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Sample records for eastern canadian colorectal

  1. Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, D; Ng, T; Ahmad, C; Alfakeeh, A; Alruzug, I; Biagi, J; Brierley, J; Chaudhury, P; Cleary, S; Colwell, B; Cripps, C; Dawson, L A; Dorreen, M; Ferland, E; Galiatsatos, P; Girard, S; Gray, S; Halwani, F; Kopek, N; Mahmud, A; Martel, G; Robillard, L; Samson, B; Seal, M; Siddiqui, J; Sideris, L; Snow, S; Thirwell, M; Vickers, M; Goodwin, R; Goel, R; Hsu, T; Tsvetkova, E; Ward, B; Asmis, T

    2016-12-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016 was held in Montreal, Quebec, 5-7 February. Experts in radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, and infectious diseases involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussion sessions for the purpose of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses multiple topics: ■ Follow-up and survivorship of patients with resected colorectal cancer■ Indications for liver metastasectomy■ Treatment of oligometastases by stereotactic body radiation therapy■ Treatment of borderline resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer■ Transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma■ Infectious complications of antineoplastic agents.

  2. Profile of colorectal cancer in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Snigdha; Mukherjee, Ramanuj; Paira, Susil Kumar; Roy, Bipradas; Banerjee, Shubhabrata; Mukherjee, Saibal Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Although colorectal cancer is a major cause of concern in the western population, recent studies are showing the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer to be rapidly rising in Asia. The present study is an insight into the epidemiological profile of colorectal cancer of a representative Eastern Indian population. Over a period of three years, all histologically proved patients with colorectal cancer were assessed for age, sex, body mass index, dietary habits, socioeconomic status and stage of disease. Of a total of 168 patients male to female ratio was 1.7:1.The mean age of presentation was 47.01 years. Although colorectal cancer has been known as a disease of sedentary obese men, 41.66% of the patients were from a low socioeconomic rural set-up and 40.47% were involved in heavy physical labour with only 15% of being obese; 62% patients were harbouring a locally advanced disease at the time of presentation. The epidemiological pattern of colorectal cancer in India is different from that of the west as regards to earlier age of presentation, prevalence in low socio economic class with low fat diet and scanty meat intake.

  3. International uranium production. An eastern Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Eastern Canadian perspective on uranium production is based on 30 years of continuous mining at Elliot Lake and on the experience of selling uranium over the same time period, mainly to export markets. In Ontario the orebodies are basically contiguous, being part of the same large formation. All the mining is underground. Ore grades are low, but economic extraction is improved by continuity and uniformity of grades, stable ground conditions, and the ability to mine and mill on a large scale. Mining is being carried out by two companies, Denison and Rio Algom. It is unlikely that mine capacity will be increased. Government policies have significant effects on the Eastern Canadian uranium industry in particular, as to U.S. import policies. (L.L.)

  4. A DASH dietary pattern and the risk of colorectal cancer in Canadian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-McLean, E.; Hu, J.; Greene-Finestone, L. S.; de Groh, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a high incidence cancer affecting many Canadian adults each year. Diet is important in the etiology of CRC with many dietary components identified as potential risk factors. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a well-established pattern to characterize overall eating. The purpose of this study was to characterize a DASH pattern within the Canadian context and to assess its relationship to the risk of CRC in Canadian adults. Metho...

  5. Calculating Mean Length of Utterance for Eastern Canadian Inuktitut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Shanley E. M.; Dench, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Although virtually all Inuit children in eastern Arctic Canada learn Inuktitut as their native language, there is a critical lack of tools to assess their level of language ability. This article investigates how mean length of utterance (MLU), a widely-used assessment measure in English and other languages, can be best applied in Inuktitut. The…

  6. A DASH dietary pattern and the risk of colorectal cancer in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-McLean, E; Hu, J; Greene-Finestone, L S; de Groh, M

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a high incidence cancer affecting many Canadian adults each year. Diet is important in the etiology of CRC with many dietary components identified as potential risk factors. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a well-established pattern to characterize overall eating. The purpose of this study was to characterize a DASH pattern within the Canadian context and to assess its relationship to the risk of CRC in Canadian adults. Unconditional multiple logistic regression with control for confounding variables was performed using data from the National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance Study. Dietary intake was captured for this case-control study through a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and categorized into a DASH score ranging from 0 to 10 representing a poor to a strong DASH pattern respectively. Consuming a strong DASH pattern of eating (score ≥ 8) was not common in the 3161 cases and 3097 controls. Overall, only 10.8% of men and 13.6% of women had a strong DASH pattern. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a trend for decreasing risk of CRC in men with increasing DASH scores (p value for trend = .007). Men with a strong DASH score had a 33% reduction in risk of CRC compared to those with a low DASH score. There were no significant trends for women for CRC or for colon or rectal cancers separately. Our findings are similar to other researchers suggesting a benefit with a strong DASH pattern associated with a decreased risk of CRC, especially in men. Research should further investigate our gender-based differences.

  7. A DASH dietary pattern and the risk of colorectal cancer in Canadian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jones-McLean

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC is a high incidence cancer affecting many Canadian adults each year. Diet is important in the etiology of CRC with many dietary components identified as potential risk factors. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet is a well-established pattern to characterize overall eating. The purpose of this study was to characterize a DASH pattern within the Canadian context and to assess its relationship to the risk of CRC in Canadian adults. Methods: Unconditional multiple logistic regression with control for confounding variables was performed using data from the National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance Study. Dietary intake was captured for this case-control study through a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and categorized into a DASH score ranging from 0 to 10 representing a poor to a strong DASH pattern respectively. Results: Consuming a strong DASH pattern of eating (score ≥ 8 was not common in the 3161 cases and 3097 controls. Overall, only 10.8 % of men and 13.6 % of women had a strong DASH pattern. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a trend for decreasing risk of CRC in men with increasing DASH scores (p value for trend = .007. Men with a strong DASH score had a 33% reduction in risk of CRC compared to those with a low DASH score. There were no significant trends for women for CRC or for colon or rectal cancers separately. Conclusion: Our findings are similar to other researchers suggesting a benefit with a strong DASH pattern associated with a decreased risk of CRC, especially in men. Research should further investigate our gender-based differences.

  8. Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications for regional energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Larry [Energy Research Group, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Canada has been blessed with immense energy resources; however, their distribution is not uniform. One such example is crude oil, which is found primarily in western Canada. Eastern Canada, consisting of the six eastern-most provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec), produce limited quantities of crude oil, most of which is exported to the United States. Ideally, western Canadian crude oil would meet the demands of eastern Canada; however, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the absence of oil pipelines means that eastern Canada increasingly relies on supplies of crude oil from a small number of oil exporting countries, many with declining production. This paper examines crude oil production, supply, and its refining in eastern Canada. It shows that crude production in the region has reached its peak and that increasing global competition for crude oil will affect energy security in eastern Canada, either through price increases or supply shortages, or both. (author)

  9. Killer whale (Orcinus orca photo-identification in the eastern Canadian Arctic

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    Brent G. Young

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We identified individual killer whales (Orcinus orca using recent (2004–09 photographs to obtain a minimum count of whales that use eastern Canadian Arctic waters. Fifty-three individuals were identified from nine different sightings; 11 individuals from western Hudson Bay sightings and 42 from the areas around northern and eastern Baffin Island. One whale was re-sighted: an adult female or large juvenile photographed 17 days and 375 km apart at Churchill, Manitoba, and off-shore of Rankin Inlet, Nunavut, in August 2007. With only one individual re-sighted, the number of individuals that use this area is likely much larger. No re-sightings occurred between Arctic killer whales and individuals photographed off the coast of Newfoundland. Our results represent the minimum number of killer whales sighted in eastern Canadian Arctic waters and provide the foundation for further killer whale research. Little is known about Arctic killer whales and, as a top predator, it is unclear what effect they have on Arctic marine ecosystems.

  10. Impacts of climate changes on ocean surface gravity waves over the eastern Canadian shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lanli; Sheng, Jinyu

    2017-05-01

    A numerical study is conducted to investigate the impact of climate changes on ocean surface gravity waves over the eastern Canadian shelf (ECS). The "business-as-usual" climate scenario known as Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 is considered in this study. Changes in the ocean surface gravity waves over the study region for the period 1979-2100 are examined based on 3 hourly ocean waves simulated by the third-generation ocean wave model known as WAVEWATCHIII. The wave model is driven by surface winds and ice conditions produced by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4). The whole study period is divided into the present (1979-2008), near future (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100) periods to quantify possible future changes of ocean waves over the ECS. In comparison with the present ocean wave conditions, the time-mean significant wave heights ( H s ) are expected to increase over most of the ECS in the near future and decrease over this region in the far future period. The time-means of the annual 5% largest H s are projected to increase over the ECS in both near and far future periods due mainly to the changes in surface winds. The future changes in the time-means of the annual 5% largest H s and 10-m wind speeds are projected to be twice as strong as the changes in annual means. An analysis of inverse wave ages suggests that the occurrence of wind seas is projected to increase over the southern Labrador and central Newfoundland Shelves in the near future period, and occurrence of swells is projected to increase over other areas of the ECS in both the near and far future periods.

  11. Impact of forest harvesting on water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter in Eastern Canadian Boreal Shield lakes

    OpenAIRE

    P. Glaz; J.-P. Gagné; P. Archambault; P. Sirois; C. Nozais

    2015-01-01

    Forestry activities in the Canadian Boreal region have increased in the last decades, raising concerns about their potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. Water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were measured over a three-year period in eight Eastern Boreal Shield lakes: four lakes were studied before, one and two years after forest harvesting (perturbed lakes) and compared with four undisturbed reference lakes (unperturbed lakes) sample...

  12. Report to New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers on climate change projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    The Premiers-Governors energy discussions are aimed at promoting joint energy cooperation between provinces and states. This report outlines the major accomplishments in the implementation of the Climate Change Action Plan adopted by the Conference in 1998. The project priorities for the coming year are also outlined. In 2001, the New England Governors (NEG) and the Eastern Canadian Premiers (ECP) directed the Environment Committee and the Northeast International Committee on Energy (NICE) to implement a plan to develop a regional emissions inventory so that participating jurisdictions would have common data for measuring progress. The plan also identified specific climate actions that could be readily implemented. This report describes the results of 5 working groups which were created to focus on the following potential categories: energy, transportation, inventory and registry, adaptation, and 'lead by example'. In addition to the working groups, the Climate Change Steering Committee developed 4 proposals for consideration for implementation. These were the LED Traffic Light Proposal, the College and University Partnerships in Emissions Reductions, State/Provincial Purchasing Programs for High Efficiency-Low Emission Office Equipment, and Use of Cleaner, More Energy-Efficient Vehicles in State/Provincial Fleets. The Steering Committee will also pursue other tasks in the coming year, including the study of other proposals for cost-effective measures that could contribute to the goals of the Climate Change Action Plan, examine Internet options for coordinating internal project work, examine opportunities to pursue climate action, and identify opportunities to improve vehicle fuel efficiency

  13. Field observations of recent transgression on northern and eastern Melville Island, western Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajeunesse, Patrick; Hanson, Michelle A.

    2008-11-01

    After ~ 11,000 years of glacio-isostatically induced forced regression, geomorphological evidence indicates that the coastline of eastern Melville Island, western Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is now being transgressed. Recently developed coastal features associated with this transgression include: drowned gullies and small estuaries, barriers and lagoons, barrier islands, erosional notches, backstepping beaches, and drowned tundra vegetation and vehicle tracks dating from the 1970s. We mainly attribute this relative sea-level rise to the eastward migration of a peripheral crustal forebulge. Furthermore, the reported transgression also includes a component from recent eustatic sea-level rise during the 20th century. Recent earthquakes recorded in the Gustav-Lougheed Arch Seismic Zone located in Byam Martin Channel, 70 km east of Melville Island, suggest that neotectonics could also be involved in local relative sea-level adjustments. Other factors associated with global warming, especially the formation of an earlier shore-ice lead coupled with increased storm activity might also be responsible for some of the coastal changes. Our study indicates that the current zero isobase, separating areas of net transgression from those of net regression, is now located off the east coast of the island. Our field observations support recent glacio-isostatic modelling that shows the island is presently undergoing a transgression.

  14. Three recent ice entrapments of Arctic cetaceans in West Greenland and the eastern Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Heide-Jørgensen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Three ice entrapments of Monodontids have been reported in the western North Atlantic since 1993. Hunters in Disko Bay, West Greenland, discovered one in March 1994 that included about 150 narwhals (Monodon monoceros. The entrapment occurred during a sudden cold period which caused ice to form rapidly. The trapped whales were subject to hunting, but about 50 of the killed whales could not be retrieved in the ice. The whales were trapped in a small opening in the ice and because of that they would probably have succumbed even if not discovered by hunters. Two entrapments involving white whales or belugas (Delphinapterus leucas occurred in the eastern Canadian Arctic in May 1999; one in Lancaster Sound discovered by polar bear (Ursus maritimus researchers and one in Jones Sound discovered by hunters. The first included one bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus and about 40 belugas that were being preyed upon by polar bears. The second involved at least 170 belugas, of which about 100 were killed by polar bears and 17 were taken by hunters. The entrapments in Disko Bay and Jones Sound both occurred in areas where entrapments have previously been reported, whereas the one in Lancaster Sound was in a new area.

  15. Rare earth elements in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems in the eastern Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Gwyneth Anne; Chételat, John; Heath, Joel P; Mickpegak, Raymond; Amyot, Marc

    2017-10-18

    Few ecotoxicological studies exist for rare earth elements (REEs), particularly field-based studies on their bioaccumulation and food web dynamics. REE mining has led to significant environmental impacts in several countries (China, Brazil, U.S.), yet little is known about the fate and transport of these contaminants of emerging concern. Northern ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to REE enrichment from prospective mining projects at high latitudes. To understand how REEs behave in remote northern food webs, we measured REE concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (∂ 15 N, ∂ 13 C) in biota from marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic (N = 339). Wildlife harvesting and tissue sampling was partly conducted by local hunters through a community-based monitoring project. Results show that REEs generally follow a coherent bioaccumulation pattern for sample tissues, with some anomalies for redox-sensitive elements (Ce, Eu). Highest REE concentrations were found at low trophic levels, especially in vegetation and aquatic invertebrates. Terrestrial herbivores, ringed seal, and fish had low total REE levels in muscle tissue (∑REE for 15 elements <0.1 nmol g -1 ), yet accumulation was an order of magnitude higher in liver tissues. Age- and length-dependent REE accumulation also suggest that REE uptake is faster than elimination for some species. Overall, REE bioaccumulation patterns appear to be species- and tissue-specific, with limited potential for biomagnification. This study provides novel data on the behaviour of REEs in ecosystems and will be useful for environmental impact assessment of REE enrichment in northern regions.

  16. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes and haplotypes associated with susceptibility to colorectal cancer in an eastern Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Xu, W L; Shen, H L; Chen, Q Y; Hui, L L; Long, L L; Zhu, X L

    2011-12-14

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays an important role in folate metabolism and is involved in DNA synthesis, DNA repair and DNA methylation. The two common functional polymorphisms of MTHFR, C677T and A1298C have been associated with several diseases, including cancer. We made a case-control study to analyze a possible association of MTHFR gene polymorphisms C677T and A1298C with risk for colorectal cancer in an eastern Chinese Han population of 137 patients with a confirmed histopathological diagnosis of CRC and 145 age- and gender-matched controls with no history of cancer. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and the genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. The concentrations of folate in plasma were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. The MTHFR 677TT genotype had a protective effect against colorectal cancer, with an odds ratio (OR) = 0.467 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.225-0.966). The 1298CC genotype was significantly correlated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 0.192; 95%CI = 0.040-0.916). Compared with the MTHFR 677CC and MTHFR 1298 AA genotypes, for individuals who carried both MTHFR 677CC and 1298CC genotypes, the OR of colorectal cancer was 0.103 (95%CI = 0.012-0.900); among individuals who carried both MTHFR 677TT and 1298AC genotypes, the OR for risk of colorectal cancer was 0.169 (95%CI = 0.044-0.654). MTHFR 677TT+CT genotypes had a significantly lower plasma folate concentration than those with the MTHFR 677CC genotype. MTHFR 1298AC+CC genotypes had a lower plasma folate concentration than those with the MTHFR 1298AA genotype (P < 0.05). In conclusion, subjects with the MTHFR 677TT and MTHFR 1298CC genotypes appeared to have a significantly lower risk for colorectal cancer. MTHFR haplotypes 677CC/1298CC and 677TT/1298AC were less common in cases than in controls. These haplotypes, when compared to the most common haplotype 677CC/1298AA, were associated with a decreased risk for colorectal cancer. We

  17. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer: results from a Canadian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Woodrow, Jennifer; Zhu, Yun; Roebothan, Barbara; Mclaughlin, John R; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2015-01-15

    The relationship between major dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC) in other populations largely remains consistent across studies. The objective of the present study is to assess if dietary patterns are associated with the risk of CRC in the population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Data from a population based case-control study in the province of NL were analyzed, including 506 CRC patients (306 men and 200 women) and 673 controls (400 men and 273 women), aged 20-74 years. Dietary habits were assessed by a 169-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between dietary patterns and the CRC risk. Three major dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis, namely a Meat-diet pattern, a Plant-based diet pattern and a Sugary-diet pattern. In combination the three dietary patterns explained 74% of the total variance in food intake. Results suggest that the Meat-diet and the Sugary-diet increased the risk of CRC with corresponding odds ratios (ORs) of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.19-2.86) and 2.26 (95% CI: 1.39-3.66) for people in the highest intake quintile compared to those in the lowest. Whereas plant-based diet pattern decreases the risk of CRC with a corresponding OR of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.35-0.87). Even though odds ratios (ORs) were not always statistically significant, largely similar associations across three cancer sites were found: the proximal colon, the distal colon, and the rectum. The finding that Meat-diet/Sugary-diet patterns increased and Plant-based diet pattern decreased the risk of CRC would guide the promotion of healthy eating for primary prevention of CRC in this population.

  18. Impact of forest harvesting on trophic structure of eastern Canadian Boreal Shield lakes: insights from stable isotope analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Glaz

    Full Text Available Perturbations on ecosystems can have profound immediate effects and can, accordingly, greatly alter the natural community. Land-use such as forestry activities in the Canadian Boreal region have increased in the last decades, raising concerns about their potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of forest harvesting on trophic structure in eastern Canadian Boreal Shield lakes. We measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes values for aquatic primary producers, terrestrial detritus, benthic macroinvertebrates, zooplankton and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis over a three-year period in eight eastern Boreal Shield lakes. Four lakes were studied before, one and two years after forest harvesting (perturbed lakes and compared with four undisturbed reference lakes (unperturbed lakes sampled at the same time. Stable isotope mixing models showed leaf-litter to be the main food source for benthic primary consumers in both perturbed and unperturbed lakes, suggesting no logging impact on allochthonous subsidies to the littoral food web. Brook trout derived their food mainly from benthic predatory macroinvertebrates in unperturbed lakes. However, in perturbed lakes one year after harvesting, zooplankton appeared to be the main contributor to brook trout diet. This change in brook trout diet was mitigated two years after harvesting. Size-related diet shift were also observed for brook trout, indicating a diet shift related to size. Our study suggests that carbon from terrestrial habitat may be a significant contribution to the food web of oligotrophic Canadian Boreal Shield lakes. Forest harvesting did not have an impact on the diet of benthic primary consumers. On the other hand, brook trout diet composition was affected by logging with greater zooplankton contribution in perturbed lakes, possibly induced by darker-colored environment in these lakes one year after logging.

  19. Impact of forest harvesting on trophic structure of eastern Canadian Boreal Shield lakes: insights from stable isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaz, Patricia; Sirois, Pascal; Archambault, Philippe; Nozais, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Perturbations on ecosystems can have profound immediate effects and can, accordingly, greatly alter the natural community. Land-use such as forestry activities in the Canadian Boreal region have increased in the last decades, raising concerns about their potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of forest harvesting on trophic structure in eastern Canadian Boreal Shield lakes. We measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes values for aquatic primary producers, terrestrial detritus, benthic macroinvertebrates, zooplankton and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) over a three-year period in eight eastern Boreal Shield lakes. Four lakes were studied before, one and two years after forest harvesting (perturbed lakes) and compared with four undisturbed reference lakes (unperturbed lakes) sampled at the same time. Stable isotope mixing models showed leaf-litter to be the main food source for benthic primary consumers in both perturbed and unperturbed lakes, suggesting no logging impact on allochthonous subsidies to the littoral food web. Brook trout derived their food mainly from benthic predatory macroinvertebrates in unperturbed lakes. However, in perturbed lakes one year after harvesting, zooplankton appeared to be the main contributor to brook trout diet. This change in brook trout diet was mitigated two years after harvesting. Size-related diet shift were also observed for brook trout, indicating a diet shift related to size. Our study suggests that carbon from terrestrial habitat may be a significant contribution to the food web of oligotrophic Canadian Boreal Shield lakes. Forest harvesting did not have an impact on the diet of benthic primary consumers. On the other hand, brook trout diet composition was affected by logging with greater zooplankton contribution in perturbed lakes, possibly induced by darker-colored environment in these lakes one year after logging.

  20. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, Meredith S., E-mail: meredith.curren@hc-sc.gc.ca [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei, E-mail: chun.lei.liang@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Davis, Karelyn, E-mail: karelyn.davis@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Kandola, Kami, E-mail: Kami_Kandola@gov.nt.ca [Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada); Brewster, Janet, E-mail: jbrewster@gov.nu.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Potyrala, Mary, E-mail: mary_potyrala@yahoo.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Chan, Hing Man, E-mail: laurie.chan@uottawa.ca [Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie-Curie, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  1. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, Meredith S.; Liang, Chun Lei; Davis, Karelyn; Kandola, Kami; Brewster, Janet; Potyrala, Mary; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  2. HABITAT CONDITIONS OF CANADIAN GOLDENROD IN A SELECTED REGION OF EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bielecka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian goldenrod Solidago canadensis (L is an invasive species in Poland. It occurs both in habitats only weakly impacted by anthropogenic factors as well as in habitats subjected to intensive transformations by humans. The aim of this study was to characterise the habitats of S. canadensis in Mińsk Mazowiecki and in out-of-town areas. It has been shown, based on an analysis of the principal soil properties, that the sites where S. canadensis was found had clayey-sandy soil and a C/N ratio indicative of medium and high soil degradation. Canadian goldenrod was found at sites with a diverse content of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in soil, as well as a diverse soil pH, indicative of a strongly acidic, acidic and alkaline character of the soil.

  3. Origins and spread of fluted-point technology in the Canadian Ice-Free Corridor and eastern Beringia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather L; Goebel, Ted

    2018-04-02

    Fluted projectile points have long been recognized as the archaeological signature of early humans dispersing throughout the Western Hemisphere; however, we still lack a clear understanding of their appearance in the interior "Ice-Free Corridor" of western Canada and eastern Beringia. To solve this problem, we conducted a geometric morphometric shape analysis and a phylogenetic analysis of technological traits on fluted points from the archaeological records of northern Alaska and Yukon, in combination with artifacts from further south in Canada, the Great Plains, and eastern United States to investigate the plausibility of historical relatedness and evolutionary patterns in the spread of fluted-point technology in the latest Pleistocene and earliest Holocene. Results link morphologies and technologies of Clovis, certain western Canadian, and northern fluted points, suggesting that fluting technology arrived in the Arctic from a proximate source in the interior Ice-Free Corridor and ultimately from the earliest populations in temperate North America, complementing new genomic models explaining the peopling of the Americas.

  4. Deficient mismatch repair andRASmutation in colorectal carcinoma patients: a retrospective study in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyan; Ran, Wenwen; Wu, Jie; Li, Hong; Liu, Huamin; Wang, Lili; Xiao, Yujing; Wang, Xiaonan; Li, Yujun; Xing, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the frequency and prognostic role of deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) and RAS mutation in Chinese patients with colorectal carcinoma. Clinical and pathological information from 813 patients were reviewed and recorded. Expression of mismatch repair proteins was tested by immunohistochemistry. Mutation analyses for RAS gene were performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Correlations of mismatch repair status and RAS mutation status with clinicopathological characteristics and disease survival were determined. The overall percentage of dMMR was 15.18% (121/797). The proportion of dMMR was higher in patients mismatch repair was also associated with mucinous production ( p  mismatch repair status and RAS mutation reflects the specific clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal carcinoma.

  5. Prognostic significance of TRAIL death receptors in Middle Eastern colorectal carcinomas and their correlation to oncogenic KRAS alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Azhar R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a member of the tumour necrosis factor cytokine family that induces apoptosis upon binding to its death domain containing receptors, TRAIL receptor 1 (DR4 and TRAIL receptor 2 (DR5. Expression of TRAIL receptors is higher in colorectal carcinoma (CRC as compared to normal colorectal mucosa and targeted therapy with TRAIL leads to preferential killing of tumor cells sparing normal cells. Methods We investigated the expression of TRAIL and its receptors in a tissue microarray cohort of 448 Middle Eastern CRC. We also studied the correlation between TRAIL receptors and various clinico-pathological features including key molecular alterations and overall survival. Results CRC subset with TRAIL-R1 expression was associated with a less aggressive phenotype characterized by early stage (p = 0.0251 and a histology subtype of adenocarcinomas (p = 0.0355. Similarly CRC subset with TRAIL-R2 expression was associated with a well-differentiated tumors (p KIP1 and KRAS4A isoforms was significantly higher in CRC subset with TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 expression; TRAIL-R1 expression was also associated with cleaved caspase-3(p = 0.0011. Interestingly, TRAIL-R2 expression was associated with a microsatellite stable (MS--S/L phenotype (p = 0.0003 and with absence of KRAS mutations (p = 0.0481. Conclusion TRAIL-R1 expression was an independent prognostic marker for better survival in all CRC samples and even in the CRC group that received adjuvant therapy. The biological effects of TRAIL in CRC models, its enhancement of chemosensitivity towards standard chemotherapeutic agents and the effect of endogenous TRAIL receptor levels on survival make TRAIL an extremely attractive therapeutic target.

  6. Prevalence of Lynch syndrome in a Middle Eastern population with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraj, Abdul K; Prabhakaran, Sarita; Bavi, Prashant; Bu, Rong; Beg, Shaham; Hazmi, Mohsen Al; Al-Rasheed, Maha; Al-Assiri, Mohammed; Sairafi, Rami; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Sanea, Nasser; Uddin, Shahab; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2015-06-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS; hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) is a common cause of hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC). CRC is the most common cancer diagnosed among males in Saudi Arabia but to the authors' knowledge there is a lack of data regarding the prevalence of LS in patients with CRC. There currently are no clear guidelines for the selection criteria for these patients to screen for LS. A comprehensive molecular characterization was performed in a cohort of 807 CRC cases by immunohistochemical and microsatellite analysis using polymerase chain reaction. BRAF mutation screening, high CpG island methylator phenotype, and analysis for germline mutations were performed in 425 CRC samples. These were all high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) samples (91 cases), all low MSI samples (143 cases), and selected cases from the microsatellite stable group (191 cases) that met revised Bethesda guidelines. Polymerase chain reaction identified 91 MSI-H cases (11.3%) and sequencing revealed mismatch repair germline mutations in 8 CRC cases only. Of the total of 807 CRC cases, these 8 cases (0.99%) were MSI-H, met the revised Bethesda guidelines, and did not harbor BRAF mutations. The results of the current study confirmed cases of LS in approximately 1.0% of CRC samples and reflects the efficacy of screening among MSI-H cases that lack BRAF mutations. This comprehensive study from Saudi Arabia will help in implementing a universal screening/reflex testing strategy in a clinical setting in Saudi Arabia and in conducting a national screening program that benefits both patients and their relatives. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  7. Testing the Nunatak Refugia Hypothesis in the Eastern Canadian Arctic with Cosmogenic Nuclides 14C, 10Be, and 26Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. H.; Briner, J. P.; Lifton, N.; Kaplan, M. R.; Refsnider, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    For more than a century the processes by which plants rapidly colonized vast regions formerly covered by Late Quaternary continental ice sheets has been vigorously debated. It has been postulated that refugial plant communities survived on nunataks above ice-sheet surfaces, and that these relict populations facilitated rapid colonization. While glacial mapping confirms that some highlands in the Eastern Canadian Arctic remained above the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) throughout the last glacial maximum (LGM), whether they remained free of local ice carapaces is uncertain. To test the nunatak refugia hypothesis we sampled quartz-rich bedrock from rolling uplands of Broughton Is. (67.5 N; 63.5 E; 600 m asl), one of the most distal high islands bordering the eastern margin of the LIS. At the peak of the LGM, outlet glaciers of the LIS impinged on the island, but did not reach above 100 m asl. Close to the summit, flat-lying quartz-rich veins crop out extensively with 2 to 10 cm of weathering relief. Two samples have 10Be and 26Al exposure ages in excess of 200 ka, but 26Al/10Be of only 3.8. Two tors 150 m lower have 10Be and 26Al exposure ages in excess of 100 ka, and similarly low 26Al/10Be (3.5). The time elapsed to acquire these values exceeds 1 Ma without erosion for the higher samples, and only slightly less for the lower samples, confirming that these sites have not been inundated by actively eroding continental ice since at least the early Quaternary. To evaluate whether a protective ice cap mantled the island during the LGM we measured in situ 14C inventories in the two summit samples for which 10Be and 26Al were also measured. If the summit had been free of ice during the LGM and served as a plant refugium, then the 14C inventories should be at their maximum levels. If, however, the summit was mantled by a thick (>30 m) snowfield or cold-based ice carapace, then 14C inventories should reflect only Holocene surface exposure. Both samples contained in situ 14C

  8. Introducing problem-based learning into a Canadian-accredited Middle Eastern educational setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Ziad G; Wilby, Kyle John

    2017-07-01

    Adaption of active learning strategies into new cultures and contexts requires careful consideration to maximize effectiveness and meet intended objectives. The aim of this paper was to describe the adaption and implementation of problem-based learning (PBL) within a pharmacy curriculum in a Middle Eastern context. PBL was implemented into the curriculum at Qatar University in 2014 and expanded in subsequent years to include differing courses and contexts. The process was blueprinted to align with international accreditation standards. A SWOC (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Challenges) analysis was completed to identify cultural and contextual facilitators and barriers regarding implementation and achievement of target outcomes. Strengths included novelty, enhancement of learning, engagement, and accreditation alignment. Weaknesses included student preparation and buy in, facilitation inconsistency, and logistical support. Opportunities included expansion, departmental support, timing, and congruency with practice skills. Challenges included student resistance, departmental engagement, assessment, expansion, and cultural norms in teaching and learning. PBL provided benefit but also presented many cultural and contextual challenges of adaption from Western settings. Future work should focus addressing these cultural factors, to promote effectiveness of PBL as an active learning strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and selenium in common eider ducks in the eastern Canadian arctic: Influence of reproductive stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, Mark; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Neugebauer, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations and total organ content of mercury, selenium and cadmium, as well as liver, kidney and body mass were determined in female common eiders from 1997 to 2000 at the East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary in the eastern Canadian arctic. In 1997 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the pre-nesting period when they eat copious amounts of food and gain substantial weight in preparation for the rigours of nesting. In 1998 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the mid to late stages of the nesting period when they eat very little, if at all, and, as a consequence undergo dramatic weight loss. Total body mass, liver mass and kidney mass were highest in pre-nesting birds, especially in 1997. They were significantly lower in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast, mercury and cadmium concentrations were lowest in pre-nesting birds collected in 1997 and 1999 and increased to significantly higher concentrations in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast to these results, the total contents of mercury in liver and cadmium in kidney did not change significantly over the 4-year period. Hepatic selenium concentrations were relatively stable over the 4-year study period while changes in the total content of selenium in the liver paralleled changes in liver mass and body mass. The results suggest that mercury and cadmium concentrations in female common eiders change in response to normal changes in body and organ mass that occur during the reproductive period. Thus, it may be important to consider body condition or reproductive stage when using common eiders (and perhaps other species of sea ducks) in biomonitoring studies or when interpreting concentrations of metals in tissues in terms of the risk they pose to these ducks

  10. Land-Sea relationships of climate-related records: example of the Holocene in the eastern Canadian Arctic and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vernal, Anne; Fréchette, Bianca; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2017-04-01

    Anne de Vernal, Bianca Fréchette, Claude Hillaire-Marcel Important progresses have been made to reconstruct climate and ocean changes through time. However, there is often a hiatus between the land-based climate reconstructions and paleoceanographical data. The reconstructed parameters are not the same (e.g. surface air temperature vs. sea-surface temperature). Moreover, the spatial (local to regional) and temporal dimensions (seasonal, annual to multi-decadal) of proxy-data are often inconsistent, thus preventing direct correlation of time series and often leading to uncertainties in multi-site, multi-proxy compilations. Here, we address the issue of land-sea relationships in the eastern Canadian Arctic-Baffin Bay-Labrador Sea-western Greenland based on the examination of different climate-related information from marine cores (dinocysts) collected nearshore vs. offshore, ice cores (isotopes), fjord and lake data (pollen). The combined information tends to indicate that "climate" changes are not easily neither adequately captured by temperature and temperature shifts. However, the seasonal contrast of temperatures seems to be a key parameter. Whereas it is often attenuated offshore, it is generally easy to reconstruct nearshore, where water stratification is usually stronger. The confrontation of data also shows a relationship between ice core data and sea-ice cover and/or sea-surface salinity, suggesting that air-sea exchanges in basins surrounding ice sheets play a significant role with respect to their isotopic composition. On the whole, combined onshore-offshore data consistently suggest a two-step shift towards optimal summer and winter conditions the circum Baffin Bay and northern Labrador Sea at 7.5 and 6 ka BP. These delayed optimal conditions seem to result from ice-meltwater discharges maintaining low salinity conditions in marine surface waters and thus a strong seasonality.

  11. Environmental controls on the 2H/1H values of terrestrial leaf waxes in the eastern Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Timothy M.; Hughen, Konrad A.; Ampel, Linda; Sauer, Peter E.; Fornace, Kyrstin

    2013-10-01

    The hydrogen isotope composition of plant waxes preserved in lacustrine sediments is a potentially valuable tool for reconstructing paleoenvironmental changes in the Arctic. However, in contrast to the mid- and low-latitudes, significantly less effort has been directed towards understanding the factors controlling D/H fractionation in high latitude plant waxes and the impact of these processes on the interpretation of sedimentary leaf wax δD records. To better understand these processes, we examined the D/H ratios of long chain fatty acids in lake surface sediments spanning a temperature and precipitation gradient on Baffin Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic. D/H ratios of plant waxes increase with increasing temperature and aridity, with values ranging from -240‰ to -160‰ over the study area. Apparent fractionation factors between n-alkanoic acids in Arctic lake sediments and precipitation(εFA-ppt) are less negative than those of mid-latitude lakes and modern plants by 25‰ to 65‰, consistent with n-alkane data from modern Arctic plants (Yang et al., 2011). Furthermore, εFA-ppt values from Arctic lakes become systematically more positive with increasing evaporation, in contrast to mid-latitude sites, which show little to no change in fractionation with aridity. These data are consistent with enhanced water loss and isotope fractionation at higher latitude in the Arctic summer, when continuous sunlight supports increased daily photosynthesis. The dominant control on δDFA variations on Baffin Island is temperature. However, changing εFA-ppt result in steeper δDFA-temperature relationships than observed for modern precipitation. The application of this δDFA-based paleotemperature calibration to existing δDFA records from Baffin Island produces much more realistic changes in late Holocene temperature and highlights the importance of these effects in influencing the interpretation of Arctic δDFA records. A better understanding of the controls on

  12. Historic Eastern Canadian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, G.J.K.; Atchinson, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear power plants licensed in Canada have been designed to resist earthquakes: not all plants, however, have been explicitly designed to the same level of earthquake induced forces. Understanding the nature of strong ground motion near the source of the earthquake is still very tentative. This paper reviews historical and scientific accounts of the three strongest earthquakes - St. Lawrence (1925), Temiskaming (1935), Cornwall (1944) - that have occurred in Canada in 'modern' times, field studies of near-field strong ground motion records and their resultant damage or non-damage to industrial facilities, and numerical modelling of earthquake sources and resultant wave propagation to produce accelerograms consistent with the above historical record and field studies. It is concluded that for future construction of NPP's near-field strong motion must be explicitly considered in design

  13. Protective effect of fish consumption on colorectal cancer risk. Hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Pac, Agnieszka; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta; Galas, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    Current epidemiologic studies investigating the effect of fish intake on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between fish consumption and CRC risk. This hospital-based case-control study was performed in 548 CRC patients (Surgery Clinic, University Hospital in Krakow, Poland) between November 2000 and May 2008. Histological findings, information on anatomic location and stage of cancer were available for all the patients enrolled in this study. The control group consisted of 745 patients of the same hospital with no history of cancer admitted for treatment of non-neoplastic conditions. During the 5-year study period, the food frequency questionnaire used focused on the reference period that was defined as 1-5 years prior to CRC diagnosis for the CRC cases and the date of hospital admission for the controls. The crude odds ratio (OR) was inversely related to fish consumption (z for trend in quartiles of intake= -2.31, p=0.021; OR=0.89; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.81-0.98). The risk of CRC increased with intake of stewed or cooked meat (z for trend in quartiles of intake=2.14; p=0.032; OR=1.11; 95% CI: 1.01-1.23). The adjusted OR showed a significant reduction in CRC already at the moderate fish intake of one or two servings per week (OR=0.70; 95% CI: 0.51-0.94), but it was even lower at higher fish intake (OR=0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.86). All multivariate statistical models employed in the analysis considered potential confounders, such as demographic characteristics of subjects, body mass index, smoking status, leisure time physical activity, energy consumption and intake of meat products. The study results indicate that increased fish intake may have a preventive effect on CRC and modulate the effect of meat consumption. To our knowledge, this is the first large epidemiologic study on dietary habits and CRC incidence in Eastern Europe. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Colorectal Cancer Complicating Crohn's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Hugh J

    2001-01-01

    Some earlier studies have indicated that patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially those with long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis, have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Moreover, others in tertiary care centres have suggested that patients with Crohn's disease also have a higher risk of colorectal cancer. Canadian data on colorectal cancer in Crohn's disease appear to be limited. For this investigation, a single clinician database of 877 patients w...

