamiliarity and distrust of RDTs, and an inconsistent RDT supply were the main challenges to become apparent in FGDs and IDIs. Gaps in knowledge or incorrect beliefs exist in Greater Garissa and have the potential to act as barriers to complete and correct malaria case

  11. Community characteristics investigation of Fengshui woods in Eastern Guangdong Province%粤东地区客家风水林群落特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨期和; 陈美凤; 赖万年; 杨和生; 况伟

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The Hakka geomantic forest community characteristics with regional uniqueness in Shizai Fungshi forest were studied and the scientific values of forest reserves were discussed in order to protect forest utilization, recover local vegetation, and develop forest ecology. [Method]After plot setting, the characteristics of stone geomantic forests tree layer, shrub layer, and herb layer in the plant community of Jiaoling County in Northern Guangdong Province were investigated; the species diversity index were also determined. [Result]There were 58 plant species belonging to 35 families and 49 genuses found in Shizai Fungshi forest. Fagaceae, Theaceae, Rubiaceae, Cyperaceae, and Myrtaceae plants were the dominant species in this community since they exhibit clear layer, obvious vertical stratification structure, and clear hierarchy. The plant species together formed subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest community structure. Therefore, the species richness and diversity index of this plant community was relatively high. [Conclusion]This forest community displayed high species richness and diversity; as one of the well-preserved natural forests in eastern Guangdong region, the Shizai Fungshi forest featured distinguished typical regional characteristics.%[目的]研究闽粤赣地区极具地域特色的客家风水林群落特征,为对风水林的保护利用、当地植被的恢复和生态发展提供借鉴.[方法]设置样方,调查粤东蕉岭县北礤镇石寨村风水林内乔木层、灌木层和草本层的植物群落特征,测定其物种多样性指标.[结果]石寨村风水林共有植物58种,隶属35个科49个属,以山茶科、壳斗科、莎草科、桃金娘科、茜草科植物占优势,层次清晰,垂直分层现象明显,南亚热带常绿阔叶林群落结构明显,物种丰富度及多样性指数较高.[结论]粤东蕉岭县北礤镇石寨村风水林具有较高的物种丰富度和群落多样性,是目前粤东区保存较

  12. Using an intervention mapping approach for planning, implementing and assessing a community-led project towards malaria elimination in the Eastern Province of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingabire, Chantal Marie; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Kateera, Fredrick; Rulisa, Alexis; Van Den Borne, Bart; Nieuwold, Ingmar; Muvunyi, Claude; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Van Vugt, Michele; Mutesa, Leon; Alaii, Jane

    2016-12-16

    Active community participation in malaria control is key to achieving malaria pre-elimination in Rwanda. This paper describes development, implementation and evaluation of a community-based malaria elimination project in Ruhuha sector, Bugesera district, Eastern province of Rwanda. Guided by an intervention mapping approach, a needs assessment was conducted using household and entomological surveys and focus group interviews. Data related to behavioural, epidemiological, entomological and economical aspects were collected. Desired behavioural and environmental outcomes were identified concurrently with behavioural and environmental determinants. Theoretical methods and their practical applications were enumerated to guide programme development and implementation. An operational plan including the scope and sequence as well as programme materials was developed. Two project components were subsequently implemented following community trainings: (1) community malaria action teams (CMATs) were initiated in mid-2014 as platforms to deliver malaria preventive messages at village level, and (2) a mosquito larval source control programme using biological substances was deployed for a duration of 6 months, implemented from January to July 2015. Process and outcome evaluation has been conducted for both programme components to inform future scale up. The project highlighted malaria patterns in the area and underpinned behavioural and environmental factors contributing to malaria transmission. Active involvement of the community in collaboration with CMATs contributed to health literacy, particularly increasing ability to make knowledgeable decisions in regards to malaria prevention and control. A follow up survey conducted six months following the establishment of CMATs reported a reduction of presumed malaria cases at the end of 2014. The changes were related to an increase in the acceptance and use of available preventive measures, such as indoor residual spraying and

  13. Machines as the Measure of Women: Colonial Irony in a Cape to Cairo Automobile Journey, 1930

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarsen, Georgine

    2008-01-01

    ... identities at that inter-war moment. In that 1930 journey two South African women of English extraction, Margaret Belcher and Ellen Budgell, drove a second-hand Morris Oxford from their home in Cape Town, along the eastern side...

  14. Carbonate mineralogy and faunal relationship in tropical shallow water marine sediments: Cape Comorin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.; Kidwai, R.M.; Rao, V.P.

    The carbonate mineralogy of Recent sediments from the western and eastern continental shelves around Cape Comorin off the southern tip of India was determined by X-ray diffraction analyses. The results show that in the sediments where benthic...

  15. Pre and Post Abortion Experiences among Young Females in Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Department of Population and Health, University of Cape Coast, Ghana1; Asamankese Senior High School, Eastern Region, .... increase access to comprehensive abortion care ... The guide was pre-tested in a private ... was sought to use a digital tape recorder to record ..... Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(6), 1312-. 1320.

  16. Contributions of Phosphorus from Groundwater to Streams in the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Physiographic Provinces, Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith M.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Ator, Scott W.; Lindsey, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus from natural and human sources is likely to be discharged from groundwater to streams in certain geochemical environments. Water-quality data collected from 1991 through 2007 in paired networks of groundwater and streams in different hydrogeologic and land-use settings of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Physiographic Provinces in the eastern United States were compiled and analyzed to evaluate the sources, fate, and transport of phosphorus. The median concentrations of phosphate in groundwater from the crystalline and siliciclastic bedrock settings (0.017 and 0.020 milligrams per liter, respectively) generally were greater than the median for the carbonate setting (less than 0.01 milligrams per liter). In contrast, the median concentrations of dissolved phosphate in stream base flow from the crystalline and siliciclastic bedrock settings (0.010 and 0.014 milligrams per liter, respectively) were less than the median concentration for base-flow samples from the carbonate setting (0.020 milligrams per liter). Concentrations of phosphorus in many of the stream base-flow and groundwater samples exceeded ecological criteria for streams in the region. Mineral dissolution was identified as the dominant source of phosphorus in the groundwater and stream base flow draining crystalline or siliciclastic bedrock in the study area. Low concentrations of dissolved phosphorus in groundwater from carbonate bedrock result from the precipitation of minerals and (or) from sorption to mineral surfaces along groundwater flow paths. Phosphorus concentrations are commonly elevated in stream base flow in areas underlain by carbonate bedrock, however, presumably derived from in-stream sources or from upland anthropogenic sources and transported along short, shallow groundwater flow paths. Dissolved phosphate concentrations in groundwater were correlated positively with concentrations of silica and sodium, and negatively with alkalinity and concentrations of calcium

  17. Utilisation des données d’imagerie hyperspectrale appliquée à la cartographie de la contamination potentielle par l’amiante dans la province du Northern Cape en Afrique du Sud

    OpenAIRE

    Capar, Laure; Chevrel, Stéphane; Henk, Coetzee

    2016-01-01

    International audience; L’Afrique du Sud, en tant que troisième producteur d’amiante au 20ième siècle, en a produit en grande quantité. La plupart de l’amiante a été produite dans les provinces de Northern et de Limpopo, ou respectivement crocidolite et l’amosite sont présentes. Des quantités moindres ont été produites dans les provinces de Mpumalanga Gauteng et Kwazulu Natal (chrysolite, trémolite). Un levé aéroporté hyperspectrale a été effectué à la demande du Council for Geoscience (Commi...

  18. Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in eggs of coastal birds from the eastern Cape, South Africa. [Spheniscus demersus; Sula capensis; Phalacrocorax capensis; P. carbo; Haematopus moquini; Sterna dougalli; Larus dominicanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Kock, A.C.; Randall, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine insecticide and PCB residues were determined in eggs of jackass penguins Spheniscus demersus, Cape gannets Sula capensis, Cape cormorants Phalacrocorax capensis, white-breasted cormorants P. carbo, African black oystercatchers Haematopus moquini, roseate terns Sterna dougallii, kelp gulls Larus dominicanus, and grey-headed gulls Larus cirrocephalus. These species were selected as representatives of exclusively marine, mixed marine-estuarine-freshwater, intertidal-marine, scavenging-marine-estuarine-intertidal and scavenging-estuarine-freshwater habitats. All the eggs were positive for DDE with residue levels highest in the mixed scavenging species and lowest in the marine species. Similar trends were noted for dieldrin, but the levels were low or absent in most marine species. The eggs of most species exhibited residue levels of PCBs and the trends in terms of feeding habitats were similar to those noted with DDE. Based on a comparison with studies elsewhere, none of the organochlorine pesticide or PCB residue levels appear high enough to cause reproductive impairment or egg shell thinning.

  19. The prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria repens in dogs in the The prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria repens in dogs in the Mazovian Province of Central-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Wiaczesław Demiaszkiewicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of canine dirofilariosis from different districts of the Mazovian Province in central-eastern Poland. 462 dogs aged from 1.5–14 years were examined for dirofilariosis. Blood samples were examined for the presence of microfilariae using the Knott method, as well as the method of Kingston and Morton, after centrifugation in haematocrit microtubes in order to determine the intensity of infection as the number of microfilariae in 60 microliters of blood. The species of microfilariae found were determined after staining on the basis of the morphological characters. Samples were also examined using Canine Heartworm Antigen Test Kit SNAP HTWM (IDEXX, USA that allows the detection of circulating antigens of females of [i]Dirofilaria immitis[/i]. The positive samples were examined using multiplex PCR assay for species confirmation. Microfilariae belonging to the species D. repens were found in the blood samples of dogs originating from the city of Warsaw and from 18 districts of Mazovian Province. The mean prevalence of that species observed in the province was 25.8%. The range of intensity counted with the number of microfilariae found in 60 microliters of blood amounted to between 1 – 150; median intensity 9 microfilariae. The highest prevalence, reaching 52.9% and the highest median intensity of infection reaching 28 microfilariae, was found in Radom district. The lowest prevalence, amounting to 4.2%, was registered in Grójec district; however, the lowest median intensity reaching 6 microfilariae was noted in Żyrardów district. The infected dogs had not been outside of Poland, which means that this is an autochthonous infection. Microfilariae and antigens of [i]D. immitis[/i] were not found in any examined blood samples. Results of the presented study show that autochthonous dirofilariosis caused by nematodes [i]D. repens[/i] commonly occurs in the area of the Mazovian

  20. Emergence of rabies in the Gauteng Province, South Africa: 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude T. Sabeta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, dead-end introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population.

  1. Emergence of rabies in the Gauteng Province, South Africa: 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude T. Sabeta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, dead-end introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population.

  2. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy on Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Multicenter Cross-sectional Survey in Anhui Province, Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: DN patients on MHD in Anhui province exhibited different clinical characteristics compared to non-DN hemodialysis patients. They presented higher percentage in TCC use and cardiovascular complication, lower serum albumin and iPTH levels than those in non-DN patients.

  3. The Cape Mendocino tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Bernard, E. N.

    1992-01-01

    The Cape Mendocino earthquake of April 25, 1992, generated a tsunami recorded by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) sea level gauges in California, Oregon, and Hawaii. The accompanying figure shows the tsunami waveforms acquired at twelve of these stations. the table that follows identifies these stations and gives preliminary estimates of the tsunami travel time from the source region to selected West Coast stations. 

  4. Possible impacts of sea-level rise on the Diep river/Rietvlei system, Cape-Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hughes, P

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the Cape Province's estuaries and tidal inlets have sandy connections to the sea and are often intensively developed for industrial or residential purposes. The possible impacts of sea-level rise are of considerable interest...

  5. Eastern Spruce Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Baker; Joseph O' Brien; R. Mathiasen; Mike Ostry

    2006-01-01

    Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) is a parasitic flowering plant that causes the most serious disease of black spruce (Picea mariana) throughout its range. The parasite occurs in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; in the Lake States of Minnesota,...

  6. The spatial distribution of renewable energy infrastructure in three particular provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombard Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewed interest is being shown in South Africa in the promotion of infrastructure for renewable energy (RE to supplement the country’s current energy- generation capacity and to break loose from its dependency on an unsustainable fossil-fuel-based energy-provision system. The latter system not only has unfavourable consequences for the environment, but is managed by a state-owned institution which since 2008 has been incapable of providing reliable electricity. RE infrastructure - especially for the generation of solar and wind energy - is a relatively new feature in the South African landscape. This paper examines the spatial distribution of the newly commissioned infrastructures for wind and solar energy (operational and under construction and the role they can play in the diversification of the rural economies of parts of the country’s Northern Cape, Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces. First, literature on evolutionary economic geography, path dependence and new path creation is reviewed. Second, the role of a single energy provider - embedded in a monopolistic energy policy -in inhibiting the transition from a mainly fossil-fuel-based energy-provision system to a multi-source (multi-owner provision system is discussed. Third, the reasoning behind the siting of the infrastructures for solar and wind energy in three particular provinces is explained. Fourth, the possible roles these new infrastructures can play in the diversification of the rural economies where they occur are advanced. The paper concludes that solar- and wind-energy projects have the ability to transform the South African energy context and that these projects present some positive socio-economic impacts for rural economies in the three particular provinces. The paper also recommends that future research efforts should be aimed at the evolution of this socio-economic transformation by taking into account the pre-development context of the areas under study.

  7. Properties and CAPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; O'Connell, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The role of properties in the solution of Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) problems is described in terms of current trend, future challenges and important issues. Three distinct roles of properties in CAFE have been identified - a service role, a service plus advice role and a service......, advice plus solve role. The CAFE problems solved under each of these roles are described together with simple illustrative examples. Finally, the paper describes how some of the future problems related to integration of synthesis, design and control might be dealt with efficiently and reliably through co......-operative CAFE and properties methodologies. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Predictions of soil surface and topsoil organic carbon content through the use of laboratory and field spectroscopy in the Albany Thicket Biome of Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nocita, M.; Kooistra, L.; Bachmann, M.; Müller, A.; Powell, M.; Weel, S.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years it has been shown that laboratory and field visible near infrared spectroscopy (VNIRS) allows for the accurate prediction of soil organic carbon (SOC) — more rapidly, less expensively, and at larger scales than conventional soil laboratory methods. VNIRS might find application in the

  9. Terpene constituents of the aerial parts, phenolic content, antibacterial potential, free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels (Myrtaceae) from Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rotimi A Larayetan; Omobola O Okoh; Alexander Sadimenko; Anthony I Okoh

    2017-01-01

    ... and the antibacterial potential of the oils. Methods A portion of 500 g, 250 g and 150 g of the leaves, flowers and stems of this plant respectively were subjected to hydro-distillation process for three hours...

  10. The effect of the Xpert MTB/RIF test on the time to MDR-TB treatment initiation in a rural setting: a cohort study in South Africa's Eastern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruedo, Joshua; O'Mahony, Don; Mabunda, Sikhumbuzo; Wright, Graham; Cawe, Busisiwe

    2017-01-21

    There are significant delays in initiation of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR -TB) treatment. The Xpert MTB/RIF test has been shown to reduce the time to diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB predominantly in urban centres. This study describes the time to treatment of MDR-TB and the effect of Xpert MTB/RIF on time to treatment in a deprived rural area in South Africa. This was a retrospective cohort study analysing the medical records of patients diagnosed with MDR-TB in King Sabata Dalindyebo Sub-District between 2009 and 2014. Numerical data were reported using the Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon sum rank tests and categorical data compared using the two-sample test of proportions. Of the 342 patients with MDR-TB identified, 285 were eligible for analysis, of whom 145 (61.4%) were HIV positive. The median time from sputum collection to MDR-TB diagnosis was 27 days (IQR: 2-45) and differed significantly between diagnostic modalities: Xpert MTB/RIF, 1 day (IQR: 1-4; n = 114: p TB treatment in a deprived rural setting as a result of a reduced time to diagnosis. However, the national target of five days was not achieved. Further research is needed to explore and address programmatic and patient-related challenges contributing to delayed treatment initiation.

  11. Factors that influence the use of the Internet for job-seeking purposes amongst a sample of final-year students in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet R. Chiwara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations are turning to the Internet in search for talent. A constituency often targeted are those students nearing the end of their tenure of study who are making a transition into the working world. Given this, it is important to understand not only those factors that influence the use of the Internet within the Human Resources (HR talent search process, but also how such factors relate to actual intent to apply for jobs.Research purpose: Drawing on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT model, the study investigates factors that influence the adoption of the Internet for purposes of job seeking.Motivation for the study: Calls have been made for research that investigates factors that influence the intention to use the Internet to apply for jobs in developing countries such as South Africa.Research approach, design and method: The study used the quantitative approach (relying on a survey to test the hypotheses into factors that influence the use of Internet for the purpose of job seeking amongst a sample of 346 prospective job seekers in their final year of study at a South African university.Main findings: Through correlation and regression analysis, findings reveal a positive relationship to exist between (1 performance expectancy with intention to use the Internet to apply for jobs, (2 effort expectancy with intention to use the Internet to apply for jobs, (3 individual effort expectancy and performance expectancy and (4 individual trust and the intention to use the Internet for job seeking. However, no relationship was found to exist between facilitating conditions and intention to use the Internet for job seeking.Practical/managerial implications: The findings magnify the role of salient factors in the intention to use the Internet for job-seeking purposes. Efforts from applicants, universities, recruitment agencies and organisations, potentially, have an effect on the intention to use the Internet for job-seeking purposes. Such efforts may enhance the students’ online experience and minimise problems that accompany technology adoption for the purposes of recruitment. Findings from this research may help enhance the online recruitment experience both from the end-user and recruiter perspective.Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the recruitment literature in three ways: Firstly, UTAUT is shown to be a useful framework to explain final-year, job-seeking students’ intention to use the Internet to apply for jobs. Furthermore, the findings illustrate the value of the UTAUT as a model useful in enhancing understanding on intentions. Secondly, the study places focus on the human factor rather than facilitating conditions as important issues regarding intention to use the Internet to apply for a job. Finally, based on these findings, future angles of research that have academic and practitioner implications are proposed.

  12. 33 CFR 80.525 - Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.525 Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear... southeast side of the Inlet. (g) Except as provided elsewhere in this section from Cape Lookout to Cape Fear...

