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Sample records for eastern black rhinoceros

  1. Population densities of eastern black rhinoceros : unravelling the controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouma, B.O.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: black rhinoceros, browser, corticosterone, diet, density dependence, minerals, moisture, physiological stress, savanna, soil nutrients, woody cover.   Understanding the forces that cause variability in population sizes is a central theme in ecology. The limiting factor in

  2. Epidemiology of Theileria bicornis among black and white rhinoceros metapopulation in Kenya.

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    Otiende, Moses Y; Kivata, Mary W; Makumi, Joseph N; Mutinda, Mathew N; Okun, Daniel; Kariuki, Linus; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mijele, Dominic; Soriguer, Ramón C; Alasaad, Samer

    2015-01-17

    A huge effort in rhinoceros conservation has focused on poaching and habitat loss as factors leading to the dramatic declines in the endangered eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) and the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum). Nevertheless, the role disease and parasite infections play in the mortality of protected populations has largely received limited attention. Infections with piroplasmosis caused by Babesia bicornis and Theileria bicornis has been shown to be fatal especially in small and isolated populations in Tanzania and South Africa. However, the occurrence and epidemiology of these parasites in Kenyan rhinoceros is not known. Utilizing 18S rRNA gene as genetic marker to detect rhinoceros infection with Babesia and Theileria, we examined blood samples collected from seven rhinoceros populations consisting of 114 individuals of black and white rhinoceros. The goal was to determine the prevalence in Kenyan populations, and to assess the association of Babesia and Theileria infection with host species, age, sex, location, season and population mix (only black rhinoceros comparing to black and white rhinoceros populations). We did not detect any infection with Babesia in the sequenced samples, while the prevalence of T. bicornis in the Kenyan rhinoceros population was 49.12% (56/114). White rhinoceros had significantly higher prevalence of infection (66%) compared to black rhinoceros (43%). The infection of rhinoceros with Theileria was not associated with animal age, sex or location. The risk of infection with Theileria was not higher in mixed species populations compared to populations of pure black rhinoceros. In the rhinoceros studied, we did not detect the presence of Babesia bicornis, while Theileria bicornis was found to have a 49.12% prevalence with white rhinoceros showing a higher prevalence (66%) comparing with black rhinoceros (43%). Other factors such as age, sex, location, and population mix were not found to

  3. Unusual mortalities of the eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) due to clostridial enterotoxaemia in Ol Jogi Pyramid Sanctuary, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndeereh, D.; Ouma, B.O.; Gaymer, J.; Mutinda, M.; Gakuya, F.

    2012-01-01

    Nine eastern black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis michaeli) developed clinical clostridial enterotoxaemia between May and July 2010 in the Pyramid Black Rhino Sanctuary within the Ol Jogi Conservancy, Laikipia, Kenya. The rhinos presented with a peracute syndrome characterised by severe abdominal

  4. Epidemiology of Theileria bicornis among black and white rhinoceros metapopulation in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Otiende, Moses Y; Kivata, Mary W; Makumi, Joseph N; Mutinda, Mathew N; Okun, Daniel; Kariuki, Linus; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mijele, Dominic; Soriguer, Ram?n C; Alasaad, Samer

    2015-01-01

    Background A huge effort in rhinoceros conservation has focused on poaching and habitat loss as factors leading to the dramatic declines in the endangered eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) and the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum). Nevertheless, the role disease and parasite infections play in the mortality of protected populations has largely received limited attention. Infections with piroplasmosis caused by Babesia bicornis and Theileria bicornis has ...

  5. Mitochondrial DNA Phylogenetics of Black Rhinoceros in Kenya in relation to Southern Africa Population

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    Elijah K. Githui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis are highly endangered due to poaching and other anthropological reasons and their protection to rebound the numbers and genetic improvement are necessary remedial measures defined by Rhino International Union of Conservation for the Nature Red List (IUCN. In Kenya black rhino numbers declined from approximately 20,000 in the 1970s to fewer than 400 in 1982. Wildlife conservation managers effected strategies to manage/breed the remaining rhinoceros populations in Eastern and Southern Africa within regional sanctuaries. This study analyzes the genetic variability of these remnant rhinoceros using Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Majority of the rhinoceros in both Kenyan and Southern Africa group are monophyletic clusters with insignificant genetic variations while some lineages are underrepresented. The Eastern Africa rhinoceros forms a distinct clade from the Sothern Africa counterpart while Tanzania population has admixtures. Tajima-D test showed that these two populations are under different selection pressure possibly due to different history of adverse anthropologic activities. Similarly, the Southern Africa rhinoceros have low genetic diversity compared to the Eastern African population due to extended periods of game hunting during Africa colonization. This study suggests that managed translocations of individual rhinoceros across the separated fragments can be applied to improve their genetic diversity.

  6. A bibliography of black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis (Linnaeus, 1758 and white rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum (Burchell, 1817 for southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Wildi

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available A general bibliography of reference material relevant to wildlife managers and researchers involved in the conservation of black and white rhinoceros in southern Africa is provided. It includes both key word and full reference listings.

  7. Iron overload syndrome in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis): microscopical lesions and comparison with other rhinoceros species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olias, P; Mundhenk, L; Bothe, M; Ochs, A; Gruber, A D; Klopfleisch, R

    2012-11-01

    The African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) has adapted to a low iron diet during evolution and is thus prone to iron overload in captivity, which is associated with a number of serious disorders. A S88T polymorphism in the HFE gene has been suggested as a potential genetic basis of increased iron uptake in the black rhinoceros, while the Indian rhinoceros is thought to be unaffected by iron overload in captivity. In the present study, the histopathology and distribution of iron accumulations in five black rhinoceroses with iron overload syndrome were characterized and compared with three Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) and one African white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). At necropsy examination, iron storage in black rhinoceroses was not associated with gross lesions. Microscopically, the most consistent and highest degree of iron load was found in the spleen, liver, small intestine and lung. There was minimal fibrosis and single cell necrosis in the liver. Endocrine organs, lymph nodes, heart and kidney were less often and less markedly affected. Unexpectedly, Indian rhinoceroses also showed iron load in the spleen and smaller amounts in organs similar to the black rhinoceros except for in the heart, while the white rhinoceros had only minor detectable iron storage in intestine, liver and lung. Sequence analysis confirmed the HFE S88T polymorphism in black but not in Indian rhinoceroses. The results indicate that Indian rhinoceroses may also be affected by iron storage in captivity, although in a milder form than the black rhinoceros, and therefore challenge the relevance of the S88T polymorphism in the HFE gene of black rhinoceroses as the underlying cause for iron overload. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Castration of a Black Rhinoceros Diceros Bicornis Minor

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    V de Vos

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available A black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor in the Addo Elephant National Park was castrated in order to prevent the possibility of an aotic inducing gene to be introduced into the Addo population. The classic castration technique was used. It was subsequently found that the rhino showed a drastic change in behaviour, and is at this stage predictably timid, which is not the case with his testis carrying compeers.

  9. Castration of a Black Rhinoceros Diceros Bicornis Minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V de Vos

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available A black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor in the Addo Elephant National Park was castrated in order to prevent the possibility of an aotic inducing gene to be introduced into the Addo population. The classic castration technique was used. It was subsequently found that the rhino showed a drastic change in behaviour, and is at this stage predictably timid, which is not the case with his testis carrying compeers.

  10. Features of reproduction and assisted reproduction in the white (Ceratotherium simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceros

    OpenAIRE

    Ververs, Cyrillus; van Zijl Langhout, M; Govaere, Jan; Van Soom, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Despite the worldwide increase of rhinoceros calf numbers, the growth of the population of white and black rhinoceros is slowing down mainly due to anthropogenic causes, such as poaching and habitat loss. Assisted reproduction is one of the methods of preserving the valuable genomes of these animals from being lost, and assists in breeding them in captivity to maintain the specie(s) numbers and provide an option for possible reintroduction into the wild. Since wild rhinoceros are difficult to...

  11. Putative filariosis outbreak in white and black rhinoceros at Meru National Park in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mutinda, Matthew N.; Otiende, Moses; Gakuya, Francis; Kariuki, Linus; Obanda, Vincent; Ndeereh, David; Ndambiri, Ephantus; Kariuki, Edward; Lekolool, Isaac; Soriguer, Ramón C.; Rossi, Luca; Alasaad, Samer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Habitat and food supply loss and disruption, together with man’s pursuit of the animal’s unique horn pose significant threats to the charismatic rhinoceros. Filarial worms have been thought to cause cutaneous lesions in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Kenya and South Africa, but never in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in the wild, despite the fact that the two species live often in close proximity. Stephanofilaria dinniki has been implicated in the past as t...

  12. Serum iron and selected biochemical values in free-ranging black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Joubert, Jennifer; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Zimmerman, David; Hausler, Guy; Dreyer, Cathy; Hofmeyr, Markus; Buss, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Serum samples collected from 20 black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) were analyzed for iron values from six different areas in South Africa. In addition, biochemical profiles were performed on individual samples. Comparisons of iron values from free-ranging black rhinoceros and from 28 free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were conducted by location and age. Among the free-ranging black rhinoceros, samples were compared from different regions to a set of samples from black rhinoceros that had been captured and held in bomas. Serum iron levels were not significantly different (P = 0.55) among the three locations with more than one animal (medians 5.57, 5.70, 6.47 ppm), but the median value from the boma group was significantly lower (2.91 ppm; P = 0.042), contrary to previous studies. Similar to reports in captive black rhinos, serum iron levels appeared to show a trend toward increasing values between subadult and adult animals, although differences were not statistically significant among black rhinoceros. Comparison of serum iron levels between free-ranging black and white rhinoceros showed significantly higher median value in black rhinoceros (5.73 ppm) versus white rhinoceros (3.38 ppm, P= 0.001). Other significant differences (P rhinoceros. Further investigations should be conducted to examine the role of age, location, and time in boma confinement on iron values in South African rhinoceros to understand iron metabolism in these species.

  13. Extraction of nuclear DNA from rhinoceros horn and characterization of DNA profiling systems for white (Ceratotherium simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceros.

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    Harper, Cindy K; Vermeulen, Gerhard J; Clarke, Amy B; de Wet, Jacobus I; Guthrie, Alan J

    2013-07-01

    Rhinoceros horn is now worth more, per unit weight, than gold, diamonds, or cocaine. Rhinoceros horn has been used in traditional Asian medicine as a presumed cure for a wide range of ailments. Rhinoceros poaching in South Africa has, on average, more than doubled each year over the past 5 years with the rapid economic growth in east and southeast Asia being assumed to be the primary factor driving the increased demand for horn. Here we report on the characterization of methods for genomic DNA extraction from rhinoceros horn and on DNA profiling systems for white (Ceratotherium simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceros. The DNA profiling system described includes 22 short tandem repeat (STR), or microsatellite, markers and a gender marker (ZF1), which have been used previously in various studies on rhinoceros. Using a θ value of 0.1, a conservative estimate of random match probability in 5 white rhinoceros ranged from 1:7.3x10(6) to 1:3.0x10(8). Given that the total population of white rhinoceros is approximately 20,000 such random match probabilities indicate that the genotyping system described provides data which can be used for evidentiary purposes. Furthermore, the methods are appropriate for use in investigations involving trace amounts of rhinoceros horn and the matching of profiles obtained from seized rhinoceros horn with material collected from live animals or poached carcasses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Putative filariosis outbreak in white and black rhinoceros at Meru National Park in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Habitat and food supply loss and disruption, together with man’s pursuit of the animal’s unique horn pose significant threats to the charismatic rhinoceros. Filarial worms have been thought to cause cutaneous lesions in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Kenya and South Africa, but never in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in the wild, despite the fact that the two species live often in close proximity. Stephanofilaria dinniki has been implicated in the past as the causal agents for such lesions. Findings In this paper we report a putative filariosis outbreak in both black and white rhinos at Meru National Park in Kenya. Four black and five white rhinos were affected by various degrees of filarioid-like lesions, while apparently all sympatric wild and domestic animals were filarial worm-free. Affected rhinos were captured and successfully treated. Comparison between the epidemiological aspects of white and black rhinoceros filariosis, and the possible relations between this outbreak and annual seasons, the presence of oxpeckers and other host species are discussed. Conclusions Our study highlights (i) that filarial infection is not restricted to black rhinos, but it affects both rhinoceros species, and (ii) the importance of the earlier detection and immediate treatment (capture-treat and release) of filarioid infections, which is of pivotal interest for wildlife conservation, and especially the endangered and isolated white and black rhinoceros populations. PMID:22992297

  15. Putative filariosis outbreak in white and black rhinoceros at Meru National Park in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutinda, Matthew; Otiende, Moses; Gakuya, Francis; Kariuki, Linus; Obanda, Vincent; Ndeere, David; Ndambiri, Ephantus; Kariuki, Edward; Lekolool, Isaac; Soriguer, Ramón C; Rossi, Luca; Alasaad, Samer

    2012-09-19

    Habitat and food supply loss and disruption, together with man's pursuit of the animal's unique horn pose significant threats to the charismatic rhinoceros. Filarial worms have been thought to cause cutaneous lesions in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Kenya and South Africa, but never in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in the wild, despite the fact that the two species live often in close proximity. Stephanofilaria dinniki has been implicated in the past as the causal agents for such lesions. In this paper we report a putative filariosis outbreak in both black and white rhinos at Meru National Park in Kenya. Four black and five white rhinos were affected by various degrees of filarioid-like lesions, while apparently all sympatric wild and domestic animals were filarial worm-free. Affected rhinos were captured and successfully treated. Comparison between the epidemiological aspects of white and black rhinoceros filariosis, and the possible relations between this outbreak and annual seasons, the presence of oxpeckers and other host species are discussed. Our study highlights (i) that filarial infection is not restricted to black rhinos, but it affects both rhinoceros species, and (ii) the importance of the earlier detection and immediate treatment (capture-treat and release) of filarioid infections, which is of pivotal interest for wildlife conservation, and especially the endangered and isolated white and black rhinoceros populations.

  16. Putative filariosis outbreak in white and black rhinoceros at Meru National Park in Kenya

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    Mutinda Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitat and food supply loss and disruption, together with man’s pursuit of the animal’s unique horn pose significant threats to the charismatic rhinoceros. Filarial worms have been thought to cause cutaneous lesions in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis in Kenya and South Africa, but never in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum in the wild, despite the fact that the two species live often in close proximity. Stephanofilaria dinniki has been implicated in the past as the causal agents for such lesions. Findings In this paper we report a putative filariosis outbreak in both black and white rhinos at Meru National Park in Kenya. Four black and five white rhinos were affected by various degrees of filarioid-like lesions, while apparently all sympatric wild and domestic animals were filarial worm-free. Affected rhinos were captured and successfully treated. Comparison between the epidemiological aspects of white and black rhinoceros filariosis, and the possible relations between this outbreak and annual seasons, the presence of oxpeckers and other host species are discussed. Conclusions Our study highlights (i that filarial infection is not restricted to black rhinos, but it affects both rhinoceros species, and (ii the importance of the earlier detection and immediate treatment (capture-treat and release of filarioid infections, which is of pivotal interest for wildlife conservation, and especially the endangered and isolated white and black rhinoceros populations.

  17. A bibliography of black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis (Linnaeus, 1758) and white rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum (Burchell, 1817) for southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Wildi

    1989-01-01

    A general bibliography of reference material relevant to wildlife managers and researchers involved in the conservation of black and white rhinoceros in southern Africa is provided. It includes both key word and full reference listings.

  18. Radio transmitter implants in the horns of both the white and the black rhinoceros in the Kruger National Park

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    D.J. Pienaar

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The procedure for implanting radio transmitters into the horns of white and black rhinoceroses is described. Mean transmitter life in the white rhinoceros was 13,9 months which is significantly longer than the 9,7 months in black rhinoceros. In the white rhinoceros a significant sex-related difference in transmitter life was found with the transmitters in males lasting a mean of 12,1 months compared to the 15,3 months in females.

  19. Radio transmitter implants in the horns of both the white and the black rhinoceros in the Kruger National Park

    OpenAIRE

    D.J. Pienaar; A.J. Hall-Martin

    1991-01-01

    The procedure for implanting radio transmitters into the horns of white and black rhinoceroses is described. Mean transmitter life in the white rhinoceros was 13,9 months which is significantly longer than the 9,7 months in black rhinoceros. In the white rhinoceros a significant sex-related difference in transmitter life was found with the transmitters in males lasting a mean of 12,1 months compared to the 15,3 months in females.

  20. Three Novel Haplotypes of Theileria bicornis in Black and White Rhinoceros in Kenya.

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    Otiende, M Y; Kivata, M W; Jowers, M J; Makumi, J N; Runo, S; Obanda, V; Gakuya, F; Mutinda, M; Kariuki, L; Alasaad, S

    2016-02-01

    Piroplasms, especially those in the genera Babesia and Theileria, have been found to naturally infect rhinoceros. Due to natural or human-induced stress factors such as capture and translocations, animals often develop fatal clinical piroplasmosis, which causes death if not treated. This study examines the genetic diversity and occurrence of novel Theileria species infecting both black and white rhinoceros in Kenya. Samples collected opportunistically during routine translocations and clinical interventions from 15 rhinoceros were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a nested amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene fragments of Babesia and Theileria. Our study revealed for the first time in Kenya the presence of Theileria bicornis in white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis michaeli) rhinoceros and the existence of three new haplotypes: haplotypes H1 and H3 were present in white rhinoceros, while H2 was present in black rhinoceros. No specific haplotype was correlated to any specific geographical location. The Bayesian inference 50% consensus phylogram recovered the three haplotypes monophyleticly, and Theileria bicornis had very high support (BPP: 0.98). Furthermore, the genetic p-uncorrected distances and substitutions between T. bicornis and the three haplotypes were the same in all three haplotypes, indicating a very close genetic affinity. This is the first report of the occurrence of Theileria species in white and black rhinoceros from Kenya. The three new haplotypes reported here for the first time have important ecological and conservational implications, especially for population management and translocation programs and as a means of avoiding the transport of infected animals into non-affected areas. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Substantial molecular variation and low genetic structure in Kenya’s black rhinoceros: implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muya, S.M.; Bruford, M.W.; Muigai, A.W.T.; Osiemo, Z.B.; Mwachiro, E.; Ouma, B.O.; Goossens, B.

    2011-01-01

    Kenya’s black rhinoceros population declined by more than 98% from 20,000 individuals in the 1970s to around 400 individuals in 1990 due to the effects of poaching, at which time the surviving individuals were isolated in a series of demographically inviable subpopulations. An initial management

  2. Determining Visitor Preferences for Rhinoceros Conservation Management at Private, Ecotourism Game Reserves in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: A Choice Modeling Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah E Lee and Mario Du Preez

    2015-01-01

    South Africa harbours 95 percent of the world’s threatened white rhinoceros (18 000) population and 40 percent of the critically endangered black rhinoceros (1 950) population. Increased levels of rhinoceros poaching in South Africa, and the imminent threat of extinction, has emphasized the need for improved management and conservation policies. This pilot study employs a discrete choice experiment in order to value selected supply-side rhinoceros management and conservation strategies at p...

  3. Black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis capture, transportation and boma management by the Natal Parks Board

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    R.R. Henwood

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The procedure used by the Natal Parks Board in the capture of black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis minor (Drummond, 1876 is outlined. It is emphasised that a successful capture operation requires careful planning and should not be attempted by the uninitiated or by parties who have little or no experience. Dosages of drugs are given, the darting and actual capture procedures highlighted, and aspects of transport and practical boma management are described.

  4. Corticosteroid-induced suppression of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation in four captive rhinoceros species.

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    Roth, Terri L; Vance, Carrie K

    2007-12-01

    Captive African black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) are unusually susceptible to several diseases not commonly observed in any of the other three rhinoceros species maintained in captivity. The potential role of corticosteroids (either endogenously produced or exogenously administered) in the development of these sometimes fatal diseases has been questioned. In this study, the suppressive effects of two therapeutic corticosteroids (dexamethasone and hydrocortisone) on in vitro lymphocyte proliferation was examined in four rhinoceros species, including the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, n = 3), Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis, n = 4), African black rhinoceros (n = 10), and African white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum, n = 5). Three blood samples collected from each rhinoceros 1 mo to 1 yr apart provided replicates for the study. Both dexamethasone and hydrocortisone suppressed (P rhinoceros cell proliferation in response to any of the four mitogens was never completely suppressed, even in cultures containing the highest steroid concentration tested (10(-3) M). The effect of the two corticosteroids differed slightly among the rhinoceros species and subspecies tested, but there was no evidence that eastern or southern black rhinoceros lymphocytes were more sensitive to the suppressive effects of corticosteroids than the other rhinoceros species.

  5. Proposed conservation plan for the black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis in South Africa, the TBVC* states and Namibia

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    P.M. Brooks

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The conservation plan for the black rhinoceros presents specific aims and management guidelines for the conservation of the African black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis in the Republic of South Africa, the TBVC states and Namibia. The adoption of this plan, and the application of the strategies described therein (managing existing populations, establishing new populations and aspects of captive breeding by the relevant conservation authorities should enhance the survival prospects of this species, both in the region and globally.

  6. EVALUATION OF SERUM FERRITIN AND SERUM IRON IN FREE-RANGING BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS) AS A TOOL TO UNDERSTAND FACTORS AFFECTING IRON-OVERLOAD DISORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Chavey, Patricia Sue; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Doering, Alyssa; Buss, Peter; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Iron overload disorder (IOD) is a significant health issue for captive black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ). Measurement of serum ferritin with a validated rhinoceros ferritin ELISA has been used extensively to detect animals in U.S. zoos that are at risk of developing IOD. However, there is limited information on serum ferritin levels in free-ranging black rhinoceros using this same assay. Serum ferritin, iron, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were determined in 194 black rhinoceros from southern Africa. Mean ferritin in free-ranging black rhinoceros (290.54 ±247.4 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in free-ranging white rhinoceros (64.0 ± 102.4 ng/ml) sampled in this study from Kruger National Park, South Africa. However, there were no significant differences between genders or age groups. Ferritin values varied with geographical location of the black rhinoceros, although this was not clinically significant. Serum iron values were also higher in black rhinoceros (40.4 ± 19.1 μmol/L) compared to white rhinoceros (29.7 ± 10.7 μmol/L). There was no association between ferritin and GGT. This study provides serum ferritin, iron, and GGT values from free-ranging black rhinoceros that can be used for as comparative target values for captive animals.

  7. Transport and boma management techniques for black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis as used in the Etosha/Vaalbos operation

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    J.P. Raath

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The translocation of six black rhinoceros from the Etosha National Park (Namibia to the Vaalbos National Park (Republic of South Africa is described. Data are provided on the transporting vehicle, the capture, transport and off-loading procedures followed while aspects of boma management are briefly dealt with.

  8. Monitoring methods and techniques for censusing black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis bicomis in Etosha National Park

    OpenAIRE

    A. Cilliers

    1989-01-01

    Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 Water-hole census techniques as developed in Etosha for monitoring black rhinoceros are described in detail. The systematic recording of animals visiting water-holes at night yielded data on the population size and structure, and frequency of drinking of this species. Population size estimates derived from this method were compared with estimates derived from aerial census te...

  9. Digestion coefficients achieved by the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), a large browsing hindgut fermenter.

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    Clauss, M; Castell, J C; Kienzle, E; Dierenfeld, E S; Flach, E J; Behlert, O; Ortmann, S; Streich, W J; Hummel, J; Hatt, J-M

    2006-08-01

    In contrast to the grazing white (C. simum) and Indian (R. unicornis) rhinoceros, the black rhinoceros (D. bicornis) is an exclusive browser. Due to the particular fermentation characteristics of browse, one would expect browsers to display both shorter ingesta retention times and lower digestion coefficients on comparable diets than grazers. In order to generate a database to test this hypothesis, we performed digestibility studies in eight black rhinoceroses (D. bicornis) from three zoological institutions, using total faecal collection for the quantification of faecal output. One to three regularly fed zoo rations of roughage, concentrates and varying proportions of browse material were used per animal. Additional data was taken from three hitherto unpublished studies as well as several published sources. When compared with horses on similar rations, black rhinoceroses achieved lower digestion coefficients for organic matter and CF. In general, an increase in dietary CF content led to a steeper decrease in organic matter and GE digestibility in black rhinoceroses than in horses. When comparing available data for rhinoceroses, browsing species showed a steeper decrease in organic matter digestibility than grazing species with increasing dietary cell wall content. Endogenous losses as determined by linear regression analysis were within the range reported for horses and Indian rhinoceroses. The results suggest that the horse is not a useful model animal for evaluating diets for black rhinoceroses energetically. In general, diets fed to captive black rhinoceroses seem to include higher proportions of concentrates than diets for other rhinoceros species, and an increase in browse or roughage would reduce digestion coefficients to levels observed in animals fed natural forage.

  10. Technique for venipuncture of the transverse facial vein in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

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    Schlanser, Justin R; Bohart, George W; Paperd, Deborah W; Wagner, Cynthia; Marquardt, Mark; Harrison, Tara M

    2016-11-01

    Through the use of operant conditioning, the authors developed a technique to facilitate obtaining blood samples from a black rhinoceros diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy. The technique involved operant conditioning to facilitate venipuncture of the transverse facial vein, at an anatomic landmark on the lateral side of the face ventral to the medial canthus of the eye, and dorsal to the lateral commissure of the mouth. The investigators used standard operant conditioning protocols to train the animal for desensitization to a needle puncture in the facial vein. Blood samples obtained from the facial location were free of excessive hemolysis and allowed for large volumes to be collected. The procedure was well-tolerated by the rhinoceros and could be performed regularly without complication. Zoo Biol. 35:570-573, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Monitoring methods and techniques for censusing black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis bicomis in Etosha National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cilliers

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 Water-hole census techniques as developed in Etosha for monitoring black rhinoceros are described in detail. The systematic recording of animals visiting water-holes at night yielded data on the population size and structure, and frequency of drinking of this species. Population size estimates derived from this method were compared with estimates derived from aerial census techniques. It was concluded that censusing at a water-hole accounted for 32 percent more animals than a total aerial count by helicopter, and 70 percent more animals than by using a fixed- wing aircraft.

  12. Will tree euphorbias (Euphorbia tetragona and Euphorbia triangularis) survive under the impact of black rhinoceros (Bicornis diceros minor) browsing in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilmann, L.C.; Jong, de K.; Lent, P.C.; Boer, de W.F.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of black rhinoceros (Bicornis diceros minor) on the tree euphorbias Euphorbia tetragona and Euphorbia triangularis was studied in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa. Black rhinoceros pushed over about 5¿7% of the trees in a 2-month period. There was a preference of rhinos for

  13. Impact of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) on a local population of Euphorbia bothae in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luske, B.L.; Mertens, T.; Lent, P.C.; Boer, de W.F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2009-01-01

    In the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa, black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) feed extensively on a local population of Euphorbia bothae. Maintaining the endangered black rhinoceros and the protected E. bothae population are both conservation priorities of the reserve. Therefore, the

  14. Absence of hypomethylation and LINE-1 amplification in a white x black rhinoceros hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobigny, Gauthier; Waters, Paul D; Robinson, Terence J

    2006-05-01

    Genomic stress resulting from the interspecific hybridization of marsupials has been shown to lead to hypomethylation and transposable element over-amplification. Here we investigated both methylation status and transposable element (LINE-1) activity in an F1 hybrid between the black (Diceros bicornis) and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). Our data show that in this instance the hybrid genome was not characterised by gross hypomethylation and LINE-1 over-amplification thus extending previous investigations on eutherian mammals. These findings underscore observations that wide-scale genomic instability involving hypomethylation and mobile element release may be marsupial specific phenomena within Mammalia.

  15. Pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium bovis in a black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, Ian W; Hlokwe, Tiny M; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Lane, Emily; Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Michel, Anita L; Müller, Annélle; Kotze, Antoinette; van Helden, Paul D

    2009-10-01

    We report a case of tuberculosis due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis in an elderly male black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) from the Limpopo Province in South Africa. The animal was euthanized due to very poor condition, old age, and dental attrition. Necropsy examination revealed two small nonencapsulated granulomas (approximately 40-mm diameter) in the dorsocaudal lobe of the left lung. Sequencing of isolated crude lung tissue PCR product and boiled lung culture samples confirmed that the causative organism was M. bovis. Genotyping revealed limited similarities with M. bovis strains isolated thus far from South African cattle or wildlife. The source of the infection could not be determined. This case illustrates that M. bovis could impact conservation of free-ranging rare and endangered species. Effective diagnostics are urgently needed for different animal species, such as white or black rhinoceroses, to certify with a reasonable degree of certainty that these animals are free of tuberculosis in natural habitats.

  16. Transport and boma management techniques for black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis as used in the Etosha/Vaalbos operation

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Raath; A.J. Hall-Martin

    1989-01-01

    Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The translocation of six black rhinoceros from the Etosha National Park (Namibia) to the Vaalbos National Park (Republic of South Africa) is described. Data are provided on the transporting vehicle, the capture, transport and off-loading procedures followed while aspects of boma management are briefly dealt with.

  17. Standardising Home Range Studies for Improved Management of the Critically Endangered Black Rhinoceros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roan D Plotz

    Full Text Available Comparisons of recent estimations of home range sizes for the critically endangered black rhinoceros in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP, South Africa, with historical estimates led reports of a substantial (54% increase, attributed to over-stocking and habitat deterioration that has far-reaching implications for rhino conservation. Other reports, however, suggest the increase is more likely an artefact caused by applying various home range estimators to non-standardised datasets. We collected 1939 locations of 25 black rhino over six years (2004-2009 to estimate annual home ranges and evaluate the hypothesis that they have increased in size. A minimum of 30 and 25 locations were required for accurate 95% MCP estimation of home range of adult rhinos, during the dry and wet seasons respectively. Forty and 55 locations were required for adult female and male annual MCP home ranges, respectively, and 30 locations were necessary for estimating 90% bivariate kernel home ranges accurately. Average annual 95% bivariate kernel home ranges were 20.4 ± 1.2 km(2, 53 ± 1.9% larger than 95% MCP ranges (9.8 km(2 ± 0.9. When home range techniques used during the late-1960s in HiP were applied to our dataset, estimates were similar, indicating that ranges have not changed substantially in 50 years. Inaccurate, non-standardised, home range estimates and their comparison have the potential to mislead black rhino population management. We recommend that more care be taken to collect adequate numbers of rhino locations within standardized time periods (i.e., season or year and that the comparison of home ranges estimated using dissimilar procedures be avoided. Home range studies of black rhino have been data deficient and procedurally inconsistent. Standardisation of methods is required.

  18. Cross-species chromosome painting in the Perissodactyla: delimitation of homologous regions in Burchell's zebra (Equus Burchellii) and the white (Ceratotherium Simum) and black rhinoceros (Diceros Bicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, V; Yang, F; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Robinson, T J

    2003-01-01

    Conserved chromosomal segments in the black rhinoceros, Diceros Bicornis (DBI, 2n = 84), and its African sister-species the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium Simum (CSI, 2n = 82), were detected using Burchell's zebra (Equus Burchellii, EBU, 2n = 44) chromosome-specific painting probes supplemented by a subset of those developed for the horse (Equus Caballus, ECA, 2n = 64). In total 41 and 42 conserved autosomal segments were identified in C. Simum and D. Bicornis respectively. Only 21 rearrangements (20 fissions and 1 fusion) are necessary to convert the Burchell's zebra karyotype into that of the white rhinoceros. One fission distinguishes the D. Bicornis and C. Simum karyotypes which, excluding heterochromatic differences, are identical in all respects at this level of resolution. Most Burchell's zebra chromosomes correspond to two rhinoceros chromosomes although in four instances (EBU18, 19, 20 and 21) whole chromosome synteny has been retained among these species. In contrast, one rhinoceros chromosome (DBI1, CSI1) comprises two separate Burchell's zebra chromosomes (EBU11 and EBU17). In spite of the high diploid numbers of the two rhinoceros species their karyotypes are surprisingly conserved offering a glimpse of the putative ancestral perissodactyl condition and a broader understanding of genome organization in mammals. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Vaccine-induced protection against anthrax in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, P C B; Tindall, B W; Coetzee, J D; Conradie, C M; Bull, R L; Lindeque, P M; Huebschle, O J B

    2004-09-03

    Institution of a policy of vaccination in endangered species with a vaccine not previously administered to it cannot be undertaken lightly. This applies even more in the case of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with their unusually monomorphic gene pool and the potential restrictions this places on their immune responses. However, the recently observed mortalities from anthrax in these animals in the Etosha National Park, Namibia, made it imperative to evaluate vaccination. Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), another endangered species in the park, have been vaccinated for over three decades but the effectiveness of this has never been evaluated. Passive protection tests in A/J mice using sera from 12 cheetahs together with enzyme immunoassay indicated that cheetah are able to mount seemingly normal primary and secondary humoral immune responses to the Sterne 34F2 live spore livestock vaccine. Overall protection rates in mice injected with the sera rose and fell in concert with rises and declines in antibody titres, although fine analysis showed that the correlation between titre and protection was complex. Once a high level of protection (96% of mice 1 month after a second booster in the cheetahs) had been achieved, the duration of substantial protection appeared good (60% of the mice 5 months after the second booster). Protection conferred on mice by sera from three of four vaccinated rhino was almost complete, but, obscurely, none of the mice receiving serum from the fourth rhino were protected. Sera from three park lions with naturally acquired high antibody titres, included as controls, also conferred high levels of protection. For the purposes of wildlife management, the conclusions were that vaccination of cheetah with the standard animal anthrax vaccine causes no observable ill effect in the animals and does appear to confer protective immunity. At least one well-separated booster does appear to be desirable. Vaccination of rhino also appears to be justified

  20. Rectal prolapse associated with a healed pelvic fracture in a pregnant free-ranging African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis. Part 2 : surgery and necropsy : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olivier

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The oedematous and traumatised protruding section of the rectal tissue of an adult free-ranging female African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis was surgically amputated. Immediately before completion of surgery, the rhinoceros died of anaesthetic-related cardiac arrest. At necropsy a deformed pelvis and sacrum associated with a healed fracture of the left ileal wing were noted. New bone formation in and around the left ventral sacral foramina may have resulted in neuropathy of particularly the 3rd and 4th left ventral sacral nerves, which (in the horse supply the majority of the nerve fibres innervating the caudal rectum and anus. The cause of the injury is not known, although back injuries, presumably sustained during mating by bulls, have been recorded in white rhinoceros. An encounter with elephants could also have been responsible for the injury in this case.

  1. A comparison of woody browse selection by hand-raised, boma-adapted and wild black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. in Matusadona National Park, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Matipano

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in woody browse selection between hand-raised (and subsequently released, boma-adapted and wild black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. were studied in Matusadona National Park between December 1999 and July 2000. Boma-adapted rhinoceros were animals that were subjected to hand-raising and were kept in bomas (enclosures over night. The feeding behaviour was different between the three rhinoceros groups. All rhinoceros groups utilised and selected for a few browse species in common, at different preference levels in the same habitat types according to season. Wild rhinoceroses browsed most in Colophospermum-Terminalia-Combretum woodland in the wet season and in thicket in the dry season. Hand-raised rhinoceroses browsed most in Colophospermum-Terminalia-Combretum woodland and boma-adated rhinos in thickets in both the wet and the early dry seasons. Hand-raised and bomaadapted rhinos changed their habitats less for browse selection than wild rhinos. This can be ascribed to a relative restriction of home range in the hand-raised group and a herding effect for the boma-adapted animals. These situations might have accounted for differences in seasonal browse selection by the rhinoceros groups.

  2. Seasonal variation of diet and faeces composition of Black Rhinoceros Diceros Bicornis in the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J Hall-Martin

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of black rhinoceros were studied in the Addo Elephant National Park, Republic of South Africa, using the "feeding track" method and recording bites taken. A total sample of 59 feeding tracks, 5 540 plants and 17 191 bites were recorded from June 1976 to March 1977. The rhino fed largely on woody shrubs but also took forbs, grass and succulent plants. During dry periods the rhino were selecting succulent plants with a high moisture content rather than woody plants. A total of 111 plant species were utilized. During dry months the feeding rate was greater than wet months. Physical analysis of faeces composition confirmed conclusions drawn from observations. Chemical analyses of faeces indicated that mean crude protein values varied with rainfall and herbage quality, ash values were strongly influenced by the intake of plant roots and dust during dry periods, acid detergent fibre was highest during unfavourable periods and low during favourable periods.

  3. Seasonal variation of diet and faeces composition of Black Rhinoceros Diceros Bicornis in the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J Hall-Martin

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of black rhinoceros were studied in the Addo Elephant National Park, Republic of South Africa, using the "feeding track" method and recording bites taken. A total sample of 59 feeding tracks, 5 540 plants and 17 191 bites were recorded from June 1976 to March 1977. The rhino fed largely on woody shrubs but also took forbs, grass and succulent plants. During dry periods the rhino were selecting succulent plants with a high moisture content rather than woody plants. A total of 111 plant species were utilized. During dry months the feeding rate was greater than wet months. Physical analysis of faeces composition confirmed conclusions drawn from observations. Chemical analyses of faeces indicated that mean crude protein values varied with rainfall and herbage quality, ash values were strongly influenced by the intake of plant roots and dust during dry periods, acid detergent fibre was highest during unfavourable periods and low during favourable periods.

  4. Feasibility of sex-sorting sperm from the white and the black rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum, Diceros bicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, B; Rath, D; Mueller, P; Hildebrandt, T B; Goeritz, F; Braun, B C; Leahy, T; de Graaf, S P; Maxwell, W M C; Hermes, R

    2009-08-01

    The objective of these studies was to investigate the practicality of flow cytometric sex-sorting for spermatozoa from the white and the black rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum, Diceros bicornis). In Experiment 1, four semen extenders were tested regarding their suitability for liquid preservation of spermatozoa before sorting. Dilution in MES-HEPES-based semen extender followed by incubation generated best sperm quality parameters (motility, viability, and acrosome integrity). In Experiment 2, the effect of staining method (15 degrees C for 4 to 6h during transport or 37 degrees C for 1 to 1.5h) on sort efficiency and sperm quality was investigated. Staining at 15 degrees C during transport resulted in a higher percentage of sperm samples showing a resolution of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing populations (60%) compared with that for staining at 37 degrees C after transport (33%) and resulted in superior sperm integrity after staining (43.8+/-11.3% vs. 19.6+/-12.1%). Sort rate was 300 to 700 cells/sec and sort purity, determined for one sorted sample, was 94% for X-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. In Experiment 3, the highly viscous component of rhinoceros seminal plasma, which complicates the process of sperm sorting, was examined by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Results suggested a 250-kDa glycoprotein (most likely originating from the bulbourethral gland) to be responsible for the characteristic viscosity of ejaculates. In Experiment 4, viscosity of seminal plasma, as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, was significantly decreased after addition of alpha-amylase or collagenase (0.5 and 3IU per 100 microL seminal plasma, respectively) by 28% and 21%, respectively, with no negative effect on sperm characteristics. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time that rhinoceros spermatozoa can be successfully sorted into high-purity X- and Y-chromosome-bearing populations. Furthermore, the successful liquefaction of viscous ejaculates

  5. The candelabra tree (Euphorbia ingens: a source of water for black rhinoceros in Liwonde National Park, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Dudley

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of two rhinoceros into a 15 km2 fenced sanctuary within Liwonde National Park provided an opportunity for close observation of the animals feeding on the toxic succulent Euphorbia ingens. Feeding invariably caused the death of the plant and for plants with basal diameters between 5-17 cm, mortality ranged from 40-90 . During the severe drought of 1994 rhinoceros did not drink from the artificial waterhole from approximately 15 July to at least 23 September. As this waterhole was the only source of free water it is believed that the rhinoceros obtained their water from browsing on E. ingens.

  6. Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) populations in northwestern Namibia are apparently not infected with piroplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzhorn, Barend L; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Kilian, J Werner; Horak, Ivan G

    2008-10-01

    Babesiosis is a potentially fatal disease in black rhinoceroses. Blood specimens collected from black rhinoceroses from Etosha National Park (n = 29) and Damaraland (n = 22), Namibia, were subjected to polymerase chain reaction using Theileria and Babesia genus-specific primers and reverse line blot, with negative results. The animals were sparsely infested with ticks. In the absence of suitable prophylactic measures, naïve rhinoceroses would be at risk if translocated to Babesia-endemic areas.

  7. Sex-biased inbreeding effects on reproductive success and home range size of the critically endangered black rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Bradley; Wandera, Antony B; Shawcross, Susan G; Edwin Harris, W; Stevens-Wood, Barry; Kemp, Stephen J; Okita-Ouma, Benson; Watts, Phillip C

    2014-04-01

    A central premise of conservation biology is that small populations suffer reduced viability through loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding. However, there is little evidence that variation in inbreeding impacts individual reproductive success within remnant populations of threatened taxa, largely due to problems associated with obtaining comprehensive pedigree information to estimate inbreeding. In the critically endangered black rhinoceros, a species that experienced severe demographic reductions, we used model selection to identify factors associated with variation in reproductive success (number of offspring). Factors examined as predictors of reproductive success were age, home range size, number of nearby mates, reserve location, and multilocus heterozygosity (a proxy for inbreeding). Multilocus heterozygosity predicted male reproductive success (p58%) and correlated with male home range size (p 44%). Such effects were not apparent in females, where reproductive success was determined by age (p < 0.01, explained deviance 34%) as females raise calves alone and choose between, rather than compete for, mates. This first report of a 3-way association between an individual male's heterozygosity, reproductive output, and territory size in a large vertebrate is consistent with an asymmetry in the level of intrasexual competition and highlights the relevance of sex-biased inbreeding for the management of many conservation-priority species. Our results contrast with the idea that wild populations of threatened taxa may possess some inherent difference from most nonthreatened populations that necessitates the use of detailed pedigrees to study inbreeding effects. Despite substantial variance in male reproductive success, the increased fitness of more heterozygous males limits the loss of heterozygosity. Understanding how individual differences in genetic diversity mediate the outcome of intrasexual competition will be essential for effective management, particularly

  8. Horn growth rates of free-ranging white and black rhinoceros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Pienaar

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic and observed anterior hom growth of white and black rhinoceroses is discussed. The effect of age and hom rubbing on hom growth is explained. Species and sex related differences in hom size and mass are investigated.

  9. Abstracts of papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available The following abstracts is included: 1. Finances: the vital factor in rhinoceros conservation 2. Towards a black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis translocation strategy to meet the aims of the conservation plan for the species in South Africa and the TBVC states 3. Status, history and performance of black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis populations in South Africa, the TBVS states and Namibia 4. Distribution and monitoring of black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis populations in Zimbabwe 5. Census and marking systems for black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis with special reference to Zulu- land game reserves 6. The Auxiliary Game Guard System in northwestern Namibia and its role in black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis conservation 7. Black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis capture and translocation techniques as used in Etosha National Park 8. The role of non-governmental organisations in black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis conservation in Africa 9. Development of an intelligence/information network to counter poaching and the illegal trade in trophies

  10. Comparative studies of mitogen- and antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in four captive rhinoceros species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Carrie K; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Obringer, Amy R; Roth, Terri L

    2004-12-01

    Cellular immune function in four rhinoceros species was evaluated by way of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation responses to mitogenic and antigenic stimuli to establish normative data on white blood cell activity for each species and to identify species-specific differences that might help explain the predisposition of black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) to disease. A cross section of the U.S. rhinoceros population encompassing all four captive species was sampled, including the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) (n = 3); Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) (n = 4); African black rhinoceros (n = 16); and African white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) (n = 10). Of the four species evaluated, African black rhinoceroses exhibited the weakest (P white rhinoceroses, Indian rhinoceroses, and Sumatran rhinoceroses. However, lymphocyte response to bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide was similar (P > 0.05) across species. Antigenic stimulation produced much weaker responses than mitogenic stimulation. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed among rhinoceros species in response to 1 and 10 microg/ml of Leptospira icterohemorrhagiae or Leptospira gryppotyphosa. Lymphocytes from African white rhinoceroses proliferated weakly in the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus filtrate, whereas lymphocytes from the southern black rhinoceros subspecies appeared slightly suppressed in the presence of increasing doses (0.1, 1, and 10 microg/ml) of Aspergillus filtrate. This comparative data set characterizing lymphocyte proliferation in the rhinoceros reveals several differences in immune cell responses among rhinoceros species and provides some evidence that lymphocytes of captive African black rhinoceroses are less vigorous than those of the other rhinoceros species.

  11. Remote assessment of stress in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) by measurement of adrenal steroids in feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John W; Tolson, Peter; Hamad, Noel

    2002-09-01

    This study monitored fecal cortisol and corticosterone levels in 14 black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) and in seven white rhinoceroses (Certotherium simum) under various conditions of captivity, including translocation. Free cortisol and free corticosterone were measured in methylene chloride extracts of feces, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The extraction-assay method was validated for quantitative measurement of these hormones by mass spectroscopy analysis, chemical derivitization, and radiolabel tracking and recovery. Both cortisol and corticosterone were extractable from feces and routinely detectable by HPLC. In three nonstressed, captivity-adapted white rhinoceroses monitored across 21 days of routine activity, fecal cortisol ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 ng/g dry feces and corticosterone from 4.0 to 10.8 ng/g dry feces, with no observable trend. Matched plasma, urine, and fecal samples in these rhinoceroses yielded corticosterone:cortisol ratios of 2.0:1.0, 2.7:1.0, and 2.2:1.0, respectively. Both black rhinoceroses (n = 5) and white rhinoceroses (n = 4) exhibited higher fecal cortisol (6.9- to 10.0-fold) and corticosterone (3.2- to 4.5-fold) levels in association with restraint-translocation than in limited free-roaming conditions. In five black rhinoceroses monitored across 6 wk after release from translocation, fecal levels of both cortisol and corticosterone decreased significantly between week 1 and weeks 4-6. In general, cortisol and corticosterone paralleled each other, with cortisol exhibiting a greater range of response. Measurement of either hormone in feces appears to be reliable for adrenal axis monitoring in the white and the black rhinoceroses.

  12. Effects of sociosexual environment on serum testosterone in captive male African rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B W; Troedsson, M H T; Young, L J; Oliva, M; Penfold, L M

    2009-04-15

    The relationships between testosterone concentrations in male African rhinoceros and the presence of conspecific males and females were investigated. Serum testosterone concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) in 37 male black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and 21 male white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) housed at 37 institutions in the USA. Testosterone concentrations in both black (n=37) and white (n=21) rhinoceros males rose with increasing numbers of females present (Prhinoceros (Pwhite rhinoceros housed with other males. We inferred that introduction of females to a male may play an important role in stimulating libido and spermatogenesis. The similar response of black rhinoceros and white rhinoceros to increased numbers of females suggested that, at least historically, herd structure for blacks may have been more similar to whites than previously realized, and should be investigated further.