  15. Surface Water pCO2 Variations and Sea-Air CO2 Fluxes During Summer in the Eastern Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, T. M.; Miller, L. A.; Thomas, H.; Else, B. G. T.; Gosselin, M.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2017-12-01

    Based on a 2 year data set, the eastern Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay appear to be a modest summertime sink of atmospheric CO2. We measured surface water CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), salinity, and temperature throughout northern Baffin Bay, Nares Strait, and Lancaster Sound from the CCGS Amundsen during its 2013 and 2014 summer cruises. Surface water pCO2 displayed considerable variability (144-364 μatm) but never exceeded atmospheric concentrations, and average calculated CO2 fluxes in 2013 and 2014 were -12 and -3 mmol C m-2 d-1 (into the ocean), respectively. Ancillary measurements of chlorophyll a reveal low summertime productivity in surface waters. Based on total alkalinity and stable oxygen isotopes (δ18O) data, a strong riverine signal in northern Nares Strait coincided with relatively high surface pCO2, whereas areas of sea-ice melt occur with low surface pCO2. Further assessments, extending the seasonal observation period, are needed to properly constrain both seasonal and annual CO2 fluxes in this region.

  16. Prognostic implications of c-Ki-ras2 mutations in patients with advanced colorectal cancer treated with 5-fluorouracil and interferon: a study of the eastern cooperative oncology group (EST 2292)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadler, S; Bajaj, R; Neuberg, D; Agarwal, V; Haynes, H; Benson, A B

    1997-01-01

    Mutations in c-Ki-ras2 (ras) occur in about 40% of patients with colorectal cancers and occur early in the pathogenesis of this disease. To evaluate the prognostic value of mutations in ras, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) conducted a retrospective study (EST 2292) to determine the frequency of mutations in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, and to determine whether ras mutations were associated with altered response to therapy and survival. Patients were enrolled from four studies: P-Z289, an ECOG phase II trial of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and interferon (IFN) in patients with advanced colorectal cancer; P-Z991, an ECOG phase I trial of 5-FU and IFN in patients with advanced malignancies; and two trials from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in patients with advanced colorectal cancer treated with 5-FU and either IFN-alpha or IFN-beta. All patients had advanced colorectal carcinoma and had sufficient histologic material available for analysis for the presence and type of ras, using polymerase chain reaction and dot-blot analysis with sets of probes sufficient to detect all the common mutations of ras at codons 12, 13, and 61. Seventy-two patients were enrolled in this trial. Mutations in ras were detected in 25 (35%), including 17 (23%) in codon 12, four (6%) in codon 13, and four (6%) in codon 61. There was no correlation between the presence of a ras mutation and age, sex, Dukes' stage, histology, or tumor markers. Thirty-one of 72 patients (43%) responded to therapy with 5-FU and IFN, and 10 of 31 responders (32%) and 15 of 41 nonresponders (37%) had mutations in ras. There was no difference in response rates or overall survival between the groups with and without ras mutations. It is unlikely that ras mutations will have significant prognostic value for either response to therapy or survival in patients with colorectal carcinomas treated with 5-FU and IFN.

  17. A retrospective study on the use of post-operative colonoscopy following potentially curative surgery for colorectal cancer in a Canadian province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Heather E

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance colonoscopy is commonly recommended following potentially curative surgery for colorectal cancer. We determined factors associated with patients undergoing a least one colonoscopy within five years of surgery. Methods In this historical cohort study, data on 3918 patients age 30 years or older residing in Alberta, Canada, who had undergone a potentially curative surgical resection for local or regional stage colorectal cancer between 1983 and 1995 were obtained from the provincial cancer registry, ministry of health and cancer clinic charts. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the probability of undergoing a post-operative colonoscopy were calculated for patient, tumor and treatment-related variables of interest. Results A colonoscopy was performed within five years of surgery in 1979 patients. The probability of undergoing a colonoscopy for those diagnosed in the 1990s was greater than for those diagnosed earlier (0.65 vs 0.55, P Conclusions The majority of patients undergo colonoscopy following colorectal cancer surgery. However, there are important variations in surveillance practices across different patient and treatment characteristics.

  18. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  19. Comprehensive Evidence-Based Assessment and Prioritization of Potential Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants: A Case Study from Canadian Eastern James Bay Cree Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre S. Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canadian Aboriginals, like others globally, suffer from disproportionately high rates of diabetes. A comprehensive evidence-based approach was therefore developed to study potential antidiabetic medicinal plants stemming from Canadian Aboriginal Traditional Medicine to provide culturally adapted complementary and alternative treatment options. Key elements of pathophysiology of diabetes and of related contemporary drug therapy are presented to highlight relevant cellular and molecular targets for medicinal plants. Potential antidiabetic plants were identified using a novel ethnobotanical method based on a set of diabetes symptoms. The most promising species were screened for primary (glucose-lowering and secondary (toxicity, drug interactions, complications antidiabetic activity by using a comprehensive platform of in vitro cell-based and cell-free bioassays. The most active species were studied further for their mechanism of action and their active principles identified though bioassay-guided fractionation. Biological activity of key species was confirmed in animal models of diabetes. These in vitro and in vivo findings are the basis for evidence-based prioritization of antidiabetic plants. In parallel, plants were also prioritized by Cree Elders and healers according to their Traditional Medicine paradigm. This case study highlights the convergence of modern science and Traditional Medicine while providing a model that can be adapted to other Aboriginal realities worldwide.

  20. Eastern Spruce Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Baker; Joseph O' Brien; R. Mathiasen; Mike Ostry

    2006-01-01

    Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) is a parasitic flowering plant that causes the most serious disease of black spruce (Picea mariana) throughout its range. The parasite occurs in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; in the Lake States of Minnesota,...

  1. Colorectal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagi, B.; Kochhar, R.; Bhasin, D.K.; Singh, K.

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the incidence of colorectal tuberculosis in our series and to study its radiological spectrum. A total of 684 cases of proven gastrointestinal tuberculosis with positive barium contrast findings seen over a period of more than one decade were evaluated. The study did not include cases where colon was involved in direct contiguity with ileo-caecal tuberculosis. Seventy-four patients (10.8%) had colorectal tuberculosis. Commonest site involved was transverse colon, closely followed by rectum and ascending colon. Radiological findings observed were in the form of strictures (54%), colitis (39%) and polypoid lesions (7%). Complications noted were in the form of perforations and fistulae in 18.9% of cases. Colorectal tuberculosis is a very common site for gastrointestinal tuberculosis. Typical findings of colorectal tuberculosis are strictures, signs of colitis and polypoid lesions. Common complications are perforation and fistulae. (orig.)

  2. Late-Quaternary glacial to postglacial sedimentation in three adjacent fjord-lakes of the Québec North Shore (eastern Canadian Shield)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiré, Antoine G.; Lajeunesse, Patrick; Normandeau, Alexandre; Francus, Pierre; St-Onge, Guillaume; Nzekwe, Obinna P.

    2018-04-01

    High-resolution swath bathymetry imagery allowed mapping in great detail the sublacustrine geomorphology of lakes Pentecôte, Walker and Pasteur, three deep adjacent fjord-lakes of the Québec North Shore (eastern Canada). These sedimentary basins have been glacio-isostatically uplifted to form deep steep-sided elongated lakes. Their key geographical position and limnogeological characteristics typical of fjords suggest exceptional potential for long-term high-resolution paleoenvironmental reconstitutions. Acoustic subbottom profiles acquired using a bi-frequency Chirp echosounder (3.5 & 12 kHz), together with cm- and m-long sediment core data, reveal the presence of four acoustic stratigraphic units. The acoustic basement (Unit 1) represents the structural bedrock and/or the ice-contact sediments of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and reveals V-shaped bedrock valleys at the bottom of the lakes occupied by ice-loaded sediments in a basin-fill geometry (Unit 2). Moraines observed at the bottom of lakes and in their structural valleys indicate a deglaciation punctuated by short-term ice margin stabilizations. Following ice retreat and their isolation, the fjord-lakes were filled by a thick draping sequence of rhythmically laminated silts and clays (Unit 3) deposited during glaciomarine and/or glaciolacustrine settings. These sediments were episodically disturbed by mass-movements during deglaciation due to glacial-isostatic rebound. AMS 14C dating reveal that the transition between deglaciation of the lakes Pentecôte and Walker watersheds and the development of para- and post-glacial conditions occurred around 8000 cal BP. The development of the lake-head river delta plain during the Holocene provided a constant source of fluvial sediment supply to the lakes and the formation of turbidity current bedforms on the sublacustrine delta slopes. The upper sediment succession (i.e., ∼4-∼6.5 m) consists of a continuous para-to post-glacial sediment drape (Unit 4) that contains

  3. Colorectal Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter Donald

    15 years. Colorectal cancer occurs in hereditary, sporadic or familial forms. Hereditary forms have been extensively described and are characterized by family history, young age at onset and presence of other specific tumours and defects. Among these defects are familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), hereditary non-.

  4. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  5. Colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes colorectal cancer risk in relation to A-bomb radiation. The RERF Life Span Study has revealed the incidence of colorectal cancer to be significantly high in the group of A-bomb survivors than the control group. With regard to relative risk or excess relative risk, there is no definitive difference among sites in the colon. Risk for colon cancer is found to be linearly increased with increasing radiation doses, and in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Risk associated with one Gy is estimated to be increased by double. There is no definitive variation between sex and between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Excess relative risk would be increased rapidly with aging in the whole group of A-bomb survivors and with the cancer-prone age in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. (N.K.)

  6. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview What to Expect ... section Overview 2 of 6 sections The Basics: Colorectal Cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a ...

  7. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  8. [Aspirin and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancher, Adrien; Michel, Pierre; Di Fiore, Frédéric; Sefrioui, David

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a worldwide public health problem. Aspirin has been identified as a protective factor against the apparition of colorectal cancer. There are several mechanisms about the actions by aspirin on colorectal tumorogenesis. These are not perfectly known nowadays. On one hand, there are direct mechanisms on colorectal mucosa, on the other hand there are indirect mechanisms through platelet functions. Aspirin also plays a role by its anti-inflammatory action and the stimulation of antitumor immunity. Several studies show that long-term treatment with low-doses of aspirin decreases the incidence of adenomas and colorectal cancers. In the United States, aspirin is currently recommended for primary prevention of the risk of colorectal cancer in all patients aged 50 to 59, with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular event greater than 10 %. However, primary prevention with aspirin should not be a substitute for screening in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, aspirin seems to be beneficial when used in post-diagnosis of colorectal cancer. It could actually decrease the risk of metastasis in case of a localized colorectal cancer, and increase the survival in particular, concerning PIK3CA mutated tumors. The association of aspirin with neoadjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer by radiochimiotherapy seems to have beneficial effects. French prospective randomized study is currently being conducted to investigate postoperative aspirin in colorectal cancers with a PIK3CA mutation. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Colorectal Cancer: A Personal Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer: A Personal Journey Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table ... Carmen Marc Valvo is an outspoken voice for colorectal cancer screening. Photo Courtesy of: Phil Fisch Photography Designer ...

  10. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Victoria Valinluck; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It results from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells that transforms them into adenocarcinomas. There have been major advances in our understanding of cancer epigenetics over the last decade, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation. Assessment of the colon cancer epigenome has revealed that virtually all colorectal cancers have aberrantly methylated genes and the average colorectal cancer methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these methylated genes, called driver genes, is presumed to play a functional role in colorectal cancer. The assessment of methylated genes in colorectal cancers has also revealed a unique molecular subgroup of colorectal cancers called CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) cancers; these tumors have a particularly high frequency of methylated genes. The advances in our understanding of aberrant methylation in colorectal cancer has led to epigenetic alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Progress in the assessment of epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer and their clinical applications has shown that these alterations will be commonly used in the near future as molecular markers to direct the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22009203

  11. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  12. [Obesity and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Soo-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Obesity worldwide is constantly increasing. Obesity acts as an independent significant risk factor for malignant tumors of various organs including colorectal cancer. Visceral adipose tissue is physiologically more important than subcutaneous adipose tissue. The relative risk of colorectal cancer of obese patients is about 1.5 times higher than the normal-weight individuals, and obesity is also associated with premalignant colorectal adenoma. The colorectal cancer incidence of obese patients has gender-specific and site-specific characteristics that it is higher in men than women and in the colon than rectum. Obesity acts as a risk factor of colorectal carcinogenesis by several mechanisms. Isulin, insulin-like growth factor, leptin, adiponectin, microbiome, and cytokines of chronic inflammation etc. have been understood as its potential mechanisms. In addition, obesity in patients with colorectal cancer negatively affects the disease progression and response of chemotherapy. Although the evidence is not clear yet, there are some reports that weight loss as well as life-modification such as dietary change and physical activity can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. It is very important knowledge in the point that obesity is a potentially modifiable risk factor that can alter the incidence and outcome of the colorectal cancer.

  13. Detection of colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Christensen, Ib J.; Rasmussen, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Serological biomarkers may be an option for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study assessed eight cancer-associated protein biomarkers in plasma from subjects undergoing first time ever colonoscopy due to symptoms attributable to colorectal neoplasia. Plasma AFP, CA19-9, CEA...

  14. Synchronous colorectal liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.M. van der Pool (Anne)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and ranks second in cancer-related deaths in many parts of the Western world. Once in the lymph or blood vessels, colorectal cancer can quickly spread and the liver is known to be a favourable site for metastases. The

  15. [Colorectal cancer and folate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, C; Lembcke, B; Stein, J

    2003-03-01

    Nutritional factors are important contributors to colorectal cancer prevention. There is some evidence to suggest that a high dietary folate intake is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Folate, which is found in green leafy vegetables, is involved in C1 group transfer and contributes to purin and thymi-dilate synthesis as well as to DNA methylation. Alterations in gene expression and DNA damage are discussed to result from low folate levels and might be associated with an elevated risk of colorectal malignancies. This hypothesis can be supported by the finding that a common polymorphism in the methylentetrahydrofolate reductase gene enhances the risk of colorectal cancer when folate status is low. Both retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies confirm the observation that a high intake of folate correlates with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. There is also evidence from epidemiological studies that diets which are low in methyl donors, such as low contents of folate and/or methionine combined with relatively high alcohol consumption, even enhance the risk of colorectal cancer. A small number of intervention trials provide first evidence that folate intakes far above recommended dietary allowances might influence possible biomarkers of colorectal tumours.

  16. Canadian nuclear risk experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    1982-05-01

    Risk assessment in the Canadian nuclear fuel cycle is a very important and complex subject. Many levels of government are involved in deciding the acceptable limits for the risks, taking into account the benefits for society [fr

  17. Prophylaxis against colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Kronborg, O

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing with a w...... for colorectal cancer in average-risk persons as well as high-risk groups with precursors of the disease. The present review places Danish contributions within the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer during the last decade in an international context....

  18. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J.; Jakobsen, Karen V.; Christensen, Ib J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  19. Prophylaxis against colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Kronborg, O

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing...... with a well-established register of familial adenomatous polyposis and a recently founded register for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, both with major international relationships. The Danish tradition of epidemiology and clinical trials has also been demonstrated in population screening trials...... for colorectal cancer in average-risk persons as well as high-risk groups with precursors of the disease. The present review places Danish contributions within the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer during the last decade in an international context....

  20. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  1. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship........59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...

  2. Hereditary colorectal cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise; Holck, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThe hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) subset of tumours can broadly be divided into tumours caused by an underlying mismatch-repair gene mutation, referred to as Lynch syndrome, and those that develop in families with similar patterns of heredity but without disease......-predisposing germline mismatch repair mutations, referred to as familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Recognition of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers is central since surveillance programmes effectively reduce morbidity and mortality. The characteristic morphological features linked to Lynch syndrome can aid...... in the identification of this subset, whereas the possibility to use morphological features as an indicator of FCCTX is uncertain.Objective and methodsTo perform a detailed morphological evaluation of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers and demonstrate significant differences between tumours associated with FCCTX...

  3. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1.......59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship....

  4. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  5. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  6. Colorectal polyps in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Kalpesh; Fishman, Douglas S; Gilger, Mark A

    2012-10-01

    Colorectal polyps are a common cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in children. This review updates the information on colorectal polyps and summarizes the recent advances in genetics, diagnosis, and treatment of polyps in the large intestine. A review of recent literature regarding colorectal polyps demonstrates an estimated detected prevalence of 6.1% overall and 12.0% among those with lower gastrointestinal bleeding during pediatric colonoscopy. Non-Caucasian races (e.g., black and Hispanic) are at higher risk for colorectal polyps in childhood. Recent data show juvenile polyps may recur in approximately 45% of children with multiple polyps and 17% of children with solitary polyps. A clinical trial showed that celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, significantly reduced the number of colorectal polyps in children with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Ethical challenges related to genetic tests for FAP have been newly examined. The utility of novel endoscopic techniques (e.g., enteroscopy) in Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome to prevent intussusception have been newly described. Although colorectal polyps in children are generally benign and easily removed, careful clinical evaluation and ongoing research are needed to identify the small proportion of children at risk for cancer. The current paradigm of using the polyp number at presentation as a primary determinant of subsequent surveillance may be inadequate for many patients.

  7. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  8. Canadian competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, J.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of the Canadian petrochemical industry was outlined, emphasizing the proximity to feedstocks as the principal advantage enjoyed by the industry over its international competitors. Annual sales statistics for 1995 were provided. Key players in the Canadian petrochemical industry (Nova, Dow, DuPont, Methanex, Esso, Union Carbide, Shell and Celanese), their share of the market and key products were noted. Manufacturing facilities are located primarily in Alberta, southern Ontario and Quebec. The feedstock supply infrastructure, historical and alternative ethane pricing in Canada and the US, the North American market for petrochemicals, the competitiveness of the industry, tax competitiveness among Canadian provinces and the US, the Canada - US unit labour cost ratio, ethylene facility construction costs in Canada relative to the US Gulf Coast, and projected 1997 financial requirements were reviewed. 19 figs

  9. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  10. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  11. Canadian beef quality audit.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) wa...

  12. Time and space clusters of the French-Canadian MIV phenylketonuria mutation in France

    OpenAIRE

    Lyonnet, Stanislas; Melle, Dominique; de Braekeleer, Marc; Laframboise, Rachel; Rey, Françoise; John, Simon W. M.; Berthelon, Monique; Berthelot, Jacques; Journel, Hubert; Le Marec, Bernard; Parent, Philippe; de Parscau, Loïc; Saudubray, Jean-Marie; Rozen, Rima; Rey, Jean

    1992-01-01

    We performed mutation analysis and RFLP haplotype analysis of chromosomes associated with classical phenylketonuria (PKU) in contemporary French families. We also did genealogical reconstructions for seven obligate carriers in five contemporary French-Canadian families living in eastern Quebec, who carry the M1V mutation causing PKU. The M1V mutation, heretofore considered to be associated exclusively with French-Canadians, was found on 4 of 152 independent French chromosomes. The French and ...

  13. On the cultural guises of cognitive dissonance: the case of easterners and westerners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino-Browne, Etsuko; Zanna, Adam S; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P; Kitayama, Shinobu; Lackenbauer, Sandra

    2005-09-01

    Cognitive dissonance and effects of self-affirmation on dissonance arousal were examined cross-culturally. In Studies 1 and 2, European Canadians justified their choices more when they made them for themselves, whereas Asian Canadians (Study 1) or Japanese (Study 2) justified their choices more when they made them for a friend. In Study 3, an interdependent self-affirmation reduced dissonance for Asian Canadians but not for European Canadians. In Study 4, when Asian Canadians made choices for a friend, an independent self-affirmation reduced dissonance for bicultural Asian Canadians but not for monocultural Asian Canadians. These studies demonstrate that both Easterners and Westerners can experience dissonance, but culture shapes the situations in which dissonance is aroused and reduced. Implications of these cultural differences for theories of cognitive dissonance and self-affirmation are discussed.

  14. Canadian gas resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Canadian exports of gas to the United States are a critical component of EMF-9 (North American Gas Supplies). However, it has been noted that there are differences between US expectations for imports and Canadian forecasts of export supply capacity. Recent studies by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) indicate that 1.8 to 2.4 Tcf of imports may be required in the mid to late 1990's; A recent study by Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) indicates that the conventional resource base may not be able to provide continued gas exports to the US after the mid 1990's and that frontier sources would need to be developed to meet US expectations. The discrepancies between US expectations and Canadian estimates of capacity are of great concern to US policymakers because they call into question the availability of secure supplies of natural gas and suggest that the cost of imports (if available) will be high. By implication, if shortages are to be averted, massive investment may be required to bring these higher cost sources to market. Since the long-term supply picture will be determined by the underlying resource base, EMF-9 participants have been asked to provide estimates of critical components of the Canadian resource base. This paper provides a summary of ICF-Lewin's recent investigation of both the Conventional and Tight Gas resource in Canada's Western Sedimentary Basin, which includes both quantitative estimates and a brief sketch of the analysis methodology

  15. Canadian Nuclear Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, John

    1992-01-01

    It is the view of the Canadian Nuclear Association that continuing creation of economic wealth is vital to sustainable development. A plentiful supply of cheap energy is essential. Nuclear energy provides the cleanest source of bulk energy generation essential to any path of sustainable development

  16. Research Award: Canadian Partnerships

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... universies and civil society organizaons (CSOs) — that is acvely engaged in creang, sharing, and using knowledge to advance our understanding of internaonal ... but programs are also being offered by other facules, including public health and engineering. Some inial research on Canadian study‐abroad ...

  17. Colorectal adenomas produce lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C A

    2003-01-01

    Lysozyme is an innate non-immunologic antibacterial enzyme produced by the Paneth cells of the upper intestinal tract. Lysozyme is not normally secreted in the lower intestinal tract. Previous reports indicate, however, that lysozyme may be secreted by colorectal neoplasias. The aim was to audit lysozyme expression in colorectal diseases including neoplasias. For that purpose, sections were stained with lysozyme (Muramidase), Ki67 (MIB1) and CD 68. Intense lysozyme overexpression (+++) was compared among 177 colorectal tissues: 35 having normal mucosa, 20 regenerative mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 2 inflammatory polyps, 3 collagenous colitis, 2 melanosis coli, 21 hyperplastic polyps, 42 tubular adenomas, 9 serrated adenomas, 30 villous adenomas and 13 invasive carcinomas. Intense lysozyme overexpression (+++) was found in 9.5% of the hyperplastic polyps, in 97.6% of the tubular adenomas, in 88.9% of the serrated adenomas, in 93.3% of the villous adenomas, in 76.9% of the carcinomas, but in none of the other tissues investigated. Neoplastic colorectal cells may acquire the capacity to produce lysozyme. The presence of that enzyme may not be a haphazard, capricious event in mutated colorectal epithelial cells but part of a more elaborate molecular behavior, not necessarily antibacterial. Recently, it was demonstrated that patients having lysozyme-secreting breast carcinomas were associated with a favorable prognosis. Whether lysozyme expression has any bearing on the biological behavior of colorectal carcinomas remains to be elucidated. Lysozyme overexpression (+++) also occurred in 2 of the 21 hyperplastic polyps, suggesting that intense lysozyme production might herald a possible dysplastic evolution in some hyperplastic polyps.

  18. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden and is the most common cause of mortality from cancer in Europe. Over the last two decades robust evidence from randomised clinical trials and case-control series have confirmed that the mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by screening. The challenge over the next decade is how to implement this in clinical practice. This is what we set out to answer with this thesis. Not all individuals are equal when it comes to screening and tho...

  19. eastern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eastern Uganda. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study sites and experimcntal design. The study was conducted in thrce hi ghland districts ofeastern. Uganda, namely; Kapchorwa, Mbale and Sironko, for three consecutivr: seasons bcginning with thc second (September [0 December) season of2001, and during thc first (April ...

  20. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney problems. Bleeding in the stomach, intestines, or brain. Heart problems such as heart attack and congestive heart failure . Calcium It is not known if taking calcium supplements lowers the risk of colorectal cancer. Diet It is not known if a diet low ...

  1. [Nationwide colorectal cancer screening].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, L.G.M. van; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Usually, colorectal cancer presents with complaints in a late stage, but can be detected in an earlier stage, with better prognosis, by colonoscopy. Using colonoscopy, also precancerous tumours, adenomas, can be detected and excised, but only in a national screening programme. However primary

  2. Canadian fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.S.

    1982-06-01

    The National Research Council of Canada is establishing a coordinated national program of fusion research and development that is planned to grow to a total annual operating level of about $20 million in 1985. The long-term objective of the program is to put Canadian industry in a position to manufacture sub-systems and components of fusion power reactors. In the near term the program is designed to establish a minimum base of scientific and technical expertise sufficient to make recognized contributions and thereby gain access to the international effort. The Canadian program must be narrowly focussed on a few specializations where Canada has special indigenous skills or technologies. The programs being funded are the Tokamak de Varennes, the Fusion Fuels Technology Project centered on tritium management, and high-power gas laser technology and associated diagnostic instrumentation

  3. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle, G.

    1996-01-01

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  4. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  5. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  6. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.E.; Deland, F.H.; Casper, S.; Corgan, R.L.; Primus, F.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of colorectal cancer radioimmunodetection. Twenty-seven patients with a history of histologically-confirmed colonic or rectal carcinoma received a high-titer, purified goat anti-CEA IgG labelled with 131 I at a total dose of at least 1.0 μCi. Various body views were scanned at 24 and 48 hours after administration of the radioantibody. Three additional cases were evaluated; one had a villous adenoma in the rectum and received the 131 I-labeled anti-CEA IgG, while two colonic carcinoma patients received normal goat IgG labelled with 131 I. All of the 7 cases with primary colorectal cancer showed true-positive tumor localization, while 20 of 25 sites of metastatic colorectal cancer detected by immune scintigraphy were corroborated by other detection measures. The sensitivity of the radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancers (primary and metastatic) was found to be 90% (true-positive rate), the putative specificity (true-negative rate) was 94%, and the apparent overall accuracy of the technique was 93%. Neither the case of a villous adenoma receiving the anti-CEA IgG nor the two cases of colonic cancer receiving normal goat IgG showed tumor radiolocalization. Very high circulating CEA titers did not appear to hinder successful tumor radiolocalization. These findings suggest that in colorectal cancers the method of CEA radioimmunodetection may be of value in preoperatively determining the location and extent of disease, in assessing possible recurrence or spread postoperatively, and in localizing the source of CEA production in patients with rising or elevated CEA titers. An ancilliary benefit could be a more tumor-specific detection test for confirming the findings of other, more conventional diagnostic measures

  7. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  8. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Considine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The lexicographical record of English in Canada began with wordlists of the late eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries. From the beginning of the twentieth century onwards, the general vocabulary of English in Canada has been represented in bilingual and monolingual dictionaries, often adapted from American or British dictionaries. In the 1950s, several important projects were initiated, resulting in the publication of general dictionaries of English in Canada, and of dictionaries of Canadianisms and of the vocabulary of particular regions of Can-ada. This article gives an overview of these dictionaries and of their reception, contextualizing them in the larger picture of the lexicography of Canada's other official language, French, and of a number of its non-official languages. It concludes by looking at the future of English-language lexicography in Canada, and by observing that although it has, at its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken.

    Keywords: DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHY, CANADIAN ENGLISH, CANADIANISMS, NATIONAL DICTIONARIES, CANADIAN FRENCH, CANADIAN FIRST NATIONS LAN-GUAGES, BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES, REGIONAL DICTIONARIES, UNFINISHED DICTIONARY PROJECTS

    Opsomming: Woordeboeke van Kanadese Engels. Die leksikografiese optekening van Engels in Kanada begin met woordelyste van die laat agtiende, neëntiende en vroeë twintigste eeue. Van die begin van die twintigste eeu af en verder, is die algemene woordeskat van Engels weergegee in tweetalige en eentalige woordeboeke, dikwels met wysiginge ontleen aan Ameri-kaanse en Britse woordeboeke. In die 1950's is verskeie belangrike projekte onderneem wat gelei het tot die publikasie van algemene woordeboeke van Engels in Kanada, en van woordeboeke van Kanadeïsmes en van die woordeskat van bepaalde streke van Kanada. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van dié woordeboeke, en van hul ontvangs, deur

  9. Improving Quality in Colorectal Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Slieker, Juliette

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Colorectal surgery is an important aspect of our current health system, due to the high incidence of colorectal cancer combined with an ageing population, improved long-term outcomes after colorectal surgery, and the perfectioning of the operative and postoperative aspects through laparoscopy and enhanced recovery programs. However, postoperative complications painfully remain, despite efforts of amelioration of perioperative care. Research for molecular pathways ...

  10. Lysyl oxidase in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent form of cancer worldwide and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, leading to ~600,000 deaths annually, predominantly affecting the developed world. Lysyl oxidase is a secreted, extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme previously suggested...... to act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence has rapidly implicated lysyl oxidase in promoting metastasis of solid tumors and in particular colorectal cancer at multiple stages, affecting tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. This emerging research has...... advancements in the field of colorectal cancer....

  11. Endoscopic management of colorectal adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel; Fischer, Andreas; Schmidt, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal adenomas are well known precursors of invasive adenocarcinoma. Colonoscopy is the gold standard for adenoma detection. Colonoscopy is far more than a diagnostic tool, as it allows effective treatment of colorectal adenomas. Endoscopic resection of colorectal adenomas has been shown to reduce the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer. Difficult resection techniques are available, such as endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection and endoscopic full-thickness resection. This review aims to provide an overview of the different endoscopic resection techniques and their indications, and summarizes the current recommendations in the recently published guideline of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

  12. Canadian heavy water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlinger, A.; Lockerby, W.E.; Rae, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of the Canadian R and D programme on heavy water processes. Six Canadian heavy water plants with a total design capacity of 4000Mg/a are in operation or under construction. All use the Girdler-Sulphide (GS) process, which is based on deuterium exchange between water and hydrogen sulphide. Early operating problems have been overcome and the plants have demonstrated annual capacity factors in excess of 70%, with short-term production rates equal to design rates. Areas for further improvement are: to increase production rates by optimizing the control of foaming to give both higher sieve tray efficiency and higher flow rates, to reduce the incapacity due to deposition of pyrite (FeS 2 ) and sulphur (between 5% and 10%), and to improve process control and optimization of operating conditions by the application of mathematical simulations of the detailed deuterium profile throughout each plant. Other processes being studied, which look potentially attractive are the hydrogen-water exchange and the hydrogen-amine exchange. Even if they become successful competitors to the GS process, the latter is likely to remain the dominant production method for the next 10-20 years. This programme, when related to the long-term electricity demand, indicates that heavy water supply and demand are in reasonable balance and that the Candu programme will not be inhibited because of shortages of this commodity. (author)

  13. Trichomoniasis in finches from the Canadian Maritime provinces — An emerging disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzán, María J.; Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Melekhovets, Yuri F.; McBurney, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Trichomoniasis was diagnosed in multiple incidents of mortality in wild purple finch (Carpodacus purpureus) and American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) in the Canadian Maritimes. Birds exhibited regurgitation, emaciation, and hyperplastic oropharyngitis, ingluvitis, and esophagitis. Trichomonas gallinae was identified by histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Trichomoniasis (trichomonosis) is an emerging disease in wild finches of eastern Canada. PMID:20592828

  14. Improving colorectal cancer referrals

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Claire

    2018-01-01

    The colorectal services at The Royal Bournemouth Hospital needed to adapt to meet the extra demand on fast-track patient referrals to the outpatient department, as a consequence of the changes in the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance on cancer referrals in June 2015. Learning from other units, a telephone assessment clinic (TAC) triaging patients straight to colonoscopy was trialled. A Plan–Do–Study–Act (PDSA) methodology was used. A baseline study showed that ...

  15. The Canadian safeguards program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarecki, C.W.; Smith, R.M.

    1981-12-01

    In support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Canada provides technical support to the International Atomic Energy Agency for the development of safeguards relevant to Canadian designed and built nuclear facilities. Some details of this program are discussed, including the philosophy and development of CANDU safeguards systems; the unique equipment developed for these systems; the provision of technical experts; training programs; liaison with other technical organizations; research and development; implementation of safeguards systems at various nuclear facilities; and the anticipated future direction of the safeguards program

  16. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    ... these and other issues at the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians. Situating their work within the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range fr...

  17. Employment and Urban Native Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams-Maclachlan, Caryl; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Measured differences in employment issues between native Canadian Indians and a nonnative comparison group in Toronto. Given similar circumstances, found Native Canadians less formally educated and skill trained than nonnatives of comparable age, sex, and education. Respondents under 25 and over 50 earned substantially less. (Author)

  18. Canadian perspectives on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1988-01-01

    Canada has been in the forefront of irradiation technology for some 30 years. Nearly 90 of the 140 irradiators used worldwide are Canadian-built, yet Canadian food processors have been very slow to use the technology. The food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada, the factors that influence it, and some significant non-regulatory developments are reviewed. (author)

  19. The Dutch surgical colorectal audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leersum, N. J.; Snijders, H. S.; Henneman, D.; Kolfschoten, N. E.; Gooiker, G. A.; ten Berge, M. G.; Eddes, E. H.; Wouters, M. W. J. M.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Bemelman, W. A.; van Dam, R. M.; Elferink, M. A.; Karsten, Th M.; van Krieken, J. H. J. M.; Lemmens, V. E. P. P.; Rutten, H. J. T.; Manusama, E. R.; van de Velde, C. J. H.; Meijerink, W. J. H. J.; Wiggers, Th; van der Harst, E.; Dekker, J. W. T.; Boerma, D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the nationwide Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit (DSCA) was initiated by the Association of Surgeons of the Netherlands (ASN) to monitor, evaluate and improve colorectal cancer care. The DSCA is currently widely used as a blueprint for the initiation of other audits, coordinated by the Dutch

  20. The dutch surgical colorectal audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leersum, N.J. van; Snijders, H.S.; Henneman, D.; Kolfschoten, N.E.; Gooiker, G.A.; Berge, M.G. Ten; Eddes, E.H.; Wouters, M.W.; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Bemelman, W.A.; Dam, R.M. van; Elferink, M.A.; Karsten, T.M.; Krieken, J.H. van; Lemmens, V.E.; Rutten, H.J.; Manusama, E.R.; Velde, C.J. van de; Meijerink, W.J.H.J.; Wiggers, T.; Harst, E. van der; Dekker, J.W.T.; Boerma, D.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 2009, the nationwide Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit (DSCA) was initiated by the Association of Surgeons of the Netherlands (ASN) to monitor, evaluate and improve colorectal cancer care. The DSCA is currently widely used as a blueprint for the initiation of other audits, coordinated

  1. Exercise and Low-Dose Ibuprofen for Cognitive Impairment in Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-13

    Cognitive Impairment; Stage 0 Colorectal Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage II Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage III Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  2. Canadian attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.O.

    1977-01-01

    In the past ten years, public interest in nuclear power and its relationship to the environment has grown. Although most Canadians have accepted nuclear power as a means of generating electricity, there is significant opposition to its use. This opposition has effectively forced the Canadian nuclear industry to modify its behaviour to the public in the face of growing concern over the safety of nuclear power and related matters. The paper reviews Canadian experience concerning public acceptance of nuclear power, with special reference to the public information activities of the Canadian nuclear industry. Experience has shown the need for scientific social data that will permit the nuclear industry to involve the public in a rational examination of its concern about nuclear power. The Canadian Nuclear Association sponsored such studies in 1976 and the findings are discussed. They consisted of a national assessment of public attitudes, two regional studies and a study of Canadian policy-makers' views on nuclear energy. The social data obtained were of a base-line nature describing Canadian perceptions of and attitudes to nuclear power at that time. This research established that Canadian levels of knowledge about nuclear power are very low and that there are marked regional differences. Only 56% of the population have the minimum knowledge required to indicate that they know that nuclear power can be used to generate electricity. Nevertheless, 21% of informed Canadians oppose nuclear power primarily on the grounds that it is not safe. Radiation and waste management are seen to be major disadvantages. In perspective, Canadians are more concerned with inflation than with the energy supply. About half of all Canadians see the question of energy supplies as a future problem (within five years), not a present one. A more important aspect of energy is seen by the majority of Canadians to be some form of energy independence. The use of data from these studies is no easy

  3. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  4. Dictionaries of Canadian English | Considine | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken. keywords: dictionary, lexicography, canadian english, canadianisms, national dictionaries, canadian french, canadian first nations lan-guages, bilingual dictionaries, regional dictionaries, unfinished diction-ary projects ...