  13. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  14. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing bovine subclinical mastitis in Eastern Hebei Province%冀东地区奶牛隐性乳房炎病原茵的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高桂生; 高光平; 邵新华; 史秋梅; 张艳英; 梁银聚

    2012-01-01

    According to the method of LMT, pH detection and count of the somatic cells, the epidemiology of recessive mastitis, the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria were carried out on 1 021 subclinical bovine from 8 bovine farms and 3 large bovine factories in Eastern Hebei Province. The results showed that the incidence rates of recessive mastitis and isolalion of bacteria were 60.63% (619/1021) and 88.21%(546/619),respectively.82 strains of bacteria were isolated from 546 subclinical mastitis cows and identified as 4 classes and 14 species. The main bacteria included 36 strains of Staphylococcus, 33 strains of Streptococcus, 8 strains of Enterobtwteria and 5 strains of Microbacterium. with the proportion of 43.90% ,40.24% ,9.76% and 6.10% ,respectively.The mare pathogenic bacteria causing bovine subclinical mastitis in Eastern Hebei Province were Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae.%通过LMT法、乳汁pH检验法和体细胞直接计数等方法相结合,对冀东地区3个大型奶牛场、8个奶牛养殖户选取的1021头奶牛进行隐性乳房炎流行病学调查与病菌分离鉴定。结果表明,隐性乳房炎发病率为60.63%(619/1021),乳房炎阳性乳样品中细菌分离率达88.21%(546/619)。从543头隐性乳房炎患牛的阳性乳区乳样中分得细菌共4类14种菌82株,其中葡萄球菌36株,占43.90%;链球菌33株,占40.24%;肠杆菌类8株,占9.76%;棒状杆菌5株。占6.10%。冀东地区奶牛隐性乳房炎主要病原菌为金黄色葡萄球菌和无乳链球菌。

  15. Effect of Soil Enzymes on Soil Microbial Respiration in Secondary Forest in Mountainous Region of Eastern Liaoning Province%辽东山区次生林土壤酶对土壤微生物呼吸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范阿南; 刘峰

    2013-01-01

    Taking soil in three kinds of natural secondary forest (Quercus mongolica ,weed trees & Juglans mand-shurica) as researching objects ,through determination of amylase ,invertase ,dehydrogenase &catalase activity ,the relationship between soil enzyme activities and soil microbial respiration in the mountainous regions of eastern Liaon-ing Province were discussed .Result shows that :soil enzyme activity & soil microbial respiration of Quercus mon-golica ,weed trees & Juglans mandshurica have certain seasonal fluctuations ,but the correlation is not significant . Except biological respiration & catalase activity of Juglans m andshurica has significant relationship ,microbial res-piration & four kinds of activity of Quercus mongolica & weed trees has no significant correlation .The result pro-vides a reference for understanding systematically the soil carbon cycle of plant communities for secondary forest in the mountainous regions of Eastern Liaoning Province .%以蒙古栎(Quercus mongolica)林、杂木林和胡桃楸(Juglans mandshurica)林3种天然次生林土壤为研究对象,通过生长季节内表层土壤(0~30 cm )淀粉酶、蔗糖酶、脱氢酶和过氧化氢酶活性以及土壤微生物呼吸速率的测定,探讨了辽东山区土壤酶活性与土壤微生物呼吸之间的关系。结果表明:辽东山区蒙古栎林、杂木林、胡桃楸林土壤酶活性与土壤微生物呼吸具有一定的季节波动,但相关性不显著。除胡桃楸林微生物呼吸与过氧化氢酶活性之间具有显著关系外,蒙古栎林和杂木林微生物呼吸与4种酶活性之间均无显著相关性。研究结果为进一步系统了解辽东山区次生林植物群落土壤碳循环过程提供了参考。

  16. 基于气候变化的干旱脆弱性评价——以青海东部为例%Vulnerability assessment of drought based on climate change:a case study of eastern Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯光良; 肖景义; 李生梅

    2012-01-01

    基于青海东部农业区22个县区的20个气象、农业、社会经济统计指标,利用层次分析法和等级化等数学分析方法,分别进行了暴露性、敏感性和适应性的评价,再通过分析承险体的内在脆弱性,将气候变化和内在脆弱性进行综合分析,得到了青海东部干旱脆弱性等级。结果表明:在目前全球变暖背景下,干旱脆弱性最高的是民和、化隆,较高的是城中、城北区、湟中、大通等四县区,门源、互助、同仁、同德的干旱脆弱性中等。在此基础上,提出了强化旱灾的风险管理模式、倡导节约型水资源开发利用模式等干旱防范措施。%Based on 20 statistical indices of meteorology,agriculture and socioeconomy in 22 counties and districts in eastern Qinghai Province and analytic hierarcy process(AHP) method and mathematic classification method,the assessment was carried out to exposure,sensitivity and adaptability.Also a comprehension analysis of climatic change with the inherent vulnerability is done through the analysis of the inherent vulnerability of the risk-affected body,and the drought vulnerabilities grade in eastern Qinghai Province was obtained.Results show that under present global warming background,the drought vulnerability of Minhe and Hualong counties is the strongest,Chengzhong and other three counties and districts is stronger,and Menyuan,Huzu,Tongren and Tongde is medium.On this basis,drought preventing countermeasures were proposed,such as enhance drought management,advocate save-type development and usage of water resources,etc.

  17. Influence of Thinning Intensity on Growth Effect of Weed Trees in Eastern Liaoning Province%抚育间伐强度对辽东地区杂木林生长效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱风

    2013-01-01

    By measuring & comparing variations of five major grow th factors (leaf area ,number of trees ,mean diam-eter ,individual volume and accumulation ) for weed trees in Eastern Liaoning Province ,effects of four kinds of thinning intensities on growth effect of weed trees were studied .Result shows that :the leaf area index decrease with the increases of thinning intensity ,and the dead trees decrease due to natural thinning of trees .DBH ,individual vol-ume ,volume growth have great inter-annual differences ;growth rate ,showing variation of size interval ,increase with the increase of thinning intensity ,then decrease to a certain extent ;the growth rate are the largest in the areas within the weak thinning intensity .Comprehensive analysis shows that :weed trees grow well under mild anthropogenic in-terference in Eastern Liaoning Province ;excessive human disturbance is disadvantageous to the management of weed trees .%通过测定和比较辽东地区杂木林叶面积、株数、平均胸径、单株材积和蓄积等生长因子的变化,研究4种间伐强度对杂木林生长效应的影响。结果表明:随间伐强度的增大,叶面积指数降低,因自然稀疏而死亡的林木株数减少;胸径、单株材积、蓄积生长量存在很大的年际差异,生长速度呈现大小间隔变化规律,且随间伐强度的增大而增大,到一定程度后开始降低,皆以弱度间伐区最大。综合分析认为:辽东地区杂木林在轻度人为干扰的条件下生长良好,过多的人为干扰对杂木林经营不利。

  18. Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2008-03-15

    About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Zircon growth and ages of migmatites in the Algoma-type BIF-hosted iron deposits in Qianxi Group from eastern Hebei Province, China: Timing of BIF deposition and anatexis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Xing; Li, Hou-Min; Xu, Ying-Xia; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tong; Zhang, Long-Fei; Yang, Xiu-Qing; Liu, Ming-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Algoma-type BIFs and associated volcanic suites of the Qianxi Group in eastern Hebei Province have undergone high-grade metamorphism and anatexis. The anatectic event is genetically related to high-grade magnetite ores, but the age of the anatectic melting has not been well constrained. We present detailed textural relationship and internal structures of zircon grains and their age data from eight samples of migmatitic rocks representing the different Algoma-type BIF-hosted iron deposits to constrain the formation age of BIF deposition and subsequent anatexis. Six continuous zircon growth stages are distinguished by a series of low-CL and high-CL zones outside from center to edge: inherited magmatic zircon, bright-CL resorption domain, dark-CL recrystallization front, dark-gray-CL diffusion domain, light-gray-CL overgrowth and bright-CL resorption edge. The overgrowths are interpreted as a solid-state diffusion of Zr of primary zircon during interaction with anatectic melt, which resulted in different stages of chemical re-equilibration of primary domains and local re-deposition of newly grown domains on the suitable isostructural substrate of residual magmatic zircon. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of inherited magmatic cores and discrete magmatic grains constrains the peak BIF-deposition age at 2520 Ma, which is different from the peak at 2.75-2.70 Ga for Algoma-type BIFs elsewhere in the world. Zircon U-Pb dating of light-gray-CL rims and newly grown homogeneous grains indicates that the anatectic event lasted from 2511 to 2485 Ma at least, immediately following the BIF deposition. The BIF depositional event is consistent with widespread late Neoarchean magmatism, and the anatectic event is consistent with regional metamorphic events in the eastern part of the North China Craton.

  20. Hydrogeologic terranes and potential yield of water to wells in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in the eastern and southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollyday, E.F.; Hileman, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province is underlain by deformed sedimentary rock of Paleozoic age including dolomite, limestone, shale, and sandstone. Regolith (soil, sediment, and weathered rock) covers the Paleozoic rock throughout most of the province. Local differences in lithology, structure, and weathering can result in four orders of magnitude variation in the water-yielding properties of the geologic units that underlie the area. Selected rock types, however, can account for a substantial part of this variation because of the unique way in which these dense, consolidated sedimentary rock types deform and weather to produce secondary openings.On the basis of relations among rock type, water-yielding openings, and water-yielding properties (as indicated by specific capacity), the regolith and consolidated rock were classified and mapped as five hydrogeologic terranes alluvium, dolomite, limestone, argillaceous carbonate rock, and siliciclastic rock. The hydrogeologic terranes are named after the predominant outcrop lithology within them. The western toe of the Blue Ridge Mountains is classified as a subdivision of the dolomite hydrogeologic terrane that may produce yields of water in excess of 1,000 gallons per minute (gal/min) to public and industrial supply wells. Specific-capacity data for homogeneous data sets, which consist of all wells that have the same characteristics in regard to casing diameter, primary use of the water, and topographic setting, revealed significant differences in water-yielding properties among the five hydrogeologic terranes. According to results of Tukey statistical tests at a probability (alpha level) of 0.05, 8 out of 10 pairs of hydrogeologic terranes (for example, alluvium/limestone) had significantly different median specific-capacity values. The median value for public and industrial supply wells in the western toe is three times greater than the value for comparable wells in the dolomite hydrogeologic terrane

  1. Procesos de piping en el piedemonte distal de la Precordillera Oriental, provincia de San Juan: factores y relieve Piping processes in the eastern piedmont of the Eastern Precordillera, San Juan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Suvires

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available En la región, ubicada al norte del río San Juan, 31°30'S y 68°30'O, parte distal del piedemonte oriental de la Precordillera Oriental, sector La Laja - El Salado, se encontró la presencia de piping en sedimentos y sedimentitas finas rosadas pertenecientes a secuencias neógenas. Se investigan los condicionantes y factores que favorecieron su génesis. Se interpreta, que este proceso es la causa principal de la formación del relieve erosivo con desplomes, hundimientos, caída de rocas en ladera y de la erosión retrocedente existente en las cabeceras y base de los barrancos. Se analizan los distintos factores ambientales: climáticos, litológicos y estructurales de la región. Entre los condicionantes favorables resultan: la presencia de sedimentos y afloramientos de argilitas con muy altos contenidos en sodio, en un clima árido-seco con amplia variación estacional de precipitaciones. Además, la actividad neotectónica presente en ese sitio coadyuva mediante la emergencia de agua subterránea con alta mineralización a contaminar los afloramientos de argilitas. El piping resulta ser entonces, en esta región árida y con actividad neotectónica, un peligro subsuperficial para tener en cuenta en la planificación territorial.Piping process in fine-grained, pink coloured Neogene sediments and sedimentary rocks were studied in the La Laja-El Salado area, northern Río San Juan, in the distal and eastern piedmont of the Eastern Precordillera. Conditions favourable to the genesis of piping were investigated through aerial photo interpretation and fieldwork, and it was concluded that the factors controlling its occurrence are lithology, climate, structure and landscape. The piping in the study area took place mainly in fine clayey materials, with very high values of sodium, and in a dry and arid climatic environment. Neotectonic activity is particularly important for evaluation of the piping processes: some erosional geomorphological features

  2. Geochemistry on mantle-derived volatiles in natural gases from eastern China oil/gas provinces (I)——A novel helium resource——commercial accumulation of mantle-derived helium in the sedimentary crust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永昌; 沈平; 陶明信; 刘文汇

    1997-01-01

    Commercial accumulation of mantle-derived helium in the sedimentary shell is discussed. Generally speaking, a commercial helium pool is formed by accumulated 4He that comes from uranium and thorium via a-decay; therefore, it has a very low He/4He value in the magnitude of 10 . The helium concentration in some gas wells of eastern China oil/gas provinces is about or over 0.05%-0.1%, consequently forming commercial helium wells (pools), such as the Wangjinta Gas Pool in Songliao Basin, Huangqiao Gas Pool in North Jiangsu Basin and some gas wells in Sanshui Basin. Studies have proved that when the 3He/4He value of a helium gas pool is about 3.7×10 -6 -7.2× 10-6, namely mantle-derived helium in its total helium concentration accounts for 33. 5%-65.4%, it is a crust-mantle dual-source or dominantly mantle-derived helium gas pool, which is a novel helium resource and its formation is mainly related to the distribution of megafractures.

  3. SHRIMP U-Pb Dating of Zircons of a Dark Eclogite and a Garnet-bearing Gneissic Granitic Rock from Bixiling, EasternDabie Area, Anhui Province: Isotope Chronological Evidence of Neoproterozoic UHP Metamorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper reports SHRIMP U-Pb zircon data of a dark eclogite and a post-eclogite garnet-bearing gneissic granitic rock from the Bixiling area, Yuexi County, Anhui Province, in the eastern Dabie Mountains. The eclogite, which is metamorphosed basic tuff, contains very scarce zircons in omphacite or garnet, but more zircons in quartz. They usually exhibit a double-layered texture, as shown clearly in cathodoluminescence images. Their inner main parts give a206 Pb/238U age of 757±7Ma, representing the approximate age of the high-pressure (HP)-ultrahighpressure (UHP) metamorphic event duing which the eclogite was formed. The outer peripheral parts of the zircons,which have been modified by late-stage fluids, give an age of 223±3 Ma. The granitic rock contains more zircons of anatectic origin found mostly in feldspar and quartz and usually also showing a similar composite texture. The inner main parts of the anatectic zircons with oscillatory zoning give a 206Pb/238U age of 727±15Ma for the approximate age of the emplacement of the granitic rock, and their outer parts, an age of 219±3 Ma for a similar or even the same fluid event. It is thus suggested that the HP-UHP metamorphism of the Bixiling eclogite facies rocks took place during the Neoproterozoic Jinningian,and the Indosinian age values may only represent a late event in the nature of fluid activity.

  4. Climate and land use changes as origin of the Water Cycle variations and sediment transport in Pesaro Urbino Province, Central and Eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Farina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study shows a significant net precipitation and surficial runoff decrease in the Province of Pesaro-Urbino during the 1950-2010 period, especially affecting mountain areas and the water-surplus winter season. Runoff variation is also related to a significant land use change, due to a progressive natural reafforestation process that has taken place in the mountain area. Candigliano river’s base-flow, fed by carbonate aquifers’ groundwater discharge, was found more stable over time, due to an aquifers’ capacity largely exceeding that of existing surface reservoirs. The latter have been affected by a significant silting process, which is still active, as suggested by specific erosion rates of watersheds, particularly in the Foglia basin. Important implications both on sediment mobility, surface water-supply reliability, minimum flow constraints and effectiveness of volume-recovery projects of reservoirs were preliminarly evaluated. In the perspective of a necessary adaptation process to the climate change, the study suggests a gradual transition from the present prevailing use of surface water, to an integrated management of the carbonate aquifers’ dynamic resources, on a seasonal base, as a sustainable strategy for the next future.

  5. Landscape pattern and diversity of natural secondary forests in the eastern mountainous region, northeast China: A case study of Mao'ershan region in HeUongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShu-juan; SUIYu-zheng; FENGHai-qing; WANGFeng-you; LIYu-wen

    2004-01-01

    Mao'ershan region is a representative natural secondary forested region in the eastern mountainous region, northeast of China. Under the support of ARC/INFO, the landscape pattern and landscape diversity of Mao'erhshan region were sudied by combining the forest type map (1:10 000), which was drawn from the aerial photographs (1999), field investigation and land utilization map (1:10 000). The selected indices included patch number, patch size, patch density index, richness index,dominance index, evenness index and diversity index. The results showed that the landscape dominant forest type in Mao'ershan region was softwood broad-leaved forest. In all landscape types, the average patch area of natural secondary forests was bigger than that of artificial forest. The patch density index of each landscape formed in artificial forest was higher than that of natural secondary forest. The landscape diversity index and landscape evenness index of natural forest were highest, the landscape heterogeneity was also, but the landscape dominance was lower. In natural forest, the control effects of landscape elements on landscape-structure, function and its change were weakened. The artificial forest was on the contrary.