  13. Species identification of rhinoceros horns using the cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Huang, Li-Hung; Tsai, Li-Chin; Kuo, Yi-Chen; Meng, Hsien-Huei; Linacre, Adrian; Lee, James Chun-I

    2003-09-09

    Material suspected of originating from species of Rhinoceros is frequently seized by forensic organizations investigating trade in endangered species. At present identification of the species is possible by DNA sequencing of the material, such as powdered rhinoceros horns. The unambiguous identification of rhino products using a 402 bp fragment of cytochrome b gene was investigated. This DNA sequence may not only assist in the identification of the unknown sample, but can be used to determine the phylogenetic relationships of rhinoceros species. Sequences of suspect rhinoceros horns were compared with the sequences registered in GenBank. The maximum value of genetic distance among white rhinoceros was 0.0176, and 0.0333 among black rhinoceros. In the comparison among rhinoceros species, the greatest genetic distance was between black and Indian rhinoceros (0.1564). The rhinoceros sequences extracted from GenBank and 13 samples in this study were clustered and separated from other mammals. Holstein cow was used as an out-group and was clustered with cattle in the phylogenetic tree. The results of this phylogenetic study also showed that there were four major branches among rhinoceros species from a common origin. The amplification of the 402 bp fragment of the cytochrome b gene was found to be able to detect rhinoceros DNA even in the ratio of 1:19 with Holstein cow DNA. In the initial identification of species from unknown powdered material, all the unknown samples were found to be from rhinoceroses. In phylogenetic analysis, the results supported the morphological hypothesis. The method used in this study can be applied in the identification of processed products of rhinoceros horns, such as sculptures, daggers, powders or even mixture powdered prescriptions.

  14. Increased inflammation and decreased insulin sensitivity indicate metabolic disturbances in zoo-managed compared to free-ranging black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schook, Mandi W; Wildt, David E; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Wolfe, Barbara A; Dennis, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Black rhinoceros (rhinos) living in zoos express a host of unusual disease syndromes that are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, including hemolytic anemia, rhabdomyolysis, hepatopathy and ulcerative skin disease, hypophosphatemia and iron overload. We hypothesized that iron overload is a consequence and indicator of disturbances related to inflammation and insulin/glucose metabolism. The objectives of this study were to: (1) generate the first baseline information on biomarkers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα], serum amyloid A [SAA]), insulin sensitivity (insulin, glucose and proxy calculations of insulin sensitivity), phosphate and iron stores (ferritin) using banked serum from free-ranging black rhinos; and (2) then compare serum biomarkers between zoo-managed (n=86 individuals) and free-ranging (n=120) animals. Enzyme immunoassays were validated for serum and then biomarker levels analyzed using mixed models while controlling for sex, age and year of sample collection. Concentrations of TNFα, SAA, insulin and insulin-to glucose ratio were higher (Prhinos managed in ex situ conditions compared to free-living counterparts. Findings indicate that the captive environment is contributing to increased inflammation and decreased insulin sensitivity in this endangered species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Animal vectors of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Ostry; Thomas H. Nicholls; D.W. French

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study to determine the importance of animals in the spread of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce. Radio telemetry, banding, and color-marking techniques were used to study vectors of this forest pathogen.

  16. Chromian spinel-rich black sands from eastern shoreline of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black sands rich in chromian spinel commonly occur in pockets along the eastern shoreline of Andaman. Island where various types of peridotites and volcanics belonging to the Andaman ophiolite suite are exposed in close vicinity. The chemistry of these detrital chromian spinels has been extensively used here.

  17. Chromian spinel-rich black sands from eastern shoreline of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black sands rich in chromian spinel commonly occur in pockets along the eastern shoreline of Andaman Island where various types of peridotites and volcanics belonging to the Andaman ophiolite suite are exposed in close vicinity. The chemistry of these detrital chromian spinels has been extensively used here in ...

  18. Fat soluble vitamins in blood and tissues of free-ranging and captive rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Marcus; Jessup, David A; Norkus, Edward B; Chen, Tai C; Holick, Michael F; Streich, W Juergen; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2002-04-01

    Several disease syndromes in captive rhinoceroses have been linked to low vitamin status. Blood samples from captive and free-ranging black (Diceros bicornis) and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and tissue samples of captive individuals from four rhinoceros species were analysed for vitamins A and E. Circulating vitamin A levels measured as retinol for free-ranging versus captive black and white rhinoceros were 0.04 (+/- 0.03 SD) vs. 0.08 (+/- 0.08) and 0.07 (+/- 0.04) vs. 0.06 (+/- 0.02) microgram/ml, respectively. Circulating vitamin E levels measured as alpha-tocopherol were 0.58 (+/- 0.30) vs. 0.84 (+/- 0.96) and 0.62 (+/- 0.48) vs. 0.77 (+/- 0.32) microgram/ml, respectively. In contrast to earlier findings, there was no significant difference in vitamin E concentration between captive and free-ranging black rhinoceros. When the samples of captive black rhinoceros were grouped into those taken before 1990 and after 1990, however, those collected before 1990 had significantly lower (P white rhinoceroses appear to be adequately supplemented in vitamin A and E. Captive Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) had significantly lower vitamin A concentrations in blood (P rhinoceros species. Equine requirements are not recommended as a model for rhinoceros vitamin requirements.

  19. Chemical composition of Eastern Black Sea aerosol--preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcılar, Ilker; Zararsız, Abdullah; Kalaycı, Yakup; Doğan, Güray; Tuncel, Gürdal

    2014-08-01

    Trace element composition of atmospheric particles collected at a high altitude site on the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey was investigated to understand atmospheric transport of pollutants to this semi-closed basin. Aerosol samples were collected at a timber-storage area, which is operated by the General Directorate of Forestry. The site is situated at a rural area and is approximately 50 km to the Black Sea coast and 200 km to the Georgia border of Turkey. Coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) aerosol samples were collected between 2011 and 2013 using a "stacked filter unit". Collected samples were shipped to the Middle East Technical University in Ankara, where Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ba, Pb were measured by Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF). Comparison of measured concentrations of elements with corresponding data generated at other parts of Turkey demonstrated that concentrations of pollution derived elements are higher at Eastern Black Sea than their corresponding concentrations measured at other parts of Turkey, which is attributed to frequent transport of pollutants from north wind sector. Positive matric factorization revealed four factors including three anthropogenic and a crustal factor. Southeastern parts of Turkey, Georgia and Black Sea coast of Ukraine were identified as source regions affecting composition of particles at our site, using trajectory statistics, namely "potential source contribution function" (PSCF). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    OpenAIRE

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter; Conway, Anthony; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological-economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the s...

  1. Rhinoceros sondaicus (Perissodactyla: Rhinocerotidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, David M.; Groves, Colin P.

    2011-01-01

    Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest, 1822, commonly called the Javan rhinoceros or lesser one-horned rhinoceros, is the most critically endangered large mammal on Earth with only 40-50 extant individuals in 2 disjunct and distant populations: most in Ujung Kulon, West Java, and only 2-6 (optimistically) in Cat Loc, Vietnam. R. sondaicus is polytypic with 3 recognized subspecies: R. s. sondaicus (currently West Java), R. s. inermis (formerly Sunderbunds; no doubt extinct), and R s. annamiticus (Vietnam; perhaps now extinct). R. sondaicus is a browser and currently occupies lowland semievergreen secondary forests in Ja va and marginal habitat in Vietnam; it was once more widespread and abundant, likely using a greater variety of habitats. R sondaicus has a very spotty history of husbandry, and no individuals are currently in captivity. Conservation focuses on protection from poaching and habitat loss. Following decades-long discussion of captive breeding and establishment of a 3rd wild population, conservation and governmental agencies appear closer to taking such seriously needed action on the latter.

  2. Tannin-binding salivary proteins in three captive rhinoceros species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Marcus; Gehrke, Janin; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Flach, Edmund J; Hermes, Robert; Castell, Johanna; Streich, W Juergen; Fickel, Joerns

    2005-01-01

    Tannin-binding salivary proteins (TBSP) are considered to be counter-defences acquired in the course of evolution by animals whose natural forage contains such tannins. As tannins mostly occur in browse material but not in grasses, it is assumed that grazers do not have a need for TBSP. Whereas it has been shown in several non-ungulate species that TBSP can be induced by dietary tannins, their presence or absence in ungulates has, so far, been shown to be a species-specific characteristic independent of dietary manipulations. We investigated saliva from three rhinoceros species from zoological gardens fed comparable, conventional zoo diets. As expected, saliva from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherum simum, grazer) had lower tannin-binding capacities than that from black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis, browser). Surprisingly, however, Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis), commonly regarded as grazers as well, displayed the highest tannin-binding capacities of the three species investigated. It is speculated that this discrepancy might be a result of an evolutionarily recent switch to a grass-dominated diet in Indian rhinoceroses, and that the black rhinoceros, which is closer related to the white rhinoceros than the Indian species, has evolved an inducible mechanism of TBSP production. In separate trials during which the tannin content of the diets of black rhinoceroses was increased by the addition of either tannic acid or quebracho, the tannin-binding capacity of black rhinoceros saliva was increased to levels within the same range as that of Indian rhinoceroses on the conventional diets. While induction trials in white and Indian rhinoceroses remain to be performed for a full understanding of salivary anti-tannin defence in rhinoceroses, these results are the first report of an induced salivary response to increased dietary tannin levels in an ungulate species.

  3. The seminiferous cycle of the rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portas, Timothy; Evans, Gareth; de Graaf, Simon

    2012-12-01

    The seminiferous cycle of the rhinoceros was investigated for the first time using testicular tissue from captive white (Ceratotherium simum, n=2) and black (Diceros bicornis, n=1) rhinoceroses. Stages of the seminiferous epithelial cycle were characterised using the tubular morphology method and relative frequencies of each stage determined. This method allowed for the identification of eight stages of cellular associations characteristic of the seminiferous cycle in white and black rhinoceroses. The eight stages of the seminiferous cycle observed closely approximated the stages previously described for the domestic horse (Equus caballus). Premeiotic (stages I-III), meiotic (stage IV) and postmeiotic (stages V-VIII) represented 44.8%, 5.3% and 49.9% of the seminiferous cycle respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-04-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological-economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild rhinoceros population above its current size was to provide a medium increase in antipoaching effort and to increase the monetary fine on conviction. Without legalizing the trade, implementing such a scenario would require covering costs equal to approximately $147,000,000/year. With a legal trade in rhinoceros horn, the conservation enterprise could potentially make a profit of $717,000,000/year. We believe the 35-year-old ban on rhinoceros horn products should not be lifted unless the money generated from trade is reinvested in improved protection of the rhinoceros population. Because current protection efforts seem to be failing, it is time to evaluate, discuss, and test alternatives to the present policy. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by wiley

  5. Germany/Australia index of sperm sex sortability in elephants and rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, B; Rath, D; Hildebrandt, T B; Goeritz, F; Blottner, S; Portas, T J; Bryant, B R; Sieg, B; Knieriem, A; de Graaf, S P; Maxwell, W M C; Hermes, R

    2009-04-01

    Flow cytometric sexing of spermatozoa followed by application in artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization provides a unique opportunity to predetermine the sex of offspring and might enhance the conservation management of endangered species in captivity such as the elephant and rhinoceros. To obtain an indication of the sortability of spermatozoa from these species, the relative DNA differences between X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa (fresh, frozen thawed, epididymal) from three rhinoceros species [white (Ceratotherium simum), black (Diceros bicornis), Indian (Rhinoceros unicornis)] and both elephant species, the Asian and the African elephant (Elephas maximus, Loxodonta Africana), were determined through separation of spermatozoa into X and Y chromosome bearing populations, using a modified high speed flow cytometer. The head profile areas of spermatozoa from all five species were measured using light microscopy. By multiplying the relative DNA differences and the head profile areas, the sperm sorting indices were calculated to be 47, 48 and 51 for white, black and Indian rhinoceros respectively. The calculated sorting index for the Asian elephant was 66. In the African elephant, we determined the highest sorting index of 76. These results indicate the practicability of flow cytometric sex sorting of spermatozoa from the tested rhinoceros species and both elephant species. The lower sorting indices in rhinos indicate that sex sorting of spermatozoa from the rhinoceros will be more challenging than in elephants.

  6. Babesia bicornis sp. nov. and Theileria bicornis sp. nov.: Tick-Borne Parasites Associated with Mortality in the Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Ard M.; Penzhorn, Banie L.; Lynen, Godelieve; Mollel, Johnson O.; Morkel, Pete; Bekker, Cornelis P. J.; Jongejan, Frans

    2003-01-01

    A novel Babesia species, designated Babesia bicornis sp. nov., was identified in three black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) that died in wildlife areas in Tanzania and South Africa. Screening of black rhinoceroses in South Africa revealed, in addition to B. bicornis, a second parasite, designated Theileria bicornis sp. nov. PMID:12734294

  7. Babesia bicornis sp. nov. and Theileria bicornis sp. nov.: Tick-Borne Parasites Associated with Mortality in the Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhof, Ard M.; Penzhorn, Banie L.; Lynen, Godelieve; Mollel, Johnson O.; Morkel, Pete; Bekker, Cornelis P. J.; Jongejan, Frans

    2003-01-01

    A novel Babesia species, designated Babesia bicornis sp. nov., was identified in three black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) that died in wildlife areas in Tanzania and South Africa. Screening of black rhinoceroses in South Africa revealed, in addition to B. bicornis, a second parasite, designated Theileria bicornis sp. nov.

  8. A rapid chemical odour profiling method for the identification of rhinoceros horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Maiken; Ewart, Kyle; Troobnikoff, Amanda N; Frankham, Greta; Johnson, Rebecca N; Forbes, Shari L

    2016-09-01

    Illegal poaching causes great harm to species diversity and conservation. A vast amount of money is involved in the trade of illegal or forged animal parts worldwide. In many cases, the suspected animal part is unidentifiable and requires costly and invasive laboratory analysis such as isotopic fingerprinting or DNA testing. The lack of rapid and accurate methods to identify wildlife parts at the point of detection represents a major hindrance in the enforcement and prosecution of wildlife trafficking. The ability of wildlife detector dogs to alert to different wildlife species demonstrates that there is a detectable difference in scent profile of illegally traded animal parts. This difference was exploited to develop a rapid, non-invasive screening method for distinguishing rhinoceros horns of different species. The method involved the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). It was hypothesised that the use of the specific odour profile as a screening method could separate and differentiate geographic origin or exploit the difference in diets of different species within a family (such as white rhinoceros and black rhinoceros from the Rhinocerotidae family). Known black and white rhinoceros horn samples were analysed using HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS and multivariate statistics were applied to identify groupings in the data set. The black rhinoceros horn samples were distinctly different from the white rhinoceros horn samples. This demonstrated that seized rhinoceros horn samples can be identified based on their distinct odour profiles. The chemical odour profiling method has great potential as a rapid and non-invasive screening method in order to combat and track illegal trafficking of wildlife parts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assisted reproduction in female rhinoceros and elephants--current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Streich, Wj; Hildebrandt, Tb

    2007-09-01

    Over the last few decades, rhinoceroses and elephants became important icons in the saga of wildlife conservation. Recent surveys estimate the wild Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephant populations to be, at most, 50 250 and 637 600 respectively. For the five rhinoceros species, black (Diceros bicornis), white (Ceratotherium simum), Indian (Rhinoceros unicornis), Javan (Rhinoceros sondaicus) and Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus Sumatrensis), the population estimates of 3610, 11 330, 2400, 60 and 300, respectively, are of even greater concern. Protected against habitat loss, poaching and left undisturbed, rhinoceros and elephants reproduce well in the wild. But small and decreasing populations make successful captive management of these taxa increasingly important. In captivity, however, most populations face possible 'extinction' because of historically poor reproductive performance. From the first descriptions of the reproductive anatomy and the oestrous cycle (Laws 1969; Kassam and Lasley 1981; Balke et al. 1988a,b; Plotka et al. 1988; Godfrey et al. 1991) to the present use of advanced assisted reproduction technologies, researchers have strive to understand the function and dysfunction of the reproductive biology of these charismatic species. This paper reviewed the current knowledge on rhinoceros and elephant reproduction biology, reproductive cycle, gestation, dystocia, reproductive pathology, oestrous induction and artificial insemination, sperm sexing, IVF and contraception, and how this knowledge is or might be used to aid species conservation for maximal reproductive efficiency and enhancement of genetic management.

  10. Cloning, sequencing and expression of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and the production of rhinoceros IFN-gamma specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, D; Tijhaar, E; Negrea, A; Hendriks, J; van Haarlem, D; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Rutten, V P M G

    2007-01-15

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park (KNP). In addition to buffalo, Mycobacterium bovis has been found in at least 14 other mammalian species in South Africa, including kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) and lion (Panthera leo). This has raised concern about the spillover into other potentially susceptible species like rhinoceros, thus jeopardising breeding and relocation projects aiming at the conservation of biodiversity. Hence, procedures to screen for and diagnose BTB in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) need to be in place. The Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) assay is used as a routine diagnostic tool to determine infection of cattle and recently African buffalo, with M. bovis and other mycobacteria. The aim of the present work was to develop reagents to set up a rhinoceros IFN-gamma (RhIFN-gamma) assay. The white rhinoceros IFN-gamma gene was cloned, sequenced and expressed as a mature protein. Amino acid (aa) sequence analysis revealed that RhIFN-gamma shares a homology of 90% with equine IFN-gamma. Monoclonal antibodies, as well as polyclonal chicken antibodies (Yolk Immunoglobulin-IgY) with specificity for recombinant RhIFN-gamma were produced. Using the monoclonals as capture antibodies and the polyclonal IgY for detection, it was shown that recombinant as well as native white rhinoceros IFN-gamma was recognised. This preliminary IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), has the potential to be developed into a diagnostic assay for M. bovis infection in rhinoceros.

  11. Assessment of metal element concentrations in mussel (M. Galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)], E-mail: berrenazli@yahoo.com; Damla, N.; Kobya, A.I. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bulut, V.N. [Giresun University, Department of Chemistry, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Duran, C. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Dalgic, G. [Rize University, Faculty of Fisheries, 53100 Rize (Turkey); Bozaci, R. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-12-30

    The main goal of this work is to determine the effects of pollution of copper, lead and zinc mines on the Eastern Black Sea. Metal and heavy metal concentrations in the Eastern Black Sea mussels were measured using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS). The analytical results showed that the tissue of mussel in Eastern Black Sea contains K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Sr elements, and the shell of mussel contains Ca, Cu, Sr, and Ba elements. Due to the detection limit of EDXRF, the mussels were analyzed with FAAS for Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb elements. An ANOVA and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. The results showed although that the mean concentrations of Cu and Zn for the tissue of the mussels were markedly above the permissible levels of the Turkish regulations, Zn concentration is in the limits of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

  12. Robust forensic matching of confiscated horns to individual poached African rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Cindy; Ludwig, Anette; Clarke, Amy; Makgopela, Kagiso; Yurchenko, Andrey; Guthrie, Alan; Dobrynin, Pavel; Tamazian, Gaik; Emslie, Richard; van Heerden, Marile; Hofmeyr, Markus; Potter, Roderick; Roets, Johannes; Beytell, Piet; Otiende, Moses; Kariuki, Linus; du Toit, Raoul; Anderson, Natasha; Okori, Joseph; Antonik, Alexey; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Thompson, Peter; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2018-01-08

    Black and white rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis and Ceratotherium simum) are iconic African species that are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as Critically Endangered and Near Threatened (http://www.iucnredlist.org/), respectively [1]. At the end of the 19 th century, Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) numbers had declined to fewer than 50 animals in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi region of the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province of South Africa, mainly due to uncontrolled hunting [2,3]. Efforts by the Natal Parks Board facilitated an increase in population to over 20,000 in 2015 through aggressive conservation management [2]. Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) populations declined from several hundred thousand in the early 19 th century to ∼65,000 in 1970 and to ∼2,400 by 1995 [1] with subsequent genetic reduction, also due to hunting, land clearances and later poaching [4]. In South Africa, rhinoceros poaching incidents have increased from 13 in 2007 to 1,215 in 2014 [1]. This has occurred despite strict trade bans on rhinoceros products and strict enforcement in recent years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modes of sedimentary basin formation in the north-eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Randell; Starostenko, Vitaly; Sydorenko, Grygoriy; Yegorova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus and Black Sea sedimentary basins developed in a Mesozoic back-arc setting, the former older than the latter (Jurassic v. Cretaceous). Compressional shortening of the former and accompanying ongoing development of marginal basin depocentres in the north-eastern Black Sea - which is closely tied to the formation of the Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogen - is a Cenozoic phenomenon, starting in the Eocene and proceeding until the present day. Recently, the sedimentary basin/crust/lithosphere geometry of the study area has been characterised across a range of scales using regional seismic reflection profiling, long-offset refraction/wide-angle reflection profiling and local earthquake tomography. These provide a new integrated image of the present-day crustal structure and sedimentary basin architecture of the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea, north across the Azov Sea and provide evidence of the deeper expression of sedimentary basins and the processes controlling the geometry of their inversion during the Cenozoic. It is inferred that the Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, lying stratigraphically below the Black Sea and younger sedimentary successions, extends further to the west than previously known. This basin has significant thickness in the area between the Azov and Black seas and probably forms the deeper core of the Crimea-Caucasus inversion zone. The Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogenic belt is the expression of "basin inversion" of the Jurassic Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, the degree of inversion of which varies along strike. The Greater Caucasus foredeep basins - Indolo-Kuban and Sorokin-Tuapse troughs -represent syn-inversional marginal troughs to the main inversion zone. The Shatsky Ridge - the northern flank of the main East Black Sea Basin - may also be mainly a syn-inversional structure, underlain by a blind thrust zone expressed as a northward dipping zone of seismicity on the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea.

  14. Alkaline phosphatase as an indicator of true ejaculation in the rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Robeck, T R; Ball, R L; Wolfe, B A; Finnegan, M V; O'Brien, J K

    2010-12-01

    The objective was to determine if seminal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can serve as an indicator of true ejaculation in the rhinoceros. Concentrations of ALP activity were determined in seminal fractions collected from African black rhinos (Diceros bicornis), an African white rhino (Ceratotherium simum), and an Indian rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) during electroejaculation. In addition, seminal fractions collected during penile massage of a Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) were assessed. Correlations between ALP activity and sperm concentration, fraction pH, and fraction osmolality were evaluated in the Indian rhino and black rhino. Concentrations of ALP activity in rhino ejaculate fractions ranged from 0.05). Data were insufficient for establishing meaningful correlation coefficients in the Sumatran rhino and white rhino, but preliminary results were in accordance with findings in the Indian rhino and black rhino. We concluded that ALP was present in rhinoceros semen, likely originated from the epididymides and/or testes, and could serve as a useful tool for assessing the production of ejaculatory versus pre-ejaculatory fluid in the rhinoceros. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ovarian superstimulation, transrectal ultrasound-guided oocyte recovery, and IVF in rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Portas, T J; Bryant, B R; Kelly, J M; Maclellan, L J; Keeley, T; Schwarzenberger, F; Walzer, C; Schnorrenberg, A; Spindler, R E; Saragusty, J; Kaandorp, S; Hildebrandt, T B

    2009-10-15

    Numerous reports on reproductive pathology in all rhinoceros species illustrate the abundance of female infertility in captive populations. In infertile rhinoceroses, oocyte collection and embryo production could represent the best remaining option for these animals to reproduce and to contribute to the genetic pool. We report here on superstimulation, repeated oocyte recovery, and attempted in vitro fertilization (IVF) in white and black rhinoceroses. Four anestrous rhinoceroses (two white, two black) with unknown follicular status were treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue, deslorelin acetate, for 6 to 7 d. Number and size of follicles in superstimulated females was significantly higher and larger compared with those in nonstimulated anestrous females (n=9). Ovum pick-up was achieved by transrectal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration. Up to 15 follicles were aspirated per ovary. During six ovum pick-ups, a total of 29 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were harvested with a range of 2 to 9 COCs per collection. No postsurgical complications were noted on the rhinoceros ovaries using this minimally invasive approach. Various in vitro maturation (IVM) and IVF protocols were tested on the collected COCs. Despite the low total number of COCs available for IVM and IVF in this study, we can report the first rhinoceros embryo ever produced in vitro. The production of a 4-cell embryo demonstrated the potential of transrectal ultrasound-guided oocyte recovery as a valuable tool for in vitro production of rhinoceros embryos from otherwise infertile females.

  16. Histological study of white rhinoceros integument

    OpenAIRE

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H.; Ruiz, Saul; Rodriguez-Sosa, Jos? R.; Hall, Margaret I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report findings from a microscopic analysis of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) integumentary ultrastructure. Skin samples from the cheek, shoulder, flank and rump were taken from a 46-year-old female southern white rhinoceros and examined using H&E and elastic histological stains. The epidermis was thickest in the flank (1.003 mm) followed by the rump, cheek and shoulder. The stratum corneum comprised more than half the epidermal thickness. Numerous melanin granul...

  17. Geothermal structure of the eastern Black Sea basin and the eastern Pontides orogenic belt: Implications for subduction polarity of Tethys oceanic lithosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiz Maden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The numerical results of thermal modeling studies indicate that the lithosphere is cold and strong beneath the Black Sea basin. The thermal lithospheric thickness increases southward from the eastern Pontides orogenic belt (49.4 km to Black Sea basin (152.2 km. The Moho temperature increases from 367 °C in the trench to 978 °C in the arc region. The heat flow values for the Moho surface change between 16.4 mW m−2 in the Black Sea basin and 56.9 mW m−2 in the eastern Pontides orogenic belt. Along the southern Black Sea coast, the trench region has a relatively low geothermal potential with respect to the arc and back-arc region. The numerical studies support the existence of southward subduction beneath the Pontides during the late Mesozoic–Cenozoic.

  18. Anaerobic oral flora in the North American black bear (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Elsburgh O; Stoskopf, Michael K; Minter, Larry J; Stringer, Elizabeth M

    2012-06-01

    Microbial flora can provide insight into the ecology and natural history of wildlife in addition to improving understanding of health risks. This study examines the anaerobic oral flora of hunter killed black bears (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina. Oral swabs from the buccal and lingual supragingival tooth surfaces of the first and second mandibular and maxillary molars of 22 black bears were inoculated onto Brucella Blood Agar plates supplemented with hemin and vitamin K after transport from the field using reduced oxoid nutrient broth. Sixteen anaerobic bacterial species, representing nine genera were identified using the RapID ANA II Micromethod Kit system and a number of organisms grown that could not be identified with the system. The most frequently identified anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus prevotii, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The diversity in the anaerobic oral flora of black bear in eastern North Carolina suggests the importance of including these organisms in basic health risk assessment protocols and suggests a potential tool for assessment of bear/habitat interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Subsurface geology of the upper Devonian-lower Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillman, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippi black-shale sequence is an important source of natural gas in eastern Kentucky and with technological advances may be an important source of synthetic oil and uranium on the flanks of the Cincinnati arch. To enhance the understanding and development of these resources in the black-shale sequence, eight isopach maps, eight structure-contour maps and nine isopach maps of highly radioactive black shale were constructed. Structural features including the Rome trough, Rockcastle River uplift, Pine Mountain thrust fault, Kentucky River and Paint Creek fault zones and unnamed basinal areas in Greenup, Pike, and Knott counties were identified on the maps. Faults bounding the Rome trough and other structures were active intermittently throughout Late Devonian time. Other structures show only post-Devonian activity, whereas some show both Devonian and post-Devonian activity. Comparison of structure-contour and isopach maps allow the differentiation of syn- and post-sedimentray structural activity relative to the black-shale sequence. A north-south trending hinge line separates a broad platform area from an area of rapid eastward thickening into the Appalachian basin. Units 7 through 1 progressively onlap the Cincinnati arch; units 4 through 1 cover the arch

  20. An Evaluation of Vanadium Enrichment in the Eastern Shelf Sediments of the Turkish Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Ünlü

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of the spatial distribution of vanadium level, its enrichment and possible sources in the bottom sediment along the shelf of the Turkish Black Sea. In April 2006, vanadium concentrations were measured along the measurement profiles (20, 50 and 100 m using ICP-MS. The vanadium levels ranged from 40 to 315 µg g-1, usually within the range of typical and background values (Cf3. The concentrations decrease gradually with water depth, implying the dominance of anthropogenic sources such as industrial wastes, agricultural effluents, sewage discharge, and port activities. The vanadium levels had not significant correlations with the physicochemical parameters (sediment texture, water content, TOC and TPH level in the sediment. At the eastern basin, a serious vanadium enrichment (Cf>6-9 was observed in November 2010, implying some important regional and seasonal contributions; which may be natural or anthropogenic. Biogeochemical processes, eutrophication, wave-based erosion, abnormal current circulations, bottom morphology and influence of other substances in the environment may be other regulating factors to this enrichment. Continuous monitoring and further studies are required for a detailed description of vanadium mobility and for assessment of the main controlling processes associated with vanadium enrichment in the eastern Black Sea basin.

  1. Sensitivity of WRF-ARW for Heavy Precipitation Event over the Eastern Black Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doǧan, Onur Hakan; Önol, Barış

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we examined the extreme summer precipitation case over the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey by using WRF-ARW. 11 people were killed by the flood and many buildings were damaged by the landslides in Artvin province. The flood caused by heavy precipitation between August 23 and 24, 2015 and the station observation is 255 mm total precipitation for the two days. We have also used satellite based observational data (Global Precipitation Measurement: GPM), which represents 150 mm total precipitation during case, to validate precipitation simulations. We designed three nested domains with 27-9-3 km resolutions for the simulations and the inner domain covers the all Black Sea and the surrounded coasts. The simulations have been driven by ECMWF ERA-Interim data and the initial conditions have been generated for 4 different simulations which are 3-days, 7-days, 15-days and 25-days long. WRF-ARW model physics parameters have been tested to improve simulation capability for extreme precipitation events. The microphysics (Kessler and New-Thompson) and PBL (YSU PBL and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic) options have been applied for each simulations separately, therefore 15 sensitivity simulation have been analyzed by using different parametrizations. In general, all simulations underestimated the two days extreme precipitation event which the large scale flow interact with warmer sea surface temperatures and complex topography over the eastern Black Sea region. The 3-days simulation with Kessler microphysics and YSU PBL predicts 148 mm precipitation which is highest simulated precipitation compare to all simulations for the corresponding station location. Moreover 25-days simulation represents better spatial coverage for precipitation pattern compare to the GPM data.

  2. Factors impacting the success of post-mortem sperm rescue in the rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Robeck, T R; O'Brien, J K

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify factors that influenced the ability to successfully rescue sperm post-mortem from rhinoceroses maintained in North American zoos. Factors considered included procedural technicalities, individual rhinoceros characteristics and timing. Gross testicular pathology was noted in 17.4% of males (4/23) but did not impact sperm recovery except in one case of azoospermia (4.3%). Of the males in which sperm recovery was attempted (n=21), 62% yielded quality samples considered adequate for cryopreservation (≥ 30% motility with ≥ 2.0 forward progressive status). A high percentage of males (70.6%; 12/17) from which reproductive tissue was removed an d cooled ≤ 4 h after death yielded quality sperm samples, whereas only 25% (1/4) of males from which tissue was removed>4h after death yielded quality samples. Quality samples were recovered 1-51 h post-mortem from rhinoceroses 8 to 36 years old. Neither type of illness (prolonged or acute), or method of death (euthanasia or natural) affected the ability to harvest quality samples (P > 0.05). The Indian rhinoceros yielded significantly more sperm on average (40 × 10(9)) than the African black rhinoceros (3.6 × 10(9); P white rhinoceros (3.2 × 10(9); P Rhinoceros sperm rescue post-mortem is relatively successful across a wide range of variables, especially when tissues are removed and cooled promptly after death, and should be considered standard practice among zoos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes among hepatitis C patients in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Reis, Ahu; Kaklıkkaya, Neşe; Tosun, Ilknur; Aydın, Faruk

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the major cause of transfusion-associated hepatitis, is an important public health problem in the world as well as in Turkey. HCV is grouped as six distinct genotypes and a large number of closely-related subtypes. Genotyping of HCV is an important tool for providing epidemiological data, prediction of prognosis, and optimization of antiviral therapy. This study was carried out to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes in hepatitis C patients residing in different provinces of the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey. A total of 304 HCV-RNA positive cases (151 male, 153 female; age range: 11-93 years, mean age: 55.2 ± 13.3 years) who were admitted to the Molecular Microbiology Unit of Department of Medical Microbiology, Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine, between January 2009 to December 2012, were included in the study. HCV genotypes were detected in plasma samples of the patients by using commercial assays [INNO-LiPA HCV II (Innogenetics, Belgium) or Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II (Abbott Molecular Inc, USA)]. Due to the ambiguous genotyping results in some samples with these methods, an in-house multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with genotype-specific primers was also used in the study. Similar to the previous reports from Turkey, our results showed that four HCV genotypes (1, 2, 3, and 4) prevailed in the Eastern Black Sea Region and the predominant genotype and subtype were genotype 1 (92.8%) and 1b (87.5%), respectively. Distribution of genotypes were observed to vary according to the province. Prevalences of subtype 1a, genotype 2, 3, and 4 were noted as 5.3%, 1.6%, 4.9%, and 0.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the samples from Giresun, Gumushane and Bayburt provinces, which are relatively less immigrated, had higher genotype 1, and the prevalence rates in the region was affected by the presence of non-citizen residents. This study is the first report on distribution of HCV genotypes in chronic hepatitis

  4. Parathyroid, Thyroid and Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Anatomy in an Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udelsman, R; Citino, S B; Prasad, M; Donovan, P I; Fredholm, D V

    2018-02-01

    The parathyroid gland was first identified in the Indian rhinoceros in 1849 by Sir Richard Owen. We performed a necropsy in an Indian rhinoceros, recapitulating Owen's dissection and display what appear to be the initial identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in situ and the anatomy and histology of the largest rhinoceros parathyroid glands yet identified. Patrick T. Rhino, a 41-year-old Indian rhinoceros was born in 1974. His early years were unremarkable. In 2006, he was donated to White Oak Conservation in Yulee, Florida, where he bred and sustained minor injuries. In his geriatric years, he developed a cataract and degenerative joint disease (DJD). At age 41, he developed progressive ataxia and lameness and was euthanized to minimize suffering when he was unable to stand. ROS, FH, SH and medication history were unremarkable. Physical exam was age and species appropriate. Pre-mortem serum demonstrated: creat 1.8 mg/dL (0.8-2.1), calcium 10.6 mg/dL (9.7-13.1), phos 3.8 mg/dL (2.5-6.7), alk phos 69 U/L (26-158) and intact PTH 44.1 pg/mL (rhinoceros reference range: unknown). Necropsy revealed intervertebral DJD with thoracic spondylosis, which combined with osteoporosis, resulted in thoracic myelopathy and ataxia. The neck block was sent in formalin to the Yale University School of Medicine. Detailed dissection was performed under loupe magnification. Presumed structures were photographed in situ and biopsied. The thyroid was identified deep to the strap muscles, received its blood supply from the inferior and superior thyroid arteries and was blue in color. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve, identified and photographed in situ for the first time in the rhinoceros, was deep to the inferior thyroid artery and was traced throughout its cervical course. Single parathyroid glands identified on the lateral thyroid lobes received their blood supply from the inferior thyroid arteries and were confirmed histologically. They appear to be the largest

  5. The Brain of the Black (Diceros bicornis and White (Ceratotherium simum African Rhinoceroses: Morphology and Volumetrics from Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhil Bhagwandin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and volumetrics of the understudied brains of two iconic large terrestrial African mammals: the black (Diceros bicornis and white (Ceratotherium simum rhinoceroses are described. The black rhinoceros is typically solitary whereas the white rhinoceros is social, and both are members of the Perissodactyl order. Here, we provide descriptions of the surface of the brain of each rhinoceros. For both species, we use magnetic resonance images (MRI to develop a description of the internal anatomy of the rhinoceros brain and to calculate the volume of the amygdala, cerebellum, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and ventricular system as well as to determine the gyrencephalic index. The morphology of both black and white rhinoceros brains is very similar to each other, although certain minor differences, seemingly related to diet, were noted, and both brains evince the general anatomy of the mammalian brain. The rhinoceros brains display no obvious neuroanatomical specializations in comparison to other mammals previously studied. In addition, the volumetric analyses indicate that the size of the various regions of the rhinoceros brain measured, as well as the extent of gyrification, are what would be predicted for a mammal with their brain mass when compared allometrically to previously published data. We conclude that the brains of the black and white rhinoceros exhibit a typically mammalian organization at a superficial level, but histological studies may reveal specializations of interest in relation to rhinoceros behavior.

  6. The Brain of the Black (Diceros bicornis) and White (Ceratotherium simum) African Rhinoceroses: Morphology and Volumetrics from Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwandin, Adhil; Haagensen, Mark; Manger, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    The morphology and volumetrics of the understudied brains of two iconic large terrestrial African mammals: the black ( Diceros bicornis ) and white ( Ceratotherium simum ) rhinoceroses are described. The black rhinoceros is typically solitary whereas the white rhinoceros is social, and both are members of the Perissodactyl order. Here, we provide descriptions of the surface of the brain of each rhinoceros. For both species, we use magnetic resonance images (MRI) to develop a description of the internal anatomy of the rhinoceros brain and to calculate the volume of the amygdala, cerebellum, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and ventricular system as well as to determine the gyrencephalic index. The morphology of both black and white rhinoceros brains is very similar to each other, although certain minor differences, seemingly related to diet, were noted, and both brains evince the general anatomy of the mammalian brain. The rhinoceros brains display no obvious neuroanatomical specializations in comparison to other mammals previously studied. In addition, the volumetric analyses indicate that the size of the various regions of the rhinoceros brain measured, as well as the extent of gyrification, are what would be predicted for a mammal with their brain mass when compared allometrically to previously published data. We conclude that the brains of the black and white rhinoceros exhibit a typically mammalian organization at a superficial level, but histological studies may reveal specializations of interest in relation to rhinoceros behavior.

  7. The identification of Theileria bicornis in captive rhinoceros in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerald Yam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Poaching of both black (Diceros bicornis and white (Ceratotherium simum rhinoceros in Africa has increased significantly in recent years. In an effort to ensure the survival of these critically endangered species, breeding programs were established in the 1990s in Australia, where a similar climate and habitat is available. In this study we examined blood samples from two C. simum, including a 16 yr old female (Aluka who died in captivity, and a 17 yr old asymptomatic male (Umfana. Bloods from seven healthy D. bicornis housed at the zoo were also collected. All samples were tested for the presence of piroplasms via blood smear and PCR. A generic PCR for the 18S rRNA gene of the Piroplasmida revealed the presence of piroplasm infection in both dead and asymptomatic C. simum. Subsequent sequencing of these amplicons revealed the presence of Theileria bicornis. Blood smear indicated that this organism was present at low abundance in both affected and asymptomatic individuals and was not linked to the C. simum mortality. T. bicornis was also detected in the D. bicornis population (n = 7 housed at Taronga Western Plains Zoo using PCR and blood film examination; however only animals imported from Africa (n = 1 tested T. bicornis positive, while captive-born animals bred within Australia (n = 6 tested negative suggesting that transmission within the herd was unlikely. Phylogenetic analysis of the full length T. bicornis 18S rRNA genes classified this organism outside the clade of the transforming and non-transforming Theileria with a new haplotype, H4, identified from D. bicornis. This study revealed the presence of Theileria bicornis in Australian captive populations of both C. simum and D. bicornis and a new haplotype of the parasite was identified. Keywords: Piroplasm, Theileria bicornis, 18S rRNA, Rhinoceros, Translocation

  8. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  9. Shale Gas characteristics of Permian black shales (Ecca group, Eastern Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geel, Claire; Booth, Peter; Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; de Wit, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    This study involves a comprehensive and detailed lithological, sedimentalogical, structural and geochemical description of the lower Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The Ecca group hosts a ~ 245 million year old organic-rich black shale, which has recently been the focus of interest of petroleum companies worldwide. The shale was deposited under anoxic conditions in a setting which formed as a consequence of retro-arc foreland basin development related to the Cape Fold Belt. This sedimentary/tectonic environment provided the conditions for deeply buried black shales to reach maturity levels for development in the gas window. The investigation site is called the Greystone Area and is situated north of Wolwefontein en route to Jansenville. The area has outcrops of the Dwyka, the Ecca and the lower Beaufort Groups. The outcrops were mapped extensively and the data was used in conjunction with GIS software to produce a detailed geological map. North-south cross sections were drawn to give indication of bed thicknesses and formation depths. Using the field work, data two boreholes were accurately sited on the northern limb of a shallow easterly plunging syncline. The first borehole reached 100m and the second was drilled to 292m depth (100m percussion and 192m core). The second borehole was drilled 200m south of the first, to penetrate the formations at a greater depth and to avoid surface weathering. Fresh core from the upper Dwyka Group, the Prince Albert Formation, the Whitehill Formation, Collingham Formation and part of the Ripon Formation were successfully extracted and a detailed stratigraphic log has been drawn up. The core was sampled during extraction and the samples were immediately sent to the GFZ in Potsdam, Germany, for geochemical analyses. As suspected the black shales of the the Whitehill Formation are high in organic carbon and have an average TOC value of 4.5%, whereas the Prince Albert and Collingham Formation are below 1%. Tmax values

  10. Density, Viability Conidia And Symptoms of Metarhizium anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, D. R.; Putri, R. I. P.; Widiyaningrum, P.; Herlina, L.

    2017-04-01

    M. anisopliae is parasitic fungus on insect pests; it is used as a biocontrol agent. M. anisopliae can be propagated on maize or rice substrate. M. anisopliae is currently sold in the form of kaolin powder formulations. Before it is used to check the density, viability and pathogenicity of M. anisopliae. However the problem is the kaolin powder very soft, so it difficult to distinguish between kaolin and conidia. This article gives information on how to calculate conidia density, viability and symptoms of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae. The study was conducted in the laboratory to determine the density and viability. The pathogenicity testing was done using pots. The Pot is containing soil substrate mixed with M. Anispoliae and ten tails O. Rhinoceros larvae per pot. The results showed that the density of M. anisopliae conidia was 1.81 x 108 conidia mL-1 and the viability was 94% within 24 hours. The larval mortality began to emerge in the 1st week, and all larvae died at the sixth week. The symptom of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae, there was a black spot on the larval integument. The larvae movements become slow and poor appetite; it will die within 3-7 days. The larvae die hard, and the white hyphae grow on the body surface that turns green.

  11. Systemic neosporosis in a white rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Vongpakorn, Montakan; Kasantikul, Tanit; Taewnean, Jedsada; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Bush, Mitchell; Pirarat, Nopadon

    2010-03-01

    Neosporosis was diagnosed in a 16-year-old female white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) that died suddenly without clinical signs. Histopathology revealed disseminated protozoan tachyzoites in liver, adrenal cortex, kidney, and intestine, with morphology compatible with either Toxoplasma or Neospora. The organism was identified as Neospora caninum with the use of primary rabbit anti-N. caninum antibody immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. The exact source of infection remains unknown, but it is suspected that N. caninum oocysts were ingested from the soil.

  12. Lithospheric Response of the Anatolian Plateau in the Realm of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East make up the southern boundary of the Tethys Ocean for the last 200 Ma by the disintegration of the Pangaea and closure of the Tethys Ocean. It covers the structures: Hellenic and Cyprus arcs; Eastern Anatolian Fault Zone; Bitlis Suture Zone and Zagros Mountains. The northern boundary of the Tethys Ocean is made up the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and it extends up to Po valley towards the west (Pontides, Caucasus). Between these two zones the Alp-Himalayan orogenic belt is situated where the Balkan, Anatolia and the Iran plateaus are placed as the remnants of the lost Ocean of the Tethys. The active tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean is the consequences of the convergence between the Africa, Arabian plates in the south and the Eurasian plate in the north. These plates act as converging jaws of vise forming a crustal mosaic in between. The active crustal deformation pattern reveals two N-S trending maximum compression or crustal shortening syntaxes': (i) the eastern Black Sea and the Arabian plate, (ii) the western Black Sea and the Isparta Angle. The transition in young mountain belts, from ocean crust through the agglomeration of arc systems with long histories of oceanic closures, to a continental hinterland is well exemplified by the plate margin in the eastern Mediterranean. The boundary between the African plate and the Aegean/Anatolian microplate is in the process of transition from subduction to collision along the Cyprus Arc. Since the Black Sea has oceanic lithosphere, it is actually a separate plate. However it can be considered as a block, because the Black Sea is a trapped oceanic basin that cannot move freely within the Eurasian Plate. Lying towards the northern margin of orogenic belts related to the closure of the Tethys Ocean, it is generally considered to be a result of back-arc extension associated with the northward subduction of the Tethyan plate to the south. Interface oceanic lithosphere at

  13. Histological study of white rhinoceros integument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Plochocki

    Full Text Available In this study, we report findings from a microscopic analysis of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum integumentary ultrastructure. Skin samples from the cheek, shoulder, flank and rump were taken from a 46-year-old female southern white rhinoceros and examined using H&E and elastic histological stains. The epidermis was thickest in the flank (1.003 mm followed by the rump, cheek and shoulder. The stratum corneum comprised more than half the epidermal thickness. Numerous melanin granules were found in the basal and spinosum layers. The epidermal-dermal junction was characterized by abundant papillary folds increasing surface contact between integument layers. Most of the dermal thickness consisted of organized collagen bundles with scattered elastic fibers. Collagen fiber bundles were thickest in the flank (210.9 μm followed by shoulder, rump and cheek. Simple coiled sweat glands were present in the dermis, but hair and sebaceous glands were absent. Together, these data suggest the white rhinoceros has a unique integumentary system among large terrestrial herbivores.

  14. Histological study of white rhinoceros integument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H; Ruiz, Saul; Rodriguez-Sosa, José R; Hall, Margaret I

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report findings from a microscopic analysis of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) integumentary ultrastructure. Skin samples from the cheek, shoulder, flank and rump were taken from a 46-year-old female southern white rhinoceros and examined using H&E and elastic histological stains. The epidermis was thickest in the flank (1.003 mm) followed by the rump, cheek and shoulder. The stratum corneum comprised more than half the epidermal thickness. Numerous melanin granules were found in the basal and spinosum layers. The epidermal-dermal junction was characterized by abundant papillary folds increasing surface contact between integument layers. Most of the dermal thickness consisted of organized collagen bundles with scattered elastic fibers. Collagen fiber bundles were thickest in the flank (210.9 μm) followed by shoulder, rump and cheek. Simple coiled sweat glands were present in the dermis, but hair and sebaceous glands were absent. Together, these data suggest the white rhinoceros has a unique integumentary system among large terrestrial herbivores.