  5. Diagnosis of colorectal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.J.; Pegios, W.; Jacobi, V.; Schaefer, S.; Abolmaali, N.; Luboldt, W.

    2003-01-01

    With the introduction of multislice CT extensive volumetric data sets can be quickly acquired in high spatial resolution. The high spatial resolution reduces partial volume effects and enables multiplanar reconstructions. Regarding the colorectum this means that the colon can be assessed if the colon is sufficiently cleaned and distended, and that transmural infiltration of colorectal carcinoma and liver metastases can be better detected. T-staging of colon cancer is less important than T-staging of rectal cancer. Based on the higher contrast MRI is superior to CT in T-staging of rectal cancer and in the differentiation between scarring tissue and recurrence of carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  6. Metastatic paediatric colorectal carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Woods, R

    2012-03-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented to our unit with crampy abdominal pain, change in bowel habit, a subjective impression of weight loss and a single episode of haematochezia. She was found to have a rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma and proceeded to laparoscopic anterior resection, whereupon peritoneal metastases were discovered. She received chemotherapy and is alive and well ten month later with no radiological evidence of disease. Colorectal carcinoma is rare in the paediatric population but is increasing in incidence. Early diagnosis is critical to enable optimal outcomes.

  7. The dimethylhydrazine induced colorectal tumours in rat - experimental colorectal carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perse, M.; Cerar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Animal models of colorectal carcinogenesis represent invaluable research tool for investigating colorectal cancer (CRC). Experimentally induced tumours in laboratory animals provide opportunity for studying certain aspects of tumours that cannot be effectively studied in humans. Significant information on human CRC aetiology or factors influencing it has derived from studies using dimethylhydrazine (DMH) model that is one of the experimental models appreciated for its morphological similarity to human CRC. Today, DMH model represents useful research tool for the studies of colon carcinogens and chemopreventive agents. The review offers insight into morphogenesis and genetic alterations of DMH induced colorectal epithelial tumours in rats. (author)

  8. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2010-06-01

    Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. For example, several studies have shown that high intake of red and processed meats, highly refined grains and starches, and sugars is related to increased risk of colorectal cancer. Replacing these factors with poultry, fish, and plant sources as the primary source of protein; unsaturated fats as the primary source of fat; and unrefined grains, legumes and fruits as the primary source of carbohydrates is likely to lower risk of colorectal cancer. Although a role for supplements, including vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains uncertain, calcium supplementation is likely to be at least modestly beneficial. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking and heavy alcohol use, prevention of weight gain, and maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity are associated with markedly lower risks of colorectal cancer. Medications such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and postmenopausal hormones for women are associated with substantial reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by associated risks. Taken together, modifications in diet and lifestyle should substantially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and could complement screening in reducing colorectal cancer incidence.

  9. Reporting colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, P; Morris, E

    2007-01-01

    The management of colorectal cancer is a team process. High-quality reporting of colorectal cancer is very important as the whole team relies upon the skill of the pathologist. Failure to report key features can lead to undertreatment of this disease. The use of a proforma has been demonstrated to be beneficial and we recommend staying with TNM5 due to scientific and reproducibility issues with TNM6. Important features in stage II/Dukes' B cases are extramural vascular invasion, peritoneal involvement, extent of extramural spread, incomplete resection and perforation. All of these may lead to adjuvant therapy being administered. The surgically created circumferential resection margin (CRM) and the mode of its creation are important features and the CRM retains its value after preoperative therapy. Regression grading should be applied only to fully resected tumours and the dissection and sampling must be standardized to allow comparison of results between trials and centres. When reporting local resections of early-stage cancers we need to look for features that predict spread to local lymph nodes to allow a full resection to be considered.

  10. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    "Voluntary migrants to Canada are generally healthier than the average Canadian, but after ten years in the country they report poorer health and higher rates of chronic disease than those born here...

  11. Canadian gas supply : an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochefort, T.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the daily production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) from 1986 to 1997 was presented. This presentation also outlined Canadian production trends, Canadian reserves and resources, and supply challenges. Ultimate conventional marketable gas from the WCSB, the Scotian Shelf, the Beaufort Sea and Canada's Arctic region was estimated at 591 TCF. Issues regarding supply and demand of natural gas such as the impact of electricity restructuring on pricing, generation fuel mix, the capacity of the U.S. market to absorb Canadian heavy oil production, and the influence of the rate of technological advances on supply and demand were outlined. The overall conclusion confirmed the health and competitiveness of the Canadian upstream sector and expressed confidence that the WCSB can support rising levels of production to meet the expected continued market growth. tabs., figs

  12. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... What contributes to this deterioration, and how can its effects be mitigated? Engendering Migrant Health brings together researchers from across Canada to address the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians...

  13. The Canadian heavy water situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlinger, A.

    The Canadian heavy water industry is analyzed. Supply and demand are predicted through 1985. Pricing is broken down into components. Backup R and D contributes greatly to process improvements. (E.C.B.)

  14. Comparative Canadian-American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Macel D.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines topics for comparative study of Canada and the United States. Includes geography, politics, settlement patterns, economics, education, religion, and sports. Suggests materials to aid teachers in formulating comparative approaches to Canadian and U.S. studies. (DB)

  15. A proposed icebreaker for shipping LNG from the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, R.A. [Arcturus International Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada); Bell, M.H. [Miropial Investments Ltd. Ottawa, ON (Canada); Prior, A. [Fleetway Inc. Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-11-15

    With the vast quantities of hydrocarbons and mineral resources to be found in the Canadian Arctic, it is essential that the marine technology associated with year-round operation in ice be further explored. The proven reserves in the Drake field alone make liquefied natural gas (LNG) an obvious choice for a shipping trial. This paper suggested a route by which to transport liquefied natural gas from the Sverdrup Basin to an eastern Canadian port for regasification. Marine technology was reviewed with reference to vessel routing, the physical environment, ship technology and the transportation of LNG, together with the current maritime regulatory regime governing shipping activities. The paper also presented an outline design for appropriate Polar Class LNG vessels. The Sverdrup Basin holds substantial reserves of hydrocarbons and minerals. As such, a safe, economic and environmentally acceptable means of transport will soon be needed for the commercial development of the Arctic. The Arctic Pilot Project (APP) was launched in 1977 by Petro-Canada to demonstrate Canadian sovereignty and to research the commercial development of natural gas resources in the Canadian High Arctic. The administrative centre of the Canadian High Arctic is at Resolute Bay, Cornwallis Island. The polar class LNG vessel was described with reference to the hull shape, bow shape, midbody forms; stern forms; performance prediction; hull structure, materials, hull girder structure and propulsion. It was concluded that LNG shipping issues are now better understood than at the onset of the APP, as evidenced by nearly 180 LNG vessels in operation and another 100 on order. The safety record of these polar class LNG vessels is second to none in the shipping industry, with a forty-year track record of never having had an accident resulting in penetration of the cargo tanks. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs., 1 appendix.

  16. Canadian snow and sea ice: historical trends and projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Derksen, Chris; Howell, Stephen; Laliberté, Fred; Thackeray, Chad; Sospedra-Alfonso, Reinel; Vionnet, Vincent; Kushner, Paul J.; Brown, Ross

    2018-04-01

    The Canadian Sea Ice and Snow Evolution (CanSISE) Network is a climate research network focused on developing and applying state of the art observational data to advance dynamical prediction, projections, and understanding of seasonal snow cover and sea ice in Canada and the circumpolar Arctic. Here, we present an assessment from the CanSISE Network on trends in the historical record of snow cover (fraction, water equivalent) and sea ice (area, concentration, type, and thickness) across Canada. We also assess projected changes in snow cover and sea ice likely to occur by mid-century, as simulated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) suite of Earth system models. The historical datasets show that the fraction of Canadian land and marine areas covered by snow and ice is decreasing over time, with seasonal and regional variability in the trends consistent with regional differences in surface temperature trends. In particular, summer sea ice cover has decreased significantly across nearly all Canadian marine regions, and the rate of multi-year ice loss in the Beaufort Sea and Canadian Arctic Archipelago has nearly doubled over the last 8 years. The multi-model consensus over the 2020-2050 period shows reductions in fall and spring snow cover fraction and sea ice concentration of 5-10 % per decade (or 15-30 % in total), with similar reductions in winter sea ice concentration in both Hudson Bay and eastern Canadian waters. Peak pre-melt terrestrial snow water equivalent reductions of up to 10 % per decade (30 % in total) are projected across southern Canada.

  17. Canadian perspectives on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada has been in the forefront of irradiation technology for over 30 years. Some 83 of the 147 irradiators used worldwide are Canadian-built, yet Canadian food processors have been very slow to use the technology. This paper is an update on the food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada and the factors that influence it. It also reviews some significant non-regulatory developments. (author)

  18. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed......, and other pathological risk factors. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal...... diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long...

  19. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARYBackground and purpose Colorectal cancer is a common disease in Denmark with considerable morbidity and mortality. Although survival in recent years has improved, Denmark still has the lowest 5-year survival compared to the other Nordic countries. The treatment of patients depends on local...... the potential to contribute to the staging of colorectal cancer. The purpose of these studies was to determine the usefulness of ultrasound diagnostics in patients with colorectal cancer.The purpose of the TRUS studies was to compare staging of rectal carcinomas using digital rectal exploration...... of 295 patients with primary colorectal cancer we found a sensitivity of preoperative ultrasound, surgical exploration, and intraoperative ultrasound of 70%, 84%, and 97%, respectively, based on a patient-by-patient comparison (p

  20. Obesity and colorectal cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hano Garcia, Olga Marina; Wood Rodriguez, Lisette; Villa Jimenez, Oscar Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

  1. Canadian leadership in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Canadian programme overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    In a severe accident, hydrogen is released into containment. When it is well mixed, the hydrogen mixture is nonflammable because there is sufficient dilution by the large containment volume. This is the desired end point. However, the release may occur into smaller compartments of containment, stratification may occur, and local pockets of flammable mixtures may arise if hydrogen is released faster than processes that mix and disperse it. Long term hydrogen generation from water radiolysis must also be considered. Hydrogen mitigation and control strategies adopted or considered in Canada include fanforced mixing, glow plug igniters, recombiners, venting through filters, or combinations of these. The Canadian hydrogen programme is focussed on understanding hydrogen combustion behaviour and providing the data needed to demonstrate the adequacy of hydrogen mitigation and control strategies. The programme includes both experimental and modelling components of hydrogen combustion and distribution. Experiments include mixing tests, deflagration tests, diffusion flames, transition from deflagration to detonation, and testing the performance of igniters and recombiners. Modelling is focussing on the GOTHIC code as an industry standard. Detailed three dimensional modelling of gas mixing and combustion are underway, and a code validation matrix is being assembled for validation exercises. Significant progress has been made, highlights from which are being presented at this workshop. (author)

  3. Canadian leadership in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. MIS in the management of colon and rectal cancer: consensus meeting of the Colorectal Cancer Association of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlachta, Christopher M; Ashamalla, Shady; Smith, Andy

    2013-11-01

    A consensus conference on the role of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in the management of colon and rectal cancer was convened by the Colorectal Cancer Association of Canada in Toronto on April 18, 2012. This is a report of the consensus of an invited group of Canadian experts in MIS and surgery of the colon and rectum that addresses the role this technology should play in treatment and also considers advocacy and resources.

  5. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...... features, and the genetic and epigenetic profiles of the familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) syndrome with the aim to delineate tumor characteristics that may contribute to refined diagnostics and optimized tumor prevention....

  6. Brain metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Brain metastases from colorectal cancer are rare. The prognosis for patients with even a single resectable brain metastasis is poor. A case of surgically treated cerebral metastasis from a rectal carcinoma is reported. The brain tumour was radically resected. However, cerebral, as well...... as extracerebral, disease recurred 12 months after diagnosis. Surgical removal of colorectal metastatic brain lesions in selected cases results in a longer survival time....

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    B. Shafayan M. Keyhani

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC): From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56), 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most com...

  8. [Colorectal cancer prevention by flavonoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoensch, Harald; Richling, Elke; Kruis, Wolfgang; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2010-08-01

    Valid, sustained and safe clinical means of colorectal cancer prevention are still lacking, but they are urgently needed to lower the incidence of colorectal cancer. Dietary factors and phytochemicals such as flavonoids play an important role for prevention. A selective search of the literature using PubMed was performed with the following key words: flavonoids, cancer, therapy, colorectal cancer focused on clinical queries. Results of clinical studies including the authors' own were compared. In vivo and in vitro studies with animals, cell cultures and subcellular components provide ample evidence for antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of flavonoids as shown for multiple biological and molecular endpoints. Isoflavonoids in vitro have been shown to induce proliferation of breast cancer cells. Epidemiologic trials (cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies) yielded inconsistent results for flavonoid protection. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support the protective role of tea flavonoids on adenoma incidence. An interventional pilot study with sustained flavonoid supplementation was shown to reduce the rate of neoplasia in patients with resected colorectal cancer. Selected flavonoids possess antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties and could reduce the incidence of colorectal neoplasias as shown in epidemiologic trials. Randomized controlled clinical studies with flavonoid intervention are necessary to provide evidence for their role in colorectal cancer prevention.

  9. Robotics in Colorectal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Allison; Steele, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, robotic surgery has developed from a futuristic dream to a real, widely used technology. Today, robotic platforms are used for a range of procedures and have added a new facet to the development and implementation of minimally invasive surgeries. The potential advantages are enormous, but the current progress is impeded by high costs and limited technology. However, recent advances in haptic feedback systems and single-port surgical techniques demonstrate a clear role for robotics and are likely to improve surgical outcomes. Although robotic surgeries have become the gold standard for a number of procedures, the research in colorectal surgery is not definitive and more work needs to be done to prove its safety and efficacy to both surgeons and patients.

  10. Colorectal Cancer: Prognostic Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Manxhuka-Kerliu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available After lung cancer colorectal cancer (Cc is ranked the second, as a cause of cancer-related death. The purpose of this study was to analyze the Cc cases in our material with respect to all prognostic values including histological type and grade, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, and tumor border features. There were investigated 149 cases of resection specimen with colorectal cancer, which were fixed in buffered neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin. Tissue sections (4(µm thick were cut and stained with H&E. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type found in 85,90% of cases, in 60,94% of males and 39,06% of females; squamous cell carcinoma in 7,38%, in 63,63% of males and 36,36% of females; mucinous carcinoma in 4,68%, in 57,15% of males and 42,85% of females; while adenosquamous carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma and carcinoma in situ in 0,71% of cases each. Dukes' classification was used in order to define the depth of invasion. Dukes B was found in 68,45% of cases, whereas in 31,54% of cases Dukes C was found. As far as histological grading is concerned, Cc was mostly with moderate differentiation (75,16% with neither vascular nor perineural invasion. Resection margins were in all cases free of tumor. Our data indicate that the pathologic features of the resection specimen constitute the most powerful predictors of postoperative outcome in Cc. Dukes' stage and degree of differentiation provide independent prognostic information in Cc. However, differentiation should be assessed by the worst pattern.

  11. Colorectal Cancer: What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Colorectal Cancer: What You Should Know Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... with—and more than 50,000 died from—colorectal cancer, according to the National Cancer Institute. It is ...

  12. Canadian perspectives in evaluating transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herwig, L.

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's mission is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, and security of Canadians and the environment, as well as to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2001, the CNSC established a vision to be one of the best nuclear regulators in the world and established four strategic priorities of effectiveness, transparency, excellence in staff, and efficiency. While fulfilling a very comprehensive mandate, the CNSC operates with a. very clear vision of its clientele - the Canadian people. That commitment guides every employee and every action of the CNSC and ensures a firm commitment to transparency. The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the worldwide context of transparency and transparency measurement, with a look at what lessons can be learned from other organizations and initiatives. It will look broadly at the Canadian context and the government framework that establishes transparency, including the keystone legislation of the Access to Information Act. The presentation will then focus on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The CNSC is firmly committed to putting additional measures in place to ensure transparency, which is being done concurrently with an overall organisational performance measurement system. It is within this framework that the presentation will address the transparency efforts at the CNSC as well transparency measurement activities. And, finally, the presentation will look at future directions for transparency and its measurement at the CNSC. (author)

  13. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howieson, J.Q.; Snell, V.G.

    1987-01-01

    In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

  14. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  15. Molecular Classification and Correlates in Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ogino, Shuji; Goel, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Molecular classification of colorectal cancer is evolving. As our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis improves, we are incorporating new knowledge into the classification system. In particular, global genomic status [microsatellite instability (MSI) status and chromosomal instability (CIN) status] and epigenomic status [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status] play a significant role in determining clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of colorectal cancer. In thi...

  16. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardwick, James C.; Kodach, Liudmila L.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2008-01-01

    Much of the current understanding of colorectal cancer stems from the study of rare, inherited colorectal cancer syndromes. Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway have been found in juvenile polyposis, an inherited polyposis syndrome that predisposes to colorectal cancer. The

  17. Outcome of colorectal cancer resection in octogenarians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elderly, age was not an independent contributor, and medical. Outcome of colorectal ... Introduction. Octogenarians constitute a rapidly growing segment of patients undergoing colorectal cancer resection, but their outcomes .... Characteristics of patients aged >80 years and 60 - 70 years undergoing colorectal resection.

  18. Enlisting Canadians for greater impact | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Image. IDRC Communications. Increased collaboration, bolder solutions. OBJECTIVE: IDRC will engage Canadians in research for development through ... The Global Citizenship Small Grants, for example, enable Canadian organizations to address issues of social and economic justice, environmental protection, ...

  19. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. PMID:27757048

  20. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Eastern Equine Encephalitis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Eastern Equine Encephalitis Home Frequently Asked Questions Prevention Virus Transmission ...

  1. Issues in Canadian LLRW management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the issues which are of concern in Canada are similar to those being discussed in the US because Canadian low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) production is similar in quantity and characteristics to that which will be handled by some state compacts. This paper gives a Canadian viewpoint of: the choice between interim storage and permanent disposal; the importance of considering inadvertent intrusion; the role of waste categorization and stability; and the concerns in assessing disposal performance. The discussion is related to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's LLRW disposal program, and its approach to resolving these issues

  2. Canadian attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.O.; Dobson, J.K.; Baril, R.G.

    1977-05-01

    A national assessment was made of public attitudes towards nuclear power, along with regional studies of the Maritimes and mid-western Canada and a study of Canadian policy-makers' views on nuclear energy. Public levels of knowledge about nuclear power are very low and there are marked regional differences. Opposition centers on questions of safety and is hard to mollify due to irrational fear and low institutional credibility. Canadians rate inflation as a higher priority problem than energy and see energy shortages as a future problem (within 5 years) and energy independence as a high priority policy. (E.C.B.)

  3. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  4. Financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedenberg, B.

    1995-01-01

    The financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry depends on the outlook for gas prices at Canadian producing basins, the cost of producing in Canada and the volume of production of Canadian natural gas. Price, cost and volume determine the health of the Canadian industry. Industry's costs are the basis of the supply (volume) offered on the market and price is determined by the interaction of supply and demand. (author)

  5. Brain metastasis from colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Yoshiko; Itabashi, Michio; Hirosawa, Tomoichiro; Ogawa, Shinpei; Noguchi, Eiichiro; Takemoto, Kaori; Shirotani, Noriyasu; Kameoka, Shingo

    2007-01-01

    The present study was performed to clarify the clinical characteristics of brain metastasis from colorectal cancer. Five patients with brain metastasis from colorectal cancer treated at our institute between 2001 and 2005 were included in the study. Clinical findings and survival time were determined and an appropriate system for follow-up in such cases was considered. Brain metastasis was found after surgery for colorectal cancer in 4 cases. In addition, colorectal cancer was found after diagnosis of brain metastasis in 1 case. At the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis, all patients had lung metastasis and 3 had liver metastasis. The mean periods between surgery for colorectal cancer and lung and brain metastases were 19.5 and 38.2 months, respectively. In all cases, brain metastasis was diagnosed by imaging after the appearance of neurological symptoms. Brain metastases were multiple in 1 case and focal in 4 cases. We performed gamma knife radiation therapy, and the symptoms disappeared or decreased in all cases. Mean survival time after brain metastasis was 3.0 months. Prognosis after brain metastasis is poor, but gamma knife radiation therapy contributed to patients' quality of life. (author)

  6. Surgical and clinical impact of extraserosal pelvic fascia removal in segmental colorectal resection for endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Marcos; Belghiti, Jérémie; Zilberman, Sonia; Thomin, Anne; Bonneau, Claire; Bazot, Marc; Thomassin-Naggara, Isabelle; Daraï, Emile

    2014-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of patients with colorectal endometriosis and extraserosal pelvic fascia (EPF) involvement and to assess the effect of EPF resection. Prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University hospital. Two hundred twenty-seven patients who underwent segmental colorectal resection to treat symptomatic deep infiltrating endometriosis between 2001 and 2011, with or without EPF resection. Segmental colorectal resection with or without EPF resection. One hundred twelve patients (49.4%) required EPF resection. In these patients the total American Society for Reproductive Medicine endometriosis scores were higher (p = .004), there were more associated resected lesions of deep infiltrating endometriosis (p <.001), and the operative time was longer (p <.001). They were more likely to require blood transfusion (p = .003) and to experience intraoperative complications (p = .01) and postoperative voiding dysfunction (p = .04). EPF infiltration reflects disease severity in patients with colorectal endometriosis. Its removal affects intraoperative morbidity and leads to a higher rate of voiding dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Does geography influence the treatment and outcomes of colorectal cancer? A population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helewa, Ramzi M; Turner, Donna; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Park, Jason; Hochman, David; Czaykowski, Piotr; Singh, Harminder; Shu, Emma; Xue, Lin; McKay, Andrew

    2013-06-17

    The Canadian province of Manitoba covers a large geographical area but only has one major urban center, Winnipeg. We sought to determine if regional differences existed in the quality of colorectal cancer care in a publicly funded health care system. This was a population-based historical cohort analysis of the treatment and outcomes of Manitobans diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 2004 and 2006. Administrative databases were utilized to assess quality of care using published quality indicators. A total of 2,086 patients were diagnosed with stage I to IV colorectal cancer and 42.2% lived outside of Winnipeg. Patients from North Manitoba had a lower odds of undergoing major surgery after controlling for other confounders (odds ratio (OR): 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26 to 0.90). No geographic differences existed in the quality measures of 30-day operative mortality, consultations with oncologists, surveillance colonoscopy, and 5-year survival. However, there was a trend towards lower survival in North Manitoba. We found minimal differences by geography. However, overall compliance with quality measures is low and there are concerning trends in North Manitoba. This study is one of the few to evaluate population-based benchmarks for colorectal cancer therapy in Canada.

  8. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF). The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFS-RF) is a collaborative program of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and IDRC valued at CA $61 654 707 (CIDA: CA $50 000 000; IDRC: CA $11 654 707). The program ...

  9. Subnuclear proteomics in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Knol, Jaco C; Piersma, Sander R

    2010-01-01

    for early cancer detection. Here we evaluate a proteomics work flow for profiling protein constituents in subnuclear domains in colorectal cancer tissues and apply this work flow to a comparative analysis of the nuclear matrix fraction in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma tissue samples. First, we......Abnormalities in nuclear phenotype and chromosome structure are key features of cancer cells. Investigation of the protein determinants of nuclear subfractions in cancer may yield molecular insights into aberrant chromosome function and chromatin organization and in addition may yield biomarkers...... with statistics, we identified proteins that are significantly enriched in the nuclear matrix fraction relative to two earlier fractions (the chromatin-binding and intermediate filament fractions) isolated from six colorectal tissue samples. The total data set contained 2,059 non-redundant proteins. Gene ontology...

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shafayan M. Keyhani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC: From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56, 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most common site and moderately differentiated carcinoma was considered as the main common histopathological variety. In conclusion, increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in younger Iranian population, below 30 and late admission and diagnosis were the main findings in the present study necessitating screening programs with annual fecal occult blood tests in high risk families.

  11. Effects of needleleaf forest cover on radiation and snowmelt dynamics in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, C. R.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Essery, R. L. H.; Link, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation is the main energy source for snowpack warming and melt in mountain needleleaf forests, and runoff from these forests is the main contributor to spring river flows in western North America. Utilizing extensive field observations, the effect of needleleaf forest cover on radiation and snowmelt timing was quantified at pine and spruce forest sites and nearby clearings of varying slope and aspect in an eastern Canadian Rocky Mountain headwater basin. Compared with open clearing sites, ...

  12. Mercury and cadmium in ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic: Influence of location and diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Tanya M.; Fisk, Aaron T.; Wang, Xiaowa; Ferguson, Steven H.; Young, Brent G.; Reimer, Ken J.; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (THg) and total cadmium (TCd) were determined in muscle and liver of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from up to 14 locations across the Canadian Arctic. Location, trophic position (TP) and relative carbon source best predicted the THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. THg concentrations in ringed seals were highest in the western Canadian Arctic (Beaufort Sea), whereas TCd was highest in the eastern Canadian Arctic (Hudson Bay and Labrador). A positive relationship between THg and TP and a negative relationship between THg and relative carbon source contributed to the geographical patterns observed and elevated THg levels at certain sites. In contrast, a negative relationship between TCd and TP was found, indicating that high TCd concentrations are related to seals feeding more on invertebrates than fish. Feeding ecology appears to play an important role in THg and TCd levels in ringed seals, with biomagnification driving elevated THg levels and a dependence on low-trophic position prey resulting in high TCd concentrations. The present study shows that both natural geological differences and diet variability among regions explain the spatial patterns for THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. - Highlights: • Diet and location influenced THg and Cd in ringed seals across the Canadian Arctic. • Biomagnification processes contribute to elevated THg levels in the western Arctic. • Consuming low-trophic position prey explains high Cd levels in the eastern Arctic.

  13. Mercury and cadmium in ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic: Influence of location and diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tanya M., E-mail: tanya.brown@mun.ca [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1B 3X9 (Canada); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute of Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada); Ferguson, Steven H. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Young, Brent G. [University of Manitoba, 500 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Reimer, Ken J. [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (THg) and total cadmium (TCd) were determined in muscle and liver of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from up to 14 locations across the Canadian Arctic. Location, trophic position (TP) and relative carbon source best predicted the THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. THg concentrations in ringed seals were highest in the western Canadian Arctic (Beaufort Sea), whereas TCd was highest in the eastern Canadian Arctic (Hudson Bay and Labrador). A positive relationship between THg and TP and a negative relationship between THg and relative carbon source contributed to the geographical patterns observed and elevated THg levels at certain sites. In contrast, a negative relationship between TCd and TP was found, indicating that high TCd concentrations are related to seals feeding more on invertebrates than fish. Feeding ecology appears to play an important role in THg and TCd levels in ringed seals, with biomagnification driving elevated THg levels and a dependence on low-trophic position prey resulting in high TCd concentrations. The present study shows that both natural geological differences and diet variability among regions explain the spatial patterns for THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. - Highlights: • Diet and location influenced THg and Cd in ringed seals across the Canadian Arctic. • Biomagnification processes contribute to elevated THg levels in the western Arctic. • Consuming low-trophic position prey explains high Cd levels in the eastern Arctic.

  14. Canadian ERTS program progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, L. W.; Mcquillan, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    Progress of the Canadian ERTS program is provided along with statistics on the production and role of ERTS images both from the CCRS in Ottawa and from the Prince Albert Saskatchewan satellite station. The types of products, difficulties of production and some of the main applications in Canada are discussed.

  15. Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, J.

    1981-09-01

    Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

  16. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range from the difficulties of Francophone refugees and the changing roles of fathers, to the experiences of queer newcomers and the importance of social unity to communal and individual health."--pub. desc.

  17. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits and vegetables. Nutrients and foods may also interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of over-nutrition and obesity—risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. PMID:25575572

  18. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each...... pool) of total RNA from left-sided sporadic colorectal carcinomas. We compared normal tissue to carcinoma tissue from Dukes' stages A-D (noninvasive to distant metastasis) and identified 908 known genes and 4,155 ESTs that changed remarkably from normal to tumor tissue. Based on intensive filtering 226...

  19. Liquid fuels from Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G.W.

    1979-06-15

    In Canadian energy planning, the central issue of security of supply must be addressed by developing flexible energy systems that make the best possible use of available resources. For liquid fuel production, oil sands and heavy oil currently appear more attractive than coal or biomass as alternatives to conventional crude oil, but the magnitude of their economic advantage is uncertain. The existence of large resources of oil sands, heavy oils, natural gas and low-sulfur coals in Western Canada creates a unique opportunity for Canadians to optimize the yield from these resources and develop new technology. Many variations on the three basic liquefaction routes - hydroliquefaction, pyrolysis and synthesis - are under investigation around the world, and the technology is advancing rapidly. Each process has merit under certain circumstances. Surface-mineable subbituminous and lignite coals of Alberta and Saskatchewan appear to offer the best combination of favorable properties, deposit size and mining cost, but other deposits in Alberta, Nova Scotia and British Columbia should not be ruled out. The research effort in Canada is small by world standards, but it is unlikely that technology could be imported that is ideally suited to Canadian conditions. Importing technology is undesirable: innovation or process modification to suit Canadian coals and markets is preferred; coprocessing of coal liquids with bitumen or heavy oils would be a uniquely Canadian, exportable technology. The cost of synthetic crude from coal in Canada is uncertain, estimates ranging from $113 to $220/m/sup 3/ ($18 to $35/bbl). Existing economic evaluations vary widely depending on assumptions, and can be misleading. Product quality is an important consideration.

  20. Proceedings of the 4th fire in eastern oak forests conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Michael C. Stambaugh; Stacy L. Clark; Callie J., eds. Schweitzer

    2012-01-01

    Contains 14 full-length papers and 40 abstracts of posters that were presented at the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests conference, held in Springfield, MO, May 17-19, 2011. The conference was attended by over 250 people from 65 different organizations and entities, representing 22 states and 1 Canadian province.

  1. Short-term outlook for Canadian crude oil to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report is intended to expand the effectiveness of the Board's monitoring activities by providing an assessment of the current state of the petroleum industry and the potential for growth. It provides an 18-month outlook on international and domestic crude oil prices; drilling and exploration activity; supply projections for Canadian crude oil and petroleum products; Canada's crude oil trade balance and markets for Canadian crude; existing export pipeline networks and project expansion plans; and, the Canadian petroleum products industry and the impact of higher prices. It also identifies the major issues and challenges associated with the development of Canada's crude oil. The 2 major oil producing areas in Canada are the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) including the oil sands, and offshore eastern Canada. While conventional production in the WCSB is declining, development focus has shifted to Alberta's oil sands as well as Hibernia, Terra Nova and White Rose, the 3 major oil fields offshore Newfoundland and Labrador. High energy prices have resulted in record profits for the Canadian oil and gas industry, and has stimulated billions of dollars in investment, with Alberta's oil sands being the main beneficiary. The 19 refineries in Canada have been operating at about 90 per cent capacity for the last several years due to strong demand for transportation fuels. 10 tabs., 37 figs., 2 appendices

  2. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  3. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...

  4. Biological therapy of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kleijn, E. M. H. A.; Punt, C. J. A.

    2002-01-01

    In this review, the immunogenicity of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the results of clinical and recent preclinical studies are discussed. Evidence for immune reactivity has been found in several preclinical models and the prognostic value of some of these immune responses have been reported. The

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may become cancerous. A family history of colon or rectal cancer puts you at higher risk, as does ulcerative ... in combination with chemotherapy for patients with advanced rectal ... chemotherapy for colorectal cancer usually consisted of treatment with just two drugs, ...

  6. Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-06

    An oncologist (cancer doctor) shares her medical and personal advice for people between the ages of 50 and 75 about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/6/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2017.

  7. Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    A health economist talks about studies on figuring out the costs of running a colorectal cancer screening program, and how this can lead to better screening.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  8. Wound Disruption Following Colorectal Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Carmichael, Joseph C; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Nguyen, Ninh T; Stamos, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative wound disruption is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We sought to identify the risk factors and outcomes of wound disruption following colorectal resection. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to examine the clinical data of patients who underwent colorectal resection from 2005 to 2013. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors of wound disruption. We sampled a total of 164,297 patients who underwent colorectal resection. Of these, 2073 (1.3 %) had wound disruption. Patients with wound disruption had significantly higher mortality (5.1 vs. 1.9 %, AOR: 1.46, P = 0.01). The highest risk of wound disruption was seen in patients with wound infection (4.8 vs. 0.9 %, AOR: 4.11, P disruption such as chronic steroid use (AOR: 1.71, P disruption compared to open surgery (AOR: 0.61, P disruption occurs in 1.3 % of colorectal resections, and it correlates with mortality of patients. Wound infection is the strongest predictor of wound disruption. Chronic steroid use, obesity, severe COPD, prolonged operation, non-elective admission, and serum albumin level are strongly associated with wound disruption. Utilization of the laparoscopic approach may decrease the risk of wound disruption when possible.

  9. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF COLORECTAL MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in men and in women worldwide. Incidence rates of colorectal cancer vary 10 - fold in both sexes worldwide, Within Asia, the incidence rates vary widely and are uniformly low in all south Asian countries and high i n all developed Asian countries. Fortunately, the age adjusted incidence rates of colorectal cancer in all the Indian cancer registries are very close to the lowest rates in the world. The present study is under taken to study the prevalence and types of c olorectal cancer among the patients in the rural population in and around Chidambaram. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of malignant colorectal neoplasms among the speci mens received in the Department of Pathology and the gross and histomorphological pa ttern of the lesions and finally to correlate the findings with clinical data. METHOD: The materials consisted of 68 specimens who were submitted to the Department of Pathology, during the period of Jan 2008 - Dec 2012. Data collected and entered in MS - Excel and were analyzed using SPSS - 16. RESULTS : Out of 8454 colonoscopic specimens, 68(0.8% showed colorectal malignancy. A higher frequency of colorectal was seen in 6 th decade. Out of 68 specimens of malignant neoplasms majority were Carcinoma of the Rectum (79.41% followed in decreasing order of frequency by malignant lesions of descending colon(8.82%, ascending and Sigmoid colon (4.41% each, recto - sigmoid (2.94% and cecum (2.63%, and transverse colon (2.63%. Youngest patient was 19 years old and the o ldest patient was 80 years old with a mean age of 49.5 years and median age of 50 years. CONCLUSION: Colorectal cancer is a common and lethal disease. The adenoma carcinoma. S equence offers a window of opportunity in which the precursor lesion or early car cinoma can be removed endoscopically to prevent systematic disease. The result of a careful and systematic examination of surgical specimens from patients with

  10. Diet, lifestyle, and molecular alterations that drive colorectal carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors have been repeatedly implicated in the etiology of colorectal cancer, and much is known about the molecular events involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The relationships between environmental risk factors and the molecular alterations that drive colorectal carcinogenesis are

  11. Modifiable risk factors and colorectal adenomas among those at high risk of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, A.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified several modifiable risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in the general population. However, associations between modifiable risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns, and colorectal neoplasms in two

  12. Provincialism, Rurality and Canadian Masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dunk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Images of provincial rural life are often key symbols in the construction of national identities, even in highly urbanized wealthy nations. Some 60 percent of the Canadian population lives in just four urban concentrations around Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, and the Calgary-Edmonton corridor and a very significant proportion consists of immigrants, many of them from Asia, Africa, the Caribbean and South America. Canada is still a dominion within the British Commonwealth but everyday metropolitan life in Canada is far more diverse and international than the historic connections to Britain, or France, might suggest. Nonetheless, it is the provincial hinterlands and rural regions that are most often used to imagine Canada and Canadians.

  13. The prospects for Canadian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1983-07-01

    The 1980s have seen a decline in markets for uranium concentrate, largely as a result of falling estimates for reactor fuel requirements and rising inventories. Spot market prices fell to $44 in September 1982, but have since risen back to $60. World production also fell in 1982 and is not expected to increase significantly before 1990. Some opportunities exist for Canadian producers with new low-cost deposits to replace high-cost producers in Canada and other countries, particularly the United States. There will be strong competition between Canadian producers as well as from Australia. Australia's reserves are somewhat larger than Canada's, although the reported ore grades tend to be lower than those of Saskatchewan

  14. Canadian accelerator breeder system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1982-11-01

    A shortage of fissile material at a reasonable price is expected to occur in the early part of the twenty-first century. Converting fertile material to fissile material by electronuclar methods is an option that can extend th world's resources of fissionable material, supplying fuel for nuclear power stations. This paper presents the rationale for electronuclear breeders and describes the Canadian development program for an accelerator breeder facility that could produce 1 Mg of fissile material per year

  15. Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Patchett, Merle M; Lozowy, A

    2012-01-01

    Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands” is a collaborative exchange between photographer Andriko Lozowy and cultural geographer Merle Patchett that engages photography and photographic theory to evoke a more critical and politically meaningful visual engagement with the world’s largest capital oil project. Since the appearance of Edward Burtynsky’s aerial and abstracted photographic-mappings of the region, capturing the scale of the Oil Sands from ‘on high’ has become the dominant visual imaginary....