  6. 中国东部地区家庭多维贫困的动态识别-以江苏省和山东省为例%The dynamic identification of multidimensional poverty family in eastern China-taking Jiangsu province and Shandong province as examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周强; 张全红

    2015-01-01

    This paper measures the multidimensional poverty family in eastern China from four dimensions and eleven indexes. Research results show that: firstly, the income poverty of Jiangsu province decreased more remarkable than that of Shandong province, and the absolute variation of poverty in rural is better than that in city both in Jiangsu province and Shandong province; secondly, though the index of cooking fuel and sanitation facilities decreased significantly, they still maintain high rates of poverty in 2011; thirdly, the years of education and health condition have stayed deep poverty and reduced less in a long period of time, which shows that the years of education and health condition are characterized by long-term and persistence in the process of poverty alleviation; fourthly, increased by 37.94% poverty household in Jiangsu province and that of 26.68% in Shandong province have been pulled from abject poverty from 1991 to 2011, and the households’ poverty have reduced from high dimensions to low dimensions; fifthly, there is no significant correlation between the level of income and multidimensional poverty index in household, and the main cause of poverty in household have changed from factor of income into other welfare dimensions.%从四个维度共11项指标测度中国东部地区多维贫困程度,研究发现:1.江苏收入贫困减小幅度比山东显著,两省贫困绝对变化量均表现出农村优于城市;2.做饭燃料和卫生设施指标贫困虽明显下降,但到2011年仍处于高贫困发生率水平;3.受教育和健康状况指标贫困发生率长期处于高位水平,且减贫效果不佳,表现出教育和健康贫困的长期性和持久性;4.1991-2011年,江苏和山东脱贫人口分别增加了37.94%和26.68%,且家户贫困已从高维度贫困降为低维度贫困;5.家户收入水平与多维贫困的相关性并不显著,主要的致贫原因已从收入转化为其他福利维度。

  7. Modeling the geochemical distribution of rare earth elements (REEs using multivariate statistics in the eastern part of Marvast placer, the Yazd province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Hossein Morshedy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, exploration of rare earth element (REE resources is considered as one of the strategic priorities, which has a special position in the advanced and intelligent industries (Castor and Hedrick, 2006. Significant resources of REEs are found in a wide range of geological settings, including primary deposits associated with igneous and hydrothermal processes (e.g. carbonatite, (per alkaline-igneous rocks, iron-oxide breccia complexes, scarns, fluorapatite veins and pegmatites, and secondary deposits concentrated by sedimentary processes and weathering (e.g. heavy-mineral sand deposits, fluviatile sandstones, unconformity-related uranium deposits, and lignites (Jaireth et al., 2014. Recent studies on various parts of Iran led to the identification of promising potential of these elements, including Central Iran, alkaline rocks in the Eslami Peninsula, iron and apatite in the Hormuz Island, Kahnouj titanium deposit, granitoid bodies in Yazd, Azerbaijan, and Mashhad and associated dikes, and finally placers related to the Shemshak formation in Marvast, Kharanagh, and Ardekan indicate high concentration of REE in magmatogenic iron–apatite deposits in Central Iran and placers in Marvast area in Yazd (Ghorbani, 2013. Materials and methods In the present study, the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements is modeled by using multivariate statistical methods in the eastern part of the Marvast placer. Marvast is located 185 km south of the city of Yazd in central Iran between Yazd and Mehriz. This area lies within the southeastern part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (Alipour-Asll et al., 2012. The samples of 53 wells were analyzed for Whole-rock trace-element concentrations (including REE by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS (GSI, 2004. The clustering techniques such as multivariate statistical analysis technique can be employed to find appropriate groups in data sets. One of the main objectives of data clustering

  8. New insights on the Karoo shale gas potential from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Götz, Annette E.; Montenari, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2013 concluded that there could be as much as 390 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin. This would make it the 8th-largest shale gas resource in the world. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. Within the framework of the Karoo Research Initiative (KARIN), two deep boreholes were drilled in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Here we report on new core material from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape) which intersected the Permian black shales of the Ecca Group, the Whitehill Formation being the main target formation for future shale gas production. To determine the original source potential for shale gas we investigated the sedimentary environments in which the potential source rocks formed, addressing the research question of how much sedimentary organic matter the shales contained when they originally formed. Palynofacies indicates marginal marine conditions of a stratified basin setting with low marine phytoplankton percentages (acritarchs, prasinophytes), good AOM preservation, high terrestrial input, and a high spores:bisaccates ratio (kerogen type III). Stratigraphically, a deepening-upward trend is observed. Laterally, the basin configuration seems to be much more complex than previously assumed. Furthermore, palynological data confirms the correlation of marine black shales of the Prince Albert and Whitehill formations in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin with the terrestrial coals of the Vryheid Formation in the north-eastern part of the basin. TOC values (1-6%) classify the Karoo black shales as promising shale gas resources, especially with regard to the high thermal maturity (Ro >3). The recently drilled deep boreholes in the southern and south-western Karoo Basin, the first since the

  9. Contrasting geochemistry of the Cretaceous volcanic suites in Shandong province and its implications for the Mesozoic lower crust delamination in the eastern North China craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wen-Li; Duan, Rui-Chun; Xie, Xian-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Qing; Zhang, Jun-Bo; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Hong-Mei

    2009-12-01

    The Qingshan volcanic sequences occur in the Mengyin and Jiaozhou basins, west and east of the Tan-Lu fault zone, respectively, were formed at 128 ± 2 and 106 - 98 Ma. Lithologically the Mengyin succession comprises unimodal andesite (53 - 65 wt.% SiO 2), whereas the Jiaozhou succession consists of bimodal andesite (56-59 wt.% SiO 2) and rhyolite (69-77 wt.% SiO 2). High-Mg (Mg# >60) and low-Mg (Mg# andesitic suites are recognized in the Mengyin volcanic rocks. They show tholeiitic and calc-alkaline trends, respectively. Though the two suites share common trace element features of LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion, higher incompatible element contents in the high-Mg andesite relative to the low-Mg andesite rule out their genetic connection by magmatic differentiation. Similarly, the Jiaozhou andesites also possess higher incompatible element contents compared to their interbedded rhyolites, suggesting their distinct source rocks. The Qingshan mafic volcanic suites are characterized by radiogenic Sr and unradiogenic Nd isotopic compositions, of which the Mengyin high-Mg andesitic rocks display the lowest ɛ Nd(t) and highest initial Sr ratio. By contrast, the Jiaozhou rhyolites possess a positive correlation between Sr-Nd isotopes and relatively unradiogenic Sr isotopic ratios. The Qingshan mafic rocks exhibit geochemical characteristics distinct from those of mantle peridotite- or pyroxenite-derived melt as well as from Fangcheng basalts, the only basalts documented in the Cretaceous volcanic suites in Shandong province. They are inferred to be crust-derived melts. However, a clear decreasing trend in ACNK with Mg# increasing and the elevated MgO, Cr and Ni contents relative to basalt-derived melts indicate assimilation with mantle peridotite during their pristine magmatic evolution. Such a two-step process can be best explained by the Archean lower crust delamination of the North China craton with a ~35% partial melting followed by a variable extent of

  10. Water, organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus contents in sediment of a large-scale mariculture area in the Zhelin Bay of eastern Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qiaoxiang; LIN Junda; SHANG Xu; LI Jin; HUANG Changjiang

    2008-01-01

    The Zhelin Bay is one of the most important bays for large-scale maricuhure in Guangdong Province,China.Owing to the increas-ing human population and the expanding marieuhure in the last two decades,the ecological environment has greatly changed with frequent harmful algal blooms.A monthly survey of water content,organic matter ( TOM ),and various forms of nitrogen and phosphorous in sediment from July 2002 to July 2003 in the bay was conducted.The results showed that the water content was cor-related significantly with TOM and various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus and can be used as proxy for quick and rough estimate of these factors in the future surveys.TOM was also correlated significantly with various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus,indica-ting that it was one of the key factors affecting the concentrations and distributions of nitrogen and phosphorus in the investigated waters. Average total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TkN) Content was( 1113.1±382.5 )μg/g and average total phosphorus (TP) content was(567.2 ± 223.3)μg/g, and both were much higher than those of similar estuaries in China and elsewhere. Average nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher inside than outside the bay,higher at aquaculture than non-aquacuhure areas,and higher at fish-cage culture than oyster culture areas,suggesting that large-scale mariculture inside the bay played an important role in the eutrophication of the Zhelin Bay.Various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were higher during the warm season (July--September),which was due to the increased decomposition and concentration of organic matter resulted from the fast growth and high mortality of the cultured species.Compared with July 2002,TkN and TP contents were much higher in July 2003,in consonance with the eut~'ophication of the Zhelin Bay.Because exchangeable phosphorus ( Ex-P),iron-bounded phos-phorus (Fe-P) and organic phosphorus (OP) combined accounted for 34.3% of the TP and authigenie phosphorus (Au-P) ac

  11. Bryophyte Communities from Abandoned Mercury Mine in Eastern Guizhou Province%废弃汞矿山苔藓植物群落生态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘莎; 张朝晖

    2011-01-01

    对贵州省铜仁市云场坪镇废弃汞矿山的苔藓植物群落进行了研究,通过野外全面调查和实验室仔细鉴定,发现废弃汞矿山苔藓植物群落的种类组成有13科52属62种(苔类植物2科2属2种,藓类植物11科50属60种).应用双向指示种分析法(TWINSPAN)和除趋势对应分析(DCA)分析其分布格局表明,该区12个样点分为2个类型组,组1为废石、废渣样地,组2为废洞样地,说明废洞与废石、废渣生境差异性较大,忿函、废渣生境较相似;北地扭口藓群落(Barbula fallax Com.)、阔叶小石藓群落(Weisia planifolia Corn.)、尖叶扭口藓群落(Barbula conystricta Com.)、拟丛净口藓群落(Gymnostomum anoectangioides Com.)、硬叶净口藓群落(Gymnostomum subrigidulumCom.)为该矿区废石、废渣上的优势群落,其生物量为55.20 -448.20 g·m-,,饱和吸水量为260.80-3 599.40 g-m-2,说明在矿区这种干旱且保水能力弱的环境区域,苔藓植物群落以其特有的生态功能在矿区生态环境治理中具有十分重要的作用.%The bryophyte communities were investigated in abandoned mercury mine of Yunchangping town,Guizhou province. Based on the extensive investigation and identification of the bryophyte specimens, 62 taxa in 52 genera of 13 families were found (2 species in 2 genera of 2 families are Hepaticae, 60 taxa in 50 genera of 11 families are Musci). Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) were used to analyze their distribution patterns. The results showed that 12 sampling plots could be classified into two groups. Group 1 contained waste rock sampling plots and waste solid sampling plots, group 2 contained abandoned mercury mine caves, which indicated the habitats of abandoned mercury mine caves are different from waste rock and waste solid, the habitats of waste rock and waste solid are similar. The dominant communities are Barbula fallax Com. , Weisia planifolia Com. , Barbula

  12. The late Pliocene Equidae of Langebaanweg, Cape Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Introduction................... 3 The Hipparion skull from Έ'Quarry............ 6 The upper dentition from Έ' Quarry............ 12 The mandibles from Έ' Quarry.............. 19 The lower dentition from Έ' Quarry............ 20 Lower premolars from a site between Έ' and 'C' Quarries...... 26 Metapod

  13. First detection and genotyping of Giardia intestinalis in stool samples collected from children in Ghazni Province, eastern Afghanistan and evaluation of the PCR assay in formalin-fixed specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Anna; Karanis, Panagiotis; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    It is estimated that faecal-orally transmitted diseases are common in Afghanistan, as a consequence of poor hygienic standards of life and widespread contamination of water and food with both human and animal faeces. However, there is little information in the literature concerning infections caused by intestinal parasites in the Afghan population. In this study, we report the occurrence of Giardia intestinalis assemblages (A and B) in formalin-fixed stool samples collected from 245 Afghan schoolchildren living in Ghazni Province in eastern Afghanistan. Detection of the parasite's DNA and genotyping was performed using real-time PCR, specific to the β-giardin gene of G. intestinalis. Positive results were recorded in 52 (21.2%) samples. Genotyping was successful in 39 faecal samples and showed the predominance of assemblage B of G. intestinalis in this population (15 assemblage A and 24 assemblage B). Co-infection with both genotypes A and B was detected in four samples. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of 10% buffered formalin fixative on the detection of G. intestinalis DNA using real-time PCR and nested PCR characterised by different lengths of PCR products (74 and 479 bp, respectively). The human faeces containing the Giardia cysts were tested for 16 weeks. Amplification of G. intestinalis DNA with real-time PCR was possible up to 6 weeks of preservation of stool sample in formalin, compared to only 2 weeks with nested PCR. This suggests that real-time PCR is a more suitable tool in cases where stool samples have to be kept in formalin for longer periods of time.

  14. A Four Dimensional Prospective of The Sedimentary Processes and Their Interactions With Ireland's Deep-water Coral Carbonate Mound Ecosystems: Belgica Carbonate Mound Province, Eastern Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozachenko, M.; Wheeler, A.; Beyer, A.; Blamart, D.; Masson, D.; Olu-Le Roy, K.

    Irish deep-water coral carbonate mound ecosystems form unique biological hotspots at c.600-900m water depths, whose sustainability is poorly understood. New side-scan sonar, multibeam, sub-bottom profiler and underwater video imagery supplemented with sedimentological material have been used to map the seabed sedimentary envi- ronment in the Belgica Carbonate Mounds province in the eastern Porcupine Seabight west of Ireland. These have given new insights on this unique ecosystem and its mobile sedimentary environment. The remote-sensed data integrated within a GIS provides information on sediment pathways and benthic current patterns within the study area. A facies map based on the high-resolution side-scan sonar coverage in conjunction with other geophysical, video and sample data highlights differing styles of sedimen- tary processes. Among these are mobile sand sheets, gravel ridges, barchan-like dunes and sediment wave fields. All these sediment bedforms, seen on underwater imagery, provide evidence for strong northward bottom currents or palaeocurrents, which show a strong interaction with the carbonate mounds, and have therefore influenced mound growth. Detailed analyses of sediment properties have been derived from seabed surface and 26m long contourite core MD99-2327 taken within an area of the side-scan sonar coverage. These were done in order to provided ground truthing of the remote-sensed data and quantify benthic current strength through time and sediment mobility thresh- olds. MD99-2327 provides a high resolution palaeoclimate record showing temporal pattern of variations in the bottom current strength during OIS 4 and 5a . The present study shows that benthic currents and sediment mobility play a major role on the carbonate mounds ecosystem vitality. However, accurate assessments of this influence requires further research to provide accurate data on coral abundance and mound growth rates, and therefore allow a comparison of temporal and spatial

  15. Geochemistry and Nd-Sr Isotopic Signatures of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Rondonian-San Ignacio Province, Eastern Precambrian Shield of Bolivia: Petrogenetic Constraints for a Mesoproterozoic Magmatic Arc Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Matos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pensamiento Granitoid Complex (PGC, located in the northern part of the eastern Precambrian shield of Bolivia, istectonically assigned to the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province (1.55 - 1.30 Ga of the Amazonian Craton that is made up byArchean and Proterozoic provinces. The Proterozoic ones result from accretionary orogens that become successively youngersouthwestwards, such as the Rondonian/San Ignacio (1.37 - 1.32 Ga and the Sunsás orogenies (1.20 - 1.00 Ga. The PGCcrops out mainly on the “Paragua craton” bounded to the south by the Sunsás belt, and composed of granites and subvolcanicterms, and subordinately of syenites, granodiorites, tonalites, trondhjemites and diorites as orogenic representatives of theRondonian/San Ignacio Orogeny, intrusive into the Lomas Maneches (ca. 1.68 Ga and Chiquitania (ca. 1.7 Ga complexes.Thirteen whole rock chemical analyses for major, trace and REE elements were performed for the La Junta, San Martín, Diamantina,Porvernir, San Cristobal, Piso Firme plutons of the PGC. The negative trends of MgO, Al2O3 and CaO contents withincreasing SiO2 suggest that fractional crystallization played an important role in the petrogenesis of the investigated rocks.The data also indicate a mainly peraluminous, sub-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline composition, and fractionated LREE/HREE patterns are consistent with a magmatic arc character for these plutons. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of the La Junta andSan Martín syn- to late-kinematic plutons are 1347 ± 21 Ma and 1373 ± 20 Ma respectively, and the Sm-Nd TDM model agesare between 1.9 to 2.0 Ga, while εNd(1330 values range from +1.8 to -4.3, respectively. In addition, the late- to post-kinematicDiamantina pluton yields SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 1340 ± 20 Ma, and variable Sm-Nd TDM model ages (1.6 to 1.9 Ga andεNd(1330 values (+0.4 to -1.2 that are comparable with previous results found for other coeval plutons. The Porvenir, San Cristobaland Piso Firme plutons show ε

  16. Feeding ecology of major carnivorous fish from four eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-03-29

    Mar 29, 1984 ... Low banks, extensive mud flats. Large salt marshes .... tell the investigator different things about the feeding habits of the same fish. ..... burrows apparently because of osmotic stress (Marais 1982). The mean value of 3,3070 ...

  17. Transport and development in the Eastern Cape: a children's perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available such as fishing, craft making and beer brewing. In addition, aside of the clinic, the two primary schools, a general dealer’s shop, there is little other socio-economic infrastructure. Villagers have to rely on irregular public transport services dispensed by a... in the study area carry a variety of items of varying weights mostly on their heads, for example, heavy items such as beer crates, maize meal, paraffin and groceries for household consumption or for resale at tuck shops to supplement their meager incomes...

  18. Valuing water gains in the Eastern Cape's Working for Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... reason it is crucial that the pricing of this water be an accurate reflection of its relative scarcity. This paper .... This sensitivity would entail estimating .... of groundwater occurrence in the upper formations has yet been reported ...

  19. Quality assurance in the Foundation Phase in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    because it required a different mindset and a new approach to learning from teachers and ... obviously be in co-existence with an external quality assurance system .... project was to enhance the quality of science and language teaching in.

  20. Vulnerability and Poverty Dynamics in Rural Areas of Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    Oct 2, 2011 ... currently poor, but also preventing people from becoming poor in the ... the expansion of a social safety net, greater labour market protection for low-skilled ...... of prevention, protection and promotion which would give them a ...

  1. Historical perspectives of mental health in the Eastern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Note: The terms Bantu, native, kaffir, coloured and European and white are used to present the context in which health policies were .... for Imbecile Children in Grahamstown in 1894. ... opinion that black female patients did not require walks as this would ... Fort Beaufort Asylum compared with other asylums in the colony.

  2. Mapping Soil Erosion in a Quaternary Catchment in Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temp

    2017-04-06

    Apr 6, 2017 ... Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing ... distribution of soil erosion in South Africa are relatively recent (Le Roux and Sumner ..... colours on the other hand, represent non-vegetated areas including water.

  3. Service transformation plans in the Eastern Cape informed by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence-based data on staff development in mental health from low-middle ... mental health needsbased planning, primary healthcare, primary mental healthcare, mental ... It is feasible, with careful attention to planning and implementation of ...

  4. Service transformation plans in the Eastern Cape informed by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    workers, as a mechanism for more efficient and effective care.[3] The ... this school has a 100% vacancy rate for teaching posts in psychiatry.[6]. Training alone .... understand and practical stepwise approach to management of these disorders ...

  5. 1992 Cape Mendocino, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 25, 1992 at 11:06 am local time (April 25 at 18:06 GMT), a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Cape Mendocino area. Two additional earthquakes,...

  6. Some Lexical Aspects of Cape Muslim Afrikaans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afrikaans and the Islamic religious education system at the Cape in this regard. .... Apart from its acoustic nature and orthoepic practice, Cape Muslim Afrikaans has some ...... Most of the lexicons of Afrikaans are more exclusive than inclusive .

  7. 33 CFR 165.530 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  8. 76 FR 22719 - Cape Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Cape Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of... Construction and Operations Plan (COP) for the Cape Wind Energy Project located on the Outer Continental Shelf... at http://www.boemre.gov/offshore/RenewableEnergy/CapeWind.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  9. 76 FR 38302 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... navigable waters of Cape Charles City Harbor centered on position 37 15'46.5'' N/076 01'30'' W (NAD 1983... of materials, performance, design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related... the human environment. This rule is categorically excluded, under figure 2-1, paragraph (34)(g),...