  15. Natural and artificial radioactivity measurements in Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, N.; Cevik, U.; Celik, A.; Koz, B.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, naturally occurring radionuclides of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in soil samples collected from the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. It was found that the activity concentrations ranged from 12 to 120 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 13 to 121 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and from 204 to 1295 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. Besides naturally occurring radionuclides, 137 Cs activity concentration was measured in soil, lichen and moss samples and it was found that 137 Cs activity concentration ranged from 27 to 775 Bq kg -1 with for soil, from 29 to 879 Bq kg -1 for lichen and from 67 to 1396 Bq kg -1 for moss samples. Annual effective doses due to the naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs were estimated. Ecological half-lives of 137 Cs in lichen and moss species were estimated. The decrease of the activity concentrations in the present measurements (2007) relative to those in 1993 indicated ecological half-lives between 1.36 and 2.96 years for lichen and between 1.35 and 2.85 years for moss species

  16. Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, Ömer; Kankal, Murat; Üçüncü, Osman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, general knowledge and some details of the floods in Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey are presented. Brief hydro-meteorological analysis of selected nine floods and detailed analysis of the greatest flood are given. In the studied area, 51 big floods have taken place between 1955-2005 years, causing 258 deaths and nearly US $500,000,000 of damage. Most of the floods have occurred in June, July and August. It is concluded that especially for the rainstorms that have caused significantly damages, the return periods of the rainfall heights and resultant flood discharges have gone up to 250 and 500 years, respectively. A general agreement is observed between the return periods of rains and resultant floods. It is concluded that there has been no significant climate change to cause increases in flood harms. The most important human factors to increase the damage are determined as wrong and illegal land use, deforestation and wrong urbanization and settlement, psychological and technical factors. Some structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages are also included in the paper. Structural measures include dykes and flood levees. Main non-structural measures include flood warning system, modification of land use, watershed management and improvement, flood insurance, organization of flood management studies, coordination between related institutions and education of the people and informing of the stakeholders.

  17. Retention and radiative forcing of black carbon in eastern Sierra Nevada snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Sterle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available When contaminated by absorbing particles, such as refractory black carbon (rBC and continental dust, snow's albedo decreases and thus its absorption of solar radiation increases, thereby hastening snowmelt. For this reason, an understanding of rBC's affect on snow albedo, melt processes, and radiation balance is critical for water management, especially in a changing climate. Measurements of rBC in a sequence of snow pits and surface snow samples in the eastern Sierra Nevada of California during the snow accumulation and ablation seasons of 2009 show that concentrations of rBC were enhanced sevenfold in surface snow (~25 ng g–1 compared to bulk values in the snowpack (~3 ng g–1. Unlike major ions, which were preferentially released during the initial melt, rBC and continental dust were retained in the snow, enhancing concentrations well into late spring, until a final flush occurred during the ablation period. We estimate a combined rBC and continental dust surface radiative forcing of 20 to 40 W m−2 during April and May, with dust likely contributing a greater share of the forcing.

  18. Black economic empowerment in the Eastern Cape automotive industry: Challenges and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Horn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs in South Africa are under pressure to meet the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE policies and charters of the South African government by giving BEE suppliers additional opportunities to tender. However, many BEE suppliers, due to being historically disadvantaged, experience various problems which make it difficult for them to win tenders, including lack of finances, opportunities to tender and management and business skills, and problems with quality and capacity. This paper outlines these practical problems experienced by BEE suppliers, the effects of these problems on risk and complexity in the South African automotive industry and policies that address these problems and assist BEE suppliers to become A-rated suppliers. Data for the paper was obtained from interviews with: senior employees of the AIDC involved with supplier development training; middle managers of supplier quality and development departments at the three OEMs in the Eastern Cape Province; and BEE and small suppliers identified to undergo AIDC training. The findings of the study are that unless sufficient training is given to BEE and potential BEE suppliers, supply to OEMs will remain in the hands of existing established suppliers and very little transformation will occur within the automobile industry in South Africa.

  19. Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky with an atlas of some common fossils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, L.S.; Ettensohn, F.R.

    1981-04-01

    The Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence of eastern North America is a distinctive stratigraphic interval generally characterized by low clastic influx, high organic production in the water column, anaerobic bottom conditions, and the relative absence of fossil evidence for biologic activity. The laminated black shales which constitute most of the black-shale sequence are broken by two major sequences of interbedded greenish-gray, clayey shales which contain bioturbation and pyritized micromorph invertebrates. The black shales contain abundant evidence of life from upper parts of the water column such as fish fossils, conodonts, algae and other phytoplankton; however, there is a lack of evidence of benthic life. The rare brachiopods, crinoids, and molluscs that occur in the black shales were probably epiplanktic. A significant physical distinction between the environment in which the black sediments were deposited and that in which the greenish-gray sediments were deposited was the level of dissolved oxygen. The laminated black shales point to anaerobic conditions and the bioturbated greenish-gray shales suggest dysaerobic to marginally aerobic-dysaerobic conditions. A paleoenvironmental model in which quasi-estuarine circulation compliments and enhances the effect of a stratified water column can account for both depletion of dissolved oxygen in the bottom environments and the absence of oxygen replenishment during black-shale deposition. Periods of abundant clastic influx from fluvial environments to the east probably account for the abundance of clays in the greenish-gray shale as well as the small amounts of oxygen necessary to support the depauparate, opportunistic, benthic faunas found there. These pulses of greenish-gray clastics were short-lived and eventually were replaced by anaerobic conditions and low rates of clastic sedimentation which characterized most of black-shale deposition.

  20. Walnut Twig Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Colonization of Eastern Black Walnut Nursery Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Jackson; Klingeman, William E; Mayfield, Albert; Myers, Scott; Taylor, Adam

    2017-05-01

    Thousand cankers disease, caused by the invasive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and an associated fungal pathogen Geosmithia morbida M.Kolařík, E. Freeland, C. Utley, N. Tisserat, currently threatens the health of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in North America. Both the beetle and pathogen have expanded beyond their native range via transport of infested walnut wood. Geosmithia morbida can develop in seedlings following inoculation, but the ability of P. juglandis to colonize young, small diameter trees has not been investigated. This study assessed the beetle's colonization behavior on J. nigra nursery trees. Beetles were caged directly onto the stems of walnut seedlings from five nursery sources representing a range of basal stem diameter classes. Seedlings were also exposed to P. juglandis in a limited choice, field-based experiment comparing pheromone-baited and unbaited stems. When beetles were caged directly onto stems, they probed and attempted to colonize seedlings across the range of diameters and across sources tested, including stems as small as 0.5 cm in diameter. In the field experiment, beetles only attempted to colonize seedlings that were baited with a pheromone lure and appeared to prefer (though not statistically significant) the larger diameter trees. Despite several successful penetrations into the phloem, there was no evidence of successful progeny development within the young trees in either experiment. Further investigation is recommended to better elucidate the risk nursery stock poses as a pathway for thousand cankers disease causal organisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Variation of total organic carbon content along the stream Harsit, Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Adem; Önsoy, Hizir; Akinci, Görkem; Bulut, Volkan Numan

    2011-11-01

    The TOC in surface waters and wastewater is an important analytical parameter describing the total content of all organic substances containing carbon. In practice, the TOC originated from natural and anthropogenic sources, and even if it is not directly responsible for dangers on human health, its determination is important for any kind of water that is used by public. The aim of this study was to determine variation of total organic carbon (TOC) and total carbon (TC) content in the stream Harsit, which courses in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey. Sampling was fortnightly conducted in each of the four seasons between March 2009 and February 2010. A total of 230 water samples were collected from ten sampling stations along the main branch of the stream Harsit with 143 km of length. Obtained TOC values were evaluated and used to classify the water quality of stream Harsit, according to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation (TWPCR). The annual average TOC content values for the stations were found between 2.33 and 6.97 mg/L. It was seen that the TOC content have increased along the streamcourse of Harsit until the fourth station, where reaches its maximum value. The TOC content, then, has decreased and the minimum value was observed in the eighth station. The results showed that, except in winter season, maximum TOC content observed in many of the water samples were above Class I water standard indicated in TWPCR, which classifies the water resources according to the different area of uses. It was also found that TOC has a small contribution to TC and the highest TOC content in stream waters were measured in Gumushane station where direct discharge of city wastewaters and solid waste dumping to the stream were observed.

  2. Pheochromocytoma in a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Mads F; Steele, Shelby L; Grøndahl, Carsten; Baandrup, Ulrik

    2011-09-01

    A 46-yr-old male white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) died during anesthesia following agonal excitation. On postmortem, a well-demarcated 2.5-cm tan mass was identified in the right adrenal gland. Histopathology confirmed the presence of a pheochromocytoma, and elevated levels of epinephrine in serum collected shortly prior to the animal's death, as compared with sera from healthy controls, demonstrated the functional nature of the tumor. Although rare, pheochromocytoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of suspected hypertension and acute death in rhinos.

  3. Total and pyrogenic carbon stocks in black spruce forest floors from eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Quideau, Sylvie; MacKenzie, M. Derek; Munson, Alison; Boiffin, Juliette; Bernard, Guy; Wasylishen, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    In boreal forests, pyrogenic carbon (PyC), a by-product of recurrent wildfires, is an important component of the global soil C pool, although precise assessment of boreal PyC stock is scarce. In this study including 14 fire sites spreading over 600 km in the Quebec province, our aim was to better estimate total C stock and PyC stock in forest floors of Eastern Canada boreal forests. We also investigated the environmental conditions controlling the stocks and characterized the composition of the various forest floor layers. We analyzed the forest floor samples that were collected from mesic black spruce sites recently affected by fire (3-5 years) using elemental analysis and solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. PyC content was further estimated using a molecular mixing model on the 13C NMR data. Total C stock in forest floors averaged 5.7 ± 2.9 kg C/m2 and PyC stock 0.6 ± 0.3 kg C/m2. Total C stock was under control of the position in the landscape, with a greater accumulation of organic material on northern aspects and lower slope positions. In addition, total stock was significantly higher in spruce-dominated forest floors than in stands where jack pine was dominant. The PyC stock was significantly related to the atomic H/C ratio (R2 = 0.84) of the different organic layers. 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed a large increase in aromatic carbon in the deepest forest floor layer (humified H horizon) at the organic-mineral soil interface. The majority of the PyC stock was located in this horizon and had been formed during past high severity fires rather than during the most recent fire event. Conversely, the superficial "fresh" PyC layer, produced by early-season wildfires in 2005-2007, had NMR spectra fairly similar to unburned forest floors and comparatively low PyC stocks.

  4. Forest floor carbon exchange of a boreal black spruce forest in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, O.; Margolis, H. A.; Coursolle, C.

    2009-09-01

    This study reports continuous automated measurements of forest floor carbon (C) exchange over feathermoss, lichen, and sphagnum micro-sites in a black spruce forest in eastern North America during snow-free periods over three years. The response of soil respiration (Rs-auto) and forest floor photosynthesis (Pff) to environmental factors was determined. The seasonal contributions of scaled up Rs-auto adjusted for spatial representativeness (Rs-adj) and Pff (Pff-eco) relative to that of total ecosystem respiration (Re) and photosynthesis (Peco), respectively, were also quantified. Shallow (5 cm) soil temperature explained 67-86% of the variation in Rs-auto for all ground cover types, while deeper (50 and 100 cm) soil temperatures were related to Rs-auto only for the feathermoss micro-sites. Base respiration was consistently lower under feathermoss, intermediate under sphagnum, and higher under lichen during all three years. The Rs-adj/Re ratio increased from spring through autumn and ranged from 0.85 to 0.87 annually for the snow-free period. The Rs-adj/Re ratio was negatively correlated with the difference between air and shallow soil temperature and this correlation was more pronounced in autumn than summer and spring. Maximum photosynthetic capacity of the forest floor (Pff-max) saturated at low irradiance levels (~200 μmol m-2 s-1) and decreased with increasing air temperature and vapor pressure deficit for all three ground cover types, suggesting that Pff was more limited by desiccation than by light availability. Pff-max was lowest for sphagnum, intermediate for feathermoss, and highest for lichen for two of the three years. Pff normalized for light peaked at air temperatures of 5-8°C, suggesting that this is the optimal temperature range for Pff. The Pff-eco/Peco ratio varied from 13 to 24% over the snow-free period and reached a minimum in mid-summer when both air temperature and Peco were at their maximum. On an annual basis, Pff-eco accounted for 17

  5. Forest Floor Carbon Exchange of a Boreal Black Spruce Forest in Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, O.; Margolis, H. A.; Coursolle, C.

    2009-06-01

    This study reports continuous automated measurements of forest floor carbon (C) exchange over feathermoss, lichen, and sphagnum micro-sites in a black spruce forest in eastern North America during snow-free periods over three years. The response of soil respiration (Rs-auto) and forest floor photosynthesis (Pff) to environmental factors was determined. The seasonal contributions of scaled up Rs-auto adjusted for spatial representativeness (Rs-adj) and Pff (Pff-eco) relative to that of total ecosystem respiration (Re) and photosynthesis (Peco), respectively, were also quantified. Shallow soil temperature explained 67-86% of the variation in Rs-auto for all ground cover types, while deeper soil temperatures were related to Rs-auto only for the feathermoss micro-sites. Base respiration was consistently lower under feathermoss, intermediate under sphagnum, and higher under lichen during all three years. The Rs-adj/Re ratio increased from spring through autumn and ranged from 0.85 to 0.87 annually for the snow-free period. The Rs-adj/Re ratio was negatively correlated with the difference between air and shallow soil temperature and this correlation was more pronounced in autumn than summer and spring. Maximum photosynthetic capacity of the forest floor (Pffmax) saturated at low irradiance levels (~200 μmol m-2 s-1) and decreased with increasing air temperature and vapor pressure deficit for all three ground cover types, suggesting that Pff was more limited by desiccation than by light availability. Pffmax was lowest for sphagnum, intermediate for feathermoss, and highest for lichen for two of the three years. Pff normalized for light peaked at air temperatures of 5-8°C, suggesting that this is the optimal temperature range for Pff. The Pff-eco/Peco ratio varied seasonally from 13 to 24% and reached a minimum in mid-summer when both air temperature and Peco were at their maximum. On an annual basis, Pff-eco accounted for 17-18% of Peco depending on the year and the

  6. Measurements and Analysis of Black Carbon Aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, A.; Ozdemir, H.; Kindap, T.; Demir, G.; Karaca, M.; Khan, M. N.

    2010-12-01

    In a world where at least 50 percent of the population is living in urban environments, air pollution and specifically particulate matter became one of the most critical issues. There have been many studies that focused on mass concentration measurements of PM10 and PM2.5. Recent studies suggest that chemical composition is critical in understanding the effects of PM on health as well as climate. For example, public health studies reveal that, components of the atmospheric aerosols have different impacts on human health. Smith et al. (2009) stated that; on the basis of the 1μg/m3 contrast, the percentage increase in all-cause mortality for PM2.5 was 0.58; sulfate effects were about twice those of PM2.5, and effects of elemental carbon (an indicator of black carbon mass) about ten times greater. To date, many studies and national inventories have been based on particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and the major greenhouse pollutants, but not speciated emissions, especially in the developing world (Smith et al., 2009; Chow et al., 2010). But air quality standards will soon need to include particulate black carbon (BC), as it directly afffects climate, visibility, and human health. Anthropogenic emissions are increasing dramatically worldwide and recent estimates of global BC emissions range from 8 to 24 Tg (1012 g) per year. In this study, we investigated BC pollution for the first time in Istanbul, Turkey. Istanbul is a megacity of over 15 million inhabitants (OECD, 2008). On-road traffic is also increasing rapidly in the city (over 3 million vehicles on the road). Hence, the city has a potential to be an important source for both local and regional pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean. In our study, an Aethalometer (<0.1μg/m3 sensitivity) was used for continuous and real-time measurements of BC concentration. Measurements were carried out at the selected five different locations throughout the city. 1st and 2nd sites were near high-traffic streets; in the city

  7. Feasibility Study of NMR Based Serum Metabolomic Profiling to Animal Health Monitoring: A Case Study on Iron Storage Disease in Captive Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Watanabe

    Full Text Available A variety of wildlife species maintained in captivity are susceptible to iron storage disease (ISD, or hemochromatosis, a disease resulting from the deposition of excess iron into insoluble iron clusters in soft tissue. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis is one of the rhinoceros species that has evolutionarily adapted to a low-iron diet and is susceptible to iron overload. Hemosiderosis is reported at necropsy in many African black and Sumatran rhinoceroses but only a small number of animals reportedly die from hemochromatosis. The underlying cause and reasons for differences in susceptibility to hemochromatosis within the taxon remains unclear. Although serum ferritin concentrations have been useful in monitoring the progression of ISD in many species, there is some question regarding their value in diagnosing hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhino. To investigate the metabolic changes during the development of hemochromatosis and possibly increase our understanding of its progression and individual susceptibility differences, the serum metabolome from a Sumatran rhinoceros was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomics. The study involved samples from female rhinoceros at the Cincinnati Zoo (n = 3, including two animals that died from liver failure caused by ISD, and the Sungai Dusun Rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Peninsular Malaysia (n = 4. Principal component analysis was performed to visually and statistically compare the metabolic profiles of the healthy animals. The results indicated that significant differences were present between the animals at the zoo and the animals in the conservation center. A comparison of the 43 serum metabolomes of three zoo rhinoceros showed two distinct groupings, healthy (n = 30 and unhealthy (n = 13. A total of eighteen altered metabolites were identified in healthy versus unhealthy samples. Results strongly suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is a valuable tool for

  8. Feasibility Study of NMR Based Serum Metabolomic Profiling to Animal Health Monitoring: A Case Study on Iron Storage Disease in Captive Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Roth, Terri L.; Bauer, Stuart J.; Lane, Adam; Romick-Rosendale, Lindsey E.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of wildlife species maintained in captivity are susceptible to iron storage disease (ISD), or hemochromatosis, a disease resulting from the deposition of excess iron into insoluble iron clusters in soft tissue. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is one of the rhinoceros species that has evolutionarily adapted to a low-iron diet and is susceptible to iron overload. Hemosiderosis is reported at necropsy in many African black and Sumatran rhinoceroses but only a small number of animals reportedly die from hemochromatosis. The underlying cause and reasons for differences in susceptibility to hemochromatosis within the taxon remains unclear. Although serum ferritin concentrations have been useful in monitoring the progression of ISD in many species, there is some question regarding their value in diagnosing hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhino. To investigate the metabolic changes during the development of hemochromatosis and possibly increase our understanding of its progression and individual susceptibility differences, the serum metabolome from a Sumatran rhinoceros was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. The study involved samples from female rhinoceros at the Cincinnati Zoo (n = 3), including two animals that died from liver failure caused by ISD, and the Sungai Dusun Rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Peninsular Malaysia (n = 4). Principal component analysis was performed to visually and statistically compare the metabolic profiles of the healthy animals. The results indicated that significant differences were present between the animals at the zoo and the animals in the conservation center. A comparison of the 43 serum metabolomes of three zoo rhinoceros showed two distinct groupings, healthy (n = 30) and unhealthy (n = 13). A total of eighteen altered metabolites were identified in healthy versus unhealthy samples. Results strongly suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is a valuable tool for animal health

  9. Detection and prevalence of four different hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in Eastern North Carolina American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Lori S H; Stoskopf, Michael K; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2017-02-01

    Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are globally emerging, obligate parasitic, epierythrocytic bacteria that infect many vertebrates, including humans. Hemoplasma infection can cause acute life-threatening symptoms or lead to a chronic sub-clinical carrier state. Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. transmission, prevalence, and host specificity are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of Mycoplasma species in blood from 68 free-ranging black bears from the eastern coast of North Carolina. DNA amplification of Mycoplasma 16S rRNA gene identified four distinct species infecting 34/68 (50%) of the black bear blood samples, including Candidatus M. haematoparvum. The high prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma infection in this wildlife species highlights the importance of understanding intra and inter species transmission. Black bears may play a role in the transmission of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. between animals, arthropod vectors, and humans. Further studies are needed to elucidate black bears as a potential reservoir for hemotropic Mycoplasma infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in North Carolina Eastern Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Lori S H; Stoskopf, Michael K; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2016-10-01

    We detected Anaplasma phagocytophilum by DNA amplification in whole blood from free-ranging, hunter-killed American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from the east coast of North Carolina, US. Molecular prevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum was 3% from 68 black bears. No DNA of other Anaplasma or Ehrlichia spp. was identified.

  11. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Black wattle (Acacia mearnsii, De Wild.) is a fast growing tree species introduced into South Africa in the nineteenth century for commercial purposes. While being an important source of timber and firewood for local communities, black wattle is an aggressive invasive species and has pervasive...... demonstrate the importance of considering changes in soil carbon when evaluating ecosystem effects of invasive species....

  12. Estrus induction in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, R; Hildebrandt, T B; Walzer, C; Göritz, F; Gray, C; Niemuller, C; Schwarzenberger, F

    2012-10-01

    The estrous cycle length in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is either 4 or 10 wk. The cause(s) for this variation as well as the poor fertility rate in captivity remains under debate in this species. Most captive adult white rhinoceros undergo long anovulatory periods without luteal activity which are considered a major reason for their low reproductive rate. In this study, the synthetic progestin chlormadinone acetate (CMA) was tested in combination with hCG or the GnRH analogue deslorelin for its efficiency to induce ovulation in fourteen females without luteal activity and in three, regular cycling females. HCG (N = 12), injectable GnRH analogue (N = 8) and GnRH analogue implants (N = 15) were given to induce ovulation after CMA treatment. Treatment success was determined using both transrectal ultrasonography and progesterone metabolite EIA analysis. A preovulatory sized follicle (3.5 ± 0.1 cm) or a corpus luteum (5.1 ± 0.7) was present on the ovary one day after induction in 93.1% of the treatments. Despite this high rate of ovarian response, ovulation rate differed between the study groups. The ovulation rate for hCG, injectable GnRH analogue and GnRH analogue implants was 66.7%, 62.5% and 93.3%, respectively. Ovulation rate in cyclic females treated with GnRH implants was 100% (6/6) compared with 89% (8/9) in females without luteal activity receiving the same treatment. The length of the estrous cycle when induced with hCG was 4 wk (85.7%). The estrous cycle when induced with GnRH analogue was predominantly 10 wk long. Two females without luteal activity treated with GnRH became pregnant. In conclusion, CMA in combination with GnRH analogue implants was highly effective to induce ovulation in white rhinoceroses and thus can contribute to efforts aimed at increasing natural mating and reproductive rates in the captive white rhinoceros population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Middle Pleistocene protein sequences from the rhinoceros genus Stephanorhinus and the phylogeny of extant and extinct Middle/Late Pleistocene Rhinocerotidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Frido; Smith, Geoff M; Hutson, Jarod M; Kindler, Lutz; Garcia-Moreno, Alejandro; Villaluenga, Aritza; Turner, Elaine; Gaudzinski-Windheuser, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Rhinocerotidae. Stephanorhinus is shown to be most closely related to the genera Coelodonta and Dicerorhinus . The protein sequence data further places the Sumatran rhino in a clade together with the genus Rhinoceros , opposed to forming a clade with the black and white rhinoceros species. The first biomolecular dataset available for Stephanorhinus places this genus together with the extinct genus Coelodonta and the extant genus Dicerorhinus . This is in agreement with morphological studies, although we are unable to resolve the order of divergence between these genera based on the protein sequences available. Our data supports the placement of the genus Dicerorhinus in a clade together with extant Rhinoceros species. Finally, the availability of protein sequence data for both extinct European rhinoceros genera allows future investigations into their geographic distribution and extinction chronologies.

  14. Middle Pleistocene protein sequences from the rhinoceros genus Stephanorhinus and the phylogeny of extant and extinct Middle/Late Pleistocene Rhinocerotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frido Welker

    2017-03-01

    Equidae, Tapiridae, and Rhinocerotidae. Stephanorhinus is shown to be most closely related to the genera Coelodonta and Dicerorhinus. The protein sequence data further places the Sumatran rhino in a clade together with the genus Rhinoceros, opposed to forming a clade with the black and white rhinoceros species. Discussion The first biomolecular dataset available for Stephanorhinus places this genus together with the extinct genus Coelodonta and the extant genus Dicerorhinus. This is in agreement with morphological studies, although we are unable to resolve the order of divergence between these genera based on the protein sequences available. Our data supports the placement of the genus Dicerorhinus in a clade together with extant Rhinoceros species. Finally, the availability of protein sequence data for both extinct European rhinoceros genera allows future investigations into their geographic distribution and extinction chronologies.

  15. Middle Pleistocene protein sequences from the rhinoceros genus Stephanorhinus and the phylogeny of extant and extinct Middle/Late Pleistocene Rhinocerotidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoff M.; Hutson, Jarod M.; Kindler, Lutz; Garcia-Moreno, Alejandro; Villaluenga, Aritza; Turner, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    , Tapiridae, and Rhinocerotidae. Stephanorhinus is shown to be most closely related to the genera Coelodonta and Dicerorhinus. The protein sequence data further places the Sumatran rhino in a clade together with the genus Rhinoceros, opposed to forming a clade with the black and white rhinoceros species. Discussion The first biomolecular dataset available for Stephanorhinus places this genus together with the extinct genus Coelodonta and the extant genus Dicerorhinus. This is in agreement with morphological studies, although we are unable to resolve the order of divergence between these genera based on the protein sequences available. Our data supports the placement of the genus Dicerorhinus in a clade together with extant Rhinoceros species. Finally, the availability of protein sequence data for both extinct European rhinoceros genera allows future investigations into their geographic distribution and extinction chronologies. PMID:28316883

  16. Forest floor carbon exchange of a boreal black spruce forest in eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bergeron

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports continuous automated measurements of forest floor carbon (C exchange over feathermoss, lichen, and sphagnum micro-sites in a black spruce forest in eastern North America during snow-free periods over three years. The response of soil respiration (Rs-auto and forest floor photosynthesis (Pff to environmental factors was determined. The seasonal contributions of scaled up Rs-auto adjusted for spatial representativeness (Rs-adj and Pff (Pff-eco relative to that of total ecosystem respiration (Re and photosynthesis (Peco, respectively, were also quantified.

    Shallow (5 cm soil temperature explained 67–86% of the variation in Rs-auto for all ground cover types, while deeper (50 and 100 cm soil temperatures were related to Rs-auto only for the feathermoss micro-sites. Base respiration was consistently lower under feathermoss, intermediate under sphagnum, and higher under lichen during all three years. The Rs-adj/Re ratio increased from spring through autumn and ranged from 0.85 to 0.87 annually for the snow-free period. The Rs-adj/Re ratio was negatively correlated with the difference between air and shallow soil temperature and this correlation was more pronounced in autumn than summer and spring.

    Maximum photosynthetic capacity of the forest floor (Pff-max saturated at low irradiance levels (~200 μmol m−2 s−1 and decreased with increasing air temperature and vapor pressure deficit for all three ground cover types, suggesting that Pff was more limited by desiccation than by light availability. Pff-max was lowest for sphagnum, intermediate for feathermoss, and highest for lichen for two

  17. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Alhaija, Rana Abu; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  18. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  19. Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Hornby, Kathleen; Hornby, Stewart; Debruyn, Terry D; Mize, Malvin; Clark, Rulon; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2014-01-01

    Bears are often considered ecological equivalents of large primates, but the latter often respond with fear, avoidance, and alarm calls to snakes, both venomous and non-venomous, there is sparse information on how bears respond to snakes. We videotaped or directly observed natural encounters between black bears (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia, adolescent and adult black bears reacted fearfully in seven of seven encounters upon b...

  20. Genetic Characterization of Sarcoptes scabiei from Black Bears (Ursus americanus) and Other Hosts in the Eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Sarah K; Brown, Justin D; Ternent, Mark; Niedringhaus, Kevin D; Schuler, Krysten; Bunting, Elizabeth M; Kirchgessner, Megan; Yabsley, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Since the early 1990s there has been an increase in the number of cases and geographic expansion of severe mange in the black bear (Ursus americanus) population in Pennsylvania. Although there are 3 species of mites associated with mange in bears, Sarcoptes scabiei has been identified as the etiologic agent in these Pennsylvania cases. Historically, S. scabiei-associated mange in bears has been uncommon and sporadic, although it is widespread and relatively common in canid populations. To better understand this recent emergence of sarcoptic mange in bears in Pennsylvania and nearby states, we genetically characterized S. scabiei samples from black bears in the eastern United States. These sequences were compared with newly acquired S. scabiei sequences from wild canids (red fox [Vulpes vulpes] and coyote [Canis latrans]) and a porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) from Pennsylvania and Kentucky and also existing sequences in GenBank. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-2 region and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were amplified and sequenced. Twenty-four ITS-2 sequences were obtained from mites from bears (n = 16), red fox (n = 5), coyote (n = 2), and a porcupine. The sequences from bear samples were identical to each other or differed only at polymorphic bases, whereas S. scabiei from canids were more variable, but 2 were identical to S. scabiei sequences from bears. Eighteen cox1 sequences obtained from mites from bears represented 6 novel haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 sequences revealed 4 clades: 2 clades of mites of human origin from Panama or Australia, a clade of mites from rabbits from China, and a large unresolved clade that included the remaining S. scabiei sequences from various hosts and regions, including sequences from the bears from the current study. Although the cox1 gene was more variable than the ITS-2, phylogenetic analyses failed to detect any clustering of S. scabiei from eastern U.S. hosts. Rather, sequences from black bears

  1. Status of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the Eastern United States in light of the discovery of thousand cankers disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna Randolph; Anita Rose; Christopher Oswalt; Mark Brown

    2013-01-01

    Juglans nigra (black walnut) is widely distributed throughout the US eastern forest, with high concentrations occurring in Missouri and the Ohio and Tennessee River basins. It is an extremely desirable tree for wildlife forage and timber production on forest land, and for shade, aesthetics, and wildlife forage in urban areas. Current (2009–2010)...

  2. Characteristics of black carbon concentration at a metropolitan city located near land-ocean boundary in Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh; Gogoi, Mukunda M.

    2015-02-01

    Near surface aerosol black carbon (BC) concentration data were collected using a seven channel Aethalometer (AE31) during June 2012-May 2013 in Kolkata (22° 34‧E, 88° 22‧N), a metropolitan city located near the land-ocean boundary in Eastern India. BC concentration shows a prominent seasonal and diurnal variation associated with the meteorological parameters. The mean BC concentration varied from 5 μg/m3 to 27 μg/m3 seasonally. The variation of BC mass concentration and its significant association with atmospheric parameters such as temperature profile, relative humidity and wind speed have been studied. Moreover, the influence of the transported air masses on BC concentration at different seasons has also been discussed. An estimation of Angstrom exponent discloses that fossil fuel combustion is a major source of BC at this location.

  3. Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Hornby, Kathleen; Hornby, Stewart; Debruyn, Terry D; Mize, Malvin; Clark, Rulon; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2014-01-01

    Bears are often considered ecological equivalents of large primates, but the latter often respond with fear, avoidance, and alarm calls to snakes, both venomous and non-venomous, there is sparse information on how bears respond to snakes. We videotaped or directly observed natural encounters between black bears (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia, adolescent and adult black bears reacted fearfully in seven of seven encounters upon becoming aware of venomous and non-venomous snakes; but in northern Michigan and Minnesota where venomous snakes have been absent for millennia, black bears showed little or no fear in four encounters with non-venomous snakes of three species. The possible roles of experience and evolution in bear reactions to snakes and vice versa are discussed. In all areas studied, black bears had difficulty to recognize non-moving snakes by smell or sight. Bears did not react until snakes moved in 11 of 12 encounters with non-moving timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four species of harmless snakes. However, in additional tests in this study, bears were repulsed by garter snakes that had excreted pungent anal exudates, which may help explain the absence of snakes, both venomous and harmless, in bear diets reported to date. PMID:25635152

  4. Discovery of Walnut Twig Beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, Associated with Forested Black Walnut, Juglans nigra, in the Eastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Wiggins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thousand cankers disease (TCD is an insect-mediated disease of walnut trees (Juglans spp. involving walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis and a fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida. Although first documented on walnut species in the western U.S., TCD is now found on black walnut (J. nigra in five states in the eastern U.S. Most collections of P. juglandis or G. morbida are from trees in agriculturally- or residentially-developed landscapes. In 2013, 16 pheromone-baited funnel traps were deployed in or near black walnuts in forested conditions to assess the risk of infestation of forested trees by P. juglandis. Four of the 16 funnel traps collected adult P. juglandis from three forested areas (one in North Carolina and two in Tennessee. These collections, while in forested settings, may still be strongly influenced by human activities. The greatest number of P. juglandis (n = 338 was collected from a forested location in an urbanized area near a known TCD-positive tree. The other two forested locations where P. juglandis (n = 3 was collected were in areas where camping is common, and infested firewood may have introduced P. juglandis unintentionally into the area. Future studies to assess P. juglandis on more isolated forested walnuts are planned.

  5. New insights and questions about the Meso-Cenozoic Tectonic evolution of Eastern Black Sea and Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosson, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Hässig, Marc; Meijers, Maud; Smith, Brigitte; Muller, Carla; Adamia, Shota; Melkonian, Rafael; Kangarli, Talat; Sahakyan, Lilit; Sadradze, Nino; Avagyan, Ara; Galoyan, Ghazar; Alania, Victor; Enukidze, Onice; Sheremet-Korniyenko, Yevgeniya; Yegorova, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Since last decade a lot of new field researches (supported by MEBE and DARIUS programmes) were carried out in order to clarify the tectonic evolution of the South Caucasus and Eastern Black Sea regions. A summary of these improvements are as following: 1. Evidence of only one suture zone in the Lesser Caucasus: the Sevan-Akera suture zone as the eastward continuity of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan one. 2. Timing and modalities of the Upper Cretaceous obduction process of the Sevan-Akera back-arc basin. 3. Paleolatitude reconstruction of the Taurides-Anatolides-South Armenia microplate (TASAM) since the Late Cretaceous 4. Paleocene to Miocene tectonic evolution of the collision zone between Eurasia and the TASAM. 5. Structures and propagation of the Lesser Caucasus and Greater Causasus foreland basins from Paleocene to Miocene. 6. Structures of the inverted Paleocene-Eocene Adjara-Trialeti basin of the Eurasian margin and timing of deformations from Lesser Caucasus to Greater Caucasus. 7. New stratigraphic data from the Crimea Mountain which argues for a Lower Cretaceous rifting of the Eastern Black Sea. According to aforementioned results and previous studies, this widespread zone (from the Eastern Black Sea to the Lesser Caucasus) appears act as a large puzzle of heterogeneous lithospheres (continental, oceanic, arc, back-arc basins) since the Early Cretaceous. This is probably why this area has differently reacted in time and space to the northward collision of the TASAM with Eurasia since the Late Cretaceous and then of Arabian plate since the Oligo-Miocene. It seems that some lithospheres which have cold mantellic behavior (especially the Black Sea) react as rigid blocks, while others with a continental origin, reheated by magmatism, (as the Taurides-Anatolides) were extruded to the west or bended as an orocline (as the Lesser Caucasus, the Pontides). This is why some main questions remain, are not solved and are still debated. 1. The continuity of main structures

  6. How healthy are the rhinoceros populations in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Fatti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arising from a study conducted in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park by the author in the late nineties, a method is proposed for improving the estimate of the size of a wildlife population by combining data from current and past surveys. The method is based on a simple state space model which takes into account the (unknown birth rate in the population and all known losses (mortalities and relocations and gains (introductions in the population between successive surveys, as well as the errors in the survey estimates. The method is applied to the White- and Black Rhinoceros populations in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park and tentative conclusions are drawn on the health of these two populations.

  7. Semen collection in rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis, Diceros bicornis, Ceratotherium simum) by electroejaculation with a uniquely designed probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Terri L; Stoops, Monica A; Atkinson, Mark W; Blumer, Evan S; Campbell, Mark K; Cameron, Ken N; Citino, Scott B; Maas, Adolf K

    2005-12-01

    Electroejaculation in rhinoceroses has historically yielded inconsistent results, with the collection of high-quality, sperm-rich samples rare. The goal of this study was to develop a reliable method of electroejaculation in the rhinoceros by designing a rectal probe that appropriately fits the anatomy of this taxon and refining the procedure. A curved probe handle ending in an oblate, ellipsoid head was built using readily available supplies. A combination of rectal massage, penile massage, and electrical stimulation with a specially designed probe was employed in attempts to collect semen on 14 occasions from greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis; n = 4), black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis; n = 2) and a southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum; n = 1). During 13 of the 14 attempts, ejaculates were collected in multiple fractions. All but one of the ejaculates contained spermatozoa, and seven ejaculates contained good-quality fractions of semen (-60% sperm motility; > or =20 x 106 spermatozoa/ml) suitable for sperm banking and assisted reproduction procedures. Mean (+/-SEM) values for volume, pH, osmolality, and total sperm number for ejaculates containing good-quality fractions (98.2 +/-21.8 ml, 8.5+/-0.1, 290.4+/-6.7 mOsm, and 37.1+/-12.0 x 10(9), respectively) did not differ (P > 0.05) from those containing only poor-quality samples. Urine and/or erythrocyte contamination was not uncommon in fractions of both ejaculate types. Males producing good-quality samples ranged in age from 7 to 34 yr. None of the samples contained > or =75% morphologically normal spermatozoa. Electroejaculation with a uniquely designed probe consistently produced ejaculates in the rhinoceros. However, the production of high-quality samples continued to be challenging, occurring in only 50% of collection attempts. Regardless, the technology has progressed to a stage at which good-quality semen samples can be produced for sperm banking and assisted reproduction

  8. Environmental policy in the north-eastern sector of the Black sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, Ruben; Godin, Evgenii; Kosyan, Alisa

    2015-04-01

    Active economic development of the Black Sea East coastal zone has started in the beginning of 20-th century. Those days the pebble taken from beaches was used for construction of buildings, rail and motor roads. Active consumption of pebble from the beaches and river banks had caused a sharp increase of sea shores abrasion and washout rate, number of landslides had also increased. Contemporary Caucasian shores of Black Sea are being developed under increasing man-caused load. Favorable natural conditions, their variety and uniqueness determine the exceptional role of these shores as very important recreational zone of Russian South. Waste urbanized areas, agricultural territories and National Parks are located in immediate neighborhood with the sea. Important industrial facilities and federal and international communi- cations, including major seaports are located in the shore zone. At present time major gas and oil transportation facilities are commissioned and being constructed in the area. Due to the change of geopolitical situation the Russian shoreline had significantly reduced in comparison with Soviet period, especially in most developed regions. Large resort complexes in Georgia, Crimea and Baltic area were lost. Russia had also lost many major seaports that, under conditions of structural change of economy and export growth, had caused the necessity of building new industrial facilities in the Black Sea coastal zone, and, consequently, had stimulated active human invasion into natural coastal processes. At the time being, a major part (three hundred nine kilometers) of Black Sea coast within Russian sector is subject to abrasion and landslide processes. Abrasion process and beaches wash-out, landslides cause destruction of industrial and transport facilities, living and public buildings, resort complexes and valuable agricultural areas. In this light, the challenge of estimation of effective methods of shores protection against wave-induced erosion

  9. Intergrated study of the Devonian-age black shales in eastern Ohio. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.D.; Struble, R.A.; Carlton, R.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Honeycutt, F.M.; Kingsbury, R.H.; Knapp, N.F.; Majchszak, F.L.; Stith, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    This integrated study of the Devonian-age shales in eastern Ohio by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey is part of the Eastern Gas Shales Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The six areas of research included in the study are: (1) detailed stratigraphic mapping, (2) detailed structure mapping, (3) mineralogic and petrographic characterization, (4) geochemical characterization, (5) fracture trace and lineament analysis, and (6) a gas-show monitoring program. The data generated by the study provide a basis for assessing the most promising stratigraphic horizons for occurrences of natural gas within the Devonian shale sequence and the most favorable geographic areas of the state for natural gas exploration and should be useful in the planning and design of production-stimulation techniques. Four major radioactive units in the Devonian shale sequence are believed to be important source rocks and reservoir beds for natural gas. In order of potential for development as an unconventional gas resource, they are (1) lower and upper radioactive facies of the Huron Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, (2) upper Olentangy Shale (Rhinestreet facies equivalent), (3) Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, and (4) lower Olentangy Shale (Marcellus facies equivalent). These primary exploration targets are recommended on the basis of areal distribution, net thickness of radioactive shale, shows of natural gas, and drilling depth to the radioactive unit. Fracture trends indicate prospective areas for Devonian shale reservoirs. Good geological prospects in the Devonian shales should be located where the fracture trends coincide with thick sequences of organic-rich highly radioactive shale.

  10. Information, attitude, and behavior toward organ transplantation and donation among health workers in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topbaş, M; Türkyilmaz, S; Can, G; Ulusoy, S; Kalyoncu, M; Kaynar, K; Yavuzyilmaz, A; Kiliç, E; Ari, S; Ari, B

    2011-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the information, attitude, and behaviors toward organ donation among health workers in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. This descriptive study was performed between December 2008 and November 2009. It involved 1,545 health personnel in 8 state hospitals in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey, excluding the university hospitals in the towns of Trabzon, Rize, Gümüşhane, and Giresun. Educational seminars regarding organ transplantation and donation were arranged for the hospitals in the study. Questionnaires on the subject distributed to the participants were collected before the seminars began. They contained questions about occupation, gender, age, previous organ donation, whether the person would consider donating if they had not already volunteered (if not, the reasons why), whether any relatives had volunteered to donate organs, whether anyone close to them had volunteered to donate organs, whether they would donate organs in the event of a relative's death, and what they might think if they were to require an organ transplant. Following the seminars, participants were given the opportunity to obtain organ donation cards from a stand on site. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Eighty-one participants (5.2%), including 46 women (5.2%) and 35 men (5.3%), had previously officially volunteered to donate organs (P = .875). One hundred thirty-seven health personnel were willing to donate organs by visiting the donation stand after the seminars. The main reasons for participants who had not volunteered to donate organs failing to do so were lack of information about donation and procedures (28.4%), lack of interest in the subject (23.2%), and Islamic religious beliefs and/or traditions (19.6%). One hundred eighty health personnel (11.7%) had family members or relatives who had volunteered to donate organs. Asked whether they would donate that person's organs in the event of the death of a relative, 93 doctors (67.6%), 225

  11. On Rhinoceros simus, Burchell in the Leiden Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1890-01-01

    According to Dr. P. L. Sclater (Nature, September 25, 1890, p. 520) Mr. F. Selous says in the Field of August 16 as follows: — »it was within a mile of this spot that, two years previously (i. e. in 1888), I shot two white Rhinoceroses Rhinoceros simus), the last of their kind that have been killed

  12. Genetic variation studies in Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (Coleoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomly amplified microsatellite markers were used to study the genetic variation among six populations of Oryctes rhinoceros L. which were collected from oil palm plantations in Selangor, Perak, Pahang and Medan. Samples were collected using light and pheromone trapping for the purpose of obtaining two ...

  13. Short-term impacts of a 4-lane highway on black bears in eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manen, Frank T.; McCollister, Matthew F.; Nicholson, Jeremy M.; Thompson, Laura M.; Kindall, Jason L.; Jones, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Among numerous anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial landscapes, expanding transportation networks represent one of the primary challenges to wildlife conservation worldwide. Larger mammals may be particularly vulnerable because of typically low densities, low reproductive rates, and extensive movements. Although numerous studies have been conducted to document impacts of road networks on wildlife, inference has been limited because of experimental design limitations. During the last decade, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) rerouted and upgraded sections of United States Highway 64 between Raleigh and the Outer Banks to a 4-lane, divided highway. A new route was selected for a 24.1-km section in Washington County. The new section of highway included 3 wildlife underpasses with adjacent wildlife fencing to mitigate the effects of the highway on wildlife, particularly American black bears (Ursus americanus). We assessed the short-term impacts of the new highway on spatial ecology, population size, survival, occupancy, and gene flow of black bears. We tested our research hypotheses using a before-after control-impact (BACI) study design. We collected data during 2000–2001 (preconstruction phase) and 2006–2007 (postconstruction phase) in the highway project area and a nearby control area (each approx. 11,000 ha), resulting in 4 groups of data (i.e., pre- or postconstruction study phase, treatment or control area). We captured and radiocollared 57 bears and collected 5,775 hourly locations and 4,998 daily locations. Using mixed-model analysis of variance and logistic regression, we detected no differences in home ranges, movement characteristics, proximity to the highway alignment, or habitat use between the 2 study phases, although minimum detectable effect sizes were large for several tests. However, after completion of the new highway, bears on the treatment area became less inactive in morning, when highway traffic was low, compared with

  14. Feeding ecology of two endangered sympatric megaherbivores: Asian elephant Elephas maximus and greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in lowland Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, N.M.B.; Wegge, P.; Moe, S.R.; Shrestha, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the diets of low-density but increasing populations of sympatric Asian elephants Elephas maximus and greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in the Bardia National Park in lowland Nepal. A microhistological technique based on faecal material was used to estimate the seasonal

  15. Distribution of (137)Cs in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea Coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, H; Kiris, E; Dalgic, G; Cevik, U

    2016-06-15

    This study presents the results of (137)Cs and (40)K radionuclide concentrations in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) samples collected during the period of February-November 2014 from twelve different stations within the border of the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Also, these radionuclide concentrations were determined in sea water and sediment samples. The activity concentrations in seawater, sediment and mussel tissue samples were between 1.12-1.69mBqL(-1), 3.26-30.74 and 1.61-3.16Bqkg(-1) for (137)Cs and 231.41-399.49mBqL(-1), 215.71-450.07 and 286.84-382.16Bqkg(-1) for (40)K, respectively. These values are also in accordance with the concentrations reported for similar regions. Additionally, radiological impact parameters such as daily intake of (137)Cs and (40)K, annual committed effective dose and carcinogenic risk due to the consumption of mussel were calculated and compared with the international data. Lifetime cancer risk values are lower than the limit of 10(-3). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Seasonal and spatial variations of marine litter on the south-eastern Black Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Yahya; Seyhan, Kadir

    2017-07-15

    The south-eastern Black Sea coast in Turkey was evaluated for marine litter composition and density covering nine beaches during four seasons. The marine litter (>2cm in size), was collected from the coast and categorized into material and usage categories. The data analysis showed that plastic was the most abundant litter (≥61.65%) by count and weight followed by styrofoam and fabric. The marine litter density ranged from 0.03 to 0.58 with a mean (±SD) of 0.16±0.02 items/m 2 by count. Based on weight, it varied between 0.44 and 14.74g/m 2 with 3.35±1.63. The east side had a higher marine litter density than the west side with significant differences between beaches. The variations due to different seasons were not significant for any beach. The results of this study should provide baseline information about the coastal marine pollution and will assist the mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Butorphanol with oxygen insufflation corrects etorphine-induced hypoxaemia in chemically immobilized white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)

    OpenAIRE

    Haw, Anna; Hofmeyr, Markus; Fuller, Andrea; Buss, Peter; Miller, Michele; Fleming, Gregory; Meyer, Leith

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioid-induced immobilization is associated with severe respiratory depression in the white rhinoceros. We evaluated the efficacy of butorphanol and oxygen insufflation in alleviating opioid-induced respiratory depression in eight boma-managed rhinoceros. Results Chemical immobilization with etorphine, azaperone and hyaluronidase, as per standard procedure for the white rhinoceros, caused severe respiratory depression with hypoxaemia (PaO2 = 27 ± 7 mmHg [mean ± SD]), hypercapnia (P...

  18. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Manger, Paul R

    2017-08-01

    This study sought to determine whether the retinal organization of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), a large African herbivore with lips specialized for grazing in open savannahs, relates to its foraging ecology and habitat. Using stereology and retinal wholemounts, we estimated a total of 353,000 retinal ganglion cells. Their density distribution reveals an unusual topographic organization of a temporal (2,000 cells/mm 2 ) and a nasal (1,800 cells/mm 2 ) area embedded within a well-defined horizontal visual streak (800 cells/mm 2 ), which is remarkably similar to the retinal organization in the black rhinoceros. Alpha ganglion cells comprise 3.5% (12,300) of the total population of ganglion cells and show a similar distribution pattern with maximum densities also occurring in the temporal (44 cells/mm 2 ) and nasal (40 cells/mm 2 ) areas. We found higher proportions of alpha cells in the dorsal and ventral retinas. Given their role in the detection of brisk transient stimuli, these higher proportions may facilitate the detection of approaching objects from the front and behind while grazing with the head at 45 °. Using ganglion cell peak density and eye size (29 mm, axial length), we estimated upper limits of spatial resolving power of 7 cycles/deg (temporal area), 6.6 cycles/deg (nasal area), and 4.4 cycles/deg (horizontal streak). The resolution of the temporal area potentially assists with grazing, while the resolution of the streak may be used for panoramic surveillance of the horizon. The nasal area may assist with detection of approaching objects from behind, potentially representing an adaptation compensating for limited neck and head mobility. J. Comp. Neurol., 525:2484-2498, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Radiological significance of coal, slag and fly ash samples from the Eastern Black Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damla, Nevzat [Batman Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Cevik, Ugur [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Kara, Ayhan [Osmaniye Korkut Ata Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-15

    This work presents a study of natural radioactivity levels in coal and its combustion residues (fly ash and slag) used in the houses in Black Sea Region, Turkey. Coal, fly ash and slag samples were provided from different locations of the region and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Also, chemical analyses of these samples were carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 83, 99 and 38 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean {sup 232}Th activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 108, 113 and 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean {sup 40}K activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were found to be 366, 381 and 204 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The potential radiological hazards associated to these materials were evaluated by calculating the radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), the air absorbed gamma dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (AED), the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) and internal hazard index (H{sub in}) and compared with the internationally accepted or reference values. The mean Ra{sub eq} values of the coal, fly ash and slag samples were lower than the recommended maximum values 370 Bq kg{sup -1} by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The overall mean outdoor terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate in coal, fly ash and slag samples are 119, 129 and 62 nGy h{sup -1} and the corresponding outdoor annual effective doses are 0.60, 0.32 and 0.64 mSv y{sup -1}, which is higher than the worldwide average (0.07 mSv y{sup -1}), respectively. Moreover, the enrichment factors relative to the input coal are calculated for the radionuclide contents observed. Calculated enrichment factor values for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found 1.14 and 1.01, respectively. (orig.)

  20. Use of butorphanol during immobilization of free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Joubert, Jenny; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Kruger, Marius; Martin, Laura; Hofmeyr, Markus; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Forty free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were anesthetized with etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase in Kruger National Park, South Africa, between February and August 2009. Eighteen rhinoceros received butorphanol in the dart combination, and 22 rhinoceros had butorphanol administered intravenously within 15 min of darting. Body position, blood gas values, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature were measured at two time points after darting, approximately 10 min apart (sample 1 mean collection time after darting, 9.4 +/- 2.7 min; sample 2 mean collection time, 18.6 +/- 2.8 min). A significant number of field-captured rhinoceros remained standing at the first sample period when butorphanol was administered in the dart. Higher median values for arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in combination with lower arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in standing versus recumbent rhinoceros suggested improved ventilation in this posture (P rhinoceros that received butorphanol in the dart (P rhinoceros receiving butorphanol in the dart. Intravenous administration of butorphanol resulted in significantly decreased median PaCO2 and heart rate in recumbent rhinoceros (P rhinoceros remained hypoxemic during the short anesthetic procedure despite butorphanol administration. Preliminary results suggest that administration of butorphanol (either in the dart or intravenously) improves some metabolic parameters in free-ranging recumbent white rhinoceros without significantly affecting ventilation. It is hypothesized that this may be due to a lighter state of immobilization. Addition of butorphanol to the dart provides handling and physiologic advantages because the majority of rhinoceros remain standing.

  1. Neosporosis in a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Williams

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A16-day-old white rhinoceros calf died suddenly while in excellent condition and showing no obvious previous clinical signs. It was the 9th calf of a mature female kept free-ranging with 11 other rhinoceros as well as various other game species on a 2000 hectare game breeding centre adjacent to the town of Lichtenburg and outlying cattle farmlands in the Northern Province. At post mortem examination, death was ascribed to heart failure. There was marked multifocal to coalescing subacute parasitic myocarditis with numerous proto-zoan bradyzoite cysts and free tachyzoites present amongst the predominantly round cell inflammatory infiltrate. The coccidian was positively identified as Neospora sp. using both polyclonal and murine monoclonal Neospora caninum antibody immunohistochemistry in the avidin-biotin technique. The parasites stained poorly with Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoperoxidase staining. Ultrastructurally, a section of a bradyzoite-containing cyst, as well as tachyzoites, were largely but not totally consistent with those described for Neospora caninum. The dam showed no sign of illness. Neosporosis affecting white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum has not previously been reported. A summarised overview of neosporosis from selected publications and a recent review is given.

  2. Neosporosis in a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J H; Espie, I; van Wilpe, E; Matthee, A

    2002-03-01

    A 16-day-old white rhinoceros calf died suddenly while in excellent condition and showing no obvious previous clinical signs. It was the 9th calf of a mature female kept free-ranging with 11 other rhinoceros as well as various other game species on a 2000 hectare game breeding centre adjacent to the town of Lichtenburg and outlying cattle farmlands in the Northern Province. At post mortem examination, death was ascribed to heart failure. There was marked multifocal to coalescing subacute parasitic myocarditis with numerous protozoan bradyzoite cysts and free tachyzoites present amongst the predominantly round cell inflammatory infiltrate. The coccidian was positively identified as Neospora sp. using both polyclonal and murine monoclonal Neospora caninum antibody immunohistochemistry in the avidin-biotin technique. The parasites stained poorly with Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoperoxidase staining. Ultrastructurally, a section of a bradyzoite-containing cyst, as well as tachyzoites, were largely but not totally consistent with those described for Neospora caninum. The dam showed no sign of illness. Neosporosis affecting white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) has not previously been reported. A summarised overview of neosporosis from selected publications and a recent review is given.

  3. CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF ETORPHINE, AZAPERONE, AND BUTORPHANOL COMBINATIONS IN CHEMICALLY IMMOBILIZED CAPTIVE WHITE RHINOCEROS (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Peter; Miller, Michele; Fuller, Andrea; Haw, Anna; Wanty, Rachel; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Meyer, Leith

    2016-09-01

    Chemical capture is an essential tool in the management and conservation of white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum ); however, cardiovascular responses in immobilized megaherbivores are poorly understood. Blood pressure and heart rate responses in rhinoceros immobilized with etorphine or etorphine plus azaperone, and the effects of subsequent i.v. butorphanol administration were investigated. Six white rhinoceros were used in a randomized crossover study design with four interventions: 1) etorphine i.m.; 2) etorphine plus azaperone i.m.; 3) etorphine i.m. and butorphanol i.v.; and 4) etorphine plus azaperone i.m., and butorphanol i.v. Etorphine resulted in hypertension and tachycardia in immobilized rhinoceros on initial measurements. Over the 25-min study period, blood pressures and heart rate declined. Heart rates were slower, although the rhinoceros were still tachycardic, and blood pressures lower during the whole study period in animals immobilized with etorphine and azaperone compared with those that received only etorphine. Butorphanol administration resulted in lower arterial blood pressures and heart rates in etorphine-immobilized rhinoceros. In rhinoceros immobilized with etorphine and azaperone, heart rate slowed following administration of butorphanol i.v., although blood pressures remained unchanged. Azaperone reduced hypertension associated with etorphine immobilization, but animals remained tachycardic. Administration of butorphanol to etorphine/azaperone-immoblized rhinoceros lowered heart rate to values approaching normal resting levels without altering blood pressure.

  4. Death due to volvulus in a white rhinoceros ceratotherium simum from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. de Vos

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal obstruction due to volvulus is described as the cause of death in an adult white rhinoceros cow. It is also pointed out that the gross anatomical features which predispose volvulus in the horse, are also present in the white rhinoceros and is considered to have some significance in the aetiology of the present case.

  5. Black Rhino Translocations within Africa | Knight | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The responsibility for the conservation of the critically endangered Black Rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, lies within Africa. This species is managed at the subspecies level and we document nine international translocation case studies involving South Africa since 1962 aimed at re-establishing or boosting populations ...

  6. Biological parameters and feeding behaviour of invasive whelk Rapana venosa Valenciennes, 1846 in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Saglam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine length-weight relationships, growth type and feeding behavior of the benthic predator Rapa whelk at the coast of Camburnu, south-eastern Black Sea. Methods: Rapa whelk was monthly collected by dredge sampling on the south-eastern Black Sea at 20 m depth. The relationships between morphometric parameters of Rapa whelk were described by linear and exponential models. The allometric growth of each variable relative to shell length (SL was calculated from the function Y=aSLb or logY=loga+blogSL. The functional regression b values were tested by t-test at the 0.05 significance level if it was significantly different from isometric growth. The total time spent on feeding either on mussel tissue or live mussels was recorded for each individual under controlled conditions in laboratory. Results: The length-weight relationships showed positive allometric growth and no inter-sex variability. Body size in the male population was significantly higher than in the individuals of the female. All characters in males and females showed a trend towards allometry rather than isometry. While the total time spent feeding increased with increasing prey size the total time that Rapana venosa spent feeding decreased with increasing Rapa whelk size. The total average feeding time needed by Rapa whelks was 160 min. But they took 310 min on live mussels in 27-28 °C in the laboratory conditions. Conclusions: Length and weight relationships, growth type, total time spent feeding of this species were explained in details for this region. It would be useful to sustainable management in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey. The results about the feeding behaviour of this species will contribute to the understanding of the role of this species within the ecosystem.

  7. Aerosol deposition (trace elements and black carbon) over the highest glacier of the Eastern European Alps during the last centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertò, Michele; Barbante, Carlo; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Gabrielli, Paolo; Spolaor, Andrea; Dreossi, Giuliano; Laj, Paolo; Zanatta, Marco; Ginot, Patrick; Fain, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Ice cores are an archive of a wide variety of climatic and environmental information from the past, retaining them for hundreds of thousands of years. Anthropogenic pollutants, trace elements, heavy metals and major ions, are preserved as well providing insights on the past atmospheric circulations and allowing evaluating the human impact on the environment. Several ice cores were drilled in glaciers at mid and low latitudes, as in the European Alps. The first ice cores drilled to bedrock in the Eastern Alps were retrieved during autumn 2011 on the "Alto dell`Ortles glacier", the uppermost glacier of the Ortles massif (3905m, South Tirol, Italy), in the frame of the "Ortles Project". A preliminary dating of the core suggests that it should cover at least 300-400 years. Despite the summer temperature increase of the last decades this glacier still contain cold ice. Indeed, O and H isotopes profiles well describe the atmospheric warming as well as the low temperatures recorded during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Moreover, this glacier is located close to densely populated and industrialized areas and can be used for reconstructing for the first time past and recent air pollution and the human impact in the Eastern European Alps. The innermost part of the core is under analysis by means of a "Continuous Flow Analysis" system. This kind of analysis offers a high resolution in data profiles. The separation between the internal and the external parts of the core avoid any kind of contamination. An aluminum melting head melts the core at about 2.5 cm min-1. Simultaneous analyses of conductivity, dust concentration and size distribution (from 0.8 to 80 μm), trace elements with Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS, Agilent 7500) and refractory black carbon (rBC) with the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2, Droplet Measurement Technologies) are performed. A fraction of the melt water is collected by an auto-sampler for further analysis. The analyzed elements

  8. Unlocking the hydrocarbon potential of the eastern Black Sea basin. Prospectivity of middle Miocene submarine fan reservoirs by seismic sequence stratigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogan, Coskun; Galip, Ozbek; Ali, Demirer

    2002-01-01

    Full text : The objective of this paper is to present present depositional characteristics and hydrocarbon prospectivity of the middle Miocene submarine basin floor fan deposits from the exploration stand point of view by using seismic data available in the offshore eastern Black Sea basin. This basin is a Tertiary trough formed as a continuation of the Mesozoic oceanic basin. The hydrocarbon potential of the basin is believed to be high in the Tertiary section because of the existence of the elements necessary for generation, migration and entrapment of hydrocarbon. A sequence stratigraphic study has been carried out by using 2-d seismic data in the Turkish portion of the eastern Black Sea basin. The objective of the study was to determine periods of major clastic sediment influxes which might lead to identify good reservoir intervals and their spatial distribution in this basin. All basic seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation techniques and seismic facies analysis were used to identify times of these sand rich deposition periods. Sequence stratigraphy and seismic facies analysis indicate that the basinal areas of the middle Miocene sequences were dominated mainly by submarine fan complexes introduced in the lowstand stages and pelagic sediments deposited during the transgressive and highstand stages. It was proposed that Turkish portion of this basin which is one of the best frontier exploration area with its high potential left in the world, is glimpsing to those looking for good future exploration opportunities.

  9. Evaluation of genetic diversity of cultivated tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze in the eastern black sea coast by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beris Fatih S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most globally consumed drink after spring water and an important breeding plant with high economical value in Turkey. In half a century, various kinds of tea cultivars have been bred in Turkey to improve the quality and yield of tea plants. Since tea reproduces sexually, tea fields vary in quality. Thus, determining the genetic diversity and relationship of the plants to support breeding and cultivation is important. In this study we aimed to determine the genetic diversity of tea cultivars breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey and the genetic relationship between them, to verify whether the qualitative morphological designations of the clones are genetically true by the ISSR markers. Herein, the genetic diversity and relationships of 18 Turkish tea cultivars were determined using 15 ISSR markers with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 base pairs. The similarity indices among these cultivars were between 0.456 and 0.743. Based on cluster analysis using UPGMA, some of tea cultivars originating from the same geographical position were found to be clustered closely. Our data provide valuable information and a useful basis to assist selection and cloning experiments of tea cultivars and also help farmers to find elite parental clones for tea breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  10. Histological Study of the Adrenal Gland of African White Rhinoceros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-mei Peng§*, Hui Song§, Hua-zhen Liu, Jian-bin Zhang1, Zhi-qiang Lu, Zhi-wei Liu and Yin-xue Liu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures of adrenal gland of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum were observed by light microscopy. The results showed that the surface envelope of adrenal gland was covered with developed connective tissues whose average thickness was up to 210 μm. A large number of sinusoids were distributed between the neighboring cells. The zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex was thin and composed of columnar and cubic cells. The columnar cells were close to the edge and the cubic cells were found in the deep zone. The two kinds of cells were arranged in irregular groups. The thickness of zona fasiculata was about 3 times as much as that of zona glomerulosa, and the boundary was not obvious. Cells were arranged in irregular cords. Some small lipid droplets were in the shape of small vacuolation, and distributed in the cytoplasm. The cells of zona reticularis were adjacent to medulla with which they formed a jagged boundary. Cells were in network or in enclose acini. Medullae were darkly stained and clearly distinct from the cortex. Cells were large with elliptical nuclei whose nucleoli were significant. Cytoplasm was basophilic and stained to give blue violet appearance. A small amount of sympathetic ganglion cells were distributed in the medulla. The above results suggested that the adrenal gland structures of African white rhinoceros compared with other animals have similarities. . The rich sinusoids in capsule suggested that its blood supply was abundant, full of metabolism and endocrine activity.

  11. Baseline Hematologic Results for Free-ranging White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Wanty, Rachel; Parsons, Sven; van Helden, Paul; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Complete blood counts (n = 115) and red blood cell analytes (n = 80) were assessed in free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) from Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. Blood was collected from healthy animals immobilized between February and September 2009-11 for management purposes. Our objectives were to establish baselines for KNP's white rhinoceros population and to compare results based on sex and age group. Significant differences in total white blood cells, total eosinophils, and hemoglobin were found between adult and subadult rhinoceros. Female rhinoceros had significantly higher total white blood cells and lower hemoglobin compared with males. Hematologic analytes were similar to those published for other rhinoceros populations, although the impact of capture and sampling methods, nutritional status, and habitat should be considered when comparing data. This baseline hematology for healthy free-ranging white rhinoceros in KNP may be useful in assessing health status for translocation and medical interventions, including treatment of poaching cases.

  12. Landscape preference of the white rhinoceros in the southern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Pienaar

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The long and short-term landscape preference of white rhinoceros in the southern Kruger NationarPark are investigated. A preference index and a chi-square test are used to ascertain if white rhinoceros prefer or avoid a particular landscape. Landscape 3 (moderately undulating granitoid plains with Combretnni zeyheri woodland, is the most preferred landscape while landscapes 2 (low granitoid mountains with Combretnmapicniafnni bushveld and4 (granitoid lowlands with Acacia ^randicornuta tree- savanna, are avoided.

  13. Diet and feeding behaviour of the black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) in the Betampona Reserve, eastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, A

    2000-01-01

    The feeding behaviour and diet of the black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) was investigated in the Betampona Reserve, eastern Madagascar. The highly frugivorous diet of this subspecies was confirmed - feeding on fruits accounting for 92.0% of feeding records. Most feeding at Betampona was observed at 10-25 m above the forest floor amongst flexible, small (0.5-5.0 cm diameter) and oblique/horizontal (0-45 degrees ) supports. The Varecia spent on average 21.7% (+/- 1.5) of their daily activity budget feeding and employ a variety of postures that enable them to harvest fruits in the rain forest canopy. The suspensory postures were the most important in allowing Varecia to compete with other smaller-bodied frugivores. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Assessment of metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, and Pb) in seawater, sediment and biota samples in the coastal area of Eastern Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Hasan; Sirin, Murat; Dalgic, Goktug; Bayrak, Esra Yilmaz; Akdeniz, Aysel

    2017-09-15

    This study investigated the contents of Cu, Zn and Pb in seawater, sediment, different shell sizes of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sea snail (Rapana venosa) samples collected from four different provinces of the Eastern Black Sea Region. With the exception of Zn, all the metal concentration values measured in the sea snail were observed to be higher than those of mussels in all stations. While the correlation between mussels and sea snail according to metal concentrations was found to be positive (p˂0.05), this relation was not observed between the other parameters, such as the shell sizes, salinity and pH (p˃0.05). Although the mean concentration values of Cu, Zn, and Pb for mussel and sea snail are significantly above the tolerable levels, the estimated daily intake values for mussel were below the daily intake recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. First insights into the vocal repertoire of infant and juvenile Southern white rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Sabrina N; Boeer, Michael; Scheumann, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Describing vocal repertoires represents an essential step towards gaining an overview about the complexity of acoustic communication in a given species. The analysis of infant vocalisations is essential for understanding the development and usage of species-specific vocalisations, but is often underrepresented, especially in species with long inter-birth intervals such as the white rhinoceros. Thus, this study aimed for the first time to characterise the infant and juvenile vocal repertoire of the Southern white rhinoceros and to relate these findings to the adult vocal repertoire. The behaviour of seven mother-reared white rhinoceros calves (two males, five females) and one hand-reared calf (male), ranging from one month to four years, was simultaneously audio and video-taped at three zoos. Normally reared infants and juveniles uttered four discriminable call types (Whine, Snort, Threat, and Pant) that were produced in different behavioural contexts. All call types were also uttered by the hand-reared calf. Call rates of Whines, but not of the other call types, decreased with age. These findings provide the first evidence that infant and juvenile rhinoceros utter specific call types in distinct contexts, even if they grow up with limited social interaction with conspecifics. By comparing our findings with the current literature on vocalisations of adult white rhinoceros and other solitary rhinoceros species, we discuss to which extent differences in the social lifestyle across species affect acoustic communication in mammals.

  16. Prey preference of Myopopone castanea (hymenoptera: formicidae) toward larvae Oryctes rhinoceros Linn (coleoptera: scarabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widihastuty; Tobing, M. C.; Marheni; Kuswardani, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    Myopoponecastanea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ant is a predator for larvae Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabidae) which is a pest on oil palm. These ants are able to prey on all stadia of O. rhinoceros larvae. This study was conducted to determine prey preference of M. castaneatoward its prey O. rhinoceros larvae.. The study was conducted using a Factorial Complete Random Design with two factors (using log and no log) and five replications. Preferences test was done by choice test and no choice test. The results of no choice preference test on the log treatment, M. castaneaprefer preyed on firstinstar larvae of O. rhinoceros (\\bar{X}=2.6 individual) with a preference index was 0.194 and on no log treatment, M. castanea prefer for both first instar larvae and second instarlarvae (\\bar{X}=4.6 individual) with a preference index 0.197. The results of the choice preference test using logs, showed that M. castanea prefer the firstinstar larvae of O. rhinoceros (\\bar{X}=2.6 individual), with a preference index (0.35), and on no log treatment, M. castaneaprefer the second instar larvae(\\bar{X}=1.4 individual) with a preference index 0.189. Both first and secondinstarlarvaeof O. rhinoceros were preferred by predator M. castanea

  17. European Integration and the Transition of Eastern European States. The New Central Europe and Romania's Interest in Regional Cooperation in the Black Sea - Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore POP

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This short article presents the most important directions of the evolution of Central and Eastern Europe during the second half of the 20th century during the period marked by the coming into power and then the downfall of the communism. One could also note that the Central and Eastern European countries have undergone several political and economic transitions- and for Romania’s case- the burdening heritage of the austerity economic policy that has been implemented during the years will affect the economic development of the countries on the long term. The transition towards market economy was realized upon the political decision of political accession to the free market principle. The new beginning of the regional integration process made the countries in the Danube-Black Sea region, sign new agreements for political and economic cooperation. The emergence of new countries on European and Asian maps opens new opportunities for regional cooperation, especially for environmental issues, which brings new dimensions for the global process of European integration and of the integration of the regional economies into the global economies.

  18. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVI. Oestrid fly larvae of sheep, goats, springbok and black wildebeest in the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Merino sheep in Thornveld, Dorper sheep and Angora goats in inland Valley Bushveld, Angora goats and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau, and springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis, and black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou, in Karroid Mountainveld, all in the Eastern Cape Province, were examined for the larvae of nasal bot flies. The sheep and goats were infested with the larvae of Oestrus ovis, and Dorper sheep and Boer goats harboured more larvae than Angora goats on the same farms. Most infestation was present from November to May in Merino sheep in Thornveld, from February to June in Dorper sheep in inland Valley Bushveld, and from May to September in Angora and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau. These patterns of seasonality appeared to be regulated by the severity of the summer temperatures at the various localities. The springbok were infested with the larvae of Rhinoestrus antidorcitis, most of which seemed to mature from June to August. All larval sages of Oestrus variolosus and Gedoelstia hässleri were present in the black wildebeest, and large numbers of 1st instar larvae of G. hässleri appeared to accumulate on the dura of the wildebeest from June to August.

  19. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVI. Oestrid fly larvae of sheep, goats, springbok and black wildebeest in the Eastern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G

    2005-12-01

    Merino sheep in Thornveld, Dorper sheep and Angora goats in inland Valley Bushveld, Angora goats and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau, and springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis, and black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou, in Karroid Mountainveld, all in the Eastern Cape Province, were examined for the larvae of nasal bot flies. The sheep and goats were infested with the larvae of Oestrus ovis, and Dorper sheep and Boer goats harboured more larvae than Angora goats on the same farms. Most infestation was present from November to May in Merino sheep in Thornveld, from February to June in Dorper sheep in inland Valley Bushveld, and from May to September in Angora and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau. These patterns of seasonality appeared to be regulated by the severity of the summer temperatures at the various localities. The springbok were infested with the larvae of Rhinoestrus antidorcitis, most of which seemed to mature from June to August. All larval sages of Oestrus variolosus and Gedoelstia hässleri were present in the black wildebeest, and large numbers of 1st instar larvae of G. hässleri appeared to accumulate on the dura of the wildebeest from June to August.

  20. Carcinosarcoma in a white Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takuya; Kudo, Tomoo; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Une, Yumi

    2013-12-30

    In Rhinocerotidae, there are very few reports of tumors and no reports of a mixed tumor. This paper reports the case of a male 33-year-old southern white rhinoceros. Grossly, there were two masses in the coelomic cavity and solid nodules in the liver. Histologically, all tumors had a biphasic pattern that consisted of malignant epithelial cells (cytokeratin- and E-cadherin-positive) and non-epithelial cells (vimentin-positive) with cartilage. In this case, the prostate could not be identified, and instead, the largest tumor mass was present at that site. Furthermore, since structures regarded as the prostate duct remained in this tumor, we considered that this tumor was very likely to be of prostate gland origin. This case is the first report of carcinosarcoma in Rhinocerotidae.

  1. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological–economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild Costo Económico con Referencia Espacial y de Beneficio a la Biodiversidad y la Efectividad de una Estrategia de Determinación de Costos Resumen Entre 1990 y 2007, en promedio fueron cazados ilegalmente cada año 15 rinocerontes sureños blancos (Ceratotherium simum simum) y negros (Diceros bicornis) en Sudáfrica. Desde 2007 la caza ilegal de rinocerontes sureños blancos por su cuerno ha escalado a más de 950 individuos al año en 2013. Llevamos a cabo un análisis ecológico-económico para determinar si el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte sureño blanco podría facilitar la protección del rinoceronte. Se usaron modelos lineales generalizados para examinar a los conductores socio-económicos de la caza furtiva, con base en datos colectados desde 1990 hasta 2013, y

  2. Pengaruh Warna Perangkap Feromon terhadap Hasil Tangkapan Imago Oryctes rhinoceros di Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idum Satia Santi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a synthetic-pheromone trap with active ingredient of ethyl-4-methyloctanoate in catching adults of Oryctes rhinoceros was believed to be influenced by the trap color. A RCBD trial with single factor and three block replicates was conducted during September to October 2008 at Oil-Palm-Trial Station at PTPN III, Labuhan Batu District, North-Sumatera Province. The single factor was trap color i.e. orange, green, white, blue, red, yellow, and pink. Results showed that total numbers and sex ratios of collected O. rhinoceros adults were not significantly influenced by the trap color. The total numbers of collected O. rhinoceros adult during 30 days on color of orange, green, white, blue, red, yellow, and pink were 136, 177, 126, 155, 129, 114, and 113 individuals with sex ratios ♂/♀ 0.47, 0.52, 0.62, 0.50, 0.60, 0.49, and 0.54, respectively. The synthetic pheromone significantly attracted more O. rhinoceros female (65% rather than the male one (35%.   Keefektifan perangkap feromon sintetik berbahan aktif ethyl-4-methyloctanoate dalam menangkap imago Oryctes rhinoceros diyakini dipengaruhi oleh warna perangkap tersebut. Percobaan RCBD faktor tunggal dengan tiga blok ulangan dilakukan pada bulan September sampai dengan Oktober 2008 di kebun penelitian kelapa sawit PTPN III, Kabupaten Labuhan Batu, Provinsi Sumatera Utara. Faktor tunggal tersebut yakni warna perangkap meliputi oranye, hijau, putih, biru, merah, kuning, dan pink. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa warna perangkap tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap hasil tangkapan dan sex ratio imago O. rhinoceros. Total imago O. rhinoceros yang tertangkap selama 30 hari pada warna oranye, hijau, putih, biru, merah, kuning dan pink sebanyak 136, 177, 126, 155, 129, 114 dan 113 dengan sex ratio ♂/♀ 0,47; 0,52; 0,62; 0,50; 0,60; 0,49 dan 0,54. Feromon sintetik secara signifikan lebih banyak menarik imago betina (65% daripada yang jantan (35%.

  3. Capture of the White (Square-Lipped) Rhinoceros Ceratotherium Simum Simum (Burchell) with the Use of Drug Immobilization Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harthoorn, A. M.

    1962-01-01

    The capture of the white (square-lipped) rhinoceros ceratotherium simum simum (Burchell) by the drug immobilization method is described. Details are given of the drug doses and the reactions of the twelve animals immobilized. The value of this method of capture is discussed, especially in relation to the preservation of rhinoceros by moving from contested areas. Imagesp204-a PMID:17649392

  4. The variability in the relationship between black carbon and carbon monoxide over the eastern coast of China: BC aging during transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available East Asia is a densely populated region with a myriad of primary emissions of pollutants such as black carbon (BC and carbon monoxide (CO. To characterize primary emissions over the eastern coast of China, a series of field campaigns were conducted in 2011, including measurements from a ship cruise, island, and coastal receptor sites. The relationship between BC and CO is presented here for the first ship cruise (C1, the second ship cruise (C2, an island site (Changdao Island, CD, and a coastal site (Wenling, WL. The average BC mass concentrations were 2.43, 2.73, 1.09, 0.94, and 0.77 µg m−3 for CD, WL, C1-YS (Yellow Sea, C1-ES (East China Sea, and C2-ES, respectively. For those locations, the average CO mixing ratios were 0.55, 0.48, 0.31, 0.36, and 0.27 ppm. The high loadings of both BC and CO imply severe anthropogenic pollution over the eastern coast of China. Additionally, the linear correlation between BC and CO was regressed for each location. The slopes, i.e., the ratios of ΔBC to ΔCO derived from their relationship, correlated well with the ratios of diesel consumption to gasoline consumption in each province/city, which reveals vehicular emission to be the common source for BC and CO and that there are distinct fuel structures between North and South China. The ΔBC/ΔCO values at coastal sites (Changdao Island and Wenling were much higher than those over the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and the correlation coefficients also showed a decreasing trend from the coast to the sea. Therefore, the quantity of ΔBC/ΔCO and the correlation coefficients are possible indicators for the aging and removal of BC.

  5. The variability in the relationship between black carbon and carbon monoxide over the eastern coast of China: BC aging during transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingfeng; Hu, Min; Guo, Song; Wu, Zhijun; Peng, Jianfei; Wu, Yusheng

    2017-09-01

    East Asia is a densely populated region with a myriad of primary emissions of pollutants such as black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO). To characterize primary emissions over the eastern coast of China, a series of field campaigns were conducted in 2011, including measurements from a ship cruise, island, and coastal receptor sites. The relationship between BC and CO is presented here for the first ship cruise (C1), the second ship cruise (C2), an island site (Changdao Island, CD), and a coastal site (Wenling, WL). The average BC mass concentrations were 2.43, 2.73, 1.09, 0.94, and 0.77 µg m-3 for CD, WL, C1-YS (Yellow Sea), C1-ES (East China Sea), and C2-ES, respectively. For those locations, the average CO mixing ratios were 0.55, 0.48, 0.31, 0.36, and 0.27 ppm. The high loadings of both BC and CO imply severe anthropogenic pollution over the eastern coast of China. Additionally, the linear correlation between BC and CO was regressed for each location. The slopes, i.e., the ratios of ΔBC to ΔCO derived from their relationship, correlated well with the ratios of diesel consumption to gasoline consumption in each province/city, which reveals vehicular emission to be the common source for BC and CO and that there are distinct fuel structures between North and South China. The ΔBC/ΔCO values at coastal sites (Changdao Island and Wenling) were much higher than those over the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and the correlation coefficients also showed a decreasing trend from the coast to the sea. Therefore, the quantity of ΔBC/ΔCO and the correlation coefficients are possible indicators for the aging and removal of BC.

  6. Attitudes and behavior regarding organ donation and transplantation on the part of religious officials in the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkyilmaz, S; Topbaş, M; Ulusoy, S; Kalyoncu, M; Kiliç, E; Çan, G

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the opinions and attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation on the part of religious officials in the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. This descriptive study was performed between December 2008 and November 2009 with 550 among Muslim religious officials, including 541 males and 9 females, who attended educational seminars on the subject arranged in collaboration with Mufti Offices in the provinces of Trabzon, Rize, Gümüşhane, and Giresun in the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. A supervised questionnaire administered before the seminars contained questions investigating whether subjects have volunteered to donate organs, reasons for not volunteering, whether they would donate the organs of a close relative in the event such a death, and what they would think in the event they required an organ transplantation themselves. Questions were also asked regarding permission for organ transplantation and donation in 5 main religions. Although no female religious officials had previously volunteered to donate organs, 4 men (0.7%) had done so. After attending seminars, 32 (5.9%) volunteered to donate. The main reasons cited for not volunteering to donate organs were lack of sufficient knowledge of the procedures involved (30.6%) and lack of interest (17.4%). Three hundred five religious officials stated they would not agree to organ donation in the event of the death of a close relative. When asked "What would you think about organ donation and transplantation if you needed an organ transplant now?", 46.0% replied "I would want an organ transplant." Finally, 83.3% of religious officials stated that Islam permits organ donation and transplantation, whereas 13.6% stated that Christianity permits it, other figures being 7.3% for Judaism, 2.5% for Buddhism, and 2.0% for Hinduism. Religious views affect organ donation. The fact that religious officials agreed to donate organs after appropriate education emphasized that Islam is the most

  7. Radiographic protocol and normal anatomy of the hind feet in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert J; Wood, Simon P; Hutchinson, John R; Weller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Foot pathology is a common and important health concern in captive rhinoceroses worldwide, but osteopathologies are rarely diagnosed, partly because of a lack of radiographic protocols. Here, we aimed to develop the first radiographic protocol for rhinoceros feet and describe the radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) hind foot (pes). Computed tomographic images were obtained of nine cadaver pedes from seven different white rhinoceroses and assessed for pathology. A single foot deemed free of pathology was radiographed using a range of different projections and exposures to determine the best protocol. 3D models were produced from the CT images and were displayed with the real radiographs to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros pes. An optimal radiographic projection was determined for each bone in the rhinoceros pes focusing on highlighting areas where pathology has been previously described. The projections deemed to be most useful were D60Pr-PlDiO (digit III), D45Pr45M-PlDiLO (digit II), and D40Pr35L-PlDiLO (digit IV). The primary beam was centered 5-7 cm proximal to the cuticle on the digit of interest. Articular surfaces, ridges, grooves, tubercles, processes and fossae were identified. The radiographic protocol we have developed along with the normal radiographic anatomy we have described will allow for more accessible and effective diagnosis of white rhinoceros foot osteopathologies. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  8. Sea level changes along the Turkish coasts of the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ALPAR

    2000-06-01

    On the average, there is a pronounced sea-level difference (55 cm along the Turkish Straits System. However, the slope is nonlinear, being much steeper in the Strait of Istanbul. This barotrophic pressure difference is one of the most important factors causing the two-layer flow through the system. The topography and hydrodynamics of the straits, the dominant wind systems and their seasonal variations make this flow more complicated. For secular sea level changes, a rise of 3.2 mm/a was computed for Karsiyaka (1935-71 and a steady trend (-0.4 mm /a has been observed for annual sea levels at Antalya (1935-77. The decreasing trend (-6.9 mm/a at Samsun is contrary to the secular rising trend of the Black Sea probably because of its rather short monitoring period (1963-77.

  9. A STUDY ON THE HENDIADYOINS IN THE EASTERN BLACK-SEA REGION DIALECTS / ORTA VE DOĞU KARADENIZ AĞIZLARINDA GÖRÜLEN IKILEMELER ÜZERINE BIR DEĞERLENDIRME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ercan ALKAYA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hendiadyoins of the dialects of the Central andEastern Black-Sea Region such as Ordu, Giresun, Rize and Trabzon whichcan be observed as non-literary usages are dealt with. The hendiadyoins takenfrom the dialect studies on the afore-mentioned dialects and from theDerleme Sözlüğü are assessed in respect with their origins, structures andmeanings.

  10. Critical care for a hypothermic and hypoglycemic white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua D; Aitken-Palmer, Copper; Citino, Scott B

    2014-09-01

    A 3-day-old, 57.3-kg, male white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) neonate presented laterally recumbent with comatose mentation, cold extremities, and severe hypothermia, hypoxemia, and hypoglycemia. Critical care support was initiated with aggressive fluid and warming support as well as dextrose and oxygen supplementation. After initial stabilization, additional complications arose in subsequent weeks including intermittent diarrhea, dry skin with loss of epidermal layers, urticaria on the head, and superficial wounds on the face, ears, feet, and penis. There is a lack of critical care information for rhinoceros calves. However, due to similarities to other Perissodactylids, some general guidelines for critical equid neonatal care were implemented. The calf was hand-raised until weaning and is now a subadult white rhinoceros with no abnormalities.

  11. Neosporosis in an aborted southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Cheryl; Bryant, Benn; Campbell-Ward, Michelle; King, Jessica S; Slapeta, Jan

    2010-12-01

    In December 2008, a southern white rhinoceros (ãsimum simum) aborted a 7-mo gestation male fetus. On hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of fetal tissues, foci of necrosis were noted in the hepatic parenchyma and were associated with low numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils. Protozoal zoites were identified within the hepatic lesions and within the cerebellum. Evaluations utilizing immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing identified the protozoan as Neospora caninum. A microsatellite analysis using MS10 marker showed a unique trinucletoide repeat pattern (ACT), (AGA)19 (TGA)8 distinct from all studied N. caninum to date. This is the first report of N. caninum-related abortion of a rhinoceros fetus of any species and the first report of polymerase chain reaction-confirmed N. caninum infection in any rhinoceros.

  12. Streptococcal endocarditis in a captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houszka, Marek; Dzimira, Stanislaw; Krol, Jaroslaw; Kandefer-Gola, Malgorzata; Ciaputa, Rafal; Sobieraj, Leslaw; Podkowik, Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    Postmortem examination of a 43-yr-old male southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) revealed gross lesions and histopathologic findings consistent with endocarditis. The animal was born in Umfolozi National Park, South Africa, and then it was moved at 2 yr of age to two successive European zoologic collections. For several weeks prior to death, the animal was increasingly recumbent or assuming a dog-sitting position. Postmortem examination revealed cutaneous pressure sores and multiple rough nodular structures on the mitral valve and left ventricular endocardium. Histopathologic examination revealed vegetative endocarditis, myocardial and hepatocellular degeneration, hepatic fibrosis, and chronic nephritis. Bacterial culture from the oral cavity, trachea, lung, skin, and heart isolated beta hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and Streptococcus ovis. The cause of death was acute cardiopulmonary failure due mainly to endocarditis and moderate myocardial degeneration. Streptococcal infections are not uncommon causes of morbidity and mortality in rhinoceros. This is the first detailed report of streptococcal endocarditis in a rhinoceros.

  13. ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN AN AGED CAPTIVE WHITE RHINOCEROS (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Sandra; Czerwonka, Nadine; Ternes, Kerstin; Herbst, Dr Werner; Koehler, Kernt

    2016-12-01

    A 48-yr-old captive white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum ) was euthanized due to old age, pododermatitis, and progressive laminitis of the middle toe of the left fore- and hindlimbs. Severe chronic necrotizing periodontitis and dental loss was diagnosed, although food intake prior to death had not decreased. In addition, extensive ulceration of the tongue was noted. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue was diagnosed with chronic severe ulcerative glossitis. Metastatic lesions were not detected. Clinicians should monitor the oral health of aging rhinoceros due to the occult nature of these lesions.

  14. A case of metastatic uterine adenocarcinoma in a southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret; Hermes, Robert; Bainbridge, John; Bassett, Hugh

    2010-03-01

    A 39-yr-old, acyclic, uniparous, female white rhinoceros with a history of recurrent vaginal bleeding was euthanized following a period of respiratory distress and ill-thrift. The rhinoceros' uterus had previously been evaluated by ultrasound and diffuse endometrial hyperplasia and two benign uterine leiomyomas had been diagnosed. At necropsy examination, a large, infiltrative, metastatic uterine adenocarcinoma was found multifocally throughout the uterus, scattered within the peritoneal cavity, on the diaphragm, the splenic capsule, the pleural surface of the lung and mesenteric lymph nodes. A large volume (100 L) of ascites fluid was present in the abdominal and pleural cavities.

  15. LATE PLEISTOCENE LAST OCCURRENCES OF THE NARROW-NOSED RHINOCEROS STEPHANORHINUS HEMITOECHUS (MAMMALIA, PERISSODACTYLA IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA PANDOLFI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several taxa belonging to the so called megafauna became extinct during the late Quaternary in Eurasia. The extinction chronology of the narrow-nosed rhinoceros, Stephanorhinus hemitoechus, in Europe is still uncertain and only estimated around 45 ka. A systematic revision of several rhinoceros findings reveals that this species occurred in Italy at least untill 41 ka BP, at the onset of the Heinrich Event 4. Climatic fluctuations during MIS 3 and habitat fragmentation probably created an increase of small S. hemitoechus populations in southern Europe which had a tendency to become extinct.

  16. Compositional change of granitoids from Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt (NE Turkey) at ca. 84 Ma: Response to slab rollback of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Eyuboglu, Yener; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Rızaoǧlu, Tamer; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Xu, Li-Juan

    2016-04-01

    intense magmatism represented by Group II samples along the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt was linked with the enhanced melting of the juvenile lower crust due to the upwelling of hot asthenosphere material in an extensional regime. In such a case, the enhanced incorporation of basement-derived melts induced by the extensive melting of the juvenile lower crust would result in the changes of magmatic compositions from Group I to Group II. Considering the southward decrease in zircon eHf(t) documented by the Cretaceous granitoids from the northern part of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, we tentatively suggest that the Group I and II samples may be associated with the southward subduction and subsequent slab rollback of the Black Sea seafloor, respectively. However, we address that such slab rollback hypothesis remains to be verified by future work using the information from the spatial and temporal migration of the Cretaceous magmatism and the origin of coeval mafic rocks. References Bektaş, O., Şen, C., Atici, Y., Köprübaşi, N., 1999. Migration of the Upper Cretaceous subduction-related volcanism towards the back-arc basin of the eastern Pontide magmatic arc (NE Turkey). Geological Journal 34, 95-106. Bektaş, O., Capkinoglu, S., Akdag, K., 2001. Successive extensional tectonic regimes during the Mesozoic as evidenced by neptunian dikes in the Pontide Magmatic Arc, Northeast Turkey. International Geology Review 43, 840-849. Eyuboglu, Y., Dudas, F.O., Santosh, M., Xiao, Y., Yi, K., Chatterjee, N., Wu, F.Y., Bektaş, O., 2015. Where are the remnants of a Jurassic ocean in the eastern Mediterranean region? Gondwana Research in press, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2015.08.017.

  17. Regional intensity-duration-frequency analysis in the Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey, by using L-moments and regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiaei, Farhad; Kankal, Murat; Anilan, Tugce; Yuksek, Omer

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of rainfall frequency is an important step in hydrology and water resources engineering. However, a lack of measuring stations, short duration of statistical periods, and unreliable outliers are among the most important problems when designing hydrology projects. In this study, regional rainfall analysis based on L-moments was used to overcome these problems in the Eastern Black Sea Basin (EBSB) of Turkey. The L-moments technique was applied at all stages of the regional analysis, including determining homogeneous regions, in addition to fitting and estimating parameters from appropriate distribution functions in each homogeneous region. We studied annual maximum rainfall height values of various durations (5 min to 24 h) from seven rain gauge stations located in the EBSB in Turkey, which have gauging periods of 39 to 70 years. Homogeneity of the region was evaluated by using L-moments. The goodness-of-fit criterion for each distribution was defined as the ZDIST statistics, depending on various distributions, including generalized logistic (GLO), generalized extreme value (GEV), generalized normal (GNO), Pearson type 3 (PE3), and generalized Pareto (GPA). GLO and GEV determined the best distributions for short (5 to 30 min) and long (1 to 24 h) period data, respectively. Based on the distribution functions, the governing equations were extracted for calculation of intensities of 2, 5, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 years return periods (T). Subsequently, the T values for different rainfall intensities were estimated using data quantifying maximum amount of rainfall at different times. Using these T values, duration, altitude, latitude, and longitude values were used as independent variables in a regression model of the data. The determination coefficient ( R 2) value indicated that the model yields suitable results for the regional relationship of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF), which is necessary for the design of hydraulic structures in small and

  18. Anthropogenic influences on conservation values of white rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sam M; Botha, Judith M; Emmett, Megan C

    2012-01-01

    White rhinoceros (rhinos) is a keystone conservation species and also provides revenue for protection agencies. Restoring or mimicking the outcomes of impeded ecological processes allows reconciliation of biodiversity and financial objectives. We evaluate the consequences of white rhino management removal, and in recent times, poaching, on population persistence, regional conservation outcomes and opportunities for revenue generation. In Kruger National Park, white rhinos increased from 1998 to 2008. Since then the population may vary non-directionally. In 2010, we estimated 10,621 (95% CI: 8,767-12,682) white rhinos using three different population estimation methods. The desired management effect of a varying population was detectable after 2008. Age and sex structures in sink areas (focal rhino capture areas) were different from elsewhere. This comes from relatively more sub-adults being removed by managers than what the standing age distribution defined. Poachers in turn focused on more adults in 2011. Although the effect of poaching was not detectable at the population level given the confidence intervals of estimates, managers accommodated expected poaching annually and adapted management removals. The present poaching trend predicts that 432 white rhinos may be poached in Kruger during 2012. The white rhino management model mimicking outcomes of impeded ecological processes predicts 397 rhino management removals are required. At present poachers may be doing "management removals," but conservationists have no opportunity left to contribute to regional rhino conservation strategies or generate revenue through white rhino sales. In addition, continued trends in poaching predict detectable white rhino declines in Kruger National Park by 2016. Our results suggest that conservationists need innovative approaches that reduce financial incentives to curb the threats that poaching poses to several conservation values of natural resources such as white rhinos.

  19. Anthropogenic influences on conservation values of white rhinoceros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam M Ferreira

    Full Text Available White rhinoceros (rhinos is a keystone conservation species and also provides revenue for protection agencies. Restoring or mimicking the outcomes of impeded ecological processes allows reconciliation of biodiversity and financial objectives. We evaluate the consequences of white rhino management removal, and in recent times, poaching, on population persistence, regional conservation outcomes and opportunities for revenue generation. In Kruger National Park, white rhinos increased from 1998 to 2008. Since then the population may vary non-directionally. In 2010, we estimated 10,621 (95% CI: 8,767-12,682 white rhinos using three different population estimation methods. The desired management effect of a varying population was detectable after 2008. Age and sex structures in sink areas (focal rhino capture areas were different from elsewhere. This comes from relatively more sub-adults being removed by managers than what the standing age distribution defined. Poachers in turn focused on more adults in 2011. Although the effect of poaching was not detectable at the population level given the confidence intervals of estimates, managers accommodated expected poaching annually and adapted management removals. The present poaching trend predicts that 432 white rhinos may be poached in Kruger during 2012. The white rhino management model mimicking outcomes of impeded ecological processes predicts 397 rhino management removals are required. At present poachers may be doing "management removals," but conservationists have no opportunity left to contribute to regional rhino conservation strategies or generate revenue through white rhino sales. In addition, continued trends in poaching predict detectable white rhino declines in Kruger National Park by 2016. Our results suggest that conservationists need innovative approaches that reduce financial incentives to curb the threats that poaching poses to several conservation values of natural resources such as

  20. First successful artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen in rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Saragusty, J; Sós, E; Molnar, V; Reid, C E; Schwarzenberger, F; Hildebrandt, T B

    2009-02-01

    The first successful artificial insemination (AI) in a rhinoceros was reported in 2007 using fresh semen. Following that success, we decided to evaluate the possibility of using frozen-thawed semen for artificial insemination. Semen, collected from a 35-36 year old Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) in the UK was frozen using the directional freezing technique. This frozen semen was used in two intrauterine AI attempts on a 30 years old female rhinoceros in Hungary. The first attempt, conducted 30 days postpartum with an insemination dose of approximately 135 x 10(6) motile cells, failed. The second attempt, conducted two estrus cycles later with an insemination dose of approximately 500 x 10(6) motile cells, resulted in pregnancy and the birth of a healthy offspring. This represents the first successful AI using frozen-thawed semen in a rhinoceros, putting it among very few wildlife species in which AI with frozen-thawed semen resulted in a live birth. The incorporation of AI with frozen-thawed semen into the assisted reproduction toolbox opens the way to preserve and transport semen between distant individuals in captivity or between wild and captive populations, without the need to transport stressed or potentially disease carrying animals. In addition, cryopreserved spermatozoa, in combination with AI, are useful methods to extend the reproductive lifespan of individuals beyond their biological lifespan and an important tool for managing genetic diversity in these endangered mammals.

  1. Butorphanol with oxygen insufflation corrects etorphine-induced hypoxaemia in chemically immobilized white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Anna; Hofmeyr, Markus; Fuller, Andrea; Buss, Peter; Miller, Michele; Fleming, Gregory; Meyer, Leith

    2014-10-15

    Opioid-induced immobilization is associated with severe respiratory depression in the white rhinoceros. We evaluated the efficacy of butorphanol and oxygen insufflation in alleviating opioid-induced respiratory depression in eight boma-managed rhinoceros. Chemical immobilization with etorphine, azaperone and hyaluronidase, as per standard procedure for the white rhinoceros, caused severe respiratory depression with hypoxaemia (PaO2 = 27 ± 7 mmHg [mean ± SD]), hypercapnia (PaCO2 = 82 ± 6 mmHg) and acidosis (pH =7.26 ± 0.02) in the control trial at 5 min. Compared to pre-intervention values, butorphanol administration (without oxygen) improved the PaO2 (60 ± 3 mmHg, F (3,21) =151.9, p white rhinoceros by correcting the opioid-induced hypoxaemia, but did not completely reverse all components of respiratory depression. The efficacy of this intervention in reducing respiratory depression in field-captured animals remains to be determined.

  2. Genomic Analysis of Demographic History and Ecological Niche Modeling in the Endangered Sumatran Rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Herman L; Hung, Chih-Ming; Shaner, Pei-Jen; Denvir, James; Justice, Megan; Yang, Shang-Fang; Roth, Terri L; Oehler, David A; Fan, Jun; Rekulapally, Swanthana; Primerano, Donald A

    2018-01-08

    The vertebrate extinction rate over the past century is approximately 22-100 times greater than background extinction rates [1], and large mammals are particularly at risk [2, 3]. Quaternary megafaunal extinctions have been attributed to climate change [4], overexploitation [5], or a combination of the two [6]. Rhinoceroses (Family: Rhinocerotidae) have a rich fossil history replete with iconic examples of climate-induced extinctions [7], but current pressures threaten to eliminate this group entirely. The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is among the most imperiled mammals on earth. The 2011 population was estimated at ≤216 wild individuals [8], and currently the species is extirpated, or nearly so, throughout the majority of its former range [8-12]. Understanding demographic history is important in placing current population status into a broader ecological and evolutionary context. Analysis of the Sumatran rhinoceros genome reveals extreme changes in effective population size throughout the Pleistocene. Population expansion during the early to middle Pleistocene was followed by decline. Ecological niche modeling indicated that changing climate most likely played a role in the decline of the Sumatran rhinoceros, as less suitable habitat on an emergent Sundaland corridor isolated Sumatran rhinoceros populations. By the end of the Pleistocene, the Sundaland corridor was submerged, and populations were fragmented and consequently reduced to low Holocene levels from which they would never recover. Past events denuded the Sumatran rhinoceros of genetic diversity through population decline, fragmentation, or some combination of the two and most likely made the species even more susceptible to later exploitation and habitat loss. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Acoustic detection of Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) and Nasutitermes luzonicus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in palm trees in urban Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, R W; Moore, A

    2010-08-01

    Adult and larval Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) were acoustically detected in live and dead palm trees and logs in recently invaded areas of Guam, along with Nasutitermes luzonicus Oshima (Isoptera: Termitidae), and other small, sound-producing invertebrates and invertebrates. The low-frequency, long-duration sound-impulse trains produced by large, active O. rhinoceros and the higher frequency, shorter impulse trains produced by feeding N. luzonicus had distinctive spectral and temporal patterns that facilitated their identification and discrimination from background noise, as well as from roaches, earwigs, and other small sound-producing organisms present in the trees and logs. The distinctiveness of the O. rhinoceros sounds enables current usage of acoustic detection as a tactic in Guam's ongoing O. rhinoceros eradication program.

  4. Artificial insemination in the anoestrous and the postpartum white rhinoceros using GnRH analogue to induce ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, T B; Hermes, R; Walzer, C; Sós, E; Molnar, V; Mezösi, L; Schnorrenberg, A; Silinski, S; Streich, J; Schwarzenberger, F; Göritz, F

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop AI and to achieve first time pregnancy in a nulliparous rhinoceros. For this, one 24-year-old irregular cycling female white rhinoceros was selected, which had never been mated. The endocrine function was monitored by faecal and serum pregnane analysis. Ultrasound determined the optimal day for AI by measuring follicle sizes of 2.0, 2.6, 3.0, 3.2 cm on days -6, -4, -1, 0 of the induced oestrous cycle, respectively. AI was performed and ovulation induced when a pre-ovulatory-sized follicle was present using GnRH analogue, deslorelin. Fresh semen was deposited in the uterine horn using a patented AI catheter overcoming the hymeneal membrane and torturous cervical folds non-surgically. Moreover, ultrasound monitoring of the uterine involution and ovarian activity on days 16, 26, 30 postpartum facilitated the induction of and the AI on the first postpartum oestrous in a rhinoceros using GnRH analogue. Two consecutive pregnancies were achieved by AI for the first time in the rhinoceros. Pregnancies were diagnosed by elevated serum and faecal 20-oxo-pregnane concentrations. In addition ultrasound measured biometric parameters of the two foetuses on days 86 and 133 of gestation. Two female calves were born after 490 and 502 days of gestation, yet one calf was stillborn. AI in rhinoceros might now be used as assisted reproduction technology tool to boost critically small captive rhinoceros populations.

  5. Geochemistry and petrology of Late Cretaceous subvolcanic rocks (Macka-Trabzon) in the north of the eastern Black Sea region, NE-Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Faruk

    2013-04-01

    ) = 18.61-18.69, (207Pb/204Pb) = 15.66-15.69 and (208Pb/204Pb) = 38.78-38.90. The geochemical results and the Ar-Ar crystallization age, combined with regional studies, suggest mixed-origin magma generation in a subduction setting. The beginning of subducting of Neotethys oceanic crust beneath the eastern Black Sea region in Late Cretaceous could account for the subduction-related volcanism. With ongoing subduction, the slab-derived fluids added to mantle component cause partial melting of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, which induced underplated mafic melt, and this results in partial fusion of the lower part of the crust in the region. Thus, two magma mixed to generate hybrid magma in an extensional arc environment at least early Campanian. Then, the hybrid magma, which subsequently underwent a fractional crystallization and minor crustal assimilation processes, could ascend to shallower crustal levels to generate the quartz-diorite to quartz-tonalite porphyries.

  6. Atmospheric depositions of black carbon, inorganic pollutants and mineral dust from the Ortles, Eastern European Alps ice cores during the last 3000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertò, Michele; Barbante, Carlo; Gabrielli, Paolo; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Spolaor, Andrea; Dreossi, Giuliano; Laj, Paolo; Zanatta, Marco; Stenni, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructions of the atmospheric content of black carbon, heavy metals and mineral dust covering millennial time scales are rare, particularly in the European region. Evaluating the human impact on the environment through mining and industrial activities, road traffic, biomass and coal burning, and the naturally emitted aerosols atmospheric load, is important to know the degree of contaminations and the quality of melting water, the radiative effect on the glacier's radiative balance, the atmospheric aerosols' climatic impacts and the recent decades pollutions emissions policies' efficiencies. Four ice cores were drilled in 2011 from the "Alto dell'Ortles" (3859 m), the highest glacier of the Mt. Ortles massif (South Tirol, Italy). Three 74 m long ice cores were dated by mean of 210Pb, tritium, beta emissions and 14C analyses following also the new dating technique based on filtering the ice for extracting the carbonaceous component of the deposited aerosols. The depth-age curve was obtained by using a Monte Carlo based empirical fitting model (COPRA). The basal ice of core#2 and #3 was dated back to about 7000 years b.p., whereas that of core#1, about one meter shorter, to 3000 years before present. Below the firn-ice transition, at a depth of about 24 m, the borehole temperature revealed the presence of well-preserved cold ice (Gabrielli et al, 2012). The O and H stable isotopes profiles describe well the atmospheric warming as well as the low temperatures recorded during the Little Ice Age (LIA). The proximity of the "Alto dell'Ortles" to densely industrialized areas (Po Valley) makes these ice cores specifically suited for reconstructing the anthropogenic impacts in the Eastern European Alpine region over the last 3 millennia. The ice core#1 was analyzed with a "Continuous Flow Analysis" system (CFA). The separation between internal and external parts of the core prevents any kind of contamination. The core was melted at about 2.5 cm min-1 and simultaneous

  7. Anesthetic management of a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) undergoing an emergency exploratory celiotomy for colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Alexander; Crawshaw, Graham J; Cribb, Nicola; Bellei, Maria; Gianotti, Giacomo; Arroyo, Luis; Koenig, Judith; Kummrow, Maya; Costa, Maria Carolina

    2010-05-01

    A 26-year-old male white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), weighing approximately 2000 kg was anesthetized for an exploratory celiotomy. Sedation was achieved with intramuscular butorphanol (0.04 mg kg(-1)) and detomidine (0.025 mg kg(-1)) and induction of anesthesia with intravenous glyceryl guaiacolate (50 g) and three intravenous boluses of ketamine (200 mg, each); the trachea was then intubated and anesthesia maintained with isoflurane in oxygen using a circle breathing system. Positioning in dorsal recumbency for the surgery and later in sternal recumbency for the recovery represented challenges that added to the prolonged anesthesia time and surgical approach to partially correct an impaction. The rhinoceros recovered uneventfully after 10.4 hours of recumbency. Anesthetic management for an exploratory celiotomy with a midline approach is possible in rhinoceroses, although planning and extensive staff support is necessary to adequately position the patient.

  8. Will current conservation responses save the Critically Endangered Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havmøller, Rasmus Gren; Payne, Junaidi; Ramono, Widodo

    2016-01-01

    The Critically Endangered Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis formerly ranged across South-east Asia. Hunting and habitat loss have made it one of the rarest large mammals and the species faces extinction despite decades of conservation efforts. The number of individuals remaining...... is unknown as a consequence of inadequate methods and lack of funds for the intensive field work required to estimate the population size of this rare and solitary species. However, all information indicates that numbers are low and declining. A few individuals persist in Borneo, and three tiny populations...... increased but the species has continued to go locally extinct across its range. Conventional captive breeding has also proven difficult; from a total of 45 Sumatran rhinoceros taken from the wild since 1984 there were no captive births until 2001. Since then only two pairs have been actively bred...

  9. An overview of the ecological half-life of the 137Cs radioisotope and a determination of radioactivity levels in sediment samples after Chernobyl in the Eastern Black Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Hasan; Sirin, Murat; Dalgic, Goktug; Cevik, Ugur

    2018-01-01

    A study which determined the activity concentration of 137Cs in sediments contaminated by effluents from the Chernobyl accident which had collected along the coast of the Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey was carried out in 1993. Marine sediment samples were collected in 2015 from the same fifteen sampling points, and the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were determined for the sediment samples. The activity concentrations ranged from 10.94-25.95, 12.14-33.05, 265.74-459.89 and 2.08-37.45 Bq kg- 1 for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs respectively. The results showed that there was a steep decline in 137Cs within the sediment at most of the sampling sites from the Eastern Black Sea region during the 22-year period, except for two sites at which the measured levels were much higher. This may be the result of the combined effects of radioactive contaminant entry into this area from rivers, environmental changes and nuclear testing between 1993 and 2015. Furthermore, the ecological half-life (EHL) of the 137Cs radionuclide was estimated for the sediment samples, and radiological hazard parameters such as the absorbed dose rate in air (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. It was shown that these sediments do not present any significant health risk for humans in this area.

  10. Remotely piloted aircraft systems as a rhinoceros anti-poaching tool in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Stolper, Roel; van Essen, L D; Negro, Juan J; Sassen, Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years there has been a massive increase in rhinoceros poaching incidents, with more than two individuals killed per day in South Africa in the first months of 2013. Immediate actions are needed to preserve current populations and the agents involved in their protection are demanding new technologies to increase their efficiency in the field. We assessed the use of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) to monitor for poaching activities. We performed 20 flights with 3 types of cameras: visual photo, HD video and thermal video, to test the ability of the systems to detect (a) rhinoceros, (b) people acting as poachers and (c) to do fence surveillance. The study area consisted of several large game farms in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. The targets were better detected at the lowest altitudes, but to operate the plane safely and in a discreet way, altitudes between 100 and 180 m were the most convenient. Open areas facilitated target detection, while forest habitats complicated it. Detectability using visual cameras was higher at morning and midday, but the thermal camera provided the best images in the morning and at night. Considering not only the technical capabilities of the systems but also the poacherś modus operandi and the current control methods, we propose RPAS usage as a tool for surveillance of sensitive areas, for supporting field anti-poaching operations, as a deterrent tool for poachers and as a complementary method for rhinoceros ecology research. Here, we demonstrate that low cost RPAS can be useful for rhinoceros stakeholders for field control procedures. There are, however, important practical limitations that should be considered for their successful and realistic integration in the anti-poaching battle.

  11. Remotely piloted aircraft systems as a rhinoceros anti-poaching tool in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Mulero-Pázmány

    Full Text Available Over the last years there has been a massive increase in rhinoceros poaching incidents, with more than two individuals killed per day in South Africa in the first months of 2013. Immediate actions are needed to preserve current populations and the agents involved in their protection are demanding new technologies to increase their efficiency in the field. We assessed the use of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS to monitor for poaching activities. We performed 20 flights with 3 types of cameras: visual photo, HD video and thermal video, to test the ability of the systems to detect (a rhinoceros, (b people acting as poachers and (c to do fence surveillance. The study area consisted of several large game farms in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. The targets were better detected at the lowest altitudes, but to operate the plane safely and in a discreet way, altitudes between 100 and 180 m were the most convenient. Open areas facilitated target detection, while forest habitats complicated it. Detectability using visual cameras was higher at morning and midday, but the thermal camera provided the best images in the morning and at night. Considering not only the technical capabilities of the systems but also the poacherś modus operandi and the current control methods, we propose RPAS usage as a tool for surveillance of sensitive areas, for supporting field anti-poaching operations, as a deterrent tool for poachers and as a complementary method for rhinoceros ecology research. Here, we demonstrate that low cost RPAS can be useful for rhinoceros stakeholders for field control procedures. There are, however, important practical limitations that should be considered for their successful and realistic integration in the anti-poaching battle.

  12. The Sixth Rhino: A Taxonomic Re-Assessment of the Critically Endangered Northern White Rhinoceros

    OpenAIRE

    Groves, Colin P.; Fernando, Prithiviraj; Robovsk?, Jan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The two forms of white rhinoceros; northern and southern, have had contrasting conservation histories. The Northern form, once fairly numerous is now critically endangered, while the southern form has recovered from a few individuals to a population of a few thousand. Since their last taxonomic assessment over three decades ago, new material and analytical techniques have become available, necessitating a review of available information and re-assessment of the taxonomy. RESULTS: ...

  13. TINGKAT KESESUAIAN SUAKA MARGASATWA CIKEPUH SEBAGAI HABITAT KEDUA BADAK JAWA (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest, 1822)

    OpenAIRE

    Ribai .; Hadi S Alikodra; Burhanuddin Masyud; U Mamat Rahmat

    2016-01-01

    Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is one of the rarest species in the world so categorized as critically endangered by IUCN. Survival of the rhino in Ujung Kulon National Park is threatened by a variety of factors that could cause these extinct animals, such as: invasion langkap, competition with the bulls, and inbreeding. The strategy should be promoted in maintaining and developing population that is making a second habitat. The purpose of this research is to know the suitability level of ...

  14. Eastern Spruce Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Baker; Joseph O' Brien; R. Mathiasen; Mike Ostry

    2006-01-01

    Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) is a parasitic flowering plant that causes the most serious disease of black spruce (Picea mariana) throughout its range. The parasite occurs in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; in the Lake States of Minnesota,...

  15. Captive breeding of the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, and the Cape buffalo, Syncerus caffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J D; Dott, H M; Matthee, A; Hunt, L

    2006-09-01

    Breeding records of 40 white rhinoceros and 155 Cape buffalo were analysed. Three rhinoceros cows bred in captivity, themselves conceived for the first time at 84, 87 and 95 months of age, respectively. Rhinoceros cows breed throughout the year. There is no evidence of a relationship between calving interval and month of birth. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 34 months and there were no significant differences between bulls, cows or sex of calf. There was no difference in the sex ratio of calves born to young cows nor older cows. The male:female ratio of the calves was 1:1. Younger cows did not have shorter birth intervals. Although captive Cape buffaloes breed throughout the year, there is a preponderance of births in midsummer. There was some evidence that larger cows produce heavier calves and that season of birth may influence birth weight. Male calves weighed 41.20 +/- 0.68 kg vs 39.00 +/- 0.73 kg (range 24-60 kg) for female calves but this difference was not significant. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 395 days and the male:female ratio of the calves was 1:1.2.

  16. Biochemical values in free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Joubert, Jennifer; Martin, Laura; Kruger, Marius; Hofmeyr, Markus; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    Biochemical panels were analyzed on 181 individual free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) from Kruger National Park, South Africa. These animals were immobilized between July 2006 and May 2010 for management purposes. Serum and heparinized plasma samples were analyzed using an in-house chemistry analyser (ABAXIS VetScan2). The objectives of this study were to establish biochemical references ranges for Kruger National Park's population of white rhinoceros; to assess differences in values obtained using sera or plasma; and to assess differences in values between gender and different age categories. Significant differences between plasma and serum values were found in most measured parameters except minerals (calcium and magnesium). Because all animals appeared clinically healthy at the time of blood collection, it is hypothesized that choice of anticoagulant may affect certain parameters. Comparison between age categories and gender also resulted in significant differences in a few measured parameters. Identifying differences are important when establishing baseline reference ranges for wildlife populations to allow accurate monitoring of trends that may change over time. The paucity of data on normal biochemical ranges for free-ranging white rhinoceros demonstrates the value of this study and importance of evaluating potential confounding variables.

  17. Discrimination of familiarity and sex from chemical cues in the dung by wild southern white rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinková, Ivana; Policht, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Communication in rhinos is primarily mediated by the vocal and olfactory signals as they have relatively poor eyesight. White rhinos are the most social of all the rhinoceros species, they defecate at common dungheaps and the adult bulls use dung and urine to mark their territory. Chemical communication may therefore be particularly important in the social interactions of white rhinos, and its knowledge could be very helpful in their management and conservation. However, no studies have investigated up until now the olfactory discrimination in any rhinoceros species in the wild. We have experimentally studied the reactions of the wild southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) to the dung of familiar and unfamiliar adult females and adult territorial males. We registered the number of sniffing events, the duration of sniffing and the latency of the vigilance posture from the onset of sniffing. The dung of unfamiliar rhinos was sniffed longer than that of familiar rhinos. The rhinos showed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to the familiar dung of males than that of females. For unfamiliar dung, they displayed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to female than male dung. Our results indicate that the rhinos are able to discriminate the familiarity and sex of conspecifics from the smell of their dung. Olfactory cues could therefore play an important role in the social relationships and spatial organization of the southern white rhinoceros.

  18. Captive breeding of the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, and the Cape buffalo, Syncerus caffer : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Skinner

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Breeding records of 40 white rhinoceros and 155 Cape buffalo were analysed. Three rhinoceros cows bred in captivity, themselves conceived for the first time at 84, 87 and 95 months of age, respectively. Rhinoceros cows breed throughout the year. There is no evidence of a relationship between calving interval and month of birth. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 34 months and there were no significant differences between bulls, cows or sex of calf. There was no difference in the sex ratio of calves born to young cows nor older cows. The male:female ratio of the calves was Younger cows did not have shorter birth intervals. Although captive Cape buffaloes breed throughout the year, there is a preponderance of births in midsummer. There was some evidence that larger cows produce heavier calves and that season of birth may influence birth weight. Male calves weighed 41.20 + 0.68 kg vs 39.00 + 0.73 kg (range 24-60 kg for female calves but this difference was not significant. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 395 days and the male:female ratio of the calves was 1:1.2.

  19. Extinctions, genetic erosion and conservation options for the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moodley, Yoshan; Russo, Isa-Rita M.; Dalton, Desiré L.

    2017-01-01

    populations in countries such as Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Mozambique, Malawi and Angola no longer exist. We found that the historic range of the West African subspecies (D. b. longipes), declared extinct in 2011, extends into southern Kenya, where a handful of individuals survive...

  20. An analysis of the habitat of the Greater One-horned Rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicorns (Mammalia: Perissodactyla: Rhinocerotidae at the Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Thapa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS and landscape-level data obtained from remote sensing sources to build a habitat suitability index model (HSI for the Greater One-horned Rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis. The model was based primarily on important habitat requisites of the modeled species, especially food and cover. We extracted food and cover from land cover map and ran focal statistics to determine their proportion in a neighborhood of 70x70 pixels that accounts for the animal’s average mean annual home range, which is ~4km2 = 400 ha = 70x70 pixels x 900 m2 = 4410000/10000 = 441 ha. We used two arbitrarily selected parameters a and Tc to observe the impacts of food and cover on the HSI. We performed sensitivity analysis by varying values of parameters around their nominal, which revealed that the HSI value of a pixel is changed with uncertainty with very low values of a fraction of the food or cover. We identified four habitat types from the HSI map. We used patch and class metrics of FRAGSTATS program to estimate the amount and fragmentation of each habitat type. The metrics provided composition and configuration status for all four habitat types. We found a presence of a total of 476 patches with 517.82km2 belonging to suitable habitat type. These areas can be targeted for management, monitoring and improvement to provide habitat for the target and sympatric species.

  1. Severe hypoxaemia in field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum and effects of using tracheal insufflation of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bush

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available White rhinoceros anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone combination develop adverse physiological changes including hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, tachycardia and hypertension. These changes are more marked in field-anaesthetised rhinoceros. This study was designed to develop a technique to improve safety for field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros by tracheal intubation and oxygen insufflation. Twenty-five free-ranging white rhinoceros were anaesthetised with an etorphine and azaperone combination for translocation or placing microchips in their horns. Once anaesthetised the rhinoceros were monitored prior to crating for transportation or during microchip placement. Physiological measurements included heart and respiratory rate, blood pressure and arterial blood gas samples. Eighteen rhinoceros were intubated using an equine nasogastric tube passed nasally into the trachea and monitored before and after tracheal insufflation with oxygen. Seven rhinoceros were not intubated or insufflated with oxygen and served as controls. All anaesthetised rhinoceros were initially hypoxaemic (percentage arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation (% O2Sa = 49 % + 16 (mean + SD and PaO2 = 4.666 + 1.200 kPa (35 + 9 mm Hg, hypercapnic (PaCO2 = 8.265 + 1.600 kPa (62 + 12 mm Hg and acidaemic (pHa = 7.171 + 0.073 . Base excess was -6.7 + 3.9 mmol/ℓ, indicating a mild to moderate metabolic acidosis. The rhinoceros were also hypertensive (systolic blood pressure = 21.861 + 5.465 kPa (164 + 41 mm Hg and tachycardic (HR = 107 + 31/min. Following nasal tracheal intubation and insufflation, the % O2Sa and PaO2 increased while blood pHa and PaCO2 remained unchanged.Tracheal intubation via the nose is not difficult, and when oxygen is insufflated, the PaO2 and the % O2Sa increases, markedly improving the safety of anaesthesia, but this technique does not correct the hypercapnoea or acidosis. After regaining their feet following reversal of the anaesthesia, the animals

  2. Severe hypoxaemia in field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and effects of using tracheal insufflation of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M; Raath, J P; Grobler, D; Klein, L

    2004-06-01

    White rhinoceros anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone combination develop adverse physiological changes including hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, tachycardia and hypertension. These changes are more marked in field-anaesthetised rhinoceros. This study was designed to develop a technique to improve safety for field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros by tracheal intubation and oxygen insufflation. Twenty-five free-ranging white rhinoceros were anaesthetised with an etorphine and azaperone combination for translocation or placing microchips in their horns. Once anaesthetised the rhinoceros were monitored prior to crating for transportation or during microchip placement. Physiological measurements included heart and respiratory rate, blood pressure and arterial blood gas samples. Eighteen rhinoceros were intubated using an equine nasogastric tube passed nasally into the trachea and monitored before and after tracheal insufflation with oxygen. Seven rhinoceros were not intubated or insufflated with oxygen and served as controls. All anaesthetised rhinoceros were initially hypoxaemic (percentage arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation (%O2Sa) = 49% +/- 16 (mean +/- SD) and PaO2 = 4.666 +/- 1.200 kPa (35 +/- 9 mm Hg)), hypercapnic (PaCO2 = 8.265 +/- 1.600 kPa (62 +/- 12 mm Hg)) and acidaemic (pHa = 7.171 +/- 0.073 ). Base excess was -6.7 +/- 3.9 mmol/l, indicating a mild to moderate metabolic acidosis. The rhinoceros were also hypertensive (systolic blood pressure = 21.861 +/- 5.465 kPa (164 +/- 41 mm Hg)) and tachycardic (HR = 107 +/- 31/min). Following nasal tracheal intubation and insufflation, the %O2Sa and PaO2 increased while blood pHa and PaCO2 remained unchanged. Tracheal intubation via the nose is not difficult, and when oxygen is insufflated, the PaO2 and the %O2Sa increases, markedly improving the safety of anaesthesia, but this technique does not correct the hypercapnoea or acidosis. After regaining their feet following reversal of the anaesthesia, the

  3. The microbial community in the feces of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum as determined by barcoded pyrosequencing analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaorui Bian

    Full Text Available As a non-ruminant herbivore, the white rhinoceros has the ability to utilize fibrous plant matter through microbial fermentation in the hindgut. So far, there has been no report using molecular techniques to study the gut microbiota of the white rhinoceros. We used barcoded pyrosequencing to characterize 105,651 sequences of 16S rRNA genes obtained from fecal samples from five white rhinoceroses. Results showed that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in the samples, which were comprised largely of unclassified bacteria. The microbiota of one animal treated with drug therapy differed from those in other healthy animals, and was dominated by Aerococcus -related bacteria. The core microbiota in the healthy rhinoceros were dominated by phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, represented by the Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Rikenellaceae and Prevotellaceae families. The present work provides a phylogenetic framework for understanding the complex microbial community of the rhinoceros; however, further studies are required to link the distinctive microbiota with their digestive role in the hindgut of the white rhinoceros.

  4. The microbial community in the feces of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) as determined by barcoded pyrosequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Gaorui; Ma, Li; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2013-01-01

    As a non-ruminant herbivore, the white rhinoceros has the ability to utilize fibrous plant matter through microbial fermentation in the hindgut. So far, there has been no report using molecular techniques to study the gut microbiota of the white rhinoceros. We used barcoded pyrosequencing to characterize 105,651 sequences of 16S rRNA genes obtained from fecal samples from five white rhinoceroses. Results showed that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in the samples, which were comprised largely of unclassified bacteria. The microbiota of one animal treated with drug therapy differed from those in other healthy animals, and was dominated by Aerococcus -related bacteria. The core microbiota in the healthy rhinoceros were dominated by phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, represented by the Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Rikenellaceae and Prevotellaceae families. The present work provides a phylogenetic framework for understanding the complex microbial community of the rhinoceros; however, further studies are required to link the distinctive microbiota with their digestive role in the hindgut of the white rhinoceros.

  5. SOLITARY OSTEOCHONDROMA OF THE DISTAL THIRD METACARPAL BONE IN A TWO-YEAR-OLD WHITE RHINOCEROS (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Yolandi; Steyl, Johan; Marais, Johan

    2016-12-01

    A privately owned, 2-yr-old, 600-kg, intact male white rhinoceros presented with a progressive lameness of the left front limb of 8-mo duration with a focal swelling situated over the dorsoproximal aspect of third metacarpophalangeal joint. Radiographs of the affected limb showed a 28 mm × 26 mm exostosis at the dorsodistal third metacarpal bone. Surgical removal of the exostosis was performed and histopathologic examination confirmed a solitary osteochondroma. A follow-up examination 1 yr after surgical removal revealed total abolishment of the left front limb lameness. This report documents the first diagnosis and treatment of solitary osteochondroma in a white rhinoceros.

  6. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacisalihoglu, G.; Eliyakut, F.; Anwari, M.A.; Ataman, O.Y.; Balkas, T.I.; Tuncel, G.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m 3 , which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  7. Trypanosomosis and other co-infections in translocated black (Diceros bicornis michaeli) and white (Ceratotherium simum simum) rhinoceroses in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Obanda, V.; Kagira, J.; Chege, S.; Ouma, B.O.; Gakuya, F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent efforts towards the conservation of endangered rhinoceroses in Kenya include re-introduction of the animals into regions where they occurred previously. These efforts have however been hampered by mortalities of translocated animals. The current study was undertaken to determine the cause of deaths amongst black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis michaeli) and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum), which were re-introduced into Meru National Park. Out of 28 translocated rhinoceroses...

  8. Law enforcement pertaining to illicit trafficking in rhinoceros horn and other trophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wright

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The effective police control of illegal traffic in game trophies, as well as the procedures used by law enforcement officers in their investigations are discussed. It is also very relevant to wildlife officers dealing with law enforcement to be aware of, and to understand the statutory restraints placed on their methods of investigation by law. Existing law enforcement bodies on the international scene are mentioned.

  9. Schistosomus reflexus-like malformation in a southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankton, Julia S; Vanderhart, Daniel J; Terrell, Scott P

    2014-09-01

    A 7.5-yr-old female southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) aborted spontaneously at approximately 13 mo gestation. The fetus exhibited malformations consistent with schistosomus reflexus syndrome, including spinal inversion and ventral midline abdominal defect with externalization of abdominal viscera. A computed tomography was performed and revealed severe scoliosis, a spiral rotation of the spine, multiple vertebral anomalies, hypoplasia of multiple bones of the skull, and mild prognathism. This is the first report of schistosomus reflexus-like syndrome in a nondomestic species, and the first report to characterize these skeletal changes by three-dimensional computed tomography.

  10. Medical management of a patent urachus in a southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Rebecca A; Haefele, Holly; Stephens, Lisa

    2014-06-01

    A female southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) calf presented with a patent urachus at 5 days of age. It was immobilized for examination and medical treatment was elected over surgical repair. Systemic antibiotics and topical treatment of the site by cleaning with chlorhexidine solution were followed by silver nitrate cautery. This animal required no further treatment and has reached 1 yr of age with no other medical problems. Although patent urachus is relatively common in domestic animals, especially horses, neither the problem nor its resolution are well documented in exotic animals and surgical intervention is more commonly performed.

  11. Modelling several morphometric relationships of swordfish (Xiphias gladius, black marlin (Makaira indica and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans caught from Indonesian longliners in the eastern Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Setyadji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents several equations for converting among measures of size (length and weight for swordfish (Xiphias gladius, black marlin (Makaira indica and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans caught by Indonesian longliners in the Indian Ocean. The equations use for transforming non-standard measurement i.e. eye fork length (EFL and pectoral fork length (PFL to standard measurement, lower jaw fork length (LJFL. The paper also discussed about the length-weight relationship, including converting from non-standard length (EFL and PFL to round weight. The result showed that both PFL and EFL were positively related to LJFL but there were no significant differences existed between females and males among length measures for swordfish, blue marlin, and black marlin (ANCOVA, P>0.05. All regression equation models were considered to be valid (P<0.01 with coefficient of determinations (r2 ranged from 0.81-0.99. Allometric growth pattern was statistically observed for all swordfish (b=2.94, r2=0.94, black marlin (b=3.12; r2=0.90 and blue marlin (b=3.30; r2=0.91.

  12. Elaborate horns in a giant rhinoceros beetle incur negligible aerodynamic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Erin L; Tobalske, Bret W

    2013-05-07

    Sexually selected ornaments and weapons are among nature's most extravagant morphologies. Both ornaments and weapons improve a male's reproductive success; yet, unlike ornaments that need only attract females, weapons must be robust and functional structures because they are frequently tested during male-male combat. Consequently, weapons are expected to be particularly costly to bear. Here, we tested the aerodynamic costs of horns in the giant rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. We predicted that the long, forked head horn would have three main effects on flight performance: increased body mass, an anterior shift in the centre of mass and increased body drag. We found that the horns were surprisingly lightweight, and therefore had a trivial effect on the male beetles' total mass and mass distribution. Furthermore, because beetles typically fly at slow speeds and high body angles, horns had little effect on total body drag. Together, the weight and the drag of horns increased the overall force required to fly by less than 3 per cent, even in the largest males. Because low-cost structures are expected to be highly evolutionarily labile, the fact that horns incur very minor flight costs may have permitted both the elaboration and diversification of rhinoceros beetle horns.

  13. Successful treatment of a squamous cell carcinoma in a white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Gidona; Rhind, Susan; Meredith, Anna

    2007-12-01

    A captive 33-year-old male white rhinoceros with seasonal dermatitis was diagnosed with a malignant squamous cell carcinoma on the right flank. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from the skin lesions. No fungal or yeast was isolated. The dermatitis was treated with a combination of oral antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulphadiazine) and topically with weekly chlorhexidine washes and a mixture of a zinc oxide, balsam peru and bismuth oxide cream. Under azaperone and butorphanol anaesthesia, the skin tumour was surgically removed. The tumour was excised with wide margins and allowed to heal by secondary intention as primary wound closure was not possible. A post-mortem performed 2 years later for an unrelated condition revealed no metastases or recurrence of the skin tumour. It was presumed that chronic irritation or trauma may have contributed to the development of the skin tumour. This is the first detailed report of the successful treatment of a squamous cell carcinoma not associated with the horn in a rhinoceros.

  14. EVALUATION OF CARDIORESPIRATORY, BLOOD GAS, AND LACTATE VALUES DURING EXTENDED IMMOBILIZATION OF WHITE RHINOCEROS (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Peter; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Meyer, Leith; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Kruger, Marius; Brüns, Angela; Martin, Laura; Miller, Michele

    2015-06-01

    Ten white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were immobilized for a total of 13 procedures in holding facilities in Kruger National Park using etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase to assess the effect of extended immobilization on serial cardiorespiratory, blood gas, and lactate values. Butorphanol was administered intravenously following initial blood collection and physiologic assessment (t=0). Respiratory and cardiovascular parameters, body temperature, and arterial blood gases were monitored at 10-min intervals for a total of 100 min. Initial parameters at the time of recumbency revealed severe hypoxemia, hypercapnia, tachycardia, an increased alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient, and mildly elevated lactate levels. At 10 min and 20 min, there were significant (Prhinoceros remained severely hypoxemic for the remainder of the procedure (median PaO2=50.5 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval, 43.8-58.1). Median values for respiratory rate (5 breaths/min) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2; 68.5 mm Hg) did not change significantly for the remaining 80 min. Median lactate, base excess, bicarbonate, and pH values improved between 20 and 100 min despite the persistent hypercapnia, indicating that the animals adequately compensated for respiratory and lactic acidosis. White rhinoceros were immobilized for 100 min with no negative effects, a desirable outcome if procedures require extended chemical immobilization without oxygen supplementation.

  15. Sex and species recognition by wild male southern white rhinoceros using contact pant calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinková, Ivana; Policht, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Recognition of information from acoustic signals is crucial in many animals, and individuals are under selection pressure to discriminate between the signals of conspecifics and heterospecifics or males and females. Here, we first report that rhinos use information encoded in their calls to assess conspecifics and individuals of closely related species. The southern (Ceratotherium simum) and critically endangered northern (C. cottoni) white rhinos are the most social out of all the rhinoceros species and use a contact call pant. We found that southern white rhino pant calls provide reliable information about the caller's sex, age class and social situation. Playback experiments on wild territorial southern white rhinoceros males revealed that they responded more strongly to the pant calls of conspecific females compared to the calls of other territorial males. This suggests that pant calls are more important form of communication between males and females than between territorial males. Territorial southern males also discriminated between female and territorial male calls of northern species and reacted more intensively to the calls of northern than southern males. This might be caused by a novelty effect since both species naturally live in allopatry. We conclude that white rhinos can directly benefit from assessing individuals at long distances using vocal cues especially because their eyesight is poor. Pant calls thus likely play a significant role in their social relationships and spatial organization. In addition, better understanding of vocal communication in white rhinos might be helpful in conservation management particularly because of their low reproduction in captivity.

  16. Habitat Suitability Modeling of Javan Rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest 1822 Ujung Kulon National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Mamat Rahmat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest 1822 is the rarest species among 5 species of rhinos in the world. Its distribution is currently limited only in Ujung Kulon National Park (UKNP, Indonesia.  Due to the small population size and its limited distribution, it is listed as critically endangered species in the IUCN Redlist. The main objectives of this research were: 1 to identify the dominant habitat components that determine the presence of javan rhino in UKNP; 2 to analyze habitat suitability of javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest 1822 in UKNP using geographical information system; and 3 to examine its habitat condition. Results of the research found eight components identified to be crucial for Javan rhino habitat and appropriate for spatial modelling of habitat suitability, of which four were the most dominant factors influencing the frequency of javan rhino presence. These four dominants factors were slope, distance from wallow sites, distance from rumpang (open area, and distance from beach (pKeywords:  Javan rhino, habitat suitability, preference, spatial modelling

  17. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses.......Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance...

  18. Activation of southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) estrogen receptors by phytoestrogens and their potential role in thereproductive failure of captive-born females

    Science.gov (United States)

    The captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR; Ceratotherium simum simum) population serves as an important genetic reservoir critical to the conservation of this vulnerable species. Unfortunately, captive populations are declining due to the poor reproductive success of captive-bor...

  19. Infectivity of Oryctes Nudivirus Produced on Cell Culture Dsir Ha-1179 Against Larvae and Its Effects on Feeding of Neonates of Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes Rhinoceros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ain Farhah Ros Saidon Khudri; Wahizatul Afzan Azmi; Ramle Moslim; Norman Kamarudin; Siti Ramlah Ahmad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Oryctes nudivirus (OrNV) is a classical biocontrol agent for a major oil palm insect pest the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros. The infectivity of three Malaysian indigenous types of OrNV types A, B and C were tested on larvae and neonates. On larvae, the peroral inoculation test technique indicated that the highest mortality of 100 % was achieved using type A produced from cell culture DSIR-HA-1179, while the highest infectivity of 41.7 % was recorded for type A prepared from infected guts. No differences in infectivity were observed on other treatments, which ranged from 13.1 % to 41.7 %. In the substrate contamination inoculation test technique, results showed that the level of infectivity was even lower in all OrNV treatments, ranging as low as 6.7 % to only 15.0 %. Low infectivity was mainly due to inactivation of virus inocula in the larval food substrates. Based on the results for both inoculation methods, the OrNV type C prepared from cell culture DSIR-HA-1179 was found more effective in controlling the L3 larvae than the other types of OrNV. The impact of OrNV infection on food consumption by the neonates was studied. The feeding of inoculated neonates with OrNV reduced rapidly, especially at the early stage of the experiment between eight days after treatment (DAT) to 16 DAT. At this period, the food consumption by all tested OrNV was rapidly reduced and maintained low until the experiment ended at 60 DAT. The highest feeding reduction rate was on neonates treated by type A (-0.074x) followed by neonates treated by type C (-0.053x) and type B (-0.035x). Therefore, it was suggested that besides on highly virulent, the selection of OrNV for field release should also based on high reduction rate on food consumption by the infected insects on plant hosts. (author)

  20. Vitamin D status of wild Ricord's iguanas (Cyclura ricordii) and captive and wild rhinoceros iguanas (Cyclura cornuta cornuta) in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Jan C; Maria, Roberto; Reichard, Tim; Tolson, Peter J; Chen, Tai C; Holick, Michael F

    2005-06-01

    Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) values are reported for 22 wild Ricord's iguanas (Cyclura ricordii) and seven wild rhinoceros iguanas (Cyclura cornuta cornuta). Calcitriol (1,25-hydroxyvitamin D) values are reported for 12 wild Ricord's iguanas and seven wild rhinoceros iguanas. These animals were captured as part of a larger health assessment study being conducted on Ricord's iguanas in Isla Cabritos National Park, Dominican Republic. A total of 13 captive rhinoceros iguanas held outdoors at Parque Zoológico Nacional were also sampled for comparison. Mean concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 554 nmol/L (222 ng/ml) with a range of 250-1,118 nmol/L (100-448 ng/ml) for wild Ricord's iguanas, 332 nmol/L (133 ng/ml) with a range of 260-369 nmol/L (104-148 ng/ml) for wild rhinoceros iguanas, and 317 nmol/L (127 ng/ml) with a range of 220-519 nmol/L (88-208 ng/ml) for captive rhinoceros iguanas. On the basis of these results, serum concentrations of at least 325 nmol/L (130 ng/ml) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be considered normal for healthy Ricord's and rhinoceros iguanas.

  1. EVALUATION OF BLOOD GAS VALUES IN ANESTHETIZED SOUTHERN WHITE RHINOCEROS ( CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM) VENTILATED WITH A NOVEL DEMAND VENTILATOR IN A ZOOLOGICAL PARK SETTING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mark; Mama, Khursheed R; Zuba, Jeffrey R; Lamberski, Nadine; Oosterhuis, James E; Clancy, Meredith M; Delk, Katie W; Kinney, Matthew E; Morris, Patrick J; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    Rhinoceros conservation efforts are essential to the survival of the species. One such effort is focused on using advanced reproductive technologies to produce viable northern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum cottoni) embryos for implantation into southern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum simum) surrogates. Anesthesia may be required to facilitate necessary procedures in these surrogate rhinoceros, but commonly reported side effects including hypercapnia and hypoxemia limit anesthetic recumbency time due to animal safety concerns. Although many interventions have been attempted, success in improving these physiologic parameters to date is mixed. The objective of this report is to describe arterial pH (pHa), blood gas (PaO 2 and PaCO 2 ), bicarbonate, base excess, lactate, and cardiovascular (heart rate, direct arterial blood pressure) values recorded in seven intubated and ventilated female southern white rhinoceros anesthetized for reproductive examinations in a zoological park setting. Anesthetic induction was accomplished using etorphine, medetomidine, butorphanol, and midazolam. The primary hypotheses were that PaO 2 and PaCO 2 would improve after intubation and mechanical ventilation. Induction and recovery observations were also summarized. Physiologic and laboratory data were analyzed using a mixed linear regression model using ranks. Statistical significance was set at P white rhinoceros.

  2. Postinduction butorphanol administration alters oxygen consumption to improve blood gases in etorphine-immobilized white rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Peter; Miller, Michele; Fuller, Andrea; Haw, Anna; Stout, Eliza; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Meyer, Leith

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effects of postinduction butorphanol administration in etorphine-immobilized white rhinoceros on respiration and blood gases. Randomized crossover study. A group of six sub-adult male white rhinoceros. Etorphine, or etorphine followed by butorphanol 12 minutes after recumbency, was administered intramuscularly [2.5 mg etorphine, 25 mg butorphanol (1000-1250 kg), or 3.0 mg etorphine, 30 mg butorphanol (1250-1500 kg)]. Sampling started at 10 minutes after initial recumbency, and was repeated at 5 minute intervals for 25 minutes. Arterial blood gases, limb muscle tremors, expired minute ventilation and respiratory frequency were measured at each sampling point. Calculated values included alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient [ [Formula: see text] ], expected respiratory minute volume (V˙e), tidal volume (Vt), oxygen consumption ( [Formula: see text] ) and carbon dioxide production ( [Formula: see text] ). Etorphine administration resulted in an initial median (range) hypoxaemia [arterial partial pressure of oxygen 25.0 (23.0-28.0) mmHg], hypercapnia [arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide 76.2 (67.2-81.2) mmHg], increased [Formula: see text] [41.7 (36.6-45.1) mmHg, [Formula: see text] [11.1 (10.0-12.0) L minute -1 ] and muscle tremors. Butorphanol administration was followed by rapid, although moderate, improvements in arterial partial pressure of oxygen [48.5 (42.0-51.0) mmHg] and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide [62.8 (57.9-75.2) mmHg]. In rhinoceros administered butorphanol, [Formula: see text] [4.4 (3.6-5.1) L minute -1 ] and [Formula: see text] [4.2 (3.8-4.4) L minute -1 ] were lower than in those not administered butorphanol. Increased arterial oxygen tension was associated with lower oxygen consumption (p=0.002) which was positively associated with lower muscle tremor scores (prhinoceros resulted from an increased [ [Formula: see text] ] and increased [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] associated with muscle

  3. Vesiculobullous skin reaction temporally related to firocoxib treatment in a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Elizabeth M; De Voe, Ryan S; Linder, Keith; Troan, Brigid; McCalla-Martin, Amy; Loomis, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    A 40 yr-old female white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) suffered from chronic nail-bed abscesses. Due to worsening of clinical signs, the animal's nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory treatment was switched to firocoxib. Approximately 7 days after this change, the animal developed multifocal vesicles and bullae along the lateral aspects of the thorax and abdomen, the dorsum, and the proximal limbs. Cytology and culture did not identify an infectious etiology. Histologically, the lesions consisted of a severe, subacute vesiculobullous dermatitis with intraepidermal to subepidermal clefting with areas of individual keratinocyte necrosis and minor neutrophilic epidermal infiltrates. These findings are similar to those seen in some drug reactions in people; therefore an adverse drug reaction to the firocoxib was suspected.

  4. Serosurvey for selected viral agents in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in Kruger National Park, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Joubert, Jenny; Maseko, Nomkhosi; Hofmeyr, Markus; Gerdes, Truuske

    2011-03-01

    One hundred serum samples collected from free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in Kruger National Park (KNP) during the 2007 capture season were selected for measurement of antibody levels to several different vector-borne viral agents. These infectious diseases were chosen to compare with an earlier serosurvey that had been conducted in KNP in rhinos during 1987-1997. Positive antibody titers were found against epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) of deer (8%), Bluetongue (BT) (1%), and Rift Valley fever (RVF) (49%). However, none of the 100 animals tested had detected antibody levels to African horse sickness (AHS). These values were in sharp contrast to those measured in the 1987-1997 survey in KNP white rhinos (AHS 60%, EHD 30%, BT 37%, RVF 0%). Vector-borne viral infection prevalence in white rhinos in the same geographical location appears to vary over time and may be important for monitoring presence of pathogens in an ecosystem.

  5. Body condition scoring system for greater one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis): Development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Eva M; von Houwald, Friederike; Steck, Beatrice; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Preventing obesity in zoo animals is increasingly recognized as an important husbandry objective. To achieve this goal, body condition scoring (BCS) systems are available for an ever-increasing number of species. Here, we present a BCS for the greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) based on an evaluation (on a scale from 1 to 5) of seven different body regions, and report resulting scores for 62 animals from 27 facilities, based on digital photographs. In animals above 4 years of age, this BCS correlated with the body mass:shoulder height ratio. Although differences between the sexes for individual regions were noted (with consistently higher scores in males for the neck and shoulder and in parous females for the abdomen), the average BCS of all regions did not differ significantly between males (4.3 ± 0.4) and females (4.1 ± 0.5). Linking the BCS to results of a questionnaire survey and studbook information, there were no differences in BCS between animals with and without foot problems or between parous and non-parous females. In a very limited sample of 11 females, those eight that had been diagnosed with leiomyoma in a previous study had a higher BCS (range 3.9-4.9) than the three that had been diagnosed as leiomyoma-free (range 3.5-3.7). The BCS was correlated to the amount of food offered as estimated from the questionnaire. Adjusting the amounts and the nutritional quality of the diet components is an evident measure to maintain animals at a target BCS (suggested as 3-3.5). Zoo Biol. 35:432-443, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Social and spatial relationships in captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrione, Lara C; Penfold, Linda M; Waring, George H

    2007-11-01

    Although critical to the conservation of white rhinoceros, captive breeding has proven challenging because of the poor and irregular reproductive health of many captive rhinos, and social interactions may play a significant role. This research investigated the social and spatial relationships of two captive groups of southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) by examining the frequency of companion changes, the number of space maintenance vocalizations made per hour by each reproductively mature female, and dominant/subordinate interactions. The observed captive rhinos did not change their companionships during the study. They exhibited space maintenance vocalizations and display greater than once per hour, particularly when feeding. Females housed with four calves on 0.033 km(2) exhibited space maintenance vocalizations more frequently (X+/-SE = 6.19+/-0.199/hr) than females housed with one calf and more space (0.06 km(2), X+/-SE = 0.55+/-0.182/hr) and females housed without calves and more space (0.65 km(2), X+/-SE = 1.90+/-0.086/hr). Wider separation of food piles and of females with young calves is suggested to reduce the interpreted spatial stress. The presence of a large number of rhinos in restricted captive space resulted in the formation of herds with dominance hierarchies that were enforced during competition for food and shade. The most subordinate rhino in each of the herds exhibited unusual behaviors such as dung-kicking and nonestrus urine squirting, and neither has ever reproduced. Suppression of subordinate rhinos might lead to social stress that could negatively impact reproductive success. Zoo Biol 26:487-502, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Assessing the carbon sequestration potential of poplar and black locust short rotation coppices on mine reclamation sites in Eastern Germany - Model development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinkenstein, A; Jochheim, H

    2016-03-01

    In the temperate zone short rotation coppice systems for the production of woody biomass (SRC) have gained great interest as they offer a pathway to both sustainable bioenergy production and the potential sequestration of CO2 within the biomass and the soil. This study used the carbon model SHORTCAR to assess the carbon cycle of a poplar (Populus suaveolens Fisch. x Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Gray cv. Androscoggin) and a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) SRC. The model was calibrated using data from established SRC plantations on reclaimed mine sites in northeast Germany and validated through the determination of uncertainty ranges of selected model parameters and a sensitivity analysis. In addition to a 'reference scenario', representing the actual site conditions, 7 hypothetical scenarios, which varied in climate conditions, rotation intervals, runtimes, and initial soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, were defined for each species. Estimates of carbon accumulation within the biomass, the litter layer, and the soil were compared to field data and previously published results. The model was sensitive to annual stem growth and initial soil organic carbon stocks. In the reference scenario net biome production for SRC on reclaimed sites in Lusatia, Germany amounted to 64.5 Mg C ha(-1) for R. pseudoacacia and 8.9 Mg C ha(-1) for poplar, over a period of 36 years. These results suggest a considerable potential of SRC for carbon sequestration at least on marginal sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Profiling patterns of fecal 20-oxopregnane concentrations during ovarian cycles in free-ranging southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Goot, Annemieke Catharina; Martin, Graeme Bruce; Millar, Robert Peter; Paris, Monique Christina Johanna; Ganswindt, Andre

    2015-10-01

    Unlike their wild counterparts, many white rhinoceros females in captivity fail to reproduce successfully such that current captive populations are not self-sustaining. The causes of the problem are poorly understood. Variation in cycle length and long periods of acyclicity are characteristics of the majority of these non-reproducing females in captivity but it is unknown whether these characteristics are a feature of reproductively successful free-ranging females. This study therefore aimed to monitor cyclic activity in a wild population of southern white rhinoceros at Lapalala Wilderness, South Africa, by measuring the concentrations of immunoreactive fecal progestagen metabolites (fPM). Five adult females were tracked twice per week for 20 months and if located a fresh fecal sample was collected. Reproductive events and group structural dynamics were also recorded and subsequently correlated with the fPM data. The baseline concentration of fPM was 0.69±0.20μg/g DW while concentrations during pregnancy were 30-400-fold higher. The females exhibited estrous cycle lengths of 30.6±7.7 days and, based on fPM data, gestation length in one female was 502±3 days. Year-round monitoring showed no clear evidence of seasonality in ovarian activity. During cyclic luteal activity females were often seen in the presence of a dominant bull. One female stopped cycling after removal of the local dominant bull and luteal activity only returned after a new bull was introduced. This suggests that white rhinoceros females in the wild might need external stimuli from a male to ovulate. These findings indicate that the irregular cyclicity reported for white rhinoceros housed in zoos and animal parks may result from conditions in captivity and account for reduced fertility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Two methods to adapt the human haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation algorithm to the blood of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and to determine the accuracy of pulse oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymerle, Agnes; Knauer, Felix; Walzer, Chris

    2016-09-01

    To adapt the algorithm for the calculation of oxygen saturation to the blood characteristics of the white rhinoceros by two different methods and to determine the accuracy of conventional pulse oximetry measurements. Adaptation of two mathematical models of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC). Twenty-five captive white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), including 12 males and 13 females, aged 6-32 years. During 33 anaesthetic events, 94 arterial blood gas samples with 72 simultaneous pulse oximetry measurements were analysed. The calculation of oxygen saturation was adapted to the characteristics of rhinoceros blood using two different methods. Firstly, a mathematical model developed in 1984 and, secondly, an oxygen status algorithm (OSA) produced by the same developer in 2005 were tested for their applicability for clinical use. When arterial partial pressure of oxygen is >7.98 kPa (60 mmHg), oxygen saturation exceeds 95%. At partial pressures of 6.12-6.52 kPa (46-49 mmHg) Method 1 determined oxygen saturations of 92.5-95.3% and Method 2 oxygen saturations of 90.2-91.6%. Both methods resulted in similar ODCs and accounted for the low p50 value of rhinoceros blood. Method 1 provided better adaptation in respect to the physiological parameters of the rhinoceros, especially with regard to the Bohr effect, than Method 2. Pulse oximetry was an unreliable method of monitoring arterial oxygen saturation during general anaesthesia in this species. Adapting the oxygen saturation algorithm to consider the left shift of the ODC provides a useful tool for monitoring oxygen status, especially as pulse oximetry is insufficiently accurate. Experimental determination of the complete Hill curve is required to further validate and optimize the algorithm for use in the white rhinoceros. The method will facilitate the accurate interpretation of oxygen saturation calculated by blood gas analysis in white rhinoceros. © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American

  10. Japanese Interest in “Hotaru” (Fireflies and “Kabuto-Mushi” (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Takada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, “Hotaru” and “Kabuto-mushi” in Japanese Katakana script using Google Trends. The search volume index for fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was distributed across seasons with a clear peak in only particular times of each year from 2004 to 2011. In addition, the seasonal peak of popularity for fireflies occurred at the beginning of June, whereas that for Japanese rhinoceros beetles occurred from the middle of July to the beginning of August. Thus seasonal peak of each species coincided with the peak period of the emergence of each adult stage. These findings indicated that the Japanese are interested in these insects primarily during the time when the two species are most visibly abundant. Although untested, this could suggest that fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles are perceived by the general public as indicators or symbols of summer in Japan.

  11. A Multiplex PCR Assay for Differentiating Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) From Oriental Flower Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Early Life Stages and Excrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Melzer, M J

    2017-04-01

    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), is a major pest of coconut and other palm trees. An incipient coconut rhinoceros beetle population was recently discovered on the island of Oahu, Hawaii and is currently the target of a large, mutiagency eradication program. Confounding this program is the widespread presence of another scarab beetle on Oahu, the oriental flower beetle, Protaetia orientalis (Gory and Percheron 1833). Eggs, early life stages, and fecal excrement of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle are morphologically indistinguishable, thereby creating uncertainty when such specimens are discovered in the field. Here, we report the development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting cytochrome oxidase I of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle that can rapidly detect and distinguish between these insects. This assay also features an internal positive control to ensure DNA of sufficient quantity and quality is used in the assay, increasing its reliability and reducing the chances of false negative results. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  13. A conservation model for black rhino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C. Hearne

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past thirty years the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis population in Africa has declined from about 65 000 to 3 500. In contrast the South African and Namibian population has increased four-fold to 1 000 over the same period. The recently developed national conservation strategy for black rhino has as its main goal a further four-fold increase in the current population in as short a period as possible. To achieve this, the growth rate of the population as a whole will have to be maximised. This involves removing animals from areas where the population is approaching the ecological carrying capacity and establishing new viable populations in other suitable reserves. A model incorporating what is known about the population biology of black rhino, was developed to give guidance to managers on the most appropirate harvesting strategy to adopt for their populations; in particular, to determine the rate of removals and the age and sex of individuals to be removed to attain the conservation goal as soon as possible.

  14. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  15. The impact of the Krakatoa eruption in 1883 on the population of Rhinoceros sondaicus in Ujung Kulon, with details of rhino observations from 1857 to 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J.van. Strien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent suggestion that the entire population of the Javan Rhinoceros in Ujung Kulon National Park was annihilated by the effects of the eruption of the Krakatoa in 1883 is investigated. Based on a review of contemporary reports, it is shown that people survived the waves and remained settled in one village until 1906 when it was evacuated during a plague of tigers. The first report of a rhinoceros in the peninsula of Ujung Kulon dates from 1857 and the animals were occasionally reported from the area afterwards. There is no indication from the available estimates and sightings that rhinos were exterminated in the area. Ujung Kulon has been a protected area since 1921. Rhino numbers ranged upwards to about 40 or 50 for most of the period until 1949. The population of Rhinoceros sondaicus is not a new founder population established after the eruption of the Krakatoa in 1883.

  16. Black cohosh Actaea racemosa: an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary L. Predny; Patricia De Angelis; James L. Chamberlain

    2006-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa, Syn.: Cimicifuga racemosa), a member of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), is an erect perennial found in rich cove forests of Eastern North America from Georgia to Ontario. Native Americans used black cohosh for a variety of ailments including rheumatism, malaria, sore throats, and complications...

  17. Amylase production potentials of bacterial isolates obtained from the gut of Oryctes rhinoceros larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryati, P. C.; Pangastuti, A.; Sari, S. L. A.

    2017-04-01

    Amylase is one of the main enzymes used in industry, such as food, detergent, textile, and pharmaceutical industry. Amylase can be produced by plants, animals, and microorganisms. However, bacterial and fungal amylases have dominated application in industries. This research was aimed to determine amylolytic activity of bacteria isolated from the gut of Oryctes rhinoceros larvae. Based on clear zone formation, 9 from 11 isolates showed amylolytic activity. Isolates with the widest clear zone, i.e Bacillus subtilis GOR1, Bacillus cereus GOR3, and Bacillus pumilus GOR2, were screened for amylolytic activity based on reduction sugar production. The result showed that Bacillus subtilis GOR1 was the most potential as amylase producer, showed by the widest clear zone 5.224 cm2 and highest reduction sugar production 0.0235 mg/ml. Highest amylase specific activity (0.1447 U/mg protein) was obtained at 60°C and pH 7. Amylase activity was stable for 3 hours at 60°C with residual activity respectively was 59.7%.

  18. Two new entodiniomorphid Triplumaria ciliates from the intestine of the wild African white rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Van Hoven, Wouter; Miyazaki, Yutaka; Imai, Soichi

    2008-05-01

    Two new species of Triplumaria in the order Entodiniomorphida, T. alluvia n. sp. and T. grypoclunis n. sp., are described from the large intestine of the wild African white rhinoceros. T. alluvia has three bud-shaped caudalia, one broad skeletal plate with a wavy left dorsal edge, and an axe-shaped tail flap. T. grypoclunis has three short arched caudalia, two broad skeletal plates, and a pointed and ventrally curved tail flap. These two new species have a C-shaped adoral polybrachykinety, a slender perivestibular polybrachykinety, and paralabial kineties in their retractable adoral ciliary zone. In T. alluvia, the perivestibular polybrachykinety is joined to both ends of the adoral polybrachykinety and paralabial kineties along the ventral side of the adoral polybrachykinety, showing the same arrangement as in Cycloposthium species. In T. grypoclunis, the perivestibular polybrachykinety is joined only to the right end of the adoral polybrachykinety and paralabial kineties along the left ventral side of the adoral polybrachykinety, showing an arrangement analogous to the Tripalmaria species.

  19. Landscape preference of the white rhinoceros in the central and northern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Pienaar

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available The long-term landscape preferences of the white rhinoceros for 32 different landscapes in the central and northern Kruger National Park are investigated. A preference index and a chi-square test are used to ascertain if white rhinoceroses prefer or avoid a particular landscape as habitat. Landscapes 13 (Karoo Sediment Plains with Acacia welwitschii Tree Savanna and 11 (Slightly Undulating Granitoid Plains with Colophospermum mopane Bush Savanna, are the most preferred landscapes. Landscapes 23 (Basaltic Plains with Colophospermum mopane Shrub Savanna, 25 (Moderately Undulating Gabbroic Plains with Colophospermum mopane Shrub Savanna, 26 (Irregular Calsitic Plains with Colophospermum mopane Shrub Savanna, 28 (Alluvial Plains with Acacia albida Tree Savanna, 32 (Recent Sandy Plains with Baphia massaiensis Bush Savanna and 33 (Slightly Undulating Andesitic Plains with Comhretum collinum Shrub Savanna appear to be avoided. Characterestics of the preferred landscapes are: moderate to dense grass cover with good quality grasses; open to moderate low-shrub (<2 m stratum; a moderate tree stratum; an undulating topography with uplands, bottomlands and watercourses; sandy soils with few stones and rocks on the soil surface; permanent water sources.

  20. Fecal corticosterone concentrations and reproductive success in captive female southern white rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrione, Lara C; Harder, John D

    2011-05-01

    Prolonged or frequent secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids in response to aversive stimuli can negatively impact reproduction. Because female southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) reproduce poorly in captivity, we compared fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations among parous, nulliparous, and adolescent females and examined social and physical aspects of the captive environment that might be related to differences in corticosterone metabolite concentrations. Aggression, dominance, sexual and play interactions, social group size and composition, enclosure size, and other housing characteristics were assessed though behavioral observations and review of historical and institution records. Concentrations of metabolized corticosterone in fecal samples were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. The proportion of nulliparous females did not differ (p>0.05) between subordinate and dominant animals, and subordinates did not have a higher mean fecal corticosterone concentration than dominants (p>0.05). Of the behaviors examined, only the frequency of sexual play behaviors differed (p0.05) for females housed in most of the environmental conditions assessed. Housing with a female companion known from adolescence, however, tended to be associated (p=0.06) with a lower mean corticosterone concentration than that when housing with a female companion introduced during adulthood or no female companion. Wild-caught females had a higher (p0.05) between acyclic and cycling, or nulliparous and parous females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The sixth rhino: a taxonomic re-assessment of the critically endangered northern white rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Colin P; Fernando, Prithiviraj; Robovský, Jan

    2010-04-07

    The two forms of white rhinoceros; northern and southern, have had contrasting conservation histories. The Northern form, once fairly numerous is now critically endangered, while the southern form has recovered from a few individuals to a population of a few thousand. Since their last taxonomic assessment over three decades ago, new material and analytical techniques have become available, necessitating a review of available information and re-assessment of the taxonomy. Dental morphology and cranial anatomy clearly diagnosed the southern and northern forms. The differentiation was well supported by dental metrics, cranial growth and craniometry, and corresponded with differences in post-cranial skeleton, external measurements and external features. No distinctive differences were found in the limited descriptions of their behavior and ecology. Fossil history indicated the antiquity of the genus, dating back at least to early Pliocene and evolution into a number of diagnosable forms. The fossil skulls examined fell outside the two extant forms in the craniometric analysis. Genetic divergence between the two forms was consistent across both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and indicated a separation of over a million years. On re-assessing the taxonomy of the two forms we find them to be morphologically and genetically distinct, warranting the recognition of the taxa formerly designated as subspecies; Ceratotherium simum simum the southern form and Ceratotherium simum cottoni the northern form, as two distinct species Ceratotherium simum and Ceratotherium cottoni respectively. The recognition of the northern form as a distinct species has profound implications for its conservation.

  2. The Sixth Rhino: A Taxonomic Re-Assessment of the Critically Endangered Northern White Rhinoceros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Colin P.; Fernando, Prithiviraj; Robovský, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background The two forms of white rhinoceros; northern and southern, have had contrasting conservation histories. The Northern form, once fairly numerous is now critically endangered, while the southern form has recovered from a few individuals to a population of a few thousand. Since their last taxonomic assessment over three decades ago, new material and analytical techniques have become available, necessitating a review of available information and re-assessment of the taxonomy. Results Dental morphology and cranial anatomy clearly diagnosed the southern and northern forms. The differentiation was well supported by dental metrics, cranial growth and craniometry, and corresponded with differences in post-cranial skeleton, external measurements and external features. No distinctive differences were found in the limited descriptions of their behavior and ecology. Fossil history indicated the antiquity of the genus, dating back at least to early Pliocene and evolution into a number of diagnosable forms. The fossil skulls examined fell outside the two extant forms in the craniometric analysis. Genetic divergence between the two forms was consistent across both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and indicated a separation of over a million years. Conclusions On re-assessing the taxonomy of the two forms we find them to be morphologically and genetically distinct, warranting the recognition of the taxa formerly designated as subspecies; Ceratotherium simum simum the southern form and Ceratotherium simum cottoni the northern form, as two distinct species Ceratotherium simum and Ceratotherium cottoni respectively. The recognition of the northern form as a distinct species has profound implications for its conservation. PMID:20383328

  3. TINGKAT KESESUAIAN SUAKA MARGASATWA CIKEPUH SEBAGAI HABITAT KEDUA BADAK JAWA (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribai .

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus is one of the rarest species in the world so categorized as critically endangered by IUCN. Survival of the rhino in Ujung Kulon National Park is threatened by a variety of factors that could cause these extinct animals, such as: invasion langkap, competition with the bulls, and inbreeding. The strategy should be promoted in maintaining and developing population that is making a second habitat. The purpose of this research is to know the suitability level of Cikepuh Wildlife Reserves (CWR as javan rhino’s second habitat. The method used is the field observations. Results showed that the CWR have high suitability as javan rhino’s second habitat with an area of 6886.4 ha (84.72% CWR. Cikepuh Wildlife Reserves components that have a high potential as second habitat are on aspects altitude, air temperature, humidity, water availability, and soil pH. Strategies that can be done in improving the suitability of the CWR as second habitat includ: create pools ofthe rhino, planting food plants that have a high palatability and reduce human pressure through strict enforcement, public education, standardized regular patrols, rehabilitation and enrichment of degraded area, livestock expenses , and review the MoU regarding the use of the area as a military Cikepuh SM. Keywords: Cikepuh Wildlife Reserve, habitat suitability, javan rhino, second habitat

  4. Acute hepatic necrosis and death in a subadult southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) associated with exposure to sterigmatocystin in forage contaminated with Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, B R; Campbell, M; Sangster, C

    2016-11-01

    A young male southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), which was resident in a zoo as part of a multi-rhinoceros group, died suddenly. Necropsy and histopathological findings supported a diagnosis of death from acute hepatic necrosis. The microscopic distribution of liver lesions was suggestive of hepatotoxicosis. Further investigation revealed potential exposure to a mycotoxin, sterigmatocystin, present in spoiled lucerne hay contaminated with Aspergillus nidulans. It was concluded that mycotoxicosis was the likely cause of the hepatic necrosis and death in this animal. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. A study of the reasons for an increase in poaching of the one-horned Indian rhinoceros in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Poudyal, Mahesh

    2005-01-01

    Despite a relatively successful conservation programme for the one-horned rhinoceros in national parks of the Terai region, poaching has been one of the major threats to the survival of the rhinoceros, an endangered species in Nepal. This study uses a model to explain the level of poaching in Royal Chitwan National Park (RCNP) over a 30-year period, based on the factors that are thought to influence poaching in the Terai. The results indicate that anti-poaching units (APUs), in their original...

  6. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  7. Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  8. The relationship between vaginal electrical impedence and hormone profiles during pregnancy and parturition of a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Susan; Gandy, Scott; Paul, Ken; Woods, Lisa; D'Angelo, Denise; Horton, Carolyn; Tabaka, Chris; Willard, Scott

    2005-09-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to use vaginal electrical impedance to predict calving in a female white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) and to determine the relationship between vaginal electrical impedance and hormonal profiles during pregnancy. The principle behind vaginal electrical impedance is that a change in the ionic balance of vaginal and cervical mucus occurs in response to changes in reproductive hormones. Three times weekly vaginal electrical impedance readings and fecal samples were collected from midgestation to calving (a 6-mo period). The extracted fecal samples were analyzed for immunoreactive estrogens, progestagens, and corticoids by RIA. Vaginal electrical impedance readings did not decrease before calving but remained consistent throughout the last 140 days of pregnancy. Fecal progestagens in the white rhinoceros decreased between day 17 and day 1 before calving, whereas estrogens increased between 4 and 2 mo before calving, with an additional increase occurring 1 mo before calving. Fecal corticoids increased 5 mo before calving, slowly declined, and increased again within 3 wk before calving. A decline in vaginal electrical impedance was noted 168 days before calving and remained at low levels for 4 wk. At the time of this decrease, the female became aggressive toward the male and began lactating. Fecal progestagens and estrogens did not change during this time; however, fecal corticoids increased as vaginal electrical impedance readings returned to normal along with her behavior and cessation of lactation. In summary, the use of vaginal electrical impedance could not predict parturition in the white rhinoceros. However, an anomaly occurred during pregnancy that was supported by vaginal electrical impedance readings, a change in female behavior, premature lactation, and a subsequent increase in fecal corticoids. The etiology of this physiological anomaly is unknown, yet it did not compromise pregnancy.

  9. Towards establishing a rhinoceros-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, D; Schreuder, J; Mény, M; van Kooten, P J S; Tijhaar, E; Michel, A L; Rutten, V P M G

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causal agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), with a diverse host range, extending from livestock to domestic and captive wild animals as well as free-ranging wildlife species. In South Africa, BTB is endemic in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and the Hluluwe iMfolozi National Park (HiP), where the high prevalence of M. bovis infections in buffalo herds has led to infection of a number of wildlife species. This has raised concerns about the spillover into the rhinoceros population, a species known to be susceptible to both M. bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, jeopardizing breeding and relocation projects that serve to conserve and protect this species. In view of the advantages of the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay in the diagnosis of BTB in a variety of species worldwide, such an assay has been developed for rhinoceroses by Morar and co-workers in 2007. In this study, this assay was optimized using recombinant eukaryotic rhinoceros IFN-γ and the lower detection limit was calculated to be 0.5 ng/ml. Subsequently, assessing the detection of native rhinoceros IFN-γ protein in whole-blood samples revealed stimulation with each of the mitogens: pokeweed (PWM), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) & phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore (PMA/CaI), though most prominently with the latter two. In addition, samples collected from 52 clinically healthy rhinoceroses, of presumed negative BTB status, from two different areas in South Africa were used to determine the cut-off value for a negative test result. This was calculated to be 0.10 (OD490 nm ) and as determined in this study is a preliminary recommendation based on IFN-γ responses observed in samples from BTB-free rhinoceroses only. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. eastern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eastern Uganda. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study sites and experimcntal design. The study was conducted in thrce hi ghland districts ofeastern. Uganda, namely; Kapchorwa, Mbale and Sironko, for three consecutivr: seasons bcginning with thc second (September [0 December) season of2001, and during thc first (April ...

  11. Contact calls of the northern and southern white rhinoceros allow for individual and species identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinková, Ivana; Policht, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Inter-individual relationships particularly in socially living mammals often require a well-developed communication system. Vocal and olfactory signals are the most important for the communication of rhinos, however, their vocal communication has been investigated to a very limited extent so far. White rhinos have the most developed social system out of all the rhinoceros species and vocal signals might therefore play an important role in their social interactions. We recorded repetitive contact pant calls from six captive northern white rhinos (Ceratotherium cottoni) and 14 captive and free-ranging southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) and examined if they transmit information about individual identity, species, social context and age class. Discriminant analyses revealed that a high percentage of the pant calls of both species could be classified to a correct individual. We calculated signature information capacity of pant calls recorded from adult animals in isolation at 3.19 bits for the northern white rhinos and at 3.15 bits for the southern white rhinos, which can potentially allow for a vocal discrimination of nine individuals of both species. We found that pant calls varied by species. Northern white rhinos had longer calls and also differed from the southern white rhinos in several frequency parameters of their calls. We also analysed the pant calls of southern white rhinos for the differences between the age classes and between social contexts in which they were recorded. Our results show that pant calls carry information about individual, species, age class and context. The ability to recognize this information would allow rhinos, in addition to olfactory cues, to communicate with highly increased accuracy. A better understanding of communication of white rhinos has potential practical use in their management and conservation particularly because of the low breeding success of white rhinos in captivity.

  12. Estrogenicity of captive southern white rhinoceros diets and their association with fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Christopher W; Moley, Laura A; Ivy, Jamie A; Metrione, Lara C; LaClaire, Sydney; Felton, Rachel G; Durrant, Barbara S; Milnes, Matthew R

    2016-11-01

    The captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR) population is not currently self-sustaining, primarily due to poor or absent reproduction of captive-born (F 1+ ) females. In this study, we investigate the role of dietary phytoestrogens in this reproductive phenomenon by characterizing activation of SWR estrogen receptors (ESRs) 1 and 2 by diet items from nine North American institutions and comparing female SWR fertility to total diet estrogenicity. Of the diet items tested, alfalfa hay and soy and alfalfa-based commercial pellets were found to be the most potent activators of SWR ESRs. In contrast, most grass hays tested were not estrogenic. The estrogenicity of total diets varied across the institutions surveyed and the degree of diet estrogenicity was positively associated with the percentage of the total diet comprised by pellets. Comparisons of fertility records of the institutions surveyed showed no significant relationship between diet estrogenicity and fertility for female SWR conceived or born in the wild (F 0 ). However, for F 1+ females, there was a significant negative relationship between institutional diet estrogenicity and fertility. Taken together, these data suggest that developmental exposure to phytoestrogens may be the cause of poor fertility in captive-born female SWR. Whether the low fertility of the current population of captive-born female SWR is permanent or can be reversed by removing phytoestrogens from the diet remains unclear. However, our findings suggest that in order for the SWR population to become self-sustaining, the development and feeding of low phytoestrogen diets should be strongly considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The sixth rhino: a taxonomic re-assessment of the critically endangered northern white rhinoceros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin P Groves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two forms of white rhinoceros; northern and southern, have had contrasting conservation histories. The Northern form, once fairly numerous is now critically endangered, while the southern form has recovered from a few individuals to a population of a few thousand. Since their last taxonomic assessment over three decades ago, new material and analytical techniques have become available, necessitating a review of available information and re-assessment of the taxonomy. RESULTS: Dental morphology and cranial anatomy clearly diagnosed the southern and northern forms. The differentiation was well supported by dental metrics, cranial growth and craniometry, and corresponded with differences in post-cranial skeleton, external measurements and external features. No distinctive differences were found in the limited descriptions of their behavior and ecology. Fossil history indicated the antiquity of the genus, dating back at least to early Pliocene and evolution into a number of diagnosable forms. The fossil skulls examined fell outside the two extant forms in the craniometric analysis. Genetic divergence between the two forms was consistent across both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and indicated a separation of over a million years. CONCLUSIONS: On re-assessing the taxonomy of the two forms we find them to be morphologically and genetically distinct, warranting the recognition of the taxa formerly designated as subspecies; Ceratotherium simum simum the southern form and Ceratotherium simum cottoni the northern form, as two distinct species Ceratotherium simum and Ceratotherium cottoni respectively. The recognition of the northern form as a distinct species has profound implications for its conservation.

  14. Contact calls of the northern and southern white rhinoceros allow for individual and species identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cinková

    Full Text Available Inter-individual relationships particularly in socially living mammals often require a well-developed communication system. Vocal and olfactory signals are the most important for the communication of rhinos, however, their vocal communication has been investigated to a very limited extent so far. White rhinos have the most developed social system out of all the rhinoceros species and vocal signals might therefore play an important role in their social interactions. We recorded repetitive contact pant calls from six captive northern white rhinos (Ceratotherium cottoni and 14 captive and free-ranging southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum and examined if they transmit information about individual identity, species, social context and age class. Discriminant analyses revealed that a high percentage of the pant calls of both species could be classified to a correct individual. We calculated signature information capacity of pant calls recorded from adult animals in isolation at 3.19 bits for the northern white rhinos and at 3.15 bits for the southern white rhinos, which can potentially allow for a vocal discrimination of nine individuals of both species. We found that pant calls varied by species. Northern white rhinos had longer calls and also differed from the southern white rhinos in several frequency parameters of their calls. We also analysed the pant calls of southern white rhinos for the differences between the age classes and between social contexts in which they were recorded. Our results show that pant calls carry information about individual, species, age class and context. The ability to recognize this information would allow rhinos, in addition to olfactory cues, to communicate with highly increased accuracy. A better understanding of communication of white rhinos has potential practical use in their management and conservation particularly because of the low breeding success of white rhinos in captivity.

  15. Butorphanol with oxygen insufflation improves cardiorespiratory function in field-immobilised white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Anna; Hofmeyr, Markus; Fuller, Andrea; Buss, Peter; Miller, Michele; Fleming, Gregory; Meyer, Leith

    2015-08-12

    Opioid-induced immobilisation results in severe respiratory compromise in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). The effectiveness of oxygen insufflation combined with butorphanol in alleviating respiratory depression in free-ranging chemically immobilised white rhinoceroses was investigated. In this prospective intervention study 14 free-ranging white rhinoceroses were immobilised with a combination of etorphine, azaperone and hyaluronidase. Six minutes (min) after the animals became recumbent, intravenous butorphanol was administered and oxygen insufflation was initiated. Previous boma trial results were used for comparison, using repeated measures two-way analysis of variance. The initial immobilisation-induced hypoxaemia in free-ranging rhinoceroses (arterial partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2] 35.4 mmHg ± 6.6 mmHg) was similar to that observed in boma-confined rhinoceroses (PaO2 31 mmHg ± 6 mmHg, n = 8). Although the initial hypercapnia (PaCO2 63.0 mmHg ± 7.5 mmHg) was not as severe as that in animals in the boma trial (79 mmHg ± 7 mmHg), the field-immobilised rhinoceroses were more acidaemic (pH 7.10 ± 0.14) at the beginning of the immobilisation compared with boma-immobilised rhinoceroses (pH 7.28 ± 0.04). Compared with pre-intervention values, butorphanol with oxygen insufflation improved the PaO2 (81.2 mmHg ± 23.7 mmHg, p white rhinoceroses.

  16. Javan Rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest 1822 Utilization Distribution and Habitat Selection in Ujung Kulon National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanto Santosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest 1822 is one of world's rarest endangered species (IUCN 2008. Currently,  their distribution  is  limited  to Ujung Kulon National Park  (UKNP of  Indonesia. Natural disasters, disease, poaching, encroachment, and competition are threats  facing Javan rhino's population, hence creating pockets of habitats outside  the UKNP was necessary and  should be based on  scientific  studies of  javan  rhino utilization distribution and habitat selection in UKNP as the natural habitat. The objectives of the study were to determine  the utilization distribution of Javan rhino and  its habitat characteristics and determine  javan rhino habitat selection within UKNP.  The research  indicated  that Javan rhinos highest use of areas comprised of swampy shrub (w = 2.197 and shrub (w = 2.012, relatively open habitat (w = 4.233, flat area (w = 1.313 and slightly sloping areas (w = 1.007, lowland (w = 1.346, close to river (w = 1.087, close to road network (w = 1.395, close to coasts/beaches (w = 1.862, close  to wallowing areas (w = 3.709, and close  to rumpang (w = 3.783.  The results suggested  that  javan  rhino  showed  selection and preferences  for  its habitat.Keywords:  javan  rhino, utilization distribution, habitat  selection, preferences

  17. The genome of Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus provides novel insight into the evolution of nuclear arthropod-specific large circular double-tranded DNA viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yongjie; Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Jehle, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV) is a dsDNA virus with enveloped, rod-shaped virions. Its genome is 127,615 bp in size and contains 139 predicted protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). In-depth genome sequence comparisons revealed a varying number of shared gene homologues, not only with

  18. Middle Pleistocene protein sequences from the rhinoceros genus Stephanorhinus and the phylogeny of extant and extinct Middle/Late Pleistocene Rhinocerotidae

    OpenAIRE

    Frido Welker; Geoff M. Smith; Jarod M. Hutson; Lutz Kindler; Alejandro Garcia-Moreno; Aritza Villaluenga; Elaine Turner; Sabine Gaudzinski-Windheuser

    2017-01-01

    Background Ancient protein sequences are increasingly used to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships between extinct and extant mammalian taxa. Here, we apply these recent developments to Middle Pleistocene bone specimens of the rhinoceros genus Stephanorhinus. No biomolecular sequence data is currently available for this genus, leaving phylogenetic hypotheses on its evolutionary relationships to extant and extinct rhinoceroses untested. Furthermore, recent phylogenies based on Rhinocerotid...

  19. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S; Avent, T; Doughty, L S

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition.

  20. Method comparison and generation of plasma biochemistry RIs for the White rhinoceros on a point-of-care and wet chemistry analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijberg, Emma H; Steenkamp, Gerhard; Buss, Peter; Goddard, Amelia

    2017-06-01

    Plasma biochemistry analysis may aid the management of White rhinoceros with poaching or other injuries. Analyzer- and species-specific RIs are necessary to evaluate health status and identify abnormalities. The purpose of the study was to perform a comparison study between the IDEXX VetTest and Roche Cobas Integra 400 Plus, and to generate analyzer-specific RIs for White rhinoceros according to published guidelines. Comparison was carried out using White rhinoceros plasma samples from healthy and diseased animals. Reference intervals for albumin, ALT, AST, CK, creatinine, GGT, globulins, glucose, phosphorus, total proteins, and urea were determined from a sample group of chemically immobilized healthy adult White rhinoceros from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. There was a significant analytic bias for all analytes between the 2 analyzers. Results for glucose and total protein were clinically equivalent based on total allowable error limits. Reference intervals were generated from 51 individuals (26 male, 25 female) for all analytes except ALT on the VetTest. The type, direction, and magnitude of bias between the VetTest and Cobas appeared to be species- and analyzer-specific, when compared to other studies. These measures of bias may be used for comparability testing. Reference intervals for total proteins (VetTest 77-108 g/L, Cobas 77-110 g/L) and globulins (VetTest 47-79 g/L, Cobas 51-87 g/L) were high compared to other uneven-toed ungulates. Plasma samples from White rhinoceros can be evaluated on both the VetTest and Cobas. Results from this study will aid conservation efforts directed toward this species. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  1. Analytic and quality control validation and assessment of field performance of a point-of-care chemistry analyzer for use in the White rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijberg, Emma H; Steenkamp, Gerhard; du Preez, Jacques P; Goddard, Amelia

    2017-03-01

    A chemistry point-of-care analyzer would be useful for evaluating injured wildlife, particularly White rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) that survive poaching attempts. The IDEXX VetTest could be suitable, but species-specific validation, development of a statistical quality control (QC) strategy, and evaluation under field conditions are necessary. The objectives were to (1) validate the VetTest for the White rhinoceros, (2) perform QC validation on the VetTest and generate a statistical QC strategy, and (3) apply this QC strategy to monitor performance under typical field conditions. Differences between White rhinoceros heparin plasma and serum, short-term imprecision, and reportable range using rhinoceros plasma and long-term imprecision using commercial quality control material (QCM) were assessed against prescribed total allowable error (TE a ) for up to 15 analytes. Quality control validation was performed using data from the long-term imprecision study and TE a . A QC strategy using QCM was developed and used to monitor performance under field conditions. Imprecision was acceptable for all analytes except for ALP, ALT, and AST at low activities. The reportable range for AST and LDH differed from the manufacturer's specifications. Eleven analytes were suitable for statistical QC using the 1 3s rule, 3 using the 2 s rule; ALP was not suitable. In the field, observed error was 3.0 for 12 analytes. The VetTest is suitable for use in the White rhinoceros. Statistical QC is possible for most analytes and useful for evaluation of field performance. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  2. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Thompson

    Full Text Available The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition.

  3. Butorphanol with oxygen insufflation improves cardiorespiratory function in field-immobilised white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Haw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Opioid-induced immobilisation results in severe respiratory compromise in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum. The effectiveness of oxygen insufflation combined with butorphanol in alleviating respiratory depression in free-ranging chemically immobilised white rhinoceroses was investigated. In this prospective intervention study 14 freeranging white rhinoceroses were immobilised with a combination of etorphine, azaperone and hyaluronidase. Six minutes (min after the animals became recumbent, intravenous butorphanol was administered and oxygen insufflation was initiated. Previous boma trial results were used for comparison, using repeated measures two-way analysis of variance. The initial immobilisation-induced hypoxaemia in free-ranging rhinoceroses (arterial partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2] 35.4 mmHg ± 6.6 mmHg was similar to that observed in bomaconfined rhinoceroses (PaO2 31 mmHg ± 6 mmHg, n = 8. Although the initial hypercapnia (PaCO2 63.0 mmHg ± 7.5 mmHg was not as severe as that in animals in the boma trial (79 mmHg ± 7 mmHg, the field-immobilised rhinoceroses were more acidaemic (pH 7.10 ± 0.14 at the beginning of the immobilisation compared with boma-immobilised rhinoceroses (pH 7.28 ± 0.04. Compared with pre-intervention values, butorphanol with oxygen insufflation improved the PaO2 (81.2 mmHg ± 23.7 mmHg, p < 0.001, 5 min vs 20 min, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (55.3 mmHg ± 5.2 mmHg, p < 0.01, 5 min vs 20 min, pH (7.17 ± 0.11, p < 0.001, 5 min vs 20 min, heart rate (78 breaths/min ± 20 breaths/min, p < 0.001, 5 min vs 20 min and mean arterial blood pressure (105 mmHg ± 14 mmHg, p < 0.01, 5 min vs 20 min. Oxygen insufflation combined with a single intravenous dose of butorphanol improved oxygenation and reduced hypercapnia and acidaemia in immobilised free-ranging white rhinoceroses.

  4. Purification and functional characterisation of rhiminopeptidase A, a novel aminopeptidase from the venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Vaiyapuri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Snake bite is a major neglected public health issue within poor communities living in the rural areas of several countries throughout the world. An estimated 2.5 million people are bitten by snakes each year and the cost and lack of efficacy of current anti-venom therapy, together with the lack of detailed knowledge about toxic components of venom and their modes of action, and the unavailability of treatments in rural areas mean that annually there are around 125,000 deaths worldwide. In order to develop cheaper and more effective therapeutics, the toxic components of snake venom and their modes of action need to be clearly understood. One particularly poorly understood component of snake venom is aminopeptidases. These are exo-metalloproteases, which, in mammals, are involved in important physiological functions such as the maintenance of blood pressure and brain function. Although aminopeptidase activities have been reported in some snake venoms, no detailed analysis of any individual snake venom aminopeptidases has been performed so far. As is the case for mammals, snake venom aminopeptidases may also play important roles in altering the physiological functions of victims during envenomation. In order to further understand this important group of snake venom enzymes we have isolated, functionally characterised and analysed the sequence-structure relationships of an aminopeptidase from the venom of the large, highly venomous West African gaboon viper, Bitis gabonica rhinoceros.The venom of B. g. rhinoceros was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography and fractions with aminopeptidase activities were isolated. Fractions with aminopeptidase activities showed a pure protein with a molecular weight of 150 kDa on SDS-PAGE. In the absence of calcium, this purified protein had broad aminopeptidase activities against acidic, basic and neutral amino acids but in the presence of calcium, it had only acidic aminopeptidase activity (APA. Together

  5. Measurement and characterization of a soundscape of captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) at a wildlife park conservation center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Susan M.

    Many animals, including the myopic rhinoceros, depend on hearing and smell for navigation and to interpret their environment. For them, the "soundscape" and "scentscape" are equivalent to our landscape. Noise damages humans physiologically, including reproductively, and likely damages other mammals. Rhinos vocalize sonically and infrasonically but audiograms are unavailable. Infrasonic noise tends to be chronic in urban areas, which frequently surround city zoos. Rhinos' biological and social management have been studied but little attention, if any, has been paid to their soundscapes. This project develops a standard by which such soundscapes may be measured, documented, and compared, so that once a wide range of rhino facilities have been similarly investigated, correlations could be sought between their sound metrics and the health and well-being of their animals. The interests of geographers overlap many disciplines, but the questions raised by, and the approaches of geographers frequently differ from those addressed by the original specialists, so a broader understanding of the soundscape and ways to record it may well add value to acoustic studies while simultaneously deepening geographic knowledge. This research asks: How can a soundscape of captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) be comprehensively measured and characterized? What does doing so inform about their environment of captivity? How can this method be employed to understand the contrasts of the soundscapes of captivity and natural habitats? To begin to answer these questions, the following goals are addressed: 1. To develop a series of procedures to comprehensively record, measure, analyze, and characterize a broadband white rhino soundscape; 2. To note their vocalizations, and to roughly estimate the bandwidth used by these particular animals; 3. By demonstrating that techniques and language not normally used in the discipline of Geography could broaden its scope and expand

  6. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  7. Anaesthetic management of a 10-month-old white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum calf for emergency exploratory celiotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth E. Zeiler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A 10-month-old, 580 kg, hand-reared white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum calf was presented for emergency exploratory celiotomy. Anaesthesia was safely induced with three successive intravenous (IV boluses of diazepam (10 mg and ketamine (100 mg until the trachea could be intubated. Anaesthesia was adequately maintained with isoflurane-inoxygen (mean end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1.1% ± 0.2% on a circle anaesthetic machine with carbon dioxide absorption and an intravenous infusion of ketamine and medetomidine at a mean rate of 0.02 mg/kg/min and 0.02 µg/kg/min, respectively. Mean values recorded during anaesthesia and surgery were heart rate (56.9 ± 11 beats/min, mean arterial blood pressure (6.16 kPa ± 1.75 kPa, end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (6.23 kPa ± 0.30 kPa. Abdominal gas distension contributed to hypoventilation that resulted in hypercapnoea, confirmed by arterial blood gas analysis (PaCO2 14.69 kPa, which required controlled ventilation for correction. Blood volume was maintained with the intravenous infusion of a balanced electrolyte solution at 10 mL/kg/h and blood pressure supported with a continuous infusion of dobutamine and phenylephrine. Duration of anaesthesia was 3.5 h. It was concluded that anaesthesia was safely induced in a compromised white rhinoceros calf with a combination of diazepam and ketamine. A constant-rate infusion of medetomidine and ketamine allowed for a reduction in the dose of isoflurane required during maintenance of anaesthesia and improved intra-operative blood pressure management.

  8. Anaesthetic management of a 10-month-old white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum calf for emergency exploratory celiotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth E. Zeiler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A 10-month-old, 580 kg, hand-reared white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum calf was presented for emergency exploratory celiotomy. Anaesthesia was safely induced with three successive intravenous (IV boluses of diazepam (10 mg and ketamine (100 mg until the trachea could be intubated. Anaesthesia was adequately maintained with isoflurane-inoxygen (mean end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1.1% ± 0.2% on a circle anaesthetic machine with carbon dioxide absorption and an intravenous infusion of ketamine and medetomidine at a mean rate of 0.02 mg/kg/min and 0.02 µg/kg/min, respectively. Mean values recorded during anaesthesia and surgery were heart rate (56.9 ± 11 beats/min, mean arterial blood pressure (6.16 kPa ± 1.75 kPa, end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (6.23 kPa ± 0.30 kPa. Abdominal gas distension contributed to hypoventilation that resulted in hypercapnoea, confirmed by arterial blood gas analysis (PaCO2 14.69 kPa, which required controlled ventilation for correction. Blood volume was maintained with the intravenous infusion of a balanced electrolyte solution at 10 mL/kg/h and blood pressure supported with a continuous infusion of dobutamine and phenylephrine. Duration of anaesthesia was 3.5 h. It was concluded that anaesthesia was safely induced in a compromised white rhinoceros calf with a combination of diazepam and ketamine. A constant-rate infusion of medetomidine and ketamine allowed for a reduction in the dose of isoflurane required during maintenance of anaesthesia and improved intra-operative blood pressure management.

  9. Anaesthetic management of a 10-month-old white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) calf for emergency exploratory celiotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Gareth E; Stegmann, George F

    2012-11-29

    A 10-month-old, 580 kg, hand-reared white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) calf was presented for emergency exploratory celiotomy. Anaesthesia was safely induced with three successive intravenous (IV) boluses of diazepam (10 mg) and ketamine (100 mg) until the trachea could be intubated. Anaesthesia was adequately maintained with isoflurane-inoxygen (mean end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1.1% ± 0.2%) on a circle anaesthetic machine with carbon dioxide absorption and an intravenous infusion of ketamine and medetomidine at a mean rate of 0.02 mg/kg/min and 0.02 µg/kg/min, respectively. Mean values recorded during anaesthesia and surgery were heart rate (56.9 ± 11 beats/min), mean arterial blood pressure (6.16 kPa ± 1.75 kPa), end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (6.23 kPa ± 0.30 kPa). Abdominal gas distension contributed to hypoventilation that resulted in hypercapnoea, confirmed by arterial blood gas analysis (PaCO2 14.69 kPa), which required controlled ventilation for correction. Blood volume was maintained with the intravenous infusion of a balanced electrolyte solution at 10 mL/kg/h and blood pressure supported with a continuous infusion of dobutamine and phenylephrine. Duration of anaesthesia was 3.5 h. It was concluded that anaesthesia was safely induced in a compromised white rhinoceros calf with a combination of diazepam and ketamine. A constant-rate infusion of medetomidine and ketamine allowed for a reduction in the dose of isoflurane required during maintenance of anaesthesia and improved intra-operative blood pressure management.

  10. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF BILATERAL CUTANEOUS SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE HIND FEET PADS IN A SOUTHERN WHITE RHINOCEROS (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM SIMUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greunz, Eva Maria; Simon, Marie; Lemberger, Karin; Galateanu, Gabriela; Hermes, Robert; Leclerc, Antoine

    2016-06-01

    The current report describes the temporary regression, due to intensive symptomatic treatment, of ulcerative skin lesions caused by squamous cell carcinoma in a white rhinoceros. A captive, 40-yr-old southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) developed profound, ulcerative skin lesions on the pads of both hind feet. At the peak of the disease, at least one quarter of the pads was affected. A diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made via biopsy. Treatment included anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and local care. The lesions regressed on both feet until they seemed clinically healed. It was presumed that long-term, anti-inflammatory treatment and local bandaging had induced the temporary regression of the lesions. Two years later, however, a small ulcerative lesion reappeared on one pad and post mortem examination confirmed that the carcinoma was also histologically present in the clinically intact tissue. No metastasis was found and computed tomography showed normal digital bones.

  11. Black Cohosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have had hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer or for pregnant women or nursing mothers. Black cohosh should not be confused with blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) , which has different effects and may not be safe. Black cohosh has ...

  12. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness ... that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen ( ...

  13. Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicorns Linn. in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konwar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food habits and abundance of food plant species of Rhinoceros unicornis in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary were studied from January 1999 through December 2001. Totally 32 numbers of Rhino food plants were identified, of which 15 were grasses, four shrubs, five aquatic hydrophytes and eight tree species (21 terrestrial and 11 aquatic. During the dry season, the Rhino feeds on almost 90% food items from Hemarthria compressa, Arundo donax, Phragmites karka, Cerex rubro-brumee etc. The other short grasses such as Cynodon dactylon, Andropogon ssp., Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aciculatus and tender and young shoots and twigs of Schelristechya fuesche, Saccharum spontaneum, Lagerstroemia flosreginae etc. are consumed in limited portions. The rhino consumes 11 cultivated crops and vegetables, viz., Ricinus communis, Oryza sativa, Solanum melongena, Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum tuberosum, Brassica nigra, Luffa cylindrica, Luffa acutangula, Cucurbita moschata, Cucumis sativus and Ipomoea batatas etc. Highest density of food plant species observed in the study area were Cynodon dactylon (167.5/m2, Hemarthria compressa (73.75/m2, Vetiveria zizanioides (56/m2, Saccharum ravannae (51.5/m2, Pharagmites karka (50.75/m2, Leersia hexandra (46.75/m2, Brachiarea pseudointerrupta (40/m2 and Eichhornia crassipes (35/m2.

  14. Role of delinquent young "orphan" male elephants in high mortality of white rhinoceros in Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Slotow

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum mortality at Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa, focussing on mortality caused by African elephant (Loxodonta africana. We reconstructed records from a range of historical sources, and estimated that up to 49 rhino were killed by elephant. There was confirmed mortality in 1994 and 1996, and based on patterns, we suggest a set of rhino mortality from elephant in 1992. Both sexes and all age classes were victims. There was no significant bias to older animals, but given the rhino population structure, there was a significant bias towards males in adult deaths. The culprits were identified as young male elephants that entered musth about 10 years younger than expected, and maintained musth for a full term at first occurrence. We attributed this to the lack of a mature bull hierarchy in the park, because these elephants were the product of translocation of young animals (<10 years old remaining from culls in Kruger National Park. We emphasise the need for accurate monitoring and record keeping, and a focus on individual identification of key species in small reserves.

  15. New entodiniomorphid ciliates from the intestine of the wild African white rhinoceros belong to a new family, the Gilchristidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Van Hoven, Wouter; Miyazaki, Yutaka; Imai, Soichi

    2006-11-01

    Gilchristia artemis n.g., n.sp. and Digilchristia draconis n.g., n.sp. in the order Entodiniomorphida are described from the large intestine of the African white rhinoceros, and a new family Gilchristidae is proposed to contain them. These new species have a C-shaped adoral polybrachykinety, a slender vestibular polybrachykinety, and paralabial kineties along the ventral side of the adoral polybrachykinety in their retractable adoral ciliary zone, showing the same arrangement as in the rumen ciliates in the family Ophryoscolecidae. G. artemis has two skeletal plates and D. draconis one plate. In both species the dorsal skeletal plate is bow-shaped, folded in half longitudinally, twisting in the anterior part, and lying along the dorsal left side of the macronucleus. The second plate of G. artemis is slender and lies along the ventral side of the macronucleus. G. artemis has three ciliary arches and D. draconis has four arches along the dorsal and ventral sides of the body. Their arches are long and non-retractable, closely resembling those of ciliates in the families, Spirodiniidae and Cycloposthiidae, and are not analogous to the single retractable ciliary arch of the rumen ciliates in the family Ophryoscolecidae.

  16. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Eastern Equine Encephalitis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Eastern Equine Encephalitis Home Frequently Asked Questions Prevention Virus Transmission ...

  17. The impact of the Krakatoa eruption in 1883 on the population of Rhinoceros sondaicus in Ujung Kulon, with details of rhino observations from 1857 to 1949

    OpenAIRE

    N.J.van. Strien; K. Rookmaaker

    2010-01-01

    A recent suggestion that the entire population of the Javan Rhinoceros in Ujung Kulon National Park was annihilated by the effects of the eruption of the Krakatoa in 1883 is investigated. Based on a review of contemporary reports, it is shown that people survived the waves and remained settled in one village until 1906 when it was evacuated during a plague of tigers. The first report of a rhinoceros in the peninsula of Ujung Kulon dates from 1857 and the animals were occasionally reported fr...

  18. Activation of southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) estrogen receptors by phytoestrogens: potential role in the reproductive failure of captive-born females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Christopher; Hartig, Phillip; Cardon, Mary; Varga, Nicole; Milnes, Matthew

    2012-03-01

    The captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR; Ceratotherium simum simum) population serves as an important genetic reservoir critical to the conservation of this vulnerable species. Unfortunately, captive populations are declining due to the poor reproductive success of captive-born females. Captive female SWR exhibit reproductive problems suggested to result from continual ovarian follicular activity and prolonged exposure to endogenous estrogen. However, we investigated the potential role of exogenous dietary phytoestrogens in the reproductive failure of SWR by cloning and characterizing in vitro phytoestrogen binding and activation of recombinant SWR estrogen receptors (ESR). We compared those characteristics with recombinant greater one-horned rhinoceros (GOHR; Rhinoceros unicornis) ESR, a species that receives similar captive diets yet reproduces relatively well. Our results indicate that phytoestrogens bind rhino ESR in a manner similar to other vertebrate species, but there are no differences found in phytoestrogen binding affinity of SWR ESR compared with GOHR ESR. However, species-specific differences in ESR activation by phytoestrogens were detected. The phytoestrogen coumestrol stimulated greater maximal activation of SWR ESR1 than GOHR ESR1. SWR ESR2 were also more sensitive to phytoestrogens and were activated to a greater extent by both coumestrol and daidzein. The concentrations in which significant differences in ESR activation occurred (10(-7) to 10(-5) m) are consistent with circulating concentrations measured in other vertebrate species. Taken together, these findings suggest that phytoestrogens potentially pose a risk to the reproductive health of captive SWR. However, additional studies are needed to further clarify the physiological role of dietary phytoestrogens in the reduced fertility of this species.

  19. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  20. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  1. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  2. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  3. Quantum black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.

  4. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  5. Anaemia in pregnant women in eastern Caprivi, Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    black population as a whole2i and is endemic in eastern. Caprivi.27 In this study a history of malaria was not found to have a statistically significant effect on a woman's risk for anaemia but thick films and inspection of the placenta after delivery would more definitively assess the role played by. Plasmodium falciparum in the ...

  6. New Lepidoptera records for the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Grimble; Roy C. Beckwith; Paul C. Hammond

    1993-01-01

    Black-light trap collections in mixed-coniferous forests in eastern Oregon resulted in the identification of one Arctiidae, six Noctuidae, and one Geometridae species not previously known to occur in Oregon. The ranges of 18 other species of Noctuidae, known previously in Oregon from only the Cascade and Coast Ranges, were extended to northeastern Oregon.

  7. [The black death in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeding, P

    1990-06-30

    The old Icelandic annals tell that the Black Death came to Bergen, Norway, in 1349 with a ship from England. This was probably at the beginning of September. From Bergen the plague spread rapidly northwards and southwards along the coast and over land to Eastern Norway. The Black Death remained in Norway for approximately six months. The epidemic must have been started by infected black rats and rat fleas in the grain cargo of the ship. The account in the annals, and experiences from other countries, indicate that pneumonic plague was dominant in Bergen at the start of the epidemic. After that the Black Death must have spread partly as pneumonic plague but mainly probably as bubonic plague, transmitted via human fleas from person to person. The rats cannot have played a part except in the initial phase. The annals say that 2/3 of Norway's population died. This is probably a big exaggeration. The mortality in Norway can hardly have been more than 40-50%. Even this is high compared with an estimated mortality of approximately 33% in England and on the continent.

  8. Erysipelothrix larvae sp. nov., isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Byung-Ho; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Chang, Dong-Ho; Park, Doo-Sang; Kim, Byoung-Chan

    2015-02-01

    A novel, Gram-stain positive, facultative anaerobic, non-motile and straight to curve rod shaped bacterium, strain LV19(T) was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, which was collected from Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea. The colonies of the new isolate were convex, circular, cream white in color and 1-2 mm in diameter after 3 days incubation on Tryptic Soy Agar at 37 °C. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the new isolate was most closely related to Erysipelothrix inopinata MF-EP02(T), E. rhusiopathiae ATCC 19414 (T) and E. tonsillarum T-305(T) (94.8, 93.8 and 93.7 % similarity, respectively). Strain LV19(T) grew optimally at 37 °C, at pH 8.0 and in the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Oxidase activity and catalase activity were negative. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C18:2 cis-9,12 (28.9 %), C18:1 cis-9 (22.3 %), C16:0 (22.2 %) and C18:0 (18.5 %). The cell-wall hydrolysates contained ribose as a major sugar. Major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol and three unidentified glycolipids. No quinone was detected. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.3 mol%. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain LV19(T) and all the reference strains were less than 20 %. On the basis of polyphasic evidence from this study, the isolate is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Erysipelothrix, for which the name Erysipelothrix larvae sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is LV19(T) (=KCTC 33523(T) = DSM 28480(T)).

  9. An internationally standardized species identification test for use on suspected seized rhinoceros horn in the illegal wildlife trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Kyle M; Frankham, Greta J; McEwing, Ross; Webster, Lucy M I; Ciavaglia, Sherryn A; Linacre, Adrian M T; The, Dang Tat; Ovouthan, Kanitia; Johnson, Rebecca N

    2018-01-01

    Rhinoceros (rhino) numbers have dwindled substantially over the past century. As a result, three of the five species are now considered to be critically endangered, one species is vulnerable and one species is near-threatened. Poaching has increased dramatically over the past decade due to a growing demand for rhino horn products, primarily in Asia. Improved wildlife forensic techniques, such as validated tests for species identification of seized horns, are critical to aid current enforcement and prosecution efforts and provide a deterrent to future rhino horn trafficking. Here, we present an internationally standardized species identification test based on a 230 base pair cytochrome-b region. This test improves on previous nested PCR protocols and can be used for the discrimination of samples with rhino horn' substitute, but to exclude human DNA, a common contaminant. Phylogenetic analyses using this partial cytochrome-b region resolved the five extant rhino species. Testing successfully returned a sequence and correct identification for all of the known rhino horn samples and vouchered rhino samples from museum and zoo collections, and provided species level identification for 47 out of 52 unknown samples from seizures. Validation and standardization was carried out across five different laboratories, in four different countries, demonstrating it to be an effective and reproducible test, robust to inter laboratory variation in equipment and consumables (such as PCR reagents). This is one of the first species identification tests to be internationally standardized to produce data for evidential proceedings and the first published validated test for rhinos, one of the flagship species groups of the illegal wildlife trade and for which forensic tools are urgently required. This study serves as a model for how species identification tests should be standardized and disseminated for wildlife forensic testing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B

  10. A numerical and theoretical study on the aerodynamics of a rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxlyus dichotomus) and optimization of its wing kinematics in hover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sehyeong; Lee, Boogeon; Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2017-11-01

    We investigate a hovering rhinoceros beetle using numerical simulation and blade element theory. Numerical simulations are performed using an immersed boundary method. In the simulation, the hindwings are modeled as a rigid flat plate, and three-dimensionally scanned elytra and body are used. The results of simulation indicate that the lift force generated by the hindwings alone is sufficient to support the weight, and the elytra generate negligible lift force. Considering the hindwings only, we present a blade element model based on quasi-steady assumptions to identify the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation and power expenditure in the hovering flight of a rhinoceros beetle. We show that the results from the present blade element model are in excellent agreement with numerical ones. Based on the current blade element model, we find the optimal wing kinematics minimizing the aerodynamic power requirement using a hybrid optimization algorithm combining a clustering genetic algorithm with a gradient-based optimizer. We show that the optimal wing kinematics reduce the aerodynamic power consumption, generating enough lift force to support the weight. This research was supported by a Grant to Bio-Mimetic Robot Research Center Funded by Defense Acquisition Program Administration, and by Agency for Defense Development (UD130070ID) and NRF-2016R1E1A1A02921549 of the MSIP of Korea.

  11. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  12. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.

    1980-01-01

    In years 1920 as a result of quantum mechanics principles governing the structure of ordinary matter, a sudden importance for a problem raised a long time ago by Laplace: what happens when a massive body becomes so dense that even light cannot escape from its gravitational field. It is difficult to conceive how could be avoided in the actual universe the accumulation of important masses of cold matter having been submitted to gravitational breaking down followed by the formation of what is called to day a black hole [fr

  13. Western Black Sea region-tectonics, evolution and petroleum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Western Black Sea region comprises parts of:East European platform, Scythian paltform, North Dobrogea orogen, Moesian paltform, Balkan orogen, Eastern Srednogorie, Strandzha orogen, Karkinit basin, West Black Sea basin, Bourgas basin and Thrace basin. The West Black Sea basin consists of two western branches; northern one-Histria sub-basin (in Romania) and southern one-Kamchia sub-basin (in Bulgaria).The eastern Mosian platform is fringed to North by North Dobrogea rift (Seghedi,2001) and to South by Eastern Srednogorie-Balkan rift zone (ESBRZ). These two rift basins were inverted into orogenic belts. Eastwards to the Western Black Sea basin only a broad transitional zone with complex structure can be outlined. To West the Moesian platforms surrounded by south Carpathian-Balkan thrust-fold belt. Both rift basins restricted the Eastern Moesian platform to north and south, are superimposed on the Hercynian sutures.The North Dobrogea rift basin-on the suture between the south-western edge of East Europen platform and Moesian block, and the ESBRZ-on the suture between Moesian block and peri-Gondwana derived Thracian block. The South Moesian platform margin was repeatedly affected by Mesozoic rifting cycles in the Eastern Srednogorie-Balkan zone (ESBZ), interrupted and followed by compressional events,causing strong platform margin shortening and ultimately its overprinting by the alpine orogen.

  14. Changing sedimentary environments during Pleistocene-Holocene in a core from the eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Rao, Ch.M.; Mascarenhas, A.; Rao, K.M.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Das, H.C.

    Sedimentological and geochemical investigations of the sediments in a core from the eastern continental margin of India, at a water depth of 1200 m, revealed two distinct types. The Late Pleistocene sediments are greyish-black in colour and consist...

  15. Making Blackness, Making Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Too often the acknowledgment that race is a social construction ignores exactly how this construction occurs. By illuminating the way in which the category of blackness and black individuals are made, we can better see how race matters in America. Antidiscrimination policy, social science research, and the state's support of its citizens can all be improved by an accurate and concrete definition of blackness. Making Blackness, Making Policy argues that blackness and black people are literally...

  16. Rhinos in the Parks: An Island-Wide Survey of the Last Wild Population of the Sumatran Rhinoceros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Pusparini

    Full Text Available In the 200 years since the Sumatran rhinoceros was first scientifically described (Fisher 1814, the range of the species has contracted from a broad region in Southeast Asia to three areas on the island of Sumatra and one in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Assessing population and spatial distribution of this very rare species is challenging because of their elusiveness and very low population number. Using an occupancy model with spatial dependency, we assessed the fraction of the total landscape occupied by Sumatran rhinos over a 30,345-km2 survey area and the effects of covariates in the areas where they are known to occur. In the Leuser Landscape (surveyed in 2007, the model averaging result of conditional occupancy estimate was ψ(SE[ψ] = 0.151(0.109 or 2,371.47 km2, and the model averaging result of replicated level detection probability p(SE[p] = 0.252(0.267; in Way Kambas National Park--2008: ψ(SE[ψ] = 0.468(0.165 or 634.18 km2, and p(SE[p] = 0.138(0.571; and in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park--2010: ψ(SE[ψ] = 0.322(0.049 or 819.67 km2, and p(SE[p] = 0.365(0.42. In the Leuser Landscape, rhino occurrence was positively associated with primary dry land forest and rivers, and negatively associated with the presence of a road. In Way Kambas, occurrence was negatively associated with the presence of a road. In Bukit Barisan Selatan, occurrence was negatively associated with presence of primary dryland forest and rivers. Using the probabilities of site occupancy, we developed spatially explicit maps that can be used to outline intensive protection zones for in-situ conservation efforts, and provide a detailed assessment of conserving Sumatran rhinos in the wild. We summarize our core recommendation in four points: consolidate small population, strong protection, determine the percentage of breeding females, and recognize the cost of doing nothing. To reduce the probability of poaching, here we present only the randomized location of site level

  17. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black holes; numerical relativity; nonlinear sigma. Abstract. Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. ... Theoretical and Computational Studies Group, Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA ...

  18. Characterization of growth and Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus production in attached cultures of the DSIR-HA-1179 coleopteran insect cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparajan, Charlotte; Claus, Juan Daniel; Marshall, Sean David Goldie; Visnovsky, Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    The DSIR-HA-1179 coleopteran cell line is a susceptible and permissive host to the Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV), which has been used as a biocontrol agent against the coconut rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros); a pest of palms in the Asia-Pacific region. However, little is known about growth and metabolism of this cell line, knowledge of which is necessary to develop an in vitro large-scale OrNV production process. The strong anchorage-dependent characteristics of the cell line, its particular fragility and its tendency to form dense clumps when manipulated, are the most likely reasons that have precluded further development of the cell line. In order to characterize DSIR-HA-1179 cells, there was first a need for a reliable technique to count the cells. A homogenous cell suspension suitable for enumeration could be produced by treatment with TrypLE Express™ with optimum mean time for cell release calculated as 30 min. The cell line was adapted to grow in four serum-supplemented culture media namely TC-100, IPL-41, Sf-900 II and Sf-900 III and cell growth, glucose consumption, lactate and ammonia production were assessed from static-batch cultures. The maximum viable cell density was reached in Sf-900 II (17.9 × 10(5) cells/ml), with the maximum specific growth rate observed in this culture medium as well (0.0074 h(-1)). Higher production of OrNV was observed in IPL-41 and TC-100 (4.1 × 10(7) TCID50/ml) than in cultures infected in Sf-900 III (2.0 × 10(7) TCID50/ml) and Sf-900 II (1.4 × 10(7) TCID50/ml). At the end of the growth period, glucose was completely consumed in cultures grown in TC-100, while remained in excess in the other three culture media. The cell line produced lactate and ammonia to very low levels in the TC-100 culture medium which is a promising aspect for its cultivation at large-scale.

  19. Post-release ranging behaviour of hand-raised black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. in Matusadona National Park, Zimbabwe with recommendations for management of introduction to the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Matipano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand-raised rhinos would preferentially settle at sites close to areas where human activity was significant. Hand-raised rhinos that attached themselves to sites of human activity tended to move less widely and to have smaller seasonal ranges than those that moved away from human settlements. These rhinos had no fear of humans and some animals would move along established roads into hostile areas outside the park. These factors made hand-raised rhinos more vulnerable to poaching than their wild counterparts. Management of hand-raised rhinos with regards to ranging behaviour is discussed in the text.

  20. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  1. Cardiovascular benefits of black cumin (Nigella sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Adel; El-Menyar, Ayman; Asim, Mohammad; Al-Azzeh, Hiba; Al Thani, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Black Cumin (Nigella sativa), which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, commonly grows in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Western Asia. Its ripe fruit contains tiny black seeds, known as "Al-Habba Al-Sauda" and "Al-Habba Al-Barakah" in Arabic and black seed or black cumin in English. Seeds of Nigella sativa are frequently used in folk medicine in the Middle East and some Asian countries for the promotion of good health and the treatment of many ailments. However, data for the cardiovascular benefits of black cumin are not well-established. We reviewed the literature from 1960 to March 2012 by using the following key words: "Nigella sativa," "black seeds," and "thymoquinone." Herein, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of Nigella sativa in the cardiovascular diseases spectrum especially when there is a paucity of information and need of further studies in human to establish the utility of Nigella sativa in cardiovascular system protection.

  2. Topography of the crust-mantle boundary beneath the Black Sea Basin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starostenkp, V.; Buryanov, V.; Makarenko, I.; Rusakov, O.M.; Stephenson, R.A.; Nikishin, A.M.; Georgiev, G.; Gerasimov, M.; Dimitriu, R.; Legostaeva, O.V.; Pchelarov, V.; Sava, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    A map of Moho depth for the Black Sea and its immediate surroundings has been inferred from 3-D gravity modelling, and crustal structure has been clarified. Beneath the basin centre, the thickness of the crystalline layer is similar to that of the oceanic crust. In the Western and Eastern Black Sea

  3. Conservation assessment for the autumn willow in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Autumn willow, Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern., is an obligate wetland shrub that occurs in fens and bogs in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Disjunct populations of autumn willow occur in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Only two populations occur on Black Hills National Forest lands: a large population at McIntosh Fen and a small...

  4. Conservation assessment for bloodroot in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Bloodroot, Sanguinaria canadensis L. (Papaveraceae), is a common spring flowering herb in the deciduous forests of eastern North America. It is disjunctly distributed in the northeastern Black Hills of South Dakota. There are 22 known occurrences of bloodroot on Black Hills National Forest in hardwood forests, shrub thickets, and floodplain habitats of limited...

  5. Alexandrium in the Black Sea — identity, ecology and PSP toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alexandrium cf. tamarense was recorded for the first time along the north-eastern coast of the Black Sea in July 2001. Since then, it has been observed annually between May and October. A maximum density of Alexandrium spp. of 9 000 cells l–1 was recorded during August 2004. Examination of the Black Sea ...

  6. LP (a) levels and apo (a) phenotypes in urban black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glycoprotein, apolipoprptein (apo (a», which bears a strong resemblance to plasminogen! Lp (a) exhibits both ... Lp (a) values and apo (a) phenotypes in a group of black urban South African men. Methods. Subjects. Plasma samples from black South African men working at a lead acid battery plant in the Eastern Cape were ...

  7. Black Carp: Biological synopsis and risk assessment of an introduced fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, L.G.; Williams, J.D.; Jelks, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    This book is a detailed risk assessment and biological synopsis of the black carp, a large mollusk-eating cyprinid fish native to eastern Asia. A great deal of controversy surrounds the presence of this foreign fish in the United States. Most of those associated with the aquaculture industry view black carp as an important tool in controlling.

  8. Failure of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) rhizome transplants: potential causes and forest farming implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine J. Small; James L. Chamberlain; Christopher M. Nuckols

    2014-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) rhizomes are harvested extensively from eastern North American forests and sold worldwide for treatment of menopausal symptoms. While forest farming is encouraged to reduce wild-harvest impacts, little information is available to aid landowners in successfully cultivating black cohosh. This study examined survival and multi-year growth...

  9. Evaluating the virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes and Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales isolates to Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Khudhair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were tested against Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus larvae. Four concentrations (1×105, 1×107, 1×109 and 1×1011 conidia/mL–1 of two locally isolated entomopathogenic fungi spore suspensions were used in this study via larval direct spraying. Results revealed that both isolates can cause high mortality rate reaching 100% after 29 days. However, Beauveria bassiana scored higher mortality rate in short time especially at the concentration of 1×1011 conidia/ mL–1 with lethal time (LT50 12.75 and LT90 20.00; while, Metarhizium anisopliae caused the higher percentage of malformed adults. Moreover, both isolates affected insect’s life cycle particularly in the pupal stage which was reduced remarkably by almost 50% in comparison with the control treatment.

  10. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  11. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  12. Comparison of butorphanol-detomidine versus butorphanol-azaperone for the standing sedation of captive greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapodra, Priya; Cracknell, Jonathan; Wolfe, Barbara A

    2014-03-01

    Three adult and two subadult greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) were sedated a total of nine times using two different intramuscular sedative combinations in order to compare the effectiveness of these combinations in inducing consistent standing sedation in this species. The sedation protocols compared were butorphanol tartrate (50-60 mg) and detomidine hydrochloride (20-30 mg; BD) versus butorphanol tartrate (80-120 mg) and azaperone (80-120 mg; BA). Specific doses were adjusted according to age and sex class, and based on previous experience. Parameters compared included time to achieve defined levels of sedation, time to recovery following antagonism, physiological parameters including heart rate, respiratory rate, indirect arterial blood pressure, and venous blood gas values. A hydraulic restraint chute was utilized to mechanically restrain animals during the procedures, and blood collection and ophthalmic examinations were conducted on all animals. Both protocols resulted in standing sedation for > or = 22.3 +/- 2.9 min or until antagonists were administered. The BD protocol resulted in deeper and more consistent sedation, compared to the BA protocol. Naltrexone hydrochloride (250-300 mg) and tolazoline hydrochloride (1,500-2,000 mg) were administered intramuscularly to antagonize protocol BD, whereas naltrexone alone (200-500 mg) was used to antagonize BA. Time to full antagonism, defined as normal mentation and ambulation following administration of antagonists, was prolonged in the BD protocol (132.3 +/- 17.2 min) compared with the BA protocol (7.5 +/- 2.5 min). Venous blood gas analysis did not reveal any significant blood gas deviations during sedation when compared with either conscious equine or white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) venous reference ranges. In summary, both combinations resulted in adequate standing sedation for minimally invasive procedures, although BD resulted in more profound and consistent sedation.

  13. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Black Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Black eye Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a ... 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-black-eye/basics/ART-20056675 . Mayo ...

  15. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. In situ characterization of the black pigment from parietal art of the Rouffignac Cave with a portable XRF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanoit, J. de; Chambellan, D.; Plassard, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Rouffignac cave in Dordogne (France) is a palaeolithic site which contains, among others, an important patrimony of cave art realized with black pigment (mammoths, bisons, woolly rhinoceros, horses, ibexes). Although no direct dating has ever been realized to date, the graphic works of this cave are generally connected to the Magdalenian age by cross-dating (stylistic comparison). For the first time, in situ non destructive analyses of this pigment were able to be made due to the use of a portable XRF system (X-Ray Fluorescence). The experimental set-up is mainly constituted with a small X-ray generator (Bullet TM 40 kV, Moxtek), a SDD detector (silicon drift detector, Rontec 1102) cooled by a Peltier cryostat and an optical system, the whole being connected to a portable system for acquisition of spectrometric data. The experimental spectra obtained on the three rhinoceros frieze, the horse over the flint nodule, the ten mammoths frieze and some animals of the Grand Plafond showed a systematic presence of manganese in all figures. This hypothesis had been already suggested by Graziosi in 1956 in the review 'La Nature' after a destructive analysis of a sample taken on one of the horses of the Grand Plafond. A Monte-Carlo simulation allowed a first quantitative approach in the analysis of the black pigment of the drawings. We can assess that the used manganese ore does not only result from a unique source because variable ratios of manganese, barium and iron were probed in the black pigment. None of the studied drawing was executed exclusively with black charcoal that would have made the selection of a sample suitable for radiocarbon dating less complicated. Additional non destructive in situ analysis using a portable PIXE set-up (Particles Induced X-ray Emission) equipped with a 210 Po as radiation source can be foreseen to allow the detection of elements with atomic numbers (Z) between 11 and 16 in the first layers of the black pigment, there where the XRF

  17. History of black walnut genetics research in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Victory; Keith Woeste; Olin E., Jr. Rhodes

    2004-01-01

    Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is an economically and ecologically important hardwood species that has been used throughout the history of settlement in North America. It was a resource that helped Native Americans in their everyday life, it helped European settlers carve a living out of the wilderness, and it has helped rural farmers and...

  18. Population status of black and white colobus monkeys ( Colobus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern black and white colobus monkeys, or guerezas (Colobus guereza), are among the few primate species that have traditionally been regarded as not being adversely affected by habitat degradation. This view was recently challenged by von Hippel et al. (2000) who, using data from short-term censuses in 1992 and ...

  19. Antagonistic Effect of Native Bacillus Isolates against Black Root Rot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in eastern Africa. Black root rot (Fusarium solani) is known to cause great yield losses in faba bean, especially in the highlands of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological control ability of native Bacillus species on the basis of ...

  20. Archaeological Sites Inventory in the Black Hills of the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owens, Mark

    2000-01-01

    .... These tree-covered areas located adjacent to open plains, appear black on the horizon. This setting of open steppes and juxtaposed hills is found along the eastern portion of the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site (PCMS), a U.S...

  1. Brane world black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, Anurag; Sengupta, Gautam

    2007-01-01

    Five dimensional neutral rotating black rings are described from a Randall-Sundrum brane world perspective in the bulk black string framework. To this end we consider a rotating black string extension of a five dimensional black ring into the bulk of a six dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world with a single four brane. The bulk solution intercepts the four brane in a five dimensional black ring with the usual curvature singularity on the brane. The bulk geodesics restricted to the plane of rotation of the black ring are constructed and their projections on the four brane match with the usual black ring geodesics restricted to the same plane. The asymptotic nature of the bulk geodesics are elucidated with reference to a bulk singularity at the AdS horizon. We further discuss the description of a brane world black ring as a limit of a boosted bulk black 2 brane with periodic identification

  2. 2013 - Black & White - eastern Chittenden Co. (20 cm)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata record describes the acquisition and production of greyscale digital orthoimagery covering a portion of Chittenden County, Vermont....

  3. Chromian spinel-rich black sands from eastern shoreline of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rocks, especially Alpine-type peridotites (Press. 1986; Arai and Okada 1991; Cookenboo et al. 1997;. Lee 1999). Due to the high mechanical and chem- ical resistivity of spinel grains, it usually forms beach placers. The spinel compositions, known to be influenced by the geodynamic environment of formation (Evans and ...

  4. Plastic ingestion in marine-associated bird species from the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, S; Provencher, J F; Morgan, K H; Bertram, D F

    2013-07-15

    In addition to monitoring trends in plastic pollution, multi-species surveys are needed to fully understand the pervasiveness of plastic ingestion. We examined the stomach contents of 20 bird species collected from the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific, a region known to have high levels of plastic pollution. We observed no evidence of plastic ingestion in Rhinoceros Auklet, Marbled Murrelet, Ancient Murrelet or Pigeon Guillemot, and low levels in Common Murre (2.7% incidence rate). Small sample sizes limit our ability to draw conclusions about population level trends for the remaining fifteen species, though evidence of plastic ingestion was found in Glaucous-Winged Gull and Sooty Shearwater. Documenting levels of plastic ingestion in a wide array of species is necessary to gain a comprehensive understanding about the impacts of plastic pollution. We propose that those working with bird carcasses follow standard protocols to assess the levels of plastic ingestion whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  6. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the Ea......P essentially replicated the main weaknesses of the European Neighbourhood Policy, by offering too little incentive and support to the partners, rendering both conditionality and soft power ineffective as tools for milieu shaping. In promoting the EaP as a policy of soft power, the EU has once again forgotten...... that soft power can never be separated from the 'harder' policies that would meet the expectations of those wishing to align with it. This failure of policy continues to largely negate the EU's actually considerable reservoir of potential soft power in Eastern Europe....

  7. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  8. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  9. Black-Body Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Black-body radiation; thermal radiation; heat; electromagnetic radiation; Stefan's Law; Stefan–Boltzmann Law; Wien's Law; Rayleigh–Jeans Law; black-body spectrum; ultraviolet catastrophe; zero point energy; photon.

  10. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  11. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  12. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I.G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  13. Alcoholism and Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Bertha; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Notes that in America, knowledge base concerning alcoholism is concentrated on drinking patterns of Whites, and that Black Americans often differ in their drinking behavior, resulting in a need to clarify issues regarding alcoholism and Blacks. Provides theoretical information useful in better discerning drinking behavior of Blacks. (Author/NB)

  14. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  15. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  16. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  17. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  18. We Walk by Faith, Not by Sight: An Inquiry of Spirituality and Career Development of Black Women Leaders in Academe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown McManus, Kecia Chivonne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore, with eleven Black women leaders in higher education, their perception of spirituality and its impact on their career development. A purposive sample of Black women leaders at research-intensive institutions along the Eastern seaboard was examined in order to understand: (1) How do participants define…

  19. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  20. The reproductive success of black rhinoceroses in the Hluhluwe–iMfolozi Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoliswa N. Nhleko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis are endangered and the southern-central sub-species (Diceros bicornis minor is considered critically endangered. We assessed the reproductive lifehistories of black rhinoceroses in Hluhluwe–iMfolozi Park (HiP, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to determine whether this historically important donor sub-population was meeting regional reproductive targets. Detailed life-history information for known individuals (n = 79–120 was used to investigate reproductive parameters between 1998 and 2013. Mean age at sexual maturity was 12 years, which exceeded a target period of 7 years and 5 months. The mean inter-calving interval was 3 years and 8 months – 8 months longer than the recommended 3 years. The poor population performance of the HiP black rhinoceroses could be a result of poor habitat quality, poor animal condition, females losing their first calves, predation of calves or a negative social effect of annual live-harvesting of the population. However, we believe that the estimated ecological carrying capacity of black rhinoceroses at HiP (a figure used to ascertain whether the population can be harvested at all may be incorrect, leading to the poor reproductive performance. We recommend that the accuracy of the ecological carrying capacity estimate be assessed as a matter of urgency and that a moratorium be placed on the live-harvesting of individuals until the estimate has been refined. Conservation implications: Our results provide key data which can be used to refine black rhinoceros breeding targets in South Africa and the region more broadly

  1. The literature of the California black rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Sanford R.

    1974-01-01

    Few birds have remained so little known as the California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus). Although first collected in 1859 or before and reported in 1874 (Ridgway 1874), its life history, distribution, and status have remained so obscure that even a sight record of the bird is deemed worthy of a report in some ornithological publications. Because degradation and loss of freshwater and saltwater marshlands in California may be detrimentally affecting the black rail, both the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (1973) and the California Department of Fish and Game (1972) have classified it as rare and worthy of further study. The 84 papers and notes both summarized in this report and included in its bibliography include essentially all that is currently known about the California black rail. Only 11 of these papers consider the life history of this rail in any detail. The rest are distribution notes and some of the more important papers on the closely related eastern black rail (L. j. jamaicensis). The latter are included for comparative purposes, or because they may lend clues to currently unknown facets of the life history of the western race.

  2. New Records of Raptors in Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.

  3. Structure of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) horn investigated by X-ray computed tomography and histology with implications for growth and external form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronymus, Tobin L; Witmer, Lawrence M; Ridgely, Ryan C

    2006-10-01

    The nasal and frontal horns of two individuals of Ceratotherium simum were examined by x-ray computed tomography (CT scanning), gross observation of sectioned horn, and light microscopy of histological sections of the horn tissue. CT scans of both sets of horns reveal a periodic banding pattern that is evident upon gross observation of sections as darker bands of tissue. The overlap of these bands in both histological and CT slices suggests the presence of both a photoabsorbent component (melanin) and a radiodense component (calcium phosphate salts, most likely hydroxyapatite or octocalcium phosphate). The distribution of these two components in the horns is hypothesized to contribute to the differential wear patterns that produce the characteristic sweeping conical shape of rhinoceros horn from what otherwise (in the absence of wear and UV exposure) would be cylindrical blocks of constantly growing cornified papillary epidermis. Although extant rhinocerotids are unique in possessing a massive entirely keratinous horn that approximates the functions of keratin-and-bone horns such as those of bovid artiodactyls, the tissue structures that make up the horn are strikingly convergent with other examples of papillary cornified epidermis found in horses, artiodactyls, cetaceans, and birds. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Historic 1958 black and white aerial photography for Wicomico County, Maryland. Imagery was scanned from historic hard copy images and georeferenced to current imagery. This data is available via map service., Published in 2010, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2010. Historic 1958 black and white aerial photography for Wicomico County, Maryland. Imagery...

  5. The Middle Ordovician Knox unconformity in the Black Warrior Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Gary S.; Repetski, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of well core and cuttings from the Black Warrior Basin in Mississippi reveals the presence of a Middle Ordovician (Whiterockian) erosional unconformity interpreted to be equivalent to the well-known Knox-Beekmantown unconformity in eastern North America. The unconformity occurs at the top of a peritidal dolostone unit known informally as the upper dolostone, whose stratigraphic placement has been the subject of a long-standing controversy. The unconformity, which represents the Sauk-Tippecanoe megasequence boundary on the North American craton, was previously thought to be short-lived or altogether absent in the Black Warrior Basin.

  6. First report of the post-fire morel, Morchella exuberans, in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of true morels (Morchella) fruiting on conifer burn sites are common in western North America where five different fire-adapted species of black morels (Elata Clade) have been documented based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses. Fruiting of post-fire morels in eastern North America, by comp...

  7. Interacting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2000-01-01

    We revisit the geometry representing l collinear Schwarzschild black holes. It is seen that the black holes' horizons are deformed by their mutual gravitational attraction. The geometry has a string like conical singularity that connects the holes but has nevertheless a well defined action. Using standard gravitational thermodynamics techniques we determine the free energy for two black holes at fixed temperature and distance, their entropy and mutual force. When the black holes are far apart the results agree with Newtonian gravity expectations. This analyses is generalized to the case of charged black holes. Then we consider black holes embedded in string/M-theory as bound states of branes. Using the effective string description of these bound states and for large separation we reproduce exactly the semi-classical result for the entropy, including the correction associated with the interaction between the holes

  8. Black silicon integrated aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbo; Dickensheets, David L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the incorporation of nanotextured black silicon as an optical absorbing material into silicon-based micro-optoelectromechanical systems devices to reduce stray light and increase optical contrast during imaging. Black silicon is created through a maskless dry etch process and characterized for two different etch conditions, a cold etch performed at 0°C and a cryogenic etch performed at -110°C. We measure specular reflection at visible wavelengths to be black velvet paint used to coat optical baffles and compare favorably with other methods to produce black surfaces from nanotextured silicon or using carbon nanotubes. We illustrate the use of this material by integrating a black silicon aperture around the perimeter of a deformable focus-control mirror. Imaging results show a significant improvement in contrast and image fidelity due to the effective reduction in stray light achieved with the self-aligned black aperture.

  9. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  10. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  11. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Lead pollution and its sources along the Turkish coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. UNSAL

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution and its sources have been investigated in the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea. Surficial sediments and mussels were collected in different seasons of the year from the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea and analysed for their lead contents. In the south-eastern Black Sea sediments from the easternmost and from the central stations contained the highest lead concentrations. Sediments contained 8 to 10 times the lead concentrations of sediments from the south-west. Samples taken from rivers, streams and effluents had especially high lead concentrations. The highest lead concentrations were found in sediments collected in October and December. Lead concentrations in mussels from the south-eastern coast were comparatively lower compared to those from the south-western coast. The highest average values occurred in December and in October. In the south-western Black Sea, the highest lead concentrations in sediments were obtained in those from Inebolu, followed by those from around Zonguldak. The concentrations increased from the middle to the west of the southern Black Sea coast, possibly due to the effect of the Danube River. Sediments taken in September had the highest lead concentrations, followed by samples taken in December. Very high lead concentrations (> 10 μ g g-1 were observed in mussels from those stations where the sediments also contained high concentrations. Mussels had their highest lead concentrations in January and April.

  14. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  15. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... for Eastern Jutland.  This process relies on the municipalities in Eastern Jutland reaching consensus on a common vision for the city region.   The key issue in spatial planning in Eastern Jutland is a conflict between preserving the high quality of landscape and maintaining the divide between the countryside...

  16. Buphagus erythrorhynchus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for giraffe, black rhinoceros, roan antelope and sable antelope Hippotragus niger (Stutterheim 1979), whereas in the Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Game Reserve complex it associates with seven species, preferring buffalo, black rhinoceros and white rhinoceros (Stutterheim 1980), and in the Mkuzi Game Reserve and Nxwala State ...

  17. Black holes are warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)

  18. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  19. Black hole candidates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Black hole candidates. In the case of X-ray sources such as Cyg X-1, the mass of the compact object inferred from combined optical and X-ray data, suggest M_compact object > 3.4 M_sun => Black Hole! A remarkable discovery!! Thus X-ray emitting binary systems ...

  20. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  1. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  2. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  3. Protecting Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  4. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of ...

  5. Black Boycott: Gainsville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arthur O.

    1975-01-01

    A case study of the events precipitating a black student boycott in 1969 in Gainesville, Flordia, when school board manuevering to avoid school integration led to the threatened closing of Lincoln High School, a reputable black community school. Also described are the subsequent transformations of Lincoln into a vocational-technical school and…

  6. Neoliberalism and Black Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, John Martin

    1986-01-01

    In contrast to traditional liberals, neoliberals share a commitment to greater economic risk-taking, support for entrepreneurism, a new industrial policy, and a different Federal Role. While New Deal and Great Society liberalism may have been more favorable to blacks, perhaps more balanced and equitable policies for blacks could be developed if…

  7. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  8. Legitimizing Blacks in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameliah Shorter-Bourhanou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In its efforts toward improving diversity, the discipline of philosophy has tended to focus on increasing the number of black philosophers. One crucial issue that has received less attention is the extent to which black philosophers are delegitimized in the discipline because their philosophical contributions challenge the status quo. A systematic problem that bars black philosophers from equal and full participation, this delegitimization precludes the emergence of genuine diversity and reveals the importance of interrogating broader attitudes toward black philosophical contributions. In this essay, I argue for radical systematic changes to disciplinary hallmarks of professionalization such as pedagogy, mentoring, publishing, and hiring practices with the aim of legitimizing black philosophers and their contributions.

  9. The Kinetics of the Humoral and Interferon-Gamma Immune Responses to Experimental Mycobacterium bovis Infection in the White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven D. C. Parsons

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis (TB in a wide range of species, including white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum. Control of the disease relies on the indirect detection of infection by measuring pathogen-specific responses of the host. These are poorly described in the white rhinoceros and this study aimed to characterize the kinetics of immune responses to M. bovis infection in this species. Three white rhinoceroses were infected with M. bovis and their immune sensitization to this pathogen was measured monthly for 20 months. Cell-mediated immunity was characterized in whole blood samples as the differential release of interferon-gamma in response to bovine purified protein derivative (PPDb and avian PPD (PPDa as well as the release of this cytokine in response to the M. bovis proteins 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6/10 kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10. Humoral immunity was quantified as the occurrence or the magnitude of antibody responses to the proteins ESAT-6/CFP-10, MPB83, MPB83/MPB70, and PPDb. The magnitude and duration of immune reactivity varied between individuals; however, peak responses to these antigens were detected in all animals circa 5–9 months postinfection. Hereafter, they gradually declined to low or undetectable levels. This pattern was associated with limited TB-like pathology at postmortem examination and appeared to reflect the control of M. bovis infection following the development of the adaptive immune response. Measurement of these markers could prove useful for assessing the disease status or treatment of naturally infected animals. Moreover, immune responses identified in this study might be used to detect infection; however, further studies are required to confirm their diagnostic utility.

  10. Sperm sex-sorting and preservation for managing the sex ratio and genetic diversity of the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Ball, R L; Steinman, K J; Montano, G A; Love, C C; Robeck, T R

    2015-01-01

    White rhinoceros ejaculates (n=9) collected by electroejaculation from four males were shipped (10°C, 12h) to develop procedures for the production of chilled and frozen-thawed sex-sorted spermatozoa of adequate quality for artificial insemination (AI). Of all electroejaculate fractions, 39.7% (31/78) exhibited high quality post-collection (≥70% total motility and membrane integrity) and of those, 54.8% (17/31) presented reduced in vitro quality after transport and were retrospectively determined to exhibit urine-contamination (≥21.0μg creatinine/ml). Of fractions analyzed for creatinine concentration, 69% (44/64) were classified as urine-contaminated. For high quality non-contaminated fractions, in vitro parameters (motility, velocity, membrane, acrosome and DNA integrity) of chilled non-sorted and sorted spermatozoa were well-maintained at 5°C up to 54h post-collection, whereby >70% of post-transport (non-sorted) or post-sort (sorted) values were retained. By 54h post-collection, some motility parameters were higher (P<0.05) for non-sorted spermatozoa (total motility, rapid velocity, average path velocity) whereas all remaining motion parameters as well as membrane, acrosome and DNA integrity were similar between sperm types. In comparison with a straw method, directional freezing resulted in enhanced (P<0.05) motility and velocity of non-sorted and sorted spermatozoa, with comparable overall post-thaw quality between sperm types. High purity enrichment of X-bearing (89±6%) or Y-bearing (86±3%) spermatozoa was achieved using moderate sorting rates (2540±498X-spermatozoa/s; 1800±557Y-spermatozoa/s). Collective in vitro characteristics of sorted-chilled or sorted-frozen-thawed spermatozoa derived from high quality electroejaculates indicate acceptable fertility potential for use in AI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The genome of Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus provides novel insight into the evolution of nuclear arthropod-specific large circular double-stranded DNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; van Oers, Monique M; Vlak, Just M; Jehle, Johannes A

    2011-06-01

    The Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV) is a dsDNA virus with enveloped, rod-shaped virions. Its genome is 127,615 bp in size and contains 139 predicted protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). In-depth genome sequence comparisons revealed a varying number of shared gene homologues, not only with other nudiviruses (NVs) and baculoviruses, but also with other arthropod-specific large dsDNA viruses, including the so-called Monodon baculovirus (MBV), the salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Nudivirus genomes contain 20 baculovirus core gene homologues associated with transcription (p47, lef-8, lef-9, lef-4, vlf-1, and lef-5), replication (dnapol and helicase), virus structure (p74, pif-1, pif-2, pif-3, 19kda/pif-4, odv-e56/pif-5, vp91, vp39, and 38K), and unknown functions (ac68, ac81, and p33). Most strikingly, a set of homologous genes involved in peroral infection (p74, pif-1, pif-2, and pif-3) are common to baculoviruses, nudiviruses, SGHVs, and WSSV indicating an ancestral mode of infection in these highly diverged viruses. A gene similar to polyhedrin/granulin encoding the baculovirus occlusion body protein was identified in non-occluded NVs and in Musca domestica SGHV evoking the question of the evolutionary origin of the baculovirus polyhedrin/granulin gene. Based on gene homologies, we further propose that the shrimp MBV is an occluded member of the nudiviruses. We conclude that baculoviruses, NVs and the shrimp MBV, the SGHVs and WSSV share the significant number of conserved genetic functions, which may point to a common ancestry of these viruses.

  12. The Kinetics of the Humoral and Interferon-Gamma Immune Responses to ExperimentalMycobacterium bovisInfection in the White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sven D C; Morar-Leather, Darshana; Buss, Peter; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; McFadyen, Ross; Rutten, Victor P M G; van Helden, Paul D; Miller, Michele A; Michel, Anita Luise

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis (TB) in a wide range of species, including white rhinoceroses ( Ceratotherium simum ). Control of the disease relies on the indirect detection of infection by measuring pathogen-specific responses of the host. These are poorly described in the white rhinoceros and this study aimed to characterize the kinetics of immune responses to M. bovis infection in this species. Three white rhinoceroses were infected with M. bovis and their immune sensitization to this pathogen was measured monthly for 20 months. Cell-mediated immunity was characterized in whole blood samples as the differential release of interferon-gamma in response to bovine purified protein derivative (PPDb) and avian PPD (PPDa) as well as the release of this cytokine in response to the M. bovis proteins 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6)/10 kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10). Humoral immunity was quantified as the occurrence or the magnitude of antibody responses to the proteins ESAT-6/CFP-10, MPB83, MPB83/MPB70, and PPDb. The magnitude and duration of immune reactivity varied between individuals; however, peak responses to these antigens were detected in all animals circa 5-9 months postinfection. Hereafter, they gradually declined to low or undetectable levels. This pattern was associated with limited TB-like pathology at postmortem examination and appeared to reflect the control of M. bovis infection following the development of the adaptive immune response. Measurement of these markers could prove useful for assessing the disease status or treatment of naturally infected animals. Moreover, immune responses identified in this study might be used to detect infection; however, further studies are required to confirm their diagnostic utility.

  13. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as a star or dispersing altogether. Were we engineers with advanced technology, we might attempt to find that critical amount of energy necessary to form a black hole. However, despite some fears to the contrary, such technology does not exist, so instead we investigate this critical regime numerically. The first step is to pick ...

  14. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    denotes the partial derivatives of . The construction of a numerical method with which ... which configurations form black holes and which disperse (the only two options in this model). The problem in picturing such a space is that it is infinite ..... 4.1 The future: Less symmetry. The work described above all assumes spherical ...

  15. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...

  16. Recycling of Badger/Fox Burrows in Late Pleistocene Loess by Hyenas at the Den Site Bad Wildungen-Biedensteg (NW, Germany: Woolly Rhinoceros Killers and Scavengers in a Mammoth Steppe Environment of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajus Diedrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Late Pleistocene (MIS 5c-d Ice Age spotted hyena open air den and bone accumulation site Bad Wildungen-Biedensteg (Hesse, NW, Germany represents the first open air loess fox/badger den site in Europe, which must have been recycled by Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823 as a birthing den. Badger and fox remains, plus remains of their prey (mainly hare, have been found within the loess. Hyena remains from that site include parts of cub skeletons which represent 10% of the megafauna bones. Also a commuting den area existed, which was well marked by hyena faecal pellets. Most of the hyena prey bones expose crack, bite, and nibbling marks, especially the most common bones, the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis (NISP  =  32%. The large amount of woolly rhinoceros bones indicate hunting/scavenging specializing on this large prey by hyenas. Other important mammoth steppe hyena prey remains are from Mammuthus primigenius, Equus caballus przewalskii, Bison/Bos, Megaloceros giganteus, Cervus elaphus, and Rangifer tarandus. The few damaged bone remains of a scavenged cave bear Ursus spelaeus subsp. are unique for an open air situation. Abundant micromammal, frog, and some fish remains were concentrated in “pellets” that contain mainly mammoth steppe micromammals and also frog and fish remains that seem to originate from the nearby river/lake.

  17. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  18. Crimea and the quest for energy and military hegemony in the Black Sea region: governance gap in a contested geostrategic zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.

    2015-01-01

    Russia’s annexation of Crimea and its destabilization of Eastern Ukraine have radically altered the European security order, with the Black Sea region becoming an acutely contested geostrategic zone. Russia’s strategic interests in the Black Sea region, especially in terms of energy and military

  19. "Black Like Me": Reframing Blackness for Decolonial Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, George J. Sefa

    2018-01-01

    From a particular vantage point, as an African-born scholar with a politics to affirm my Black subjectivity and Indigeneity in a diasporic context, my article engages a (re)theorization of Blackness for decolonial politics. Building on existing works of how Black scholars, themselves, have theorized Blackness, and recognizing the fluid,…

  20. Heavy metal concentrations in marine algae from the Turkish Coast of the, Black Sea, during 1979-2001

    OpenAIRE

    Topcuoglu, Sayhan; Balkis, Çigdem Kirbasoglu and Nuray

    2004-01-01

    AbstractThe heavy metal concentrations in different algae species were reviewed after collection from Black Sea and Bosphorus stations from 1979 to 2001. The results showed that the Turkish Black Sea coast and Bosphoms region faced heavy metal pollution. However, Cd, Co, Cr and Pb levels were found to be below lower limit detection in all tested Black Sea algae species collected in 1998 and 1999. On the other hand, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ph and Zn concentrations increased at the eastern Black Sea statio...

  1. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  2. Aerosols over Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of eastern Asia from October 14, 2001, shows large amounts of aerosol in the air. A few possible point sources of smoke, probably fires, are visible north of the Amur River at the very top of the image. One of the larger of these plumes can be seen down river of the confluence of the Songhua and Amur rivers. At lower left, the Yangtze River plume in the East China Sea is also very prominent. Sediment suspended in the ocean water is quite brown near the shore, but becomes much greener as it diffuses into the water. The increasing greenness of the river plume is probably an indication of enhanced phytoplankton growth driven by the nutrients in the river runoff. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  4. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  5. Tectonic evolution of the Black Sea orogene belt and the history of opening of the Black Sea basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesuemezsoy, S. (Istanbul Univ. (Turkey))

    1988-08-01

    The Black Sea basin is surrounded by successive orogenic belts of Hercynian, Cimmerian, and Alpine ages. The Rhodope, Thracian, western Pontian, and Transcaucasian (RTPT) blocks of Precambrian age were involved by the circum-Black Sea orogene belts. The Hercynian orogene was documented in the Balkanide, Great Caucasian, Kriastide, southern Pontian, and Transcaucasian belts. The Cimmerian orogene extended north and south of the Black Sea. The southern Cimmerian orogene was represented by the circum-Rhodope and East Thracian-Strandja-Kuere belts. The northern Cimmerian orogene belt extended along the Dobruca-Crimean and southern slope belts. Following the demise of the Black Sea Cimmerian basin, the northernmost oceanic branch extending from Nish-Trajan through the present Black Sea to the intra-Transcaucasian basin, was opened within the Hercynian and Cimmerian consolidated terrain in the Late Jurassic. The other oceanic branch, extending from Izmir-Ankara through circum Kirsehir to various basins, was opened within the Paleotethyan collision belt, considered to be eastern extension of the Pindus basin. The Nish-Trajan sector of the northernmost basin was closed in the middle Cretaceous, and the Moesian platform re-fused to the Getic-Serbo-Macedonian-Rhodope belt. The easternmost extension of the intra-Transcaucasian basin disappeared in the Late Cretaceous. Consequently, the northernmost oceanic branch was reduced to the present Black Sea basin.

  6. Understanding the Black Aesthetic Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    Discussing the importance of the Black aesthetic experience, Curtis examines Black cultural heritage and participatory style, the spiritual, and the creation and recreation of Black music. Advocating multicultural music education in teacher training, he suggests that Black music be studied for its value and contribution to society. Lists five ways…

  7. The Thermodynamics of Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wald Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.

  8. Black Writers' Views of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Loyle

    1979-01-01

    This article argues that the stagnation, pessimism, and self-pity evident in recent Black writing results in part from the alienation of Black writers from the mainstream of Black life, and in part from the illusions that they share with other Blacks who have embraced the American value system. (Author/EB)

  9. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  10. Colliding black hole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    2005-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)

  11. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  12. Illuminating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  13. Black holes with halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  14. Black Friday = Broget Branding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Black Friday er et godt eksempel på, hvordan ikke kun produktbrands og corporate brands rejser på tværs af landegrænser, men også traditioner som Halloween, Valentines Day og i dette tilfælde den ultimative tilbuds-fredag, som i USA går under navnet Black Friday. Men hvad er Black Friday i Danmark......? Essensen ved Black Friday er lave priser, og det er der ved første øjekast ikke mange brandingmuligheder forbundet ved, hvis man forstår branding som en måde at skabe ekstra værdi omkring sit produkt eller sin virksomhed. Som brand bliver man dog alligevel nødt til at forholde sig til konceptet, da det er...

  15. Mobilizing Black America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    and financially for childbirth or parenting. - Adolescent Pregnancy Black female teenagers 15 to 19 years old were 140 percent more likely to have a...on adolescent pregnancy teenage sexual activity, and federally funded programs prevention. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT...communities? o Access to Health Care: Does everyone have equal access? o Poverty o Racism o Health Insurance o Black Physicians o Summary o Infant Mortality

  16. Black chrome outgassing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beat, T.

    1979-01-01

    This report covers why black chrome is of interest, why its outgassing is relevant, how the study was conducted, examples of resultant data, and a conclusion. Black chrome is of interest in several areas of activity. Vacuum outgassing characteristics must be known to establish the pumping speed requirements. How much gas is evolved determines the pump speed required. The species of gas evolved determines the type of pump. The outgassing characteristics must be known to determine needed precleaning steps

  17. Quantum black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    't Hooft, G.

    1987-01-01

    No particle theory can be complete without gravity. Einstein's theory of gravity is of the Euler-Lagrange form, but standard quantization procedure fails. In quantum gravity the higher order interactions have a dimensionality different form the fundamental ones, because Newton's constant G has dimensions and the renormalization procedure fails. Another problem with quantum gravity is even more mysterious. Suppose that we had regularized the gravitational forces at the small distance end in the way that the weak intermediate vector boson regularized the fundamental 4-fermion interaction vertex of the weak interactions. Then what we discover is that the gravitational forces are unstable. Given sufficiently large amount of matter, it can collapse under its own weight. Classical general relativity tells us what will happen: a black hole is formed. But how is this formulated in quantum theory. S. Hawking observed that when a field theory is quantized in the background metric of a black hole, the black hole actually emits particles in a completely random thermal way. Apparently black holes are just another form of matter unstable against Hawking decay. Unfortunately this picture cannot be complete. The problem is that the quantum version of black holes has infinite phase space, and other symptoms of a run-away solution. Black holes are the heaviest and most compact forms of matter that can be imagined. A complete particle theory can have nothing but a spectrum of black-hole like objects at it high-energy end. This is why it is believed that a resolution of the black hole problem will in time disclose the complete small-distance structure of our world. 6 references

  18. Malignant melanoma of the skin in black South Africans: A 15-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To document the anatomical distribution of melanoma, extent of disease, results of treatment and survival among black patients in the north-eastern part of South Africa. Methods. All available histological material was reviewed. All available addresses of patients were consulted to establish the status of patients treated ...

  19. Charged Galileon black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory

  20. Eastern Han's Cunning Depiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, B. C.

    1998-09-01

    It is still only speculation, but an earlier visit to a Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) tomb has started the idea, and a recently found study of another Han tomb has convinced me it is worth pursuing. What it is is that the ancient Chinese Sky Animal which represents North was not the turtle or tortoise until about the time of Han. My own visit was to an Eastern (later period) Han tomb which had been moved to a museum near the ancient capital of Luoyang. The ceiling of the inner chamber was rounded, made of brick. Drawings of a tiger and a red bird were clear to the west and south. A rounded object was at the north. Outside the tomb was a sign which said it was 'cun,' which means village. Chinese characters often have homonyms, but 'cun' has few. I have also visited the neolithic village of Banpo, near the Yellow River in the north. It has noticeably large and deep trenches to keep out wild animals, and one separates the residential area from the business area. This village is dated earlier than 4000 BC. The trenches definitely remind me of later depictions of the turtle with a snake wound about it. The recent findings of a tomb at Puyang with shapes of tiger and dragon have dated it to 3000 BC. Nothing was placed at the south side. Something was at the north, but one might argue about that. Finally, I found this article in Chinese Studies in Archaeology (1979), translated by S. Cahill of UC, Berkeley, called "Analysis of the Western Han Murals in the Luouyang Tomb of Bo Qianqiu" by Sun Zuoyun. Although Western Han is earlier than Eastern, the pictures in the tomb were well preserved. There were tiger, dragon, vermilion bird, and other animals, but no tortoise. Instead, there was a sun with a bird inside, and the moon with a frog. Several hundred miles north of the Yellow River, there is the Amur River. The natives there had robes decorated with snakes, lizards, and frogs, and other animals, but no turtle. Later reasons for having the turtle or tortoise is a separate

  1. Survival and band recovery rates of sympatric American black ducks and mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Obrecht, H.H.; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Banding and recovery data from American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) banded in the same breeding or wintering areas over the same time periods were used to estimate annual survival and band recovery rates. Recovery rates, based on preseason bandings, were very similar for sympatric black ducks and mallards and exhibited similar patterns of year-to-year variation for the 2 species. Tests for differences between the species in annual survival rates yielded equivocal results. We tentatively conclude that annual survival rates of mallards generally were not higher than those of black ducks banded in the same areas. The apparent difference in population status between black ducks and eastern mallards does not seem to result from differences in mortality rate. Nevertheless, we should attempt to identify management practices that might increase survival probabilities of black ducks.

  2. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  3. Middle Eastern Christians in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Hunter, Alistair; Jørgensen, Anne Rosenlund

    This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience.......This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience....

  4. Surface geometry of 5D black holes and black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Goswami, Rituparno

    2007-01-01

    We discuss geometrical properties of the horizon surface of five-dimensional rotating black holes and black rings. Geometrical invariants characterizing these 3D geometries are calculated. We obtain a global embedding of the 5D rotating black horizon surface into a flat space. We also describe the Kaluza-Klein reduction of the black ring solution (along the direction of its rotation) which, though it is nakedly singular, relates this solution to the 4D metric of a static black hole distorted by the presence of external scalar (dilaton) and vector ('electromagnetic') fields. The properties of the reduced black hole horizon and its embedding in E 3 are briefly discussed

  5. Establishing trees on cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bussières

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Four major tree-planting trials on cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada were surveyed in 2002, in order to evaluate the potential use of trees in rehabilitation following horticultural peat extraction. At one of the sites, an experiment to determine the appropriate fertilisation rate for trees planted on cut-over peatlands was also conducted over several years. Tree performance was assessed by measuring survival, total height and annual growth of red maple (Acer rubrum L., tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi Koch., black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P., jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. and hybrid poplar (Populus spp.. Establishment and growth of tamarack and black spruce in cut-over peatlands showed good potential when compared to performance in conventional forestry plantations. Red maple and jack pine gave poor productivity but promising survival, whilst hybrid poplar plantings failed. Adding nutrients was essential for growth but dosages above 122.5 g of 3.4N-8.3P-24.2K per tree gave no further improvement. Therefore, several different tree species can be planted to reclaim cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada, so long as the appropriate species are chosen and nutrients are provided.

  6. Thousand cankers pathway assessment: movement of Geosmithia sp. and Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman from the western into the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie Newton; Glenn Fowler; Alison Neeley; Robert Schall; Yu Takeuchi; Scott. Pfister

    2011-01-01

    A newly recognized fungal canker disease of walnut, identified by state cooperators, may threaten the native range of eastern black walnut, Juglans nigra. The causal agent is a Geosmithia fungus (proposed name Geosmithia morbida) and the only known vector is the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus...

  7. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1000 to 1500 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1000 to 1500 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea
    and the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the
    present paper.

  8. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1900 to 1980 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1900 to 1980 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea
    and the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the
    present paper.

  9. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  10. Pulsation of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changjun; Lu, Youjun; Shen, You-Gen; Faraoni, Valerio

    2018-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose singularity theorem states that a singularity forms inside a black hole in general relativity. To remove this singularity one must resort to a more fundamental theory. Using a corrected dynamical equation arising in loop quantum cosmology and braneworld models, we study the gravitational collapse of a perfect fluid sphere with a rather general equation of state. In the frame of an observer comoving with this fluid, the sphere pulsates between a maximum and a minimum size, avoiding the singularity. The exterior geometry is also constructed. There are usually an outer and an inner apparent horizon, resembling the Reissner-Nordström situation. For a distant observer the horizon crossing occurs in an infinite time and the pulsations of the black hole quantum "beating heart" are completely unobservable. However, it may be observable if the black hole is not spherical symmetric and radiates gravitational wave due to the quadrupole moment, if any.

  11. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  12. Bringing Black Holes Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  13. Coiffured black rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Ross, Simon F.; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2014-08-01

    We describe a new type of hair on supersymmetric black string and black ring solutions, which produces the largest known violation of black hole uniqueness, parameterized by an arbitrary function and hence an infinite number of continuous parameters. The new solutions can have non-trivial density profiles for the electric fields along the horizon, and yet have a geometry that is regular, although generically not infinitely differentiable, at the horizon. Both neutral and charged probes can cross the horizon without experiencing divergent forces. We also find restricted examples, parameterized by a few arbitrary continuous parameters, where the charge densities fluctuate but the metric does not and hence is completely differentiable. Our new class of solutions owes its existence to a mechanism reminiscent of the Q-ball: in the simplest examples the metric has more symmetry than the matter that supports it.

  14. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  15. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  16. Black widow spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    Black widow spiders are found throughout the continental United States and north into the southern Canadian provinces. Male black widow spiders are of little medical importance. Female black widow spiders can be 20 times larger than males. The female can be identified by the hourglass pattern, red or orange in color, on the ventral aspect of her shiny, globose black abdomen. Black widow spiders control the amount of venom they inject; an estimated 15% of bites to humans are non-envenomating. Cats are very sensitive to the venom and deaths are common. Dogs have severe clinical signs but are considered more resistant than cats. A single bite is capable of delivering a lethal dose of venom to companion animals. There are several toxic components consisting of five or six biologically active proteins. These include a potent mammalian neurotoxin called alpha-latrotoxin, which induces neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals. Acetylcholine, noradrenalin, dopamine, glutamate, and enkephalin systems are all susceptible to the toxin. Onset of clinical signs usually occurs during the first 8 hours post envenomation. The condition is extremely painful in moderate to severe envenomations. Abdominal rigidity without tenderness is a hallmark sign of Latrodectus envenomation. In cats, paralytic signs may occur early and are particularly marked. Hypertension is a significant threat. First aid is of no value in the treatment. The primary treatment for black widow spider envenomation is the administration of specific antivenin, which provides the most permanent and quickest relief of the envenomation syndrome, usually within 30 minutes of infusion. The prognosis of Latrodectus envenomation is uncertain of several days, and complete recovery may take weeks.

  17. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  18. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  19. Are black holes springlike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-02-01

    A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  20. Bulletproof Black Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst.......Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst....

  1. Virtual Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...

  2. Better Physician's 'Black Bags'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The "black bag" is outgrowth of astronaut monitoring technology from NASA's Johnson Space Center. Technically known as the portable medical status system, a highly advanced physician's "black bag" weighs less than 30 pounds, yet contains equipment for monitoring and recording vital signs, electrocardiograms, and electroencephalograms. Liquid crystal displays are used to present 15 digits of data simultaneously for long periods of time without excessive use of battery power. Single printed circuit card contains all circuitry required to measure and display vital signs such as heart and respiration rate, temperature, and blood pressure.

  3. Partons and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, L.; Griffin, P.

    1994-01-01

    A light-front renormalization group analysis is applied to study matter which falls into massive black holes, and the related problem of matter with transplankian energies. One finds that the rate of matter spreading over the black hole's horizon unexpectedly saturates the causality bound. This is related to the transverse growth behavior of transplankian particles as their longitudinal momentum increases. This growth behavior suggests a natural mechanism to implement 't Hooft's scenario that the universe is an image of data stored on a 2 + 1 dimensional hologram-like projection

  4. A study on the behavior and colonization of translocated Greater One-horned Rhinos Rhinoceros unicornis (Mammalia: Perissodactyla: Rhinocerotidae during 90 days from their release at Manas National Park, Assam India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba Kumar Dutta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Under the Indian Rhino Vision 2020, 18 wild Greater One-horned Rhinos Rhinoceros unicornis were translocated from two rhino bearing areas, Kaziranga National Park and Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary to Manas National Park within the state of Assam, from 2008 to 2012. Following the release, the rhinos were closely monitored through radio tracking and direct observation to record their colonization pattern and behavioral adaptation to the new environment. Out of the 18 rhinos released at Manas, 16 (89% rhinos dispersed in approximately the same direction from the release sites. The rhinos released from Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary strayed more when compared to the rhinos from Kaziranga National Park. This paper describes the behavior patterns observed in Manas National Park, which may provide a useful alternative approach for future rhino translocation.

  5. Distribution of Thyroid Cancer in the Eastern Part of Turkey 27 Years After the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Serap Baydur; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Gucer, Hasan; Pergel, Ahmet; Bedir, Recep; Aydin, Ibrahim; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Sahin, Osman Zikrullah

    2013-12-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused widespread effects across Europe and huge areas where radiocontaminated. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on thyroid cancer have been investigated in most European countries. According to the data of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, the eastern part of the Black Sea region was the most radiocontaminated area in Turkey at the time of Chernobyl accident. We therefore aimed to examine the data of thyroid cancers at our center, Rize city which is located in the eastern Black Sea region. This retrospective study included the patients with histologically proven thyroid cancer at our center between January 2008 and May 2012. Pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy materials were reviewed. We evaluated patients' age, gender, size of the primary tumor (all sizes, Chernobyl accident.

  6. Black Elite: The New Market for Highly Educated Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Richard B.

    This examination of the collapse in traditional discriminatory patterns in the market for highly qualified black Americans documents the World War II gain of college trained and related high level black workers, investigates the response of black college students and qualified personnel to the new market setting, and explores the factors that…

  7. Differences In Skull Size Of Harbour Porpoises, Phocoena phocoena (Cetacea, In The Sea Of Azov And The Black Sea: Evidence For Different Morphotypes And Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldin P. E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two porpoise stocks in the northern Black Sea: the north-western (Odessa Gulf and northeastern (Crimean and Caucasian waters; in addition, another stock is in the Sea of Azov. The Azov porpoises are distinct in their body size and biology. This research was conducted on the skulls of stranded sexually mature porpoises from the north-eastern Black Sea, north-western Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. In the north-eastern Black Sea samples, both present-day and old-time, the sexual dimorphism of the skull size was not significant, whereas in the Sea of Azov the females were significantly larger than males. The Azov skulls were strongly different from those from the Black Sea: they were larger, proportionally wider and had the wider rostra; also, there was no significant chronological variation within the Black Sea. The Azov and Black Sea samples were classified with the 100 % success with four variables. The northwestern Black Sea skulls were somewhat intermediate in their characteristics between the Azov and northeastern Black Sea samples, but they were classify ed together with other Black Sea specimens. The difference between the Azov and Black Sea skulls was greater than between many North Atlantic populations, despite the extreme geographical proximity of the two stocks. The low variation within the Black Sea supports the earlier conclusions on the lack of genetic variation: all the Black Sea stocks are expected to be genetically similar sub-populations, whereas the Azov and Marmara stocks possibly represent the genetically distant populations. The porpoises from the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov equally show the traits which characterize the subspecies Phocoena phocoena relicta, but the Black Sea porpoises appear to be more paedomorphic in terms of ontogenetic trajectories.

  8. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabala, S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe

  9. Black strings ending on horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nidal

    2012-12-01

    We construct an approximate static gravitational solution of the Einstein equations, with negative cosmological constant, describing a test black string stretching from the boundary of the Schwarzschild-AdS5 black brane toward the horizon. The construction builds on a derivative expansion method, assuming that the black brane metric changes slowly along the black string direction. We provide a solution up to second order in derivatives, and it implies, in particular, that the black string must shrink to zero size at the horizon of the black brane. In the near-horizon region of the black brane, where the two horizons intersect, we provide an exact solution of a cone that describes two intersecting horizons at different temperatures. Moreover, we show that this solution equally describes a thin and long black droplet.

  10. Reflections on a Black Mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Michael R. R.

    2016-01-01

    A black mirror is an accelerated boundary that produces particles in an exact correspondence to an evaporating black hole. We investigate the spectral dynamics of the particle creation during the formation process.

  11. Black Musicians Leading the Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes the careers and musical achievements of Blacks who were forerunners in jazz, blues, gospel, music, spirituals, band music, classical music, ragtime, and opera. The list was compiled to provide teachers with historical background information for "Black History Month." (AM)

  12. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  13. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  14. Meer bekend over Black Mold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvesteijn, R.G.E.; Kohrman, E.

    2008-01-01

    In de vollegrondsrozenteelt zorgde Black Mold in 2007 voor een groot aantal mislukte oculaties. In 2008 waren er aanzienlijk minder problemen. Uit onderzoek is meer bekend over de oorzaak en bestrijding van Black Mold.

  15. Aspects of hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon-at@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  16. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  17. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  18. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  19. Scholarly Black Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Shahryar

    2017-04-01

    Fake and unethical publishers' activities are known by most of the readers of Science and Engineering Ethics. This letter tries to draw the readers' attention to the hidden side of some of these publishers' business. Here the black market of scholarly articles, which negatively affects the validity and reliability of research in higher education, as well as science and engineering, will be introduced.

  20. Twistors and Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neitzke, A.; Pioline, B.; Vandoren, S.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by black hole physics in N = 2,D = 4 supergravity, we study the geometry of quaternionic-K¨ahler manifolds Mobtained by the c-map construction from projective special Kähler manifolds Ms. Improving on earlier treatments, we compute the Käahler potentials on the twistor space Z and Swann

  1. on black ironbark (Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Eucalyptus sideroxylon). B. Buys. Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017,. Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa. Received May /984; accepted 28 November /986. Black ironbark trees secrete nectar during the night. Argentine ants collected 42% of the nectar before honeybees started foraging in the ...

  2. Trichomicosis pubis: black variety.

    OpenAIRE

    Neri, I; Frassetto, A; Pasquinelli, G; Patrizi, A

    1994-01-01

    A case of a 25 year old man with the black variety of trichomicosis pubis is presented on account of its extreme rareity. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that trichomicosis pubis is caused by bacterial colonisation of the pubic hair and shows that bacteria are able to penetrate cuticular horny cells directly through their free plasma membrane.

  3. Suburban Black Lives Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-McCoy, R. L'Heureux

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the range of experiences and meanings of Black life in suburban space. Drawing from educational, historical, and sociological literatures, I argue that an underconsideration of suburban space has left many portraits of educational inequality incomplete. The article outlines the emergence of American suburbs and the formation…

  4. Black Psychology. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    This book is the third edition of a resource for advanced students and professionals in black psychology in the form of 41 papers organized under 5 subheadings. The "overview" section includes one classic article and offers a new, world view paper. A "perspectives" section treats Afrocentric, humanistic, historical,…

  5. [Reinvesting in Black Communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, James

    Some of the issues involved in promoting home ownership among blacks and investment in inner city communities are discussed in this paper. The experiences of the Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation in revitalizing Bedford Stuyvesant are described. Economic barriers to prospective home ownership are identified and strategies and programs…

  6. Black Holes and Entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsten, L.

    2011-01-01

    An unexpected interplay between the seemingly disparate fields of M-theory and Quantum Information has recently come to light. We summarise these developments, culminating in a classification of 4-qubit entanglement from the physics of STU black holes. Based on work done in collaboration with D. Dahanayake, M. J. Duff, H. Ebrahim, A. Marrani and W. Rubens.

  7. Black Holes and Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsten, L.

    2011-07-01

    An unexpected interplay between the seemingly disparate fields of M-theory and Quantum Information has recently come to light. We summarise these developments, culminating in a classification of 4-qubit entanglement from the physics of STU black holes. Based on work done in collaboration with D. Dahanayake, M. J. Duff, H. Ebrahim, A. Marrani and W. Rubens.

  8. Watchable Wildlife: The Black Bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn L. Rogers

    1992-01-01

    Black bears are the bears people most often encounter. Black bears live in forests over much of North America, unlike grizzlies that live only in Alaska, northern and western Canada, and the northern Rocky Mountains. This brochure presents the latest information on black bear life and how this species responds to an ever-increasing number of campers, hikers, and...

  9. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  10. Uncovering Black Womanhood in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…

  11. Warped products and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon-Tae

    2005-01-01

    We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes

  12. Reading Black Literature With Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jean A.

    This paper is a broad study of the field of black American Literature which outlines the important movements, stereotypes, and trends that have had significant influence upon the literature. The changing stereotypes and archetypes of blacks depicted in American literature from the early concept of blacks as "chattels" to the contemporary concept…

  13. Queering Black Racial Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alandis A.; Quaye, Stephen John

    2017-01-01

    We used queer theory to encourage readers to think differently about previous theories about Black racial identity development. Queer theory facilitates new and deeper understandings of how Black people develop their racial identities, prompting more fluidity and nuance. Specifically, we present a queered model of Black racial identity development…

  14. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Science Policy Research Unit)

    1991-01-01

    The main aim of this article is that of illustrating the experience of the use of nuclear power in Eastern Europe in order to estimate the degree of adequacy or inadequacy of COMECON's nuclear technology. The author examines four areas of interest concerning: the feasibility of new orders for nuclear plants in Eastern Europe; the pros and cons of completing half-built nuclear power plants; current policy towards existing nuclear power plants; and a review of the available evidence on the operating performance of plants in Eastern Europe. The common belief that the nuclear power experience had by old COMECON countries is uniformly bad does not seem to be fully supported by the limited evidence available. In the author's opinion, the prospects for a successful nuclear power industry in these countries depends on a series on interdependent factors among which, human skills hold a prominent position.

  15. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  16. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  17. Looking for the invisible universe - Black matter, black energy, black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbaz, David

    2016-01-01

    As the discovery of the expansion of the universe and of black holes put the study of cosmology into question again because it now refers to invisible things such as black holes, black energy and black matter, the author proposes an other view on the universe within such a context. He first discusses these three enigmas of black matter, black energy and black holes. In a second part, he addresses, discusses and comments five illusions: the Uranian illusion (questions of the existence of an anti-world, of black matter temperature), the Mercurian illusion (quantum gravity, the string theory), the Martian illusion (a patchwork universe, the illusion of the infinite), the cosmic Maya (the John Wheeler's cup, the holographic universe), and the narcissistic illusion

  18. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.

    2011-01-01

    is recorded by 350 Reftek Texan receivers for 10 equidistant shot points along the profile. We use forward ray tracing modelling to construct a two-dimensional velocity model from the observed travel times. These results show the first images of the subsurface velocity structure beneath the Greenland ice......The conjugate Atlantic passive margins of western Norway and eastern Greenland are characterized by the presence of coast-parallel mountain ranges with peak elevations of more than 3.5 km close to Scoresby Sund in Eastern Greenland. Knowledge about crustal thickness and composition below...

  19. Black Strings, Black Rings and State-space Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    State-space geometry is considered, for diverse three and four parameter non-spherical horizon rotating black brane configurations, in string theory and $M$-theory. We have explicitly examined the case of unit Kaluza-Klein momentum $D_1D_5P$ black strings, circular strings, small black rings and black supertubes. An investigation of the state-space pair correlation functions shows that there exist two classes of brane statistical configurations, {\\it viz.}, the first category divulges a degenerate intrinsic equilibrium basis, while the second yields a non-degenerate, curved, intrinsic Riemannian geometry. Specifically, the solutions with finitely many branes expose that the two charged rotating $D_1D_5$ black strings and three charged rotating small black rings consort real degenerate state-space manifolds. Interestingly, arbitrary valued $M_5$-dipole charged rotating circular strings and Maldacena Strominger Witten black rings exhibit non-degenerate, positively curved, comprehensively regular state-space con...

  20. Case Study, California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis corturniculus): Science Foundation Chapter 5, Appendix 5.1 in The Baylands and climate change: What can we do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, Jules G.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    The Black Rail is the smallest member of the avian family Rallidae and has a wide-ranging but highly scattered distribution throughout the New World. Of five subspecies, two occur in North America—the Eastern Black Rail (L.j. jamaicensis) and the California Black Rail (L.j. coturniculus). Throughout its range, the Black Rail is a secretive inhabitant of tidal and freshwater wetlands and rarely ventures out from the cover of dense marsh vegetation. It is more likely to be heard than seen; spontaneous vocalizations tend to be concentrated in the nesting season and are much less common during the rest of the year.

  1. Statistical mechanics of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, B.; Leblanc, Y.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed

  2. Over spinning a black hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  3. Growth of Primordial Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomohiro

    Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.

  4. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  5. f(R) Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Taeyoon; Myung, Yun Soo; Son, Edwin J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the $f(R)$-Maxwell black hole imposed by constant curvature and its all thermodynamic quantities, which may lead to the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-AdS black hole by redefining Newtonian constant and charge. Further, we obtain the $f(R)$-Yang-Mills black hole imposed by constant curvature, which is related to the Einstein-Yang-Mills black hole in AdS space. Since there is no analytic black hole solution in the presence of Yang-Mills field, we obtain asymptotic solutions. Then, we confirm th...

  6. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    . Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most......During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... in Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? Eastern European buyers attach great importance to other aspects when they list new suppliers and products than does Western European retailing. These are the results of a MAPP study of Eastern European retail and wholesale buying behaviour for fish and cheese...

  7. Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 34 of 34 ... Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home > Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. An annotated bibliography of eastern redcedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Schmidt; Ronald J. Piva

    1995-01-01

    Presents a listing of 719 citations related to eastern redcedar through September 1994. Major eastern redcedar subject headings include: physiology, nursery propagation, regeneration / planting, pests, weather-related factors, control, products, wildlife relationship, and ecological relationships.

  10. Rotating black hole and quintessence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass (M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α = -e 2 ≠ 0 and ω = 1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α = 0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω, there exists a critical rotation parameter (a = a E ), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a < a E , it describes a nonextremal black hole with Cauchy and event horizons, and no black hole for a > a E . We find that the extremal value a E is also influenced by the parameter ω and so is the ergoregion. (orig.)

  11. Internal structure of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)

  12. Feather microstructure of the black-billed magpie (Pica pica sericea) and jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunok; Lee, Hang; Kimura, Junpei; Sugita, Shoei

    2010-08-01

    The jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) distribution stretches from eastern Eurasia continent to southeastern Asia. The distribution of the black-billed magpie (Pica pica sericea) stretches from Korea and China to the Kyushu area in Japan. They are both in the Family, Corvidae, and have iridescent feather colors, but the iridescent feather color of the black-billed magpie is more remarkable than that of the jungle crow. We observed the feather microstructure of these birds using electron microscope. On the barbules surface, the barbules twist and prong between the jungle crow and black-billed magpie were not similar. In the barbules cross section, the black-billed magpie showed a complex structure of melanin granules, the jungle crow showed a simple structure of melanin granules.

  13. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  14. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  15. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  16. Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kol, Barak; Sorkin, Evgeny; Piran, Tsvi

    2004-01-01

    In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes

  17. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  18. Forging a Black identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Chevannes

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Rastafarians: sounds of cultural dissonance [revised and updated editionj. LEONARD E. BARRETT, SR. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988. xviii + 302 pp. (Paper US$ 11.95 Rasta and resistance: from Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney. HORACE CAMPBELL. Trenton NJ: Africa World Press, 1987. xiii + 236 pp. (Cloth US$32.95, Paper US$ 10.95 Garvey's children: the legacy of Marcus Garvey. TONY SEWELL. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1990. 128 pp. (Paper £ 17.95 The central theme linking these three titles is the evolution of a black identity among English-speaking Caribbean peoples, in particular Jamaicans. Consequently all three authors cover the two most important historical phenomena in Caribbean black nationalism, namely Garveyism and Rastafari, one focusing on the former and the other two focusing on the latter.

  19. Black Holes and Firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polchinski, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Our modern understanding of space, time, matter, and even reality itself arose from the three great revolutions of the early twentieth century: special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. But a century later, this work is unfinished. Many deep connections have been discovered, but the full form of a unified theory incorporating all three principles is not known. Thought experiments and paradoxes have often played a key role in figuring out how to fit theories together. For the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, black holes have been an important arena. I will talk about the quantum mechanics of black holes, the information paradox, and the latest version of this paradox, the firewall. The firewall points to a conflict between our current theories of spacetime and of quantum mechanics. It may lead to a new understanding of how these are connected, perhaps based on quantum entanglement.

  20. Mobilizing Black America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    or just for a walk in the park. They offer an ear if the youngster simply needs someone to talk to. When it comes to a discussion of economic...neighborhoods and making it unsafe for decent people to walk the streets. One method that several schools have used to support the community in this...children with their studies. By their very presence these men show that education is not sissy .’ 3 6 Once we have succeeded in keeping black Americans

  1. Beyond the black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslough, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)

  2. Black Sea challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    In this month's European column, Jean-Francois Drevet examines the issues that arise for Europe from the Black Sea region. The Black Sea is increasingly becoming a crucial place of transit for hydrocarbon imports from the Caspian and Russia into the European Union. The considerable increase in this traffic raises both environmental problems (the risk of oil slicks) and issues of security of supply, on account of the economic and political fragility of some of the bordering or neighbouring states (Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia/Chechnya etc.). This is why, as Jean-Francois Drevet stresses, the European Union has been trying since the mid-1990's to claim a role in the management of the affairs of the region. With two bordering states (Rumania and Bulgaria) joining the EU in 2007, cooperation in the Black Sea has become a priority within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, and this column delineates a number of the obstacles that still have to be surmounted. (author)

  3. Conservation assessment for great-spurred violet in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Great-spurred violet (Viola selkirkii Pursh ex Goldie; Violaceae) is an early spring flowering herb that occurs in the boreal and Rocky Mountain regions of North America, and cool temperate regions of Eurasia, eastern China and Japan. In the Black Hills, the species is restricted to spruce-dominated forests in cold, shady ravines from 5,400 to 7,000...

  4. Efficacy of Heat Treatment for the Thousand Cankers Disease Vector and Pathogen in Small Black Walnut Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Mayfield; S. W. Fraedrich; A. Taylor; P. Merten; S. W. Myers

    2014-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease, caused by the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) and an associated fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarõ´k, E. Freeland, C. Utley, and N. Tisserat), threatens the health and commercial use of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), one of the most economically...

  5. Population ecology and harvest of the American black duck: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, D.H.; Ankney, C.D.; Boyd, H.; Longcore, J.R.; Montalbano, F.; Ringelman, J.K.; Stotts, V.D.

    1989-01-01

    1. The purpose of our review was to examine available data on population trends and current status of black ducks and trends in natality and survival and to relate these, where possible, to changes in habitat, predation, disease, contaminants, harvest, and hybridization with mallards. 2. The number of black ducks tallied in the winter survey has declined steadily over the past 30 years at an average rate of about 3%/ year. Reliability and precision of the survey are uncertain; it may not provide an adequate index to the continental population of black ducks. Breeding surveys are incomplete and sporadic, but black ducks have decreased in Ontario and increased in the Maritime Provinces and Quebec. 3. Recent declines in numbers of black ducks tallied in the winter survey are not unusual in magnitude or much different from those that have occurred among several other species of waterfowl. 4. At present, black ducks are not especially scarce relative to numbers of several other ducks in eastern North America. 5. There is no solid evidence of major decreases in quality or quantity of breeding habitat for black ducks in recent years; in some areas, habitat has improved. 6. Natural mortality of black ducks has not been well studied, but does not seem unusually high compared to other dabbling ducks. 7. Harvest rates of black ducks are similar to those of sympatric mallards as determined by banding analyses. 8. There is no strong evidence for direct effects of contaminants on black ducks, but some indirect effects through invertebrate food resources have been detected. 9. Age ratios in black ducks show no trend in the past 18 years. 10. The quality and quantity of wintering habitat for black ducks have decreased substantially in some areas. 11. Disease and other natural mortality that affect black ducks do .not occur in unusually high frequency. 12. A decline in harvest of black ducks has occurred; most of the decline has been in the United States, especially since

  6. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  7. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  8. Benign breast lesions in Eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyikam, A.; Nzegwn, Martin A.; Olusina, Daniel B.; Okoye, I.; Ozumba, Ben C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to characterize benign breast diseases in Eastern Nigeria and to highlight the age variations of these lesions as base line data. The Department of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu caters for over 30 million African blacks and receives 2000 surgical pathology specimens yearly. Seven hundred and twenty-two benign breast specimens were analyzed over 5 years from Ist January 2000 to 31 December 2004, out of 1050 breast samples received. Of 1050 breast specimens received, 722 (68.8%) were benign. Fibroadenoma was the most common lesion with 318 cases (44%), occurring at a mean age of 16-32 years. Next were fibrocystic changes with 165 cases (22.9%) at a mean age of 23-45 years. Normal breast in the axillary tail region was seen in 32 cases (4.4%), represented as no pathology, with a mean presentation age of 20-46 years. Low grade Phyllodes tumor had 28 cases (3.9%), presenting at an average mean age of 17-32 years. Lactating adenoma had 19 (2.6%) cases. Other lesions made up less than 3% each. Benign breast lesions peaked at the 20-24 age range and then declined. Most were females. Benign breast lesions occur more frequently than malignant breast lesions with a ratio of 2.3:1 and were presented 20 years earlier than their malignant counterparts. Fibroadenoma was the most common benign lesions followed by fibrocystic disease, similar to the findings in Western Nigeria. In Northern Nigeria, fibrocystic breast disease was more common. (author)

  9. Black holes in realistic branes: Black string-like objects?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: bazeia@fisica.ufpb.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Hoff da Silva, J.M., E-mail: hoff@feg.unesp.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2013-04-25

    A realistic model describing a black string-like object in an expanding Universe is analyzed in the context of the McVittie's solution of the Einstein field equations. The bulk metric near the brane is provided analogously to previous solutions for black strings. In particular, we show that at least when the Hubble parameter on the brane is positive, a black string-like object seems to play a fundamental role in the braneworld scenario, generalizing the standard black strings in the context of a dynamical brane.

  10. New records of five sponge species (Porifera) for the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evcen, Alper; Çinar, Melih Ertan; Zengin, Mustafa; Süer, Serdar; Rüzgar, Melih

    2016-04-13

    The present study deals with five sponge species [Chalinula renieroides, Haliclona (Halichoclona) fulva, H. (Rhizoniera) rosea, Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) pansa and Ircinia variabilis] belonging to 3 families (Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, and Irciniidae) found at one locality (near the opening of Kızılırmak River) on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. All these species are new records for the Black Sea. Three species (Chalinula renieroides, H. (R.) rosea and H. (H.) pansa] are also new records for the marine fauna of Turkey. All these species were previously reported from Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The morphological and distributional features of these species are presented.

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis in North Carolina black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, F B; Levine, J F; Stoskopf, M K; Gamble, H R; Dubey, J P

    1998-10-01

    Serum samples from 143 hunter-killed black bears were collected during the 1996 and 1997 black bear hunting seasons in eastern North Carolina. All samples were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test. Antibodies to T. gondii were present in 120 of 143 (84%) bears. Females had significantly higher titers than males (Wilcoxon rank sums test, P = 0.045), and titers increased with age (Jonckheere test, P = 0.01). Samples collected during 1996 (n = 79) were tested for antibodies to Trichinella spiralis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No samples were positive for antibodies to T. spiralis.

  12. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of..., 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor) and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC (transferees) filed an application for the partial the transfer of licenses...

  13. Black Father Involvement in Gifted Education: Thoughts from Black Fathers on Increasing/Improving Black Father-Gifted Teacher Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Tarek C.; Henfield, Malik S.

    2011-01-01

    Black fathers are important advocates in addressing the underrepresentation of Black students in gifted programs, as well as the achievement gaps between Black and White students. Black fathers increasingly understand the important role that Black mothers have traditionally played in supporting their gifted children's school experiences. As a…

  14. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  15. Quantum effects in black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A strict definition of black holes is presented and some properties with regard to their mass are enumerated. The Hawking quantum effect - the effect of vacuum instability in the black hole gravitational field, as a result of shich the black hole radiates as a heated body is analyzed. It is shown that in order to obtain results on the black hole radiation it is sufficient to predetermine the in-vacuum state at a time moment in the past, when the collapsing body has a large size, and its gravitational field can be neglected. The causes and the place of particle production by the black hole, and also the space-time inside the black hole, are considered

  16. Particle creation by black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 10 15 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law: S + 1/4 A never decreases where S is the entropy of matter outside black holes and A is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon. (orig.) [de

  17. Origin of supermassive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S. G.

    2007-01-01

    The origin of supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei is quite uncertain in spite of extensive set of observational data. We review the known scenarios of galactic and cosmological formation of supermassive black holes. The common drawback of galactic scenarios is a lack of time and shortage of matter supply for building the supermassive black holes in all galaxies by means of accretion and merging. The cosmological scenarios are only fragmentarily developed but propose and pretend to...

  18. Destroying extremal magnetized black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M.

    2017-07-01

    The gedanken experiment by Wald to destroy a black hole using a test particle in the equatorial plane is adapted to the case of extremal magnetized black holes. We find that the presence of external magnetic fields resulting from the "Ernst magnetization" permits a test particle to have strong enough energy to destroy the black hole. However, the corresponding effective potentials show that such particles would never reach the horizon.

  19. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyses the operating experience of nuclear power plants in Eastern and Western Europe, the former Soviet Union and the United States to investigate differences in the effects of learning, technical change and the effect of recent political developments. The performance of Soviet-designed reactors compares favourably with Western reactors on the standard performance measures. However, learning curve estimates reveal a disturbing trend: the former Soviet Union and all countries in Eastern Europe experience increasing unplanned losses as plants age, whereas all Western countries reduce their unplanned losses. A similar ''forgetting'' phenomenon is observable for plant availability and there is some evidence that the recent political and economic reorganization have exacerbated this trend. (Author)

  20. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society