  16. Canadian wind energy industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The companies and organizations involved, either directly or indirectly, in the wind energy industry in Canada, are listed in this directory. Some U.S. and international companies which are active or interested in Canadian industry activities are also listed. The first section of the directory is an alphabetical listing which includes corporate descriptions, company logos, addresses, phone and fax numbers, e-mail addresses and contact names. The second section contains 54 categories of products and services associated with the industry

  17. Catalog of Canadian Industrial Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    be recalled for use in constructing maps and charts, updating existing maps, comparing changes from previous photographs etc. Many tasks can be...quantity 8 switches) Hughes Aircraft Company 192 Company: SCIEX Inc Address: 55 Glencameron Road #202 Thornhill, Ontario, Canada L3T IP2 History: SCIEX Inc...was incorporated in 1970 and is Canadian owned. The original name was Sciex Ltd, but was changed to the present name in 1977. The company has a US

  18. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  19. Canadian fusion fuels technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was launched in 1982 to coordinate Canada's provision of fusion fuels technology to international fusion power development programs. The project has a mandate to extend and adapt existing Canadian tritium technologies for use in international fusion power development programs. 1985-86 represents the fourth year of the first five-year term of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP). This reporting period coincides with an increasing trend in global fusion R and D to direct more effort towards the management of tritium. This has resulted in an increased linking of CFFTP activities and objectives with those of facilities abroad. In this way there has been a continuing achievement resulting from CFFTP efforts to have cooperative R and D and service activities with organizations abroad. All of this is aided by the cooperative international atmosphere within the fusion community. This report summarizes our past year and provides some highlights of the upcoming year 1986/87, which is the final year of the first five-year phase of the program. AECL (representing the Federal Government), the Ministry of Energy (representing Ontario) and Ontario Hydro, have given formal indication of their intent to continue with a second five-year program. Plans for the second phase will continue to emphasize tritium technology and remote handling

  20. The Radioisotope Industry - Canadian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D. J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer, while the Canadian share of total cyclotron isotope production is very much smaller. This is a direct reflection of the country's nuclear history. The NRC reactor, which went critical in 1947, was at that time the world's highest flux nuclear reactor. NRC, which followed in 1956, gave access to even higher fluxes and irradiation volumes. Isotope production in Canada began almost coincidentally with the start-up of NRC and I-131 was exported to the United Stated in 1948, followed by C-14 before 1950. The above specific isotope applications, together with the earlier commentary on the overall Canadian historical experience clearly indicates the value of an indigenous isotope industry in Canada's case. It should be noted, of course, that the Canadian domestic applications base also involves all the other technological areas covered by other speakers at this Conference. While Canada is unique in that domestic self-sufficiency has led to an even more important export industry, there is no doubt that the development of domestic self-reliance in the isotope applications area is in its own right a valuable off-shoot of any country's nuclear R and D and power programs

  1. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  2. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  3. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  4. Conference summaries. Canadian Nuclear Association 29. annual conference; Canadian Nuclear Society 10. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers from the twenty-ninth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. Abstracts were also prepared for the 102 papers from the tenth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society

  5. Linking Gut Microbiota to Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    and malignant transformation. Initiation and promotion of colorectal cancer may result from direct bacterial actions, bacterial metabolites and inflammatory pathways. Newer aspects of microbiota and colorectal cancer include quorum sensing, biofilm formation, sidedness and effects/countereffects of microbiota......Pre-clinical and clinical data produce mounting evidence that the microbiota is strongly associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Dysbiosis may change the course of carcinogenesis as microbial actions seem to impact genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to dysplasia, clonal expansion...

  6. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, fo...

  7. Nutritional status assessment in colorectal cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Pedro Lopes; Paula Manuela de Castro Cardoso Pereira; Ana Filipa dos Reis Baltazar Vicente; Alexandra Bernardo; María Fernanda de Mesquita

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery...

  8. Optimizing Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Meester, Reinier

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractColorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths. Screening for colorectal cancer is implemented in an increasing number of settings, but performance of programs is often suboptimal. In this thesis, advanced modeling, informed by empirical data, was used to identify areas for improvement of screening programs. The thesis includes studies on the effect of the test used for screening, long-term adherence with screening, the quality of colorectal examinations, time to diagno...

  9. Global Real Activity for Canadian Exports: GRACE

    OpenAIRE

    Binette, André; Chernis, Tony; De Munnik, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Canadian exports have often disappointed since the Great Recession. The apparent disconnect between exports and the Bank of Canadafs current measure of foreign demand has created an impetus to search for an alternative. Based on a dynamic factor model (DFM) methodology, we use a broad range of international economic indicators (close to 300) to estimate external demand for Canadian exports. The new measure, Global Real Activity for Canadian Exports (GRACE), follows Binette et al. (201...

  10. Americanizing Canadian Nursing: Nursing Regulation Drift

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen MacMillan; Judith Oulton; Rachel Bard; Wendy Nicklin

    2017-01-01

    Recent regulatory changes mean Canadian nurses are writing a US-based entry to practice exam and a US company is assessing credentials of internationally educated nurses (IENs) for Canadian registration. This paper asserts that this policy direction has significant consequences for Canadian content and integrity of education programs, francophone parity in testing, and the future of primary health care and health system reform. Furthermore, writing a US exam means Canada is at risk of losin...

  11. The feasibility of FOBT tests in colorectal cancer screening in Dobrogea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suceveanu, Andra Iulia; Suceveanu, Adrian; Dumitru, Eugen; Alexandrescu, Luana; Voinea, Florea

    2005-09-01

    The high incidence of colorectal cancer in Eastern Europe and the declining mortality due to this pathology in the Western World, where screening programs for cancer are available, prove the necessity of implementing colorectal cancer screening in Romania, too. The aim of our study was to detect colorectal cancer in asymptomatic stages, where surgical treatment could be curative. The study was conducted in the Gastroenterology Department of Emergency Hospital, Constanta County, over a period of 18 months. We recruited apparently healthy people following all criteria recommended by the guidelines. From the total of 1098 patients included in the study, 162 patients with FOBT test positive followed the screening program undergoing colonoscopy or barium enema investigation. The rate of acceptance regarding the screening procedures was 70.3%. Advanced colon lesions were found in 14 patients (1.27%) and cancers in 7 cases (0.63%). According to TNM classification 5 cancers (71.4%) were surgically curative (TNM I/II/III) and 2 (28.5%) were advanced (TNM IV). The positive predictive value (PPVs) of FOBT for cancer was 4.7%. Even if the effect of screening on mortality was not demonstrated, our study results confirm the necessity of colorectal cancer screening in our country, as it is worldwide, detecting cancers in curative stages. The detection rate of FOBT positive tests for neoplasia was similar to other studies.

  12. Antimycobacterial triterpenes from the Canadian medicinal plant Sarracenia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven A; Li, Haoxin; Webster, Duncan; Johnson, John A; Gray, Christopher A

    2016-07-21

    The purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, is a medicinal plant used by the Canadian First Nations to treat a wide variety of illnesses. The Mi'kmaq and Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet) peoples of Eastern Canada have traditionally used infusions of S. purpurea for the treatment of tuberculosis-like symptoms. Previous investigations have shown methanolic extracts of S. purpurea to possess antimycobacterial activity. To isolate and identify antimycobacterial constituents from S. purpurea. Methanolic extracts of S. purpurea were subjected to bioassay guided fractionation using the microplate resazurin assay (MRA) to assess inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Ra. The antimycobacterial constituents were identified by NMR, MS and polarimetry. The triterpenes betulinaldehyde, β-sitosterol, betulinic acid, and ursolic acid were isolated from S. purpurea. Betulinaldehyde, betulinic acid, and ursolic acid exhibited MICs of 450, 950, and 450μM and IC50s of 98, 169, and 93μM against M. tuberculosis H37Ra respectively whilst β-sitosterol was inactive (MIC and IC50 of >1000μM). Betulinaldehyde, betulinic acid, and ursolic acid were identified as the principal constituents responsible for the antimycobacterial activity of S. purpurea. This work is consistent with the ethnopharmacological use of S. purpurea by Canadian First Nations as a treatment against infectious diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Canadian Association for the Study of International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Revue canadienne des études en développement) publishes research by the Canadian community and ... It stimulates Canadian graduate students to work in this field and enhances IDRC's visibility within the Canadian academic community.

  14. Canadian Council for Area Studies Learned Societies - 2007-2008 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCASLS) provides a shared secretariat for four area studies associations: the Canadian Association of African Studies (CAAS); the Canadian Asian Studies Association (CASA): the Canadian Association of Latin American and Caribbean Studies ...

  15. Tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís César [UNIFESP; Matos, Delcio [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a clinical entity of a persistent relevance in clinical practice and its early diagnosis is a determinant factor to obtain better therapeutic results. Tumor markers are helpful means for a better approach to individuals with such neoplasm. In the present review, the authors analyze the phases in which surgical-clinical treatment markers must be used: diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, establishment of prognosis and detection of recurrence. Current and future markers...

  16. Immunotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebaek, Eva; Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2012-01-01

    Although no immunotherapeutic treatment is approved for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, promising results from clinical trials suggest that several immunotherapeutic strategies may prove efficacious and applicable to this group of patients. This review describes the immunogenicity of CRC...... and presents the most interesting strategies investigated so far: cancer vaccination including antigen-defined vaccination and dendritic cell vaccination, chemo-immunotherapy, and adoptive cell transfer. Future treatment options as well as the possibility of combining existing therapies will be discussed along...

  17. Syncytin immunoreactivity in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Mou; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    monoclonal syncytin antibody we have assessed syncytin expression in a retrospective series of 140 colorectal cancer patients. Variable degrees of syncytin expression were detected in both colonic and rectal tumors and the prognostic impact of such expression was analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method...... and the Cox proportional hazard model. Interestingly, increased syncytin expression was associated with decreased overall survival in rectal but not in colonic cancer patients. Thus, the prognostic impact of syncytin expression appears to vary with the tumor type....

  18. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  19. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001-2003 to database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long

  20. Lower or Standard Dose Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-22

    Colon Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7

  1. Atlantic Canada : recipe for ruin, loophole in Canadian tanker laws questioned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    2001-01-01

    During a storm in December 2000, the captain of a leaking supertanker named the Eastern Power requested permission to dock his 339-metre ship at Come by Chance in Newfoundland. The request was denied by Transport Canada and the barge carrying 1.9 million barrels of oil had to ride out the storm just outside Canada's 200-mile limit. The concern was that the hull might split and spill huge amounts of oil. The Eastern Power has only one hull and is twice the age that the Prevention of Pollution from Ships considers reasonable for the lifespan of a vessel. Tankers built after 1993 are required to have an inside and an outside frame in order to enter Canadian waters. Those that are not double hulled and built before 1993 will be phased out by 2015. The spokesman for Transport Canada explained that the concern regarding the Eastern Power was for the Canadian environment. Owners are responsible for making sure that their ships do not risk our environment. An added precaution requires that all ships radio the Canadian Coast Guard 24 hours before reaching the 200-mile limit to report on their course, destination and seaworthiness. While Transport Canada makes the ultimate decision on entry, it shares the information with the Department of National Defense, Environment Canada and the coast guard. In this case, the crew of the Eastern Power was able to pump cargo into a safer tank and repaired the rupture. It was then given permission to dock at Come By Chance, but it instead headed for the Caribbean. Newfoundland is still recovering from the collapse of the cod fishery and is trying to build an eco-tourism industry given that its Atlantic offshore is a marine ecological treasure. Environmentalists view some of the present marine laws, or lack of laws, as a gateway to a disaster which could wipe out some water fowl species and further reduce fish stocks. 1 fig

  2. Treatment of colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaili Nabil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the word. Liver metastasis is the most common site of colorectal metastases. The prognosis of resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM was improved in the recent years with the consideration of chemotherapy and surgical resection as part of the multidisciplinary management of the disease; the current 5-year survival rates after resection of liver metastases are 25% to 40%. Resectable synchronous or metachronous liver metastases should be treated with perioperative chemotherapy based on three months of FOLFOX4 (5-fluorouracil [5FU], folinic acid [LV], and oxaliplatin chemotherapy before surgery and three months after surgery. In the case of primary surgery, pseudo-adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months, based on 5FU/LV, FOLFOX4, XELOX (capecitabine and oxaliplatin or FOLFIRI (5FU/LV and irinotecan, should be indicated. In potentially resectable disease, primary chemotherapy based on more intensive regimens such as FOLFIRINOX (5FU/LV, irinotecan and oxaliplatin should be considered to enhance the chance of cure. The palliative chemotherapy based on FOLFIRI, or FOLFOX4/XELOX with or without targeted therapies, is the mainstay treatment of unresectable disease. This review would provide additional insight into the problem of optimal integration of chemotherapy and surgery in the management of CRLM.

  3. [Antibiotic prophylaxis in colorectal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivnák, R; Hanke, I; Hansliánová, M; Kala, Z; Sevcíková, A

    2009-06-01

    Antibiotic (ATB) prophylaxis is generaly recommended in surgery. There is an important role in colorectal surgery especially. Colorectal surgery is associated with a particularly high risk of post-operative infection because of contamination of the wound with faecal bacteria. ATB prophylaxis decreases surgical wound infection, morbidity and mortality as well. Morbidity and mortality are associated with longer hospital stays and increased costs of care. At surgical department of Faculty hospital Brno, during March-June 2008 an 88 patients were operated because of different diagnoses in colorectum. Both an emergent and schedule operations were made. Type of ATBs, time of application before operation, reapplication after operation and surgical site infection (SSI), in - hospital stay were followed up prospectively. SSI were divided into superficial, deep and intraabdominal. Data were analyse statistically. The most used combination of ATBs, almost in 91%, were Cefazoline and Metronidazole. In 50% were time of application till 20 minutes before incision. Only in 17% were time of application in interval 20-30 minutes before incision, which is recommended. We noticed 25 SSI. We prove that patients with SSI has almost two-times longer in-hospital stay. Enterococcus and enterobacterias were the most common etiological agents. ATB prophylaxis is indicated in colorectal surgery. It has to be applied in correct dose and right time before operation to decrease SSI.

  4. Colorectal cancer defeating? Challenge accepted!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, S; Todaro, M; Dieli, F; Stassi, G

    2014-10-01

    Colorectal tumours are actually considered as aberrant organs, within it is possible to notice a different stage of cell growth and differentiation. Their origin is reported to arise from a subpopulation of tumour cells endowed with, just like the healthy stem cells, self-renewal and aberrant multi-lineage differentiation capacity likely to be called colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs). Cancer stem cells (CSCs) fate, since their origin, reflects the influences from their microenvironment (or niche) both in the maintenance of stemness, in promoting their differentiation, and in inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition, responsible of CSCs dissemination and subsequent formation of metastatic lesions. The tumour cells heterogeneity and their immuno-response resistance nowadays probably responsible of the failure of the conventional therapies, make this research field an open issue. Even more importantly, our increasing understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate CSC quiescence and cell cycle regulation, self-renewal, chemotaxis and resistance to cytotoxic agents, is expected to eventually result in tailor-made therapies with a significant impact on the morbidity and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ADAMTS Expression in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filou, Serafula; Korpetinou, Aggeliki; Kyriakopoulou, Dora; Bounias, Dimitrios; Stavropoulos, Michael; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Papachristou, Dionysios J.; Theocharis, Achilleas D.; Vynios, Demitrios H.

    2015-01-01

    ADAMTSs are a family of secreted proteinases that share the metalloproteinase domain with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). By acting on a large panel of extracellular substrates, they control several cell functions such as fusion, adhesion, proliferation and migration. Through their thrombospondin motifs they also possess anti-angiogenic properties. We investigated whether ADAMTSs participate in colorectal cancer progression and invasion. Their expression was investigated at both mRNA and protein levels. Using RT-PCR, the expression of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and ADAMTS-20 was estimated in colorectal tumors of different cancer stage and anatomic site and 3 cell lines of different aggressiveness. An overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and -5 was observed, especially in tissue samples, whereas ADAMTS-1 and -20 were found to be down-regulated. Western blot analysis further supported the RT-PCR findings, revealing in addition the degradation of ADAMTS-1 and -20 in cancer. In situ expression and localization of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and -20 was also investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. Our data suggest a positive correlation between ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression and cancer progression, in contrast with the anti-angiogenic members of the family, ADAMTS-1 and -20, which were found to be down-regulated. Our findings support the notion that overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 in colorectal cancer might be a possible invasive mechanism of cancer cells in order to degrade proteoglycans of ECM. PMID:25786261

  6. ADAMTS expression in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafula Filou

    Full Text Available ADAMTSs are a family of secreted proteinases that share the metalloproteinase domain with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. By acting on a large panel of extracellular substrates, they control several cell functions such as fusion, adhesion, proliferation and migration. Through their thrombospondin motifs they also possess anti-angiogenic properties. We investigated whether ADAMTSs participate in colorectal cancer progression and invasion. Their expression was investigated at both mRNA and protein levels. Using RT-PCR, the expression of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and ADAMTS-20 was estimated in colorectal tumors of different cancer stage and anatomic site and 3 cell lines of different aggressiveness. An overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and -5 was observed, especially in tissue samples, whereas ADAMTS-1 and -20 were found to be down-regulated. Western blot analysis further supported the RT-PCR findings, revealing in addition the degradation of ADAMTS-1 and -20 in cancer. In situ expression and localization of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and -20 was also investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. Our data suggest a positive correlation between ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression and cancer progression, in contrast with the anti-angiogenic members of the family, ADAMTS-1 and -20, which were found to be down-regulated. Our findings support the notion that overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 in colorectal cancer might be a possible invasive mechanism of cancer cells in order to degrade proteoglycans of ECM.

  7. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  8. Canadian pesticide air sampling campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Y.; Harner, T.; Blanchard, P.; Li, Y.F.; Aulagnier, F. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada; Tuduri, L. [Laboratoire de Physico Toxicochimie des Systemes Naturels, Talence (France). Equipe Perigourdine de Chimie Appliquee; Waite, D.; Belzer, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Conservation Branch; Murphy, C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Protection Service

    2005-07-01

    Although pesticides are widely used in Canada, little is known about the presence, distribution, and fate of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in the Canadian atmosphere. This paper provided details of a campaign conducted in 2003 to provide information on air and precipitation levels of CUPs. The objective of the campaign was to create pesticide emission inventories and to identify important pesticide issues related to environmental fate, exposure, and risk assessment in order to develop effective pesticide policies. A Canadian atmospheric network for currently used pesticides was established, which was then followed by an intensive field study in the Canadian prairies. Air samples were collected weekly using high volume PS-1 samplers with polyurethane foam (PUF) XAD sandwiches and glass fibre filters. Precipitation samples were collected each month using MIC samplers equipped with XAD columns. Passive air samplers were deployed at many of the sites for periods of 1 to 3 months. Results of the study showed relatively high concentrations of endosulfan at all sites. High levels of chloropyrifos, malathion, and carbofurans were also detected from air samples. High concentrations of lindane were also observed. Alachlor, metochlor, and trifluralin concentrations were detected in most Ontario and Quebec air and rainfall samples. Eleven target pesticides were detected from air samples during the prairie study. High concentrations of triallate were observed, and good correlations between air concentration trends and dry deposition trends were seen for triallate, 2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba, and bromoxynil. Results of the campaign are now being modelled using a simplified gridded pesticide emission and residue model. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, the Canadian government committed to reporting annual national indicators of air quality, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and freshwater quality in order to provide Canadians with more regular and consistent information on the state of the environment and how it is linked with human activities. The national air quality indicators in this report focused on human exposure to ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ). The report showed that from 1990 to 2004, the ozone indicator showed year-to-year variability, with an averaged increase of 0.9 per cent per year. Stations in southern Ontario reported the highest levels of ozone and PM 2.5 in the country in 2004. There was no discernible upward or downward trend in PM 2.5 levels at the national level for the 2000 to 2004 period, and GHG emissions rose 27 per cent from 1990 to 2004. In 2004, emissions were 35 per cent above the target to which Canada committed under the Kyoto Protocol. However, while total emissions rose, emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) fell by 14 per cent from 1990 to 2004. GHG emissions also grew faster than the Canadian population, resulting in a 10 per cent rise in emissions per person. The freshwater quality indicator presented in this report covered the period from 2002 to 2004, and focused on the ability of Canada's surface waters to support aquatic life. For the 340 sites selected across southern Canada, water quality was rated as good or excellent at 44 per cent of sites, fair at 34 per cent of sites, and marginal or poor at 22 per cent of sites. The report included a chapter which attempted to integrate the indicators with other environmental impacts, measures of economic performance, and indices of social progress to improve the ability of the report to influence decision-making that fully accounts for environmental sustainability. 63 refs., 18 figs

  10. The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Schade, D.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) is the world's largest astronomical data center, holding over 0.5 Petabytes of information, and serving nearly 3000 astronomers worldwide. Its current data collections include BLAST, CFHT, CGPS, FUSE, Gemini, HST, JCMT, MACHO, MOST, and numerous other archives and services. It provides extensive data archiving, curation, and processing expertise, via projects such as MegaPipe, and enables substantial day-to-day collaboration between resident astronomers and computer specialists. It is a stable, powerful, persistent, and properly supported environment for the storage and processing of large volumes of data, a condition that is now absolutely vital for their science potential to be exploited by the community. Through initiatives such as the Common Archive Observation Model (CAOM), the Canadian Virtual Observatory (CVO), and the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), the CADC is at the global forefront of advancing astronomical research through improved data services. The CAOM aims to provide homogeneous data access, and hence viable interoperability between a potentially unlimited number of different data collections, at many wavelengths. It is active in the definition of numerous emerging standards within the International Virtual Observatory, and several datasets are already available. The CANFAR project is an initiative to make cloud computing for storage and data-intensive processing available to the community. It does this via a Virtual Machine environment that is equivalent to managing a local desktop. Several groups are already processing science data. CADC is also at the forefront of advanced astronomical data analysis, driven by the science requirements of astronomers both locally and further afield. The emergence of 'Astroinformatics' promises to provide not only utility items like object classifications, but to directly enable new science by accessing previously undiscovered or intractable

  11. Fuels for Canadian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feraday, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper includes some statements and remarks concerning the uranium silicide fuels for which there is significant fabrication in AECL, irradiation and defect performance experience; description of two Canadian high flux research reactors which use high enrichment uranium (HEU) and the fuels currently used in these reactors; limited fabrication work done on Al-U alloys to uranium contents as high as 40 wt%. The latter concerns work aimed at AECL fast neutron program. This experience in general terms is applied to the NRX and NRU designs of fuel

  12. Canadian gas - where's it headed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominy, D.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of gas transportation in Canada was described. The issue of what is needed and what can change in the current North American market for gas transportation was also discussed. The transportation values of natural gas from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) to New York, Chicago and California for 1993 to 1997 were reviewed. Export and domestic capacity additions and WCSB gas completions were also outlined. The question of how much new capacity is needed, where the gas will come from, and where will it go, was also discussed

  13. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules at Colorectal Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and specific radiological and clinical characteristics that predict malignancy of these at initial staging chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with colorectal cancer. A considerable number of indeterminate...... pulmonary nodules, which cannot readily be classified as either benign or malignant, are detected at initial staging chest CT in colorectal cancer patients....

  14. Optimizing Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.S. Meester (Reinier)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractColorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths. Screening for colorectal cancer is implemented in an increasing number of settings, but performance of programs is often suboptimal. In this thesis, advanced modeling, informed by empirical data, was used to identify areas for

  15. Vitamin D, inflammation, and colorectal cancer progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harten-Gerritsen, van Suzanne; Balvers, Michiel G.J.; Witkamp, Renger F.; Kampman, Ellen; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Survival from colorectal cancer is positively associated with vitamin D status. However, whether this association is causal remains unclear. Inflammatory processes may link vitamin D to colorectal cancer survival, and therefore investigating inflammatory markers as potential mediators may be a

  16. Colorectal cancer in Jordan: prevention and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Dardas, Latefa; Dardas, Lubna; Ahmad, Huthaifa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward colorectal cancer prevention and care in Jordan. A survey was designed to produce reliable estimates for the population's knowledge, attitudes, and practices in all 12 governorates of Jordan by using stratified random sampling. A representative sample of the adult population in Jordan completed a comprehensive tool which explored participants' knowledge about the risk factors associated with colorectal cancer, cancer prevention through lifestyle changes, and early cancer diagnosis and screening. According to the participants (n = 3196), colorectal cancer had the second highest percentage of screening recommendation (12.6%) after breast cancer (57.3%). Only 340 individuals (11%) reported ever screening for cancer. About 20% of the participants had heard of one of the screening tests for colorectal cancer. In fact, only 290 (9.1%) participants had performed the colorectal cancer screening tests. This study provides data that will help colorectal cancer prevention and treatment programs and may enhance the efficiency of colorectal cancer-controlling programs. The findings confirm the necessity of starting colorectal screening intervention that targets the most vulnerable individuals. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Iatrogenic colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kaposi sarcoma is a mesenchymal tumor associated to a human herpes virus-8. It often occurs in human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects. Colorectal localization is rare. We report the case of a colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ulcerative colitis treated with surgery after the failure of ...

  18. Diet and colorectal cancer risk and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Kampman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary and other lifestyle factors account for 20–45% of all colorectal cancer cases. Being overweight or obese, having a high intake of red and processed meat and alcohol increase the risk of colorectal cancer, while a high intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables, foods

  19. Risk of colorectal cancer in juvenile polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Lodewijk A. A.; van Hattem, Arnout; Hylind, Linda M.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Romans, Katharine E.; Axilbund, Jennifer; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Tersmette, Anne C.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Giardiello, Francis M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile polyposis (JP) is an autosomal-dominant syndrome characterised by the development of hamartomatous gastrointestinal polyps and is associated with colorectal cancer. However, the relative and absolute risk of colorectal malignancy in these patients is not known. METHODS: The

  20. Modern management of colorectal liver metastases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6. Modern management of colorectal liver metastases e liver is the most frequent site of metastases from colorectal cancer. ... and the assessment of associated medical co-morbidity, meticulous appraisal of the patient's liver ... information regarding the anatomical characteristics of the metastatic lesions and their relation to ...

  1. Colorectal Cancer Awareness for Women via Facebook: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Pennings Kamp, Kendra J; Salaysay, Zachary

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death among U.S. women. Women report being screened for colorectal cancer less often than men, and if colorectal cancer screening guidelines were routinely followed, approximately 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented. Many colorectal cancer screening interventions have not used Facebook, which is the most popular social media site among women. Little is known about engaging women in colorectal cancer screening and risk reduction information using Facebook. The "Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness for Women" Facebook page was created to promote colorectal cancer screening and risk reduction awareness among women. Facebook posts targeted women aged 45-64 years and highlighted colorectal cancer screening methods, guidelines, and colorectal cancer risk reduction strategies. Demographics and data about the women's interactions with the page were collected using Facebook analytics and analyzed. The majority of the 391 users of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness for Women Facebook page were women aged 45-54 years (56.5%). The most "liked" posts were related to colorectal cancer risk reduction behaviors. In an effort to increase routine colorectal cancer screening and colorectal cancer risk reduction behaviors, gastroenterology nurses and practices should consider Facebook as a good method to regularly engage women in colorectal cancer screening and colorectal cancer risk reduction information.

  2. Canadian photovoltaic commercial activity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkinson, D.J.; Royer, J.

    1992-01-01

    A survey was performed on the activities of the Canadian photovoltaic (PV) industry during 1988 for the three years of 1985-1987, and a similar survey was carried out in 1989. The findings of the latest survey are reported and compared with the previous survey. Market growth rates in the order of 15%/y and greater in the international market are reflected in the Canadian scene with an estimated 1989 activity in the range of $15 million. Details are presented of the distribution of firms across Canada, the distribution of annual sales activities by application, annual PV module sales in Europe and globally, breakdown of PV module powers produced by the United States, Japan, Europe, and others, breakdown of reported sales in Canada by source/destination, regional distribution of sales for installation in Canada, distribution by purchaser type for sales of PV equipment in Canada, and a summary of sales classified by application. In 1989 for the first time global demand for PV modules exceeded supply. 8 refs., 9 tabs

  3. Penetrance of colorectal cancer among MLH1/MSH2 carriers participating in the colorectal cancer familial registry in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Yun-Hee

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes, responsible for the majority of Lynch Syndrome cancers, have been identified, predominantly MLH1 and MSH2, but the risk associated with these mutations is still not well established. The aim of this study is to provide population-based estimates of the risks of colorectal cancer (CRC by gender and mutation type from the Ontario population. Methods We analyzed 32 families segregating MMR mutations selected from the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry and including 199 first-degree and 421 second-degree relatives. The cumulative risks were estimated using a modified segregation-based approach, which allows correction for the ascertainment of the Lynch Syndrome families and permits account to be taken for missing genotype information. Results The risks of developing CRC by age 70 were 60% and 47% among men and women carriers of any MMR mutation, respectively. Among MLH1 mutation carriers, males had significantly higher risks than females at all ages (67% vs. 35% by age 70, p-value = 0.02, while the risks were similar in MSH2 carriers (about 54%. The relative risk associated with MLH1 was almost constant with age (hazard ratio (HR varied between 5.5-5.1 over age 30–70, while the HR for MSH2 decreased with age (from 13.1 at age 30 to 5.4 at age 70. Conclusion This study provides a unique population-based study of CRC risks among MSH2/MLH1 mutation carriers in a Canadian population and can help to better define and understand the patterns of risks among members of Lynch Syndrome families.

  4. Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Colorectal Cancer among School Teachers in Al-Ahsa Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thafar, Abulaziz K; Al-Naim, Abdullah F; Albges, Daood S; Boqursain, Saad K; Aldhafar, Abdulaziz S; Ghreiz, Seba M; Ibrahim, Sayed

    2017-10-26

    Background: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of deaths among cancers affecting both men and women in the United States. Annually, about 140,000 Americans are diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and more than 50,000 people die from it. In Saudi Arabia, this cancer ranks first among men and third among women. Nevertheless, this type of cancer is one of the most preventable types of cancer. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the level of colorectal cancer awareness among teaching staff (educators) in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: The current cross-sectional study was conducted in teaching staff in Al-Ahsa, Eastern province, Saudi Arabia, from February 2017 to May 2017. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection and SPSS (version 24) was run for data analysis. Result: A total of 367 teachers (165 males and 202 females) were recruited for the present investigation. The participants aged from 25 to 55 years and most of them were married (87%). The majority had inadequate knowledge about risk factors of colon cancer. No significant difference was observed between people living in urban and rural areas regarding knowledge of risk factors for colorectal cancer (p≥0.05). Concerning colorectal cancer screening tests, 39% of men and 42% of women were unaware ; although, 12.8% of the participants reported a positive family history of colon cancer. In General, participants with higher education level had higher level of awareness on colon cancer. Conclusions: The findings of this study demonstrated that most of educators, including men and women are unaware of colon cancer risk factor. Furthermore, their knowledge of colon cancer signs, symptoms, and screening methods were inadequate. With respect to our findings, enhancement of colon cancer knowledge among educators is recommended using health education campaign in Al-Ahsa. Creative Commons Attribution License

  5. Estrogen and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Sayeh; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Prentice, Ross L; Kato, Ikuko; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Johnson, Karen C; Young, Alicia; Rodabough, Rebecca; Hubbell, F Allan; Mahinbakht, Ali; Simon, Michael S

    2015-09-15

    The preponderance of observational studies describe an association between the use of estrogen alone and a lower incidence of colorectal cancer. In contrast, no difference in the incidence of colorectal cancer was seen in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized, placebo-controlled trial with estrogen alone after a mean intervention of 7.1 years and cumulative follow-up of 13.2 years. This study extends these findings by providing detailed analyses of the effects of estrogen alone on the histology, grade, and stage of colorectal cancer, relevant subgroups, and deaths from and after colorectal cancer. The WHI study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 10,739 postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy. Participants were assigned to conjugated equine estrogen at 0.625 mg/d (n = 5279) or a matching placebo (n = 5409). Rates of colorectal cancer diagnoses and deaths from and after colorectal cancer were assessed throughout the study. Colorectal cancer rates in the estrogen-alone and placebo groups were comparable: 0.14% and 0.12% per year, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.58; P = .43). Bowel screening examinations were comparable between the 2 groups throughout the study. The grade, stage, and location of colorectal cancer did not differ between the randomization groups. There were more colorectal cancer deaths in the estrogen-alone group (34 [0.05%] vs 24 [0.03%]; HR, 1.46, 95% CI, 0.86-2.46; P = .16), but the difference was not statistically significant. The colorectal cancer incidence was higher for participants with a history of colon polyp removal in the estrogen-alone group (0.23% vs 0.02%; HR, 13.47; nominal 95% CI, 1.76-103.0; P colorectal cancer or deaths from or after colorectal cancer. A possibly higher risk of colorectal cancer in women with prior colon polyp removal who use estrogen alone requires confirmation. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  6. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Preoperative hypoxyradiotherapy of colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacev, T.; Skricka, T.; Zaloudik, J.; Pacovsky, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The article focuses on the radioprotective effect of acute hypoxia on healthy tissues during preoperative accelerated hypoxyradiotherapy of colorectal carcinoma performed as locoregional irradiation including the common iliac lymph nodes. Analysis of early and late side effects and complications. Patients and Methods: In this prospective study, early and late complications were assessed in 50 patients as a function of hypoxyradiotherapeutic dose increase. The preliminary treatment results of this radiotherapeutic modification were evaluated after a median follow-up of 48 months using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Between April 1991 and February 1997, 50 patients (36 men and 14 women) with colorectal carcinoma were treated preoperatively with locoregional accelerated hypofractionated hypoxyradiotherapy. The extent of disease was classified according to Dukes' criteria (A: four patients, B: 28 patients, C: 18 patients). We used a 20-MeV linear accelerator with two parallel opposed fields. Hypoxyradiotherapy was performed extending from the perineum to the L4 region. Acute hypoxia was induced during irradiation by ventilation of a hypoxic gas mixture containing 7.8-8.0% oxygen. Total doses of 24 Gy/8 days, 28 Gy/9 days, and 32 Gy/10 days were applied in five, 20, and 25 patients, respectively. Low anterior resection or abdominoperineal amputation of the rectum was performed the day after completion of preoperative hypoxyradiotherapy. The early reactions after irradiation were evaluated according to the Common Toxicity Criteria of the National Cancer Institute (CTC-NCI). Results: Early postirradiation proctitis was documented in three and early radiation-induced cystitis in two patients only. Neither early nor late radiation-associated complications were observed in any of the three hypoxyradiotherapy schedules during the follow-uper period of 6-105 months. Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis (median 48 months), a 5-year overall survival rate of 61.5% and a local relapse

  8. Red meat and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Faruk Aykan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  9. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each......' C, and clustered Dukes' D separately. Real-time PCR of 10 known genes and 5 ESTs demonstrated excellent reproducibility of the array-based findings. The most frequently altered genes belonged to functional categories of metabolism (22%), transcription and translation (11%), and cellular processes (9...

  10. Variation in postoperative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic use after colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Klein, Mads; Burcharth, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    for the use of the two NSAIDs diclofenac and ibuprofen were recorded. The data from six colorectal departments in eastern Denmark were compared. RESULTS: Of the 2,754 patients analyzed overall, 40.6% received NSAIDs as part of their analgesic treatment. The percentage of the patients receiving NSAIDs......, receiving a pre-defined dosage as a minimum and receiving NSAIDs as p.r.n. medication, and the type of NSAID were significantly different both between department and within departments. The median dose of ibuprofen and diclofenac were 1200 mg (400-2,400 mg) and 100 mg (50-200 mg), respectively. CONCLUSIONS...

  11. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, M; Riediger, N; Moghadasian, M H

    2008-11-01

    To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12-19 years), 19 089 young adults (20-34 years), 31 039 middle-aged adults (35-54 years), 25 338 older adults (55-74 years) and 9580 elderly (75+ years). Approximately 70% of Canadian adolescents in the sample indicated that their food choices were independent of health concerns. Body weight management was a major concern for food selection by adolescents and adults, while the elderly stated heart disease as their main concern. Among all participants, females, and individuals with high levels of education and income reported the highest response to choosing or avoiding foods due to health concerns and food content. Our data indicate that several factors significantly affect food choices for health-related reasons in the Canadian population. Among them, age- and gender-related gaps, particularly between adolescents and adults, are profound. This observation may urge authorities to implement effective strategies to educate Canadians, especially adolescents, that selection of appropriate foods may prevent chronic diseases.

  12. Nuclear communications : A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macpherson, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Times have changed since the early days of nuclear energy when it was a symbol of a brave new world, Public information strategies have evolved to meet increasing public concerns, and have shifted from being a largely unfocused attempt at publicity to being more concerned with managing issues and solving problems. This paper describes some of the salient features of the Canadian experience in nuclear communications and examines four key aspects: opinion and attitude research; media relations; coeducation; and advertising. It also addresses the challenge of responding to the allegations and tactics of those who are actively hostile to nuclear energy, and recommends that the principles of Total Quality Management and of organizational effectiveness be applied more thorough and more consistently to the public affairs function

  13. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmings, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  14. Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S; Chan, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigations have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grains have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat have been associated with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits, and vegetables. Nutrients and foods also may interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of overnutrition and obesity-risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  16. Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Thymus Gland: Rare Presentation of Colorectal Cancer as Anterior Mediastinal Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, H. Charles; Liu, Xiuli; Iqbal, Atif; Cunningham, Lisa A.; Tan, Sanda A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite improved screening modalities, 15–25% of newly diagnosed colorectal cancers are metastatic at the time of diagnosis. The vast majority of these cases present as hepatic metastasis; however, 22% present with concomitant extrahepatic disease. The thymus gland is an uncommon site of metastasis for any primary malignancy, particularly, colorectal cancer given its vascular and lymphatic drainage. This case report details our experience with a rare case of colorectal cancer metastasis to th...