  10. 福建省政和县东部并殖吸虫病疫源地调查%Investigation on epidemic foci of paragonimiasis in eastern part of Zhenghe County,Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林本翔; 魏焕旺; 李友松; 吴世清; 孔凡真; 范治金; 汤保贵; 陈财

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the species and hosts of Paragonimus and its infection rate in eastern part of Zhenghe County,Fujian Province,so as to determine the local foci of Paragonimus. Methods The snails,crabs and stools of wild cats were collected for the examinations of cercariae,metacercariae and eggs of Paragonimus. The geographical and environmental conditions of the areas were also investigated. Results A total of 4 890 Pseudobythinella jianouensis snails and 1 035 Semisul⁃cospira liberlina snails were examined,and the cercariae of Paragonimus were only found in P. jianouensis,with an infection rate of 0.10%(5/4 890). Bottapotamon zhengheensis sp. nov. as the second intermediate host of P. skrjabini,were examined, and the infection rate was 85.29%(29/34)and the average numbers of metacercariae per crab and per gram of crab tissues were 3.85 and 0.62,respectively. Thirty⁃six Sinopotamun fujianensis crabs,as the second intermediate host of P. westermani,were examined,and the infection rate was 38.89%(14/36)and the average numbers of metacercariae per crab and per gram of crab tissues were 6.43 and 0.03,respectively. The eggs of Paragonimus were detected in 1 of 2 muck specimens of wild cats. Conclu⁃sion The data suggest that there is a focus of middle⁃to⁃high level of infection caused by P. westermani and P. skrjabini in the eastern part of Zhenghe County.%目的:对福建省政和县东部并殖吸虫虫种、宿主种类及其感染率进行调查,以确定当地并殖吸虫病疫源地。方法采集政和县当地淡水螺、蟹及野猫粪便,检查螺体内并殖吸虫尾蚴、蟹体内囊蚴和野猫粪便中的虫卵。结果共检查1035只放逸短沟蜷和4890只建瓯拟小豆螺;仅在建瓯拟小豆螺体内发现并殖吸虫尾蚴,其感染率为0.10%(5/4890)。检查政和博特溪蟹34只,其中29只感染斯氏并殖吸虫囊蚴,感染率为85.29%,每只蟹及每克蟹组织平均囊蚴数分别为3.85个和0.62

  11. Actualización en el límite entre sierras Pampeanas occidentales y Precordillera Oriental, en la provincia de San Juan Updating the boundary between the western Pampean ranges and the eastern Precordillera, province of San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal J. Zambrano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el sistema de fallamiento existente en la depresión tectónica de Tulum, ubicada en la parte este y sur de la provincia de San Juan, en el oeste árido de Argentina. El límite entre los dos sistemas morfoestructurales, uno la Precordillera Oriental y el otro el Sistema Pampeano Occidental ha sido establecido en trabajos anteriores, a lo largo del sistema de fallamiento de Tulum, que cruza a la depresión diagonalmente en dirección NNE. No obstante la disponibilidad de nueva información de sondeos eléctricos verticales y de algunas perforaciones para búsqueda de agua subterránea, efectuados al sur y al oeste del cerro Valdivia, permite señalar que hacia el suroeste de este núcleo de basamento metamórfico limitado en ambos flancos por fallas, el límite Sistema Pampeano y Precordillera se aproxima al cordón montañoso de sierra Chica de Zonda, continuando al sur en el cerro Salinas. De allí al SSO existen, en superficie, indicaciones de que el sistema de fallamiento continúa hasta el Montecito, donde el sistema pampeano de fallas queda interrumpido por la gran falla con actividad cuaternaria que sirve de límite oriental a la sierra de Las Peñas. El contacto entre ambos sistemas forma el extremo sur de la Precordillera Oriental en subsuelo. Este conocimiento estructural permite no solo ser aplicado a la prospección de agua sino también a la de hidrocarburos en la región.An analysis is made of the fault system in the Tulum tectonic depression, situated in the southeastern part of the province of San Juan, which is in the arid western part of Argentina. The boundary of two morphostructural systems occurs in this valley: the eastern Andean Precordillera and the western Pampean ranges. In former studies it was found that this boundary runs along a fault system that crosses the Tulum depression with a NNE trends. The availability of new information from electric resistivity tests and wells drilled for ground

  12. 辽东山区天然次生林和落叶松人工林的土壤呼吸%Soil Respiration of Natural Secondary Forest and Larch Plantation in Montane Region of Eastern Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧东; 尤文忠; 邢兆凯; 魏文俊; 赵刚; 颜廷武

    2011-01-01

    CO2 effluxes rate was monitored using an infrared gas exchange analyzer (Licor-8100) from May to October. Simultaneously, soil temperature and moisture were also recorded. The results showed that the diurnal fluctuation of CO2 effluxes appeared a single peak. The relationship between soil respiration rate (y) and the variable of soil temperature (t) and soil moisture (w) at 10 cm soil depth could be described by the following exponential equation:y=0.3614e0.1219x(R2 =0.7020,P<0.05)and y=0.9303e0.0812x (R2=0.8164,P<0.05). The soil respiration released 433.08, 538.46 gC/(m2·a) in the secondary forest and plantation ecosystems, respctively. The annual average natural secondary forest soil C released nearly 20% lower than the larch plantation, it indicated that secondary forests played an important role in carbon sinks in montane region of eastern Liaoning province.%在2008-2009年生长季,利用Licor-8100对辽东山区天然次生林和落叶松人工林的土壤呼吸速率及其主要影响因子进行了测定.结果表明:辽东山区2种森林类型的土壤呼吸速率日变化均呈单峰型曲线;土壤呼吸速率与林地10 cm的土壤温度相关性最好,相关关系分别为y=0.3614e0.1219x(R2=0.702 0,P<0.05)和y=0.9303e0.0812x(R2=0.816 4,P<0.05);与林地土壤湿度的相关性不显著;2种森林类型林地土壤年释放碳量分别为433.08,538.46 gC/(m2·a),天然次生林土壤碳的年释放碳量比人工林低近20%.研究结果说明辽东山区天然次生林在森林的固碳增汇过程中具有更重要的作用.

  13. Needs-based gap analysis for service transformation in the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress and Health (SASH) study rate is almost .... ORT = OR Tambo; UKH = Ukhahlamba; Tower = Tower Hospital; OT = occupational therapist; OTA = OT assistant; SW = social worker; CHW .... Eastern Cape Development Indicators, 2012.

  14. The reading preferences of Grade 11 ESL learners in the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reading preferences of Grade 11 ESL learners in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. ... Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... significant differences in the groups (i.e. school effect, gender effect, language effect, etc.).

  15. Phylogeography of the Cape velvet worm (Onychophora: Peripatopsis capensis) reveals the impact of Pliocene/Pleistocene climatic oscillations on Afromontane forest in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, D E; Daniels, S R

    2012-05-01

    Habitat specialists such as soft-bodied invertebrates characterized by low dispersal capability and sensitivity to dehydration can be employed to examine biome histories. In this study, the Cape velvet worm (Peripatopsis capensis) was used to examine the impacts of climatic oscillations on historical Afromontane forest in the Western Cape, South Africa. Divergence time estimates suggest that the P. capensis species complex diverged during the Pliocene epoch. This period was characterized by dramatic climatic and topographical change. Subsequently, forest expansion and contraction cycles led to diversification within P. capensis. Increased levels of genetic differentiation were observed along a west-to-south-easterly trajectory because the south-eastern parts of the Cape Fold Mountain chain harbour larger, more stable fragments of forest patches, have more pronounced habitat heterogeneity and have historically received higher levels of rainfall. These results suggest the presence of three putative species within P. capensis, which are geographically discreet and genetically distinct.

  16. CAPE TOWN'S TIME-GUNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although a great many articles have been written on the subject of Cape Town's noon gun (the. official terminology is 'time-gun' most of the writers have not had access to the Lion Battery Fort Record Book and the existance of more than one Cape Town time-gun has only recently been recorded. By 1807 a noon gun was fired regularly from the Imhoff Battery on the seaward side of the Castle.1 On 4 August 1902 the noon gun was fired from Lion Battery on Signal Hill for the first time.2 The battery was built because of fears of war with Russia and had been armed with two 9- inch Rifled Muzzle Loading guns by 1891. Lion Battery was remodelled in 1911.

  17. Evaluation of global solar radiation using multiple weather parameters as predictors for South Africa provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeala Adeyemi A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Models for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation were developed for South African provinces. These models, in addition to the traditional sunshine hours used in existing models incorporates ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind speed as variable parameters for predicting global solar radiation, making it different from most of the existing models that use only sunshine hours as variable. Meteorological data obtained for nine locations in South Africa were employed in the model formulation. The accuracy of the models were verified by comparing estimated values with measured values in terms of the following statistical error tests: mean bias error (MBE, mean absolute bias error (MABE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, root mean square error (RMSE, and the regression coefficient (R2.The values of R2 for the formulated models are between the ranges of 90% - 99%. It was also observed that for an accurate estimation of global solar radiation in Eastern Cape Province, all weather elements are needed. This implies that the models give an excellent prediction for global solar radiation for their corresponding locations. Also, different errors calculated for the formulated models are close to zero especially MAPE. The result shows that the formulated models are good enough to be used to predict monthly average daily radiation for South Africa and also, the inclusion of some other elements in some of the models improved the accuracy of the predictions made by the models.

  18. Broad-scale predictors of canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Joseph, R.A.; O'Brien, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as a threatened species throughout the southern extent of its geographic range in the United States. Most research on lynx has been conducted in the western United States and Canada; little is known about the ecology of lynx in eastern North America. To fill critical knowledge gaps about this species, we modeled and mapped lynx occurrence using habitat and weather data from 7 eastern states and 3 Canadian provinces. Annual snowfall, road density, bobcat (L. rufus) harvest, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest were compared at 1,150 lynx locations and 1,288 random locations. Nineteen a priori models were developed using the information-theoretic approach, and logistic regression models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and by our ability to correctly classify reserved data (Kappa). Annual snowfall and deciduous forest predicted lynx presence and absence for a reserved dataset (n = 278) with 94% accuracy. A map of the probability of lynx occurrence throughout the region revealed that 92% of the potential habitat (i.e., >50% probability of occurrence) was concentrated in a relatively contiguous complex encompassing northern Maine, New Brunswick, and the Gaspe?? peninsula of Quebec. Most of the remaining potential habitat (5%) was on northern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Potential habitat in New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York was small (1,252 km2), fragmented, and isolated (>200 km) from known lynx populations. When federally listed as threatened in the contiguous United States in 2000, inadequate regulations on federal lands were cited as the primary threat to Canada lynx. However, the majority of potential lynx habitat in the eastern United States is on private lands and continuous with potential habitat in Canada. Therefore, lynx conservation in eastern North America will need to develop partnerships across national, state, and provincial boundaries as well as with private landowners.

  19. Giresun İlinin Kentsel Rekabet Gücünün DOKA Kapsamında İncelenmesi ve Değerlendirilmesi(Evaluating And Examing Urban Competitiviness Of Giresun Province Within The Scope Of Eastern Black Sea Development Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk İPEK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 35 variables were used under 4 indexes namely “human capital and life quality”, “branding skill and innovation” business skills” and “accessibility” in order to examine and evaluate the competitive power of Giresun province within the scope of Eastern Black Sea Development Agency. These variables were normalized first, and then analyzed with the aid of specified formulas. This analysis process was made for 6 provinces within Eastern Black Sea Development Agency. As a result of analysis, Giresun is in the third place in terms of competitiveness within Eastern Black Sea Development Agency Giresun ilinin kentsel rekabet gücünün DOKA (Doğu Karadeniz Kalkınma Ajansı kapsamında incelenmesi ve değerlendirilmesi için “beşeri sermaye ve yaşam kalitesi”, “markalaşma becerisi ve yenilikçilik”, “ticaret becerisi” ve “erişilebilirlik” olmak üzere dört endeks altında toplam 35 değişken kullanılmıştır. Bu değişkenler önce normalize edilmiş, daha sonra belirtilen formüllerle analiz edilmiştir. Bu işlem DOKA kapsamındaki 6 il için de yapılmıştır. Analiz sonucunda Giresun, DOKA içerisinde üçüncü sırada yer almıştır

  20. Geología y mineralogía de algunas pegmatitas del borde oriental del distrito Punilla, Córdoba Geology and mineralogy of some pegmatites in the eastern border of the Punilla District, Córdoba province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Colombo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó en tres pegmatitas en el borde oriental del batolito de Achala, cerca de Villa Santa Cruz del Lago, provincia de Córdoba. Las rocas encajonantes son monzogranitos porfíricos y equigranulares y enclaves de monzogranito hornblendífero. Las pegmatitas son bien zonadas y pertenecen a la clase elementos raros, tipo complejo, subtipo berilo-columbita, probablemente dentro de la familia híbrida. En todos los cuerpos hay cuarzo, microclino ordenado, plagioclasa y muscovita (ocasionalmente rosada por Mn>Fe. La biotita es un accesorio muy frecuente. El berilo se clasifica como sódico-potásico pobre en álcalis, con Fe en reemplazo de Al. La flúorapatita, con una marcada anomalía de Eu, contiene hasta 2,95 % de Mn y 0,77 % de Fe. La xenotima-( Y forma inclusiones dentro de apatita. El granate (spessartina-almandino es composicionalmente homogéneo. Otros minerales accesorios son fluorita, rutilo, hematita, minerales del grupo de la columbita (generalmente Nb>Ta y Fe>Mn con estructura desordenada, miembros del grupo del pirocloro (ricos en Nb, Pb y U, malaquita, mottramita, zircón (muy pobre en Hf, crisocola, caolinita, interestratificado illita/esmectita, illita, bertrandita, kettnerita, bismutita, clinobisvanita y probablemente gahnita. Inclusiones fluidas en berilo y cuarzo de la pegmatita SD-2 muestran que hubo CO2 en condiciones supercríticas en un estadío de cristalización de la pegmatita. Las soluciones tardías no tienen CO2 y registran una historia de enfriamiento. Las pegmatitas cristalizaron de un fundido peraluminoso rico en Be, con Nb>>Ta, entre 0,4 y 0,8 % P2O5 y casi sin S. El fraccionamiento de Mn y Fe fue moderado.This study has been made on three pegmatites in the eastern border of the Achala Batholith, near Villa Santa Cruz del Lago, Córdoba province. Country rocks are porphyritic and equigranular monzogranites of the Achala batholith and amphibole-bearing monzogranite enclaves. Pegmatites are well

  1. THE DISCOVERY AND STUDY ON THE NATURAL FOCUS OF LYME DISEASE IN EASTERN GUANDONG PROVINCE%粤东莱姆病疫源地的发现与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭衍; 许世锷; 万康林; 张哲夫; 谢霖崇; 陈慎奔; 潘林祥

    2000-01-01

    norvegicus and R. Edwardsi vely respectivey. Consequently, rats and cattle might be considered two important animal hosts of Borrelia burgdorferi.There were 506 ticks examined. Haemaphysalis cornigera taiwana was found to be the prominent species (97.43%) collcted. The infective rate of Borrelia burgdorferiwas 16.00% (8/50) in the gut of Haemaphysalis cornigera taiwana. Borrelia burgdorferiwere recovered from the ticks. Haemaphysalis cornigera taiwan was the main trasmittion vector of Lyme disease in the area. Conclusion In this report we presented evidences showing that the area of eastern part of Guangdong province, including Mei-nan Forestry Centre and fumxi Foresty Centre of Da-pu county. Mu-xi of Ping-yuan County, Mei-zhou city, is a natural focus of Lyme disease in China.

  2. Fluid inclusion study of the Baishan porphyry Mo deposit in the eastern Tianshan ore field, Xinjiang Province%新疆东天山白山钼矿床流体包裹体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项楠; 杨永飞; 吴艳爽; 周可法

    2013-01-01

    The Baishan Mo deposit in the eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang Province, is a large-giant porphyry deposit discovered in the eastern Jueluotag tectonic belt According to paragenesis and crosscutting relationship of the stockworks, ore-forming veinlets in order from early to late are the early quartz-potassic feldspar veinlets, quartz-potassic feldspar-molybdenite veinlets, quartz-molybdenite veinlets, quartz-polymetallic sulfide veinlets and the late stage quartz-carbonate-fluorite veinlets. The hydrothermal quartz in the early quartz-potassic feldspar veinlets mainly contain pure CH4 (PC-type), CH4-H2O (Cl-type) and NaCl-H2O (W-type); these fluid inclusions mainly homogenize at temperatures of 320℃ to 420℃ , and yield salinities of 1. 98% to 8. 79% NaCleqv. The quartz-potassic feldspar-molybdenite veinlets contain daughter mineral-bearing (S-type) and W-type fluid inclusions, with homogenization temperatures ranging from 260℃ to 400℃ and salinities of 1. 49% to 8. 65% NaCleqv. The quartz-molybdenite veinlets and quartz-polymetallic sulfide veinlets contain W-, S- and C2 (CO2-H2O) types of fluid inclusions that are generally homogenized at temperatures of 200℃ to 240℃ and 140℃ to 240℃ , with salinities of 2. 14% to 8. 10% NaCleqv and 0. 33% to 10. 22% NaCleqv, respectively. The late-stage quartz-carbonate-fluorite veinlets only contain the W-type fluid inclusions mainly which homogenize at l00℃ to 160℃ , yielding salinities of 0. 17% to 4. 86% NaCleqv. The estimated pressures range from 105 ~ 221 MPa for the early-stage veinlets to 15 ~ 285MPa for the quartz-polymetallic sulfide veinlets. In a word, the ore-forming fluids evolve from high temperature, carbonic and reducing magmatic to low temperature and low salinity meteoric. The decrease of temperature and the reduction of high-valent molybdenum of HMoO4- result in the precipitation of molybdenite.%白山钼矿位于东天山觉罗塔格成矿带东段,是新疆极具代表性的大型-超大型斑

  3. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2” to...

  4. EASTERN UGANDA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EVALUATION OF SELECTED ELITE POTATO GENOTYPES IN. EASTERN ... Significant

  5. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  6. Liquid immiscibility recorded in melt inclusions within corundum from alkaline basalt, Changle area,Shandong province, Eastern China%中国山东昌乐地区碱性玄武岩刚玉中记录的岩浆不混溶作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘吉强; 倪培; 沈昆; 丁俊英

    2007-01-01

    Abundant melt- and fluid inclusions occur in corundum megacrysts of alkaline basalt from the Changle area, Shandong province, eastern China. One type of melt inclusions, i.e. multiphase melt inclusions ( glass + bubbles + daughter minerals) were identified ,which occur along growth zones of host corundum megacrysts. Microthermometry and laser Raman microprobe analysis were performed on the melt inclusions. The bubbles within the melt inclusions are confirmed to be CO2-rich phase and the daughter minerals are probably silicates, such as augite and okenite. The results of high temperature homogenization experiment strongly suggest that two immiscible melts, i.e. a H2O- and CO2-rich melt and an anhydrous and CO2-poor melt were trapped by melt inclusions in corundum megacryst.