  17. Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Thymus Gland: Rare Presentation of Colorectal Cancer as Anterior Mediastinal Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, H Charles; Liu, Xiuli; Iqbal, Atif; Cunningham, Lisa A; Tan, Sanda A

    2017-01-01

    Despite improved screening modalities, 15-25% of newly diagnosed colorectal cancers are metastatic at the time of diagnosis. The vast majority of these cases present as hepatic metastasis; however, 22% present with concomitant extrahepatic disease. The thymus gland is an uncommon site of metastasis for any primary malignancy, particularly, colorectal cancer given its vascular and lymphatic drainage. This case report details our experience with a rare case of colorectal cancer metastasis to the thymus gland presenting as a symptomatic mediastinal mass.

  18. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  19. Leading Lean: a Canadian healthcare leader's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Benjamin A; Golden, Brian; Hannam, Rosemary; Morra, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Canadian healthcare organizations are increasingly asked to do more with less, and too often this has resulted in demands on staff to simply work harder and longer. Lean methodologies, originating from Japanese industrial organizations and most notably Toyota, offer an alternative - tried and tested approaches to working smarter. Lean, with its systematic approaches to reducing waste, has found its way to Canadian healthcare organizations with promising results. This article reports on a study of five Canadian healthcare providers that have recently implemented Lean. We offer stories of success but also identify potential obstacles and ways by which they may be surmounted to provide better value for our healthcare investments.

  20. [PREVENTION AND EARLY DETECTION OF COLORECTAL CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, B Bergman

    2015-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is a global problem worldwide because of its very high prevalence and mortality. Therefore, prevention of colorectal cancer and its early diagnosis is of great importance. In Croatia, the National Program for Colorectal Cancer has been carried out since 2007; however, the rate of response was about 18 percent, depending on the region. Such a great public health and social and economic problem requires multidisciplinary approach in which family physicians have an important role. The well spread and developed network of primary health care and the availability of family physicians to each inhabitant have not been sufficiently exploited, especially for such preventive activities where family physicians could supervise program implementation.

  1. [Colorectal cancer in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, J; Bláha, M; Malúšková, D

    2016-01-01

    High incidence of colorectal cancer in the Czech Republic is an actual and demographically significant health issue. Half of all of the patients is older than 70 years. Both surgical and non-surgical treatment options in this group of patients depend on factors that are difficult to measure only by current oncological and anesthesiological classifications (cTcNcM, ASA). The objective of this paper is to measure the impact of age on the use of various treatment modalities within the protocol and their results, and also to suggest alternative options for therapy tolerance assessment. Analysis of data over a five-year period from the NOR database prepared by the Institute of Biostatistics and Analyses, Masaryk University. In all parameters a difference was demonstrated between patients below the age of 70 and those above the age of 70 years. Older patients were disadvantaged. Only 11.2% of patients younger than 70 years were not treated, whereas 25.2% over the age of 70 years were not treated. A complex geriatric examination could improve the indication process in various treatment modalities, including surgery. colorectal cancer - elderly - treatment - geriatric assesment.

  2. Confocal Endomicroscopy of Colorectal Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian M. Ussui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is one of several novel methods that provide real-time, high-resolution imaging at a micron scale via endoscopes. CLE has the potential to be a disruptive technology in that it can change the current algorithms that depend on biopsy to perform surveillance of high-risk conditions. Furthermore, it allows on-table decision making that has the potential to guide therapy in real time and reduce the need for repeated procedures. CLE and related technologies are often termed “virtual biopsy” as they simulate the images seen in traditional histology. However, the imaging of living tissue allows more than just pragmatic convenience; it also allows imaging of living tissue such as active capillary circulation, cellular death, and vascular and endothelial translocation, thus extending beyond what is capable in traditional biopsy. Immediate potential applications of CLE are to guide biopsy sampling in Barrett's esophagus and inflammatory bowel disease surveillance, evaluation of colorectal polyps, and intraductal imaging of the pancreas and bile duct. Data on these applications is rapidly emerging, and more is needed to clearly demonstrate the optimal applications of CLE. In this paper, we will focus on the role of CLE as applied to colorectal polyps detected during colonoscopy.

  3. Immunohistochemistry expression of TCF4 protein on carcinoma, adenoma and non neoplastic colorectal mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Tauil, Leonardo Huber; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral; Tauil, Thamires Huber; Pires, Andrea; Rezende, Lidia Maria Magalhães; Waisberg, Jaques

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To detect and quantify the immunoreactivity of TCF4 protein in colorectal carcinoma, colorectal adenoma and non-neoplasic colorectal epithelium.METHODS: We studied 129 individuals: 40 with colorectal cancer, 52 with colorectal adenoma and 37 with non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium. The colorectal adenoma and carcinoma samples were obtained from patients who underwent surgical procedures, and colonoscopies and samples of non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium were taken from patients ...

  4. Colorectal Cancer Surveillance after Index Colonoscopy: Guidance from the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Leddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences between American (United States [US] and European guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance may create confusion for the practicing clinician. Under- or overutilization of surveillance colonoscopy can impact patient care.

  5. The Canadian Assessment of Physical literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Claire E; Longmuir, Patricia E; Boyer, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children's physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required. M...

  6. Canadians' access to insurance for prescription medicines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ...-economic circumstances and drug needs. Volume two presents an analysis of the un-insured and under-insured by measuring the extent to which Canadians have access to insurance for prescription drug expenses and the quality of that coverage...

  7. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I.; Summerell, I.; Totland, M.; Jonkmans, G.; Whitlock, J.; El-jaby, A.; Inrig, E.

    2015-01-01

    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  8. The Canadian Forces Recruitment/Attrition Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wait, Tracey

    1998-01-01

    ...), as part of its mandate to provide analysis of potential impacts of trends and change on defense and defense related issues, has designed a prototype model of recruitment and attrition of the Canadian Forces (C F...

  9. Manufacture of components for Canadian reactor programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, L.P.

    Design features, especially those relating to calandrias, are pointed out for many CANDU-type reactors and the Taiwan research reactor. The special requirements shouldered by the Canadian suppliers of heavy reactor components are analyzed. (E.C.B.)

  10. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  11. How Canadians feel about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    A survey conducted by Decima Research in April 1989 showed that 50% of Canadians were somewhat or strongly in favour of nuclear energy, the percentage varying from 37% in British Columbia to 65% in Ontario. A majority (56%) questioned the nuclear industry's ability to handle its waste safely, but 45% believed that it was working hard to solve the problem. It was evident that an advertising campaign by the Canadian Nuclear Association had an effect

  12. Waste management in Canadian nuclear programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    The objectives of the Canadian radioactive waste management program are described. Recycling actinides through reactors is being studied. Low and medium level waste treatments such as reverse osmosis concentration, immobilization in bitumen and plastics, and incineration are under study. Spent fuel can be stored dry in concrete canisters above ground and ultimate storage of wastes in salt deposits or hard rock is appropriate to Canadian conditions. (E.C.B.)

  13. South Asian Canadian experiences of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Amarjit

    2010-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the socio-cultural context surrounding depression through semi-structured interviews with six South Asian Canadian participants, who self identified as having experienced depression. The study sought to expand on the knowledge of depression and South Asian Canadians by considering the roles of the family, the community, and the culture in the experiences of depression. Thematic analysis of the participant interviews resulted in five major themes: the exp...

  14. The Canadian nuclear industry - a national asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    The economic importance of the Canadian nuclear industry in saving costs and creating jobs is expounded. The medical work of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is also extolled. The Canadian Nuclear Association urges the federal government to continue to support the industry at home, and to continue to promote nuclear exports. This report was prepared in response to the Federal Finance Minister's 'A New Direction for Canada'

  15. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  16. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the Ea......P essentially replicated the main weaknesses of the European Neighbourhood Policy, by offering too little incentive and support to the partners, rendering both conditionality and soft power ineffective as tools for milieu shaping. In promoting the EaP as a policy of soft power, the EU has once again forgotten...... that soft power can never be separated from the 'harder' policies that would meet the expectations of those wishing to align with it. This failure of policy continues to largely negate the EU's actually considerable reservoir of potential soft power in Eastern Europe....

  17. Canadian Manufacturing Malaise: Three Hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Krzepkowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The danger in politicians promoting the idea that “Dutch Disease” is responsible for the decline of the Ontario manufacturing sector is that the suggestion implies that Canada’s manufacturing sector will bounce back if only we could slow down oil sands development, or if the Canadian dollar were to devalue. In reality, evidence suggests that the decline in Ontario manufacturing is the result of long-term structural changes in the economy, independent of the rise of the country’s natural-resource sector and the rising dollar. And the sooner policymakers realize that, and stop blaming the decline in manufacturing on Dutch Disease (which holds that a booming natural-resource sector that drives up our dollar makes our manufacturing exports less competitive the sooner they can get to work on helping manufacturing-dependent regions transition to the evolving economy. A closer analysis of Canada’s manufacturing sector shows that jobs in that sector have been disappearing across the country since the end of the Second World War, with the sector’s share of employment falling dramatically well before rapid development began to take hold in the oil sands, and back when Canada’s dollar was still worth far less than the American dollar. It is a trend that has been occurring among most of our OECD peers, including the United States, which may be due to the widespread reallocation of production to lower cost countries. But it is also true that Canada’s manufacturing productivity performance in particular has been declining for a generation, with especially poor performance in the last decade, when labour productivity in Canada grew at just a quarter of the U.S. rate. Meanwhile, capital investment that may have improved the competitiveness of Canadian manufacturing has been anemic. Yet there is no particular reason to lament the scaling-down of manufacturing jobs in Ontario. The province remains just as economically important, as a share of

  18. Colorectal cancer, diabetes and survival : Epidemiological insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanders, M. M. J.; Vissers, P. A. J.; Haak, H. R.; van de Poll-Franse, L.

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with pre-existing diabetes have significantly lower rates of overall survival compared with patients without diabetes. Against this backdrop, the American Diabetes Association and American Cancer Society in 2010 reviewed the scientific literature concerning diabetes

  19. Colorectal cancer presenting as bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Suresh Babu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, the patients of colorectal cancer presenting with bone metastasis were of male sex and younger age. The factors that were associated with reduced survival were extraosseous and liver involvement.

  20. Screening of colorectal early cancer by radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, M.; Usui, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been gradually increasing in Japan, and if the present rate of increase is maintained it has been estimated that it will become the most common of all malignant neoplasms by the year 2000. It has been proved that colorectal cancer can be completely cured, if it is treated in its early phase. Early cancer of the large bowel is defined as a cancer which is limited to the mucosal membrane or submucosal layer, regardless of lymph node and distant metastases. Detection of early cancer improves the overall curability of colorectal cancer. The greatest number of early cancers of the large bowel are polypoid lesions in their macroscopic form, and depressed lesions are rarely encountered. Accordingly, the first step in the detection of early cancer starts with the screening of polypoid lesion by radiology and endoscopy. This paper is concerned with diagnostic accuracy of radiology in the screening of colorectal cancer with endoscopic correlation

  1. Cost Analysis for Therapy of Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kocábková, Eliška

    2011-01-01

    The aim of thesis is to identify and quantify the cost for therapy of colorectal cancer. The aim is to quantify the cost of individual treatments normally used in different stages of the disease and the total cost of treatment.

  2. Genetic risk factors in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaïti-Pellié, C

    1999-12-01

    Familial risk factors are known to play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, particularly when the relatives are affected by early-onset cancer. Part of this familial aggregation can be accounted for by inherited forms of colorectal cancer, i.e. familial adenomatous polyposis (less than 1% of all CRC) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (about 3%). Other genetic factors may be involved in the development of adenoma or in the transformation of adenoma into carcinoma. That the existence of polymorphisms of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene increase susceptibility to both adenomas and cancer favours this hypothesis. Interactions between environmental factors, and most of all dietary factors, and polymorphisms of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes may also be involved. Better knowledge of these mechanisms will substantially widen the scope of colorectal cancer prevention.

  3. Automated spectroscopic tissue classification in colorectal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, R.M.; Alic, L.; Beets, G.L.; Breukink, S.O.; Wieringa, F.P.; Stassen, L.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    In colorectal surgery, detecting ureters and mesenteric arteries is of utmost importance to prevent iatrogenic injury and to facilitate intraoperative decision making. A tool enabling ureter- and artery-specific image enhancement within (and possibly through) surrounding adipose tissue would

  4. Canadian industry program for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) is an industry administered, government sponsored program for promoting and monitoring energy efficiency throughout the Canadian manufacturing and mining industries. CIPEC was established as a result of deliberations between the Federal Ministers of the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources and the Department of Trade and Commerce and 50 of industry's most senior representatives. It now consists of 14 different industrial task forces that represent a broad spectrum of Canadian manufacturing and mining industries. The programs objectives in promoting energy conservation are to: promote energy productivity improvement in Canadian industry; maintain an effective forum for industry/government dialogue on energy utilization and productivity matters; forecast aggregate energy productivity improvement based on Canadian industry programs; collect data and report on energy productivity of Canadian industry. Industry's energy use per unit of output for 1989 remained at the same level as 1988: 28.8% less than the base year of 1973 and 4.8% less than 1985. It is likely that industry will be unable to reach the 1990 goal of 31% reduction over 1973 levels of energy consumption. New energy reduction goals should be established which take into account factors such as industrial globalization, economic restructuring, provincial and local energy conservation programs, and environmental considerations. 5 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Predictors of functional capacity in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomruk, Murat; Karadibak, Didem; Yavuzşen, Tuğba; Akman, Tülay

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the predictors of functional capacity and explore the relationship between functional capacity, performance status, fatigue, quality of life, anxiety, and depression in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Forty-two patients diagnosed as stage II-III CRC according to tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification were included the study. Functional capacity, performance status, fatigue, quality of life, anxiety, and depression of CRC patients were assessed using six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in the six-minute walk test (6MWT), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS), Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), respectively. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify independent predictors of functional capacity. The six-minute walk distance (6MWD) was intermediately and negatively correlated with ECOG-PS score (p = 0.001, r = -0.415), BFI-impact of fatigue on daily functioning score (p = 0.013, r = -0.379), and age (p = 0.040, r = -0.319). An intermediate and positive correlation was found between 6MWD and FACT-C score (p = 0.016, r = 0.369). The multiple regression analysis revealed that only ECOG-PS score was significant and independent predictor of the 6MWD, accounted for 34.8 % of the variance. Performance status was found to be the only significant predictor of functional capacity in this study. Assessing performance status may have an essential role in order to predict functional capacity in CRC patients. Future studies that include a larger sample size would more clearly elucidate the predictors and relationships of functional capacity.

  6. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  7. Genetic prognostic markers in colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Houlston, R S; Tomlinson, I P

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of molecular genetics to colorectal cancer has been restricted largely to relatively rare inherited tumours and to the detection of germline mutations predisposing to these cancers. However, much is now also known about somatic events leading to colorectal cancer. A number of studies has been undertaken examining possible relations between genetic features and prognostic indices. While many of these studies are small and inconclusive, it is clear that a number of different pa...

  8. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  9. Implications of preoperative hypoalbuminemia in colorectal surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, A; Hanna, MH; Moghadamyeghaneh, Z; Stamos, MJ

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin has traditionally been used as a quantitative measure of a patient’s nutritional status because of its availability and low cost. While malnutrition has a clear definition within both the American and European Societies for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition clinical guidelines, individual surgeons often determine nutritional status anecdotally. Preoperative albumin level has been shown to be the best predictor of mortality after colorectal cancer surgery. Specifically in colorect...

  10. Television watching and risk of colorectal adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Y; Keum, N N; Chan, A T; Fuchs, C S; Wu, K; Giovannucci, E L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prolonged TV watching, a major sedentary behaviour, is associated with increased risk of obesity and diabetes and may involve in colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 31?065 men with ?1 endoscopy in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1988?2008) to evaluate sitting while watching TV and its joint influence with leisure-time physical activity on risk of colorectal adenoma. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) ...

  11. Atrial fibrillation and survival in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Timothy A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival in colorectal cancer may correlate with the degree of systemic inflammatory response to the tumour. Atrial fibrillation may be regarded as an inflammatory complication. We aimed to determine if atrial fibrillation is a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Patients and methods A prospective colorectal cancer patient database was cross-referenced with the hospital clinical-coding database to identify patients who had underwent colorectal cancer surgery and were in atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Results A total of 175 patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer over a two-year period. Of these, 13 patients had atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Atrial fibrillation correlated with worse two-year survival (p = 0.04; log-rank test. However, in a Cox regression analysis, atrial fibrillation was not significantly associated with survival. Conclusion The presence or development of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer is associated with worse overall survival, however it was not found to be an independent factor in multivariate analysis.

  12. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory --1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The directory is intended to help potential PV customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies leading to greater end-use customer satisfaction. The principal feature of the directory is an information matrix that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and the primary clients served. There is also a list of companies by province and territory, followed by an alphabetical listing of all companies, with detailed information including, mailing address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are provided, and a brief company profile. Additional information provided by the companies themselves, dealing with items such as number of systems sold, the total installed capacity, etc., is included in an 'experience matrix' for each firm. Sources of additional information on photovoltaic systems are included in a list at the end of the directory

  13. Canadian natural gas price forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.

    1998-01-01

    The basic factors that influenced NYMEX gas prices during the winter of 1997/1998 - warm temperatures, low fuel prices, new production in the Gulf of Mexico, and the fact that forecasters had predicted a mild spring due to El Nino - were reviewed. However, it was noted that for the last 18 months the basic factors had less of an impact on market direction because of an increase in Fund and technical trader participation. Overall, gas prices were strong through most of the year. For the winter of 1998-1999 the prediction was that NYMEX gas prices will remain below $2.00 through to the end of October 1998 because of high U.S. storage levels and moderate temperatures. NYMEX gas prices are expected to peak in January 1999 at $3.25. AECO natural gas prices were predicted to decrease in the short term because of increasing levels of Canadian storage, and because of delays in Northern Border pipeline expansions. It was also predicted that AECO prices will peak in January 1999 and will remain relatively strong through the summer of 1999. tabs., figs

  14. Canadian health surveys, 1950 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, O; Lipskie, T; MacEachern, S

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of Canadian health surveys and a review of health or health-related surveys from the first national household survey in 1950/51 to the present time. Surveys have evolved from collecting information on health care utilization, health status and some risk behaviours to a wider range of health determinants following the 1974 Lalonde report. In addition to the occasional cross-sectional surveys, there are periodic surveys, longitudinal surveys, school-based surveys and surveys based on subgroups in the population or specific topic areas. The survey review is presented in the following four tables: Table 1 summarizes national surveys including such information as the date(s) and frequency of data collection, topic areas, target population, sample size and response rate for each survey; Table 2 provides the same information for provincial surveys; both tables point to Table 3, which supplements the previous information with survey sponsors and contacts; Table 4 provides similar information for commercial surveys. This reference, which will be updated periodically, is intended to act as a source of information and support in the development of new surveys.

  15. Using personal health insurance numbers to link the Canadian Cancer Registry and the Discharge Abstract Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Dianne; Trudeau, Richard; Sanmartin, Claudia; Murison, Patricia; Carrière, Gisèle; MacIntyre, Maureen; Turner, Donna; Wagar, Brandon; King, Mary Jane; Vriends, Kim; Woods, Ryan; Lockwood, Gina; Louchini, Rabiâ

    2015-06-01

    Linking cancer registry and administrative data can reveal health care use patterns among cancer patients. The Canadian Cancer Registry (CCR) contains personal health insurance numbers (HINs) that facilitate linkage to hospitalization information in the Discharge Abstract Database (DAD). Valid HINs, captured in the CCR or obtained through probabilistic linkages to provincial health insurance registries, were used to deterministically link prostate, female breast, colorectal and lung cancers diagnosed from 2005 through 2008 with the DAD for fiscal years 2004/2005 to 2010/2011. At least 98% of tumours diagnosed from 2005 through 2008 had valid HINs in the CCR or obtained through probabilistic linkages. For provinces submitting day surgeries to the DAD, linkage rates to at least one DAD record were higher for female breast (95.6% to 98.1%), colorectal (96.9% to 98.7%) and lung cancers (92.8% to 96.3%) than for prostate cancers (77.2% to 91.6%). Among linked records, agreement was high for sex (99% or more) and complete date of birth (97% or more); the likelihood of a consistent diagnosis in the CCR and on at least one linked DAD record was higher for female breast (86.8% to 97.2%), colorectal (94.6% to 97.7%) and lung cancers (90.3% to 95.5%) than for prostate cancers (77.4% to 87.8%). Deterministically linking the CCR and DAD using personal HINs is a feasible and valid approach to obtaining hospitalization information about cancer patients.

  16. Environmental Factors and Colorectal Tumor Risk in Individuals With Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Braam, H.; Vasen, H.F.; Nagengast, F.M.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: Individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Environmental factors might play a role in HNPCC-associated carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the effects of environmental factors on

  17. Clinical and molecular analysis of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer in Chinese colorectal cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Mao-Hong; Zhang, Zuo-Xing; Zhang, Pei-Da; Jiang, Xi-Li; Ma, Dong-Wang; Suo, Rong-Zeng; Zhao, Li-Zhong; Qi, Qing-Hui

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the frequency of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) in Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, and to discuss the value of microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MSH2/MLH1 protein analysis as pre-screening tests in China.

  18. Survival of MUTYH-associated polyposis patients with colorectal cancer and matched control colorectal cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Nielsen (Maartje); L.N. van Steenbergen (Liza); N. Jones (Natalie); S. Vogt (Stefanie); H.F. Vasen (Hans); H. Morreau (Hans); S. Aretz (Stefan); J. Sampson (Julian); O.M. Dekkers (Olaf); M.L.G. Janssen-Heijnen (Maryska); F.J. Hes (Frederik)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground MUTYH-associated polyposis is a recessively inherited disorder characterized by a lifetime risk of colorectal cancer that is up to 100%. Because specific histological and molecular genetic features of MUTYH-associated polyposis colorectal cancers might influence tumor behavior

  19. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  20. Canadian guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help

  1. Characterization of a novel founder MSH6 mutation causing Lynch syndrome in the French Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsagué, E; Liu, J; Volenik, A; Giroux, S; Gagné, R; Maranda, B; Roussel-Jobin, A; Latreille, J; Laframboise, R; Palma, L; Kasprzak, L; Marcus, V A; Breguet, M; Nolet, S; El-Haffaf, Z; Australie, K; Gologan, A; Aleynikova, O; Oros-Klein, K; Greenwood, C; Mes-Masson, A M; Provencher, D; Tischkowitz, M; Chong, G; Rousseau, F; Foulkes, W D

    2015-06-01

    We identified an MSH6 mutation (c.10C>T, p.Gln4*) causing Lynch syndrome (LS) in 11 French Canadian (FC) families from the Canadian province of Quebec. We aimed to investigate the molecular and clinical implications of this mutation among FC carriers and to assess its putative founder origin. We studied 11 probands and 27 family members. Additionally 6433 newborns, 187 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, 381 endometrial cancer (EC) cases and 179 additional controls, all of them from Quebec, were used. Found in approximately 1 of 400 newborns, the mutation is one of the most common LS mutations described. We have found that this mutation confers a greater risk for EC than for CRC, both in the 11 studied families and in the unselected cases: EC [odds ratio (OR) = 7.5, p French settlers. Application of the results of this study could significantly improve the molecular testing and clinical management of LS families in Quebec. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pathological and Biological Aspects of Colorectal Cancer Treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, M.J.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. This thesis describes several pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. Different patient populations were investigated including patients with mobile rectal cancer enrolled in the Dutch TME trial, patients

  3. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Colorectal (Colon) Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Cancer Home Questions to Ask Your Doctor About Colorectal Cancer Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  4. Cost considerations in the treatment of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, F.G.A.; Postma, M.J.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is among the most common malignancies in developed countries. Screening can reduce mortality significantly, although the most appropriate method is still under debate. Observational studies have revealed that lifestyle measures may also be beneficial for prevention of colorectal

  5. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Circle of Health for Alaskans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the colon and rectum is often called colorectal cancer. But in this brochure we use the term ... tests can be used to find polyps or colorectal cancer. Each can be used alone. Sometimes they are ...

  6. Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Marleen Johanna Elisabeth Maria

    2008-01-01

    Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. This thesis describes several pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. Different patient populations were investigated including patients with mobile rectal cancer enrolled in the Dutch TME trial, patients

  7. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators: highlights 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Canadians' health and their social and economic well-being are fundamentally linked to the quality of their environment. Recognizing this, in 2004 the Government of Canada committed to establishing national indicators of freshwater quality, air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of these new indicators is to provide Canadians with more regular and reliable information on the state of their environment and how it is linked with human activity. Canadians need clearly defined environmental indicators - measuring sticks that can track the results that have been achieved through the efforts of governments, industries and individuals to protect and improve the environment. Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada are working together to further develop and communicate these indicators. Reflecting the joint responsibility for environmental management in Canada, this effort has benefited from the cooperation and input of the provinces and territories. The indicators are: air quality; greenhouse gas emissions; and, freshwater quality. Air quality tracks Canadians' exposure to ground-level ozone - a key component of smog. The indicator measures one of the most common, harmful air pollutants to which people are exposed. The use of the seasonal average of ozone concentrations reflects the potential for long-term health effects. Greenhouse gas emissions tracks the annual releases of the six greenhouse gases that are the major contributors to climate change. The indicator comes directly from the greenhouse gas inventory report prepared by Environment Canada for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The data are widely used to report on progress toward Canada's Kyoto target for reduced emissions. Freshwater quality reports the status of surface water quality at selected monitoring sites across the country. For this first report, the focus of the indicator is on the protection of aquatic life, such as

  8. Operative Landscape at Canadian Neurosurgery Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Michael K; Dakson, Ayoub; Ahmed, Syed Uzair; Bigder, Mark; Elliott, Cameron; Guha, Daipayan; Iorio-Morin, Christian; Kameda-Smith, Michelle; Lavergne, Pascal; Makarenko, Serge; Taccone, Michael S; Wang, Bill; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Sankar, Tejas; Christie, Sean D

    2017-07-01

    Background Currently, the literature lacks reliable data regarding operative case volumes at Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. Our objective was to provide a snapshot of the operative landscape in Canadian neurosurgical training using the trainee-led Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative. Anonymized administrative operative data were gathered from each neurosurgery residency program from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. Procedures were broadly classified into cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures. A number of prespecified subspecialty procedures were recorded. We defined the resident case index as the ratio of the total number of operations to the total number of neurosurgery residents in that program. Resident number included both Canadian medical and international medical graduates, and included residents on the neurosurgery service, off-service, or on leave for research or other personal reasons. Overall, there was an average of 1845 operative cases per neurosurgery residency program. The mean numbers of cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures were 725, 466, 48, and 193, respectively. The nationwide mean resident case indices for cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and total procedures were 90, 58, 5, and 196, respectively. There was some variation in the resident case indices for specific subspecialty procedures, with some training programs not performing carotid endarterectomy or endoscopic transsphenoidal procedures. This study presents the breadth of neurosurgical training within Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. These results may help inform the implementation of neurosurgery training as the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons residency training transitions to a competence-by-design curriculum.

  9. 2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debenham, Brock; Banerjee, Robyn; Fairchild, Alysa; Dundas, George; Trotter, Theresa; Yee, Don

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

  10. Reduced 30-Day Mortality After Laparoscopic Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Population Based Study From the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit (DSCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, Lieke; Wouters, Michel W. J. M.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Dekker, Jan Willem; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Tanis, Pieter J.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a laparoscopic resection on postoperative mortality after colorectal cancer surgery. The question whether laparoscopic resection (LR) compared with open surgery [open resection (OR)] for colorectal cancer influences the risk of postoperative mortality remains unresolved.

  11. Surface ozone background in the United States: Canadian and Mexican pollution influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiqun; Jacob, Daniel J.; Le Sager, Philippe; Streets, David G.; Park, Rokjin J.; Gilliland, Alice B.; van Donkelaar, A.

    We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) with 1° × 1° horizontal resolution to quantify the effects of anthropogenic emissions from Canada, Mexico, and outside North America on daily maximum 8-hour average ozone concentrations in US surface air. Simulations for summer 2001 indicate mean North American and US background concentrations of 26 ± 8 ppb and 30 ± 8 ppb, as obtained by eliminating anthropogenic emissions in North America vs. in the US only. The US background never exceeds 60 ppb in the model. The Canadian and Mexican pollution enhancement averages 3 ± 4 ppb in the US in summer but can be occasionally much higher in downwind regions of the northeast and southwest, peaking at 33 ppb in upstate New York (on a day with 75 ppb total ozone) and 18 ppb in southern California (on a day with 68 ppb total ozone). The model is successful in reproducing the observed variability of ozone in these regions, including the occurrence and magnitude of high-ozone episodes influenced by transboundary pollution. We find that exceedances of the 75 ppb US air quality standard in eastern Michigan, western New York, New Jersey, and southern California are often associated with Canadian and Mexican pollution enhancements in excess of 10 ppb. Sensitivity simulations with 2020 emission projections suggest that Canadian pollution influence in the Northeast US will become comparable in magnitude to that from domestic power plants.

  12. Mercury and cadmium in ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic: Influence of location and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tanya M; Fisk, Aaron T; Wang, Xiaowa; Ferguson, Steven H; Young, Brent G; Reimer, Ken J; Muir, Derek C G

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (THg) and total cadmium (TCd) were determined in muscle and liver of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from up to 14 locations across the Canadian Arctic. Location, trophic position (TP) and relative carbon source best predicted the THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. THg concentrations in ringed seals were highest in the western Canadian Arctic (Beaufort Sea), whereas TCd was highest in the eastern Canadian Arctic (Hudson Bay and Labrador). A positive relationship between THg and TP and a negative relationship between THg and relative carbon source contributed to the geographical patterns observed and elevated THg levels at certain sites. In contrast, a negative relationship between TCd and TP was found, indicating that high TCd concentrations are related to seals feeding more on invertebrates than fish. Feeding ecology appears to play an important role in THg and TCd levels in ringed seals, with biomagnification driving elevated THg levels and a dependence on low-trophic position prey resulting in high TCd concentrations. The present study shows that both natural geological differences and diet variability among regions explain the spatial patterns for THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Organizational capacity for chronic disease prevention: a survey of Canadian public health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Kishchuk, Natalie; Paradis, Gilles; Cameron, Roy

    2010-04-01

    There are no national data on levels of organizational capacity within the Canadian public health system to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Cross-sectional data were collected in a national survey (October 2004 to April 2005) of all 216 national, provincial and regional-level organizations engaged in chronic disease prevention through primary prevention or healthy lifestyle promotion. Levels of organizational capacity (defined as skills and resources to implement chronic disease prevention programmes), potential determinants of organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming were compared in western, central and eastern Canada and across three types of organizations (formal public health organizations, non-governmental organizations and grouped organizations). Forty percent of organizations were located in Central Canada. Approximately 50% were formal public health organizations. Levels of skill and involvement were highest for activities that addressed tobacco control and healthy eating; lowest for stress management, social determinants of health and programme evaluation. The few notable differences in skill levels by provincial grouping favoured Central Canada. Resource adequacy was rated low across the country; but was lowest in eastern Canada and among formal public health organizations. Determinants of organizational capacity (organizational supports and partnerships) were highest in central Canada and among grouped organizations. These data provide an evidence base to identify strengths and gaps in organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming in the organizations that comprise the Canadian public health system.

  14. Colorectal liver metastases: factors affecting outcome after surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, N.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related death in Europe. The overall survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer is greatly affected by the presence of liver metastases, which occurs in about 50% of patients. Radical resection of colorectal liver metastases means a

  15. An audit of colorectal cancer histopathology reports in a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To audit the completeness of histopathologic reports of Colorectal Cancer for prognostic information in a tertiary care hospital in the light of the minimum reporting standards for colorectal cancer resections recently proposed for use in Nigeria. Material and Methods: Twenty–five histopathology reports of colorectal ...

  16. Colorectal Anastomoses : Surgical outcome and prevention of anastomotic leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Ilsalien

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal surgery is a frequently performed procedure with more than 10.000 annual resections in the Netherlands. The majority of resections are performed for colorectal cancer. The first part of this thesis focused on outcome of colorectal cancer surgery in the Netherlands based on the nationwide

  17. Awareness and Uptake of Family Screening in Patients Diagnosed with Colorectal Cancer at a Young Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh M. Hogan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One-fifth of people who develop colorectal cancer (CRC have a first-degree relative (FDR also affected. There is a large disparity in guidelines for screening of relatives of patients with CRC. Herein we address awareness and uptake of family screening amongst patients diagnosed with CRC under age 60 and compare guidelines for screening. Study Design. Patients under age 60 who received surgical management for CRC between June 2009 and May 2012 were identified using pathology records and theatre logbooks. A telephone questionnaire was carried out to investigate family history and screening uptake among FDRs. Results. Of 317 patients surgically managed for CRC over the study period, 65 were under age 60 at diagnosis (8 deceased. The mean age was 51 (30–59. 66% had node positive disease. 25% had a family history of colorectal cancer in a FDR. While American and Canadian guidelines identified 100% of these patients as requiring screening, British guidelines advocated screening for only 40%. Of 324 FDRs, only 40.9% had been screened as a result of patient’s diagnosis. Conclusions. Uptake of screening in FDRs of young patients with CRC is low. Increased education and uniformity of guidelines may improve screening uptake in this high-risk population.

  18. Calcium remodeling in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Carlos; Sobradillo, Diego; Hernández-Morales, Miriam; Núñez, Lucía

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent form of cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Basic and clinical data indicate that aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may prevent colon cancer but mechanisms remain unknown. Aspirin metabolite salicylate and other NSAIDs may inhibit tumor cell growth acting on store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE), suggesting an important role for this pathway in CRC. Consistently, SOCE is emerging as a novel player in different forms of cancer, including CRC. SOCE and store-operated currents (SOCs) are dramatically enhanced in CRC while Ca 2+ stores are partially empty in CRC cells. These features may contribute to CRC hallmarks including enhanced cell proliferation, migration, invasion and survival. At the molecular level, enhanced SOCE and depleted stores are mediated by overexpression of Orai1, Stromal interaction protein 1 (STIM1) and Transient receptor protein channel 1 (TRPC1) and downregulation of STIM2. In normal colonic cells, SOCE is mediated by Ca 2+ -release activated Ca 2+ channels made of STIM1, STIM2 and Orai1. In CRC cells, SOCE is mediated by different store-operated currents (SOCs) driven by STIM1, Orai1 and TRPC1. Loss of STIM2 contributes to depletion of Ca 2+ stores and enhanced resistance to cell death in CRC cells. Thus, SOCE is a novel key player in CRC and inhibition by salicylate and other NSAIDs may contribute to explain chemoprevention activity. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent form of cancer worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that intracellular Ca 2+ remodeling may contribute to cancer hallmarks. In addition, aspirin and other NSAIDs might prevent CRC acting on remodeled Ca 2+ entry pathways. In this review, we will briefly describe 1) the players involved in intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms involved in SOCE activation and inactivation, 2) the evidence that aspirin metabolite

  19. Cognitive aspects of sexual functioning: differences between East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual beliefs of female undergraduates, as well as the thoughts they experience during sexual experiences. The study aimed to determine potential differences in these variables between East Asian-Canadians and Euro-Canadians, as well as the influence of acculturation on these variables. In addition, the relationships between sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts, and specific aspects of sexual functioning were examined. Euro-Canadian (n = 77) and East Asian-Canadian (n = 123) undergraduate women completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation. East Asian women endorsed almost all sexual beliefs assessed in this study more than did Euro-Canadian women, and endorsement of these beliefs was associated with acculturation. In addition, East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women differed in the frequency of experiencing negative automatic thoughts. Results also revealed associations between difficulties in sexual functioning, and both sexual beliefs and automatic thoughts. Together, these results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that differences in cognitive aspects of sexuality may underlie the differences in sexual functioning previously observed between these two groups.

  20. Peacock: 100 years of servicing Canadian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In 1997 Peacock Inc., a supplier of pipeline, filtration, pumping, materials handling and mechanical equipment of all kinds to the Canadian oil and natural gas industries, will celebrate its 100th year of servicing Canadian industry, and 50th year in the oil patch. The company has outlets in several Canadian cities from Halifax to Vancouver. It manufactures, distributes, maintains and repairs all types of industrial equipment. It also manages the Naval Engineering Test Establishment at LaSalle, PQ, for the Department of Defence. Peacock service centres provide 24-hour service response to emergency breakdowns anywhere in Canada; its engineers and technicians are ISO 9003 qualified or better, and are experts in turnarounds and planned maintenance outages, major overhauls of critical equipment, supplying mechanical crews for emergency equipment breakdowns, and grouting of heavy machinery. By close coordination of its four divisions, and by maintaining their dedication to service, the company looks to the future with pride and confidence

  1. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  2. Prevalence of colorectal polyps in pediatric colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Kalpesh; Alsarraj, Abeer; Fong, Emily; Holub, Jennifer L; Gilger, Mark A; El Serag, Hashem B

    2012-04-01

    The available data regarding the prevalence, types, and clinical determinants of colonic polyps in children is limited. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of colorectal polyps in a large cohort of children. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the presence, number, and location of colorectal polyps reported in all children (0-20 years) who underwent colonoscopy at 14 pediatric facilities between January 2000 and December 2007 recorded in Pediatric Endoscopy Database System Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative (PEDS-CORI). We compared procedures with and without polyps with respect to procedure indication, age, sex, and race. We also reviewed a sample of histopathologic reports from one participating center. We analyzed 13,115 colonoscopy procedures performed in 11,637 patients. Colorectal polyps were reported in 810 procedures (6.1%; 95% CI: 5.7-6.5%) performed in 705 patients, and in 12% of patients with lower GI bleeding. Children with colorectal polyps were significantly younger (8.9 years vs. 11.9 years; p children without polyps. In a sample of 122 patients with polyps from a single center, the histological types were solitary juvenile in 91 (70.5%), multiple juvenile in 20 (15.5%), adenoma in 14 (10.9%) and hyperplastic polyps in four patients (3.1%). Colorectal polyps are detected in 6.1% overall and in 12.0% among those with lower gastrointestinal bleeding during pediatric colonoscopy. Approximately 26% are multiple juvenile or adenoma.