  7. Elemental Geochemistry and Sedimentary Environment of the Liuchapo Siliceous Rocks in Songtao- Cengong- Sandu, Eastern Guizhou Province%黔东留茶坡组硅质岩元素地球化学特征与形成环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恩林; 陈恨水; 陈焕; 吴波; 陈宇; 杨友; 罗建均

    2011-01-01

    The Liuchapo siliceous rocks in Songtao- Cengong- Sandu, eastern Guizhou province, stable with high thickness, were widely deposited during the terminal Sinian to early Cambrian, and were proved to be hydrothermal sedimentary with the evidence of petrology. The major elements analysis of the typical profiles showed that the content of SiO2 ranged from 93.41% to 96. 32% ( mean value being 95.23% ), indicating that it was a pure chemical com- position of siliceous rocks. The TFeO and MnO contents are relatively high, and the contents of A1203, TiOz, and MgO are relatively low, which is similar to those of hydrothermal sediments, indicating that those silieeous rocks were hydrothermal sedimentary. The Ba/Sr and U/Th ratios of siliceous rocks are more than 1, and have low total REE contents (the EREE contents ranging from 9.22 x 10^6 to 24. 04 x 10^6 ), with Ce negative anomaly (0. 44 ~ 0.76), HREE enrichment and other features, showing that the siliceous rocks have geochemical evidence of hydro- thermal sedimentary rocks. The A1/(A1 + Fe + Mn), K20/Na20, CaO/(CaO + Fe) and MgO/A1203 mean ratios were 0. 46, I. 86, 0.33 and 0. 19, respectively, also indicating that those hydrothermal sedimentary siliceous rocks in the study area were subject to a certain degree of terrigenous sediment impact. Comprehensive study showed that the typical profile of siliceous rocks was formed in the transition environment of the ocean basins to the continental margin platform.%黔东晚震旦世一早寒武世留茶坡组硅质岩,具有展布广、层位稳、厚度大等特征,并具有热水沉积的岩石学证据。代表性剖面硅质岩主量元素分析结果显示,w(SiO:)为93.41%一96.32%,均值95.23%,表示其为化学成分纯净的硅质岩;TFeO、MnO相对富集,A12O3、TiO2、MgO含量相对较低,与热水沉积物相似,表明具有热水沉积特征;研究区硅质岩的Ba/Sr和U/Th等比值均大于1

  8. Holocene climate changes in the Cape Hatteras region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, F.; Keigwin, L. D.; Peteet, D. M.; Desprat, S.; Oliveira, D.; Abrantes, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the last century many studies have been done in various naturally occurring archives to understand the nature, timing and causes of Holocene natural climate oscillations. Most of the available Holocene climatic reconstructions are however, not based on a direct comparison of terrestrial, marine and ice records making it difficult to obtain an accurate understanding of the interactions of the atmosphere-ocean-land systems and their relationship in global climate variability. Few studies based on direct sea land comparison have been reported for some key areas of the eastern North Atlantic but almost none in the western North Atlantic. Here we present a direct comparison between terrestrial (pollen) and marine (planktonic δ18O) proxies from a well dated (ten AMS 14C dates on planktonic foraminifera and seaweed) slope core (KNR 178-2 JPC 32), retrieved close to Cape Hatteras (35°58.58'N, 74°42.77'W, 1006 m). This study provides information on eastern North America vegetation and on the northwestern Atlantic sea surface response to both Holocene long-term and rapid climate changes. Five intervals, marked mainly by changes in temperate trees are associated with long term climate shifts (12000-9150 ka; 9150-7250 ka; 7250-5350 ka; 5350-2800 ka; 2800-700 ka). Over these intervals, several abrupt cooling events are noted, as well as several indications of shifts in moisture. The comparison of our data with those available and unpublished records from several key sites of the North Atlantic region, gives insights into the nature, timing and causes of Holocene climate oscillations in the North Atlantic region and in particular off Cape Hatteras.

  9. 房地产投资在地方经济发展中的影响研究——基于东部10个省市的经验分析%Research on the impact of Real Estate Investment on Local Economic Development: Based on the Experienceof the 10 Provinces and Cities in Eastern Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕涛

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the panel data model based on building real estate investment and local economic growth ,using provincial panel data for eastern china during 1996 - 2009, this paper empirially investigates into the impact of real estate investment on local economic development. The study shows real estate investment through its investment effect and the strong industry ripple effect is indeed to promote the economic growth of the eastern region provinces. But the effect of this growth is not significantly weaker than the same period in human capital formation, to promote the effect of physical capital investment and foreign trade development.%在构建房地产投资与地方经济增长的面板数据模型基础上,利用东部地区10个省市1996~2009年的数据,就房地产投资对地方经济增长的影响进行了实证检验。结果显示,房地产投资通过其投资效应和极强的产业波及效应推动了东部地区各省市的经济增长,但是这种增长效应并不显著,弱于同期的人力资本形成、物质资本投资和外贸发展的推动效应。

  10. Characteristics of Ore Quality of Zirconium Ilmenite Deposit in Eastern Coastal Area of Mozambique——Setting 5004 C Mining Area in Zambezia Province as an Example%莫桑比克东部沿海锆钛砂矿矿石质量特征 ——以赞比西亚省5004C矿区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令华; 崔庆岗; 孔德金; 杜小亮

    2015-01-01

    Marginal marine placer is one of the mineral resources with the most largest potentiality in the world. It is only next to oil and gas. The marginal marine placer are rich in eastern coastal areas in Mozambique, and occu-pies an important position in the world. In this paper, combining with zirconium ilmenite deposit in 5004C mining area of Zambezia province in Mozambique, characteristics of ore quality, such as ore structures, ore compositions, contents and changes have been analyzed. It wll provide favorable information for the exploration and development of zirconium ilmenite deposit in eastern coastal areas of Mozambique.%滨海砂矿是目前全球最大的潜在海洋矿产资源之一,仅次于石油与天然气. 莫桑比克东部沿海滨海砂矿资源丰富,在世界上占有重要地位. 该文结合莫桑比克赞比西亚省5004C矿区锆钛砂矿,分析矿石结构与构造、矿石物质组成、矿物含量及变化等矿石质量特征,为莫桑比克东部沿海锆钛砂矿的勘探和开发提供有利信息.

  11. Tecer sobe no ranking da Capes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surpresa ainda maior foi verificar que prosseguimos no rumo da consolidação, crescendo no ranking – chegando a B3 em alguns campos, como pode ser visto no portal de buscas do Qualis Capes http://qualis.capes.gov.br/webqualis/principal.seamhttp://qualis.capes.gov, que apresenta nossa classificação abaixo:   B3 ADMINISTRAÇÃO, CIÊNCIAS CONTÁBEIS E TURISMO B4 CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS APLICADAS I B4 EDUCAÇÃO B4 INTERDISCIPLINAR B5 DIREITO B5 HISTÓRIA C CIÊNCIA DA COMPUTAÇÃO

  12. Tecer sobe no ranking da Capes

    OpenAIRE

    José Aparecido

    2013-01-01

    Surpresa ainda maior foi verificar que prosseguimos no rumo da consolidação, crescendo no ranking – chegando a B3 em alguns campos, como pode ser visto no portal de buscas do Qualis Capes http://qualis.capes.gov.br/webqualis/principal.seamhttp://qualis.capes.gov, que apresenta nossa classificação abaixo:   B3 ADMINISTRAÇÃO, CIÊNCIAS CONTÁBEIS E TURISMO B4 CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS APLICADAS I B4 EDUCAÇÃO B4 INTERDISC...

  13. EAARL Topography-Cape Cod National Seashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Cape Cod National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced elevation...

  14. EAARL Topography-Cape Cod National Seashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Cape Cod National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced elevation...

  15. Kotzebue and Cape Lisburne, 1985: Trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This trip report summarizes the activities, results, and conclusions and recommendations of a visit to the Ann Stevens-Cape Lisburne sub-unit of the Alaska Maritime...

  16. EAARL Topography-Cape Cod National Seashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Cape Cod National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced...

  17. Beak and feather disease viruses circulating in Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Captive and wild psittacines are vulnerable to the highly contagious psittacine beak and feather disease. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), was recently detected in the largest remaining population of endangered Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus), which are endemic to South Africa. Full-length genomes were isolated and sequenced from 26 blood samples collected from wild and captive Cape parrots to determine possible origins of infection. All sequences had characteristic BFDV sequence motifs and were similar in length to those described in the literature. However, BFDV coat protein (CP) sequences from this study did not contain a previously identified bipartite nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within residues 39-56, which indicates that an alternate NLS is involved in shuttling the CP into the nucleus. Sequences from the wild population shared a high degree of similarity, irrespective of year or location, suggesting that the disease outbreak occurred close to the time when the samples were collected. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length genomes showed that the captive Cape parrot sequences cluster with those isolated from captive-bred budgerigars in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Exposure to captive-bred Cape parrots from a breeding facility in KwaZulu-Natal is suggested as a possible source for the virus infection. Phylogenetic analysis of BFDV isolates from wild and captive Cape parrots indicated two separate infection events in different populations, which highlights the potential risk of introducing new strains of the virus into the wild population. The present study represents the first systematic investigation of BFDV virus diversity in the southern-most population of Cape parrots.

  18. The cone snails of Cape Verde: Marine endemism at a terrestrial scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Peters

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cape Verde in the Eastern Atlantic is typical of many island groups in supporting a wealth of endemic species both terrestrial and marine. Marine gastropod molluscs of the genus Conus, commonly known as cone snails, occur in coastal tropical waters throughout the globe, but in Cape Verde their endemism reaches its apogee with 53 out of 56 species occurring nowhere else, the majority of which are restricted to single islands and frequently to single bays. However, Cape Verde is rapidly moving to a tourism-based economy with a projected boom in infrastructure development often coincidental with the shallow-water habitat of many range-restricted Conus. The conservation assessment of Conus to standards of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List of Endangered Species, found that 45.3% of 53 species assessed from Cape Verde are threatened or near-threatened with extinction compared to 7.4% of 579 species in the rest of the world. The only three Conus species globally assessed as Critically Endangered and on the cusp of extinction are all endemic to Cape Verde. Our analysis of Conus species distribution, together with spatial data of coastal protected areas and tourism development zones, identify important areas for future research and new marine protection. Our findings show that endemism with its associated risks for Conus in Cape Verde has worldwide parallels with many non-marine taxa, while our proposed strategy for Conus conservation extends beyond the confines of the country and this taxonomic group.

  19. Quantifying potential water savings from clearing invasive alien Eucalyptus camaldulensis using in situ and high resolution remote sensing data in the Berg River Catchment, Western Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dzikiti, Sebinasi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available , to provide an indication of the impacts of clearing on streamflow under Mediterranean climatic conditions. The study was conducted at two adjacent sites in the Berg River catchment, Western Cape Province in South Africa. One site was densely invaded by E...

  20. Water relations and the effects of clearing invasive Prosopis trees on groundwater in an arid environment in the Northern Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dzikiti, Sebinasi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis trees. The trees were growing on deep sandy soils in the floodplain of an episodic river in the arid Northern Cape Province of South Africa. Data were collected on tree water uptake, evapotranspiration and water table depth over different seasons...

  1. RRS "Charles Darwin" Cruise CD168, 02 Feb - 16 Feb 2005. Submarine landslides around the Cape Verde Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Catastrophic large-scale landslides are a fundamental process in the formation of many oceanic islands. The main aim of cruise CD168 was to carry out a reconnaissance survey of the influence of landsliding on the Cape Verde islands, in the eastern central Atlantic, and to compare this with the known effects of landsliding on the Canary Islands. The data collected during RRS Charles Darwin Cruise, when combined with synthetic aperture radar imagery of the subaerial islands, show clear evidence...

  2. The Problems of Eastern Orthodox Church Buildings of Historical Value – Changing Uses over the Years

    OpenAIRE

    Jarocka-Mikrut Aleksandra; Gleń Piotr

    2016-01-01

    There are many Eastern Orthodox church buildings throughout the Lublin Province. Over the years, these architectural objects have undergone multiple transformations, both in terms of changing religious denominations and rituals and also adaptation to new functions, such as warehousing.

  3. The Cape Times's portrayal of school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the Cape Times's portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC, South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the violence, identifying gangsterism, as well as school administrative and community factors as the reasons for violence in WC schools. It is argued that school violence and gangsterism are inextricably linked to the Cape Flats in particular, and that the interaction of forms of inequality and oppression such as racism, class privilege and gender oppression are structural root causes for school violence in this area of the WC. The study highlights the negative consequences of school violence on teaching and learning and on the economy. It is concluded that even if the Cape Times paints an exaggerated and atypical picture of violence in the gang-riddled parts of the WC, the detrimental effects thereof on the regions cannot be denied. The study therefore recommends a holistic approach to addressing the structural root causes of school violence where it takes place in the WC.

  4. 华东某省实现“十二五”人群增寿目标的可行性分析与工作策略%Feasibility analysis and strategy to achieve the goal of promoting life expectancy in the 12th Five-Year Plan of a province in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱晓辉; 王颖; 刘鹏程; 汪华; 汤善健; 屈卫东; 蒲川; 郝模

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The purpose of this article was to analyze the feasibility of achieving the goal of promoting life expectancy by 1-year in the 12th Five-Year Plan of a province in Eastern China,and put forward some strategies. Methods:Population estimation material from 2011-2015,population data by age group from 1950-2010, disease morbidity,and mortality data by age group from 1950-2010 of a province in Eastern China were collected. Life table and time series analysis were used to analyze the trend of life expectancy from 2010 to 2015 to figure out whether the goal could be achieved. By changing the efforts in controlling and preventing disease,researchers tried to find out the feasible ways to achieve the goals. Results:Under the natural trend,life expectancy of the province will increase by 0.86 year from 2010 to 2015,leaving a gap of 0.14 year to the planning target. The gap can be made up through strengthening the efforts to prevent and control the overall diseases by 0.3%,or heart disease by 8%,or cerebrovascular disease by 6%,or tumors by 6%,or accidental injuries by 4%,respectively. Conclusion:Strengthening the chronic diseases and accidental injuries control and prevention will be the main way to promote the life expectancy in the future.%目的:分析华东某省实现“十二五”期间“期望寿命增加1岁”的可行性,并提出相应的工作策略。方法:收集华东某省2011—2015年人口预测资料、1950—2010年分年龄组的人口、发病和死亡数据资料,利用简略寿命表法、时间序列分析等思路和方法,分析2010—2015年间期望寿命的变化幅度,明确规划目标的实现程度;通过改变防控工作力度,预测实现规划目标的可行途径。结果:自然趋势下,华东某省2010—2015年期望寿命将增加0.86岁,距规划目标还有0.14岁的差距;通过疾病预防控制工作整体加强0.3%、心脏病防控加强8%、脑血管病防控加强6%、肿瘤防控加强6

  5. Sediments of Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts (HOUGH42 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cape Cod Bay, lying on the Massachusetts coast partly enclosed by Cape Cod, is in a glaciated region of low relief. Coarse sediments generally occur in areas exposed...

  6. Subdivisión litofacial e interpretación del volcanismo jurásico (Grupo Bahía Laura en el este del Macizo del Deseado, provincia de Santa Cruz Litofacial subdivision and interpretation of the Jurassic volcanism (Bahía Laura Group in the eastern Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Guido

    2004-12-01

    the province. This article describes a litofacial subdivision of the group, originated as a consequence of mapping activities on the eastern Deseado Massif area. These criteria conduce to a classification into volcanic facies and subfacies from a descriptive and genetic point of view. In that sense, a volcaniclastic facies, comprising the pyroclastic (flow, fall and surge and epiclastic subfacies, and an effusive facies, including the lavic and subvolcanic subfacies, have been determined. This discrimination allowed the interpretation of the processes that acted in the eastern volcanic deposits conformation and favored the utilization of the term "Bahía Laura Complex". The acid Jurassic volcanism of the eastern region can be associated with an explosive-effusive mayor cycle. In the beginning fall deposits were generated, lately huge volumes of ignimbrites, mainly high grade type, were formed, and the final stage was dominated by lavas and reworked volcanic deposits. The main emission centers (the Cerro Torta caldera and various dome complexes, domes, porphyries and dikes of the volcanic materials from the area, were also identified. Their distribution matches to ENE and NNW lineaments, evidencing the importance of the fissural mechanism of eruption, associated with the El Tranquilo system extensional fractures, in the volcanic material extrusion.

  7. Geochemistry of the subduction-related magmatic rocks in the Dahong Mountains, northern Hubei Province--Constraint on the existence and subduction of the eastern Mianlüe oceanic basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yunpeng; ZHANG Guowei; ZHAO Xia; YAO Anping; LIU Xiaoming

    2004-01-01

    The existence and subduction of the eastern Mianlue oceanic basin in the south Qinling belt are keys to understand the Qinling orogen. Based on geological mapping, several volcanic slices have been identified in Tumen, Zhoujiawan, Xiaofu and Yuantan areas, which distribute in the northern margin of the Dahong Mountains (DHM), and thrust into the Sanligang-Sanyang fault. These slices consist mainly of diabases, basaltic-andesitic lavas, pyroclastic rocks and a minor tuff. The geochemistry of the basalts, andesites, and diabases is characterized by depleting in Nb and Ta, enriching in Th and LILE (e.g.K, Rb, Ba), and undifferentiating in HFSE. These geochemical characteristics suggest that the original magma of these rocks was derived from a mantle wedge above a subduction zone, and formed in an island-arc setting in Carboniferous-early Triassic. Comparing with the ophiolites and island-arc volcanic rocks in Mianxian-Lueyang area to the west, it is reasonable to consider that there had been an oceanic basin connecting with the Mianlue ancient ocean to the westward, distributing along the south edge of the Tongbai-Dabie block. In view of the ophiolite in Huashan area and these island-arc volcanic rocks along the north of the Dahong Mountains, it is suggested that there had been a plate tectonic evolutionary history with oceanic basin rifting and subduction in this region.

  8. Assessing the role of ancient and active geothermal systems in oil-reservoir evolution in the eastern Basin and Range province, western USA. Annual progress report, June 1, 1992--May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Results of our research on the oil fields of the Basin and Range province of the western USA continue to support the following concept: Convecting, moderate-temperature geothermal systems in this region have fostered and in some cases critically influenced the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil. At one Basin-Range field (Grant Canyon), oil-bearing and aqueous fluid inclusions in late-stage hydrothermal quartz were entrapped at temperatures comparable to those now prevailing at reservoir depths (120--130{degrees}C); apparent salinities of the aqueous varieties match closely the actual salinity of the modern, dilute oil-field waters. The inclusion-bearing quartz has the oxygen-isotopic signature for precipitation of the mineral at contemporary temperatures from modern reservoir waters. Measured and fluid-inclusion temperatures define near-coincident isothermal profiles through the oil-reservoir interval, a phenomenon suggesting ongoing heat and mass transfer. These findings are consistent with a model whereby a still-active, convectively circulating, meteoric-hydrothermal system: (1) enhanced porosity in the reservoir rock through dissolution of carbonate; (2) hydrothermally sealed reservoir margins; (3) transported oil to the reservoirs from a deep source of unknown size and configuration; and (4) possibly accelerated source-rock maturation through an increase in the local thermal budget. Grant Canyon and other Basin-Range oil fields are similar to the oil-bearing, Carlin-type, sediment-hosted, disseminated gold deposits of the nearby Alligator Ridge district. The oil fields could represent either weakly mineralized analogues of these deposits, or perhaps an incipient phase in their evolution.

  9. 33 CFR 117.823 - Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Fear River. 117.823 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.823 Cape Fear River. The draw of the Cape Fear Memorial Bridge, mile 26.8, at Wilmington need not open for the passage of vessel from 8...

  10. Vegetative morphology and interfire survival strategies in the Cape Fynbos grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Linder

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that there is a wide range of structural variation in the habit of the Arundineae and Ehrharteae of the fynbos of the Cape Floristic Region (Cape Province, South Africa. Structural differences in the bases of the fynbos grasses have been classified into four groups: swollen, knotty tillering, weak and annual. Variation in the position of the innovation buds occurs with one group having basal perennating buds, implying that all the culm material is annual, while the second group has cauline innovation buds, leading to the development of a divaricate perennial herb. The recognition of caducous, mesic (orthophyllous and sclerophyllous leaf blades is also possible, based on leaf morphology and anatomy. These variations in growth forms allow the classification of the Cape grasses into five guilds adapted for survival in the dense fynbos vegetation that develops between the well-spaced fires in these heathlands. The following guilds have been recognized: competition avoiders that grow on rock ledges and outcrops where competition from shrubby vegetation is reduced; reseeders, that survive the protracted interfire period as seed; geophytes, that survive this period as underground organs; coppicers, that survive as small plants; and competitors, that grow tall by means of cauline innovation buds, and so are able to compete with the shrubby heath vegetation.

  11. Vegetative morphology and interfire survival strategies in the Cape Fynbos grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Linder

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that there is a wide range of structural variation in the habit of the Arundineae and Ehrharteae of the fynbos of the Cape Floristic Region (Cape Province, South Africa. Structural differences in the bases of the fynbos grasses have been classified into four groups: swollen, knotty tillering, weak and annual. Variation in the position of the innovation buds occurs with one group having basal perennating buds, implying that all the culm material is annual, while the second group has cauline innovation buds, leading to the development of a divaricate perennial herb. The recognition of caducous, mesic (orthophyllous and sclerophyllous leaf blades is also possible, based on leaf morphology and anatomy. These variations in growth forms allow the classification of the Cape grasses into five guilds adapted for survival in the dense fynbos vegetation that develops between the well-spaced fires in these heathlands. The following guilds have been recognized: competition avoiders that grow on rock ledges and outcrops where competition from shrubby vegetation is reduced; reseeders, that survive the protracted interfire period as seed; geophytes, that survive this period as underground organs; coppicers, that survive as small plants; and competitors, that grow tall by means of cauline innovation buds, and so are able to compete with the shrubby heath vegetation.

  12. El registro arqueológico de las antiguas poblaciones de los valles orientales de la Provincia Arce, Tarija, Bolivia The Archaeological Record Of The Early Populations Of The Eastern Valleys Of Arce Province, Tarija, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ventura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2001 iniciamos un Proyecto binacional de relevamiento del registro arqueológico de las antiguas poblaciones que habitaron los valles orientales del sur tarijeño y el norte salteño durante los últimos mil años. En este trabajo se presentan los datos de la primera parte del proyecto, en la cual hemos prospectado sectores de ocho valles en el Departamento Arce (Tarija detectando 32 sitios arqueológicos de diversas características. Entre los sitios hay un conglomerado con presencia de arquitectura y materiales incaicos y sectores de caminos empedrados. Hay sitios semi-conglomerados de unas 30 estructuras de paredes dobles de piedra y otros con unas pocas estructuras dispersas. Se hallaron entierros humanos en el interior de una cueva, a partir de los cuales se obtuvo una muestra que fue datada. Otras inhumaciones fueron relevadas tanto en aleros como en cementerios con estructuras de piedra en superficie. Se detectaron sitios con arte rupestre, tanto con motivos grabados como con pinturas. Se ubicaron también sitios posiblemente más antiguos. En todos los casos se verificó un alto grado de destrucción de los sitios y se plantea entonces la necesidad urgente de su preservación y estudio.In 2001, a bi-national project was initiated to study the archaeological record of the early populations that inhabited the eastern valleys of Southern Tarija and Northern Salta during the last thousand years. During stage one of the project, sectors of eight valleys in Arce County, Tarija, were explored, resulting in the detection of 32 archaeological sites. The sites include a conglomerate with presence of Inca materials and architecture, and sectors of stone-paved roads. In addition, there are semi-conglomerated sites approximately 30 structures of double-width stonewalls, and other sites a few dispersed structures. Human burials have been found in the interior of a cave, in rock shelters, and in cemeteries with superficial stone structures

  13. Spatial Organization of Production Networks in City-Region Based on Enterprises Relationship: A Case of Apparel Production in Urban Agglomeration of Eastern Guangdong Province%基于企业微观视角的城市区域生产网络空间组织研究——以粤东城镇群服装生产为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海涛; 方创琳

    2011-01-01

    explain cluster network, transportation network, logistics network, and industrial network. Network analysis method, which is widely used in the subject of sociology, is good for researching on the perplex relations between objectives. By this method, it is possible to visualize and quantitatively analyze the spatial structure of urban duction network. This article takes urban agglomeration of the eastern Guangdong as a case study, which is a relative small area but with strong internal socio-economic relationships. For the reason of significant impact of the industry and obvious feature of network organization, this article specifically 'focuses on the study of apparel production industry in the urban agglomeration of eastern Guangdong Province. Based on the first hand data from depth interviews of 115 enterprises in 15 cities (towns), this article builds up the enterprise relational database, visually simulates the spatial structure of apparel production network in internal urban agglomeration with the software of social network analysis, and analyzes the intrinsic links between the spatial structure of urban agglomeration and production networks. The conclusions are as follows. Firstly, among the one-circle and two-zorie spatial structure of the urban agglomeration in eastern Guangdong Province, there are close economic links within the metropolitan area of Shantou, Chaozhou and Jieyang, while few industrial links in two towns zones. Furthermore, the apparel production of Shanwei is isolated from the metropolitan area. Secondly, all level towns play different roles in the apparel production networks of the urban agglomeration in eastern Guangdong. There are two factors to promote the formation of the production networks, one is the urban specialization, the other is the diversifica- tion of the region. Thirdly, in the future, the urban agglomeration in eastern Guangdong should improve the agglomerative economies effect of urban agglomeration by taking steps to

  14. Parasitismo larval de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en el noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina Larval parasitism of Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in north-eastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Liljesthröm

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En la interacción huésped-parasitoide las plantas suelen emitir señales capaces de aumentar la eficiencia de los parasitoides. Las larvas de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham se alimentan endofíticamente de leguminosas herbáceas y constituyen una plaga de la soja (Glycine max Merrill. En este estudio analizamos el parasitismo larval de C. aporema en Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L y G. max, en el noreste de Buenos Aires. La densidad larval fue mayor en L. albus (109,2 larvas/m² que en las restantes leguminosas: 3,7; 6,9 y 11,3 en M. albus, G. officinalis y G. max, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo y número de especies parasitoides fueron menores en L. albus (9,5% por el ectoparasitoide generalista Bracon sp. que en M. albus (32,6%, Bracon sp. y los endoparasitoides Trathala sp.y Bassus sp.; G. officinalis y G. max (26,4% y 50,6% respectivamente, con Trathala sp. y Bracon sp. en ambas. Lupinus albus fue la única especie vegetal que reaccionó a la alimentación de C. aporema con producción de exudados pegajosos y olorosos que podrían haber repelido los endoparasitoides, actuando como un refugio parcial para C. aporema. Además, al ser positivamente seleccionada por C. aporema, esta leguminosa podría utilizarse como franja trampa para su control en cultivos de soja, de manera compatible con tácticas de control biológico por conservación de enemigos naturales.In host-parasitoid interactions, parasitoid efficiency may be increased by different quantity and quality of plant signals. Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham is a pest on soybean, with larvae feeding endophitically on various herbaceous leguminosae. In this study we analyzed larval parasitism of C. aporema on Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L and Glycine max Merrill in the north-east of the Buenos Aires province. Larval density was higher on L. albus (109,2 larvae/m², than on the other

  15. The Cape Observatory: all Categories of Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Ian S.

    2012-09-01

    In this presentation I will give an outline of the various types of heritage related to the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, established in 1820 and now the headquarters campus of the South African Astronomical Observatory, located quite close to downtown Cape Town. In terms of tangible, fixed heritage, the campus itself, the domes and the various other buildings are obviously relevant. This category includes the Classical Revival Main Building of 1828 and the McClean dome of 1895 by the leading colonial architect Herbert Baker as well as many other buildings and even the graves of two directors. Tangible movable items include, in principle, the telescopes, the accessory instruments and many pieces of apparatus that have been preserved. In addition, extensive collections of antique paintings, drawings, furniture and books add to the site's cultural significance. Many of the Observatory's archives are still kept locally. The intangible heritage of the Observatory consists for example of its history, its major discoveries, its interaction with the City, its central role in the history of science in South Africa and its appeal as a living cultural institution. Especially notable were the observations by Henderson (ca 1831) leading to the distance of a Cen and the early sky survey known as the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung.

  16. Landscape geochemistry near mineralized areas of eastern Alaska: Chapter H in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bronwen; Gough, Larry P.; Wanty, Richard B.; Crock, James G.; Lee, Gregory K.; Day, Warren C.; Vohden, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The Pogo lode gold deposit was discovered in eastern Alaska in the early 1990s and provided the opportunity to study elemental distribution and mobility in the natural environment prior to mine development. Studying mineralized systems prior to mining allows us to compare the natural biogeochemical signature in mineralized versus nonmineralized areas. The resultant data and interpretation also provide a baseline for evaluating what, if any, changes in elemental distribution result from development. This report investigates the chemistry of stream water, streambed sediment, and soil in the context of regional bedrock geology. The major-ion chemistry of the waters reflects a rock-dominated aqueous system, and the waters are classified as Ca2+ and Mg2+ - HCO3- to Ca2+ and Mg2+ - SO4-2 waters. Creeks draining the gneissic lithologies tend to be more sulfate dominated than those draining the intrusive units. Sulfate also dominated creeks draining mineralized areas; however, the underlying paragneiss unit could be contributing substantially to the sulfate concentration, and the sulfate concentration in these creeks may reflect a complex baltholith-paragneiss boundary rather than mineralization. Arsenic concentrations in bed sediments were elevated in mineralized areas relative to nonmineralized areas. Elevated concentrations of nickel, chromium, iron, manganese, and cobalt appear to reflect the presence of ultramafic rocks in the drainage. In general, aqueous metal concentrations were below the State of Alaska’s Aquatic Life Criteria and Drinking Water Standards, with the exception of arsenic in stream water, which ranged in concentration from less than 1 to 14 micrograms per liter (μg/L) and exceeded the drinking water standard at one site. The arsenic and antimony concentration in the A, B, and C soil horizons ranged from 3 to 410 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), 6.1 to 440 mg/kg, and 2 to 300 mg/kg, respectively, for arsenic and 0.4 to 24 mg/kg, 0.6 to 25 mg

  17. The Cape element in the Afrotemperate flora: from Cape to Cairo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galley, Chloe; Bytebier, Benny; Bellstedt, Dirk U; Linder, H Peter

    2007-02-22

    The build-up of biodiversity is the result of immigration and in situ speciation. We investigate these two processes for four lineages (Disa, Irideae p.p., the Pentaschistis clade and Restionaceae) that are widespread in the Afrotemperate flora. These four lineages may be representative of the numerous clades which are species rich in the Cape and also occur in the highlands of tropical Africa. It is as yet unclear in which direction the lineages spread. Three hypotheses have been proposed: (i) a tropical origin with a southward migration towards the Cape, (ii) a Cape origin with a northward migration into tropical Africa, and (iii) vicariance. None of these hypotheses has been thoroughly tested. We reconstruct the historical biogeography of the four lineages using likelihood optimization onto molecular phylogenies. We find that tropical taxa are nested within a predominantly Cape clade. There is unidirectional migration from the Cape into the Drakensberg and from there northwards into tropical Africa. The amount of in situ diversification differs between areas and clades. Dating estimates show that the migration into tropical East Africa has occurred in the last 17 Myr, consistent with the Mio-Pliocene formation of the mountains in this area.

  18. 推进东部煤电化基地建设电气专业人才培养模式的改革与研究%Reform of Electric Engineering Teaching Mode Under the Circumstance of Coal-electricity Base Construction in the Eastern Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丽娜

    2013-01-01

      黑龙江省委省政府在谋划长远发展格局时,提出了建设八大经济区和十项重点工程。八大经济区中的一个重要经济区,就是黑龙江东部煤电化基地的建设。黑龙江工业学院是地方特色鲜明的一所高等院校,与市国有矿业、电力企业建立了长期合作关系,为满足东部煤电化基地建设对电气专业人才的需求,对电气专业人才培养模式进行了理论研究与实践探索,以期对电气专业的教学及有所帮助。%Heilongjiang provincial government has formulated a long-term development plan in which the construction of eight economic regions and ten major project included .The coal-electricity base construction in the Eastern Heilongjiang prov-ince is one of the Eight economic Regions Construction .The paper discussed the talent training mode and the reform of electric engineering to meet the market demand ,especially the problem of establishing a long-term cooperation between the state-owned coal mining, the power company and the college to improve the quality of electric engineering teaching.

  19. Wyoming big sagebrush associations of eastern Oregon; vegetation attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides a synopsis of several vegetative characteristics for the Wyoming big sagebrush complex in eastern Oregon covering the High Desert , Snake River, and Owyhee Ecological Provinces in Harney, Lake, and Malheur Counties. The complex has been grouped into six associations defined by t...

  20. Geochemistry and Nd-Sr isotopic signatures of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Rondonian-San Ignacio Province, eastern precambrian shield of Bolivia: petrogenetic constraints for a mesoproterozoic magmatic arc setting;Geoquimica e assinaturas Nd-Sr do Complexo Granitoide Pensamiento, provincia Rondoniana-San Ignacio, pre-cambriano de Bolivia Oriental: caracterizacao petrogenetica de um arco magmatico no mesoproterozoico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Ramiro, E-mail: rmatoss@igc.usp.b [Universidad Mayor de San Andre (UMSA), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of). Inst. de Investigaciones Geologicas y del Medio Ambiente; Teixeira, Wilson; Bettencourt, Jorge Silva, E-mail: wteixeir@usp.b, E-mail: jsbetten@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IGC/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar, E-mail: geraldes@uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FG/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia

    2009-07-01

    The Pensamiento Granitoid Complex (PGC), located in the northern part of the eastern Precambrian shield of Bolivia, is tectonically assigned to the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province (1.55 - 1.30 Ga) of the Amazonian Craton that is made up by Archean and Proterozoic provinces. The Proterozoic ones result from accretionary orogens that become successively younger south westwards, such as the Rondonian/San Ignacio (1.37 - 1.32 Ga) and the Sunsas orogenies (1.20 - 1.00 Ga). The PGC crops out mainly on the 'Paragua craton' bounded to the south by the Sunsas belt, and composed of granites and subvolcanic terms, and subordinately of syenites, granodiorites, tonalites, trondhjemites and diorites as orogenic representatives of the Rondonian/San Ignacio Orogeny, intrusive into the Lomas Maneches (ca. 1.68 Ga) and Chiquitania (ca. 1.7 Ga) complexes. Thirteen whole rock chemical analyses for major, trace and REE elements were performed for the La Junta, San Martin, Diamantina, Porvernir, San Cristobal, Piso Firme plutons of the PGC. The negative trends of MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO contents with increasing SiO{sub 2} suggest that fractional crystallization played an important role in the petrogenesis of the investigated rocks. The data also indicate a mainly peraluminous, sub-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline composition, and fractionated LREE/HREE patterns are consistent with a magmatic arc character for these plutons. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of the La Junta and San Martin syn- to late-kinematic plutons are 1347 {+-} 21 Ma and 1373 {+-} 20 Ma respectively, and the Sm-Nd T{sub DM} model ages are between 1.9 to 2.0 Ga, while {epsilon}{sub Nd(1330)} values range from +1.8 to -4.3, respectively. In addition, the late- to post-kinematic Diamantina pluton yields SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 1340 {+-} 20 Ma, and variable Sm-Nd T{sub DM} model ages (1.6 to 1.9 Ga) and {epsilon}{sub Nd(1330)} values (+0.4 to -1.2) that are comparable with previous results found for other coeval

  1. The Effect of Local Topographic Unevenness on Contourite Paleo-Deposition Around Marine Capes: A Novel "Geostrophic Cascade" in Cape Suvero and Cape Cilento (Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salusti, E.; Chiocci, F. L.; Martorelli, E.; Falcini, F.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the fact that two neighboring headlands in the Italian Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Cape Cilento and Cape Suvero, have rather similar morphology and contouring flows, their contourite drifts were recognized, respectively, upstream the Cape Cilento tip and downstream Cape Suvero tip. Such an intriguing difference is discussed in terms of paleo-sedimentary processes induced by the interaction between large scale marine current turbulence and seafloor morphology around a cape (Martorelli et al., 2010). However Martorelli's et al. model for contourite location - which allows only an upstream contourite location for this kind of capes - fails in trying to explain such a difference. We thus focus on the local effect of a topographic depression, viz. a landslide scar off Cape Suvero, on flows contouring a cape. By applying the classical conservation of marine water potential vorticity we find a steady cyclonic circulation over the scar, that generates a "geostrophic cascade" that affects contourite deposition and stability. All this intuitively reminds the current dynamics around the Galileo's Red Spot in Jupiter's atmosphere. We thus show that the application of the potential vorticity conservation can provide a novel theoretical tool for investigating sedimentary structures and their evolution.

  2. Water Quality Assessment and Pollution Source Identification of the Eastern Poyang Lake Basin Using Multivariate Statistical Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weili Duan; Bin He; Daniel Nover; Guishan Yang; Wen Chen; Huifang Meng; Shan Zou; Chuanming Liu

    2016-01-01

    ...) and component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA), were applied to explore the surface water quality datasets including 14 parameters at 28 sites of the Eastern Poyang Lake Basin, Jiangxi Province of China, from January 2012 to April 2015...

  3. The transport of atmospheric sulfur over Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Samantha L.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.

    2013-11-01

    Cape Town, renowned for its natural beauty, is troubled by an unpleasant brown haze pollution, in which atmospheric sulfur plays a major role. This study investigates whether Cape Town is a net producer or recipient of anthropogenic sulfur pollution. In the study, two atmospheric chemistry-transport models (RegCM and WRF) are used to simulate atmospheric flow and chemistry transport over South Africa for two years (2001 and 2002). Both models reproduce the observed seasonal variability in the atmospheric flow and SO2 concentration over Cape Town. The models simulations agree on the seasonal pattern of SO2 over South Africa but disagree on that of SO4. The simulations show that ambient sulfur in Cape Town may be linked with pollutant emissions from the Mpumalanga Highveld, South Africa's most industrialized region. While part of atmospheric SO2 from the Highveld is transported at 700 hPa level toward the Indian Ocean (confirming previous studies), part is transported at low level from the Highveld toward Cape Town. In April, a band of high concentration SO2 extends between the Highveld and Cape Town, following the south coast. Extreme sulfur pollution events in Cape Town are associated with weak flow convergence or stagnant conditions over the city, both of which encourage the accumulation of pollution. However the study suggests that atmospheric sulfur is being advected from Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town and this may contribute to atmospheric pollution problems in Cape Town.