  3. [Screening and prevention of colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre, Jean; Manfredi, Sylvain

    2015-06-01

    Population-based studies have shown that guaiac faecal occult blood testing followed by colonoscopy in case of positivity can reduce colorectal cancer mortality. However attention has been given for alternative tests in particular to immunochemical faecal occult blood tests. It is now clear from available data that immunochemical tests outperform guaiac tests. They should be preferred for CRC screening. The one sample strategy has been adopted in most screening programmes. Given the superior performance characteristics of immunochemical, it is reasonable to assume that an organized programme using this type of test would lead to a greater reduction in colorectal cancer mortality and possibly of colorectal cancer incidence. Epidemiological studies allow us to define subjects at very high risk (genetic origin) and high risk for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy screening is recommended in first degree relatives of patients with colorectal cancer or large adenoma diagnosed before 60 years or with two affected first-degree relatives, in subjects with an extended inflammatory bowel disease, or with a personal history of large bowel cancer or large adenoma.

  4. Genetic Variants Associated with Colorectal Adenoma Susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Abulí

    Full Text Available Common low-penetrance genetic variants have been consistently associated with colorectal cancer risk.To determine if these genetic variants are associated also with adenoma susceptibility and may improve selection of patients with increased risk for advanced adenomas and/or multiplicity (≥ 3 adenomas.We selected 1,326 patients with increased risk for advanced adenomas and/or multiplicity and 1,252 controls with normal colonoscopy from population-based colorectal cancer screening programs. We conducted a case-control association study analyzing 30 colorectal cancer susceptibility variants in order to investigate the contribution of these variants to the development of subsequent advanced neoplasia and/or multiplicity.We found that 14 of the analyzed genetic variants showed a statistically significant association with advanced adenomas and/or multiplicity: the probability of developing these lesions increased with the number of risk alleles reaching a 2.3-fold risk increment in individuals with ≥ 17 risk alleles.Nearly half of the genetic variants associated with colorectal cancer risk are also related to advanced adenoma and/or multiplicity predisposition. Assessing the number of risk alleles in individuals within colorectal cancer screening programs may help to identify better a subgroup with increased risk for advanced neoplasia and/or multiplicity in the general population.

  5. Worldwide burden of colorectal cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoriti, Pasqualino; Carbone, Gabriele; Greco, Marco; Pirozzi, Felice; Pirozzi, Raffaele Emmanuele Maria; Corcione, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem, being the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth cause of cancer death worldwide. There is wide variation over time among the different geographic areas due to variable exposure to risk factors, introduction and uptake of screening as well as access to appropriate treatment services. Indeed, a large proportion of the disparities may be attributed to socioeconomic status. Although colorectal cancer continues to be a disease of the developed world, incidence rates have been rising in developing countries. Moreover, the global burden is expected to further increase due to the growth and aging of the population and because of the adoption of westernized behaviors and lifestyle. Colorectal cancer screening has been proven to greatly reduce mortality rates that have declined in many longstanding as well as newly economically developed countries. Statistics on colorectal cancer occurrence are essential to develop targeted strategies that could alleviate the burden of the disease. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of incidence, mortality and survival rates for colorectal cancer as well as their geographic variations and temporal trends.

  6. The importance of nature to Canadians: survey highlights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DuWors, E

    1999-01-01

    .... The 1996 Survey on the Importance of Nature to Canadians (the Nature Survey) also tells us that Canadians commit large amounts of their leisure time to activities that depend on natural areas and wildlife...

  7. Toward standardizing and reporting colorectal cancer screening indicators on an international level: The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Victoria S.; Atkin, Wendy S.; Green, Jane; Nadel, Marion R.; Patnick, Julietta; Smith, Robert A.; Villain, Patricia; Patnick, J.; Atkin, W. S.; Altenhofen, L.; Ancelle-Park, R.; Benson, V. S.; Green, J.; Levin, T. R.; Moss, S. M.; Nadel, M.; Ransohoff, D.; Segnan, N.; Smith, R. A.; Villain, P.; Weller, D.; Koukari, A.; Young, G.; López-Kostner, F.; Antoljak, N.; Suchánek, S.; Zavoral, M.; Holten, I.; Malila, N.; Salines, E.; Brenner, G.; Herszényi, L.; Tulassay, Z.; Rennert, G.; Senore, C.; Zappa, M.; Zorzi, M.; Saito, H.; Leja, M.; Dekker, E.; Jansen, J.; Hol, L.; Kuipers, E.; Kaminski, M. F.; Regula, J.; Sfarti, C.; Trifan, A.; Tang, C.-L.; Hrcka, R.; Binefa, G.; Espinàs, J. A.; Peris, M.; Chen, T. H.; Steele, R.; Pou, G.; Bisges, D.; Dwyer, D.; Groves, C.; Courteau, S.; Kramer, R.; Siegenthaler, K.; Lane, D.; Herrera, C.; Rogers, J.; Rojewski, M.; Wolf, Holly; Sung, J. J.; Ling, K.; Bryant, H.; Rabeneck, L.; Dale, J.; Sware, L.; Yang, H.; Viguier, J.; Von Karsa, L.; Kupcinskas, L.; Deutekom, M.; Törnberg, S.; Austoker, J.; Beral, V.; Monk, C.; Valori, R.; Watson, J.; Kobrin, S.; Pignone, M.; Taplin, S.

    2012-01-01

    The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network was established in 2003 to promote best practice in the delivery of organized colorectal cancer screening programs. To facilitate evaluation of such programs, we defined a set of universally applicable colorectal cancer screening measures and

  8. Sugars, sucrose and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka colorectal cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Morita, Makiko; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2014-05-01

    A diet high in sugars may promote colorectal carcinogenesis, but it remains uncertain whether high intake of sugars or sucrose confers increased risk of colorectal cancer. The authors investigated the associations of sugars and sucrose intake with colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study in Japan. The study subjects comprised 816 incident cases of colorectal cancer and 815 community controls. Consumption frequencies and portion sizes of 148 food and beverage items were ascertained by a computer-assisted interview. The authors used the consumption of 29 food items to estimate sugars and sucrose intake. The odds ratios of colorectal cancer risk according to intake categories were obtained using a logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Overall, intakes of sugars and sucrose were not related to colorectal cancer risk either in men or women. The association between sugars intake and colorectal cancer risk differed by smoking status and alcohol use in men, but not in women. In men, sugars intake tended to be associated with colorectal cancer risk inversely among never-smokers and positively among male ever-smokers (interaction p=0.01). Sugars intake was associated with an increased risk among men with no alcohol consumption, but was unrelated to the risk among male alcohol drinkers (interaction p=0.02). Body mass index did not modify the association with sugars intake in either men or women. Sugars intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer among smokers and non-alcohol drinkers in men selectively.

  9. Beclin 1 Expression is Closely Linked to Colorectal Carcinogenesis and Distant Metastasis of Colorectal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ying Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beclin 1 participates in development, autophagy, differentiation, anti- apoptosis, neurodegeneration, tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The roles of Beclin 1 in colorectal carcinogenesis and its subsequent progression are still unclear. Here, the mRNA and protein expression of Beclin 1 were determined in colorectal carcinoma and matched mucosa by Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH were performed on tissue microarryer with colorectal carcinoma, adenoma and mucosa. The expression of Beclin 1 mRNA and protein was found to be higher in colorectal carcinoma than matched mucosa by real-time PCR and Western blot (p < 0.05. According to the ISH data, Beclin 1 expression was lower in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM than adenoma and carcinoma (p < 0.05. Immunohistochemically, primary carcinoma showed stronger Beclin 1 expression than NNM and metastatic carcinoma in the liver (p < 0.05. Beclin 1 protein expression was negatively related to liver and distant metastasis (p < 0.05, but not correlated with age, sex, depth of invasion, lymphatic or venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM staging, differentiation or serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA concentration (p > 0.05. Survival analysis indicated that Beclin 1 expression was not linked to favorable prognosis of the patients with colorectal carcinoma (p > 0.05. Cox’s model indicated that depth of invasion and distant metastasis were independent prognostic factors for colorectal carcinomas (p < 0.05. It was suggested that Beclin 1 expression is closely linked to colorectal carcinogenesis and distant metastasis of colorectal carcinoma.

  10. Canadian municipal carbon trading primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being suggested as an effective economic way to meet Canada's Kyoto target. Emissions trading is a market-based instrument that can help achieve environmental improvements while using the market to absorb the economical and effective measures to achieve emissions reductions. Placing a value on emissions means that in order to minimize costs, companies will be motivated to apply the lowest-cost emission reductions possible for regulatory approval. The two main types of emissions trading that exist in Canada are the trading of emissions that lead to the formation of smog or acid rain, and the trading of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Since carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG, making up approximately 75 per cent of Canadian GHG emissions, the trading of units of GHGs is often referred to as carbon trading. The impact that emissions trading will have on municipal operations was the focus of this primer. The trading of GHG involves buying and selling of allowances of GHGs between contracting parties, usually between one party that is short of GHG credits and another that has excess credits. The 3 common approaches to emissions trading include allowance trading (cap and trade), credit trading (baseline and credit), and a hybrid system which combines both credit and allowance trading systems. The issues that impact municipalities include the debate regarding who owns the credits from landfills, particularly if power is generated using landfill gas and the power is sold as green power. Other viable questions were also addressed, including who can claim emission reduction credits if a city implements energy efficiency projects, or fuel substitution programs. Also, will municipalities be allowed to trade internationally, for example, with municipalities in the United States, and how should they spend their money earned from selling credits. This report also presents highlights from 3 emissions

  11. The Canadian approach to nuclear power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, R.J.; Boyd, F.C.; Domaratski, Z.

    1983-07-01

    The development of the Canadian nuclear power safety philosophy and practice is traced from its early roots at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory to the licensing of the current generation of power reactors. Basic to the philosophy is a recognition that the primary responsibility for achieving a high standard of safety resides with the licensee. As a consequence, regulatory requirements have emphasized numerical safety goals and objectives and minimized specific design or operating rules. The Canadian licensing process is described along with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered. Examples of specific licensing considerations for each phase of a project are included

  12. Climate change 2 - Canadian technology development conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.T.

    2001-01-01

    These Conference Proceedings summarise the program of the 'Climate Change 2: Canadian Technology Development' Conference held on October 3-5, 2001 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Conference program was multidisciplinary, representing diverse science and technology-oriented associations and organizations from across Canada. The conference was designed to provide a forum to explore and showcase Canadian technologies that could be developed and deployed to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions and/or remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. The Conference brought together national and provincial policy makers and innovators to discover, discuss and develop technologies and strategies to encourage appropriate energy, agriculture and forestry technology

  13. Management of hereditary angioedema: 2010 Canadian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency is a rare blood disorder resulting in angioedema attacks that are debilitating and may be life-threatening. Prophylaxis and therapy of events has changed since our first Canadian Consensus Conference on the diagnosis, therapy and management of HAE. We have formed the Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Network (CHAEN)/Réseau Canadien d'Angioédème Héréditaire (RCAH) - http://www.haecanada.com to advance care of patients with this disorder in Canada. We here present a review of management of HAE in Canada. PMID:20667123

  14. Canadian approach to nuclear power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, R.J.; Boyd, F.C.; Domaratzki, Z.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the Canadian nuclear power safety philosophy and practice is traced from its early roots at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories to the licensing of the current generation of power reactors. Basic to the philosophy is a recognition that the licensee is primarily responsible for achieving a high standard safety. As a consequence, regulatory requirements have emphasized numerical safety goals and objectives and minimized specific design or operating rules. In this article the Canadian licensing process is described with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered. Examples of specific licensing considerations for each phase of a project are included

  15. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummery, T.E.; Rosinger, E.L.J.

    1983-05-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is now well established. This report outlines the generic research and technological development underway in this program to assess the concept of immobilization and subsequent disposal of nuclear fuel waste deep in a stable plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. The program participants, funding, schedule and associated external review processes are briefly outlined. The major scientific and engineering components of the program, namely, immobilization studies, geoscience research and environmental and safety assessment, are described in more detail

  16. The Scholarship of Canadian Research University Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fox

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a national survey of Canadian research university librarians conducted by the author in 2006. The study deals with the motivation of librarians to engage in scholarly activities, the requirement for scholarship by librarians at Canadian research universities, the perceived importance of scholarship as a criterion for promotion and tenure, levels and forms of participation in scholarship, and librarians’ assessment of various types of support for scholarship. The study concluded that 13% of the sample population could be considered active scholars, and suggests that there may be a correlation between level of scholarly intensity and gender. The paper concludes with questions for further study.

  17. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  18. Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Thymus Gland: Rare Presentation of Colorectal Cancer as Anterior Mediastinal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Charles Peters

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improved screening modalities, 15–25% of newly diagnosed colorectal cancers are metastatic at the time of diagnosis. The vast majority of these cases present as hepatic metastasis; however, 22% present with concomitant extrahepatic disease. The thymus gland is an uncommon site of metastasis for any primary malignancy, particularly, colorectal cancer given its vascular and lymphatic drainage. This case report details our experience with a rare case of colorectal cancer metastasis to the thymus gland presenting as a symptomatic mediastinal mass.

  19. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy

  20. Do NSAIDs Prevent Colorectal Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Arber

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. This observation is supported by animal studies that show fewer tumours per animal and fewer animals with tumours after administration of several different NSAIDs. Studies in humans consistently support this hypothesis. Intervention data from familial adenomatosis coli establish that the process of human colonic adenoma polyp formation is affected. Supportive evidence comes from 21 of 23 human studies -- both case-control and cohort. The reduced risk has been found in men and women, for cancers of the colon and the rectum and for the use of both ASA and the other NSAIDs. Earlier detection of lesions as a result of drug-induced bleeding does not seem to account for these findings. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive action of this class of drugs is not completely established. Protection may affect several pathways, including cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis.  Because of the consistency of epidemiological, clinical and experimental data, there is no need for further placebo trials. At the same time, there is a need to establish the dose, duration and frequency of use required for cancer-preventive activity.

  1. Colorectal cancer screening in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G. [Hamilton Health Sciences Corp., Henderson Campus, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-02-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Canada, ranking third among all cancers. In 1998, there were 16,500 new cases and 6300 deaths from this disease. Predictions for 2000 were similar. There has been a gradual decrease in age-adjusted incidence and mortality from CRC over the last few years, but the actual number of cases is expected to increase significantly over the next decade because of changing age demographics. The regional incidence is lowest on the west coast and highest on the east coast, with Ontario and Quebec in between. In Canada, the lifetime risk of dying from CRC is 2.8%, compared with 8.1% for lung cancer in men, 4.5% for lung cancer in women, 3.6% for prostate cancer in men and 3.9% for breast cancer in women. CRC is a disease of developed, rather than developing countries, and the incidence in Canada is among the highest in the world, and higher in relative terms than in the United States. Primary prevention, including diet modification and other lifestyle influences, may have the most significant long-term effects on the problem, but earlier detection and treatment would seem to be the most advantageous medium-term objectives. An excellent review and guidelines article by Winawer and colleagues has formed the basis for an informed discussion on CRC and screening-related issues. (author)

  2. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin, E-mail: Kliu@gru.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, and Cancer Center, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  3. [The colorectal carcinoma; pathological remarks (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, H

    1980-01-01

    A survey is presented on the incidence of colorectal carcinomas in the GDR, exogenous causes possibly being responsible for the increase in incidence, common screening methods, macro-anatomy and micro-anatomy of colorectal carcinoma, staging, prognosis, and pathways of metastases. The correlation between intestinal polypi and colorectal carcinoma as well as the frequency of their degeneration are also referred to. Adenomatous polypi (polypous adenoma), villous polypi (villous adenoma), and certain rare intestinal polypi, such as familial polyposis coli, multiple polyposis of the entire gastro-intestinal tract, as well as the Gardner- and Turcot-syndromes, are some of those polypi which depending on their size tend to malignant degeneration. Histological information provided by the pathologist is discussed in its value and importance for surgical practice.

  4. Management of colorectal trauma: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ju Yong; Keshava, Anil

    2017-07-01

    Traumatic colorectal injuries are common during times of military conflict, and major improvements in their care have arisen in such periods. Since World War II, many classification systems for colorectal trauma have been proposed, including (i) Flint Grading System; (ii) Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index; (iii) Colonic/Rectal Injury Scale; and (iv) destructive/non-destructive colonic injuries. The primary goal of these classifications was to aid surgical management and, more particularly, to determine whether a primary repair or faecal diversion should be performed. Primary repair is now the preferred surgical option. Patients who have been identified as having destructive injuries have been found to have higher anastomotic leak rates after a primary repair. Damage control principles need to be adhered to in surgical decision-making. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of injury, classifications, clinical presentation and current recommendations for the management of colorectal trauma. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Ziv-aflibercept in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anuj Patel, Weijing Sun Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic agents has become a conventional treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ziv-aflibercept is a fusion protein which acts as a decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, and placental growth factor (PlGF; it was approved in combination with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that is resistant to or has progressed after an oxaliplatin-containing fluoropyrimidine-based regimen. Herein we review the role of tumor angiogenesis as the rationale for antiangiogenic therapy, the clinical data associated with ziv-aflibercept, and its current role as a treatment option compared to other antiangiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab and regorafenib. Keywords: aflibercept, angiogenesis, colorectal cancer

  6. Molecular alterations and biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, William M.; Pritchard, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of precision medicine is now a clinical reality. Advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of colorectal cancer genetics is leading to the development of a variety of biomarkers that are being used as early detection markers, prognostic markers, and markers for predicting treatment responses. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this review, we update a prior review published in 2010 and describe our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers), and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers). PMID:24178577

  7. The stability of colorectal cancer mathematical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairudin, Nur Izzati; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2013-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. To better understand about the kinetics of cancer growth, mathematical models are used to provide insight into the progression of this natural process which enables physicians and oncologists to determine optimal radiation and chemotherapy schedules and develop a prognosis, both of which are indispensable for treating cancer. This thesis investigates the stability of colorectal cancer mathematical models. We found that continuous saturating feedback is the best available model of colorectal cancer growth. We also performed stability analysis. The result shows that cancer progress in sequence of genetic mutations or epigenetic which lead to a very large number of cells population until become unbounded. The cell population growth initiate and its saturating feedback is overcome when mutation changes causing the net per-capita growth rate of stem or transit cells exceed critical threshold.

  8. GYNECOLOGICAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Solodky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors for colorectal cancer on the basis of retrospective analysis of gynecological history and status of 183 patients with colon adenocarcinoma treated at the Russian X-Ray Radiology Research Center between 1996 and 2011. Evaluation of gynecological status was based on findings  of gynecological, transvaginal and ultrasound examinations of the genitals, as well as on cytological cervical screening and colposcopy. Hysteroscopy and separate diagnostic curettage were performed if necessary. Gynecological status of patients with colorectal cancer was characterized by ovarian hypofunction and high incidence of benign non-inflammatory (78.1 % and inflammatory (88.0 % disorders of genital tract. In most cases (63.9 % polyneoplasia in patients with colorectal cancer combined with breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers. Considering younger age of the onset of benign disease of the genital tract, this group of patients should be followed up carefully for the development of colon cancer.

  9. Something to Chew On: Canadian Fiction for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Beverley

    An annotated bibliography of fiction about Canada or written by Canadian authors is presented. The list is intended as a guide for Canadian young adult readers in search of a literature they can identify as their own. It can also be used by librarians and teachers who need assistance in selecting novels and short stories for young Canadians. Over…

  10. The flow of radionuclides through the Canadian archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.; Smith, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    The transport of contaminants to the Canadian Arctic by air and in water and their concentration through the marine food web has lead to enhanced levels of contaminants in several foods of Canadian northern inhabitants. Artificial radionuclides in the marine water can be used to determine water circulation and to trace contaminant transport through the Canadian Archipelago

  11. Women in the Canadian Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Sylvia; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains activities on the economic status and roles of Canadian women. The first of 4 sections presents a profile of male and female occupations. Section 2 contains statistics on females in the Canadian labor force. Section 3,…

  12. Next-generation models for Canadian collaboration in international ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through this project, the Canadian Council for International Cooperation (CCIC), in partnership with the Canadian Association for the Study of International Development, will identify and promote new ways for Canadian practitioners, academics, and public policymakers to work together in international development.

  13. Oh, Canada: Bridges and Barriers to Inclusion in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Laura; Katz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion in Canadian schools, both academic and social, is explored through the historic legislative structures that have resulted in a diversity of approaches to meeting the educational needs of Canadians. Innovative programmes that have been developed which showcase Canadian commitment to inclusive academic and social practices are described.…

  14. Time to Endoscopy in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: Analysis of Wait-Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée M. Janssen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Wait Time Consensus Group recommends that patients with symptoms associated with colorectal cancer (CRC should have an endoscopic examination within 2 months. However, in a recent survey of Canadian gastroenterologists, wait-times for endoscopy were considerably longer than the current guidelines recommend. The purpose of this study was to evaluate wait-times for colonoscopy in patients who were subsequently found to have CRC through the Division of Gastroenterology at St. Paul’s Hospital (SPH. Methods. This study was a retrospective chart review of outpatients seen for consultation and endoscopy ultimately diagnosed with CRC. Subjects were identified through the SPH pathology database for the inclusion period 2010 through 2013. Data collected included wait-times, subject characteristics, cancer characteristics, and outcomes. Results. 246 subjects met inclusion criteria for this study. The mean wait-time from primary care referral to first office visit was 63 days; the mean wait-time to first endoscopy was 94 days. Patients with symptoms waited a mean of 86 days to first endoscopy, considerably longer than the national recommended guideline of 60 days. There was no apparent effect of length of wait-time on node positivity or presence of distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion. Wait-times for outpatient consultation and endoscopic evaluation at the St. Paul’s Hospital Division of Gastroenterology exceed current guidelines.

  15. Carbon footprint of Canadian dairy products: calculations and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergé, X P C; Maxime, D; Dyer, J A; Desjardins, R L; Arcand, Y; Vanderzaag, A

    2013-09-01

    The Canadian dairy sector is a major industry with about 1 million cows. This industry emits about 20% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the main livestock sectors (beef, dairy, swine, and poultry). In 2006, the Canadian dairy herd produced about 7.7 Mt of raw milk, resulting in about 4.4 Mt of dairy products (notably 64% fluid milk and 12% cheese). An integrated cradle-to-gate model (field to processing plant) has been developed to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of 11 Canadian dairy products. The on-farm part of the model is the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES). It considers all GHG emissions associated with livestock production but, for this study, it was run for the dairy sector specifically. Off-farm GHG emissions were estimated using the Canadian Food Carbon Footprint calculator, (cafoo)(2)-milk. It considers GHG emissions from the farm gate to the exit gate of the processing plants. The CF of the raw milk has been found lower in western provinces [0.93 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/L of milk] than in eastern provinces (1.12 kg of CO2e/L of milk) because of differences in climate conditions and dairy herd management. Most of the CF estimates of dairy products ranged between 1 and 3 kg of CO2e/kg of product. Three products were, however, significantly higher: cheese (5.3 kg of CO2e/kg), butter (7.3 kg of CO2e/kg), and milk powder (10.1 kg of CO2e/kg). The CF results depend on the milk volume needed, the co-product allocation process (based on milk solids content), and the amount of energy used to manufacture each product. The GHG emissions per kilogram of protein ranged from 13 to 40 kg of CO2e. Two products had higher values: cream and sour cream, at 83 and 78 kg of CO2e/kg, respectively. Finally, the highest CF value was for butter, at about 730 kg of CO2e/kg. This extremely high value is due to the fact that the intensity indicator per kilogram of product is high and that butter is almost exclusively

  16. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo In [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Pil [Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Eun [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  17. The full costs of thermal power production in Eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venema, H.D.; Barg, S.

    2003-07-01

    This study examines the public health and global warming costs associated with generating electricity with fossil fuels such as coal, oil or natural gas. A Full Cost Accounting approach was used to determine the costs for Eastern Canada. The electricity sector is chosen because it is a large emitter of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The sector it will undergo potentially significant structural changes as Canada complies with the Kyoto Protocol. Alternative investments in nonpolluting sources of electricity should include analysis of full costs. Two types of factors are evaluated in this study: the public health costs caused by emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides and volatile organic carbon (VOC) in Eastern Canada, and the marginal climate change damages caused by the emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) in Eastern Canada. The major contribution of this study is the application of the impact-pathway approach to power sector emissions. Recent Canadian studies have reported either the pollutant emission rates for different power generation technologies and fuels, or the health costs of ambient air pollution not specifically attributable to the power sector. This study isolates the component of air pollution attributable to the power sector and analyses its geographic distribution. It was concluded that coal-fired generation should be closely monitored because the externalities burden is the same magnitude as the marginal production cost. 77 refs., 20 tabs., 21 figs

  18. How Many Diseases Are Colorectal Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Greystoke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of personalised therapy and mechanism-targeted agents in oncology mandates the identification of the patient populations most likely to benefit from therapy. This paper discusses the increasing evidence as to the heterogeneity of the group of diseases called colorectal cancer. Differences in the aetiology and epidemiology of proximal and distal cancers are reflected in different clinical behaviour, histopathology, and molecular characteristics of these tumours. This may impact response both to standard cytotoxic therapies and mechanism-targeted agents. This disease heterogeneity leads to challenges in the design of clinical trials to assess novel therapies in the treatment of “colorectal cancer.”

  19. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-05

    This podcast is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 7/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/5/2011.

  20. Microsatellite Status of Primary Colorectal Cancer Predicts the Incidence of Postoperative Colorectal Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Aki; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Hata, Keisuke; Ishihara, Soichiro; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have evaluated the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms stratified by the nature of primary colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we revealed it on the basis of the microsatellite (MS) status of primary CRC. We retrospectively reviewed 338 patients with CRC and calculated the risk of neoplasms during postoperative surveillance colonoscopy in association with the MS status of primary CRC. A propensity score method was applied. We identified a higher incidence of metachronous rectal neoplasms after the resection of MS stable CRC than MS instable CRC (adjusted HR 5.74, p=0.04). We also observed a higher incidence of colorectal tubular adenoma in patients with MSS CRC (adjusted hazard ratio 7.09, pcolorectal cancer influenced the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. In the Field: The Canadian Ecology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Clare

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Ecology Centre (Ontario) offers year-round residential and day programs in outdoor and environmental education for secondary students, field placement and internship opportunities for college students, and ecotourism programs, while providing employment and tax revenues to the local community. Dubbed consensus environmentalism, the…

  2. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  3. No. 354-Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona; Kennedy, V Logan; Poliquin, Vanessa; Dzineku, Frederick; Dean, Nicola L; Margolese, Shari; Symington, Alison; Money, Deborah M; Hamilton, Scot; Conway, Tracey; Khan, Sarah; Yudin, Mark H

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines is to provide clinical information and recommendations for health care providers to assist Canadians affected by HIV with their fertility, preconception, and pregnancy planning decisions. These guidelines are evidence- and community-based and flexible and take into account diverse and intersecting local/population needs based on the social determinants of health. EVIDENCE: Literature searches were conducted by a librarian using the Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Embase databases for published articles in English and French related to HIV and pregnancy and HIV and pregnancy planning for each section of the guidelines. The full search strategy is available upon request. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the SOGC under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and through use of the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation instrument for the development of clinical guidelines. Guideline implementation should assist the practitioner in developing an evidence-based approach for the prevention of unplanned pregnancy, preconception, fertility, and pregnancy planning counselling in the context of HIV infection. These guidelines have been reviewed and approved by the Infectious Disease Committee and the Executive and Council of the SOGC. Canadian Institutes of Health Research Grant Planning and Dissemination grant (Funding Reference # 137186), which funded a Development Team meeting in 2016. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five…

  5. CASID and Canadian Journal of Development Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CASID was founded in 1989 by a group of individuals from the academic and practitioner community to provide a forum for Canadian scholars, policymakers, ... strengthen its capacity to deliver its programs, but also to do so more efficiently and effectively by improving itself as an organization in critical areas of performance.

  6. The Canadian experience in frontier environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Early Canadian frontier exploration (from 1955 onshore and from 1966 for offshore drilling) caused insignificant public concern. The 1967-1968 Torrey Canyon Tanker and Santa Barbara disasters roused public opinion and governments. In Canada, 1969-1970 Arctic gas blowouts, a tanker disaster, and damage to the 'Manhattan' exacerbated concerns and resulted in new environmental regulatory constraints. From 1970, the Arctic Petroleum Operations Association learned to operate safely with environmental responsibility. It studied physical environment for design criteria, and the biological and human environment to ameliorate impact. APOA's research projects covered sea-ice, permafrost, sea-bottom, oil-spills, bird and mammal migration, fish habitat, food chains, oceanography, meteorology, hunters'/trappers' harvests, etc. In 1971 Eastcoast Petroleum Operators' Association and Alaska Oil and Gas Association followed APOA's cooperative research model. EPOA stressed icebergs and fisheries. Certain research was handled by the Canadian Offshore Oil Spill Research Association. By the mid-1980s these associations had undertaken $70,000,000 of environmental oriented research, with equivalent additional work by member companies on specific needs and similar sums by Federal agencies often working with industry on complementary research. The frontier associations then merged with the Canadian Petroleum Association, already active environmentally in western Canada. Working with government and informing environmental interest groups, the public, natives, and local groups, most Canadian frontier petroleum operations proceeded with minimal delay and environmental disturbance

  7. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Don; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  8. Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I

    2010-02-01

    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  9. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Natalia; Barabash, Olena; Busko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role…

  10. Further Education Pathways of Canadian University Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Through secondary analysis of the National Graduate Survey data, this study examines determinants of choice of further education pathways by Canadian university graduates in early 2000s. This paper extends the Cross' participation model by introducing a typology of path choices that are related to socio-demographic, post-secondary and situational…

  11. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology 2004 Strategic Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Sherman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented below is the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG five year Strategic Plan for July 2004 to June 2009. The Strategic Plan represents an extension of the organization's original 1993 Strategic Plan (1, and directly reflects input from the membership provided via a Strategic Planning Needs Analysis undertaken in the fall of 2002 (2.

  12. Canadian Perspectives on East Indian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Josephine C.

    In this paper, various studies and surveys on the status of East Indians in Canada and attitudes towards them are summarized. The history of the East Indian immigration into Canada is sketched. A 1976 survey of attitudes of Canadians toward multiculturalism (Berry, Kalin, and Taylor, 1976) is outlined. A study of the intercultural perceptions of…

  13. Highlight: Canadian and Caribbean parliamentarians discuss open ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open parliaments were also on the agenda in a session moderated by Senator David Smith, in the Centre Block of the Canadian Parliament Buildings. Increased information about legislative activities and greater opportunities for dialogue between citizens and their parliaments hold the promise of improving governance ...

  14. Forecasting Canadian nuclear power station construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, C.W.K.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequences of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of future situations. A key consideration in an evaluation is the financial component. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A brief review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A database is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes, an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of 40 years are generated and applications (such as alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts) to uncertainty assessment and/or decision-making are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the first for Canadian NGS constructions. (author)

  15. Antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Alissa; Paisley, Judy; Bandayrel, Kristofer

    2011-01-01

    Recently, antioxidants have taken centre stage in media and advertising messages. While 80% of Canadians think they are well-informed about nutrition, many are confused about the health effects of specific nutrients. Forty-six percent of Canadians seek information from newspapers and books, and 67% of women rely on magazines. We examined the content and accuracy of antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines. The top three Canadian magazines targeted at women readers were selected. A screening tool was developed, pilot tested, and used to identify eligible articles. A coding scheme was created to define variables, which were coded and analyzed. Seventy-seven percent of 36 magazine issues contained articles that mentioned antioxidants (n=56). Seventy-one percent (n=40) of articles reported positive health effects related to antioxidant consumption, and 36% and 40% of those articles framed those effects as definite and potential, respectively (p<0.01). The articles sampled conveyed messages about positive antioxidant health effects that are not supported by current evidence. Improved standards of health reporting are needed. Nutrition professionals may need to address this inaccuracy when they develop communications on antioxidants and health risk.

  16. Research Awards: Canadian Partnerships Program Deadline: 12 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... This award provides young and upcoming professionals with a unique opportunity to strengthen their research skills and gain a fresh perspective on the Canadian community – both in universities and civil society organizations (CSOs) – that is actively engaged in creating, sharing, and using knowledge to ...

  17. Learning to Speak Everyday (Canadian) French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadasdi, Terry; Mougeon, Raymond; Rehner, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the sociolinguistic competence of French immersion students. We first present an overview of the range of variation found in L1 speech and make a distinction between vernacular, informal, formal, and hyper-formal variants. We then compare the use of these forms in the speech of Canadian francophones and Grade 9 and 12…

  18. The changing stance of the Canadian Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Proulx, S.

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at policy options taken by the Canadian government in an age of globalization and information. A first part explores federal government initiatives pertaining to Canada's preparedness for the information society. A second part assesses some provincial government policy options,

  19. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…

  20. After Access: Canadian Education and Copyright Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Michael

    2006-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the Internet in the 1990s, the Canadian government developed a well-regarded strategy for addressing the emerging issues posed by the "information highway." The strategy featured legal reforms to address privacy and e-commerce, administrative reforms for the government online initiative, and connectivity…

  1. Canadian nuclear technology faces tough competition abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guard, R.F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The history of Canadian nuclear exports is related, starting with the CIRUS reactor and ending with the Romanian contract. The sale of the Cordoba reactor to Argentina is set in its historical perspective of continuing competition with German vendors. The Wolsung reactor is mentioned. The author considers that political rather than engineering problems hamper exports. (NDH)

  2. The Canadian nuclear scene - a 1983 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulkes, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews the previous year's performance and future prospects for the Canadian nuclear industry. Continued economic difficulties have meant continued streamlining of the industry. Basic strength is still the year-after-year record performance of the Ontario Hydro CANDU units. Given this performance, flexibility in the structure of the industry, and strong government support commercial success can be achieved eventually

  3. Is prevalence of colorectal polyps higher in patients with family history of colorectal cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela Maria; Bezerra, Carla Camila Rocha; Peixoto, Ana Ligia Rocha; Regadas, Francisco Sérgio Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Siebra, José Airton Gonçalves; da Silva Fernandes, Graziela Olivia; Vasconcelos, Rafael Aragão

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjectives:To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening.Methods:A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in first-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, findings on colonoscopy...

  4. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  5. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... for Eastern Jutland.  This process relies on the municipalities in Eastern Jutland reaching consensus on a common vision for the city region.   The key issue in spatial planning in Eastern Jutland is a conflict between preserving the high quality of landscape and maintaining the divide between the countryside...

  6. Diet, microbiota, and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Hakan; Tözün, Nurdan

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world causing nearly 500,000 deaths every year. In addition to genetic background, environmental factors including diet and lifestyle are accepted as major contributors to adenoma and CRC development. Lifestyle factors include high BMI, obesity, and reduced physical activity. Growing interest and accumulating data on human microbiota implicate that host-microbe interplay has an important role in the development of metabolic, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases. Findings from recent studies suggest that colon cancer risk is determined by the interaction between diet and gut microbiota. Dietary changes affect gut microbiota and conversely microbiota mediates the generation of dietary factors triggering colon cancer. Identification of the microbial communities associated with carcinogenesis is of crucial importance. Nowadays, with the evolvement of culture-independent molecular techniques, it has become possible to identify main bacterial species in healthy individuals, inflammatory conditions, and CRC. Some recent studies have shown the differences in intestinal microbiota between colon cancer patients and healthy individuals. Animal studies have provided a better understanding of interaction between pathobionts and symbionts in the development of colon cancer. There is no single causative organism identified in CRC; however, there is strong evidence that reduction of protective bacteria, increase in some bacteria (ie, fusobacterium members; Bacteroides/Prevotella), and age-related changes in microbiota have an impact on adenoma or cancer development. Future studies will enable us to understand procarcinogenic and anticarcinogenic mechanisms and give insights to rational manipulation of the microbiota with prebiotics, probiotics, or dietary modifications.

  7. hereditary non-polyposis colorectal carcinoma (hnpcc)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... eight siblings had developed colorectal cancer, with incidence in three consecutive generations. This family satisfied Amsterdam criteria (I and II) for Lynch syndrome: three generations affected, six of them below age 50, with proximal colon tumours. Genetic testing showed loss of mismatched repair protein ...