  4. The Nainital-Cape Survey-IV

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Santosh; Chowdhury, Sowgata; Chakradhari, N K; Joshi, Y C; van Heerden, P; Medupe, T; Kumar, Yerra Bharat; Kuhn, R B

    2016-01-01

    The Nainital-Cape survey is a dedicated ongoing survey programme to search for and study pulsational variability in chemically peculiar (CP) stars to understand their internal structure and evolution. The main aims of this survey are to find new pulsating Ap and Am stars in the northern and southern hemisphere and to perform asteroseismic studies of these new pulsators. The survey is conducted using high-speed photometry. The candidate stars were selected on the basis of having Stromgren photometric indices similar to those of known pulsating CP stars. Over the last decade a total of 337 candidate pulsating CP stars were observed for the Nainital-Cape survey, making it one of the longest ground-based surveys for pulsation in CP stars in terms of time span and sample size. The previous papers of this series presented seven new pulsating variables and 229 null results. In this paper we present the light curves, frequency spectra and the various astrophysical parameters of the 108 additional CP stars observed si...

  5. Infrared Correlation Radiometer for GEO-CAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, D. O.; Boldt, J.; Edwards, D. P.; Yee, J.

    2009-12-01

    We present our plans as part of NASA’s Instrument Incubator Program to characterize the performance of a 2.3 μm infrared correlation radiometer (IRCR) prototype subsystem for an instrument designed specifically to measure carbon monoxide (CO) from geostationary orbit. The Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey mission GEO-CAPE specifies infrared correlation radiometry to measure CO in two spectral regions. CO measurements at 2.3 μm are uniformly sensitive throughout the troposphere, and 4.7 μm measurements are most sensitive to the free troposphere. In combination, the measurements yield information of this Criteria Pollutant near Earth's surface. The success of NASA’s Shuttle-based Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) and Terra/MOPITT infrared gas correlation radiometers for CO measurements at 4.7 μm shifts the technology focus toward improving existing 2.3 μm CO measurement capability. GEO-CAPE uses this robust IRCR measurement technique at GEO, nearly 50 times farther away than the Terra/MOPITT orbit, to determine hourly changes in CO across a continental domain. We have structured the IRCR project around an analytical performance model to enable rapid evaluation of design specifics once the mission is defined. We present the architecture of the performance model, and the design of the simulator hardware and test plan which will populate the performance model.

  6. Composition and origin of PM10 in Cape Verde: Characterization of long-range transport episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, P.; Almeida, S. M.; Cardoso, J.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Nunes, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Alves, C.; Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Artíñano, B.; Pio, C.

    2016-02-01

    in the summer period. However, in the winter period there were probably contributions of soil emissions of evaporate minerals from regions of eastern Algeria. The location of Cape Verde in the Atlantic Ocean at subtropical latitudes, and the absence of relevant local sources of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants, becomes this archipelago, a perfect site to study the impact of external contributions on the background levels of PM10 registered over the north-eastern tropical Atlantic.

  7. Transport of atmospheric NOx and HNO3 over Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, B. J.; Ojumu, A. M.; Jenner, S.; Ojumu, T. V.

    2013-05-01

    Cape Town, the most popular tourist city in Africa, usually experiences air pollution with unpleasant odour in winter. Previous studies have associated the pollution with local emission of pollutants within the city. The present study examines the transport of atmospheric pollutants (NOx and HNO3) over South Africa and shows how the transport of pollutants from the Mpumalanga Highveld may contribute to the pollution in Cape Town. The study analysed observation data (2001-2008) from Cape Town air quality network and simulation data (2001-2004) from regional climate model (RegCM4) over southern Africa. The simulation accounts for the influence of complex topography, atmospheric condition, and atmospheric chemistry on emission and transport of pollutants over southern Africa. Flux budget analysis was used to examine whether Cape Town is a source or sink for NOx and HNO3 during the extreme pollution events. The results show that extreme pollution events over Cape Town are associated with the low-level (surface-850 hPa) transport of NOx from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town, and with a tongue of high concentration of HNO3 that extends from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town along the south coast of South Africa. The prevailing atmospheric conditions during the extreme pollution events feature an upper-level (700 hPa) anticyclonic flow over South Africa and a low-level col over Cape Town. The anticyclonic flow induces a strong subsidence motion, which prevents vertical mixing of the pollutants and caps high concentration of pollutants close to the surface as they are transported from the Mpumalanga Highveld toward Cape Town, while the col accumulates the pollutants over the city. This study shows that Cape Town can be a sink for the NOx and HNO3 during extreme pollution events and suggests that the accumulation of pollutants transported from other areas (e.g. Mpumalanga Highveld) may contribute substantially to the air pollution in Cape Town.

  8. 2008年1月陇东黄土高原阴雪低温异常天气分析%Analysis of an Unusual Snowy and Low Temperature Weather Event Occurred in 2008 in the Eastern Region of Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴爱敏

    2011-01-01

    By using NCEP/NCAR data,this paper analyzed the circulation background and the physical quantity characteristic of the rare snowy and low temperature weather event occurred on January 10 to 31 in 2008 in eastern region of Gansu province.The results indicated that during this weather process,the Siberia ridge was powerful,the trough in the west Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the weak ridge in East China persisted,with the abnormally northerly location of East Asian trough and the strong south branch jet stream in Qinghai-Tibet plateau,the cold air mass was active which controlled the middle of Asia and the North China and Northwest China.The temperature at the level of 700 hPa decreased strongly.The center of 700 hPa relative humidity positive anomaly was located in the eastern of Northwest China,and 500 hPa relative humidity was more than 70%.The 700 hPa wind had obvious shear in the range of 98°-110°E and 35°-40°N.There was transfer and convergence of moisture at the lower level during the period of snow falling,but smaller than that of autumn precipitation.The vorticity was positive from700 to 200 hPa.%2008年1月中下旬位于西北地区东部的陇东黄土高原出现近60 a罕见阴雪低温天气,利用NCEP/NCAR大气环流资料分析了环流背景和物理量特征。结果表明:西伯利亚脊强盛,青藏高原西部低槽和中国东部弱脊维持,东亚大槽偏北,青藏高原南支气流强,控制中亚、中国北方大部和西北地区的冷气团强盛活跃,500 hPa和700 hPa西北地区东部为负距平,700 hPa降温强。700 hPa相对湿度西北地区东部处于正距平中心,500 hPa相对湿度也在70%以上。700 hPa风场在98°~110°E、35°~40°N存在明显的切变,水汽通量和散度分析表明,降雪期间低层存在水汽输送和辐合。主要降雪时段700~500 hPa散度场表现为辐合,200 hPa表现为辐散;700~200 hPa涡度场表现为正涡度区,在降雪过程中有弱的动力抬升作用,降雪强度大。

  9. [Terrestrial gastropods from Misiones Province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoric, Diego Eduardo Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Vogler, Roberto Eugenio; Beltramino, Ariel Aníbal; Rumi, Alejandra

    2013-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest represents one of the global priority eco-regions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, this is represented by the Paranense Forest, which occupies much of the Misiones Province. In this paper, an updated list of land mollusks from Misiones Province is presented, and its species richness was evaluated comparing protected and unprotected areas. For this, we reviewed La Plata Museum Mollusk Collection, updated the literature review, and developed some field work between 2009 and 2010. For the areographic work, a grid (50 x 50 km) was applied to a Misiones province map. In this region, large areas of native vegetation constituting the Paranaense Forest still persist, and include protected areas such as the Iguazú National Park and Puerto Peninsula Provincial Park. These areas have been the most explored at the malacological level (both terrestrial and aquatic environments), a fact that is consistent with the greater number of records found, which may also be the explanation for the highest number of species recorded in the region. A database containing 497 records was compiled. The number of species occurring in this Province was increased from 28 to 56; 11 of which were exotic species. A total of 38 of the species occurred in protected areas and 53 in unprotected areas; and 25 species were micro-mollusks. Orthalicidae was the family with the highest species number (10) and the widest distribution, occupying 16/20 sampling units. Megalobulimus was the genus found in a greater number of sampling units (14/20). The highest values of specific richness of land gastropods were found in Northern Misiones (R=32). This richness was similar to that previously reported for the Tucumán Province, although species occurring in both provinces were mostly different. The richness in Misiones Province border areas, as the Republic of Paraguay and the state of Santa Catarina (Brazil), was about twice that found in the province. The present study showed the

  10. Hydrogeologic framework of western Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Stone, Byron D.; Walter, Donald A.; Savoie, Jennifer G.

    1997-01-01

    The aquifer of western Cape Cod consists of several hydrogeologic units composed of sand, gravel, silt, and clay (fig. 1) that were deposited during the late Wisconsinan glaciation of New England. The aquifer is a shallow, unconfined hydrologic system in which ground-water flows radially outward from the apex of the ground-water mound near the center of the peninsula toward the coast (fig.2). The aquifer is the sole source of water supply for the towns of Bourne, Sandwich, Falmouth, and Mashpee, and the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR).Previous geologic studies summarized the characteristics and relative ages of the glacial moraines and meltwater deposits and the relation of these sediments to the extent of the ice-sheet lobes during the last glaciation of southern New England (Oldale and Barlow, 1986; Hartshorn and others, 1991). Hydrogeologic studies in western Cape Cod characterized the shallow regional ground-water-flow system (LeBlanc and others, 1986) and analyzed simulated responses of the aquifer to changes in hydrologic stresses (Guswa and LeBlanc, 1985; Barlow and Hess, 1993; Masterson and Barlow, 1994; and Masterson and others, 1996). Recent concerns about widespread ground-water contamination, especially from sources on the MMR, have resulted in extensive investigations to characterize the local hydrogeology of the aquifer near the MMR (ABB Environmental Services, 1992). Masterson and others (1996) illustrated the strong influence of geology on ground-water flow and the importance of characterizing the hydrogeology to predict the migration of the contaminant plumes beneath the MMR.This report, a product of a cooperative study between the National Guard Bureau and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), characterizes the regional hydrogeology of the western Cape Cod aquifer on the basis of surficial glacial geology previously described by Mather and others (1940) and Oldale and Barlow (1986), and presents a new analysis of the subsurface hydrogeology

  11. The Cape Town Statement on Geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Peppoloni, Silvia; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The interest of geoscientists in (geo)ethical aspects of geoscience knowledge, education, research and practice is rising and today geoethics has a significant visibility. This prominence is the result of hard work done in the last 4 years by the IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics (http://www.geoethics.org), a not-for-profit, multidisciplinary, scientific network (with more than 1350 members in 107 countries) established for widening the discussion and creating awareness about problems of ethics applied to the geosciences. IAPG has produced a strong conceptual substratum on which to base the future development of geoethics, by clarifying the meaning of the word Geoethics, formalizing its definition, and identifying a framework of reference values on which the geoscience community can base more effective codes of conduct. IAPG members have published numerous books and articles in peer reviewed international journals, and organized scientific sessions to bring geoethics at the most important geoscience conferences. Geoethical issues have been included in the European project ENVRI-Plus, dedicated to the environmental and solid Earth research infrastructures. Moreover, the most prestigious geoscience organizations around the world now recognize geoethics as an important issue that warrants attention. This success was confirmed by the high quality of contents and the large participation of scientists in the 6 technical sessions and single panel session on geoethics organized by IAPG at the 35th IGC - International Geological Congress, held in 2016 in Cape Town (South Africa), with the cooperative work of different geoscience organizations (IUGS-TGGP - Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism; GSL - Geological Society of London; EFG - European Federation of Geologists; EGS - EuroGeoSurveys; AGI - American Geosciences Institute; AGU - American Geophysical Union, and AAWG - African Association of Women in Geosciences). IAPG considers the 35th

  12. Note on Cladonia species (lichenized Ascomycota from Ardahan province (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the knowledge of their distribution patterns in the country. In addition, the typically corticolous/lignicolous species Vulpicida pinastri is mentioned as also growing on primary squamules and podetia of C. pyxidata.

  13. Dengue in Cape Verde: vector control and vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F M

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, for the first time in Cape Verde, an outbreak of dengue was reported and over twenty thousand people were infected. Only a few prophylactic measures were taken. The effects of vector control on disease spreading, such as insecticide (larvicide and adulticide) and mechanical control, as well as an hypothetical vaccine, are estimated through simulations with the Cape Verde data.

  14. The Security and Development Nexus in Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the security and development nexus takes on specific forms depending on the context, and that in Cape Town’s coloured townships it is embodied in policies and practices around what has come to be known as the ‘war on gangs’. Furthermore, the war on gangs in Cape Town...

  15. 33 CFR 117.589 - Cape Cod Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Cod Canal. 117.589 Section 117.589 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.589 Cape Cod Canal. The draw of the Conrail railroad bridge, mile 0.7 at...

  16. Subdwarf B Binaries in the Edinburgh-Cape Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Rueda, L.; Maxted, P.F.L.; Marsh, T.R.; Kilkenny, D.; O'Donoghue, D.

    2006-01-01

    We give an update of the results of a campaign to obtain orbital solutions of subdwarf B stars from the Edinburgh-Cape survey (Stobie et al. 1997). To date we have obtained blue spectra of 40 subdwarf B stars from the Edinburgh-Cape catalogue using the grating spectrograph at the 1.9 m Radcliffe tel

  17. EARLY HISTORY OF AVIATION IN THE EASTERN PROVINCE'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa at Brandfort in the Orange Free State in 1907, his machine was taken overseas for its first flight on ... wreath on behalf of the Royal Flying Corps in honour of ... After repairs, Miller flew to East London ... One of these machines still exists .... Work on this airfield began in ... work also involved the construction of two satel-.

  18. Hydrology of area 32, Eastern Region, Interior Coal Province, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.; Miller, R.L.; Bailey, Z.C.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality information from the coal region in parts of 11 counties in southwestern Indiana are summarized. Pennsylvanian and Mississippian bedrock are overlain by drift and till from the Kansan, Illinoian, and Wisconsinan glaciers that covered two-thirds of the area. Most of the coal is mined from Pennsylvanian coal units. As of 1978, more than 1-billion short tons of coal had been mined from the 11 counties. More than 12-billion short tons remained in reserve. During 1978, 17.8-million short tons were mined. Coal mining disturbs less than 1% of the land in the study area. Sixty-two percent of the land use is agricultural, and 29% is forested. More coal is mined in the southern and western parts of the study area than elsewhere. Surface water in these parts had lower pH and alkalinity than water in the north and east parts. Specific conductance and concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese in surface water were higher in the south and west than elsewhere. (USGS)

  19. Water Institutions and Management in Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Suarez Bosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The water-management model used in Cape Verde for irrigation water is a singular one involving both public and private institutions. The institutional framework adopted since independence (1975 includes influences of both Portuguese colonial occupation and African culture. Water is a common-pool resource, which can take the form of communal, private or state property, or not be subject to any form of ownership. Thus, this case study enables us to compare theories about managing. From a neo-liberal point of view, the common administration of resources of this kind is inefficient, but for one school of the institutional theory, solutions can come “from within”; in other words, from user groups themselves, who can co-operate, once they have defined commitments. Research based on surveys and interviews with private sector administrators leads to the conclusion that user association management is successful, whereas, individual management can lead to squandering.

  20. Phylogeography of Cape Verde Island skinks (Mabuya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R P; Suarez, N M; Smith, A; Pestano, J

    2001-06-01

    The Cape Verde Islands are of volcanic origin with most having appeared between the early Miocene and mid-Pleistocene. They contain six known species of Mabuya skinks. Phylogeographical relationships within and among the relatively widespread taxa M. stangeri, M. spinalis and M. delalandii were inferred, based on approximately 1 kbp of the cytochrome b gene (mitochondrial DNA). Reciprocal monophyly of M. spinalis and M. stangeri was established, which may have arisen from an early Pliocene/late Miocene cladogenetic event. Considerable between-island sequence divergence was detected among M. spinalis, which appears to have colonized the older islands (Sal and Boavista) first. Much lower sequence divergence was found in M. delalandii, indicating a more recent range expansion. Here, evidence points to colonization of the younger islands of Brava and Fogo soon after appearance. There are similarities between some of the described patterns and those seen in lizards from the Canary Islands.

  1. 76 FR 4725 - Apria Healthcare Customer Service Department; Fourteen Locations in Missouri Cameron, Cape...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Missouri Cameron, Cape Girardeau, Columbia, Farmington, Fenton, Joplin, Lee's Summit, Pleasant Valley... Healthcare, Customer Service Department, Thirteen Locations in Missouri: Cameron, Cape Girardeau, Columbia...,676J); Cameron, Cape Girardeau, Columbia, Farmington, Fenton, Joplin, Lee's Summit, Pleasant Valley...

  2. Lidar Bathymetry Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) in XYZ ASCII text file format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  3. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) gridded in ESRI GRID format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  4. Color coded bathmetry map of Cape Canaveral, Florida, derived from boat based sounding data (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  5. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) gridded in ESRI GRID format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  6. Lidar Bathymetry Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) in XYZ ASCII text file format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  7. Color coded bathmetry map of Cape Canaveral, Florida, derived from boat based sounding data (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  8. Plant communities along the Eerste River, Western Cape, South Africa: Community descriptions and implications for restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton S. Meek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Riparian plant communities fulfil many functions, including the provision of corridors linking protected areas and other zones of high conservation value. These habitats across much of South Africa’s Cape Floristic Region, especially in the lowlands, have been heavily impacted and degraded by human activities. There is increasing interest in the restoration of degraded riparian zones and the ecosystem services they provide to enhance the conservation value of landscapes. Previous studies of riparian vegetation in the Cape Floristic Region focused on pristine headwater systems, and little is known about human-impacted communities that make up most of the riparian vegetation in downstream areas. More information is needed on the composition of these plant communities to establish a baseline for management intervention. The riparian zone of the Eerste River in South Africa’s Western Cape province provides a good opportunity to study the features of riparian vegetation along the entire gradient, from pristine vegetation in a protected area through different levels of human-mediated degradation. Riparian vegetation was surveyed in 150 plots along the entire length of the Eerste River (ca. 40 km. Data were analysed using the vegetation classification and analysis software package JUICE. Final groupings were plotted onto a two-dimensional detrended correspondence analysis plane to check the position of the communities in the reduced multidimensional space. Ten distinct plant communities were identified, including several novel communities dominated by alien plant species. Descriptions of each plant community are presented. Diagnostic, constant and dominant species are listed and the major structural and ecological characteristics of each community are described. Conservation implications: Major changes to hydrological and soil properties, nutrient dynamics and disturbance regimes and plant species composition along sections of the riparian zone

  9. Two new species of Erica (Ericaceae; one from Western Cape and one from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Erica L. from South Africa are described. E. jananthus E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M .Oliv. is confined to a single peak in the eastern Groot Swartberg Range in Western Cape and usually forms a small, gnarled, woody, shrublet growing in rock crevices with sticky white flowers and black subexserted anthers that have obtrullate decurrent appendages.E. psittacina E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M.Oliv. is from KwaZulu-Natal. It forms large woodv shrubs with numerous bright pinkflowers and occurs as a single population on a mountain near Creighton. Both descriptions are accompanied by line drawings and distribution maps

  10. Application of geospatial technology for gap analysis in tourism planning for the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H. van der Merwe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on the use of modern spatial computing technology in the development of spatial tourism policy and planning in the context of a bounded resource base. We refer briefly to provincial tourism development policy, expand on the tourism marketing framework and use the express tourist preferences to determine suitability indicators or attraction features for a spatial tourism resource base, paying special attention to the conceptual foundations of attraction and the mapping of tourism potential variables. We applied the methodology to a combination of tourism products in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in an approach that involved applying the spatial multiple criteria evaluation through the weighted linear combination of spatial factor layers as images in a geographical information system. We performed an analysis of the gap between tourism potential and tourism resource provision at a spatial resolution of individual towns spheres of influence, as represented by Thiessen polygons. The outcome in map format demonstrates the applicability of the technique to the Western Cape. The fine-scale spatial result was analysed for its strategic planning implications. Our results are useful for entrepreneurial and regulatory planning and can be replicated in different spatial locations if the appropriate database can be constructed.