  8. Manual Colostomy Reversals Following Wide Colorectal Resections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Causes of WCRR were: sigmoid colon volvulus (58%); colorectal cancer: (17%); perforated sigmoid diverticulitis (11%), amoebic perforations (18%) and rectal cancer (6%). All 36 patients (100%) got discharged after successful management of the following complications: a faecal fistula in two patients, a surgical abdominal ...

  9. Colorectal cancer screening | Schneider | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the Western world, with an estimated incidence of 148 810 cases in the USA in 2008, and about 50 000 deaths from this disease. If detected early, patients with disease localised to the colonic wall have a 5-year survival of 90%. The 5-year survival for patients ...

  10. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark...

  11. Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Thomsen, Maria Morandi; Kure, Elin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival...

  12. Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zedan, Ahmed; Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Fex Svenningsen, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent effective against advanced colorectal cancer. Unlike with other platinum-based agents, the main side effect of oxaliplatin is polyneuropathy. Oxaliplatin-induced polyneuropathy (OIPN) has a unique profile, which can be divided into acute and chronic...

  13. Systemic therapy for patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Per; Qvortrup, Camilla; Tabernero, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Recent modalities and strategies have increased the complexity of treatment choice in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and therefore all cases should be assessed at a multidisciplinary conference. Adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months increases the chance of cure by absolutely 5 % in stage II...

  14. Hereditary & familial colorectal cancer : Identification, characteristics, surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, F.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, 15-20% is related to familial or hereditary factors. Diagnosing familial and hereditary CRC syndromes is important for several reasons. One of these is that surveillance colonoscopies can reduce CRC incidence and mortality importantly. A complete family history

  15. Epigenetic prognostic biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benard, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common diagnosed cancers worldwide, and is the second most important cause of cancer mortality in Europe. The current TNM staging system used at the time of diagnosis is insufficient, as patients with the same tumor stage show wide variations in survival and

  16. Blood transfusions and prognosis in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, O. R.; Hop, W. C.; Hoynck van Papendrecht, M. A.; Marquet, R. L.; Jeekel, J.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions may adversely affect the prognosis of patients treated surgically for cancer, although definite proof of this adverse effect has not been reported. METHODS: We carried out a randomized trial to investigate whether the prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer would

  17. Cetuximab: clinical results in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, E; Giuliani, F; Gebbia, V; Piano, A; Agueli, R; Colucci, G

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, the introduction of targeted therapies into clinical practice seems to offer incremental benefits in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), mainly when they are employed in combination with optimal chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. In this paper, we focus on Cetuximab and its role in the treatment of mCRC.

  18. Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... colorectal-cancer screening in an average-risk population. New England Journal of Medicine 2004; 351(26):2704-2714. [PubMed Abstract] Elmunzer ... cancer incidence and mortality with screening flexible sigmoidoscopy. New England Journal of Medicine 2012; 366(25):2345-2357. [PubMed Abstract] Atkin ...

  19. Loss of heterozygosity in colorectal cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... progression of CRC is a multistep process, which involves many dietary and environmental factors. A great number of oncogenes, ... Key words: Colorectal cancer, tumour suppressor gene, loss of heterozygosity (LOH). INTRODUCTION .... LOH, identified by comparing patterns of polymor- phisms in normal ...

  20. Inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Ocepek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in developed countries and Slovenia, and the incidence is still rising. Groups of people with higher risk for colorectal cancer are well defined. Among them are patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk is highest in patients in whom whole large bowel is affected by inflammation, it rises after 8 to 10 years and increases with the duration of the disease. Precancerous lesion is a displastic, chronically inflammed mucosa and not an adenoma as in cases of sporadic colorectal carcinoma.Conclusions: Many studies suggest that the influence of genetic factors differs between sporadic and inflammatory bowel disease related colorectal cancer. Symptomatic patients at the time of diagnosis have a much worse prognosis. The goal of prevention programes is therefore discovering early precancerous lesions. Established screening protocols are based on relatively frequent colonoscopies which are inconvinient for the patient as well as the endoscopist. Use of specific genetic markers, mutations of candidate genes, as a screening method and a prognostic predictor could greatly lighten therapeutic decisions.

  1. Colorectal cancer screening: World Gastroenterology Organisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer screening: World Gastroenterology Organisation/International Digestive Cancer Alliance Practice Guidelines. S Winawer, M Classen, R Lambert, M Fried, P Dite, K L Goh, F Guarner, D Lieberman, R Eliakim, B Levin, R Saenz, A G Khan, I Khalif, A Lanas, G Lindberg, M J O'Brien, G Young, J Krabshuis ...

  2. Molecular pathology of colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puijenbroek, Marjo van

    2008-01-01

    Each year, approximately eleven thousand new colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are registered in the Netherlands. Half of these patients will eventually die of this disease. Consequently, it is of great importance to identify individuals with an increased risk for CRC. In this thesis, we evaluate the

  3. Parameters of biological activity in colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Š.; Topolčan, O.; Holubec jr., L.; Levý, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Svačina, Š.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2011), s. 373-378 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : colorectal cancer * biological activity * prognosis * tumor markers * angiogenetic factors * metalloproteinases * adhesion molecules Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  4. Treatment of liver metastases from colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, J.; Punt, C. J. A.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years several new local as well as systemic treatment options have become available for patients with advanced colorectal cancer. A survey among Dutch hospitals revealed considerable differences in the use of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Radiofrequency ablation is a promising

  5. Colorectal visceral perception in diverticular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemens, C. H. M.; Samsom, M.; Roelofs, J.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The pathogenesis of asymptomatic diverticular disease (ADD) and symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) has not been elucidated. The aim of our study was to assess whether altered visceral perception or abnormal compliance of the colorectal wall play a role in

  6. Radiological and clinical evaluation of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, O. J.; Chin, S. Y.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred thirty two cases of the pathologically proven colorectal cancer at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Hospital in the period from January 1973 to June 1980 were analyzed radiologically and clinically. The results were as follows: 1. The colorectal cancer was prevalent in rectosigmoid area and in the fourth to seventh decade of life. 2. The clinical pictures were classified into two groups. The one was rectosigmoid cancer with bowel habit changes. The other was one with no specific symptoms or signs. The clinical pictures of the right colon cancer were rather indirected, chronic and systemic than those of the left one. 3. The roentgenological findings were classified into two groups. The one was rectum and left colon cancer with symmetrical annular narrowing and the other showed trumpet-like proximal dilatation. 4. The most frequent complication was intestinal obstruction. 5. The majority of colorectal cancer was adenocarcinoma. The squamous cell carcinoma and atypical cell carcinoma were most prevalent in rectum, but malignantly lymphoma often occurred in right colon. The rarest colorectal cancer was atypical cell carcinoma in rectum

  7. Why I Got Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-29

    CDC’s Dr. Lisa Richardson explains why she got tested for colorectal cancer when she turned 50 years old. .  Created: 2/29/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/29/2016.

  8. Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    42 January 2011 • Volume 7 • The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY. Original article. Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal. Cancer in Kenya tients with sufficient information on CRC pathology, treatment and follow up were included. Patient profile, tumor sub-site, pathology details, recurrence and mor- tality data were collected.

  9. Gynecologic screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, FEM; Mourits, MJE; Kleibeuker, JH; Hollema, H; van der Zee, AGJ

    2003-01-01

    Objective. In hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), women with a mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation have a cumulative lifetime risk of 25-50% for endometrial cancer and 8-12% for ovarian cancer. Therefore, female members of HNPCC families are offered an annual gynecologic and

  10. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer : Genetics and Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Offerhaus, G. Johan A; Giardiello, Francis M.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. About 30% of patients with CRC report a family history of CRC. However, only 5% of CRCs arise in the setting of a well-established mendelian inherited disorder.

  11. Safe laparoscopic colorectal surgery performed by trainees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Peter Koch; Schultz, Martin; Harvald, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is safe, but there have been hesitations to implement the technique in all departments. One of the reasons for this may be suboptimal learning possibilities since supervised trainees have not been allowed to do the operations to an adequate extent...

  12. [Multiple primary colorectal cancer: Clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatkina, N V; Kit, O I; Gevorkyan, Yu A; Milakin, A G

    to define some clinical characteristics of synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC). The investigation was concerned with the data of 150 patients with T1-4N0-2M0-1 multiple primary CRC. The clinical, biological, and morphological characteristics of synchronous and metachronous tumors were analyzed. Multiple primary tumors were 6.01% of all the cases of CRC. There was a preponderance of synchronous CRC (63.75%) with the tumor localized in the sigmoid colon and rectum. In women, synchronous colorectal tumors were more often concurrent with breast tumors; metachronous ones were detected after treatment for genital tumors. In men, synchronous colorectal tumors were more frequently concurrent with kidney cancer; metachronous ones were identified after treatment for gastric cancer. The found characteristics of multiple primary colorectal tumors may be taken in account in programs for both primary diagnosis and follow-up after treatment for malignant tumors, which will be able to improve the early detection of cancer patients and their treatment results.

  13. Does fixity affect prognosis in colorectal tumours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, N A; Peck, M A; Sawyer, C N; Blaxland, J W; Luck, R J

    1983-07-01

    In a retrospective series of 301 colorectal tumours, tumour fixity was assessed, and was found to be of prognostic significance in relation to 5-year survival. Fixity of the tumour was associated with low curative resection rate and advanced tumour state. Fixation did not correlate significantly with the site or differentiation of the tumour nor with operative mortality.

  14. Status of colorectal cancer devices: present scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Shammy; Akhtar, Reyhan; Sarotra, Pooja; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was the colonoscopic detection and removal of neoplasia from the colorectum to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Various online medical databases were searched such as PubMed, ACS, NCI, NIH, WHO, etc. for relevant publications and clinical trials for new developments in colonoscopic devices that are intended for diagnostic visualization and therapeutic interventions of the digestive tract. HD colon and I-Scan both has shown to increase the detection of sporadic adenomas with high quality. Third Eye Retroscope confers the backward view of colon, but aeroscope screens the entire colon in 30-60 min. Narrow-band imaging enhances mucosal and vascular details through the color differentiation of precancerous or cancerous polyp, compared to white light colonoscopy. The PillCam Colon Capsule is another new technique which is easily inserted and painless. In case of chemotherapy, Therasphere with Yttrium-90 has good results in the treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma metastasis. Radiofrequency ablation is a good technique for tumors ablation and Staple Line Reinforcement prevents the leak during and post-surgery of colon. FOBT is much more sensitive and cheaper test for colorectal cancer screening. Registered clinical trials have shown promising results for neoplasia detection by I-Scan, TER, and NBI imaging techniques will change current colonoscopic practice in colorectal cancer screening. However, more studies and inventions are required for improving the patient safety and efficacy.

  15. Re-laparoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of postoperative complications following laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Riordan, J M

    2013-08-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery has increasingly become the standard of care in the management of both benign and malignant colorectal disease. We herein describe our experience with laparoscopy in the management of complications following laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

  16. Dietary supplement use is not associated with recurrence of colorectal adenomas: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Broring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Botma, A.; Wahab, PJ; Tan, A.C.I.T.; Nagengast, F.M.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Kampman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Diet and lifestyle influence colorectal adenoma recurrence. The role of dietary supplement use in colorectal adenoma recurrence remains controversial. In this prospective cohort study, we examined the association between dietary supplement use, total colorectal adenoma recurrence and advanced

  17. Concordant DNA Methylation in Synchronous Colorectal Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Kazuo; Shen, Lanlan; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Ahmed, Saira; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Kogo, Mari; Takano, Toshihumi; Imawari, Michio; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic changes have been proposed as mediators of the field defect in colorectal carcinogenesis, which has implications for risk assessment and cancer prevention. As a test of this hypothesis, we evaluated the methylation status of eight genes (MINT1, 2, 31, MLH1, p16, p14, MGMT, and ESR1), as well as BRAF and KRAS mutations, in 57 multiple colorectal neoplasias (M-CRN) and compared these to 69 solitary colorectal cancers (S-CRC). There were no significant differences in methylation between M-CRNs and S-CRCs except for p14 and MGMT that was significantly higher in M-CRNs than S-CRCs (16.1% versus 9.3%; 26.5% versus 17.3%, respectively; P < 0.05). We found significant (P < 0.05) correlations for MINT1 (r = 0.8), p16 (r = 0.8), MLH1 (r = 0.9), and MGMT (r = 0.6) methylation between tumors pairs of the same site (proximal/proximal and distal/distal). KRAS showed no concordance in mutations. BRAF mutation showed concordance in proximal site pairs but was discordant in different site pairs. Histologically, eight of 10 paired cancers with similar locations were concordant for a cribriform glandular configuration. We conclude that synchronous colorectal tumors of the same site are highly concordant for methylation of multiple genes, BRAF mutations, and a cribriform glandular configuration, all consistent with a patient-specific predisposition to particular subtypes of colorectal cancers. Screening for and secondary prevention of colon cancer should take this fact into account. PMID:19737982

  18. Sedentary work and the risks of colon and rectal cancer by anatomical sub-site in the Canadian census health and environment cohort (CanCHEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Manisha; Harris, M Anne; MacLeod, Jill; Tjepkema, Michael; Peters, Paul A; Demers, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    Sedentary behaviour is a potential risk factor for colorectal cancer. We examined the association between sedentary work, based on body position, and colorectal cancer risk in Canadians. A working body position category (a. sitting; b. standing and walking; c. sitting, standing, and walking; d. other) was assigned to occupations reported by 1991 Canadian Census respondents based on national occupational counselling guidelines. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for cancers of the colon (overall, proximal, and distal) and rectum in men and women newly diagnosed from 1992 to 2010. Compared to "sitting" jobs, men in occupations with "other" (non-sitting, -standing, or -walking) body positions had a weakly significant reduced colon cancer risk (HR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.89, 0.98) primarily attributed to protection at the distal site (HR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.84, 0.97). Men in "standing and walking" and "sitting, standing, and walking" jobs did not have significantly reduced colon cancer risks. No effects were observed for rectal cancer in men or colon and rectal cancer in women. The two significant findings of this analysis should be followed-up in further investigations with additional information on potential confounders. Null findings for rectal cancer were consistent with other studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...

  20. Distinct Gene Expression Signatures in Lynch Syndrome and Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Veerla, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects.......Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects....

  1. Family history of prostate and colorectal cancer and risk of colorectal cancer in the Women's health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L; Yee, Cecilia; Paskett, Electra; Schwartz, Ann G; Lane, Dorothy; Palmer, Nynikka R A; Bock, Cathryn H; Nassir, Rami; Simon, Michael S

    2017-12-13

    Evidence suggests that risk of colorectal and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease, particularly among first-degree relatives. However, the aggregation of colorectal and prostate cancer within families has not been well investigated. Analyses were conducted among participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort, free of cancer at the baseline examination. Subjects were followed for colorectal cancer through August 31st, 2009. A Cox-proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to estimate risk of colorectal cancer associated with a family history of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and both cancers among first-degree relatives of all participants and stratified by race (African American vs. White). Of 75,999 eligible participants, there were 1122 colorectal cancer cases diagnosed over the study period. A family history of prostate cancer alone was not associated with an increase in colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for confounders (aHR =0.94; 95% CI =0.76, 1.15). Separate analysis examining the joint impact, a family history of both colorectal and prostate cancer was associated with an almost 50% increase in colorectal cancer risk (aHR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.10), but similar to those with a family history of colorectal cancer only (95% CI = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.54). Our findings suggest risk of colorectal cancer is increased similarly among women with colorectal cancer only and among those with both colorectal and prostate cancer diagnosed among first-degree family members. Future studies are needed to determine the relative contribution of genes and shared environment to the risk of both cancers.

  2. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in a Japanese population: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotani, Kayo; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Joshi, Amit Man; Yin, Guang; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Mibu, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2010-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the relation between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in Japan. We investigated dietary patterns in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study. The association with dietary patterns was also examined for different sites of colorectal cancer. Data were derived from the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study, including 800 cases and 775 controls interviewed from September 2000 to December 2003. The cases were admitted to one of the participating hospitals for the first surgical treatment during this period. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of intakes of twenty-nine items of food groups and specific foods. Quartile categories of each dietary pattern were used, and non-dietary lifestyle factors and total energy intake were adjusted for in the analysis. We identified three dietary patterns: prudent, high-fat and light-meal patterns. The prudent dietary pattern characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, seafoods and soya foods showed a nearly significant protective association with the overall risk of colorectal cancer (trend P = 0.054), and it was statistically significantly related to a decreased risk of distal colon cancer (trend P = 0.002), but not to that of either proximal colon or rectal cancer. The high-fat and light-meal dietary patterns were not materially related to the overall or site-specific risk of colorectal cancer. In summary, a prudent dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, especially with that of distal colon cancer, in a fairly large case-control study in Japan.

  3. Outreach training model for accredited colorectal specialists in laparoscopic colorectal surgery: feasibility and evaluation of challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, M F; Day, A; Millar, J; Carter, F J C; Coleman, M G; Francis, N K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility and safety of an outreach model of laparoscopic colorectal training of accredited specialists in advanced laparoscopic techniques and to explore the challenges of this model from the perspective of a National Training Programme (NTP) trainer. Prospective data were collected for unselected laparoscopic colorectal training procedures performed by five laparoscopic colorectal NTP trainees supervised by a single NTP trainer with an outreach model between 2009 and 2012. The operative and postoperative outcomes were compared with standard laparoscopic colorectal training procedures performed by six senior colorectal trainees under the supervision of the same NTP trainer within the same study period. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare continuous variables and the Chi squared or Fisher's exact tests were applied for the analysis of categorical variables. The level of statistical significance was set at P groups. Seventy-eight per cent of the patients operated on by the NTP trainees had had no previous abdominal surgery, compared with 50% in the supervised trainees' group (P = 0.0005). There were no significant differences in 30-day mortality or the operative and postoperative outcome between both groups. There were, however, difficulties in training an already established consultant in his or her own hospital and these were overcome by certain adjustments to the programme. Outreach laparoscopic training of colorectal surgeons is a feasible and safe model of training accredited specialists and does not compromise patient care. The challenges encountered can be overcome with optimum training and preparation. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Environmental Guide for ASW in Eastern Canadian Shallow Waters. Part 2: Environmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    the current is then directed eastward and joins the North Atlantic Current; another portion flows around the Tail of the Bank and sinks under the...around the Tai of the Banks, where it sinks below 50 in, under the eastward Slope Current. It then flows aOong the slope and into the Laurentian Channel...vsemine ec&at d ithe co to the Evocud mod Nw-w.Bo said Lbe Narth Em Omswwi Thame wink . a ow IWuD@ a* loobo was a sIasksum (and pwhm) ou hore~ 4imd

  5. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  6. Aerosols over Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of eastern Asia from October 14, 2001, shows large amounts of aerosol in the air. A few possible point sources of smoke, probably fires, are visible north of the Amur River at the very top of the image. One of the larger of these plumes can be seen down river of the confluence of the Songhua and Amur rivers. At lower left, the Yangtze River plume in the East China Sea is also very prominent. Sediment suspended in the ocean water is quite brown near the shore, but becomes much greener as it diffuses into the water. The increasing greenness of the river plume is probably an indication of enhanced phytoplankton growth driven by the nutrients in the river runoff. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Kara K S; Corstorphine, Erin A; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold) between mean intra- (0.48%) and inter- (12.0%) specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs.

  8. Youth De-Radicalization: A Canadian Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafal (Haval Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth radicalization leading to violence has become a growing fear among Canadians, as terrorist attacks are carried out in Western states. Although Canada has suffered relatively fewer acts of violence, this fear has intensified and a de-radicalization strategy is needed in the Canadian context. In a qualitative case study methodology, interviews were conducted with school counsellors, religious leaders, and academics to explore solutions to youth radicalization. Youth de-radicalization approaches from the United Kingdom were analyzed and found that community-based initiatives were missing from programming. Social identity theory is used to explain that youth join radicalized groups to feel a sense of belonging and have to be provided an alternative and moderate group identity to de-radicalize. This study found youth de-radicalization in Canada is best served through a community collaboration approach.

  9. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  10. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautovich, D.P.; Gierszewski, P.J.; Wong, K.Y.; Stasko, R.R.; Burnham, C.D.

    1987-04-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP) is a national project whose aim is to develop capability in tritium and robotics technologies for application to international fusion development programs. Activities over the first five years have brought substantial interaction with the world's leading projects such as Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), the Joint European Torus (JET), and the Next European Torus (NET), Canadian R and D and engineering services, and hardware are in demand as these major projects prepare for tritium operation leading to the demonstration of energy breakeven around 1990. Global planning is underway for the next generation ignition experiment. It is anticipated this will provide increased opportunity for CFFTP and its contractors among industry, universities and governmental laboratories

  11. Canadian heavy oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynon, G.

    1997-01-01

    The wealth of business opportunities presented by Canada's vast heavy oil and bitumen resources in the face of declining reserves of light and medium crude were discussed. It was argued that Western Canadian producers, as a group, appear to lack the appreciation of the impacts of midstream and downstream sectors of the heavy oil business. The vertical integration of the heavy oil industry in Venezuela was cited as an example of the direction that Canadian producers should travel to achieve the control over their own destiny through ownership of the means of transportation, refining and marketing that is commensurate with their growing importance in the energy sector. The opportunities are great, but long-term success will require a sophisticated and integrated business approach. 4 figs

  12. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, P.; Meek, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    Because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies in Canada, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. The Canadian studies provide no consistent, convincing evidence of increased cancer risks attributable to the ingestion of drinking water contaminated by asbestos, even though the observed asbestos concentrations were relatively high in several communities. Only one study, conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area, has shown evidence of increased cancer incidence associated with the ingestion of asbestos in drinking water. 6 references.

  13. Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yuka; Tan, Jerry; Baibergenova, Akerke; Barankin, Benjamin; Cochrane, Chris L; Humphrey, Shannon; Lynde, Charles W; Marcoux, Danielle; Poulin, Yves; Rivers, Jason K; Sapijaszko, Mariusz; Sibbald, R Gary; Toole, John; Ulmer, Marcie; Zip, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial inflammatory dermatosis characterized by background facial erythema and flushing and may be accompanied by inflammatory papules and pustules, cutaneous fibrosis and hyperplasia known as phyma, and ocular involvement. These features can have adverse impact on quality of life, and ocular involvement can lead to visual dysfunction. The past decade has witnessed increased research into pathogenic pathways involved in rosacea and the introduction of novel treatment innovations. The objective of these guidelines is to offer evidence-based recommendations to assist Canadian health care providers in the diagnosis and management of rosacea. These guidelines were developed by an expert panel of Canadian dermatologists taking into consideration the balance of desirable and undesirable outcomes, the quality of supporting evidence, the values and preferences of patients, and the costs of treatment. The 2015 Cochrane review "Interventions in Rosacea" was used as a source of clinical trial evidence on which to base the recommendations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Canadian oil and gas survey : 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    An outlook of the Canadian Petroleum Industry, financial and operating statistics of the top 100 Canadian public oil and gas companies and 15 energy income trusts, were summarized for the fiscal year ending in 1996. In general, 1996 was a good year for the industry. Greater industry financing resulted in increased drilling activity and good stock market returns for investors. However, strong commodity prices also resulted in record levels of hedging activity, which meant lost revenues for the industry. The top 100 companies recorded losses of about $800 million in 1996, largely on crude oil hedges. The fact that volumes hedged forward to 1997 are down from 1996 indicate that many companies are rethinking their commitment to risk management. Details of crude oil and natural gas prices and production levels during 1996 were provided. A list of significant corporate mergers and acquisitions during the year under review rounded out the presentation

  15. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  16. Survey of Canadian hospitals radiation emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the findings of a survey of Canadian hospitals conducted by Social Data Research Ltd. during the Spring and Summer, 1995. The main objective of the survey was to determine the state of readiness of Canadian hospitals in respect of radiation emergency planning. In addition, the AECB was interested in knowing the extent to which a report by the Group of Medical Advisors, 'GMA-3: Guidelines on Hospital Emergency Plans for the Management of Minor Radiation Accidents', which was sponsored and distributed in 1993, was received and was useful to hospital administrators and emergency personnel. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 598 acute care hospitals, and 274 responses were received. The main conclusion of this study is that, with the exception of a few large institutions, hospitals generally do not have specific action plans to handle minor radiation accidents. (author)

  17. Clinical application and research of tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei

    2005-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. There are many tumor markers for detecting colorectal cancer, some of which have been widely used in clinical area. However, still lack an ideal tumor marker of colorectal cancer. In this review, we simply characterized some common tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA50, CA242 etc and their dignostic value. And here we discussed some combined detecting procedures which improve diagnostic accuracy of colorectal cancer. In addition, with the development of the biomoleculer technique, some newly discovered tumor markers and genetic marekers have gained great progress in the research of colorectal cancer, and will become a promissing technique in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. (authors)

  18. Developing a molecular marker for metachronous colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, W M

    1999-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of microsatellite instability in patients with metachronous colorectal cancer as a potential marker for identification of high risk individuals. Surgical research laboratory, Whittington Hospital, Highgate Hill, London. 37 colorectal tumours from 18 individuals with metachronous colorectal cancers were investigated at five microsatellite loci by single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. A control group of 11 individuals who had developed one sporadic colorectal cancer each were also similarly analysed. Tumour microsatellite instability was defined as the appearance of new polymarase chain reaction (PCR) bands, either larger or smaller than those produced from the normal mucosa. 27 of the total of 37 metachronous cancer specimens PCR amplified successfully. Microsatellite instability was demonstrated in 59.3% (16/27) of individuals with metachronous tumours. None of the tumours in the control group showed microsatellite instability. These results suggest that individuals with colorectal cancer with replication errors are at a greater risk of developing metachronous colorectal cancer than those without replication errors.

  19. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  20. Globalization, health, and the future Canadian metropolis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrecker, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This chapter represents a preliminary effort to understand the health implications of transnsational economic integration (globalization) for population health in Canadian metropolitan areas, and to inform the development of policy responses and strategies of resistance. Special emphasis is placed on health equity as it is affected by social determinants of health. I first provide a stylized description of the rationale for concentrating on major metropolitan areas, rather than on...

  1. Canadians trying to join US transmission groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, David; Salaff, Stephen.

    1994-01-01

    Various competition problems faced by Canadian utilities and attempts to solve them, were described. E.g. B.C. Hydro and its electricity trade subsidiary Powerex have moved to become members of the Western Regional Transmission Association (WRTA), an association of about 40 utilities which serve part of the western United States. Through the WRTA, Powerex seeks fair terms to ensure its access to the U.S. market. Membership allows fast dispute resolution and enhances sales to California and other western states. Concern was expressed by the U.S Dept.of Energy about the lack of reciprocity.In the year ending March 1994, Powerex exported 2,600 gigawatt-hours of electricity, over 90% to the U.S. This was a l ow water year for hydroelectric-based BC Hydro, in which surplus energy available for export was only about half of what is usually available. Ontario Hydro and other provincially owned utilities were said to be challenged by U.S. industry deregulation and open transmission policies. If Canadian utilities fail to initiate structural changes leading to open access policies, their economic competitiveness may well decline. If on the other hand Canadian utilities decided to adopt open access policies, they would need to shed their monopolistic practices and accelerate restructuring in the face of wholesale competition. They could face direct retail competition in their currently captive provincial markets from U.S. and alternative Canadian suppliers. In an open competition scenario up to 20% of Ontario Hydro's domestic sales were said to be in danger of being displaced by imports from New York and Michigan

  2. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  3. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    Aircraft, DeHavilland, Grumman Aircraft, and Canadian Digital Radar Data Processing - Contract with Fundacao Vickers Ltd. Educacional de Bauru, Brazil...surveyed by 6939 East Hastings St Avco Lycoming, Bendix Energy Control, Cleveland Pneuma- Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada V5C 5P3 tic , General...backscatter, magne- directly or through its subsidiaries and associates in the manu- tic , and eddy current thickness testing; radiography; facture of electrical

  4. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view.

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, P; Meek, M E

    1983-01-01

    For several years now, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. In Canada, this is a subject of particular concern, because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. It is concluded that...

  5. Roundtable Discussion on the Canadian Economy


    OpenAIRE

    McArthur, Doug; Ivanova, Iglika; Dobrzanski, Chris; Garrosino, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Since the 2008 global financial earthquake, the world economy has continued to be turbulent.

The roundtable discussion focussed on the Canadian economy within the 2012 global environment, but with a specific Vancouver and BC based perspective. Each of the panellists, from their own vantage point, talked about concerns with the economy, opportunities in the mid and long term for BC, and public policy ideas that they would put forward to improve the BC economy. The discussion was  followe...

  6. Tornado Mitigation in the Canadian Prairie Region

    OpenAIRE

    Durage, Samanthi, Prof.

    2014-01-01

    Tornadoes are a destructive form of the extreme weather associated with thunderstorms. Canada gets more tornadoes than any other country with the exception of the US. This paper presents some results of a study on tornado mitigation in the Canadian Prairie region. Initially, a regression-based analysis of the Prairie tornado database was conducted, and the trend for the number of tornadoes reported in each year is discussed in this paper. The detection, warning, communication, and evacuation ...

  7. Waste management in Canadian nuclear programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    1975-08-01

    The report describes the wide-ranging program of engineering developments and applications to provide the Canadian nuclear industry with the knowledge and expertise it needs to conduct its waste management program. The need for interim dry storage of spent fuel, and the storage and ultimate disposal of waste from fuel reprocessing are examined. The role of geologic storage in AECL's current waste management program is also considered. (R.A.)

  8. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  9. International surgery: definition, principles and Canadian practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lett, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This article is dedicated to the Canadian international surgeon, Norman Bethune (1890–1939). International surgery is defined as a humanitarian branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of bodily injuries or disorders by incision or manipulations, emphasizing cooperation and understanding among nations and involving education, research, development and advocacy. In this article I review the colonial past, the dark ages following the Declaration of Alma-Ata, the progress made and the pre...

  10. Diabetic Retinopathy in Native and Nonnative Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Stuart A.; McKenna, Anne; Mozejko, Sheila; Fick, Gordon H.

    2007-01-01

    High prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes are being observed in native Canadian communities. It is believed that native populations have a higher prevalence rate of vascular complications than nonnatives. The Southern Alberta Study of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) examined the prevalence and incidence of DR and associated metabolic abnormalities in native and nonnative subjects. Prevalence rates of DR in type 2 diabetic native and nonnative subjects were identical, with a prevalence rate of 40%. N...

  11. Science Traverses in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The presentation is divided into three parts. Part I is an overview of early expeditions to the High Arctic, and their political consequences at the time. The focus then shifts to the Geological Survey of Canada s mapping program in the North (Operation Franklin), and to the Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP), a unique organization that resides within the Government of Canada s Department of Natural Resources, and supports mapping projects and science investigations. PCSP is highlighted throughout the presentation so a description of mandate, budgets, and support infrastructure is warranted. In Part II, the presenter describes the planning required in advance of scientific deployments carried out in the Canadian High Arctic from the perspective of government and university investigators. Field operations and challenges encountered while leading arctic field teams in fly camps are also described in this part of the presentation, with particular emphasis on the 2008 field season. Part III is a summary of preliminary results obtained from a Polar Survey questionnaire sent out to members of the Arctic research community in anticipation of the workshop. The last part of the talk is an update on the analog program at the Canadian Space Agency, specifically, the Canadian Analog Research Network (CARN) and current activities related to Analog missions, 2009-2010.

  12. Integrative practices of Canadian oncology health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, A S A; Balneaves, L G; Seely, D; Stephen, J E; Suryaprakash, N; Taylor-Brown, J W

    2008-08-01

    Cancer patients are increasingly known to use complementary medicine (CAM) during conventional treatment, but data are limited on how Canadian oncology health professionals attempt to assist patients with their use of cam in the context of conventional cancer care. As part of a larger qualitative study assessing the perceptions of Canadian oncology health professionals regarding integrated breast cancer care, we undertook an exploration of current integrative practices of oncology health professionals. Using an interpretive description research design and a purposive sampling, we conducted a series of in-depth qualitative interviews with various oncology health professionals recruited from provincial cancer agencies, hospitals, integrative clinics, and private practice settings in four Canadian cities: Vancouver, Winnipeg, Montreal, and Halifax. A total of 16 oncology health professionals participated, including medical and radiation oncologists, nurses, and pharmacists. Findings highlighted two main strategies used by oncology health professionals to create a more integrative approach for cancer patients: acting as an integrative care guide, and collaborating with other health professionals. Although few clear standards of practice or guidance material were in place within their organizational settings, health professionals discussed some integrative roles that they had adopted, depending on interest, knowledge, and skills, in supporting patients with cam decisions. Given that cancer patients report that they want to be able to confer with their conventional health professionals, particularly their oncologists, about their cam use, health professionals who elect to adopt integrative practices are likely offering patients much-welcomed support.

  13. Canadian oil and gas survey 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The year 1997 brought record levels of financing for the Canadian oil and gas industry which led to record levels of capital spending and unprecedented merger and acquisition activity. Production records were achieved, but soft commodity prices in the fourth quarter resulted in a significant downturn in the equity markets. El Nino reduced demand for natural gas and heating oil, resulting in increased storage levels for both commodities. Record drilling and capital spending fueled the Canadian oilfield service industry as total market capitalization rose to $10 billion. As for the 1998 outlook, the industry has turned to natural gas as the favoured commodity, as indicated by the conclusion of the Alliance pipeline hearings and the Nova/TCPL merger. This survey presents a review of crude oil and natural gas production, prices, and capital spending for development and exploratory wells, and the financial and operating results for fiscal year 1997 of selected oil and gas companies and income trusts. All listed companies are Canadian public companies, or publicly traded income trusts, traded on one of the country's four major stock exchanges. They are ranked according to gross oil and gas production revenue only (before royalties). Syncrude and oil sands production is also included. The remaining data in the financial statistics tables includes all business segments of each company included. The survey excluded companies that were wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions or U.S. subsidiaries and private companies. tabs., figs

  14. Quality of life and its determinants among colorectal cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Ali Nikbakht; Nayyereh Amini Sani; Mohamad Asghari Jafarabadi; Seyed Reza Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer has a significant impact on physical, mental and social discomfort of patients. The aim of this study was to assess different aspects of health-related quality of life and its association with demographic characteristics and some clinical features in colorectal cancer survivors in the city of Babol. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 120 colorectal cancer survivors identified in the cancer registry from 2007 to 2012. A questionnair...

  15. Optimization of peri-operative care in colorectal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kornmann, V.N.N.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is an important health issue, and colorectal surgery is increasingly being performed. During the last years, quality and safety of care, new surgical techniques and attention for peri-operative risks resulted in reduction of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Despite these improvements, complications still occur. The aim of this thesis was to gain more insight in optimization of peri-operative care in colorectal surgery. Four main subjects were discussed in the presented...

  16. Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical profile of ovarian metastases from colorectal carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kir, Gozde; Gurbuz, Ayse; Karateke, Ates; Kir, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma of the ovary is not an uncommon occurrence and ovarian metastases from colorectal carcinoma frequently mimic endometrioid and mucinous primary ovarian carcinoma. The clinical and pathologic features of metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma involving the ovary is reviewed with particular focus on the diagnostic challenge of distinguishing these secondary ovarian tumors from primary ovarian neoplasm. Immunohistochemical stains that may be useful in the dif...

  17. Robotic colorectal surgery: hype or new hope? A systematic review of robotics in colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnezami, A H; Mirnezami, R; Venkatasubramaniam, A K; Chandrakumaran, K; Cecil, T D; Moran, B J

    2010-11-01

    Robotic colorectal surgery is an emerging field and may offer a solution to some of the difficulties inherent to conventional laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive and critical analysis of the available literature on the use of robotic technology in colorectal surgery. Studies reporting outcomes of robotic colorectal surgery were identified by systematic searches of electronic databases. Outcomes examined included operating time, length of stay, blood loss, complications, cost, oncological outcome, and conversion rates. Seventeen Studies (nine case series, seven comparative studies, one randomized controlled trial) describing 288 procedures were identified and reviewed. Study heterogeneity precluded a meta-analysis of the data. Robotic procedures tend to take longer and cost more, but may reduce the length of stay, blood loss, and conversion rates. Complication profiles and short-term oncological outcomes are similar to laparoscopic surgery. Robotic colorectal surgery is a promising field and may provide a powerful additional tool for optimal management of more challenging pathology, including rectal cancer. Further studies are required to better define its role. © 2010 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2010 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Stomach and colorectal cancers in Puerto Rican-born residents of New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshauer, M E; Silverman, D T; Schottenfeld, D; Pollack, E S

    1986-04-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates for Puerto Rican-born residents in New York City (PR-NYC) for 1975-79 were about two times those for Puerto Ricans living in Puerto Rico (PR-PR) and one-half to almost two-thirds those for other whites in New York City. From 1958 to 1979, colon cancer mortality rates for PR-NYC increased dramatically (i.e., 212% in males and 54% in females), whereas in PR-PR, male rates increased only slightly and female rates remained constant. For stomach cancer, incidence rates for male and female PR-NYC were slightly, but not significantly, higher than those for male and female PR-PR. In contrast, stomach cancer mortality rates for PR-NYC were lower than those for PR-PR throughout the survey period, and mortality decreased substantially in all racial-ethnic groups in New York City and Puerto Rico from 1958 to 1979. Results of this study indicated that the changes in colorectal and stomach cancer incidence and mortality in Puerto Rican-born residents after migration to New York City, although not as dramatic as in migrants from Japan and Eastern Europe, were comparable to those observed for Hispanic migrants to New Mexico and Los Angeles.

  19. Oestrogen receptor beta isoform expression in sporadic colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis and progressive stages of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanato Filho, Paulo Roberto; Aguiar Júnior, Samuel; Begnami, Maria Dirlei

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas are ...... provide a better understanding of oestrogens and their potential preventive and therapeutic effects on sporadic colorectal cancer and cancers associated with FAP syndrome.......BACKGROUND: Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas...... was identified in sporadic polyps and in sporadic colorectal cancer as well as in polyps from FAP syndrome patients compared with normal tissues (p

  20. Prospective study of blood metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Yu, Danxia; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ma, Xiao; Lan, Qing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jia, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2018-02-26

    Few prospective studies, and none in Asians, have systematically evaluated the relationship between blood metabolites and colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a nested case-control study to search for risk-associated metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer in an Asian population using blood samples collected prior to cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess associations of metabolites with cancer risk. In this study, we included 250 incident cases with colorectal cancer and individually matched controls nested within two prospective Shanghai cohorts. We found 35 metabolites associated with risk of colorectal cancer after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Among them, 12 metabolites were glycerophospholipids including nine associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and three with increased risk [odds ratios per standard deviation increase of transformed metabolites: 0.31-1.98; p values: 0.002-1.25 × 10 -10 ]. The other 23 metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk included nine lipids other than glycerophospholipid, seven aromatic compounds, five organic acids and four other organic compounds. After mutual adjustment, nine metabolites remained statistically significant for colorectal cancer. Together, these independently associated metabolites can separate cancer cases from controls with an area under the curve of 0.76 for colorectal cancer. We have identified that dysregulation of glycerophospholipids may contribute to risk of colorectal cancer. © 2018 UICC.

  1. Expression of prostasin and its inhibitors during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selzer-Plon, J.; Bornholdt, J.; Friis, S.

    2009-01-01

    is inhibited by protease nexin-1 (PN-1) and the two isoforms encoded by the mRNA splice variants of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI-1), HAI-1A, and HAI-1B. Methods: Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for prostasin and PN-1 in colorectal cancer tissue (n = 116.......01) and in carcinomas (p colorectal cancer tissue as compared to healthy individuals (p colorectal cancer...... tissue (p Immunohistochemistry showed that prostasin is located mainly on the apical plasma membrane in normal colorectal tissue. A large variation was found...

  2. The Canadian elder standard - pricing the cost of basic needs for the Canadian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Bonnie-Jeanne; Andrews, Doug; Brown, Robert L

    2010-03-01

    We determined the after-tax income required to finance basic needs for Canadian elders living with different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter status, means of transportation, and health status. Using 2001 as our base year, we priced the typical expenses for food, shelter, medical, transportation, miscellaneous basic living items and home-based long-term care for elders living in five Canadian cities. This is the first Canadian study of basic living expenses tailored to elders instead of adults in general, prepared on an absolute rather than a relative basis. We also accounted for an individual's unique life circumstances and established the varying effect that they have on the cost of basic expenses, particularly for home care. We found that the maximum Guaranteed Income Supplement and Old Age Security benefit did not meet the cost of basic needs for an elder living in poor circumstances.

  3. The task ahead: a Canadian federal regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, F.F.

    1983-06-01

    The author discusses the role of the Canadian National Energy Board (NEB) in any possible future exports of nuclear-generated electric power. The federal government has already indicated that it would support New Brunswick Power in its efforts to develop a second reactor at Point Lepreau dedicated to power export, and that similar support would be extended to other utilities. The NEB Act requires that a proposed energy export be surplus to reasonable foreseeable Canadian requirements and that the price be just and reasonable. The output of a plant built for power exports would be surplus to Canadian needs, but the problem comes in determining if producing that surplus would result in a net benefit to Canadians. Negotiating sales contracts will not be easy; purchase of Canadian firm power is only one option among others available to US utilities. However, the Canadian policy framework exists and the NEB is ready to receive applications for export licences

  4. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...

  5. Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Prepared by: Guy Jonkmans Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River ON...INSTALLATION OF THE CANADIAN MUON CARGO INSPECTION SYSTEM AT CRL 153-30100-REPT-001 Revision 0 2013/02/19 UNRESTRICTED 2013/02/19 ILLIMITÉ 153...30100-REPT-001 2013/02/19 Report, General Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Research and Development 153-30100

  6. Canadian capital spending to slip 4.7% in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Total capital and exploration spending by the Canadian petroleum industry is estimated at $6.579 billion in 1993, a drop of 4.7% from estimated 1992 outlays. Last year Canadian capital spending of $6.9 billion represented a drop of 8.9% from 1991 outlays, according to an Oil and Gas Journal survey. All survey related spending estimates in this paper are in U.S. dollars. All individual company spending estimates are in Canadian dollars

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Driving: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Sleep Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ayas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA experience sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality that results in daytime sleepiness, which impairs performance during driving and leads to an increased risk for collisions. Not surprisingly, observational studies have shown that patients with OSA experience a two- to 10-fold higher risk for collision compared with healthy controls. Although treatment would clearly mitigate these risks, there is no current Canadian position on driving and OSA. This article, the first Canadian position statement addressing the issue, provides an overview of provincial regulations and proposes recommendations with regard to driving in patients with OSA.

  8. Cross-language acoustic similarity predicts perceptual assimilation of Canadian English and Canadian French vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Vasiliev, Polina

    2011-11-01

    Monolingual Peruvian Spanish listeners identified natural tokens of the Canadian French (CF) and Canadian English (CE) /ɛ/ and /æ/, produced in five consonantal contexts. The results demonstrate that while the CF vowels were mapped to two different native vowels, /e/ and /a/, in all consonantal contexts, the CE contrast was mapped to the single native vowel /a/ in four out of five contexts. Linear discriminant analysis revealed that acoustic similarity between native and target language vowels was a very good predictor of context-specific perceptual mappings. Predictions are made for Spanish learners of the /ɛ/-/æ/ contrast in CF and CE.

  9. The amazing vanishing Canadian dermatologist: results from the 2006 Canadian Dermatology Association member survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eunice Y; Searles, Gordon E

    2010-01-01

    The 2006 Canadian Dermatology Association (CDA) member survey tracked the Canadian dermatology workforce. Information on use of nondermatologist extenders, impact of financial burden on practice style, and wait times was collected in the survey. To survey Canadian dermatologists for specialty-specific physician resource information including demographics, workload, and future career plans and compare it to results from the 2001 survey. In addition, to explore three other areas not covered in the previous survey: patient access to dermatologic care through wait times, the use of nondermatologist extenders, and potential impact of educational financial debt on practice styles. CDA members in 2006 were surveyed by mail. Follow-up mailings were done for nonresponders. Survey results were compared to those of the 2001 survey. Thirty-six percent (216 of 602) of Canadian dermatologists responded (70% in 2001). The national distribution was identical between surveys. The median age increased to 55 years; two-thirds of dermatologists are male. The median retirement age remained at 65 years. There was a shift from rural to urban practice locations; 78% practice in private offices. Three-fifths of dermatologists do mainly medical dermatology, a decrease between surveys. Pediatric dermatology decreased 10%, whereas surgical dermatology increased 52% between surveys. Fewer practitioners perform noninsured services, and half as many perform research or hospital consultations or teach medical students. Financial debt burden had no impact on selection of practice style. Median wait times for nonurgent consultations doubled from 5 to 10 weeks; follow-up visits increased from 4 to 5 weeks; noninsured consultations increased from 4 to 5 weeks. The national median wait time for a third available consultation appointment was 42 days (range 7-161 days). Seventeen percent of dermatologists reported using nondermatologist extenders. Training programs produce only 60% of new practitioners

  10. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules in Colorectal-Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Jorgensen, Lars N; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN) at staging computed tomography (CT) for colorectal cancer (CRC), and the optimal diagnostic approach, are debated. This study aimed to analyse variability in radiologists' detection of IPN at staging CT for CRC. METHODS......: All patients with CRC referred to our center between 2006 and 2011 were included. Primary staging CT scans were re-evaluated by an experienced thoracic radiologist whose findings were entered into a dedicated database and merged with data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database, the National...... investigated radiological characteristics or clinicopathological factors were significantly associated with malignancy of IPN. CONCLUSION: The characterization of pulmonary findings on staging CT for CRC varied greatly between the radiologists, and double-reading of scans with IPN is recommended prior...

  11. Early colorectal Cancer: focuses and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Oscar A; Martinez, Carlos E; Escobar, Jaime; Sanchez, William; Serrano, Juan M

    2001-01-01

    Currently, early colorectal cancer (ECC) constitutes only 10% of the total of diagnosed colorectal malignancy. This proportion is expected to show an important increase with the different screening protocols that are on the way, together with recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy. We compare the histopathologic spectrum of ECC from the western and Japanese viewpoint, defining the anatomopathologic characteristics of this lesions, together with the natural history and new classification and staging systems; variables which are all oriented to establish the grade of local invasion and risk of nodal spread. The knowledge and integral analysis of the different biologic, clinical, histological and endoscopic characteristics of ECC, will determine the most rational individual therapeutic pathway from the prognostic point of view

  12. X-ray diagnosis of colorectal endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runte, F.; Majewski, A.; Reichert, B.

    1987-01-01

    Preoperative diagnosis of symptomatic colorectal endometriosis is often difficult. Hence, the X-ray findings of eight woman patients with confirmed affection of the colon with endometriosis foci were evaluated together with the clinical, surgical and histological findings. In 50 % of the cases rectal haemorrhages were the most frequently occurring sign. In three-quarters of the cases the colon sigmoideum was involved. Radiologically it was possible to prove in 37,5 % each of the cases that there was a polypoid lesion and an irregular concentric stenosis of the intestinal lumen. In 25 % of the cases we found a complete stenosis of the intestinal lumen combined with ileus. X-ray sign pattern of colorectal endometriosis, however, is not pathognomonic. (orig.) [de

  13. [Colorectal cancer: prevention and early detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolligs, Frank Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer associated morbidity and mortality. Main risk factors include advanced age, affected family members, male sex and lifestyle factors. The development of early adenoma to invasive cancer requires 10 and more years. Therefore, prevention via colonoscopy with polypectomy and early detection of asymptomatic stages is possible. Colonoscopy is a diagnostic and therapeutic tool with the highest sensitivity for precancerous lesions and early cancers of the colon. New fecal immunological tests reveal a higher sensitivity for advanced adenoma and cancer than guaiac based hemoccult tests while maintaining a high specificity. Molecular stool and blood tests are promising new developments. However, similar to virtual colonoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy, they have so far not been established as routine instruments for prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Potential targets for colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temraz, Sally; Mukherji, Deborah; Shamseddine, Ali

    2013-08-22

    The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the "proof of principle" that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  15. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamseddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  16. Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells and Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, Veronica [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Gaggianesi, Miriam [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Department of Cellular and Molecular Oncology, IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Spina, Valentina; Iovino, Flora [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Dieli, Francesco [Departement of Biopathology and Medicine Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Stassi, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgio.stassi@unipa.it [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Department of Cellular and Molecular Oncology, IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Todaro, Matilde [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy)

    2011-04-11

    Nowadays it is reported that, similarly to other solid tumors, colorectal cancer is sustained by a rare subset of cancer stem–like cells (CSCs), which survive conventional anticancer treatments, thanks to efficient mechanisms allowing escape from apoptosis, triggering tumor recurrence. To improve patient outcomes, conventional anticancer therapies have to be replaced with specific approaches targeting CSCs. In this review we provide strong support that BMP4 is an innovative therapeutic approach to prevent colon cancer growth increasing differentiation markers expression and apoptosis. Recent data suggest that in colorectal CSCs, protection from apoptosis is achieved by interleukin-4 (IL-4) autocrine production through upregulation of antiapoptotic mediators, including survivin. Consequently, IL-4 neutralization could deregulate survivin expression and localization inducing chemosensitivity of the colon CSCs pool.

  17. Biomarkers for colitis-associated colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Lai, Lisa A; Brentnall, Teresa A; Pan, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with extensive ulcerative colitis (UC) of more than eight years duration have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Molecular biomarkers for dysplasia and cancer could have a great clinical value in managing cancer risk in these UC patients. Using a wide range of molecular techniques - including cutting-edge OMICS technologies - recent studies have identified clinically relevant biomarker candidates from a variety of biosamples, including colonic biopsies, blood, stool, and urine. While the challenge remains to validate these candidate biomarkers in multi-center studies and with larger patient cohorts, it is certain that accurate biomarkers of colitis-associated neoplasia would improve clinical management of neoplastic risk in UC patients. This review highlights the ongoing avenues of research in biomarker development for colitis-associated colorectal cancer. PMID:27672285

  18. Eastern Han's Cunning Depiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, B. C.

    1998-09-01

    It is still only speculation, but an earlier visit to a Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) tomb has started the idea, and a recently found study of another Han tomb has convinced me it is worth pursuing. What it is is that the ancient Chinese Sky Animal which represents North was not the turtle or tortoise until about the time of Han. My own visit was to an Eastern (later period) Han tomb which had been moved to a museum near the ancient capital of Luoyang. The ceiling of the inner chamber was rounded, made of brick. Drawings of a tiger and a red bird were clear to the west and south. A rounded object was at the north. Outside the tomb was a sign which said it was 'cun,' which means village. Chinese characters often have homonyms, but 'cun' has few. I have also visited the neolithic village of Banpo, near the Yellow River in the north. It has noticeably large and deep trenches to keep out wild animals, and one separates the residential area from the business area. This village is dated earlier than 4000 BC. The trenches definitely remind me of later depictions of the turtle with a snake wound about it. The recent findings of a tomb at Puyang with shapes of tiger and dragon have dated it to 3000 BC. Nothing was placed at the south side. Something was at the north, but one might argue about that. Finally, I found this article in Chinese Studies in Archaeology (1979), translated by S. Cahill of UC, Berkeley, called "Analysis of the Western Han Murals in the Luouyang Tomb of Bo Qianqiu" by Sun Zuoyun. Although Western Han is earlier than Eastern, the pictures in the tomb were well preserved. There were tiger, dragon, vermilion bird, and other animals, but no tortoise. Instead, there was a sun with a bird inside, and the moon with a frog. Several hundred miles north of the Yellow River, there is the Amur River. The natives there had robes decorated with snakes, lizards, and frogs, and other animals, but no turtle. Later reasons for having the turtle or tortoise is a separate

  19. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güenaga, Katia F; Matos, Delcio; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    The presence of bowel contents during colorectal surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only.An enema before...... the rectal surgery to clean the rectum and facilitate the manipulation for the mechanical anastomosis is used for many surgeons. This is analysed separately...

  20. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (CRC Program in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmejs Arvids

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and phenotype - genotype characteristics of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Latvia in order to develop the basis of clinical management for patients and their relatives affected by these syndromes. Materials and methods From 02/1999-09/2002 in several hospitals in Latvia cancer family histories were collected from 865 patients with CRC. In families suspected of having a history consistent with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, DNA testing for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was performed. In addition immunohistochemical (IH examination of the normal and cancer tissue from large bowel tumors for MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression was performed prior to DNA analysis. Results From the 865 CRC cases only 3 (0.35% pedigrees fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and 15 cases (1.73% were suspected of HNPCC. In 69 cases (8% with a cancer family aggregation (CFA were identified. Thus far 27 IH analyses have been performed and in 3 cancers homogenous lack of MSH2 or MSH6 protein expression was found. In one of these cases a mutation in MSH6 was identified. In 18 patients suspected of HNPCC or of matching the Amsterdam II criteria, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing of any heteroduplexes of the 35 exons comprising both MLH1 and MSH2 was performed revealing 3 mutations. For all of kindreds diagnosed definitively or with a high probability of being an HNPCC family appropriate recommendations concerning prophylactic measures, surveillance and treatment were provided in written form. Conclusions Existing pedigree/clinical data suggest that in Latvia the frequency of HNPCC is around 2% of consecutive colorectal cancer patients. It is crucial that genetic counseling is an integral part of cancer family syndrome management.

  1. Television watching and risk of colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Keum, N N; Chan, A T; Fuchs, C S; Wu, K; Giovannucci, E L

    2015-03-03

    Prolonged TV watching, a major sedentary behaviour, is associated with increased risk of obesity and diabetes and may involve in colorectal carcinogenesis. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 31 065 men with ⩾1 endoscopy in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1988-2008) to evaluate sitting while watching TV and its joint influence with leisure-time physical activity on risk of colorectal adenoma. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Prolonged sitting while watching TV was significantly associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma (n=4280), and adjusting for physical activity or a potential mediator body mass index did not change the estimates. The ORs (95% CIs) across categories of TV watching (0-6, 7-13, 14-20, and 21+ h per week) were 1.00 (referent), 1.09 (1.01-1.17), 1.16 (1.06-1.27), and 1.10 (0.97-1.25) (OR per 14-h per week increment=1.11; 95% CI: 1.04-1.18; Ptrend=0.001). Compared with the least sedentary (0-6 h per week of TV) and most physically active (highest quintile) men, the most sedentary (14+ h per week) and least active (lowest quintile) men had a significant increased risk of adenoma (OR=1.25; 95% CI: 1.05-1.49), particularly for high-risk adenoma. Prolonged TV viewing is associated with modest increased risk of colorectal adenoma independent of leisure-time physical activity and minimally mediated by obesity.

  2. A transcriptome anatomy of human colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Bingjian; Xu, Jing; Lai, Maode; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Accumulating databases in human genome research have enabled integrated genome-wide study on complicated diseases such as cancers. A practical approach is to mine a global transcriptome profile of disease from public database. New concepts of these diseases might emerge by landscaping this profile. In this study, we clustered human colorectal normal mucosa (N), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), adenoma (A) and cancer (T) related expression sequence tags (EST) into UniGenes via an in-house GetUni software package and analyzed the transcriptome overview of these libraries by GOTree Machine (GOTM). Additionally, we downloaded UniGene based cDNA libraries of colon and analyzed them by Xprofiler to cross validate the efficiency of GetUni. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the expression of β-catenin and. 7 novel genes in colorectal cancers. The efficiency of GetUni was successfully validated by Xprofiler and RT-PCR. Genes in library N, IBD and A were all found in library T. A total of 14,879 genes were identified with 2,355 of them having at least 2 transcripts. Differences in gene enrichment among these libraries were statistically significant in 50 signal transduction pathways and Pfam protein domains by GOTM analysis P < 0.01 Hypergeometric Test). Genes in two metabolic pathways, ribosome and glycolysis, were more enriched in the expression profiles of A and IBD than in N and T. Seven transmembrane receptor superfamily genes were typically abundant in cancers. Colorectal cancers are genetically heterogeneous. Transcription variants are common in them. Aberrations of ribosome and glycolysis pathway might be early indicators of precursor lesions in colon cancers. The electronic gene expression profile could be used to highlight the integral molecular events in colorectal cancers

  3. Crohn's disease: risk factor for colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Sandra Cristina Dias dos; Barbosa, Laura Elisabete Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease that can reach any part of the gastrointestinal tract. This disease has been associated with an increased neoplastic risk, including colorectal carcinoma. Objective: The objective of this work is to describe the mechanisms present in two diseases, and that are responsible for the increased risk in Crohn's disease. Methods: A bibliographic research was conducted in PubMed database. In addition to the articles obtained with an i...

  4. DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellows CF

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Gagliardi1, Monica Goswami1, Roberto Passera2, Charles F Bellows11Department of Surgery and Pathology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Division of Nuclear Medicine Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria San Giovanni Battista, Turin, ItalyIntroduction: Microtubule-associated doublecortin and CaM kinase-like-1 (DCLK1 is a novel candidate marker for intestinal stem cells. The aim of our study was to assess DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal carcinogenesis and its correlation with prognosis.Methods: DCLK1 immunostaining was performed in colorectal tissue from 71 patients, including 18 adenomatous polyps, 40 primary adenocarcinomas, and 14 metastatic lesions. Each case was evaluated by a combined scoring method based on the intensity of staining (score 0–3 and the percentage of tissue staining positive (score 0–3. Immunoexpression for DCLK1 was considered as positive when the combined score was 2–6 and negative with a score of 0–1.Results: Overall, 14/18 (78% of polyps, 30/40 (75% of primary adenocarcinomas, and 7/14 (50% of distant metastases were positive for DCLK1. In adenomatous polyps and primary cancer there was no association between DCLK1 staining score and tumor pathology. However, after curative colorectal cancer resection, patients whose tumor had a high (≥5 combined staining score had increased cancer-specific mortality compared to patients with low (0–4 staining score (hazard ratio 5.89; 95% confidence interval: 1.22–28.47; P = 0.027.Conclusion: We found that DCLK1 is frequently expressed in colorectal neoplasia and may be associated with poor prognosis. Further studies are necessary to validate the use of DCLK1 as a prognostic marker.Keywords: DCLK1, DCAMKL-1, gastrointestinal stem cell, cancer stem cell, adenomatous polyps, liver metastasis, immunohistochemistry

  5. Radioactive waste disposal - ethical and environmental considerations - A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roots, F.

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with ethical and environmental considerations of radioactive waste disposal in Canada. It begins with the canadian attitudes toward nature and environment. Then are given the canadian institutions which reflect an environmental ethic, the development of a canadian radioactive waste management policy, the establishment of formal assessment and review process for a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, some studies of the ethical and risk dimensions of nuclear waste decisions, the canadian societal response to issues of radioactive wastes, the analysis of risks associated with fuel waste disposal, the influence of other energy related environmental assessments and some common ground and possible accommodation between the different views. (O.L.). 50 refs

  6. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Ezaki, Haruo.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occurring in A-bomb survivors. (author)

  7. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, H.; Ezaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  8. Prevention and intervention trials for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Masami; Fujii, Gen; Takahashi, Mami; Iigo, Masaaki; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2013-07-01

    There have been a number of candidates for chemopreventive agents from synthetic drugs and natural compounds suggested to prevent colorectal cancer. However, they have shown modest efficacy in humans. The reason for this could be partly explained by the use of inappropriate models in vitro and in vivo, and the limitation of chemoprevention trials. In Japan, there are no cancer chemopreventive medicines, and few cancer chemoprevention trials to date. In contrast, an increase in the prevalence of colorectal cancer in Japan has forced us to develop more efficient chemopreventive strategies. It is now a good time to review in detail the current status and future prospects for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with respect to the future development of chemopreventive medicines, particularly using synthetic drugs and natural compounds in Asian populations. The role and mode of action of available synthetic drugs, mainly aspirin and metformin, are reviewed. In addition, the possible impact of natural compounds with anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive properties, such as ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and lactoferrin, are also reviewed.

  9. Surgery in hepatic and extrahepatic colorectal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, A; Benzoni, E; Zompicchiatti, A; Rossit, L; Bresadola, F; De Anna, D; Uzzau, A

    2007-01-01

    Extrahepatic disease (EHD) has been considered a contraindication to hepatectomy. Over the last few years, some series reported interesting 5-year survival rates after resection with hepatic colorectal metastases and EHD free margins. Between August 1989 and October 2005, 116 patients underwent liver resection for colorectal metastases at Surgical Department of the University of Udine, Italy. Among these, we reviewed the data of 5 patients affected by EHD. In 3 patients there were also an anastomotic recurrence of the primary tumor, in 3 patients diaphragm was infiltrated by contiguous liver metastases. We performed in all the patients minor liver resections. We have associated the radiofrequence ablation of a lesion not surgically resectable with liver resection in one case. The surgical procedure was always considered as curative. We observed no case of operative mortality. The mean survival of the entire cohort is 23.2 months (range 4-42 months). Our study, even if based upon a limited number of patients, supports the thesis that extrahepatic disease in patients affected by colorectal cancer with hepatic metastases should not be considered as an absolute contraindication to liver resection especially for the cases in with local radical cure exeresis is achievable.

  10. Time and space clusters of the French-Canadian MIV phenylketonuria mutation in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyonnet, Stanislas; Melle, Dominique; de Braekeleer, Marc; Laframboise, Rachel; Rey, Françoise; John, Simon W. M.; Berthelon, Monique; Berthelot, Jacques; Journel, Hubert; Le Marec, Bernard; Parent, Philippe; de Parscau, Loïc; Saudubray, Jean-Marie; Rozen, Rima; Rey, Jean; Munnich, Arnold; Scriver, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    We performed mutation analysis and RFLP haplotype analysis of chromosomes associated with classical phenylketonuria (PKU) in contemporary French families. We also did genealogical reconstructions for seven obligate carriers in five contemporary French-Canadian families living in eastern Quebec, who carry the M1V mutation causing PKU. The M1V mutation, heretofore considered to be associated exclusively with French-Canadians, was found on 4 of 152 independent French chromosomes. The French and Quebec M1V mutations all occurred on RFLP haplotype 2. The contemporary mutant French chromosomes clustered in southern Brittany (Finistère Sud). Genealogical reconstructions of the Quebec families identified 53 shared ancestors and a center of diffusion in the Perche region in 17th century France. The two clusters in France, one historical and the other contemporary, are not incompatible, if one assumes the possibilities that settlers returned from Nouvelle France or moved from Perche to southern Brittany. The M1V mutation is serving as a useful marker for historical demography. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3 PMID:1609797

  11. Middle Eastern Christians in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Hunter, Alistair; Jørgensen, Anne Rosenlund

    This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience.......This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience....

  12. Limber pine health in the Canadian Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyndi M. Smith; David Langor; Colin Myrholm; Jim Weber; Cameron Gillies; Jon Stuart-Smith

    2011-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) reaches the northern limit of its range at about 52 degrees latitude in Alberta (AB) and 51 degrees latitude in British Columbia (BC). Most populations are found on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, with a few disjunct populations west of the Continental Divide in southeastern BC.

  13. Canadian Hydrogen Association workshop on building Canadian strength with hydrogen systems. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian Hydrogen Association workshop on 'Building Canadian Strength with Hydrogen Systems' was held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada on October 19-20, 2006. Over 100 delegates attended the workshop and there were over 50 presentations made. The Canadian Hydrogen Association (CHA) promotes the development of a hydrogen infrastructure and the commercialization of new, efficient and economic methods that accelerate the adoption of hydrogen technologies that will eventually replace fossil-based energy systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This workshop focused on defining the strategic direction of research and development that will define the future of hydrogen related energy developments across Canada. It provided a forum to strengthen the research, development and innovation linkages among government, industry and academia to build Canadian strength with hydrogen systems. The presentations described new technologies and the companies that are making small scale hydrogen and hydrogen powered vehicles. Other topics of discussion included storage issues, hydrogen safety, competition in the hydrogen market, hydrogen fuel cell opportunities, nuclear-based hydrogen production, and environmental impacts

  14. Identification of Kininogen 1 as a Serum Protein Marker of Colorectal Adenoma in Patients with a Family History of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiekai; Huang, Yanqin; Lin, Chen; Li, Xiaofen; Fang, Xuefeng; Zhong, Chenhan; Yuan, Ying; Zheng, Shu

    2018-01-01

    The serum protein markers of colorectal adenoma in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer have been rarely reported. Serum samples from colorectal adenoma patients with or without a family history of colorectal cancer and healthy controls were profiled using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The model to distinguish colorectal adenoma patients with a family history of colorectal cancer from atypical hereditary colorectal families (CRA-H) and sporadic colorectal adenoma patients without a family history of colorectal cancer (CRA-S) was established with 85.0% accuracy. The model distinguishing CRA-H from healthy individuals was established with 90.0% specificity and 86.7% sensitivity. Additionally, five peaks (2202, 5821, 3260, 2480, and 2218) showing differential expression in advanced colorectal adenoma patients with a family history of colorectal cancer were selected. The protein Kininogen 1 (KNG1) was identified in colorectal adenoma patients and validated using Western Blotting. KNG1 may be a biomarker for colorectal adenoma patients with a family history of colorectal cancer.

  15. The Canadian Niagara Power Company story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, N.R.

    2005-01-01

    This book chronicles the history and contributions of the Canadian Niagara Power Company and its employees toward the establishment of electricity generation and distribution in Niagara Falls and Fort Erie, Ontario, dating back to its founding in 1892. Through historical photographs, maps and drawings, the book demonstrates the impact of electricity on the Niagara region. It emphasizes the many skills and jobs required to run the company that generated electricity and maintained a complete system to deliver power, metering, and billing services through the depression, wars, and postwar booms, even during lightning, snow and ice storms. The company began producing power in 1905 with what had been the world's largest-capacity turbines and generators that supplied power to both sides of the Niagara River. Initially, most of the electricity was exported to New York State. The company eventually expanded its Canadian customer service area from Niagara Falls, Ontario, to Fort Erie, Bridgeburg, Amigari, Ridgeway, Stevensville, Crystal Beach and Point Abino. Throughout its history, the Canadian Niagara Power Company provided power at a lower cost than its neighbouring competitors. The William Birch Rankine Generating Station became an important tourist attraction, showcasing the latest electrical appliances of the time in an effort to promote the use of electricity in homes and offices. Today, the station remains a tribute to the fact that natural beauty can coincide with industry. The book also chronicles the difficult business challenges caused by restructuring in the electric power industry in the 1990s, repairing aging equipment and applying the latest in automation and remote sensing technology. Today, the company as FortisOntario is expanding to other communities around Ontario. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Sink Potential of Canadian Agricultural Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, M.; Junkins, B.; Desjardins, R.; Lindwall, W.; Kulshreshtha, S.

    2004-01-01

    Net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Canadian crop and livestock production were estimated for 1990, 1996 and 2001 and projected to 2008. Net emissions were also estimated for three scenarios (low (L), medium (M) and high (H)) of adoption of sink enhancing practices above the projected 2008 level. Carbon sequestration estimates were based on four sink-enhancing activities: conversion from conventional to zero tillage (ZT), reduced frequency of summerfallow (SF), the conversion of cropland to permanent cover crops (PC), and improved grazing land management (GM). GHG emissions were estimated with the Canadian Economic and Emissions Model for Agriculture (CEEMA). CEEMA estimates levels of production activities within the Canadian agriculture sector and calculates the emissions and removals associated with those levels of activities. The estimates indicate a decline in net emissions from 54 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 in 1990 to 52 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 in 2008. Adoption of the sink-enhancing practices above the level projected for 2008 resulted in further declines in emissions to 48 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 (L), 42 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 (M) or 36 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 (H). Among the sink-enhancing practices, the conversion from conventional tillage to ZT provided the largest C sequestration potential and net reduction in GHG emissions among the scenarios. Although rates of C sequestration were generally higher for conversion of cropland to PC and adoption of improved GM, those scenarios involved smaller areas of land and therefore less C sequestration. Also, increased areas of PC were associated with an increase in livestock numbers and CH4 and N2O emissions from enteric fermentation and manure, which partially offset the carbon sink. The CEEMA estimates indicate that soil C sinks are a viable option for achieving the UNFCCC objective of protecting and enhancing GHG sinks and reservoirs as a means of reducing GHG emissions (UNFCCC, 1992)

  17. Patterns and presentations of colorectal cancer at Komfo-Anokye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally and its incidence is increasing in developing countries. This study determined the incidence, clinical features and the histopathological patterns of colorectal cancer at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Methods: A ...

  18. Colorectal Cancer: Late Presentation and Outcome of Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal cancer remains a major health problem especially in developed countries where it ranks as the third most common cause of cancer in both men and women. Though incidence of colorectal cancer is low in Nigeria and other developing countries, outcome of treatment remains poor due largely to late ...

  19. Presentation of colorectal cancers in Benin-City, Nigeria | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, and the prevalence in Nigeria appears to be increasing due to a shift to western diets. We undertook a retrospective analysis of colorectal cancers seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City from January 1983 to December 2002.

  20. Clinical and biological aspects of mucinous colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugen, N.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands approximately 5% of all people will develop colorectal cancer during his or her life. The rapid development of individualized therapy for cancer patients has led to an increased interest in tumor subtypes. Currently, colorectal cancer patients are treated in the same way

  1. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  2. Screening and Management of Colon Polyp as Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratcia Ayundini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Colon polyp is a term used for abnormality from bulging tissue above surrounding colonic mucosal layer. Adenoma polyp was the commonly found polyp that progress to colorectal cancer. Most of those patients was asymptomatic. Undetected and unmanaged polyp was a risk factors of colorectal cancer event.

  3. Assessment of colorectal length using the electromagnetic capsule tracking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, E B; Poulsen, J L; Haase, A M

    2017-01-01

    AIM: We aimed to determine colorectal length with the 3D-Transit system by describing a 'centerline' of capsule movement and compare it to known anatomy, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further, we aimed to test the day-to-day variation of colorectal length assessed with the sy...

  4. Colorectal Carcinoma: An Update of Current Trends in Accra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Clinical experience and earlier studies indicate that the number of colorectal cancer cases seen annually in the Accra metropolis is increasing. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at providing a current update on colorectal cancer in Accra, Ghana. METHODS: A prospective study of confirmed cases of ...

  5. Screening for Colorectal Cancer – Quality Colonoscopy and Other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The “pink” breast cancer awareness initiative is in our face in South Africa, but we must be mindful of the world-wide cancer awareness programme of all forms of cancer. Gastroenterological and Colorectal bodies abroad were prominent in promoting March as Colorectal Cancer awareness month ...

  6. Colorectal carcinoma in Port Harcourt | Adotey | Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To report experience with colorectal carcinoma in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Methodology: Patients treated for colorectal cancer at the UPTH over a 19- year period (1987-2006) and had complete information, were studied. Data were collected from patients\\' case notes, ward registers, ...

  7. Myofibroblast activation in colorectal cancer lymph node metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeung, T. M.; Buskens, C.; Wang, L. M.; Mortensen, N. J.; Bodmer, W. F.

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblasts have an important role in regulating the normal colorectal stem cell niche. While the activation of myofibroblasts in primary colorectal cancers has been previously described, myofibroblast activation in lymph node metastases has not been described before. Paraffin-embedded lymph node

  8. Clinical, pathological and molecular prognostic factors in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    While histopathologic assessment of lymph nodes is a core element of colorectal cancer staging algorithms, the prognostic value of lymph node metastases is restricted. This highlights the need for approaches that detect occult tumor cells and define their prognostic value, to identify colorectal

  9. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Asia: A systematic review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the top five cancers afflicting both men and women globally. Once predominantly a Western disease, it has begun to rise in Asian countries as well. This systematic review aims to compile and analyze the various barriers towards colorectal cancer screening in Asia, and to ...

  10. Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya | Saidi | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The incidence of colorectal cancer in Africa is increasing. True data on clinical outcomes of the disease is hampered by follow up challenges. Method Follow up data of 233 patients treated for colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2010 at various Nairobi hospitals were evaluated. The primary outcome was ...

  11. Vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer cell pulsed autologous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer (CRC) cell pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DCs) in advanced CRC, 14 patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) were enrolled and treated with DCs vaccine to assess toxicity, tolerability, immune and clinical responses to the vaccine. No severe toxicity ...

  12. Characterization of newly established colorectal cancer cell lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have established a series of 20 colorectal cancer cell lines and performed cytogenetic and RFLP analyses to show that the recurrent genetic abnormalities of chromosomes 1, 5, 17 and 18 associated with multistep tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, and frequently detected as recurrent abnormalities in primary tumours, ...

  13. Gene expression signatures for colorectal cancer microsatellite status and HNPCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhøffer, M; Jensen, J L; Laiho, P

    2005-01-01

    The majority of microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancers are sporadic, but a subset belongs to the syndrome hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Microsatellite instability is caused by dysfunction of the mismatch repair (MMR) system that leads to a mutator phenotype, and MSI...

  14. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  15. Cytogenetic analysis of colorectal adenomas: karyotypic comparisons of synchronous tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomme, L; Bardi, G; Pandis, N

    1998-01-01

    The phenotypic progression of colorectal tumors is driven by their step-by-step acquisition of genomic alterations. These pathogenetically important mutations are at the same time markers of tumor clonality. The aim of this study was to describe the clonal relation among synchronous colorectal ad...

  16. Characterization of newly established colorectal cancer cell lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have established a series of 20 colorectal cancer cell lines and performed cytogenetic and RFLP analyses to show that the recurrent genetic abnormalities of chromosomes 1, 5, 17 and 18 associated with multistep tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, and frequently detected as recurrent abnormalities in primary tumours, ...

  17. Colorectal Carcinoma in Children and Young Adults in Ilorin, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Colorectal carcinoma is not rare among young Nigerians and it should be suspected when young patients present with chronic bloody diarrhoea. Digital rectal examination should be encouraged as part of clinical examination in this age group too since a large percentage of colorectal carcinomas is within the ...

  18. p53 expression in colorectal carcinoma in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p53 expression in colorectal carcinoma in relation to histopathological features in Ugandan patients. ... Molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer commonly involves mutation in p53 gene which leads to expression of p53 protein in tumor cells. Expression of p53 protein has been associated with poor clinical outcome and ...

  19. Clinical and pathological characteristics of colorectal polyps in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background & Aim: Colon polyps are important lesions and a concern because of the potential for colorectal cancer. Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths in Iranian population. The distribution of polyps in the colon may affect the efficacy of a screening modality. The aim of this ...

  20. Workload and surgeon's specialty for outcome after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archampong, David; Borowski, David; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    A large body of research has focused on investigating the effects of healthcare provider volume and specialization on patient outcomes including outcomes of colorectal cancer surgery. However there is conflicting evidence about the role of such healthcare provider characteristics in the management...... of colorectal cancer....