  11. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Passing Lane & Anchorage Basin, Big Island, and the Northeast Cape Fear River. Drilling or blasting is expected to occur within the Passing Lane & Anchorage Basin, Big Island, and the Northeast Cape Fear River... Lighted Buoy 27 (LL 30550/39945)). (3) Big Island. The work area includes: Part of Keg Island...

  12. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595.... The regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  13. Detection and clinical features of human rhinovirus in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection in eastern areas of Guangdong province%粤东地区2008-2010年急性呼吸道感染住院儿童中人鼻病毒检出及临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封金花; 林广裕; 陆学东; 林创兴; 陈派镇; 周晓华; 蔡晓莹; 梁庆斌; 马廉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and clinical features of human rhinovirus (HRV) infection in hospitalized children with acute respiratory (ARI) in eastern areas of Guangdong province from 2008 to 2010.Methods From Oct.2008 through Sep.2010,nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected prospectively,from hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection at the Second Hospital,affiliated to the Shantou University Medical College.Multiplex PCR was applied to detect ten kinds of viruses including HRV,RSV in the hospitalized children with respiratory tract infection.Clinical data on HRV-positive cases or RSV-positive cases were collected and analyzed.Results Among all the 1335 specimens,124 were confirmed as HRV-positive cases (9.3%),with IVA-positive rate as the highest (25.1%),followed by RSV-positive rate (15.1%).HRV infection occurred sporadically around the year,with the highest HRV-positive rate seen in spring 2009 and autumn in 2010.Symptoms,signs,chest X-ray,leukocyte count and CRP count did not differ between patients with co-infection or single HRV infection.Clinical symptoms or signs were similar between those with single HRV infection or single RSV infection in children,but the single RSV infected children were more frequently seen with wheeze and cough.28.4% of the single RSV infected children had bronchiolitis while 10.7% of single HRV infected children were seen (x2=0.281,P=0.596).Conclusion HRV was a relatively common cause for acute respiratory infections in the eastern areas of Guangdong province.The highest HRV-positive rate was slightly different in different years.Infants and young children were generally susceptible to rhinovirus infection.Bronchiolitis,wheeze and cough associated with HRV infection happened less than those caused by RSV.%目的 了解2008-2010年粤东地区急性呼吸道感染住院儿童人鼻病毒(HRV)的检出情况、流行规律和感染特点.方法 应用PCR和RT-PCR技术对2008年10

  14. Genotypic characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital, western cape province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Salaam-Dreyer, Z.; Makgotlho, E.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is a paucity of studies on the genotypic characterisation of invasive S. aureus strains and the incidence of communityacquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in South Africa. In this study we characterized S. aureus isolates from bacteraemia episodes using mol

  15. Monitoring of long-term pavement performance sites in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available evaluation of field samples in the overall LTPP programme, essentially to establish a comprehensive database for the experimental sites. The plan to evaluate granular and stabilized base/subbase materials in the laboratory was abandoned in order to channel... assessments; • Field data collection; • Sampling and testing of asphalt layer materials; o Coring at predominantly distress sites of the road; and o Laboratory testing on asphalt cores and extracted binders for modelling purpose. IP140-Anochie Boateng-E...

  16. Bacterial enteritis in ostrich (Struthio Camelus) chicks in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keokilwe, L; Olivier, A; Burger, W P; Joubert, H; Venter, E H; Morar-Leather, D

    2015-06-01

    Ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks less than 3 mo age are observed to experience a high mortality rate that is often associated with enteritis. This study was undertaken to investigate the infectious bacteria implicated in ostrich chick enteritis. Postmortems were performed on 122 ostrich chicks aged from 1 d to 3 mo and intestinal samples were subjected to bacterial culture. Bacterial isolates were typed by PCR and serotyping. Escherichia coli (E. coli; 49%) was the most frequently isolated from the samples followed by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens; 20%), Enterococcus spp. (16%), and Salmonella spp. (7%). Of the E. coli, 39% were categorized as enteropathogenic E. coli, 4% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and no enterohaemorrhagic E. coli were found. The majority (93%) of C. perfringens was Type A and only 7% was Type E. C. perfringens Types B through D were not present. The netB gene that encodes NetB toxin was identified from 16% of the C. perfringens isolated. All the C. perfringens Type E harbored the netB gene and just 10% of the C. perfringens Type A had this gene. Three Salmonella serotypes were identified: Salmonella Muenchen (S. Muenchen; 80%), S. Hayindongo (13%), and S. Othmarschen (7%). The indication is that the cause of enteritis in ostrich chicks is bacterial-involving: enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli; C. perfringens Types A and E (with the possible influence of netB gene); and S. Muenchen, S. Hayindongo, and S. Othmarschen.

  17. Account of the littoral diatoms from Langebaan, Saldanha bay, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available in that some of the individuals seen and measured showed wider striae and a fine line crossing the dorsal striae. These forms are 14 pm long, 8 pm wide (frustule), valve 3.5 pm broad, with slightly wider striae than described. Whether these should... but are otherwise indistinguishable in appearance. Dimensions: 42?52 pm long, 10Mm broad, transapical striae on the dorsal side 11 in 10pm on the ventral side 14 in 10pm, very irregular, with some forked and interpolated striae. Fig. 20. ? 629, 633. Anorthoneis...

  18. Non-metropolitan residential gated developments in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Gated developments are a global phenomenon that has become an ubiquitous feature of the post-apartheid South African urban landscape. Gated developments and the privatisation of urban public space in South Africa has been the subject of academic...

  19. Climate Change Science: The Literacy of Geography Teachers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Raymond; Le Grange, Lesley; Beets, Peter

    2015-01-01

    One of the universal responses to tackling global climate change is teaching climate change concepts at all levels of formal education. This response requires, among other things, teachers who are fully literate about climate change science, so that they can explain the concepts underlying the causes, impacts and solutions of climate change as…

  20. Genotypic characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital, western cape province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Salaam-Dreyer, Z.; Makgotlho, E.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is a paucity of studies on the genotypic characterisation of invasive S. aureus strains and the incidence of communityacquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in South Africa. In this study we characterized S. aureus isolates from bacteraemia episodes using

  1. Further account of the marine littoral diatoms of the Saldanha Bay Lagoon, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available ?8 in 10 jim slightly radiate with double rows of alternating puncta. Raphovalve with narrow linear-lanceolate axial area, central area a wide fascia reaching the margins, trans apical striae parallel in the middle to slightly radiate at the ends, 8... inodice angusta area centralis fascias usque ad margi nem attingens. striae leniter radian tes in media parte valvae circi tar 8 in 10 jim ad apices 9in 10 jim pa Ide punctatae, punctis in lineis duobus tribuspe. Habitat in aquis Inarinis Oceani...

  2. Uranium Provinces in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three uranium provinces are recognized in China, the Southeast China uranium province, the Northeast China-lnner Mongolia uranium province and the Northwest China (Xinjiang) uranium province. The latter two promise good potential for uranium resources and are major exploration target areas in recent years. There are two major types of uranium deposits: the Phanerozoic hydrothermal type (vein type) and the Meso-Cenozoic sandstone type in different proportions in the three uranium provinces. The most important reason or prerequisite for the formation of these uranium provinces is that Precambrian uranium-enriched old basement or its broken parts (median massifs) exists or once existed in these regions, and underwent strong tectonomagmatic activation during Phanerozoic time. Uranium was mobilized from the old basement and migrated upwards to the upper structural level together with the acidic magma originating from anatexis and the primary fluids, which were then mixed with meteoric water and resulted in the formation of Phanerozoic hydrothermal uranium deposits under extensional tectonic environments. Erosion of uraniferous rocks and pre-existing uranium deposits during the Meso-Cenozoic brought about the removal of uranium into young sedimentary basins. When those basins were uplifted and slightly deformed by later tectonic activity, roll-type uranium deposits were formed as a result of redox in permeable sandstone strata.

  3. Tropospheric ozone and its regional transport over Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzotungicimpaye, Claude-Michel; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Steyn, Douw G.

    2014-04-01

    As part of efforts to understand the sources of air pollution in Cape Town, this study investigates the local variation of tropospheric ozone (O3) and identifies possible advection paths of O3 pollution from a remote source to Cape Town. Measurements of O3 and wind from three sites in the Cape Town area were analyzed to study the local variations of O3. At each site, the diurnal variation of O3 is found to be mainly driven by photochemical production while the seasonal variation of O3 is mostly driven by wind conditions. The highest concentration of O3 is observed at the remote site (Cape Point) while lowest O3 concentration is observed at the sub-urban site (Goodwood), where there are chemical sinks of O3 such as NOx. Atmospheric pollution over southern Africa was simulated to study the regional transport of O3. The simulations show that extreme O3 levels in Cape Town can be caused by air pollution transported from the industrial Highveld of South Africa, in the lower troposphere. Such extreme O3 pollution events over Cape Town are simulated to occur in January (14%), March (44%), April (28%) and September (14%). Lagrangian trajectories suggest four paths by which air parcels can be transported from the industrial Highveld to Cape Town: a north-easterly path which is the most frequent route, a tropical deviation route, a deviation along the south coastline and an oceanic deviation path which is the less frequent route. The major advection paths associated with poor air quality in Cape Town are the north-easterly route and the path along the south coastline of the country. Hence the study suggests that emissions in the industrial Highveld may contribute to O3 concentration in the Cape Town area.

  4. Perceptions of nursing students regarding responsible use of social media in the Eastern Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangeni, Thando; Du Rand, Suzette; Van Rooyen, Dalena

    2015-07-24

    Social media have become a popular communication system that has transformed communication from the traditional to the Web-based model. Because social media use has no limitations to place and time, it is now used extensively at clinical facilities. Social media useis becoming a popular activity amongst students at Nursing Education Institutions (NEI) in South Africa. However, lack of accountability and unethical use of social media by nursing students in South Africa has been reported. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the perceptions of nursing students regarding responsible use of social media. A qualitative, descriptive, explorative and contextual research design was used to explore and describe the perceptions of nursing students regarding the responsible use of social media. Twelve nursing students registered for the undergraduate nursing degree were purposely selected and interviewed individually using a semi-structured interview method. The results of this research study demonstrate that nursing students use socialmedia irresponsibly. Nursing students experience blurred boundaries between personal and professional lines and lack accountability when using social media. The extensive use of social media in the clinical environment, by healthcare students, requires a joint effort by Nursing Education Institutions and healthcare facilities to ensure that social media are used in an ethically acceptable manner. The implementation of the recommendations of this research study could positively influence legally and ethically acceptable use of social media at healthcare facilities.

  5. Perceptions of nursing students regarding responsible use of social media in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thando Nyangeni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social media have become a popular communication system that has transformed communication from the traditional to the Web-based model. Because social media use has no limitations to place and time, it is now used extensively at clinical facilities. Social media useis becoming a popular activity amongst students at Nursing Education Institutions (NEI in South Africa. However, lack of accountability and unethical use of social media by nursing students in South Africa has been reported.Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the perceptions of nursing students regarding responsible use of social media.Methods: A qualitative, descriptive, explorative and contextual research design was used to explore and describe the perceptions of nursing students regarding the responsible use of social media. Twelve nursing students registered for the undergraduate nursing degree were purposely selected and interviewed individually using a semi-structured interview method.Results: The results of this research study demonstrate that nursing students use socialmedia irresponsibly. Nursing students experience blurred boundaries between personal and professional lines and lack accountability when using social media.Conclusion: The extensive use of social media in the clinical environment, by healthcare students, requires a joint effort by Nursing Education Institutions and healthcare facilities to ensure that social media are used in an ethically acceptable manner. The implementation of the recommendations of this research study could positively influence legally and ethically acceptable use of social media at healthcare facilities.

  6. Ensuring water supply for all towns and villages in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water requirement reconciliation strategies for all towns and villages in South Africa .... components or changing weather pattern results in water short- ages that could ..... of the Directorate: Reserve Requirements, Department of Water. Affairs ...

  7. Eastern Cape piloting of CSIR research to improve water services reliability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available held in 2008. Franchising provides appropriate training to people active on site, and also offers backup off-site skills, with incentives for finding people with the appropriate skills required. Findings indicate that many opportunities lie...

  8. Attitudes, knowledge and treatment of low back pain amongst nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liezel Cilliers; Soraya Maart

    2013-01-01

    .... Studies have reported that there is a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP) amongst South African nurses, but very little is known regarding the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP in this group. Objectives...

  9. New NRO Eastern Processing Facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida. Environmental Assessment:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-31

    the edges of scrub and in open clearings. Such areas frequently contain herbs such as silky golden aster (Pityopsis graminifolia), October- flower ...centimeter (12-inch), bluish -colored, crestless jay totally lacking the white-tipped wings and tail feathers of the more common and widespread blue jay

  10. Colonel John Graham of Fintry and the Fourth Cape Eastern Frontier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lord Chatham whom he accompanied to Holland in September. ... S.R.O., G.D. 151/5 Graham of Fintry Letters: John Graham to "a particular friend in Dublin", ... H.Lamar and L.Thompson (eds), The Frontier in History, (New Haven, 1981). pp.

  11. a Case study of medicinal plant Conservation in the Eastern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    community development organisation and a traditional health practitioner ... interviews were done with each of the three key staff members engaged in the project ... From the traditional healers' perspective medicinal plants are ... statistical information, assessment, observation and recording processes on the studied entity.

  12. A survey of the coastal vegetation near Port Alfred, eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Lubke

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on the colonization and succession of the sand dunes, dune slacks and rocky outcrops along the coast between the Riet and Kleinemonde Rivers is provided. The main reasons for the paucity of plants on the vast dune system are the movement of sand by wind and the inconsistent rainfall. Zonation of species along a dune transect is not particularly marked although a greater diversity of species is found in the dune slacks where an increased amount of seepage moisture occurs. Reclamation practices in blow-out areas have resulted in a pioneer cover of indigenous plants which should provide dense coastal scrub if the introduced Acacia cyclops is kept under control. Establishment of plants on the rocky promontories has occurred over a very long time and well developed communities and soils have formed. Salt spray and high winds are major controlling factors in the zonation of species along a gradient in this area.

  13. Management of cryptococcal meningitis in adults at Mthatha Hospital Complex, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunso Oladipupo Sogbanmu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cryptoccocal meningitis (CM remains prevalent in HIV-infected individuals across South Africa (SA. Early diagnosis and management, aided by the existing Southern African HIV Clinicians Society (SAHIVSoc 2007 guidelines on management of CM, could reduce the mortality associated with this condition. Objective. To review the management of adult patients with CM and adherence to the SAHIVSoc 2007 guidelines in a district hospital.Methods. A retrospective chart review of patients admitted with CM from December 2011 to May 2012 was performed. The following key recommendations of the guidelines were evaluated: measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF opening pressure at the first lumbar puncture (LP, prescription of amphotericin B (AMB/fluconazole therapy, intravenous prehydration preceding administration of AMB, monitoring of renal function and performance of serial LPs to manage raised intracranial pressure (ICP.Results. A total of 57 patient charts were reviewed, of which 40 (70% were of females. The mean age (range of the cohort was 36 (21 - 60 years. Fifty-two (91% patients presented with headache. Confusion was recorded in 30 (53% and vomiting in 26 (46%. The major signs observed were fever (n=29 (51% and neck stiffness (n=34 (60%. Fifty-five (96% patients were HIV-infected at presentation, with a median (range CD4+ count of 77 (13 - 90 cells/µl. None of the patients had a CSF opening pressure measured at first LP. AMB was used as an induction agent in 51 (89% patients, of whom 47 (92% completed 2 weeks of AMB. Of these 51, only 20 (40% were prehydrated and 10 (18% had two repeat LPs performed 1 week apart. Renal function was monitored in only 27 (53% of the patients receiving AMB. This was done at baseline and twice weekly, and was consistent with the guidelines. No abnormality in renal function was recorded in these cases during the study. The mortality rate was 30% in the first 10 days of admission.Conclusion. This chart review showed inadequate adherence to the recommendations of the 2007 SAHIVSoc guidelines in the majority of cases except for the use of AMB as a first-line antifungal agent. Control of ICP and monitoring for drug toxicity were not done as per guidelines and may impact on clinical care and outcome. Despite this, the early 30% mortality is comparable with published reports from other regions in SA, but is higher than in developed health systems.

  14. a strategy for beef production in natal and eastern cape aw

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    circumstances, the f irst one influencing supply and the latter 2 the price ... so as to minimize the risk factor. Consequently, slow .... self sufficient. Although the per ... Current consumer patterns show that when buying red mead the Bantu in ...

  15. Private sector community forestry partnerships in the Eastern Cape – The Longweni woodlot case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cocks, M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available . The implementation of the woodlot was initiated with top-down approach and community members and leaders were seldom consulted during the planning, implementation and maintenance stages. This resulted in a poor understanding and an apathetic attitude by tribal... of Longweni woodlot. • Headmen of Kwazulu, Sidozingana and eKusitheleni villages. • Chief Mpondombini of Kantolo area. • Community members: a women’s group (four) and a men’s group (four). • Two private entrepreneurs. • Graham Harrison: Deputy Director...

  16. Private sector community forestry partnerships in the Eastern Cape – Umzimkulu case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sisitka, L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available employed by the Projects - members of each community Trust are employed, supposedly on a three-monthly rotational basis, to carry out the work in the forest. They are all paid R21.00/day. 3. Methods used All discussions were held in the form of informal... and 4 men present at the third meeting. All members have to right to participate in all full Trust meetings, they can nominate and elect their trustees, and they can work for the project for 3 months on a rotational basis. At AGMs and other full...

  17. Private sector community forestry partnerships in the Eastern Cape – The Manubi woodlot case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cocks, M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available situational analysis of Manubi forest to assess the potential for joint management. A major focus of the research was to identify the main role players, and assess use of and attitudes towards the forests and the relationships between the various role players...

  18. The subtidal gully fish community of the eastern Cape and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-02-25

    Feb 25, 1988 ... composition of the subtidal ichthyofauna and evaluate the importance ... and the bottoms were usually covered with sandy sediment and boulders. The sides ..... species richness lower in the shore line (Newell 1979;. Bennett ...

  19. Hybrid mini-grid systems – electricity for communities not connected to the national electricity grid based on renewable energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Africa’s first hybrid mini-grid energy system at the Hluleka Nature Reserve on the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. This paper describes the three-year investigative project in the Eastern Cape province, the formulation...

  20. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP ...