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Sample records for eastern african countries

  1. Celiac disease in Middle Eastern and North African countries:A new burden?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kassem; Barada; Abbas; Bitar; Mohamad; Abdul-Razak; Mokadem; Jana; Ghazi; Hashash; Peter; Green

    2010-01-01

    Celiac disease(CD) is now recognized as a common disorder among Middle Eastern(ME) and North African(NA) populations.The aim of this review is to assess the available data regarding CD in the ME and NA and to compare this information with that of Western countries.A literature review was performed using the electronic databases PubMed and Medline(1950-2008) as search engines,and "celiac disease" was used as a Mesh term.The search was limited to ME and NA countries.The prevalence of CD in ME and NA countries...

  2. Forensic data and microvariant sequence characterization of 27 Y-STR loci analyzed in four Eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Giuseppe; D'Atanasio, Eugenia; Marini, Ornella; Coppa, Alfredo; Sellitto, Daniele; Trombetta, Beniamino; Berti, Andrea; Cruciani, Fulvio

    2017-03-01

    By using the recently introduced 6-dye Yfiler(®) Plus multiplex, we analyzed 462 males belonging to 20 ethnic groups from four eastern African countries (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya). Through a Y-STR sequence analysis, combined with 62 SNP-based haplogroup information, we were able to classify observed microvariant alleles at four Y-STR loci as either monophyletic (DYF387S1 and DYS458) or recurrent (DYS449 and DYS627). We found evidence of non-allelic gene conversion among paralogous STRs of the two-copy locus DYF387S1. Twenty-two diallelic and triallelic patterns observed at 13 different loci were found to be significantly over-represented (p<10(-6)) among profiles obtained from cell lines compared to those from blood and saliva. Most of the diallelic/triallelic patterns from cell lines involved recurrent mutations at rapidly mutating loci (RM Y-STRs) included in the multiplex (p<10(-2)). At haplotype level, intra-population diversity indices were found to be among the lowest so far reported for the Yfiler(®) Plus, while statistically significant differences among countries and ethnic groups were detected when considering haplotype frequencies alone (FST) or by using molecular distances among haplotypes (ΦST). The strong population subdivision observed is probably the consequence of the patrilineal social organization of most eastern African ethnic groups, and suggests caution in the use of country-based haplotype frequency distributions for forensic inferences in this region.

  3. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, M; Witthöft, C M; Tepšić, J; Ranić, M; Hulshof, P J M; Hollman, P C; Porubska, J; Gohar, A; Debeljak-Martačić, J; Petrović-Oggiano, G; Novaković, R; Glibetić, M; Oshaug, A

    2010-11-01

    Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations. Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised. Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary

  4. Correlates of male circumcision in Eastern and Southern African countries: establishing a baseline prior to VMMC Scale-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai Hoan Tram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of male circumcision (MC prevalence to HIV prevention efforts in Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been no systematic analysis on the correlates of male circumcision. This analysis identifies correlates of MC in 12 countries in the region with available data. METHODS: Data from the male questionnaire of DHS surveys collected between 2006-2011 in Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed. The dependent variable was self-reported male circumcision status. Independent variables included age, education, wealth quintile, place of residence, ethnicity, religion and region. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted separately for each country. RESULTS: MC prevalence ranged from 8.2 percent in Swaziland to 92.2 percent in Ethiopia. Bivariate analyses showed a consistent positive association between age (being older and male circumcision. Education, wealth quintile, and place of residence were either not significantly related or differed in the direction of the relationship by country. Multivariate logistic regression showed three variables consistently associated with MC status: age (being older, religion (being Muslim and ethnicity. DISCUSSION: These data were collected prior to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC programs in 11 of the 12 countries. As the VMMC scale-up intensifies in countries across Eastern and Southern Africa, the correlates of VMMC are likely to change, with (younger age and education emerging as key correlates of VMMC performed in medical settings. The centuries-long tradition among Muslims to circumcise should continue to favor MC among this group. Non-circumcising ethnicities may become more open to MC if promoted as a health practice for decreasing HIV risk.

  5. Under the Sun or in the Shade? Jua Kali in African Countries. National Policy Definition in Technical and Vocational Education: Beyond the Formal Sector. A Subregional Seminar for Eastern and Southern African Countries (Nairobi, Kenya, September 15-19, 1997). International project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is a comprehensive report a subregional seminar for eastern and southern African countries on the Jua Kali movement. (Jua Kali, "hot sun" in Swahili, refers to the informal or nonformal sector of the economy.) Section 1 explains the role of the International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC) in the…

  6. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  7. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, C; Nieto, R; Soler, A; Pelayo, V; Fernández-Pinero, J; Markowska-Daniel, I; Pridotkas, G; Nurmoja, I; Granta, R; Simón, A; Pérez, C; Martín, E; Fernández-Pacheco, P; Arias, M

    2015-08-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs.

  8. Human African trypanosomiasis in non-endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshi, Darshan; Brown, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease, acquired by the bite of an infected tsetse fly. In non-endemic countries HAT is rare, and therefore the diagnosis may be delayed leading to potentially fatal consequences. In this article the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the two forms of HAT are outlined. Rhodesiense HAT is an acute illness that presents in tourists who have recently visited game parks in Eastern or Southern Africa, whereas Gambiense HAT has a more chronic clinical course, in individuals from West or Central Africa.

  9. ACLED Country Report: Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Rights Watch, 2014). This has led to reprisal attacks on the part of the Séléka, and targeting by both groups now frequent- ly focuses on the religion ... religion . The distribution of Figure 8: Conflict Events Involving the Anti-Balaka, Central African Republic, August 2013 - September 2014. The...of the country where Islam is the majority religion . Most of its members are Muslim, including leader Michel Djotodia, who served as president from

  10. Genetic variation among African swine fever genotype II viruses, eastern and central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Carmina; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Pelayo, Virginia; Gazaev, Ismail; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Nieto, Raquel; Fernández-Pacheco, Paloma; Bokhan, Svetlana; Nevolko, Oleg; Drozhzhe, Zhanna; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Kolvasov, Denis; Arias, Marisa

    2014-09-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first reported in eastern Europe/Eurasia in 2007. Continued spread of ASFV has placed central European countries at risk, and in 2014, ASFV was detected in Lithuania and Poland. Sequencing showed the isolates are identical to a 2013 ASFV from Belarus but differ from ASFV isolated in Georgia in 2007.

  11. Intracranial aneurysms in an African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogeng'o Julius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Characteristics of intracranial aneurysms display ethnic variations. Data on this disease from the African continent is scarce and often conflicting. Aim : To describe site, age and gender distribution of intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans. Study Design and Setting : Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Materials and Methods: All records of black African patients with a diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral hospital in the Eastern and Central African region, over the period from January 1998 to December 2007 were examined for site, age and gender distribution. The data gathered were coded, analyzed with SPSS 11.50. Results : Fifty-six cases of intracranial aneurysms were analyzed. The posterior communicating artery was the most affected (35.7%, followed by the anterior communicating artery (26.8%, while the posterior cerebral artery was the least affected (2%. Multiple aneurysms were present in 2%. The mean age at presentation was 50.9 years (range 21-80 years and the gender distribution was equal. Conclusions : Intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans occur most commonly on the posterior communicating artery, in young individuals, and without gender bias. The distribution differs from that described in the literature and this requires search for risk factors.

  12. The Historical Origin of African Debt Crisis | Geda | Eastern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ... and a rise in real world interest rate are usually mentioned as major factors. ... The conclusion that emerges from such analysis is that the African debt problem is essentially a trade problem.

  13. Lipid levels among African and Middle-Eastern Bedouin populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D; Weitzman, Shimon; Sharf, Amir; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies observed higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and lower triglycerides levels among people of African ancestry. The goal of this study was to characterize lipid levels in Bedouins of African vs. Middle-Eastern ethnicity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Bedouin primary care clinic in southern Israel, with 4470 listed individuals over the age of 21, of whom 402 (9%) were of African origin. A stratified random sample was included in the analysis. Associations between ethnicity, age, gender and lipid levels were assessed. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were used for multivariate analysis. The study included 261 African Bedouins and 406 Middle-Eastern Bedouins. (median age: 37 years, 58.6% females). The average total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were 10 mg/dl lower among African Bedouins as compared to Middle-Eastern Bedouins (total cholesterol: 168.6 vs. 179.6 mg/dl, p<0.001; LDL: 99.5 vs. 109.0 mg/dl, respectively, p<0.001). Average triglycerides levels were 36 mg/dl lower among African Bedouins as compared to Middle-Eastern Bedouins (102.8 vs. 138.9 mg/dl, respectively, p<0.001). Average HDL levels were 3 mg/dl higher among African Bedouins as compared to Middle-Eastern Bedouins (48.3 vs. 44.6 mg/dl, respectively, p<0.001). A lower prevalence of dyslipidemia was found in African Bedouins, as compared with Middle-Eastern Bedouins.

  14. Access to What? Creating a Composite Measure of Educational Quantity and Educational Quality for 11 African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaull, Nicholas; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to create a composite statistic of educational quantity and educational quality by combining household data (Demographic and Health Survey) on grade completion and survey data (Southern and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality) on cognitive outcomes for 11 African countries: Kenya, Lesotho,…

  15. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is followed by a foreign capital outflow which at the end will destabilize the balance of external payments and will overall result in no favorable effect upon the economy of their countries.

  16. South African court rejects country's new constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-20

    Fundamental principles designed to ensure that South Africa's new constitution upholds a wide range of individual rights and freedoms and establishes a responsive government with a balanced separation of powers, including recognition of the role of traditional tribal leadership, were adopted into the current interim constitution shortly before the 1994 free elections which brought Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress to power. In a judgement issued on September 6, 1996, South Africa's Constitutional Court rejected the country's new draft constitution, arguing that it failed to meet the standards of nine of the 34 principles established at the Kempton Park negotiations. The Constitutional Assembly is comprised of a joint meeting of the National Assembly and Senate. One of the court's major objections to the constitution concerned the proposed structure of rule, which was seen to give inadequate power to South Africa's nine provinces as compared with the national government. However, the bill of rights was almost entirely upheld. The bill would create a favorable environment for legalized abortion and guarantee a universal right of access to health care, including reproductive health services

  17. Socioeconomic Gradients in Eastern European Countries: Evidence from PIRLS 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Mirazchiyski, Plamen

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses educational inequalities related to socioeconomic status (SES) in 12 Eastern European countries that participated in the International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006. Economies and educational systems of these countries have undergone critical transformations since the fall of communism. The authors' analyses, using data…

  18. National health research system mapping in 10 Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A; Khoja, T A M; Abou-Zeid, A H; Ghannem, H; IJsselmuiden, C

    2008-01-01

    Health research systems in the Eastern Mediterranean Region are not well developed to generate and use knowledge to improve health, reduce inequity and contribute to economic development. This study aimed to provide core data on National Health Research Systems (NHRS) in 10 Eastern Mediterranean countries in order to inform actions to strengthen health research system governance and management. Whilst there were examples of good practice, few countries had a formal NHRS and many basic building blocks needed for an effective system had not been put in place. Although limited in focus, the study provides useful information for countries to initiate action to strengthen their NHRS.

  19. Abortion laws in African Commonwealth countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of current (1981) abortion laws in the African Commonwealth countries, traces the origins of the laws to their colonial predecessors, and discusses legal reform that would positively provide for legal termination of pregnancy. The authors claim that the range of these laws demonstrates an evolution that leads from customary/common law (Lesotho and Swaziland) to basic law (Botswana, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria's Northern States and Seychelles) to developed law (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria's Southern States, Sierra Leone, and Uganda), and, finally, to advanced law (Zambia and Zimbabwe). The authors call for treating abortion as an issue of health and welfare as opposed to one of crime and punishment. Since most of the basic law de jure is treated and administered as developed law de facto, the authors suggest decriminalizing abortion and propose ways in which to reform the law: clarifying existing law; liberalizing existing law to allow abortion based upon certain indications; limiting/removing women's criminal liability for seeking an abortion; allowing hindsight contraception; protecting providers treating women in good faith; publishing recommended fees for services to protect poor women; protecting providers who treat women with incomplete abortion; and punishing providers who fail to provide care to women in need, with the exception of those seeking protection under a conscience clause. The authors also suggest clarifying the means by which health services involving pregnancy termination may be delivered, including: clarification of the qualifications of practitioners who may treat women; specification of the facilities that may treat women, perhaps broken down by gestational duration of the pregnancy; specifying gestational limits during which the procedure can be performed; clarifying approval procedures and consents; and allowing for conscientious objections to performing the procedure.

  20. TEACHING ENGLISH IN SEVERAL CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Central and Eastern European countries find themselves at present, following a period of transition in all domains, education included. One of the greatest challenges is providing sufficient foreign language education so as to meet the growing demand especially after along period of time when foreign languages were seriously and damagingly neglected. This paper is an attempt to briefly present the way English language is taught in several Central and Eastern European Countries as well as to underline the importance of this educational process and maybe to offer some applicable solutions to teaching English in Romania

  1. Selected French Speaking Sub-Saharan African Countries: Burundi, Cameroon (Eastern), Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Upper Volta, Zaire. A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Countries in Academic Institutions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Edouard J. C.

    The educational systems of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. Tables indicate the grades covered by primary education and secondary education (academic and technical). Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire have followed the Belgian…

  2. Selected French Speaking Sub-Saharan African Countries: Burundi, Cameroon (Eastern), Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Upper Volta, Zaire. A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Countries in Academic Institutions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Edouard J. C.

    The educational systems of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. Tables indicate the grades covered by primary education and secondary education (academic and technical). Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire have followed the Belgian…

  3. Access to What? Creating a Composite Measure of Educational Quantity and Educational Quality for 11 African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Spaull, Nicholas; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to create a composite statistic of educational quantity and educational quality by combining household data (Demographic and Health Survey) on grade completion and survey data (Southern and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality) on cognitive outcomes for 11 African countries: Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Doing so overcomes the limitations of e...

  4. UK Migration Policy and Migration from Eastern Partnership Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines UK migration policy and recent migration flows from Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries to the UK. Although inflows of migrant workers were relatively large in the mid-2000s, especially amongst Ukrainians, these have fallen following changes to UK immigration policy, especially the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme and the introduction of the Points Based System. As a result, the stock of migrants from EaP countries resident in the UK is small, especially in comparison ...

  5. Visit to Three East African Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>In early December 2008, CPAFFC President Chen Haosu led a delegation to visit Rwanda, a "country of thousands of hills", Burundi, a "countryof drum dance"and Tanzania with ever changing scenery. In a friendly and

  6. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  7. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAGU OLIMPIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper has the aim to highlight the impact of innovation on sustainable development in Eastern and Central European countries. In this wiew, a sinthetic measure of sustainability in these countries is calculated, taking into account ten statistical indicators (related to socio-economic development, sustainable consumption and production, social inclusion, demographic changes, public health, primary energy consumption, share of renewable energy in final consumption energy, sustainable transport, official development assistance granted to these countries from EUROSTAT database. A comparative analysis of the level of sustainability during 2005-2014 in Eastern and Central Europe is followed by an analysis of the impact of innovation (measured by eco-innovation index on sustainable development, using panel data techniques. The findings show that eco-innovation had a positive impact on sustainability in these countries in the examined period.This result could be used as a rationale for policy makers from these countries in designing measures for eco-innovation stimulation, aiming in this way to move forward for achieving the planned national targets within the European Union Sustainable Development Strategy (EU-SDS.

  8. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggoh, Jude C.; Bangake, Chrysost; Rault, Christophe [Orleans Univ. (France). LEO

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 21 African countries over the period from 1970 to 2006, using recently developed panel cointegration and causality tests. The countries are divided into two groups: net energy importers and net energy exporters. It is found that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, prices, labor and capital for each group of countries as well as for the whole set of countries. This result is robust to possible cross-country dependence and still holds when allowing for multiple endogenous structural breaks, which can differ among countries. Furthermore, we find that decreasing energy consumption decreases growth and vice versa, and that increasing energy consumption increases growth, and vice versa, and that this applies for both energy exporters and importers. Finally, there is a marked difference in the cointegration relationship when country groups are considered. (orig.)

  9. Alcohol Control Policies in 46 African Countries: Opportunities for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Esser, Marissa B; Dias, Sónia; Babor, Thomas; Parry, Charles D H

    2015-07-01

    There is little information on the extent to which African countries are addressing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm, which suggests that evaluations of national alcohol policies are needed in this region. The aim of this article is to examine the strength of a mix of national alcohol control policies in African countries, as well as the relationship between alcohol policy restrictiveness scores and adult alcohol per capita consumption (APC) among drinkers at the national level. We examined national alcohol policies of 46 African countries, as of 2012, in four regulatory categories (price, availability, marketing and drink-driving), and analyzed the restrictiveness of national alcohol policies using an adapted Alcohol Policy Index (API). To assess the validity of the policy restrictiveness scores, we conducted correlational analyses between policy restrictiveness scores and APC among drinkers in 40 countries. Countries attained a mean score of 44.1 of 100 points possible, ranging from 9.1 (Sao Tomé and Principe) to 75.0 (Algeria), with low scores indicating low policy restrictiveness. Policy restrictiveness scores were negatively correlated with and APC among drinkers (rs = -0.353, P = 0.005). There is great variation in the strength of alcohol control policies in countries throughout the African region. Tools for comparing the restrictiveness of alcohol policies across countries are available and are an important instrument to monitor alcohol policy developments. The negative correlation between policy restrictiveness and alcohol consumption among drinkers suggests the need for stronger alcohol policies as well as increased training and capacity building at the country level. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggoh, Jude C., E-mail: comlanvi-jude.eggoh@univ-orleans.fr [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Bangake, Chrysost [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Artois and Laboratoire EQUIPPE, Lille 1, FSES, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Rault, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Toulouse Business School (France)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 21 African countries over the period from 1970 to 2006, using recently developed panel cointegration and causality tests. The countries are divided into two groups: net energy importers and net energy exporters. It is found that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, prices, labor and capital for each group of countries as well as for the whole set of countries. This result is robust to possible cross-country dependence and still holds when allowing for multiple endogenous structural breaks, which can differ among countries. Furthermore, we find that decreasing energy consumption decreases growth and vice versa, and that increasing energy consumption increases growth, and vice versa, and that this applies for both energy exporters and importers. Finally, there is a marked difference in the cointegration relationship when country groups are considered. - Highlights: > We assess the energy consumption and economic growth nexus in 21 African countries. > There exists a long-run relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. > This result is robust to cross-country dependence and for structural breaks. > Our findings finally support the feedback hypothesis of bidirectional causality.

  11. Opportunities for Distance Education in the Commonwealth African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTELECON Research & Consultancy Ltd., Vancouver (British Columbia).

    The geo-demographic, economic, and infrastructural makeup of 12 African countries (Botswana. Gambia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) were compared to determine the potential benefits to them of a Commonwealth of Learning (COL) distance education initiative. Data were collected on…

  12. Optimal public investment, growth, and consumption : Evidence from African countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosu, A.K.; Getachew, Y.Y.; Ziesemer, T.H.W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a model positing a nonlinear relationship between public investment and growth. The model is then applied to a panel of African countries, using nonlinear estimating procedures. The growth-maximizing level of public investment is estimated at about 10% of GDP, based on System GMM

  13. African Countries and WTO´s Dispute Settlement Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism was designed, inter alia, to secure the 'rule of law' within international trade and provide all members with opportunities to exercise their rights under multilateral trade agreements. But, after ten years, no sub-Saharan African country has yet used the option...... to initiate a dispute. This article examines what prevents the WTO Africa Group from using the system and critically reviews the solutions they have proposed to remedy this. It concludes by discussing how this reflects broader problems concerning African participation in WTO, and puts forward some alternative...

  14. African Countries and WTO´s Dispute Settlement Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism was designed, inter alia, to secure the 'rule of law' within international trade and provide all members with opportunities to exercise their rights under multilateral trade agreements. But, after ten years, no sub-Saharan African country has yet used the option...... to initiate a dispute. This article examines what prevents the WTO Africa Group from using the system and critically reviews the solutions they have proposed to remedy this. It concludes by discussing how this reflects broader problems concerning African participation in WTO, and puts forward some alternative...

  15. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include...... support to: local production; financing schemes; tax exemptions; establishment and reinforcement of standards; technical training; and research and development....

  16. China Offers Import Tax Exemption to Some African Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>According to information from China’s Ministry of Commerce, China will offer some import tax exemption from January 1st this year to 25 African countries for a total of 190 commodities in the Customs taxable list. These commodities include 14 items of metals commodities such as ferro-silicon, steel structures and fabricated steel products, screw nails and their accessories, blister copper, unwrought copper cathode, fabricated copper, copper scrap and other copper products, unwrought nickel alloys, unwrought aluminium, aluminium scrap, intermediate cobalt products and fabricated cobalt products. These African countries include Benin, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central Africa, Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Liberia, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia etc. More details on these will be provided by the Customs.

  17. Japan’s foreign aid sanctions policy toward African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Furuoka, Fumitaka

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines Japan’s aid sanctions policy toward African countries since new guidelines for Japanese ODA were introduced. There were three cases of positive reinforcement in Africa, i.e. in Madagascar, Zambia) and Guinea. Also, the Japanese government implemented nine negative reinforcements in the region, i.e. in Kenya, Zaire, Malawi, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Togo, Nigeria and Gambia. Although Japan applied positive reinforcement and provided additional foreign aid to assist the p...

  18. MACROECONOMIC STABILITY OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold WEISZENBACHER

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the recent financial crisis, the macroeconomic stability of most countries has been cast to shadow. The damage to the economy caused by high inflation, volatile exchange rates, increasing amount of debts and the unstable financial markets has heavily left its toll on the global market and has led to massive unemployment and increasing poverty. This paper aims to follow the eight new Central and Eastern European countries that joined the European Union in 2004, as well as Romania and Bulgaria, who followed suit in 2007, in what concerns their economical performance, following adhesion to the EU while also comparing the periods before and after the economical crisis. They were chosen as a topic of research for the severity with which the crisis affected them and the high degree of reform implementation in the aftermath. It also plans to highlight the effect of the new reforms and the growth potential when compared to the rest of the European Union. The price inflation, real GDP growth, the levels of (unemployment, fiscal policy and stability of exchange rates will provide a clear image of how this cluster of developing countries fare nowadays against the rest of the EU countries.

  19. Migrants from other African countries in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimere-dan, O

    1996-02-01

    This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position.

  20. Zār Spirit Possession in Iran and African Countries: Group Distress, Culture-Bound Syndrome or Cultural Concept of Distress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Mianji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zār is the term used to describe a form of spirit possession common in northern African, eastern African, and some Middle-Eastern societies. Although these regions share some cultural similarities arising from their history of slavery, in these places, zār varies in prevalence, clinical characteristics, and social context. Based on a selective review of the literature, this paper looks at the place of zār spirit possession in both DSM-IV and DSM-V; it also examines how zār is manifested in Iran and in African countries including Sudan, Ethiopia, and Egypt; and it aims to provide practical information to mental health clinicians so that they can better understand how this cultural concept is practiced by Iranians and Middle Eastern and African immigrants living near the Persian Gulf coast.

  1. HIV stigma and nurse job satisfaction in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirwa, Maureen L; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W; Naidoo, Joanne R; Makoae, Lucy N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sample, as in the other 2. Job satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries, and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression showed that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influence on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These results provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries.

  2. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  3. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include......This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds...

  4. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  5. The Changing Epidemiology of Human African Trypanosomiasis among Patients from Nonendemic Countries –1902–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ami; Meltzer, Eyal; Leshem, Eyal; Dickstein, Yaakov; Stienlauf, Shmuel; Schwartz, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Background Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC), there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All HAT cases diagnosed in patients from NEC were included. Immigrants and refugees were excluded. We compared patients during and after the colonial period, and analyzed the relationship between the number of incoming travellers and the number of HAT cases. Results Between 1902 and 2012, HAT was reported in 244 patients. Most HAT cases were reported before 1920, and after the year 2000. In the colonial era the average age of patients was lower (32.5±7.8 vs. 43.0±16.1 years, P<0.001), the proportion of females was lower (10.0% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01], most cases were diagnosed in expatriates, missionaries and soldiers (74.3%), and Gambian trypanosomiasis accounted for 86/110, (78%) of cases. In the post-colonial era most patients 91/125 (72.8%) were short-term tourists to game parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa (mainly in Tanzania); Rhodesian trypanosomiasis accounted for 94/123 (76.4%) of cases. Between 1995 and 2010 there has been a constant linear increase in the number of incoming tourists to Tanzania, and HAT cases occurred in small outbreaks rather than following a similar linear pattern. Conclusions In recent decades HAT patients from NEC are older, and more likely to be tourists who acquired the disease while visiting game-parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. While Rhodesian trypanosomiasis is relatively uncommon among Africans, it now accounts for most cases reported among patients from NEC. Returning febrile travellers without an alternative diagnosis should be evaluated for HAT. Cases among travellers may serve as sentinels for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis “hot spots” in

  6. The changing epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis among patients from nonendemic countries--1902-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Neuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC, there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All HAT cases diagnosed in patients from NEC were included. Immigrants and refugees were excluded. We compared patients during and after the colonial period, and analyzed the relationship between the number of incoming travellers and the number of HAT cases. RESULTS: Between 1902 and 2012, HAT was reported in 244 patients. Most HAT cases were reported before 1920, and after the year 2000. In the colonial era the average age of patients was lower (32.5±7.8 vs. 43.0±16.1 years, P<0.001, the proportion of females was lower (10.0% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01], most cases were diagnosed in expatriates, missionaries and soldiers (74.3%, and Gambian trypanosomiasis accounted for 86/110, (78% of cases. In the post-colonial era most patients 91/125 (72.8% were short-term tourists to game parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa (mainly in Tanzania; Rhodesian trypanosomiasis accounted for 94/123 (76.4% of cases. Between 1995 and 2010 there has been a constant linear increase in the number of incoming tourists to Tanzania, and HAT cases occurred in small outbreaks rather than following a similar linear pattern. CONCLUSIONS: In recent decades HAT patients from NEC are older, and more likely to be tourists who acquired the disease while visiting game-parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. While Rhodesian trypanosomiasis is relatively uncommon among Africans, it now accounts for most cases reported among patients from NEC. Returning febrile travellers without an alternative diagnosis should be evaluated for HAT. Cases among travellers may serve as sentinels for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis "hot

  7. The changing epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis among patients from nonendemic countries--1902-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ami; Meltzer, Eyal; Leshem, Eyal; Dickstein, Yaakov; Stienlauf, Shmuel; Schwartz, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC), there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All HAT cases diagnosed in patients from NEC were included. Immigrants and refugees were excluded. We compared patients during and after the colonial period, and analyzed the relationship between the number of incoming travellers and the number of HAT cases. Between 1902 and 2012, HAT was reported in 244 patients. Most HAT cases were reported before 1920, and after the year 2000. In the colonial era the average age of patients was lower (32.5±7.8 vs. 43.0±16.1 years, P<0.001), the proportion of females was lower (10.0% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01], most cases were diagnosed in expatriates, missionaries and soldiers (74.3%), and Gambian trypanosomiasis accounted for 86/110, (78%) of cases. In the post-colonial era most patients 91/125 (72.8%) were short-term tourists to game parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa (mainly in Tanzania); Rhodesian trypanosomiasis accounted for 94/123 (76.4%) of cases. Between 1995 and 2010 there has been a constant linear increase in the number of incoming tourists to Tanzania, and HAT cases occurred in small outbreaks rather than following a similar linear pattern. In recent decades HAT patients from NEC are older, and more likely to be tourists who acquired the disease while visiting game-parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. While Rhodesian trypanosomiasis is relatively uncommon among Africans, it now accounts for most cases reported among patients from NEC. Returning febrile travellers without an alternative diagnosis should be evaluated for HAT. Cases among travellers may serve as sentinels for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis "hot spots" in Africa.

  8. Climate Vulnerability of Hydro-power infrastructure in the Eastern African Power Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Vignesh

    2017-04-01

    At present there is around 6000 MW of installed hydropower capacity in the Eastern African power pool (EAPP)[1]. With countries aggressively planning to achieve the Sustainable development goal (SDG) of ensuring access to affordable electricity for all, a three-fold increase in hydropower capacity is expected by 2040 [1]. Most of the existing and planned infrastructure lie inside the Nile River Basin. The latest assessment report (AR 5) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) indicates a high level of climatic uncertainty in the Nile Basin. The Climate Moisture index (CMI) for the Eastern Nile region and the Nile Equatorial lakes varies significantly across the different General Circulation Models (GCM)[2]. Such high uncertainty casts a shadow on the plans to expand hydropower capacity, doubting whether hydropower expansion can contribute to the goal of improving access to electricity or end up as sunk investments. In this assessment, we analyze adaptation strategies for national energy systems in the Eastern African Power Pool (EAPP), which minimize the regret that could potentially arise from impacts of a changed climate. An energy systems model of the EAPP is developed representing national electricity supply infrastructure. Cross border transmission and hydropower infrastructure is defined at individual project level. The energy systems model is coupled with a water systems management model of the Nile River Basin that calculates the water availability at different hydropower infrastructures under a range of climate scenarios. The results suggest that a robust adaptation strategy consisting of investments in cross border electricity transmission infrastructure and diversifying sources of electricity supply will require additional investments of USD 4.2 billion by 2050. However, this leads to fuel and operational cost savings of up to USD 22.6 billion, depending on the climate scenario. [1] "Platts, 2016. World Electric Power Plants Database

  9. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly-Moman, Jessica; Phadke, Amol; Kammen, Daniel M.; Callaway, Duncan S.

    2017-01-01

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental–impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with “no-regrets” options—or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6–20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. Overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation. PMID:28348209

  10. The Possibility of Central and Eastern European Countries' Joining the EMU: Prospects and Implications for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Cheol Han

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The old socialistic states of Middle and Eastern Europe is positively trying to accede to the EMU in order to enjoy the manifold rights of joining currency combination, not mention the political and diplomatic purposes. The EU brought forward the regulation of macro-economic reduction, system and law terms as the requirement of the entrance of those Middle and Eastern Europe countries. According to a survey, including Poland and Hungary, countries which took the lead in reforming agreed with EU on most of EU’ requirements about acceding to EMU. However, because of the domestic and foreign economic conditions, in the next 1 or 2years, none of the Middle and Eastern Europe countries could meet the requirement of reducing macro-economy. Whereas the degree of fulfillment of the economy reducing requirement and the factor that the Middle and Eastern Europe countries could accede to EU after 2003, it was predicted that those countries could accede to EMU only after 2005. With the coming on of EMU, the Middle and Eastern countries will accelerate the activity of currency combination. The South Korean government and enterprises also should intensify the prediction and precaution to the systems, policy change and other economic effects of these Middle and Eastern Europe countries.

  11. Language policy and science: Could some African countries learn from some Asian countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2012-08-01

    This article deals with the fact that most children in Africa are taught in a language neither they nor their teachers master, resulting in poor education outcomes. While there are also donor interests and donor competition involved in retaining ex-colonial languages, as well as an African elite that may profit from this system, one of the main reasons why teaching in ex-colonial languages persists lies in the fact that a large proportion of the general public still believes that the best way to learn a foreign language is to have it as a language of instruction. By contrast, research studies conducted in Africa, as well as examples from Asian countries such as Sri Lanka and Malaysia, have shown that children actually learn mathematics and science much better in local and familiar languages. Though the recent World Bank Education Strategy policy paper is entitled Learning for All, it does not specify which language learning should take place in. A claim one often hears in countries of so-called Anglophone Africa is that English is the language of science and technology, and that teaching these subjects through English (instead of teaching English as a subject in its own right as a foreign language) is best. The monolingual island of Zanzibar is in fact about to reintroduce English as the language of instruction in maths and science from grade 5 onwards in primary school. The author of this paper suggests that when it comes to language policy, some African and some Asian countries could learn from each other.

  12. Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Kupika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rio+20 outcomes document, the Future We Want, enshrines green economy as one of the platforms to attain sustainable development and calls for measures that seek to address climate change and biodiversity management. This paper audits climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries to determine the extent to which climate change legislation mainstreams biodiversity and wildlife management. A scan of international, continental, regional and national climate change policies was conducted to assess whether they include biodiversity and/or wildlife management issues. The key finding is that many climate change policy–related documents, particularly the National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPAs, address threats to biodiversity and wildlife resources. However, international policies like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol do not address the matter under deliberation. Regional climate change policies such as the East African Community, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and African Union address biodiversity and/or wildlife issues whilst the Southern African Development Community region does not have a stand-alone policy for climate change. Progressive countries like Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia have recently put in place detailed NAPAs which are mainstream responsive strategies intended to address climate change adaptation in the wildlife sector.Keywords: mainstreaming, biodiversity, wildlife, climate change policy, east and southern Africa

  13. Wastage in the health workforce: some perspectives from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovlo Delanyo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa faces a human resources crisis in the health sector. Over the past two decades its population has increased substantially, with a significant rise in the disease burden due to HIV/AIDS and recurrent communicable diseases and an increased incidence of noncommunicable diseases. This increased demand for health services is met with a rather low supply of health workers, but this notwithstanding, sub-Saharan African countries also experience significant wastage of their human resources stock. Methods This paper is a desk review to illustrate suggestions that the way human resources for health (HRH are trained and deployed in Africa does not enhance productivity and that countries are unable to realize the full potential expected from the working life of their health workers. The paper suggests data types for use in measuring various forms of "wastage". Results "Direct" wastage – or avoidable increases in loss of staff through factors such as emigration and death – is on the rise, perhaps as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. "Indirect" wastage – which is the result of losses in output and productivity from health professionals' misapplied skills, absenteeism, poor support and lack of supervision – is also common. HIV/AIDS represents a special cause of wastage in Africa. Deaths of health workers, fear of infection, burnout, absenteeism, heavy workloads and stress affect productivity. Conclusion The paper reviews strategies that have been proposed and/or implemented. It suggests areas needing further attention, including: developing and using indicators for monitoring and managing wastage; enhancing motivation and morale of health workers; protecting and valuing the health worker with enhanced occupational safety and welfare systems; and establishing the moral leadership to effectively tackle HIV/AIDS and the brain drain.

  14. The negative impacts of human activities in the eastern African region: an international waters perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Rolph; Obura, David

    2004-02-01

    The complex interactions between human activities and the environment at the interface of land and water is analyzed with a focus on the Somali Current (East Africa), and Indian Ocean Island States, subregions of the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA). These 2 subregions contain some of the world's richest ecosystems, including the high biodiversity forests of Madagascar and the diverse coastal habitats of the eastern African coast. These ecosystems support local communities and national and regional economies. Current and future degradation of these systems, from water basins to continental shelves, affects the livelihoods and sustainability of the countries in the region, and long-term efforts to reduce poverty. The assessments determined that pollution and climate change are the primary environmental and social concerns in the Islands of the Indian Ocean, while freshwater shortage and unsustainable exploitation of fisheries and other living resources are the primary environmental and social concerns in East Africa. The GIWA approach, through assessing root causes of environmental concerns, enables the development of policy approaches for mitigating environmental degradation. This paper explores policy frameworks for mitigating the impacts, and reducing the drivers, of 3 environmental concerns--freshwater shortage; solid waste pollution; and climate change--addressing social and institutional causes and effects, and linking the subregions to broad international frameworks. The common theme in all 3 case studies is the need to develop integrated ecosystem and international waters policies, and mechanisms to manage conflicting interests and to limit threats to natural processes.

  15. Biological characterization of African swine fever virus genotype II strains from north-eastern Estonia in European wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmoja, I; Petrov, A; Breidenstein, C; Zani, L; Forth, J H; Beer, M; Kristian, M; Viltrop, A; Blome, S

    2017-01-24

    Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, African swine fever (ASF) is regarded as one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. Following the ongoing epidemic in the Transcaucasian countries and the Russian Federation, African swine fever virus was introduced into the Estonian wild boar population in 2014. Epidemiological investigations suggested two different introductions into the southern and the north-eastern part of Estonia. Interestingly, outbreak characteristics varied considerably between the affected regions. While high mortality and mainly virus-positive animals were observed in the southern region, mortality was low in the north-eastern area. In the latter, clinically healthy, antibody-positive animals were found in the hunting bag and detection of virus was rare. Two hypotheses could explain the different behaviour in the north-east: (i) the frequency of antibody detections combined with the low mortality is the tail of an older, so far undetected epidemic wave coming from the east, or (ii) the virus in this region is attenuated and leads to a less severe clinical outcome. To explore the possibility of virus attenuation, a re-isolated ASFV strain from the north-eastern Ida-Viru region was biologically characterized in European wild boar. Oronasal inoculation led to an acute and severe disease course in all animals with typical pathomorphological lesions. However, one animal recovered completely and was subsequently commingled with three sentinels of the same age class to assess disease transmission. By the end of the trial at 96 days post-initial inoculation, all animals were completely healthy and neither virus nor viral genomes were detected in the sentinels or the survivor. The survivor, however, showed high antibody levels. In conclusion, the ASFV strain from north-eastern Estonia was still highly virulent but nevertheless, one animal recovered completely. Under the experimental conditions, no transmission occurred from the survivor

  16. HTA Implementation Roadmap in Central and Eastern European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Gheorghe, Adrian; Huic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    to healthcare financing decisions can improve the allocative efficiency of scarce resources. However, few CEE countries have a clear roadmap for HTA implementation. Examples from high-income countries may not be directly relevant, as CEE countries cannot allocate so much financial and human resources...... for substantiating policy decisions with evidence. Our objective was to describe the main HTA implementation scenarios in CEE countries and summarize the most important questions related to capacity building, financing HTA research, process and organizational structure for HTA, standardization of HTA methodology......, use of local data, scope of mandatory HTA, decision criteria, and international collaboration in HTA. Although HTA implementation strategies from the region can be relevant examples for other CEE countries with similar cultural environment and economic status, HTA roadmaps are not still fully...

  17. Marlboro and Other Usual Brand Choices by Youth Smokers in Middle Eastern Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed data from 118,743 adolescents completing 30 different Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 15 different Middle Eastern countries between 1999 and 2007 to determine the proportion of young smokers who usually smoked Marlboro, other cigarette brands, or no usual brand smoked in these countries. Marlboro was the most…

  18. Maternal education and marital fertility in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimere-dan, O

    1993-01-01

    World fertility data were used for Cote d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Ghana, and Nigeria. Estimates of marital fertility and its proportional reduction owing to the proximate determinants were computed using Fertility Exposure Analysis (FEA). Eight exposure states were identified in an interval of 3 years before the survey. Proximate determinants were estimated from an equation for subsequent regression analysis, which also included socioeconomic variables, e.g., place of residence, religion, work pattern, and husband's education. Except for the 25-29 age group in Cameroon and Cote d'Ivoire and the 15-19 age group in Cote d'Ivoire, age specific marital fertility was higher for women who had between 4 and 6 years of formal education than for those who had 7 or more years of schooling. Marital age specific fertility was higher for women who had 4-6 years of education than for uneducated women, except from the 2 oldest age groups in Cote d'Ivoire and the oldest age groups in Ghana. On the other hand, lower fertility also existed in poorly educated women in Cameroon, in the 15-19 age group in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana, and also in 20-24 and 30-34 age groups in Nigeria. Women with no education had lower fertility than those with 1-3 years and 4-6 years of education. Breastfeeding made the greatest contribution to the reduction of marital fertility for the educational categories except for the most educated women in Cote d'Ivoire. Contraception had a weak effect on fertility in Nigeria and Cameroon but a strong effect in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. Postpartum abstinence had a small effect since the 1970s except in Nigeria where it depressed marital fertility by over 10%. In these 4 countries differences existed in the patterns of educational differentials in fertility-reducing impacts of the proximate determinants. The impact of maternal education on marital fertility is not uniformly predictable in all African countries.

  19. THE MAGNITUDE AND DETERMINANTS OF CAPITAL FLIGHT - THE CASE FOR 6 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HERMES, N; LENSINK, R

    1992-01-01

    Most studies treat capital flight as an exclusively Latin American problem. This paper estimates capital flight for six African countries and shows that the emphasis on Latin American capital flight is not correct. It appears that the burden of capital flight is also important for many African

  20. THE MAGNITUDE AND DETERMINANTS OF CAPITAL FLIGHT - THE CASE FOR 6 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HERMES, N; LENSINK, R

    1992-01-01

    Most studies treat capital flight as an exclusively Latin American problem. This paper estimates capital flight for six African countries and shows that the emphasis on Latin American capital flight is not correct. It appears that the burden of capital flight is also important for many African count

  1. Urban and rural differences in HIV/AIDS stigma in five African countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naidoo, Joanne R; Uys, Leana R; Greeff, Minrie; Holzemer, William L; Makoae, Lucy; Dlamini, Priscilla; Phetlhu, René D; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla

    2007-01-01

    .... Decreasing stigma is therefore an important goal in HIV/AIDS programmes. This paper explores whether urban and rural differences existed in reported incidents of HIV stigma from five African countries...

  2. How have the Eastern European countries of the former Warsaw Pact developed since 1990? A bibliometric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozak, M.; Bornmann, L.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2015-01-01

    Did the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991 influence the scientific performance of the researchers in Eastern European countries? Did this historical event affect international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries with those of Western countries? Did it also change intern

  3. Digital Muslimas: ICT Skills of Females in Middle Eastern Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, L. Heidi

    2010-01-01

    This article examines women in Islamic countries with regard to sustainable futures, equity, and social justice. Some barriers to ICT use for women in the Middle East include access to computers, gender discrimination by employers, marginalized political participation, high rates of illiteracy, and lack of independence. Distance education offers a…

  4. The Main Factors of Transnationalization of Companies in the Countries of Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarchyk Kateryna O.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with identifying the main factors of transnationalization of companies in the countries of Eastern Asia (Japan, China and Republic of Korea. Processes of transnationalization in the countries of Eastern Asia has been analyzed, the main large multinational corporation of Japan, China and the Republic of Korea have been determined. The main factors of transnationalization of companies in the countries of the region have been identified as follows: world markets conjuncture, cost of production, business environment and the State policy in the sphere of investment. The article proposes and calculates an updated indicator of transnationalization of business in 2010-2014 on the basis of magnitude of the largest transnational corporations in the Eastern Asia.

  5. Arab nations lagging behind other Middle Eastern countries in biomedical research: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakoush Omran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of biomedical research and publications in a country or group of countries is used to monitor research progress and trends. This study aims to assess the performance of biomedical research in the Arab world during 2001–2005 and to compare it with other Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. Methods PubMed and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded were searched systematically for the original biomedical research publications and their citation frequencies of 16 Arab nations and three non-Arab Middle Eastern countries (Iran, Israel and Turkey, all of which are classified as middle or high income countries. Results The 16 Arab countries together have 5775 and 14,374 original research articles listed by PubMed and SCI-expanded, respectively, significantly less (p Conclusion The Arab world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Studies are needed to clarify the causes and to propose strategies to improve the biomedical research status in Arab countries.

  6. Adjustment and long-run economic performance in 18 African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between IMF-World Bank stabilisation-cum-structural adjustment programs and long-run economic performance in 18 African countries on a country-specific basis for the period 1960-2009. We employ a structural break approach to study the impact on long-run growth...

  7. ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF PUBLIC DEBT. THE CASE OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BILAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to empirically assess, using panel data estimation techniques, the effects of public indebtedness on economic growth for a group of 11 Central and Eastern European countries and over the period 1994-2013. Our hypothesis is that, although public indebtedness may fuel economic growth, once public debt breaches a certain threshold the effects are reversed and public indebtedness negatively affects GDP growth rates. The results of our study confirm this kind of relationship, with a maximum debt threshold for all countries of about 45-55% of GDP, lower for the less developed (like Romania and Bulgaria and higher for the more developed ones. Also, the threshold for Central and Eastern European countries is found to be lower than the one identified in other empirical studies for developed EU countries, as the former enjoy lower credibility, higher vulnerability to shocks and depend more on external capital transfers.

  8. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in African Countries: Evidence from Semiparametric Estimation with Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhike Lv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of literature studies on the relationship between health care expenditure (HCE and GDP have been analyzed using data intensively from developed countries, but little is known for other regions. This paper considers a semiparametric panel data analysis for the study of the relationship between per capita HCE and per capita GDP for 42 African countries over the period 1995–2009. We found that infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births has a negative effect on per capita HCE, while the proportion of the population aged 65 is statistically insignificant in African countries. Furthermore, we found that the income elasticity is not constant but varies with income level, and health care is a necessity rather than a luxury for African countries.

  9. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate

  10. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate t

  11. HIV/AIDS in the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeff; Matic, Srdan

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, HIV/AIDS became a major threat to health, economic stability and human development in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Social, political and economic transition exacerbated the structural conditions that allowed HIV/AIDS to flourish as dramatic changes led to increasing...

  12. Public Debts and Private Assets: Explaining Capital Flight from Sub-Saharan African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ndikumana, Léonce; James K. Boyce

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of capital flight from 30 sub-Saharan African countries, including 24 countries classified as severely indebted low-income countries, for the period 1970-1996. The econometric analysis reveals that external borrowing is positively and significantly related to capital flight, suggesting that to a large extent capital flight is debt-fueled. We estimate that for every dollar of external borrowing in the region, roughly 80 cents flowed back as capital flight in the...

  13. Diplomatic Envoys of Four African Countries Visit Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>With Spring warmth awakening the flowers, ambassadors of Madagascar, Mali, Cameroon and Burundi went to Changsha, Hunan Province, for the 8th Lecture Tour of African Diplomatic Envoys. More than 100 people from the Commerce Bureau, the Development and Reform Commission and the Academy of Social Sciences of Hunan Province, Hunan Normal University as well as SOEs and private enterprises took part in the activity.

  14. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, N

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease.

  15. The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2009-11-18

    In the present paper, we consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries, showing that, beyond health issues, this disease should and must be seen as a global development concern, affecting all components of human development. Consequently, we stress the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches that model, estimate and predict the real impact of HIV/AIDS on human development of African countries in order to optimise the strategies proposed by national countries, international institutions and their partners. In our search strategy, we relied on secondary information, mainly through National Human Development Reports of some African countries and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank. We restricted ourselves to reports dealing explicitly with the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries. HIV/AIDS is affecting the global human development of African countries through its devastating impact on health and demographic indicators such as life expectancy at birth, healthcare assistance, age and sex distribution, economic indicators like income, work force, and economic growth, education and knowledge acquisition and other indicators like governance, gender inequality and human rights. On the basis of the national reports reviewed, it appears clearly that HIV/AIDS is no longer a crisis only for the healthcare sector, but presents a challenge to all sectors. Consequently, HIV/AIDS is a development question and should be viewed as such. The disease is impeding development by imposing a steady decline in the key indicators of human development and hence reversing the social and economic gains that African countries are striving to attain. Being at the same time a cause and consequence of poverty and underdevelopment, it constitutes a challenge to human security and human development by diminishing the chances of

  16. Foreign direct investment of Central and Eastern European countries, and the investment development path revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian GORYNIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates long-term developments in inward and outward FDI of 10 Central and Eastern European (CEE countries using Dunningĺs investment development path (IDP paradigm as a theoretical framework. Its main purpose is to determine how far the CEE countries have progressed along their IDPs since the beginning of transition. The results show that half of the analyzed countries have already reached Stage 3 of the IDP, while the other half are either firmly in Stage2 or are approaching Stage 3. With some notable exceptions, the study points to conformity of the analyzed IDP trajectories with Dunningĺs model.

  17. Central and Eastern European Countries Focus on the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Road Economic Belt, a strategic priority of the Chinese foreign policy in 2015, draws the attention to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe through the multiple benefits that it displays (investments, economic growth, trade between the countries along its corridors, job creation, infrastructure development, the strategic importance of being part of a grandiose multi-continental project. Among these benefits an important one is represented by the opportunities of Chinese investments in infrastructure, since the EU is suffering from a credit restraint. Also, The Silk Road Economic Belt could lead to a potential increase in the bilateral trade. Analyzing the literature in the field and the various official information available online, this paper aims to depict the Chinese project form the Eastern European perspective, identifying local priorities, conflicting interests, possible infrastructure projects, routes, focusing on two strategic countries in the region: Romania and Serbia, both displaying advantages and disadvantages.

  18. The Eastern European electricity market outlook: country profiles of supply, demand, regulation and infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    Europe's electricity markets are rapidly changing and opening up to liberalisation and new market entrants, this is particularly evident in the vibrant Eastern European markets. This report provides an in-depth analysis of 12 highly dynamic Eastern European electricity markets with comprehensive data on supply/demand balance and coverage of the implementation of the EU Electricity Directive. The country profiles also feature an overview of supply/demand, an examination of key governmental, legal and political influences on the sector and an analysis of international trading and infrastructure with forecasts to 2012. 75 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Energy Sectors in Some Countries of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Zaharia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of energy sectors of countries all over the world is vital in a context of globalization and economic, social and environmental crises, because represents a way of identifying the problems and finding solutions that were implemented and worked in other countries. Our paper aims to compare the energetic sector of 6 Eastern European countries by analyzing the trend of energy production, consumption, prices and the main indicators needed to assess the achievement of required targets of 2020 Europe Strategy in the energy sector. The results show that each country has strong points or weaknesses in a smaller or a greater extent, but is important that authorities learn from each one of them and, on their basis, to create a sustainable management in the energy sector in each country.

  20. Infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbo, Felix A; Agho, Kingsley; Ogeleka, Pascal; Woolfenden, Sue; Page, Andrew; Eastwood, John

    2017-01-01

    The impacts of optimal infant feeding practices on diarrhoea have been documented in some developing countries, but not in countries with high diarrhoea mortality as reported by the World Health Organisation/United Nations Children's Fund. We aimed to investigate the association between infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality. The study used the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets collected in nine sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality, namely: Burkina Faso (2010, N = 9,733); Demographic Republic of Congo (2013; N = 10,458); Ethiopia (2013, N = 7,251); Kenya (2014, N = 14,034); Mali (2013, N = 6,365); Niger (2013, N = 7,235); Nigeria (2013, N = 18,539); Tanzania (2010, N = 5,013); and Uganda (2010, N = 4,472). Multilevel logistic regression models that adjusted for cluster and sampling weights were used to investigate the association between infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in these nine African countries. Diarrhoea prevalence was lower among children whose mothers practiced early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding were significantly associated with lower risk of diarrhoea (OR = 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-0.85, Pbreastfeeding at one year (OR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.05-1.55) were significantly associated with a higher risk of diarrhoea. Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding are protective of diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality. To reduce diarrhoea mortality and also achieve the health-related sustainable development goals in sub-Saharan African, an integrated, multi-agency strategic partnership within each country is needed to improve optimal infant feeding practices.

  1. Early Identification and Prevention of the Spread of Ebola in High-Risk African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, Lucy; Gerber, A Russell; Greiner, Ashley L; Hastings, Deborah L; Mirkovic, Kelsey; Paczkowski, Magdalena M; Sidibe, Sekou; Banaski, James; Walker, Chastity L; Brooks, Jennifer C; Caceres, Victor M; Arthur, Ray R; Angulo, Frederick J

    2016-07-08

    In the late summer of 2014, it became apparent that improved preparedness was needed for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in at-risk countries surrounding the three highly affected West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia). The World Health Organization (WHO) identified 14 nearby African countries as high priority to receive technical assistance for Ebola preparedness; two additional African countries were identified at high risk for Ebola introduction because of travel and trade connections. To enhance the capacity of these countries to rapidly detect and contain Ebola, CDC established the High-Risk Countries Team (HRCT) to work with ministries of health, CDC country offices, WHO, and other international organizations. From August 2014 until the team was deactivated in May 2015, a total of 128 team members supported 15 countries in Ebola response and preparedness. In four instances during 2014, Ebola was introduced from a heavily affected country to a previously unaffected country, and CDC rapidly deployed personnel to help contain Ebola. The first introduction, in Nigeria, resulted in 20 cases and was contained within three generations of transmission; the second and third introductions, in Senegal and Mali, respectively, resulted in no further transmission; the fourth, also in Mali, resulted in seven cases and was contained within two generations of transmission. Preparedness activities included training, developing guidelines, assessing Ebola preparedness, facilitating Emergency Operations Center establishment in seven countries, and developing a standardized protocol for contact tracing. CDC's Field Epidemiology Training Program Branch also partnered with the HRCT to provide surveillance training to 188 field epidemiologists in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, and Senegal to support Ebola preparedness. Imported cases of Ebola were successfully contained, and all 15 priority countries now have a stronger capacity to rapidly detect and contain

  2. Properly pricing country risk: a model for pricing long-term fundamental risk applied to central and eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Revoltella

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The private sector has used proxies such as sovereign credit ratings, spreads on sovereign bonds and spreads on sovereign credit default swaps (CDS to gauge country risk, even though these measures are pricing the risk of default of government bonds, which is different from the risks facing private participants in cross-border financing. Under normal market conditions, the CDS spreads are a very useful source of information on country risk. However, the recent crisis has shown that the CDS spreads might lead to some underpricing or overpricing of fundamentals in the case of excessively low or excessively high risk aversion. In this paper we develop an alternative measure of country risk that extracts the volatile, short-term market sentiment component from the sover eign CDS spread in order to improve its reliability in periods of market distress. We show that adverse market sentiment was a key driver of the sharp increase in sovereign CDS spreads of central and eastern European (CEE countries during the most severe phase of the crisis. We also show that our measure of country risk sheds some light on the observed stability of cross-border bank flows to CEE banks during the crisis.

  3. Individual and Country Level Determinants of (PostMaterialist Values in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Pavlović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analyzing the level of postmaterialist values in Eastern European countries as well as the main individual and country level predictors of the postmaterialist value preference. The data from the World Values Survey (WVS and the European Values Survey (EVS, conducted on the nationally representative samples in the period from 1990 to 2008, were used. The main analysis was performed on the data from the fourth wave of EVS (2008/2010, on the total of twenty countries and 30,393 respondents. A number of individual (age, education, income level, size of town, economic hardship in formative years as well as country level variables (inflation and unemployment rate, Human Development Index and GINI index values were used. The results have shown that the level of postmaterialist values in Eastern Europe, measured by the standard four-item index, is relatively low and relatively stable in the period 1990–2008. Younger, urban and more educated respondents as well as the citizens from more developed and economically stable Eastern European nations are more inclined towards postmaterialism. The significance of the current socio-economic conditions for the variation in postmaterialism as well as the insignificance of economic security during the formative period of political maturation calls into question the assumptions of Inglehart’s original model. The possible alternative mechanisms of value change as well as of the (postmaterialist conception are discussed.

  4. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  5. Foreign direct investment and policy framework: New Granger causality evidence from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiu Adewale Aregbeshola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The strategic importance of foreign direct investment in the contemporary economies has been tremendous.While various countries (developed and developing economies have benefitted from the direct and spillovereffects of FDI, which range from improved technology and knowledge diffusion through to individual andcorporate capability enhancement, FDI outflow remains largely channelled to the developed countries, andthe rapidly developing countries in Asia and South America. Evidence suggests that the developmentenhancingeffects of FDI are felt more highly in the developing economies, such as economies in Africa.However, FDI inflow to the developing economies has been very low. Using data generated from the AfricanDevelopment Indicators (ADI between 1980 and 2008 in econometric estimations, this paper finds thatgovernment policies (especially fiscal and monetary policies play significant roles in facilitating FDI inflow tothe African countries studied. The study thereby suggests an improved regulatory framework to make Africamore attractive to inflow of FDI.

  6. Language Policy and Science: Could Some African Countries Learn from Some Asian Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the fact that most children in Africa are taught in a language neither they nor their teachers master, resulting in poor education outcomes. While there are also donor interests and donor competition involved in retaining ex-colonial languages, as well as an African elite that may profit from this system, one of the main…

  7. The Features of Development in the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez Martin, Jose Antonio; Navarro Pabsdorf, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a new proposal for the measurement of development, applied to the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group (ACP), conditional on their insularity, and with privileged relations with the European Union. Our index has been constructed attending to the criteria defined in the Goals of the Millennium…

  8. An ontology for regulating eHealth interoperability in developing African countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available eHealth governance and regulation are necessary in low resource African countries to ensure effective and equitable use of health information technology and to realize national eHealth goals such as interoperability, adoption of standards and data...

  9. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in food from selected African countries – a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paudyal, Narayan; Anihouvi, Victor; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews th...

  10. Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? Evidence from some selected african countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alege P.O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? What are the implications of growth on output performances in Africa? Does the effect of Africa’s growth on sectorial output have any implication for inequality in Africa? The study investigates the effect of shocks on a set of macroeconomic variables on inequality (measured by life expectancy and the implication of this on sectors that are perceived to provide economic empowerment in form of employment for people living in the African countries in our sample. Studies already find that growth in many African countries has not been accompanied with significant improvement in employment. Therefore inequality is subject to a counter cyclical trend in production levels when export destination countries experience a recession. The study also provides insight on the effect of growth on sectorial output for three major sectors in the African economy with the intent of analyzing the impact of growth on sectorial development. The method used in this study is Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR estimation and the obvious advantage of this method lies in the fact that it allows us to capture both static and dynamic interdependencies and to treat the links across units in an unrestricted fashion. Data is obtained from World Bank (WDI Statistics for the period 1985 to 2012 (28 years for 10 African Countries. Our main findings confirm strong negative relationship between GDP growth and life expectancy and also for GDP and the services and manufacturing sector considering the full sample.

  11. RECENT CONTROVERSIES REGARDING THE DELAYS IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNTRIES FROM EASTERN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Richiter Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The European integration is the best way for the poor Eastern European societies to follow in order to progress. Gathering contacts with the Occident cannot push the former communist societies to the status of chronically backward peripheries. The theory of "modernization" claims that the mere contact with the western modernity is sufficient to remove the elements of the traditional societies which hinder the development and generate progress automatically. Countries, which suffered from th...

  12. Trade Union Practices in the EU and Latvia: Experience for Eastern Partnership Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacenko Sergejs

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article will show major dimensions in the experience of EU Member States that could be shared with the Eastern Partnership (EaP countries. The framework of the study is the EU concept of trade unions in social dialogue and social partnership in the public sector. This study outlines the concept of social dialogue as a core element of industrial relations and will focus on industrial relations specifically in the public sector.

  13. Ethical Leadership Styles of Future Managers in Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Remišová; Anna Lašáková

    2013-01-01

    There is a limited understanding what the constituent elements of the ethical leadership are. Although various researchers defined ethical leadership as a specific leadership style, with typical personality traits and behaviors, the precise instantiation of the content of ethical leadership was only seldom investigated. The body of empirical research on ethical leadership is only slowly beginning to build up. Furthermore, the ethical leadership in Central and Eastern European countries (CEE c...

  14. Determinants of non-performing loans in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Škarica

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the determinants of the changes in the non-performing loan (NPL ratio in selected European emerging markets. The model was estimated on a panel dataset using a fixed effects estimator for seven Central and Eastern European (CEE countries between Q3:2007 and Q3:2012. The countries analyzed are Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Romania and Slovakia. Although the literature on NPLs is quite extensive, this is the first empirical research on the countries of CEE region using aggregate, country-level data on problem loans. The results suggest that the primary cause of high levels of NPLs is the economic slowdown, which is evident from statistically significant and economically large coefficients on GDP, unemployment and the inflation rate.

  15. Status of national health research systems in ten countries of the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO Regional Committee for Africa, in 1998, passed a resolution (AFR/RC48/R4 which urged its Member States in the Region to develop national research policies and strategies and to build national health research capacities, particularly through resource allocation, training of senior officials, strengthening of research institutions and establishment of coordination mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to take stock of some aspects of national resources for health research in the countries of the Region; identify current constraints facing national health research systems; and propose the way forward. Methods A questionnaire was prepared and sent by pouch to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Representatives for facilitation and follow up. The health research focal person in each of the countries Ministry of Health (in consultation with other relevant health research bodies in the country bore the responsibility for completing the questionnaire. The data were entered and analysed in Excel spreadsheet. Results The key findings were as follows: the response rate was 21.7% (10/46; three countries had a health research policy; one country reported that it had a law relating to health research; two countries had a strategic health research plan; three countries reported that they had a functional national health research system (NHRS; two countries confirmed the existence of a functional national health research management forum (NHRMF; six countries had a functional ethical review committee (ERC; five countries had a scientific review committee (SRC; five countries reported the existence of health institutions with institutional review committees (IRC; two countries had a health research programme; and three countries had a national health research institute (NHRI and a faculty of health sciences in the national university that conducted health research

  16. The Impact of FDIs on Exports, and Export Competitiveness in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa ŞERBĂNESCU

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available After 1990, the Central and Eastern European (CEE countries lowered the barriers to FDIs. Of course, many other developments were taking place at the same time: increasing openness to trade, privatization of previously government-owned production, and many other changes as these countries moved in various degrees from socialist to market economies and democratic governments. They privatized many state-owned enterprises, signed foreign trade agreements with other countries in the region, and have generally achieved a significant level of macroeconomic stability with improved growth rates. They also experienced a significant increase in FDI. As a consequence, the ratio of inward FDI to the CEE countries studied here in total world FDI inflows increased more than three-fold. Over the same period, these countries also achieved a substantial increase in their exports, especially towards Western Europe. We present in this paper the relation between the FDIs and exports in the CEE countries during 1990-2010 using statistic data analysis and literature review and underline the factors that determined an increase of exports in these countries. Despite other CEE countries that succeeded to attract many export-oriented FDIs, Romanian case is different because of many local specific factors such as an insufficient local production and a tight fiscal policy.

  17. Diplomatic Envoys of Four African Countries Visit Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>In Xinjiang,the weather is fine and different kinds of melons and fruits have ripened by June,when Ambassador Cesar Freire De Morais of Cape Verde,Ambassador Paul Chong Leung of Mauritius,Ambassador Sedozan Apithy of Benin,along with Aliou Sall,Economic Counselor of the Senegalese Embassy in China,visited the region under CPAFFC auspices to give briefings on the political,economic and trade situation,as well as the advantages,investment policies and opportunities of their respective countries.

  18. Coping, stress and suicide ideation in the South African Police Services in the Eastern Cape / René Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, René

    2002-01-01

    The suicide rate in the South African Police Services is relatively high compared with other suicide statistics. The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between coping, stress and suicide ideation within the SAPS in the Eastern Cape. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The study population consisted of 307 uniformed police members from the job level of constable to that of senior superintendent in the Eastern Cape. The COPE Questionnaire, Police Stres...

  19. Remittances, Economic Freedom, and Economic Growth in North African Countries

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    Nahed Zghidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution investigates the causal interactions between foreign direct investment (FDI, economic freedom and economic growth in a panel of 4 countries of North Africa (Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria and Egypt from 1980 to 2012. Using System Generalized Method of Moment (GMM panel data analysis, we find strong evidence of a positive link between remittances and economic growth. We also find evidence that economic freedom appear to be working as a complement to remittances and, moreover, that the effect of remittances is more pronounced in the presence of the economic freedom variable. Thus, to the extent that remittances have become a major source of external development finance, policies promoting greater freedom of economic activities gain significantly from the presence of remittances.

  20. African Easterly Waves and Cyclonic Activity over the Eastern Atlantic: Composite and Case Studies

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    Moctar Camara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the main differences over the African continent and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean between African Easterly Waves (AEWs associated with Atlantic cyclones (developing AEWs and non-developing AEWs. A statistical study showed that most of the named cyclones generated near the West African coast have a long lifecycle and all are associated with intense AEWs. Using NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, a composite study of the characteristics of developing AEWs is carried out and compared to those of non-developing AEWs. Developing AEWs exhibit the greatest baroclinic and barotropic conversions which are known to be the main processes involved in AEWs growth suggesting that these AEWs are stronger than the non-developing ones. Moreover, the developing AEWs are characterized by the existence of a relatively more unstable environment over West Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. A case study using rawinsonde data showed that the developing AEW is associated with dynamic and thermodynamic conditions conducive for deep convection and subsequent cyclogenesis compared to the non-developing AEW case.

  1. The Sensitivity of African Easterly Waves to Eastern Tropical Atlantic Sea-Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The results of two regional atmospheric model simulations are compared to assess the influence of the eastern tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperature maximum on local precipitation, transient easterly waves and the West African summer monsoon. Both model simulations were initialized with reanalysis 2 data (US National Center for Environmental Prediction and Department of Energy) on 15 May 2006 and extended through 6 October 2006, forced by synchronous reanalysis 2 lateral boundary conditions introduced four times daily. One simulation uses 2006 reanalysis 2 sea-surface temperatures, also updated four times daily, while the second simulation considers ocean forcing absent the sea-surface temperature maximum, achieved here by subtracting 3 K at every ocean grid point between 0 and 15 N during the entire simulation. The simulation with 2006 sea-surface temperature forcing produces a realistic distribution of June-September mean precipitation and realistic westward propagating swaths of maximum rainfall, based on validation against Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) estimates. The simulation without the sea-surface temperature maximum produces only 57% of the control June-September total precipitation over the eastern tropical Atlantic and about 83% of the Sahel precipitation. The simulation with warmer ocean temperatures generates generally stronger circulation, which in turn enhances precipitation by increasing moisture convergence. Some local precipitation enhancement is also attributed to lower vertical thermal stability above the warm water. The study shows that the eastern tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperature maximum enhances the strength of transient easterly waves and broadens the spatial extent of associated precipitation. However, large-scale circulation and its interaction with the African continent, and not sea-surface temperatures, control the timing and trajectories of the waves.

  2. DOES THE HIGHER EDUCATION PROMOTE STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES?

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    DIMITAR NIKOLOSK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a widespread recognition that business start-ups are a driving force of economic growth and significant job creation. Given the segmented characteristics of the labour markets, youth population is among those segments that are disproportionally affected by high and sustained unemployment. The situation with youth unemployment is particularly unfavourable in developing countries such as South-Eastern European countries where almost half of the active young population is jobless. Even though the governments in these countries have repeatedly undertaken measures for improving the position of youth on the labour markets, it seems that these endeavours have not reached the planned goals. From this perspective, it is important to analyse the potential contribution of education, and particularly the higher education to the development of entrepreneurship. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of the higher education in South-Eastern European countries in fostering the students’ entrepreneurial potential. For this purpose we have carried out a survey on representative samples of students in two universities: “St. Kliment Ohridski” (Macedonia and “Aleksander Xhuvani” (Albania. We found that considerable number of surveyed students have ideas for starting own businesses, but only a small portion of them attempted to develop their business ideas in practice. As a consequence, we can conclude that there exists a wide room for further policy recommendations that will shape directions for future reforms in the SEECs higher education systems and will improve the students’ entrepreneurial potential

  3. DETERMINANTS OF GROWTH ASPIRATIONS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijana Močnik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to explore the growth aspirations of south-eastern European (SEE countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina,Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania and Slovenia early stage entrepreneurs, concentrating on therelationship between a firm's innovative and international orientation and its growth aspirations. Innovative orientation andinternational orientation are referred as the most important dimensions of the growth aspirations and can be used for strengthening of a firm from SEE countries. We used firm's aspirations about the future employment as the operational measure of entrepreneurial growth. The data for our analysis is obtained from the 2010 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Adult Population Survey (APS in which 1,106 early stage entrepreneurs from eight countries were identified. The results of the binary logistic regression show that innovative orientation is negatively related to the firms' growth aspirations. This means that the adoption of new technology as well as offering new products/services weakens the growth aspirations of the early stage entrepreneurial SEE countries firms. The predictor of international orientation, too, is negatively and significantly associated with the growth aspirations. This means that internalisation impedes SEE countries firms’ growth aspirations. The results also show that firms from innovation driven countries haveless negative growth aspirations compared to those from efficiency driven countries.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei) and implications for african ape biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranajit; Hergenrother, Scott D; Soto-Calderón, Iván D; Dew, J Larry; Anthony, Nicola M; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    The Western and Eastern species of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei) began diverging in the mid-Pleistocene, but in a complex pattern with ongoing gene flow following their initial split. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 1 Eastern and 1 Western gorilla to provide the most accurate date for their mitochondrial divergence, and to analyze patterns of nucleotide substitutions. The most recent common ancestor of these genomes existed about 1.9 million years ago, slightly more recent than that of chimpanzee and bonobo. We in turn use this date as a calibration to reanalyze sequences from the Eastern lowland and mountain gorilla subspecies to estimate their mitochondrial divergence at approximately 380000 years ago. These dates help frame a hypothesis whereby populations became isolated nearly 2 million years ago with restricted maternal gene flow, followed by ongoing male migration until the recent past. This process of divergence with prolonged hybridization occurred against the backdrop of the African Pleistocene, characterized by intense fluctuations in temperature and aridity, while at the same time experiencing tectonic uplifting and consequent shifts in the drainage of major river systems. Interestingly, this same pattern of introgression following divergence and discrepancies between mitochondrial and nuclear loci is seen in fossil hominins from Eurasia, suggesting that such processes may be common in hominids and that living gorillas may provide a useful model for understanding isolation and migration in our extinct relatives.

  5. Impact of regulatory requirements on medicine registration in African countries - perceptions and experiences of pharmaceutical companies in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsai, Kirti; Williams, Abeda; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Kaija

    2012-07-01

    Access to medicines has long been and remains a challenge in African countries. The impact of medicines registration policies in these countries poses a challenge for pharmaceutical companies wanting to register medicines in these countries. The recent AMRHI (African Medicines Registration Harmonisation Initiative) has increased the focus on the need for harmonisation. Medicines registration regulations differ across African countries. Anecdotal evidence, based on the experience of pharmaceutical companies on progress towards harmonisation is somewhat different, i.e. that country specific requirements were a barrier to the registration of medicines. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nature and extent of regulatory hurdles experienced by pharmaceutical companies who wish to register and supply medicines to African countries. This cross-sectional descriptive pilot study was conducted across pharmaceutical companies, both local and multinational. These companies were based in South Africa and were also members of Pharmaceutical Industry Association of South Africa (PIASA). The pharmaceutical companies supply both the private and public sectors. An online survey was developed using Survey Monkey. Survey questions focused on the following strands: nature and level of current supply of medicines to African countries by companies, general regulatory requirements, region specific questions and country specific questions across four regional economic communities in Africa, namely; Southern African Development Community (SADC), East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of the West African States (ECOWAS) and Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). A total of 33 responses were received to the questionnaire of which 26 respondents were from the PIASA Regulatory working group and 7 were from the PIASA Export working group.It was noted that since most of the regulatory authorities in Africa are resource-constrained, harmonisation of

  6. Impact of regulatory requirements on medicine registration in African countries – perceptions and experiences of pharmaceutical companies in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsai, Kirti; Williams, Abeda; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Kaija

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Access to medicines has long been and remains a challenge in African countries. The impact of medicines registration policies in these countries poses a challenge for pharmaceutical companies wanting to register medicines in these countries. The recent AMRHI (African Medicines Registration Harmonisation Initiative) has increased the focus on the need for harmonisation. Medicines registration regulations differ across African countries. Anecdotal evidence, based on the experience of pharmaceutical companies on progress towards harmonisation is somewhat different, i.e. that country specific requirements were a barrier to the registration of medicines. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nature and extent of regulatory hurdles experienced by pharmaceutical companies who wish to register and supply medicines to African countries. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive pilot study was conducted across pharmaceutical companies, both local and multinational. These companies were based in South Africa and were also members of Pharmaceutical Industry Association of South Africa (PIASA). The pharmaceutical companies supply both the private and public sectors. An online survey was developed using Survey Monkey. Survey questions focused on the following strands: nature and level of current supply of medicines to African countries by companies, general regulatory requirements, region specific questions and country specific questions across four regional economic communities in Africa, namely; Southern African Development Community (SADC), East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of the West African States (ECOWAS) and Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). Results: A total of 33 responses were received to the questionnaire of which 26 respondents were from the PIASA Regulatory working group and 7 were from the PIASA Export working group.It was noted that since most of the regulatory authorities in Africa are resource

  7. Evaluating the Correlation between the Financial Sector Development and the Exports of Middle Eastern Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Eidan Torkzadeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the correlation between the exports of Middle Eastern countries and financial sector development, this study explains the relationship between the Institutional environment, Business environment, Financial stability, Financial Banking Services, Financial Non-banking Services, Financial markets and Financial access with the exports of Middle Eastern countries in 6 selected countries during the years 2008 to 2011. This research is applied based on the objective, has the library type based on the data collection and is among the correlative studies based on the method; it seeks to explain the relationship and calculate the amount of correlation and coefficients of each of the independent variables with the energy consumption by using the econometric models. Data and information needed for the research are collected based on the method of document library studies and the information related to the research variables are extracted by referring to the websites of International Association of Economics and UNCTAD Organization. First, the reliability or stability of variables used in various forms was determined by using the reliability determining tests such as the Dickey-Fuller unit root test. The accuracy test of classical assumptions was done for estimated functions and assurance of desired estimations accuracy and assurance of estimated relationship and long-term and balance coefficients of independent variables. Evaluation of stability (Durability or reliability of variables was done by EViews software and the statistics R2, F and Durbin-Watson were used in the analysis as the outputs of software. As the main result, it should be mentioned that the financial sector development has a significant and positive correlation with the exports of Middle Eastern countries.

  8. Strategies to address climate change in central and Eastern Euopean countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonova, K. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents analyses based on information mainly from the National Communications of nine Central and Eastern European countries that are undertaking radical transition from centrally planned to market driven economics (EIT). It is designed primarily to provide an overview of the policies and measures to address climate change that have been implemented, or under implementation or planned. In order to better understand the objective of policies and measures and the way they have been implemented in EIT countries that analysis has been supplemented by a review of the national circumstances and overall policy contexts in EIT countries that are relevant to climate change policies and measures problems. Therefore, these issues will be discussed in the paper along with analysis of mitigation policies and measures by sector.

  9. Educational Systems and Inequalities in Educational Attainment in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Before exploring the selectivity of educational attainment in detail, this article extensively describes the contours of educational systems in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. These countries provide an interesting setting in view of their post-secondary education expansion and differentiation, as well as their variation in the degree of vocational orientation at the secondary level. Drawing on high quality, national micro data, we find that students from disadvantaged family backgrounds who manage to enter post-secondary education are ʽdivertedʼ to second-tier post-secondary institutions, while long-term university programs are more likely to be dominated by students whose parents have an academic background. At the secondary level, we confirm the patterns of negative selection among students from lower social backgrounds into lower vocational programs. This diversion effect at the secondary level is especially pronounced in CEE countries that inherited a strong secondary vocational system and reinstalled early tracking.

  10. Benefits of investment into modern medicines in Central-Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inotai, András; Petrova, Guenka; Vitezic, Dinko; Kaló, Zoltán

    2014-02-01

    Transferability of current evidence and expressing value of innovative pharmaceuticals according to health system objectives Due to the scarcity of healthcare resources, decision-makers often expect monetary benefits--including cost savings or productivity gain--from innovative medicines. Manufacturers try to fulfill this expectation by expressing the benefits of innovative technologies in monetary units citing approaches from the scientific literature. Unfortunately, currently available evidence has limited relevance and transferability in Central-Eastern European (CEE) countries. This study aims to summarize how innovative pharmaceuticals in CEE countries may contribute to WHO-defined health system objectives, including health gain, equity in health, financial protection, responsiveness, equity in finance and financial sustainability. References in this study are also mainly based on international examples; therefore, additional policy research from CEE countries is necessary to validate assumptions. If CEE politicians can rely on credible arguments based on local research evidence, they may improve long-term strategies and policy decisions related to healthcare innovation.

  11. Factors Associated with PMTCT Cascade Completion in Four African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie Dionne-Odom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many countries are working to reduce or eliminate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV. Prevention efforts have been conceptualized as steps in a cascade but cascade completion rates during and after pregnancy are low. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was performed across 26 communities in Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Women who reported a pregnancy within two years were enrolled. Participant responses were used to construct the PMTCT cascade with all of the following steps required for completion: at least one antenatal visit, HIV testing performed, HIV testing result received, initiation of maternal prophylaxis, and initiation of infant prophylaxis. Factors associated with cascade completion were identified using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Results. Of 976 HIV-infected women, only 355 (36.4% completed the PMTCT cascade. Although most women (69.2% did not know their partner’s HIV status; awareness of partner HIV status was associated with cascade completion (aOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.01–2.0. Completion was also associated with receiving an HIV diagnosis prior to pregnancy compared with HIV diagnosis during or after pregnancy (aOR 14.1, 95% CI 5.2–38.6. Conclusions. Pregnant women with HIV infection in Africa who were aware of their partner’s HIV status and who were diagnosed with HIV before pregnancy were more likely to complete the PMTCT cascade.

  12. Towards zero waste in emerging countries - a South African experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matete, Ntlibi; Trois, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management [DEAT, 2001. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Government of South Africa. Polokwane Declaration. Drafted by Government, Civil Society and the Business Community. National Waste Summit, Polokwane, 26-28 September 2001], which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa.

  13. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in HIV prevalence among young people in seven countries in eastern and southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Hargreaves

    Full Text Available In Eastern and Southern Africa, HIV prevalence was highest among higher socioeconomic groups during the 1990s. It has been suggested that this is changing, with HIV prevalence falling among higher-educated groups while stable among lower-educated groups. A multi-country analysis has not been undertaken.We analysed data on socio-demographic factors and HIV infection from 14 nationally representative surveys of adults aged 15-24 (seven countries, two surveys each, 4-8 years apart. Sample sizes ranged from 2,408-12,082 (72,135 total. We used logistic regression to assess gender-stratified associations between highest educational level attended and HIV status in each survey, adjusting for age and urban/rural setting. We tested for interactions with urban/rural setting and age. Our primary hypothesis was that higher education became less of a risk factor for HIV over time. We tested for interaction between survey-year and the education-HIV association in each country and all countries pooled.In Ethiopia and Malawi, HIV prevalence was higher in more educated women in both surveys. In Lesotho, Kenya and Zimbabwe, HIV prevalence was lower in higher educated women in both surveys. In Ethiopia, HIV prevalence fell among no and secondary educated women only (interaction p<0·01. Only among young men in Tanzania there was some evidence that the association between education and HIV changed over time (p=0·07. Pooled analysis found little evidence for an interaction between survey year and the education-HIV association among men (p=0·60 or women (p=0·37.The pattern of prevalent HIV infection among young adults by level of education in different sub-Saharan African countries was heterogeneous. There was little statistical evidence that this pattern changed between 2003-5 and 2008-12. Explanations for the social epidemiology of HIV in Africa will need to account for time-trends and inter-country differences.

  14. Periodic fever syndromes in Eastern and Central European countries: results of a pediatric multinational survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mariana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze the prevalence of diagnosed and suspected autoinflammatory diseases in Eastern and Central European (ECE countries, with a particular interest on the diagnostic facilities in these countries. Methods Two different strategies were used to collect data on patients with periodic fever syndromes from ECE countries- the Eurofever survey and collection of data with the structured questionnaire. Results Data from 35 centers in 14 ECE countries were collected. All together there were 11 patients reported with genetically confirmed familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, 14 with mevalonate-kinase deficiency (MKD, 11 with tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS and 4 with chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome (CINCA. Significantly higher numbers were reported for suspected cases which were not genetically tested. All together there were 49 suspected FMF patients reported, 24 MKD, 16 TRAPS, 7 CINCA and 2 suspected Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS patients. Conclusions The number of genetically confirmed patients with periodic fever syndromes in ECE countries is very low. In order to identify more patients in the future, it is important to organize educational programs for increasing the knowledge on these diseases and to establish a network for genetic testing of periodic fever syndromes in ECE countries.

  15. Performance Audit in Public Sector Entities - A New Challenge for Eastern European Countries

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    Adriana TIRON TUDOR

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement provides an objective basis for evaluating how efficiently public resources are being used and how effectively public service outcomes are being achieved. It is a process used to support government selfanalysis and provide a basis for more informed and publicly defensible decision-making. In this context an important role is reserved to performance external audit performed by external audit institutions. The performance audit analyses the quality of financial administration from the point of view of the three elements of performance: economy, efficiency and effectiveness. We intend to realize a comparative study for some Eastern European countries regarding the performance audit, knowing the fact that since countries differ at the level of individual reforms, there is no single model of reform. Nonetheless, reform strategies have many points in common emphasizing the international character of public management reform. By cross-national comparisons we intend to analyze the impact of implementing the new performance audit in certain Eastern European Countries, and in Romania, focused on the external audit institutions.

  16. A Comparative Review Over the Pension Systems’ Performance in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Mladen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards the late 90’s, together with overcoming the shock of transition, most countries in Central and Eastern Europe began a process of profound reform of the pension systems. The aim of these reforms was mainly ensuring the financial sustainability of the pension systems often without taking into account their primary goal: to provide adequate retirement incomes, to allow the elderly to maintain a decent living standard after retirement and to have economic independence. However, a successful pension system is not the one that involves little spending but the one achieving its primary goal while limiting the future pressures on public finances.The economic crisis has increased the vulnerability of the pension systems. The economic recessions or slow economic growth, budget deficits and debt burdens, low employment rates have led to rising the concern about the ability of pension systems to fulfill their purpose. In this context, most Central and Eastern European countries have recently been forced to take up new changes in pensions. In our study we accomplished a comparative analysis of the pension systems’ performance based on calculating a composite indicator that includesthree components: the indicator of adequacy, the financial sustainability indicator and the indicator of modernity. Each of these components is obtained by aggregating a selection of sub-indicators. The purpose of this analysis is to identify best practices for successful reform, but also to highlight potentialhazards or imbalances that might face various emerging countries.

  17. Review of nuclear waste management schemes in Eastern European countries by CASSIOPEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempert, J.P. [DBE, Peine (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The European Union launched two important assistance programme Phare and TACIS. Within these programmes the subject of Nuclear Waste Management in Eastern European Countries and in CIS is being investigated by CASSIOPEE. Six national radioactive waste management agencies existing the CEU member states have founded the European Economic Interest Grouping CASSIOPEE. The grouping aims at providing the Eastern European Countries and the CIS within assistance in developing their radioactive waste management system by transferring its experience and expertise. As a first task, the grouping was charged by the EU at Brussels with performing {open_quotes}A Detailed Regional Study of Management Schemes for the Back-end of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Radioactive Waste Management and the Decommissioning of Obsolete Nuclear Installations{close_quotes}. During phase A several problem areas have been identified in different countries. The outcome of phase B will include distinct recommendations for improvements to facilities, systems and procedures, as well as recommendations for later specific studies, including a preliminary definition of their subject and scope.

  18. Testing for purchasing power parity in 21 African countries using several unit root tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choji, Niri Martha; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-04-01

    Purchasing power parity is used as a basis for international income and expenditure comparison through the exchange rate theory. However, empirical studies show disagreement on the validity of PPP. In this paper, we conduct the testing on the validity of PPP using panel data approach. We apply seven different panel unit root tests to test the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis based on the quarterly data on real effective exchange rate for 21 African countries from the period 1971: Q1-2012: Q4. All the results of the seven tests rejected the hypothesis of stationarity meaning that absolute PPP does not hold in those African Countries. This result confirmed the claim from previous studies that standard panel unit tests fail to support the PPP hypothesis.

  19. Agricultural commercialization and nutrition revisited: Empirical evidence from three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletto, Calogero; Corral, Paul; Guelfi, Anita

    2017-02-01

    The transition from subsistence to commercial agriculture is key for economic growth. But what are the consequences for nutritional outcomes? The evidence to date has been scant and inconclusive. This study contributes to the debate by revisiting two prevailing wisdoms: (a) market participation by African smallholders remains low; and (b) the impact of commercialization on nutritional outcomes is generally positive. Using nationally representative data from three African countries, the analysis reveals high levels of commercialization by even the poorest and smallest landholders, with rates of market participation as high as 90%. Female farmers participate less, but tend to sell larger shares of their production, conditional on participation. Second, we find little evidence of a positive relationship between commercialization and nutritional status. As countries and international agencies prioritize the importance of nutrition-sensitive agriculture, better understanding of the transmission channels between crop choices and nutritional outcomes should remain a research priority.

  20. Role of mobile phone technology in health education in Asian and African countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Madhusmita; Grover, Ashoo; Joshi, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to explore the role of mobile phone technologies in delivering health education programs in Asian and African countries. The search engine used was Pubmed during 2008-2011. Randomised controlled trials or controlled studies that improved health outcomes through delivery of health educational interventions using cell phone or text messaging were included in the review. Results showed studies from six Asian and African countries including Philippines, China, Kenya, South Korea, Taiwan and India. Mobile phone technology has shown to improve health outcomes for chronic disease conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and hypertension. Additional conditions include obesity and cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidance. Other studies have shown improvement in self management of breast cancer and post-hospitalisation HIV and pharmaceutical care. Overall results of the present review showed that mobile phone technologies can be a possible solution to improve healthcare outcome.

  1. Frames in contestation: gendering domestic violence policies in five central and eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizsan, Andrea; Popa, Raluca Maria

    2014-07-01

    The article looks at the translation of international norms on domestic violence to the national level in five Central and Eastern European countries. It argues that translation brings a concept of domestic violence, which stretches gender equality ideas underpinning international norms so as to be easier to endorse by mainstream policy actors, and results in policies framed in degendered individual rights terms. The potential for keeping gender equality in focus is then guaranteed by gendering policy processes through empowerment of gender equality actors at all stages. Absence of ownership of the policy by gender equality actors risks co-optation by frames contesting gender equality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Enresa's Participation in the Technical Assistance Programmes to the Eastern European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beceiro, A. R.; Vico, E. [ENRESA. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This article briefly describes the participation of ENRESA in the technical assistance programmes to the Central and Eastern European countries (PHARE) and to the New Independent States (TACIS) as well as in the co-operation programmes all of them established by the European Commission. It is worth to point out the active role of ENRESA within the European Consortium CASSIOPEE, formed in 1993 by the six radioactive waste management companies in existence in the European Union at that time. CASSIOPEE was created to assist the European Commission in the area of radioactive waste management of the PHARE and TACIS technical assistance programmes. (Author)

  3. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Apolzan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration refers to trade unification between different states , and one of its most important aspects is liberalisation of capital movement. In this paper is presented a brief evolution of economic integration cases focusing on one of the most integrated economies European Union. We concentrate on the participation of foreign investors in different economies and their impact, taking the example of Central and Eastern European Countries and their markets. Also , the level of influence that direct investments in capital markets entails on the Stock Exchange evolution is presented for the case of Romania .

  4. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wojczewski

    Full Text Available Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa, the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender.

  5. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Pentz, Stephen; Blacklock, Claire; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW) utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC) research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa), the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK) from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender.

  6. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Pentz, Stephen; Blacklock, Claire; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW) utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC) research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa), the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK) from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender. PMID:26068218

  7. The Role of Credit Access in Improving Cocoa Production in West African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nyemeck, J.B.; Gockowski, James; Nkamleu, Guy Blaise

    2008-01-01

    This study uses survey data to examine the role of access to credit on cocoa production, in West African cocoa production countries under conditions of agricultural policy liberalization. The study specifies and estimates econometric models to simulate the counterfactual of what cocoa production would be in the absence of credit facilities. The survey results show that about 54% of cocoa farmers have access to credit in Nigeria, and respectively 37% in Cameroon, while in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoi...

  8. Teacher Gender, Student Gender, and Primary School Achievement: Evidence from Ten Francophone African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jieun; Rhee, Dong-eun; Rudolf, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Using an exceptionally rich dataset comprising over 1,800 primary schools and nearly 40,000 students from ten francophone Sub-Saharan African countries, this study analyzes the relationship between teacher gender, student gender, and student achievement in mathematics and reading. Findings indicate that being taught by a female teacher increases academic achievements and that both performance and subject appreciation rise when taught by a same-gender teacher. Traditional academic gender stere...

  9. Choice of exchange rate regimes for African countries: Fixed or Flexible Exchange rate regimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Simwaka, Kisu

    2010-01-01

    The choice of an appropriate exchange rate regime has been a subject of ongoing debate in international economics. The majority of African countries are small open economies and thus where the choice of the exchange rate regime is an important policy issue. Aside from factors such as interest rates and inflation, the exchange rate is one of the most important determinants of a country’s relative level of economic health. For this reason, exchange rates are among the most watched analyzed and ...

  10. Trends in Environmental Education Images of Textbooks from Western and Eastern European Countries and Non-European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Graça S.; Branca Tracana, Rosa; Skujiene, Grita; Turcinaviciene, Jurga

    2011-12-01

    Textbook analysis is seen as a major element for studying environmental education addressing pupils, image analysis being rather relevant when studying textbooks written in 11 languages. We analysed 25 textbooks from 14 countries addressed to 14-16-year-old pupils, focusing on: (1) local and foreign/global images; (2) urban/rural and nature images; (3) negative impact, human management, and the beauty of nature; and (4) men and women in images with negative and positive impact. We distinguished some trends between Western (WEc) and Eastern (EEc) European countries and non-European countries (NEc). In contrast to textbooks from EEc and NEc, which tend to show the beauty of nature with little human influence, WEc textbooks tend to exhibit more images of urban/rural landscape, of human negative impact and of human management, expressing an anthropocentric view of the environment. Men are usually more present in textbook images than women. However, some images exhibiting more women than men could be found in textbooks from WEc and EEc, but never in NEc. In negative impact pictures, men are more often present than women but NEc women are never present in such images. Women are more frequent than men in positive impact images. Results suggest that textbooks from EEc and NEc should give more emphasis to human management and urban/rural images, whereas those from WEc should give more attention to the beauty of nature. A balance in the presence of men and women in images should be a matter of greater concern by all textbooks' authors and publishers.

  11. Comparative Analyses of the UAE and the IRI Investment Policy in African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Voronkov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on comparative analyses of the investment policy of the UAE and the IRI in African countries in a context of foreign policy activities. The author examines the main approaches and methods practiced by the OAE and the IRI investment bodies for achieving success in Africa in various spheres of economy. The special attention is given to cluster principle of diversification strategy, which ensured the transformation of the OAE from a weakly developed country fully dependent on the export of oil into a state with a diversified economy.

  12. On the mathematical analysis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: deathly infection disease in West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon; Goufo, Emile Franc Doungmo

    2014-01-01

    For a given West African country, we constructed a model describing the spread of the deathly disease called Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The model was first constructed using the classical derivative and then converted to the generalized version using the beta-derivative. We studied in detail the endemic equilibrium points and provided the Eigen values associated using the Jacobian method. We furthered our investigation by solving the model numerically using an iteration method. The simulations were done in terms of time and beta. The study showed that, for small portion of infected individuals, the whole country could die out in a very short period of time in case there is not good prevention.

  13. Analysis of Fertility in Ten Central And Eastern European Countries After 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ-Vasile JEMNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of democracy in the communist countries, which generated profound social and economic transformation, was accompanied by a decline in fertility. We attempt to provide an overall survey on fertility since 1989 in ten Central and Eastern European Countries, members of the European Union, and to identify the variables which explain the fertility decline. We will use univariate and multivariate statistical analysis to identify disparities between the ten countries, and the variables which explain these differences. Also, we developed a panel econometric model to confirm the hypothesis of a similar pattern of evolution for fertility in these countries and that the decline in fertility can be explained both through demographic and economic variables. The decline in fertility can be explained by economic growth, marriage, divorce, abortion, and migration. The empirical evidence presented in this paper supports the view that the decline in fertility over the 1989s represents the continuation of a longstanding trend of the previous period, according to the demographic transition theory, but its speed and magnitude has been influenced by the new social and economic landscape. These results can be useful for public authorities of the CEE countries to rethinking demographic policies and to ensure the sustainability of demographic growth.

  14. Income-environment relationship in Sub-Saharan African countries: Further evidence with trade openness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Eléazar

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the dynamic relationship between energy consumption, income growth, carbon emissions and trade openness in fourteen Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration and the Toda-Yamamoto causality test were used to investigate the long-run and short-run properties, respectively. The long-run estimations give evidence against the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in SSA countries. In contrast, the results highlight the significant and monotonically contribution of income growth and energy consumption in explaining carbon emissions in the long-run and short-run in several countries. Furthermore, the results show that trade openness enhances economic growth and is not linked to causing carbon emissions in these countries. Hence, a trade incentive policy may be implemented without harmful effect on the quality of the environment.

  15. Determinants of FDI into Central and Eastern European Countries: Pull or Push Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Polat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in foreign direct investments (FDI, substantial uncertainty still exists regarding what stimulates foreign investors to operate in a foreign market and uneven distribution of FDI across countries. Using panel data for 2001 -2012 period, the major determinants of the FDI inflows into the Central and Eastern European Countries are analysed in this study. Strong evidence are found that while EU CR indices, EU and USA real GDP growth rates and global financial crisis have power to explain FDI inflows among all other push factors, labour cost, electricity price, real exchange rate and host CR indices have strong influential on FDI as the most effective pull factors. However, study fails to find any effect of openness, tax rates on commercial profits, USA CR indices, interest rate differentials and host real GDP growth on FDI.

  16. Effective Exchange Rates in Central and Eastern European Countries: Cyclicality and Relationship with Macroeconomic Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavárek Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of effective exchange rates in nine Central and Eastern European countries in terms of development trends, volatility and cyclicality. Consequently, it provides direct empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship between effective exchange rates and selected macroeconomic fundamentals, addressing a key precondition of numerous exchange rate determination models and theories that attempt to explain the role of exchange rates in the economy. The results suggest that flexible exchange rate arrangements are reflected in both nominal and real effective exchange rates having higher volatility and variability. Furthermore, the results provide mixed evidence in terms of intensity, direction and cyclicality, but show a weak correlation between exchange rates and fundamentals. Sufficiently high coefficients are found only for money supply. Consequently, using fundamentals for the determination of exchange rates and using the exchange rate to explain economic development may be of limited use for the countries analyzed.

  17. Multidisciplinary care team for cancer patients and its implementation in several Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbermann, M; Pitsillides, B; Al-Alfi, N; Omran, S; Al-Jabri, K; Elshamy, K; Ghrayeb, I; Livneh, J; Daher, M; Charalambous, H; Jafferri, A; Fink, R; El-Shamy, M

    2013-10-01

    This article introduces palliative care to cancer patients in Middle Eastern countries. It considers the importance of the multidisciplinary team in providing an adequate service to the patient and his/her family. It provides views of professionals from the various countries with regard to the role of the nurse in such teams; whereby the three elements of palliative care nursing entail: 1. Working directly with patients and families; 2. Working with other health and social care professionals to network and co-ordinate services; and 3. working at an organizational level to plan, develop and manage service provision in local, regional and national settings. This article also details the challenges that nurses face in the Middle East and outlines the preferable ways to overcome such challenges. The latter include more focused educational activities at the undergraduate and graduate levels and continuous clinical training throughout their work as palliative care nurse specialists.

  18. Inequality, Economic Growth and Trade Openness: a Study Case for Central and Eastern Countries (ECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the phenomenon of income inequality in ten countries from Eastern and Central Europe (ECE, by highlighting two aspects: (1 the link between growth and income inequality; (2 the effects of trade openess and other key factors on income inequality, such as: foreign direct investment (FDI, market capitalization and educational level of labour force. The method used was the Panel Data Analysis with statistical data from the period of 2000-2014. An increasing effect in income inequality was identified due to the trade openess, the inward stock of ISD and the market capitalization and an equalizing effect in the income distribution generated by the educational level of labour force. A positive association was also found between the growth of PIB per capita level and the increase of income inequality in the examined countries.

  19. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Karroum, Lama Bou; Kdouh, Ola; Akik, Chaza; Fadlallah, Racha; Hammoud, Rawan

    2014-08-20

    Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors' affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews (8.5%) included primary

  20. Public health research needs and challenges in transitional countries of South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genc Burazeri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The former communist countries of Southeastern Europe (SEE are undergoing a rapid process of transformation from state-enforced rigid economies to market-oriented societies. Compared with European Union, SEE countries are characterized by higher death rates including not only infant mortality and maternal death, but also cardiovascular mortality and injuries. Yet, there is no sufficient research in SEE countries directed towards gaining a clear understanding of the health effects of transition and the fluctuations in health outcomes. A general characteristic in almost all SEE countries relates to the comparable problems they face for engaging in research work which include: (i lack of funds; (ii lack of expertise, and; (iii lack of “good data”. Nevertheless, there is an emergent need to improve research capacities in order to address and analyze on a scientific basis the health problems and challenges in SEE countries. From this point of view, the Forum for Public Health in South Eastern Europe (FPH-SEE: www.snz.hr/fph-see seems a suitable network to promote, provide guidance and support different research activities and research projects in SEE countries. To increase the visibility of FPH-SEE network and to enhance its collaboration and active communication with European academic institutions and donors, it was decided to establish an office near the Department of International Health, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, which will be responsible for the coordination of the research network for SEE countries. This will help to promote research funding and to develop and strengthen research capacities in the SEE region.

  1. Domestic Preparedness for Trade in Services Liberalization: Are East African Countries prepared for Further Trade Liberalization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAGUMHE, Elias Peter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Services are the fastest growing sectors in the global economy. Over the past decades East African countries have witnessed even faster growing rates of the share of trade services in their GDPs. The total services export of EAC countries increased from USD 1868 mills in 1995 to USD 5681 mills in 2008 (WDI 2010 which is approximately three times increase compared to 1995. Along with this growth, liberalization of services trade is becoming a critical economic agenda of these economies. EAC countries have also made unilateral liberalizations in a number of services sectors since the mid 1980’s. On top of that EAC countries have also made commitment to liberalize service trade at the multilateral level. Furthermore a significant commitment of their services sectors has been made under the East African Integration Process beginning from first July 2010. This paper argues that although the importance of services as a share of overall GDP, increase with growth on FDI and employment. Its growth can be driven by number of factors, such as final demand factors and basic structural changes in production, linked to development. Weak domestic preparedness before opening up is likely to be associated with unsatisfactory and undesirable outcomes of services trade liberalization. This paper tries to expound issues that are essential on domestic preparedness for service trade liberalization and analyses the associated concerns. The purpose of this paper is not to provide answers but to shed some light on how services Trade liberalization is currently operationalized in the East African countries, in particular, that is, to open up the “black box”, and indicate the operational design elements around which variance is the highest.

  2. Plastic surgery-myths and realities in developing countries: experience from eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Brijesh; Koirala, Robin; Tripathi, Nalini; Shrestha, Kajan Raj; Adhikary, Buddhinath; Shah, Surendra

    2011-01-01

    B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, is the only tertiary care referral centre in the eastern region of Nepal. This paper discusses the author's experience of starting a plastic surgery unit in eastern Nepal regarding need and present status of plastic surgery care in Nepal. Methods. We analyzed the data of patients treated in Plastic surgery unit from July 2007 to February 2009. We did evaluation regarding type of patients, procedures, and their outcome. We also evaluated the limitations and their possible solutions to overcome the barriers to establish effective plastic surgical centers in developing countries. Results. Plastic surgery services were started as a unit in general surgery by single plastic surgeon and one general surgery resident on rotation. Total 848 patients were treated for different plastic-surgery-related conditions, which included 307 acute burn patients 541 general plastic surgery patients. Trauma constituted the major bulk 22%, followed by tumors 20%, while aesthetic surgery operations were only 10.1%. Conclusions. In developing countries, aesthetic procedures constitute very small part of plastic surgery interventions and plastic surgery units are primarily required for reconstructive needs for optimum management of patients.

  3. Red Sea extension influenced by Pan-African tectonic grain in eastern Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebreab, Woldai; Talbot, Christopher J.

    2000-07-01

    Middle to lower crustal rocks with dominantly flat-lying Pan-African fabrics at amphibolite metamorphic facies are exposed along the actively extending Red Sea lowlands of Eritrea. West of a major escarpment, these rocks are structurally overlain in the plateau by greenschist facies metamorphic rocks with steep fabrics dominant. Three Pan-African phases of deformation in eastern Eritrea (PAD1-3) were superposed during the Cenozoic by three phases of Red Sea lateral extension (RSE1-3). PAD1 is characterised by steep penetrative foliation S1, which is axial planar to upright F1 folds. These folds were distorted at depth by F2 recumbent folds and subhorizontal shear zones during PAD2. PAD3 deformation resulted mainly in steep strike-slip shear zones. All phases of NE-SW lateral extension of the Red Sea exploited steep PAD1 and PAD3 and flat-lying PAD2 fabrics and structures. RSE1 was semi-brittle and resulted in top-to-basin low-angle (=35°) NW-SE-trending normal faults that sole out to subhorizontal detachments at deep exposure levels. RSE2 involved seaward block tilting on a new system of moderate to steep (≥40°) domino-style normal faults and dykes with NW-SE strikes above a younger detachment inferred beneath exposure levels. RSE2 structures concentrate in zones of maximum crustal flexure across the escarpment and were preceded and/or accompanied by reverse faults near the foot of the escarpment. RSE2 structures truncate RSE1 and PAD2 subhorizontal shear zones in the lowlands by exploiting steep PAD3 structures along the escarpment and the in the plateau. The away-from-basin dip of the RSE2 faults and dykes is attributed to isostatic rise of the asthenosphere offshore. RSE3 involved NNW-SSE- to NNE-SSW-trending strike-slip faults associated with counterclockwise opening of the hinge where the Danakil block is still joined to Africa. The overall geometric relationships between Cenozoic faults and dykes and the Pan-African tectonic grain suggest that the Red Sea

  4. Territorial expansion of hotel chains in countries of South-eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Marko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the market of Serbia and neighboring nine countries: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece. The aim is to present a comparison with the number of hotel chains, brands and facilities in the surveyed countries in South-eastern Europe. While Serbia, Slovenia, Macedonia and Romania almost exclusively attractive as the continental areas, countries such as Greece, Croatia, Bulgaria and Montenegro are popular mass bathing tourism destinations. This fact directly indicates the types of international hotel facilities (in first case there are city and conference types and in the other case there are resorts. The results show that a total of 21 international hotel chains are operating in the observed region, with the dominance of the markets of Bulgaria, Greece and Romania. Among them, Bulgaria has the largest number of individual hotel chains (11 chains, but Greece prevails when it comes to international hotel brands (19 brands and individual objects (71 facilities. On the other side, the Serbian market has relatively modest offer with a total of seven hotel chains and eight brands, while the number of individual objects are significantly lower of the region maximum (only 13 objects. Based on the above, the observed countries are relatively new and potentially important macro market for future investments in hotel facilities. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  5. Geothermal resources in eastern European countries. Higashi Europe shokoku no chinetsu shigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanehara, K. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-12-20

    In this article, a survey is made on the geothermal resources in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Yugoslavia and Bulgaria on the basis of documents and its outline is introduced. First, the outline of geology needed at least for understanding the geothermal resources of these countries is stated, the division of Europe into Eo-Europa, Palaeo-Europa, Meso-Europa and Neo-Europa is shown and the geothermal resources in the above eastern European countries are mentioned in detail in the order of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Rumania and Bulgaria. Each country above is rich in the geothermal resources of low enthalpy of about 100 {degree} C with mainly carbonate layers from the Paleozoic era to the mesozoic era and cenozoic sandstone layers, etc. as reservoir layers, centering around the sedimentation belts which have been formed since the orogonic movements of the Alps. In these countries, naturally gushing out hot springs have positively been used for the recuperation purposes since the Roman era, but the development and utilization of the hot water resources in t e deep subterranean location has started only recently. 32 refs., 16 figs.

  6. STUDY ON THE WORDS AND MUSICAL PATTERNS OF THE NATIONAL ANTHEMS OF THE MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Filiz ONAL

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthems are poetic verses sung in a melodic harmony expressing a nation’s feelings, enthusiasm, hopes, joy of coexistence and determination to survive. Thanks to anthems, people reflect their national values, historical background of their countries, and their way of thinking. In this direction national anthems have a unifying power creating a common ground for individuals that sustain continuity and the sense of belonging to a country. This study deals with the national anthems of the Middle Eastern countries where major conflicts have taken place for years in terms of music and lyrics. The random method was used to form the sample group. The sample group is composed of the United Arab Emirates, Israel, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria and Turkey. Some basic musical elements of the national anthems of the countries involved in the study have been investigated (tone, tempo, meter signatures and rhythm patterns. It has been found that four of them are composed in major tones, while two of them are composed in minor tones. All of these anthems are in 4/4 meter with walking pace tempo. As for the rhythm patterns; 3 different patterns are used in one anthem, while 4 different patterns are used in two, 5 different patterns in one, and 6 different patterns in two. The words of these anthems as literary verses focus on many topics, mainly soldiers, flags, and homelands as well as political developments, national heroes...

  7. Evaluation of invalid vaccine doses in 31 countries of the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmatov, Manas K; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Pessler, Frank; Guzman, Carlos A; Krause, Gérard; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

    2015-02-11

    We examined (a) the fraction of and extent to which vaccinations were administered earlier than recommended (age-invalid) or with too short intervals between vaccine doses (interval-invalid) in countries of the World Health Organisation (WHO) African Region and (b) individual- and community-level factors associated with invalid vaccinations using multilevel techniques. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in the last 10 years in 31 countries were used. Information about childhood vaccinations was based on vaccination records (n=134,442). Invalid vaccinations (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis [DTP1, DTP3] and measles-containing vaccine (MCV)) were defined using the WHO criteria. The median percentages of invalid DTP1, DTP3 and MCV vaccinations across all countries were 12.1% (interquartile range, 9.4-15.2%), 5.7% (5.0-7.6%), and 15.5% (10.0-18.1%), respectively. Of the invalid DTP1 vaccinations, 7.4% and 5.5% were administered at child's age of less than one and two weeks, respectively. In 12 countries, the proportion of invalid DTP3 vaccinations administered with an interval of less than two weeks before the preceding dose varied between 30% and 50%. In 13 countries, the proportion of MCV doses administered at child's age of less than six months varied between 20% and 45%. Community-level variables explained part of the variation in invalid vaccinations. Invalid vaccinations are common in African countries. Timing of childhood vaccinations should be improved to ensure an optimal protection against vaccine-preventable infections and to avoid unnecessary wastage in these economically deprived countries.

  8. Pricing and Reimbursement of Biosimilars in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Paweł; Stawowczyk, Ewa; Tesar, Tomas; Skoupa, Jana; Turcu-Stiolica, Adina; Dimitrova, Maria; Petrova, Guenka I.; Rugaja, Zinta; Männik, Agnes; Harsanyi, Andras; Draganic, Pero

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the requirements for the reimbursement of biosimilars and to compare the reimbursement status, market share, and reimbursement costs of biosimilars in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between November 2016 and January 2017 among experts from the following CEE countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Romania. The requirements for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars were reviewed for each country. Data on the extent of reimbursement of biologic drugs (separately for original products and biosimilars) in the years 2014 and 2015 were also collected for each country, along with data on the total pharmaceutical and total public health care budgets. Results: Our survey revealed that no specific criteria were applied for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars in the selected CEE countries; the price of biosimilars was usually reduced compared with original drugs and specific price discounts were common. Substitution and interchangeability were generally allowed, although in most countries they were at the discretion of the physician after a clinical assessment. Original biologic drugs and the corresponding biosimilars were usually in the same homogeneous group, and internal reference pricing was usually employed. The reimbursement rate of biosimilars in the majority of the countries was the same and amounted to 100%. Generally, the higher shares of expenditures were shown for the reimbursement of original drugs than for biosimilars, except for filgrastim, somatropin, and epoetin (alfa and zeta). The shares of expenditures on the reimbursement of biosimilar products ranged from 8.0% in Estonia in 2014 to 32.4% in Lithuania in 2015, and generally increased in 2015. The share of expenditures on reimbursement of biosimilars in the total pharmaceutical budget differed between the

  9. PUBLIC POLICY, QUALITY OF INTITUTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOGARU DORIN-MADALIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between economic performance and institutional development in several Central and Eastern European Countries. Our meta-argument is that the structural transformations at the levels of the quantitative variables and mechanisms are only a part of the transition processes. In order to view the big picture, the qualitative aspects related to public policies and institutions should also be considered. We test the linkages between the quality of public policies and institutions for seven Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia and Romania for a time span between 2001 and 2011. These countries are displaying a certain degree of heterogeneity in terms of economic performances and the design and implementation of public policies. We use for our analysis the World Bank indicators from World Wide Governance Indicators. In order to deal with the potential reverse causality issues, we employ Generalized Method of Moments Framework (GMM by using the lagged variables as instruments. The impact of governance indicators is statistically significant even if we use several control variables: exchange rate, unemployment, current account deficit, taxes burden and price stability. The corresponding Sargan and Arellano-Bond test for zero autocorrelation in first-differenced errors tests shows that the results display a corresponding robustness. The main policy implications for our findings may be synthesized by the thesis, according to which a proper design of public policies, a high degree of their effectiveness and accountability, a stable social and political environment together with the rule of law and efficient anticorruption mechanisms are critical determinants of economic growth even in emerging markets. The impact of the government “size , economic structure and markets” mechanisms , monetary policy and price stability , ownership structure and legal rights

  10. How efficient are African electricity companies? Evidence from the Southern African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estache, Antonio [The World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); ECARES, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Tovar, Beatriz [Departamento de Analisis Economico Aplicado, Campus Universitario de Tafira, 35017, Modulo D, Despacho 2.20, Universidad de Las Palmas Gran Canaria (Spain); Trujillo, Lourdes [Departamento de Analisis Economico Aplicado, Universidad de Las Palmas Gran Canaria (Spain); Center for Competition and Regulation Policy, City University, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    This paper is a first attempt at documenting efficiency levels in Africa's electricity firms, their evolution and the sources of this evolution. The analysis is based on a sample of 12 operators providing services in the 12 country members of the Southern Africa Power Pool. We focus on the changes in total factor productivity (TFP) of the largest operators in each country between 1998 and 2005. We then rely on a data envelopment analysis (DEA) decomposition to identify the sources of the changes in TFP. The results suggest fairly comparable levels of efficiency in the region and performance levels and evolution quite independent of the degree of vertical integration, the presence of a private actor or the main sources of energy supply. The analysis suggest that although the companies have not made significant improvements during the period of analysis in using their capital and human assets, they have done much better in adopting better technologies and better commercial practices. No clear correlation could be associated with the adoption of reforms during the last decade and data limitations impede a more refined assessment of the impact of reforms on efficiency at this stage. (author)

  11. Access to biologic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlewska, Ewa; Ancuta, Ioan; Anic, Branimir; Codrenau, Catalin; Damjanov, Nemanja; Djukic, Predrag; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Marinchev, Lubomir; Nasonov, Evgeny L.; Peets, Tonu; Praprotnik, Sonja; Rashkov, Rasho; Skoupa, Jana; Tlustochowicz, Witold; Tlustochowicz, Malgorzata; Tomsic, Matija; Veldi, Tiina; Vojinovic, Jelena; Wiland, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess and compare patients’ access to biologic anti-RA drugs in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries and to analyze the determinants of differences between countries. Material/Methods This is a multi-country survey study, based on a combination of desk research and direct contact with national RA stakeholders. Data was collected using a pre-defined questionnaire. Affordability was measured using an affordability index, calculated comparing the index of health care expenditures to the price index, using Poland as an index of 1. Results The percentage of patients on biologic treatment in 2009 was highest in Hungary (5% RA patients on biologic treatment), followed by Slovenia (4.5%), Slovakia (3.5%), Czech Republic (2.92%), Romania (2.2%), Estonia (1.8%), and Croatia, Serbia, Poland (below 1.5%). Infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab and rituximab were included in the reimbursement system in all countries, but abatacept and tocilizumab were included only in Slovakia. In Slovenia, public payer covered 75% of the price, and 25% is covered by supplementary health insurance; in Bulgaria public payer covered 50% of etanercept and adalimumab costs, and 75% of rituximab cost. In other countries, biologic drugs are reimbursed at 100%. Affordability index for biologic drugs was the lowest in Slovenia (0.4). In each country national guidelines define which patients are eligible for biologic treatment. Disease Activity Score (DAS28) of over 5.1 and failure of 2 or more disease-modifying anti-RA drugs, including methotrexate, are commonly used criteria. Conclusions The most important factors limiting access to biologic anti-RA treatment in the CEE region are macroeconomic conditions and restrictive treatment guidelines. PMID:21455121

  12. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1: Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Hill

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  13. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  14. ATTRACTIVENESS OF PUBLIC POLICIES FOR FDI IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPOVICI OANA CRISTINA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper builds on the burning issue of the attractiveness of the location for foreign direct investments (FDI, assuming its positive and substantial economic impact on the development of the host country. The location decision for FDI in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries is investigated based on the attractiveness framework designed by policy makers: infrastructure endowment, institutions’ quality, labour market conditions and level of taxation. The analysis assesses the FDI inflows in a country in three years: 2004, 2007 and 2010. Thus the FDI evolution relative to public policies attractiveness is seized starting with the European Union (EU integration and after the crisis started. The paper follows the literature on the determinants of the FDI related to the L (location factor described in the eclectic paradigm of Dunning (the OLI model, but focuses on the role of public policies in attracting FDI and captures two of the recent major turning points faced by the CEE countries, scarcely tackled in the literature: the EU integration and the recent economic crisis. We compute a public policy index, constructed as a composite measure, based on the four pillars mentioned above, in order to test the public policies attractiveness in the CEE countries. Moreover, we develop an attractiveness matrix starting from the public policy index, and we rank the most attractive countries for FDI in the three years. We analyze the matrix based on the FDI inflows per capita. We found a positive relation between the increase in the public policies attractiveness and the inward FDI. The increase of the FDI per capita since the EU accession year is, at least partially, due to the increasing attractiveness of the public policies. The crises worsened the CEE countries’ attractiveness. Still, the winners in the race for FDI remained those countries that improved the infrastructure, the institutions’ quality and the labor market

  15. Sero-epidemiology and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Arab and African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim

    2016-09-01

    The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is a major issue for public health. Primary infection in pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae. This review examined current sero-epidemiology and risks factor data for Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Arab and African countries. A systematic electronic search of published literature was conducted. Data were extracted from relevant studies. Seropositivity is high in both regions. African countries have higher seropositivity than Arab countries due to differences in risk factors. Data on T. gondii infection in pregnancy are scant in many countries, especially where there is lack of political stability. Identified risk factors included eating raw meat, proximity with cats, undercooked food, and increasing maternal age. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Arab and African countries is an underestimated health problem. Further research is needed. This report is a foundation for strategies and policies for intervention needed to combat the consequences of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  16. The institutional structure and political economy of food distribution systems: A comparative analysis of six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    This paper discusses the food distribution systems of six Eastern European countries. It considers the macro and task environments of distribution systems, discussing the constraints and opportunities the environments present to companies. The institutional structure of retailing and wholesaling...... are analysed and important developments in the institutional structure are noted. The internal political economy of distribution channels in Eastern Europe is analysed and the modernisation of distribution systems discussed. Finally, some conclusions are offered and areas for future research suggested....

  17. Use of health systems evidence by policymakers in eastern mediterranean countries: views, practices, and contextual influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems evidence can enhance policymaking and strengthen national health systems. In the Middle East, limited research exists on the use of evidence in the policymaking process. This multi-country study explored policymakers’ views and practices regarding the use of health systems evidence in health policymaking in 10 eastern Mediterranean countries, including factors that influence health policymaking and barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence. Methods This study utilized a survey adapted and customized from a similar tool developed in Canada. Health policymakers from 10 countries (Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Lebanon Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Sudan, Tunisia, and Yemen were surveyed. Descriptive and bi-variate analyses were performed for quantitative questions and thematic analysis was done for qualitative questions. Results A total of 237 policymakers completed the survey (56.3% response rate. Governing parties, limited funding for the health sector and donor organizations exerted a strong influence on policymaking processes. Most (88.5% policymakers reported requesting evidence and 43.1% reported collaborating with researchers. Overall, 40.1% reported that research evidence is not delivered at the right time. Lack of an explicit budget for evidence-informed health policymaking (55.3%, lack of an administrative structure for supporting evidence-informed health policymaking processes (52.6%, and limited value given to research (35.9% all limited the use of research evidence. Barriers to the use of evidence included lack of research targeting health policy, lack of funding and investments, and political forces. Facilitators included availability of health research and research institutions, qualified researchers, research funding, and easy access to information. Conclusions Health policymakers in several countries recognize the importance of using health systems evidence. Study findings are important in light

  18. Assessing trade in health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean from a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Shennawy, Azza; Mirza, Zafer; Drager, Nick; Sabri, Belgacem

    2010-01-01

    Assessing trade in health services (TiHS) in developing countries is challenging since the sources of information are diverse, information is not accessible and professionals lack grasp of issues. A multi-country study was conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR)--Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and Yemen. The objective was to estimate the direction, volume, and value of TiHS; analyze country commitments; and assess the challenges and opportunities for health services.Trade liberalization favored an open trade regime and encouraged foreign direct investment. Consumption abroad and movement of natural persons were the two prevalent modes. Yemen and Sudan are net importers, while Jordan promotes health tourism. In 2002, Yemenis spent US$ 80 million out of pocket for treatment abroad, while Jordan generated US$ 620 million. Egypt, Pakistan, Sudan and Tunisia export health workers, while Oman relies on import and 40% of its workforce is non-Omani. There is a general lack of coherence between Ministries of Trade and Health in formulating policies on TiHS.This is the first organized attempt to look at TiHS in the EMR. The systematic approach has helped create greater awareness, and a move towards better policy coherence in the area of trade in health services. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Agriculture of central and eastern European countries in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepagić Srđan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture posed considerable tensions for the processes of enlargement of the European Union, because of its continuing importance both in the economies of the applicant countries of Central and Eastern European countries which have joined EU on the 1st may 2004., and in the EU budget and acquits communautaire. The preparation of agriculture in the candidate countries to join the EU was rendered more complex by the fact that the Community's Common Agricultural Policy was a moving target. The aim of this paper is to show the bases elements of the Common Agricultural Policy, but also to provide a survey of recent developments relating to agriculture in the EU and new member states of the EU before their accession to EU and their preparation to access on the enlarged market, in order to indicate the main challenges and difficulties posed by enlargement. It seems likely that agricultural policy in the enlarged EU will attach increased priority to objectives such as rural development and the environment. However, these new priorities may be expensive to realize, and may impose a growing burden on the national budgets of EU member states.

  20. Past and Ongoing Tsetse and Animal Trypanosomiasis Control Operations in Five African Countries: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Hannah R.; Selby, Richard; Guitian, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background Control operations targeting Animal African Trypanosomiasis and its primary vector, the tsetse, were covering approximately 128,000 km2 of Africa in 2001, which is a mere 1.3% of the tsetse infested area. Although extensive trypanosomiasis and tsetse (T&T) control operations have been running since the beginning of the 20th century, Animal African Trypanosomiasis is still a major constraint of livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a systematic review of the existing literature describing T&T control programmes conducted in a selection of five African countries, namely Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Uganda and Zambia, between 1980 and 2015. Sixty-eight documents were eventually selected from those identified by the database search. This was supplemented with information gathered through semi-structured interviews conducted with twelve key informants recruited in the study countries and selected based on their experience and knowledge of T&T control. The combined information from these two sources was used to describe the inputs, processes and outcomes from 23 major T&T control programmes implemented in the study countries. Although there were some data gaps, involvement of the target communities and sustainability of the control activities were identified as the two main issues faced by these programmes. Further, there was a lack of evaluation of these control programmes, as well as a lack of a standardised methodology to conduct such evaluations. Conclusions/Significance Past experiences demonstrated that coordinated and sustained control activities require careful planning, and evidence of successes, failures and setbacks from past control programmes represent a mine of information. As there is a lack of evaluation of these programmes, these data have not been fully exploited for the design, analyses and justification of future control programmes. PMID:28027299

  1. Is the Perspective of a Closer French Policy toward Russian a threat for Eastern European Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim BELGACEM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current world is not moving as all specialists predicted. Brexit, Trump, everyone was wrong. This paper will have two targets: describing the French policy toward Russia, making a perspective on the future policy, whatever the new French presidency in 2017, Francois Hollande will transmit the key to his successor with new election. He refused to compete for a second mandate. It is good to remind that Hollande was involving in the Ukrainian affairs and had managed with Germany the Minsk I and II agreements. He also had suspended Mistral ships selling and approving sanctions against Russia. How will be the future with François Fillon, Marine Le Pen or other? The analysis will be focusing on the future relationships toward Russia and Eastern European Countries.

  2. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY IN ATTRACTING EUROPEAN FUNDS BY REGIONS OF EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan LUPU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current decentralization reforms and severe budget constraints faced by Eastern European countries, we consider as imperative to analyze the effectiveness of structural funds management at regional level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the technical efficiency of attracting structural funds by the regions in Poland, Bulgaria and Romania, determining the factors that influence efficiency and its implications for local development. The calculations were based on the mathematical model Data Envelopment Analysis, the main source of data being EUROSTAT. The estimates confirm the strong need for systemic reforms in the organization and operation of the development regions: modification of current transfer system, strengthen financial autonomy and solve the problem of excessive fragmentation of administrative-territorial structure, all having a negative impact on the efficiency of absorption of European funds developing regions of analyzed states.

  3. Stochastic properties of the consumption-income ratios in central and eastern European countries

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    Giray Gozgor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate stochastic properties of the consumption-income ratios in eleven central and eastern European (CEE countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The heterogeneous panel unit root tests are used to account for cross-sectional dependence and the Modified Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test over the period March 1997-September 2012. The half-lives are also calculated as to find the strong mean-reversion in the consumption income ratio for nine of eleven CEE economies; and the exceptions are Croatia and Slovenia. In other words, empirical findings provide significant support for the existence of hypothesis that the consumption-income ratio is a mean reversion. Accordingly, the policy implications have permanent effects on the consumption of households only in Croatia and Slovenia.

  4. Public health leadership competency level among health professionals in a South Eastern European country

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    Orjola Pampuri

    2015-12-01

    the overall scores and the subscale scores of the current and the required level of leadership competencies among health professionals. Results: Mean value of the overall summary score for the 52 items of the instrument was significantly lower for the current leadership competency level compared with the required leadership competency level (138.4±11.2 vs. 159.7±25.3, respectively; P<0.001. Most of the subscales’ scores were significantly higher for the required than for the current leadership competency level. Conclusion: Our study provides useful evidence about the current and the required level of leadership competencies among health professionals in transitional Albania. Findings of this study may help policymakers in Albania to identify the gap between the required and the current level of leadership competencies among health  professionals. Furthermore, findings of this study should be expanded in the neighbouring countries of the South Eastern European region and beyond.

  5. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively analyse the long-run effect of foreign aid (ODA) on key macroeconomic variables in 36 sub-Saharan African countries from the mid-1960s to 2007, using a well-specified cointegrated VAR model as statistical benchmark. Results provide broad support for a positive long-run impact...... of ODA flows on the macroeconomy. In contrast, we find little evidence supporting the thesis that aid has been harmful. From a methodological point of view we highlight the importance of transparency in reporting results, especially when the hypothesis being tested differs from theoretical expectations...

  6. Coeliac disease in Middle Eastern countries: a challenge for the evolutionary history of this complex disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, K; Malekzadeh, R; Shahbazkhani, B; Akbari, M R; Catassi, C

    2004-10-01

    About 10,000 years ago domestication and farming of wheat and other cereals developed in the 'Fertile Crescent', an area including modern Turkey, Iraq and Iran. Agriculture then slowly spread from Middle East to Europe. Coeliac disease is the permanent intolerance to dietary gluten, the major protein component of wheat. It has been until relatively recently hypothesised that wheat consumption exerted a negative selective pressure on genes predisposing to coeliac disease, eventually leading to higher coeliac disease frequency in Northeastern Europe because of lack of exposure to cereals. This theory is at variance with recent studies showing that coeliac disease is as common in Middle Eastern countries as in Europe. High prevalence of coeliac disease has been found in Iran, in both the general population and at-risk groups, e.g. patients with irritable bowel syndrome or type 1 diabetes. Clinical manifestations of coeliac disease vary markedly with the age of the patient, the duration and the extent of disease. Clinical studies showed that presentation with non-specific symptoms or no symptoms is as common in the Middle East as in Europe. Wheat represented a major component of the Iranian diet for many centuries and it may be argued that the continuous and high level of exposure to wheat proteins has induced some degree of immune tolerance, leading to milder symptoms that may be misdiagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome or unexplained gastrointestinal disorders. The gluten-free diet represents a real challenge to both patients and clinicians in this area. This is particularly difficult in the absence of any supply for gluten-free diet in Middle Eastern countries.

  7. Health Care Performance and Health Financing Systems in Countries from Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel ANTON

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of all health systems from emerging economies is the shortage of financial resources. This fact is currently exacerbated by the economic crisis that has led many governments to reconsider the level of public spending in the health sector. Starting from the Romanian experience, the paper aims to highlight the linkage between the performance of the health system and the total health spending for selected countries from Central and Eastern Europe. Romania has the lowest level of health expenditure as percentage of GDP in Europe, even if its growth rate for 2003-2008 was the highest. In addition, empirical evidence shows that these resources are used inefficiently. Despite the increasing resources allocated to the health sector, statistical analysis shows that health system efficiency, as measured by under-5 (child mortality rate, is still low. We use regression analysis based on crosssection data in order to explain the differences in health expenditure and their implication on the system efficiency. Health data have been provided by international organizations. Crosssection regression results suggest that totalhealth spending and GDP per capita are the most important factors explaining differences in health status across Central and Eastern European countries, though other lifestyle factors could play important roles.

  8. Investments in blood safety improve the availability of blood to underserved areas in a sub-saharan african country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, J.P.; Wilkinson, R.L.; Basavaraju, S.V.; Von Finckenstein, B.G.; Smit Sibinga, C.T.H.; Marfin, A.; Postma, M.J.; Mataranyika, M.N.; Tobias, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since 2004, several African countries, including Namibia, have received assistance from the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Aims: Gains have been documented in the safety and number of collected units in these countries, but the distribution of blood has not

  9. Investments in blood safety improve the availability of blood to underserved areas in a sub-saharan african country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, J.P.; Wilkinson, R.L.; Basavaraju, S.V.; Von Finckenstein, B.G.; Sibinga, C.T.H.; Marfin, A.; Postma, M.J.; Mataranyika, M.N.; Tobias, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since 2004, several African countries, including Namibia, have received assistance from the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Aims: Gains have been documented in the safety and number of collected units in these countries, but the distribution of blood has not bee

  10. Farmer–African wild dog (Lycaon pictus relations in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli-Laurente Fraser-Celin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus are the most endangered large carnivores in southern Africa. Direct and indirect persecution by farmers causes significant conservation challenges. Farmer– wild dog conflict in Botswana commonly occurs as a result of cattle and stocked game depredation by wild dogs, affecting farmer livelihood and causing economic and emotional distress. Although wild dogs predate livestock at lower levels than other carnivores, they continue to be killed both indiscriminately and in retaliation for incidents of depredation. Investigating farmer–wild dog conflict is a necessary step towards establishing appropriate conflict mitigation strategies. Eighty livestock and game farmers were interviewed in order to examine farmers’ value of, perceptions of and experiences with wild dogs as well as their insights on wild dog impacts and conservation in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana. Interviews were semi-structured and used open-ended questions to capture complexities surrounding farmer–wild dog relations. This research contributes baseline data on wild dogs in understudied tribal land and commercial livestock and game farms in eastern Kalahari. It confirms the presence of wild dogs, livestock and stocked game depredation by wild dogs and negative perspectives amongst farmers towards wild dogs and their conservation. Mean losses were 0.85 livestock per subsistence farmer, 1.25 livestock per commercial livestock farmer, while game farmers lost 95.88 game animals per farmer during January 2012 through June 2013. Proportionally, more subsistence farmers than commercial livestock farmers and game farmers held negative perspectives of wild dogs (χ ² = 9.63, df = 2, p < 0.05. Farmer type, education level, socioeconomic status and land tenure, as well as positive wild dog characteristics should be considered when planning and operationalising conflict mitigation strategies. As such, conservation approaches should focus on

  11. Threshold cointegration and causality relationship between energy use and growth in seven African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esso, Loesse Jacques [CES, Universite Paris 1-Pantheon-Sorbonne (France); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Statistique et d' Economie Appliquee (ENSEA), Cellule d' Analyse de Politiques Economiques du CIRES (CAPEC) (Ivory Coast)

    2010-11-15

    The paper investigates the long-run and the causality relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for seven Sub-Saharan African countries during the period 1970-2007. Using the Gregory and Hansen testing approach to threshold cointegration, we find that energy consumption is cointegrated with economic growth in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa. Moreover, this test suggests that economic growth has a significant positive long-run impact on energy consumption in these countries before 1988 and this effect becomes negative after 1988 in Ghana and South Africa. Furthermore, causality tests suggest bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real GDP in Cote d'Ivoire and unidirectional causality running from real GDP to energy usage in the case of Congo and Ghana. (author)

  12. High-Speed Rail for Central and Eastern European Countries: A Conference Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandová Monika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European transport strategy promotes the role of railways and expects that the key role in passenger transport should be played by high-speed rail (HSR. Although the core network of high-speed lines has already been built and is operating in Western Europe, there has been little coverage so far in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. The aim of the conference “High-Speed Rail for CEE Countries” that took place in Prague in June 2016 was to put together academics, policy-makers, and practitioners interested in HSR and to formulate recommendations for CEE countries based on West European countries’ experience. Based on the conference presentations and subsequent discussion, the following conclusions were formulated. Firstly, there are many crucial differences in national HSR build-up and operation, which means that former experience of Western Europe is not directly applicable to CEE countries. Secondly, in comparing presentations discussing experiences in France, Britain, Italy, and Germany, it was concluded that the German approach-upgrading existing lines where possible and only building new lines for bottleneck sections-was the most likely appropriate solution in CEE. Lastly, CEE has the additional problem of many border crossings, with a reduction of traffic in comparison with purely domestic routes, and this effect has to be taken into account.

  13. Detection and Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Baltic Countries and Eastern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katargina, Olga; Russakova, Stanislava; Geller, Julia; Kondrusik, Macije; Zajkowska, Joanna; Zygutiene, Milda; Bormane, Antra; Trofimova, Julia; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Ticks were collected from the vegetation in the Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and eastern Poland and analyzed for the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) by amplification of the partial E and NS3 genes. In Estonia we found statistically significant differences in the TBEV prevalence between I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks (4.23% and 0.42%, respectively). In Latvia, the difference in TBEV prevalence between the two species was not statistically significant (1.02% for I. persulcatus and 1.51% for I. ricinus, respectively). In Lithuania and Poland TBEV was detected in 0.24% and 0.11% of I. ricinus ticks, respectively. Genetic characterization of the partial E and NS3 sequences demonstrated that the TBEV strains belonged to the European subtype in all countries, as well as to the Siberian subtype in Estonia. We also found that in areas where ranges of two tick species overlap, the TBEV subtypes may be detected not only in their natural vector, but also in sympatric tick species. PMID:23650497

  14. Specifics of IFRS Adoption by Central and Eastern European Countries: Evidence from Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procházka David

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews recent literature on the specifics of adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS by the new EU members from the Central and Eastern Europe. Despite being members of the EU or OECD, the transition to a standard developed economy has not yet finished. The first part of the paper presents macroeconomic statistics and capital market data, which underline a unique economic structure of the region (relative unimportance of capital markets for raising capital, strong dependence on foreign direct investments combined with the lacks in institutional environment. Under such conditions, the economic consequences of IFRS adoption can be unpredictable and adverse. The second part of the paper analyses the reflection of specifics of the IFRS adoption in the CEE region in research studies covered by the Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science database. The analysis reveals (a cross-country disproportion in the research coverage of the area; (b relatively low coverage of the IFRS research focusing on these transition countries in top journals.

  15. Climate change and health in the Eastern Mediterranean countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef S; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdo, Nour; Al-Sharif, Munjed; Elbetieha, Ahmed; Bakir, Hamed; Alemam, Rola

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the existing knowledge of the impact of climate change on health from previous research in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) and identify knowledge and research gaps. Different databases were searched for relevant studies published in the region between 2000 and 2014. The review was limited to studies reporting the impacts of climate change on health or studying associations between meteorological parameters and well-defined human health outcomes. This systematic review of 78 studies identified many knowledge and research gaps. Research linking climate change and health is scarce in the most vulnerable countries of the region. There is limited information regarding how changes in temperature, precipitation and other weather variables might affect the geographic range and incidence of mortality and morbidity from various diseases. Available research has many limitations and shortcomings that arise from inappropriate study designs, poor assessment of exposure and outcomes, questionable sources of data, lack of standardized methods, poor adjustment of confounders, limited geographical area studies, small sample sizes, poor statistical modeling and not testing for possible interactions between exposures. Research and information on the effect of climate change on health are limited. Longitudinal studies over extended periods of time that investigate the link between climate change and health are needed. There is a need for studies to be expanded to include more countries in the region and to include other environmental, social and economic factors that might affect the spread of the disease.

  16. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad POPOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available That influences the inflow of foreign direct investments (FDIs into South-Eastern Europe (SEE, whereby main emphasis will be put on republics of Former Yugoslavia, but also with some references to Romania’s case.Choice of the countries for comparison is made upon assumption that they were characterized by relatively the same industrial, market and social development before they entered the process of transition, so comparisons from the aspect of achieved results is of scientific importance. Special attention will be directed to the result made by the Republic of Serbia in the process of attracting FDIs. First of all, main terms of foreign direct investments will be defined in this paper and we will give general review of literature related to allocation of foreign direct investments. Then, recent trends of foreign direct investments in south-astern Europe will be described. Finally, the factors that influence allocation of FDIs,as well as relationship between index of global competitiveness of observed countries and accumulated FDIs during period of transition will be analyzed.

  17. Sources of growth: Evidence from ten central and Eastern European countries during 1993-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Silaghi Monica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out a growth accounting exercise for the 10 Central and Eastern European (CEE countries that are part of the European Union over the period 1993-2008. We estimate the capital share (α from a Cobb-Douglas production function in an intensive form, by employing panel data techniques. The Hausman and Chi-Square tests indicate that a Cross- Section Random Effects with Period Fixed Effects model best suits our data. Based on this model, we find a capital share between 0.45 and 0.83, higher than the usual 0.3-0.4 used in growth accounting literature. When we take into consideration the quality of labour force the estimated capital share slightly decreases, but still remains high, in a range between 0.39 and 0.79. Our growth accounting results reveal that, on average, capital per worker accumulation is the main engine of growth in CEE, followed by the contribution of total factor productivity (TFP. However, when dividing by sub-periods, we found that the contribution of TFP cannot be neglected since during 1997-2004 it proved to be the main engine of growth in some CEE countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania and Romania. Some policy implications are offered based on our results.

  18. Does the Financial System Promote Sustainable Development? Evidence from Eastern European Countries

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    Ioana Andrada Moldovan (Gavril

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analyzing the relationship between sustainable development and the financial system, mainly focusing on the role that the financial system plays within the process of sustainable development. Theoretically, the financial system could be a very important factor to promote sustainable development, as it could foster economic growth and development, efficient resource allocation, the protection of the environment and also social responsibility. Using panel data econometrical analysis, we tested for correlations between indicators of the financial system and indicators of sustainable development in five developing Eastern European countries. We found weak or no correlation between financial indicators and sustainable development indicators. This might be explained by several facts. First, the financial systems of these five developing countries are not highly developed, so that they do not have a high capacity to foster economic growth and development. Second, even if this was the case, promoting sustainable development requires a lot more than fostering economic growth and is not a question of whether the financial companies can promote sustainability, but whether they are interested in promoting it. Even though financial companies have embraced the sustainability agenda, they haven`t done much to change their short-term orientation to profit and to shift to long-run strategies in favor of sustainable development. 

  19. African and classical swine fever situation in Ivory-Coast and neighboring countries, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouakou, K V; Michaud, V; Biego, H G; Gnabro, H P G; Kouakou, A V; Mossoun, A M; Awuni, J A; Minoungou, G L; Aplogan, G L; Awoumé, F K; Albina, E; Lancelot, R; Couacy-Hymann, E

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted from 2008 to 2013 to determine the animal health status of Ivory Coast and neighboring countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo and Benin) for African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF), and to assess the risk factors for ASF introduction in Ivory Coast. Ivory Coast had probably been free from ASF from 1998 to 2014 when it was re-introduced in this country. However, the ASF virus was found in all neighboring countries. In contrast, no evidence of CSF infection was found so far in Ivory Coast and neighboring countries. To assess the risk of ASF reintroduction in Ivory Coast, we surveyed 59 modern pig farms, and 169 pig owners in 19 villages and in two towns. For the village livestock, the major risk factor was the high frequency of pig exchanges with Burkinabe villages. In the commercial sector, many inadequate management practices were observed with respect to ASF. Their identification should enable farmers and other stakeholders to implement a training and prevention program to reduce the introduction risk of ASF in their farms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Legal Barriers in Accessing Opioid Medicines : Results of the ATOME Quick Scan of National Legislation of Eastern European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Radbruch, Lukas; Lisman, John; Scholten, Willem; Payne, Sheila; Lynch, Tom; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Overregulation of controlled medicines is one of the factors contributing to limited access to opioid medicines. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify legal barriers to access to opioid medicines in 12 Eastern European countries participating in the Access to Opioid Medicati

  1. Legal Barriers in Accessing Opioid Medicines : Results of the ATOME Quick Scan of National Legislation of Eastern European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Radbruch, Lukas; Lisman, John; Scholten, Willem; Payne, Sheila; Lynch, Tom; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Overregulation of controlled medicines is one of the factors contributing to limited access to opioid medicines. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify legal barriers to access to opioid medicines in 12 Eastern European countries participating in the Access to Opioid Medicati

  2. Dietary habits in three Central and Eastern European countries: the HAPIEE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilis-Januszewska Aleksandra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high cardiovascular mortality in Eastern Europe has often been attributed to poor diet, but individual-level data on nutrition in the region are generally not available. This paper describes the methods of dietary assessment and presents preliminary findings on food and nutrient intakes in large general population samples in Russia, Poland and the Czech Republic. Methods The HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe study examined random samples of men and women aged 45-69 years at baseline in Novosibirsk (Russia, Krakow (Poland and six Czech urban centres in 2002-2005. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (at least 136 items; complete dietary information was available for 26,870 persons. Results Total energy intakes among men ranged between 8.7 MJ in the Czech sample and 11.7 MJ in the Russian sample, while among women, energy intakes ranged between 8.2 MJ in the Czech sample and 9.8 MJ in the Russian sample. A Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI, ranging from a score of 0 (lowest to 7 (highest, was developed using the World Health Organisation's (WHO guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases. The mean HDI scores were low, ranging from 1.0 (SD = 0.7 among the Polish subjects to 1.7 (SD = 0.8 among the Czech females. Very few subjects met the WHO recommended intakes for complex carbohydrates, pulses or nuts; intakes of saturated fatty acids, sugar and protein were too high. Only 16% of Polish subjects met the WHO recommendation for polyunsaturated fat intake. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was lower than recommended, especially among those Russian subjects who were assessed during the low intake season. Fewer than 65% of subjects consumed adequate amounts of calcium, magnesium and potassium, when compared with the United Kingdom's Reference Nutrient Intake. Conclusion This first large scale study of individual-based dietary intakes in the general population in Eastern

  3. What is the role of Financial Development and Energy Consumption on Economic Growth? New Evidence from North African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Mohamed Salman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to test the validity of the causality between financial development and economic growth on energy consumption in three of North African countries. The study employs error coreection model and Granger causaility test to analyza a dataset for three North African countries covering a period from 1980 to 2010. The applied model is based on demand function for energy to assess the existing of causal relationship of energy with financial development, and economic growth, in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia.  Empirical results provide a positive significant relating financial development and energy consumption in Algeria, and Tunisia. On the other hand, Egypt’s results show a negative significant relationship relating energy consumption and financial development. The paper is valuable to policy makers in North African countries in their pursuit for achieving economic growth as it clarifies the urge for the financial development reforms to stimulate investment and growth. 

  4. Large-scale response of the Eastern Mediterranean thermohaline circulation to African monsoon intensification during sapropel S1 formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, T.; Asioli, A.; Minisini, D.; Maselli, V.; Dalla Valle, G.; Gamberi, F.; Langone, L.; Cattaneo, A.; Montagna, P.; Trincardi, F.

    2017-03-01

    The formation of Eastern Mediterranean sapropels has periodically occurred during intensification of northern hemisphere monsoon precipitation over North Africa. However, the large-scale response of the Eastern Mediterranean thermohaline circulation during these monsoon-fuelled freshening episodes is poorly constrained. Here, we investigate the formation of the youngest sapropel (S1) along an across-slope transect in the Adriatic Sea. Foraminifera-based oxygen index, redox-sensitive elements and biogeochemical parameters reveal - for the first time - that the Adriatic S1 was synchronous with the deposition of south-eastern Mediterranean S1 beds. Proxies of paleo thermohaline currents indicate that the bottom-hugging North Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW) suddenly decreased at the sapropel onset simultaneously with the maximum freshening of the Levantine Sea during the African Humid Period. We conclude that the lack of the "salty" Levantine Intermediate Water hampered the preconditioning of the northern Adriatic waters necessary for the NAdDW formation prior to the winter cooling. Consequently, a weak NAdDW limited in turn the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water (EMDWAdriatic) formation with important consequences for the ventilation of the Ionian basin as well. Our results highlight the importance of the Adriatic for the deep water ventilation and the interdependence among the major eastern Mediterranean water masses whose destabilization exerted first-order control on S1 deposition.

  5. Social Inequalities in Self-Reported Health in Eastern European Countries: Findings from the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    According to the WHO in all countries – whether low-, middle- or high-income – there are wide differences in the health status of different social groups. The purpose of this paper is to identify the possible socio-economic inequalities in self-reported health among the population of seven Eastern...... European countries (Bulgaria, Czech republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, and Russian Federation) by exploring the associations of the socio-economic determinants of health with poor self-reported health. Data for this study is derived from the European Social Survey. Respondents from six collected...... of this research show the existence of some socio-demographic and socio-economic inequalities in self-reported health among the population of seven Eastern European countries...

  6. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Galactionova

    Full Text Available Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and

  7. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galactionova, Katya; Tediosi, Fabrizio; de Savigny, Don; Smith, Thomas; Tanner, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and intervening to tackle

  8. A review of the infection-associated cancers in North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Wafaa Mohamed; Anwar, Wagida A; Attaleb, Mohammed; Mazini, Loubna; Försti, Asta; Trimbitas, Roxana-Delia; Khyatti, Meriem

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is typically classified as a leading non-communicable disease; however, infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papilloma virus (HPV), contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Less developed countries, including countries of the North African (NA) region, endure the highest burden of infection-related cancers. The five most common infection-associated cancers in NA in order of incidence are bladder cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This review aims to outline the epidemiologic pattern of infection-associated cancers in five NA countries (namely: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) highlighting the similarities and differences across the region. The present study employed an initial literature review of peer-reviewed articles selected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and World Health Organization (WHO) databases based on key word searches without restriction on publication dates. Original research articles and reports written in French, as well as data from institutional reports and regional meeting abstracts were also included in this extensive review. Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco were selected to be the focus of this review.

  9. Biomass potential assessment in Central and Eastern European Countries and opportunities for the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faaij, A.; Hoogzaad, J.; Van Dam, J.; Smeets, E.; Lewandowski, I.

    2004-12-15

    This paper discusses an approach to determine future biomass production potentials and cost supply curves based on a bottom-up approach. The approach uses detailed data on NUTS3 level (the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) provides a single, uniform breakdown of the economic territory of the European Union). The NUTS is the territorial classification for the compilation of regional accounts for Central and Eastern European Countries and results in biomass supply curves for different scenario conditions that could occur in a European setting. A first assessment of the Ukraine reveals that even with modest assumptions, the Ukrainian agricultural sector could supply 2,000 to 3,000 PJ of primary biomass per year on medium term (i.e. 2010-2015). Cost levels of liquid fuels produced from biomass (such as methanol or Fischer-Tropsch diesel) could end up around 6 Euro/GJ, which is about competitive with production costs of diesel and gasoline from mineral oil. Given the growing demand for biofuels in particular in the EU, biofuels could prove an extremely valuable export commodity for the Ukraine on shorter term already.

  10. Public debt and growth: evidence from Central, Eastern and Southeastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Čeh Časni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to quantify the long run and short run relationship between debt and economic activity in Central, Eastern and Southeastern European countries. In order to investigate the impact of public debt on economic growth, the paper uses pooled mean group estimator (PMG for the period between 2000 and 2011. A battery of panel unit root as well as panel cointegration tests is used prior to performing the dynamic panel analysis based on PMG estimator. According to the empirical results, in the long-run debt significantly influences the GDP growth having a negative sign as expected and pointing out that government gross debt lowers the GDP growth. In the short run, debt has statistically significant negative influence on the GDP growth as well, controlling for other determinants of growth (trade openness, total investment and industry value added. Designing policy frameworks that encourage export, promote industrial development and create better environment for long-term investment should foster sustainable growth. Therefore, we find that a credible fiscal consolidation strategy is needed combined with policies to promote lasting growth in order to reach debt-stabilizing levels.

  11. Hope in Africa?: social representations of world history and the future in six African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; Liu, James H; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline

    2011-10-01

    Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world except sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study 1, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the past 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African sociocentrism on colonization and independence. The first three findings replicated previous research conducted in other parts of the world, but the last pattern contrasted sharply with European data. Study 2 employed a novel method asking participants how they would begin the narration of world history, and then to describe a major transition to the present. Participants most frequently wrote about the evolution of humanity out of Africa, followed by war and then colonization as a beginning, and then replicated previous findings with war, colonization, and technology as major transitions to the present. Finally, when asked about how they foresaw the future, many participants expressed hope for peace and cooperation, especially those facing more risk of collective violence (Burundi and Congo). A colonial/liberation narrative was more predominant in the data from former Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, and Guinea-Bissau) than from former Belgian colonies (Burundi and Congo).

  12. Climate change impacts on North African countries and on some Tunisian economic sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Radhouane

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global temperature is increasing and that the main cause is the accumulation of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere as a result of human activities. The economic costs alone will be very large: as extreme weather events such as droughts and floods become more destructive and frequent; communities, cities, and island nations are damaged or inundated as sea level rises; and agricultural output is disrupted. Impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity are also likely to be devastating. But what about Climate change impacts on water resources and agriculture in North African regions and especially on Tunisia country? North Africa is vulnerable to climate change impacts. Scenarios predict an average rise in annual temperatures, higher than the average expected for the planet. Heat waves would then be more numerous, longer and more intense. North Africa would be particularly affected by droughts that would be more frequent, more intense and longer-lasting. The projections also announce a drop of 4 to 27% in annual rainfall. The water deficit will be worsened by increased evaporation and coastal aquifers will become more salty. The sea level could rise by 23-47 cm. by the end of the 21st century. Many Mediterranean regions would then run a major risk of being submerged and eroded. In North Africa, rising temperatures associated with climate change are expected to decrease the land areas suitable for agriculture, shorten the length of growing seasons and reduce crop yields. In these countries, we estimate that a 1°C rise in temperature in a given year reduces economic growth in that year by about 1.1 points. The decrease in annual precipitation that is predicted for Northern Africa in the 21st century will exacerbate these effects, particularly in semiarid and arid regions that rely on irrigation for crop growth. These effects of climate change are more dramatic for Tunisia country especially for water resources and arable cropland

  13. Learning-by-Exporting Versus Self-Selection: New Evidence for 19 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster-McGregor, N.; Isaksson, A.; Kaulich, F.

    2015-01-01

    We examine learning-by-exporting effects of manufacturing and services firms in 19 sub-Saharan African countries. Comparing several outlier-robust estimators, our results provide evidence for positive effects in the manufacturing sector when using the MM estimator, but not in the services sector.

  14. Immunological surveys of diphtheric antitoxic antibodies in some African and Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, B; Teplý, V; Pecenka, J; Serý, V; Jezek, Z; Bláha, R; Maresková, O

    1980-01-01

    Immunological surveys of diphtheric antitoxic antibodies confirmed the existence of a high circulation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in some African and Asian countries. The high immunity level in early childhood confirms the well known fact that other forms of diphtheria, in particular the cutaneous forms, participate in the formation of antitoxic antibodies. Immunological surveys can determine relatively exactly the extent of risk of infection in the separate age groups and thus delimit the range of the planned vaccination campaigns. Exact determination of the age groups eligible for vaccination makes it possible efficaciously to employ the means allotted for the health services. In some cases, it is possible to dispense with vaccination altogether. However, it should be borne in mind that a change in the socio-economic conditions and increasing urbanization of these countries may induce a radical change in the situation. Children not protected from the cutaneous forms thanks to a better hygienic and social standard, might fall ill with diphtheria of the throat in the future. It is therefore advisable to continue the follow-up of the immune state of the child population at several years time intervals and, in case of necessity, timely to intervene by vaccinating the endangered groups.

  15. HIV and AIDS stigma violates human rights in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohi, Thecla W; Makoae, Lucy; Chirwa, Maureen; Holzemer, William L; Phetlhu, Deliwe René; Uys, Leana; Naidoo, Joanne; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Greeff, Minrie

    2006-07-01

    The situation and human rights of people living with HIV and AIDS were explored through focus groups in five African countries (Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania). A descriptive qualitative research design was used. The 251 informants were people living with HIV and AIDS, and nurse managers and nurse clinicians from urban and rural settings. NVivo software was used to identify specific incidents related to human rights, which were compared with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The findings revealed that the human rights of people living with HIV and AIDS were violated in a variety of ways, including denial of access to adequate or no health care/services, and denial of home care, termination or refusal of employment, and denial of the right to earn an income, produce food or obtain loans. The informants living with HIV and AIDS were also abused verbally and physically. Country governments and health professionals need to address these issues to ensure the human rights of all people.

  16. Children's exposure to community and war violence and mental health in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-12-01

    In this article we review the mental health consequences of children's exposure to community and war violence (ETV) in four African countries: South Africa, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Rwanda. A focus on Africa is particularly pressing because of children's high levels of community and war ETV in countries therein. Regions of Africa present important macro-contexts for understanding children's various types of violence exposure amidst war and economic disadvantage. Findings of the review across 20 quantitative studies from 2004 to 2015 indicate consistent associations between exposure to war and community violence and children's symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and aggression. School climate and family support mitigate these ETV influences upon children: however, more research is needed on the buffering effects of such resources. The effects of war violence are mediated by perceived discrimination in communities post-conflict. We integrate findings across studies to synthesize knowledge on children's ETV in Africa around a model of its correlates, mediators, and moderators in relation to mental health. Emerging research points to avenues for prevention and future inquiry.

  17. A Systematic Review of Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Description of Tobacco Control Strategies in Sub-Saharan African Countries; 2007 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Brathwaite

    Full Text Available To systematically review current smoking prevalence among adults in sub-Saharan Africa from 2007 to May 2014 and to describe the context of tobacco control strategies in these countries.Five databases, Medline, Embase, Africa-wide Information, Cinahl Plus, and Global Health were searched using a systematic search strategy. There were no language restrictions.26 included studies measured current smoking prevalence in nationally representative adult populations in sub-Saharan African countries.Study details were independently extracted using a standard datasheet. Data on tobacco control policies, taxation and trends in prices were obtained from the Implementation Database of the WHO FCTC website.Studies represented 13 countries. Current smoking prevalence varied widely ranging from 1.8% in Zambia to 25.8% in Sierra Leone. The prevalence of smoking was consistently lower in women compared to men with the widest gender difference observed in Malawi (men 25.9%, women 2.9%. Rwanda had the highest prevalence of women smokers (12.6% and Ghana had the lowest (0.2%. Rural, urban patterns were inconsistent. Most countries have implemented demand-reduction measures including bans on advertising, and taxation rates but to different extents.Smoking prevalence varied widely across sub-Saharan Africa, even between similar country regions, but was always higher in men. High smoking rates were observed among countries in the eastern and southern regions of Africa, mainly among men in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, and Zambia and women in Rwanda and rural Zambia. Effective action to reduce smoking across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly targeting population groups at increased risk remains a pressing public health priority.

  18. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  19. AN ATTEMPT TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Szuba-Barańska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the progress of implementation of selected assumptions on sustainability of agriculture in countries of CentralEastern Europe in relation to environmental protection. Data from the input-output balance sheets and the European Environmental Accounts were used to realize the aim of the study. The analysis considered material fl ows to and from agriculture, pollution, and the production and consumption of biomass. The share of the participation of agribusiness sphere I, including mainly services, as well as the fuel, energy and chemical industries, has been increasing in the material infl ows to agriculture in the countries of CentralEastern Europe. This indicates production modernization, associated with a higher load on the environment. The highest emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants into the environment per 1,000 euro GDP were recorded in Lithuania, Romania and Latvia. The Czech Republic, Slovenia and Slovakia have the lowest values of emissions. In Latvia, there was no overall reduction in pollution emitted by agriculture in 2008–2012. Emission of these pollutants per 1,000 euro GDP and 1 ha UAA (utilized agricultural area of agricultural land decreased in most countries in the analysis. In EU countries of Central-Eastern Europe, a reduction in direct material input and domestic consumption of biomass from agriculture per one euro of GDP is reported. These changes indicate a decrease in the intensity of use of natural resources (dematerialising economy, which is consistent with the objectives of sustainable development. In countries where agriculture is better developed, the implementation of pro-environmental goals of sustainable development takes place to a greater extent than in countries with lower levels of socio-economic development.

  20. Socioeconomic Differences in Dietary Patterns in an East African Country: Evidence from the Republic of Seychelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Bovet, Pascal; Marti-Soler, Helena; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Stringhini, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background In high income countries, low socioeconomic status (SES) is related to unhealthier dietary patterns, while evidence on the social patterning of diet in low and middle income countries is scarce. Objective In this study, we assess dietary patterns in the general population of a middle income country in the African region, the Republic of Seychelles, and examine their distribution according to educational level and income. Methods Data was drawn from two independent national surveys conducted in the Seychelles among adults aged 25–64 years in 2004 (n = 1236) and 2013 (n = 1240). Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis (PCA). Educational level and income were used as SES indicators. Data from both surveys were combined as no interaction was found between SES and year. Results Three dietary patterns were identified: “snacks and drinks”, “fruit and vegetables” and “fish and rice”. No significant associations were found between SES and the “snacks and drinks” pattern. Low vs. high SES individuals had lower adherence to the “fruit and vegetables” pattern [prevalence ratio (95% CI) 0.71 (0.60–0.83)] but a higher adherence to the traditional “fish and rice” pattern [1.58 (1.32–1.88)]. Income modified the association between education and the “fish and rice” pattern (p = 0.02), whereby low income individuals had a higher adherence to this pattern in both educational groups. Conclusion Low SES individuals have a lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, but a higher consumption of traditional foods like fish and rice. The Seychelles may be at a degenerative diseases stage of the nutrition transition. PMID:27214139

  1. Standardised pre-competitive screening of athletes in some European and African countries: the SMILE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assanelli, Deodato; Deodato, Assanelli; Ermolao, Andrea; Andrea, Ermolao; Carre, François; François, Carré; Deligiannis, Asterios; Asterios, Deligiannis; Mellwig, Klaus; Mellwig, Klaus; Klaus, Mellwig; Tahmi, Mohamed; Mohamed, Tahmi; Cesana, Bruno Mario; Mario, Cesana Bruno; Levaggi, Rosella; Rosella, Levaggi; Aliverti, Paola; Paola, Aliverti; Sharma, Sanjay; Sanjay, Sharma

    2014-06-01

    Most of the available data on the cardiovascular screening of athletes come from Italy, with fewer records being available outside of Italy and for non-Caucasian populations. The goals of the SMILE project (Sport Medicine Intervention to save Lives through ECG) are to evaluate the usefulness of 12-lead ECGs for the detection of cardiac diseases in athletes from three European countries and one African country and to estimate how many second-level examinations are needed subsequent to the initial screening in order to classify athletes with abnormal characteristics. A digital network consisting of Sport Centres and second and third opinion centres was set up in Greece, Germany, France and Algeria. Standard digital data input was carried out through the application of 12-lead ECGs, Bethesda questionnaires and physical examinations. Two hundred ninety-three of the 6,634 consecutive athletes required further evaluation, mostly (88.4 %) as a consequence of abnormal ECGs. After careful evaluation, 237 were determined to be healthy or apparently healthy, while 56 athletes were found to have cardiac disorders and were thus disqualified from active participation in sports. There was a large difference in the prevalence of diseases detected in Europe as compared with Algeria (0.23 and 4.01 %, respectively). Our data confirmed the noteworthy value of 12-lead resting ECGs as compared with other first-level evaluations, especially in athletes with asymptomatic cardiac diseases. Its value seems to have been even higher in Algeria than in the European countries. The establishment of a digital network of Sport Centres for second/third opinions in conjunction with the use of standard digital data input seems to be a valuable means for increasing the effectiveness of screening.

  2. Incidence of pregnancy following antiretroviral therapy initiation and associated factors in eight West African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Soto, Juan; Balestre, Eric; Minga, Albert; Ajayi, Samuel; Sawadogo, Adrien; Zannou, Marcel D.; Leroy, Valériane; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Dabis, François; Becquet, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed at estimating the incidence of pregnancy after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in eight West African countries over a 10-year period. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted within the international database of the IeDEA West Africa Collaboration. All HIV-infected women aged <50 years and starting ART for their own health between 1998 and 2011 were eligible. Pregnancy after ART initiation was the main outcome and was based on clinical reporting. Poisson regression analysis accounting for country heterogeneity was computed to estimate first pregnancy incidence post-ART and to identify its associated factors. Pregnancy incidence rate ratios were adjusted on country, baseline CD4 count and clinical stage, haemoglobin, age, first ART regimen and calendar year. Results Overall 29,425 HIV-infected women aged 33 years in median [Inter Quartile Range: 28–38] contributed for 84,870 women-years of follow-up to this analysis. The crude incidence of first pregnancy (2,304 events) was 2.9 per 100 women-years [95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7–3.0], the highest rate being reported among women aged 25–29 years: 4.7 per 100 women-years; 95% CI: 4.3–5.1. The overall Kaplan-Meier probability of pregnancy occurrence by the fourth year on ART was 10.9% (95% CI: 10.4–11.4) and as high as 28.4% (95% CI: 26.3–30.6) among women aged 20–29 years at ART initiation. Conclusion The rate of pregnancy occurrence after ART initiation among HIV-infected women living in the West Africa region was high. Family planning services tailored to procreation needs should be provided to all HIV-infected women initiating ART and health consequences carefully monitored in this part of the world. PMID:25216079

  3. Progress in Harmonizing Tiered HIV Laboratory Systems: Challenges and Opportunities in 8 African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason; Umaru, Farouk; Edgil, Dianna; Kuritsky, Joel

    2016-09-28

    In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS released its 90-90-90 targets, which make laboratory diagnostics a cornerstone for measuring efforts toward the epidemic control of HIV. A data-driven laboratory harmonization and standardization approach is one way to create efficiencies and ensure optimal laboratory procurements. Following the 2008 "Maputo Declaration on Strengthening of Laboratory Systems"-a call for government leadership in harmonizing tiered laboratory networks and standardizing testing services-several national ministries of health requested that the United States Government and in-country partners help implement the recommendations by facilitating laboratory harmonization and standardization workshops, with a primary focus on improving HIV laboratory service delivery. Between 2007 and 2015, harmonization and standardization workshops were held in 8 African countries. This article reviews progress in the harmonization of laboratory systems in these 8 countries. We examined agreed-upon instrument lists established at the workshops and compared them against instrument data from laboratory quantification exercises over time. We used this measure as an indicator of adherence to national procurement policies. We found high levels of diversity across laboratories' diagnostic instruments, equipment, and services. This diversity contributes to different levels of compliance with expected service delivery standards. We believe the following challenges to be the most important to address: (1) lack of adherence to procurement policies, (2) absence or limited influence of a coordinating body to fully implement harmonization proposals, and (3) misalignment of laboratory policies with minimum packages of care and with national HIV care and treatment guidelines. Overall, the effort to implement the recommendations from the Maputo Declaration has had mixed success and is a work in progress. Program managers should continue efforts to advance the

  4. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Trade Facilitation Indicators and their Potential Impact on Trade Between the Countries of South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toševska-Trpčevska Katerina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we base our analysis on previous OECD findings and analysis of trade facilitation indicators for assessing relative economic and trade impact of specific trade facilitation measures for the countries of South-Eastern Europe. In the analysis we plan to include all CEFTA-2006 members, except Moldova, and other countries which are part of this region: Bulgaria, Romania and Greece. We plan to construct twelve trade facilitation indicators (TFIs that correspond to the main policy areas under negotiations at the WTO. The indicators are composed from seventy-eight variables, whose values are drawn from publicly available data. We plan to use these indicators in gravity model in order to estimate the impact of those policy areas on trade volumes between the countries of the region. The use of individual trade facilitation indicators should also enable countries to better assess which trade facilitation measures deserve priority.

  6. Metabolic syndrome according to different definitions in a rapidly developing country of the African region

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    Paccaud Fred

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims We examined, in a country of the African region, i the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS according to three definitions (ATP, WHO and IDF; ii the distribution of the MetS criteria; iii the level of agreement between these three definitions and iv we also examined these issues upon exclusion of people with diabetes. Methods We conducted an examination survey on a sample representative of the general population aged 25–64 years in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region, attended by 1255 participants (participation rate of 80.3%. Results The prevalence of MetS increased markedly with age. According to the ATP, WHO and IDF definitions, the prevalence of MetS was, respectively, 24.0%, 25.0%, 25.1% in men and 32.2%, 24.6%, 35.4% in women. Approximately 80% of participants with diabetes also had MetS and the prevalence of MetS was approximately 7% lower upon exclusion of diabetic individuals. High blood pressure and adiposity were the criteria found most frequently among MetS holders irrespective of the MetS definitions. Among people with MetS based on any of the three definitions, 78% met both ATP and IDF criteria, 67% both WHO and IDF criteria, 54% both WHO and ATP criteria and only 37% met all three definitions. Conclusion We identified a high prevalence of MetS in this population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of MetS decreased by approximately 32% upon exclusion of persons with diabetes. Because of limited agreement between the MetS definitions, the fairly similar proportions of MetS based on any of the three MetS definitions classified, to a substantial extent, different subjects as having MetS.

  7. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Sauvageot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org.During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0-10% (median, 1% by country.Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  8. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Delphine; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Akilimali, Laurent; Anne, Jean-Claude; Bidjada, Pawou; Bompangue, Didier; Bwire, Godfrey; Coulibaly, Daouda; Dengo-Baloi, Liliana; Dosso, Mireille; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Inguane, Dorteia; Kagirita, Atek; Kacou-N’Douba, Adele; Keita, Sakoba; Kere Banla, Abiba; Kouame, Yao Jean-Pierre; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Langa, Jose Paulo; Makumbi, Issa; Miwanda, Berthe; Malimbo, Muggaga; Mutombo, Guy; Mutombo, Annie; NGuetta, Emilienne Niamke; Saliou, Mamadou; Sarr, Veronique; Senga, Raphael Kakongo; Sory, Fode; Sema, Cynthia; Tante, Ouyi Valentin; Gessner, Bradford D.; Mengel, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org). Methods/ Principal findings During June 2011–December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d’Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0–40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3–86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0–37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27–38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0–10% (median, 1%) by country. Conclusions/Significance Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use. PMID:27186885

  9. Particle Size Distribution of Airborne Microorganisms and Pathogens during an Intense African Dust Event in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2008-01-01

    Background The distribution of microorganisms, and especially pathogens, over airborne particles of different sizes has been ignored to a large extent, but it could have significant implications regarding the dispersion of these microorganisms across the planet, thus affecting human health. Objectives We examined the microbial quality of the aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean region during an African storm to determine the size distribution of microorganisms in the air. Methods We used a five-stage cascade impactor for bioaerosol collection in a coastal city on the eastern Mediterranean Sea during a north African dust storm. Bacterial communities associated with aerosol particles of six different size ranges were characterized following molecular culture–independent methods, regardless of the cell culturability (analysis of 16S rRNA genes). Results All 16S rDNA clone libraries were diverse, including sequences commonly found in soil and marine ecosystems. Spore-forming bacteria such as Firmicutes dominated large particle sizes (> 3.3 μm), whereas clones affiliated with Actinobacteria (found commonly in soil) and Bacteroidetes (widely distributed in the environment) gradually increased their abundance in aerosol particles of reduced size (< 3.3 μm). A large portion of the clones detected at respiratory particle sizes (< 3.3 μm) were phylogenetic neighbors to human pathogens that have been linked to several diseases. Conclusions The presence of aerosolized bacteria in small size particles may have significant implications to human health via intercontinental transportation of pathogens. PMID:18335093

  10. Reversing the brain drain from Eastern European countries: the push' and pull' factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizi, E.S. (Postgraduate Medical School, Budapest (Hungary) Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary) Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A mass departure of intellectuals is going on in countries such as Poland, Russia, the Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania. There is growing concern about the increasing number of intellectuals who have left, or are going to leave, these countries. The main problem is not that scientists and intellectuals are leaving to go abroad to work under better conditions - that is certainly beneficial for science as a whole. Rather, the problem occurs when they do not return. The migration of professionals, even if it is only temporary, only reflects the operation of an international market for specialized human capital. However, a minimum level of human capital is indispensable to a country's economic development. A loss of skilled human resources will ultimately have a grave impact on the economy and jeopardize development programs. There are several reasons for this migration. Top-level scientists have always been drawn to countries that offer greater attractions - facilities, salaries, career prospects, satisfaction, prestige. Drastic changes are needed in the official policy toward R D in Eastern European Countries. The atmosphere must be changed to make it more favorable for intellectual work. In addition, international agencies and governments of developed countries should help these poorer countries to reverse the brain drain. A program of Science and Technology for stability should be created in order to provide direct assistance to basic and applied scientific and technical research in these countries. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Water footprint as an indicator of agricultural productivity in African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico Zamanillo, Daniel; Zhang, Guoping; Mathews, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions with the largest scope for improved agricultural development that would contribute to global food security while respecting environmental boundaries. More importantly, undernourishment is a challenge for many African countries and needs to be addressed to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This study was conducted to support the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affair's Inclusive Green Growth aim of increasing water use efficiency by 25% in Dutch financed projects. A water footprint profile was developed for 7 Sub-Saharan countries; Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique and Rwanda. The profiles provide an overview of water use from the perspective of the goods produced within the country, the consumption of goods, in particular agricultural crops, whether these goods are produced domestically or imported from other countries and the level of blue water scarcity experienced in the country. Across all countries, key food crops such as maize, and sorghum have low water productivity relative to the global water footprint benchmark. Export crops such as tea in Kenya or cocoa in Ghana show a good performance over global production. Furthermore, the water footprint of crops over the period 2006-2013 was compared to data from the period 1996-2005. Changes in yield and the resulting changes in the water footprint were assessed for both food and export crops. Yields in food crops improved in some countries, and in some years, but not consistently across all countries and years. The greatest gains in water productivity were in key export crops. The results provide insights into whether improvements have been made in water productivity in recent years and through comparison with the global water footprint benchmark, remaining opportunities for further gains in water productivity were identified. Going forward, policies that will enhance further improvement in water productivity and support greater food and

  12. TESTING STOCK MARKETS’ INTEGRATION FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WITHIN EURO ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica CHIRILA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stock market integration gives the opportunity of risk diversification on international level. The main effects of this integration are the development of stock markets and economic growth. This paper analyses the integration of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe using convergence. Beta-convergence gives us information about integration’s speed and sigma-convergence presents information about the degree of integration of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe on the stock market of Euro Zone.

  13. Appreciation of the Swiss Franc and its Impact on Romania and other Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Delia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The decision of the Swiss National Bank of giving up the fixed rate of 1,2 Euro/CHF on the 15th of January 2015, a rate established at its admission to the Monetary Economic Union, had consequences on Central and Eastern European countries because a great part of the credits granted were in Swiss francs. In all these countries, the national currencies depreciated and the financial market rates were reduced. Regional banks started to face difficulties regarding the management of the situation and were under the necessity of finding solutions to avoid the risk of not recovering the granted credits. The issue of the Swiss franc appreciation was treated differently by the analysed countries and took into consideration the particularities characteristic to the credits granted in this currency. The present paper aims at emphasising the impact of the Swiss franc appreciation on the Romanian banking system but also the approach of other countries in Central and Eastern Europe in this respect.

  14. Africa: the Continent is booming. [Extensive survey of drilling activities in each African country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-08-15

    Civil wars, political unrest, and skyrocketing exploration and production costs were unable to hamper Africa's developing oil business. Of the major producing nations, Libya, Algeria, and Nigeria recorded production declines. In the case of the North African countries, the drop was caused by high prices. Nigeria ordered sharp production curtailments last year, but Egypt's production decline may be on the verge of reversing. Algeria and Libya pruned their prices well back in an attempt to increase their share of an increasingly buyer's market. Angola delivered more oil last year than the year before despite open warfare among the factions attempting to take control of the country once Portugal relinquishes authority November 1975. The Nigerian oil industry was as yet unaffected by the July coup which unseated General Gowon after a nine-year rule. Gabon increased its output and was elected to OPEC as a result. Zaire will begin to land oil from its offshore field later this year and Cameroon is also preparing to bring oil ashore in 1977. Continental Oil Co. made two oil discoveries in Chad, one of which seems to be commercial. South Africa is continuing its search for its first production and an uncommercial gas discovery was made in the Orange River Delta of South West Africa. Drilling was off in the Congo, Cameroon, and Nigeria, but well above 1973 levels in Gabon, Angola, Tunisia, and Algeria. Egyptian operations remained steady, but in view of the concession activity in the past year or so, drilling should increase dramatically within the next year.

  15. Measuring HIV stigma for PLHAs and nurses over time in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzemer, William L; Makoae, Lucy N; Greeff, Minrie; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kohi, Thecla W; Chirwa, Maureen L; Naidoo, Joanne R; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Uys, Yvette R

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this article is to document the levels of HIV stigma reported by persons living with HIV infections and nurses in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania over a 1-year period. HIV stigma has been shown to negatively affect the quality of life for people living with HIV infection, their adherence to medication, and their access to care. Few studies have documented HIV stigma by association as experienced by nurses or other health care workers who care for people living with HIV infection. This study used standardised scales to measure the level of HIV stigma over time. A repeated measures cohort design was used to follow persons living with HIV infection and nurses involved in their care from five countries over a 1-year period in a three-wave longitudinal design. The average age of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) (N=948) was 36.15 years (SD=8.69), and 67.1% (N=617) were female. The average age of nurses (N=887) was 38.44 years (SD=9.63), and 88.6% (N=784) were females. Eighty-four per cent of all PLHAs reported one or more HIV-stigma events at baseline. This declined, but was still significant 1 year later, when 64.9% reported experiencing at least one HIV-stigma event. At baseline, 80.3% of the nurses reported experiencing one or more HIV-stigma events and this increased to 83.7% 1 year later. The study documented high levels of HIV stigma as reported by both PLHAs and nurses in all five of these African countries. These results have implications for stigma reduction interventions, particularly focused at health care providers who experience HIV stigma by association.

  16. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children feeding practices in four anglophone West African countries (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys. The study covered 12 623 children aged 6-23 months from four anglophone West African countries (Ghana: 822 children: Liberia: 1458 children, Nigeria: 8786 children and Sierra Leone: 1557 children). Four complementary feeding indicators were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level factors, using multiple regression analysis. Multivariate analyses found that lack of post-natal contacts with health workers, maternal illiteracy and geographical region were common determinants of delayed introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households.

  17. Wastewater treatment performance efficiency of constructed wetlands in African countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Andualem; Leta, Seyoum; Njau, Karoli Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In Africa, different studies have been conducted at different scales to evaluate wastewater treatment efficiency of constructed wetland. This paper aims to review the treatment performance efficiency of constructed wetland used in African countries. In the reviewed papers, the operational parameters, size and type of wetland used and the treatment efficiency are assessed. The results are organized and presented in six tables based on the type of wetland and wastewater used in the study. The results of the review papers indicated that most of the studies were conducted in Tanzania, Egypt and Kenya. In Kenya and Tanzania, different full-scale wetlands are widely used in treating wastewater. Among wetland type, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands were widely studied followed by surface flow and hybrid wetlands. Most of the reported hybrid wetlands were in Kenya. The results of the review papers indicated that wetlands are efficient in removing organic matter (biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand) and suspended solids. On the other hand, nutrient removal efficiency appeared to be low.

  18. The Relationship between Youth Unemployment and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern European Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman ERDAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study has analyzed the relationship between youth unemployment and economic growth, in the context of Okun law, by using new generation panel data analysis and cointegration tests. In this study, 18 Central and Eastern European country have been selected as subject matter whose youth unemployment rate is above the EU-28 average (25 % for the period 2006-2012. The results show that, if youth unemployment is quite severe; even an exclusive economic growth will not be enough to reduce the youth unemployment rate in the country. It is recommended that the global and country-specific policies which are effective, result-driven on youth (Un employment and labour market issues, should be developed. This study is expected to make a significant contribution to the literature on unemployment and social conflict.

  19. EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    , and Finland and Iceland from year 2006, the other Nordic countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. The results based on a differences-in-differences estimator show that the estimated effect of the opening of the Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic labour markets on migration from......In this paper we look at migration flows from 10 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2007. We exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement...... the CEECs that entered the EU in 2004 is not significantly different from zero. However, the effect of the opening of the Swedish and Finnish labour markets in 2007 on migration from the 2007 EU entrants, Bulgaria and Romania, is significantly positive. Further, we are interested in the overall effect...

  20. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Eastern Gorilla (Gorilla beringei) and Implications for African Ape Biogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Ranajit; Hergenrother, Scott D.; Soto-Calderón, Iván D.; Dew, J. Larry; Anthony, Nicola M; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    The Western and Eastern species of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei) began diverging in the mid-Pleistocene, but in a complex pattern with ongoing gene flow following their initial split. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 1 Eastern and 1 Western gorilla to provide the most accurate date for their mitochondrial divergence, and to analyze patterns of nucleotide substitutions. The most recent common ancestor of these genomes existed about 1.9 million years ago, sli...

  1. Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in sub-Saharan African countries: a multiyear and multi-country analysis.

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    Nazmul Alam

    Full Text Available To assess social inequalities in the use of antenatal care (ANC, facility based delivery (FBD, and modern contraception (MC in two contrasting groups of countries in sub-Saharan Africa divided based on their progress towards maternal mortality reduction. Six countries were included in this study. Three countries (Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda had 4.5% average annual reduction rate while another three (Cameroon, Zambia, and Zimbabwe had >550 MMR in 2010 with only <1.5% average annual reduction rate. All of these countries had at least three rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS before 2012. We measured rate ratios and differences, as well as relative and absolute concentration indices in order to examine within-country geographical and wealth-based inequalities in the utilization of ANC, FBD, and MC. In the countries which have made sufficient progress (i.e. Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda, ANC use increased by 8.7, 9.3 and 5.7 percent, respectively, while the utilization of FBD increased by 4.7, 0.7 and 20.2 percent, respectively, over the last decade. By contrast, utilization of these services either plateaued or decreased in countries which did not make progress towards reducing maternal mortality, with the exception of Cameroon. Utilization of MC increased in all six countries but remained very low, with a high of 40.5% in Zimbabwe and low of 16.1% in Cameroon as of 2011. In general, relative measures of inequalities were found to have declined overtime in countries making progress towards reducing maternal mortality. In countries with insufficient progress towards maternal mortality reduction, these indicators remained stagnant or increased. Absolute measures for geographical and wealth-based inequalities remained high invariably in all six countries. The increasing trend in the utilization of maternal care services was found to concur with a steady decline in maternal mortality. Relative inequality declined overtime in countries

  2. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean.

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    Utrobičić, Ana; Chaudhry, Nauman; Ghaffar, Abdul; Marušić, Ana

    2012-05-11

    Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006-2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006-2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient's privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community.

  3. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006–2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Results Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006–2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient’s privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Conclusion Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community. PMID:22577965

  4. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean

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    Utrobičić Ana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR, we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006–2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Results Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations during 2006–2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS. Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient’s privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed, policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%, and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%. Conclusion Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community.

  5. Current status of African swine fever virus in a population of wild boar in eastern Poland (2014-2015).

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    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Łyjak, Magdalena; Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) was detected in wild boar in eastern Poland in early 2014. So far, 65 cases of ASFV infection in wild boar have been recognised. The methods used for ASFV detection included highly specific real-time PCR with a universal probe library (UPL), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and an immunoperoxidase test (IPT) for identification of anti-ASFV antibodies. The positive ASF cases were located near the border with Belarus in Sokółka and Białystok counties. Some of the countermeasures for disease prevention include early ASF diagnosis by ASFV DNA identification as well as detection of specific antibodies by systematic screening. The aim of this study was to assess the current ASF status in a Polish population of wild boar during the last two years (2014-2015).

  6. How Taxes Can Contribute to The Implementation of The Public Governance Strategy? – An Analysis for Eastern European Countries

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    Vlad Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with a short literature review regarding the public governance concept in the EU approach and its methods for establishing a common way to manage different situations for all member states; we discovered that the problems they confront with have to do with good governance and qualitative public administration. In the second part, we developed an econometric model for three Eastern European countries and we found a strong correlation between the total revenues from taxes and social contributions and total gross debt in 2002-2014 period. We ended the paper by emphasizing the conclusions obtained.

  7. A Scopus-based examination of tobacco use publications in Middle Eastern Arab countries during the period 2003-2012.

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    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat

    2014-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main health-care problem in the world. Evaluation of scientific output in the field of tobacco use has been poorly explored in Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries to date, and there are few internationally published reports on research activity in tobacco use. The main objectives of this study were to analyse the research output originating from 13 MEA countries on tobacco fields and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database. Data from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2012 were searched for documents with specific words regarding the tobacco field as 'keywords' in the title in any 1 of the 13 MEA countries. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Five hundred documents were retrieved from 320 peer-reviewed journals. The greatest amount of research activity was from Egypt (25.4%), followed by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (23.2%), Lebanon (16.3%), and Jordan (14.8%). The total number of citations for the 560 documents, at the time of data analysis (27 August 2013), was 5,585, with a mean ± SD of 9.95 ± 22.64 and a median (interquartile range) of 3(1-10). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 34. This study identified 232 (41.4%) documents from 53 countries in MEA-foreign country collaborations. By region, MEA collaborated most often with countries in the Americas (29.6%), followed by countries in the same MEA region (13.4%), especially KSA and Egypt. The present data reveal a promising rise and a good start for research productivity in the tobacco field in the Arab world. Research output is low in some countries, which can be improved by investing in more international and national collaborative research projects in the field of tobacco.

  8. A Scopus-based examination of tobacco use publications in Middle Eastern Arab countries during the period 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is the main health-care problem in the world. Evaluation of scientific output in the field of tobacco use has been poorly explored in Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries to date, and there are few internationally published reports on research activity in tobacco use. The main objectives of this study were to analyse the research output originating from 13 MEA countries on tobacco fields and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database. Methods Data from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2012 were searched for documents with specific words regarding the tobacco field as 'keywords’ in the title in any 1 of the 13 MEA countries. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Results Five hundred documents were retrieved from 320 peer-reviewed journals. The greatest amount of research activity was from Egypt (25.4%), followed by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (23.2%), Lebanon (16.3%), and Jordan (14.8%). The total number of citations for the 560 documents, at the time of data analysis (27 August 2013), was 5,585, with a mean ± SD of 9.95 ± 22.64 and a median (interquartile range) of 3(1–10). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 34. This study identified 232 (41.4%) documents from 53 countries in MEA-foreign country collaborations. By region, MEA collaborated most often with countries in the Americas (29.6%), followed by countries in the same MEA region (13.4%), especially KSA and Egypt. Conclusions The present data reveal a promising rise and a good start for research productivity in the tobacco field in the Arab world. Research output is low in some countries, which can be improved by investing in more international and national collaborative research projects in the field of tobacco. PMID:24885706

  9. Evaluation of a health setting-based stigma intervention in five African countries.

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    Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Naidoo, Joanne; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L

    2009-12-01

    The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated.

  10. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

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    Lee-Jones Louise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors

  11. Transversal analysis of public policies on user fees exemptions in six West African countries

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    Ridde Valéry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more and more West African countries are implementing public user fees exemption policies, there is still little knowledge available on this topic. The long time required for scientific production, combined with the needs of decision-makers, led to the creation in 2010 of a project to support implementers in aggregating knowledge on their experiences. This article presents a transversal analysis of user fees exemption policies implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Togo and Senegal. Methods This was a multiple case study with several embedded levels of analysis. The cases were public user fees exemption policies selected by the participants because of their instructive value. The data used in the countries were taken from documentary analysis, interviews and questionnaires. The transversal analysis was based on a framework for studying five implementation components and five actors’ attitudes usually encountered in these policies. Results The analysis of the implementation components revealed: a majority of State financing; maintenance of centrally organized financing; a multiplicity of reimbursement methods; reimbursement delays and/or stock shortages; almost no implementation guides; a lack of support measures; communication plans that were rarely carried out, funded or renewed; health workers who were given general information but not details; poorly informed populations; almost no evaluation systems; ineffective and poorly funded coordination systems; low levels of community involvement; and incomplete referral-evacuation systems. With regard to actors’ attitudes, the analysis revealed: objectives that were appreciated by everyone; dissatisfaction with the implementation; specific tensions between healthcare providers and patients; overall satisfaction among patients, but still some problems; the perception that while the financial barrier has been removed, other barriers persist; occasionally a

  12. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

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    Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb Imran; Sabri, Belgacem

    2006-11-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results showed that Afghanistan, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan had experience with outsourcing of primary care services; Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia extensively contracted out hospital and ambulatory care services; while Bahrain, Morocco and the Syrian Arab Republic outsourced mainly non-clinical services. The interest of the non-state sector in contracting was to secure a regular source of revenue and gain enhanced recognition and credibility. While most countries promoted contracting with the private sector, the legal and bureaucratic support in countries varied with the duration of experience with contracting. The inherent risks evident in the contracting process were reliance on donor funds, limited number of providers in rural areas, parties with vested interests gaining control over the contracting process, as well as poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Contracting provides the opportunity to have greater control over private providers in countries with poor regulatory capacity, and if used judiciously can improve health system performance.

  13. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

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    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in informal payments for health care: An assessment of the 'Robin Hood' hypothesis in 33 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankeu, Hyacinthe Tchewonpi; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    In almost all African countries, informal payments are frequently made when accessing health care. Some literature suggests that the informal payment system could lead to quasi-redistribution among patients, with physicians playing a 'Robin Hood' role, subsidizing the poor at the expense of the rich. We empirically tested this assumption with data from the rounds 3 and 5 of the Afrobarometer surveys conducted in 18 and 33 African countries respectively, from 2005 to 2006 for round 3 and from 2011 to 2013 for round 5. In these surveys, nationally representative samples of people aged 18 years or more were randomly selected in each country, with sizes varying between 1048 and 2400 for round 3 and between 1190 and 2407 for round 5. We used the 'normalized' concentration index, the poor/rich gap and the odds ratio to assess the level of inequality in the payment of bribes to access care at the local public health facility and implemented two decomposition techniques to identify the contributors to the observed inequalities. We obtained that: i) the socioeconomic gradient in informal payments is in favor of the rich in almost all countries, indicating a rather regressive system; ii) this is mainly due to the socioeconomic disadvantage itself, to poor/rich differences in supply side factors like lack of medicines, absence of doctors and long waiting times, as well as regional disparities. Although essentially empirical, the paper highlights the need for African health systems to undergo substantial country-specific reforms in order to better protect the worse-off from financial risk when they seek care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. E-health: Determinants, opportunities, challenges and the way forward for countries in the WHO African Region

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    Gatwiri Doris

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of the 58th World Health Assembly resolution on e-health will pose a major challenge for the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO African Region due to lack of information and communications technology (ICT and mass Internet connectivity, compounded by a paucity of ICT-related knowledge and skills. The key objectives of this article are to: (i explore the key determinants of personal computers (PCs, telephone mainline and cellular and Internet penetration/connectivity in the African Region; and (ii to propose actions needed to create an enabling environment for e-health services growth and utilization in the Region. Methods The effects of school enrolment, per capita income and governance variables on the number of PCs, telephone mainlines, cellular phone subscribers and Internet users were estimated using a double-log regression model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries that comprise the Region. The data were obtained from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, the World Bank and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU sources. Results There were a number of main findings: (i the adult literacy and total number of Internet users had a statistically significant (at 5% level in a t-distribution test positive effect on the number of PCs in a country; (ii the combined school enrolment rate and per capita income had a statistically significant direct effect on the number of telephone mainlines and cellular telephone subscribers; (iii the regulatory quality had statistically significant negative effect on the number of telephone mainlines; (iv similarly, the combined school enrolment ratio and the number of telephone mainlines had a statistically significant positive relationship with Internet usage; and (v there were major inequalities in ICT connectivity between upper-middle, lower-middle and

  16. Different trends in euthanasia acceptance across Europe. A study of 13 western and 10 central and eastern European countries, 1981-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    We examined how acceptance of euthanasia among the general public has changed between 1981 and 2008 in western and central and eastern European (CEE) countries using data of the European Values Surveys. Data were collected in 1981, 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 13 western European countries and in 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 10 CEE countries. Euthanasia acceptance increased each decade up until 2008 in 11 of 13 western European countries; in CEE countries, it decreased or did not increase between 1999-2008 in 8 of 10 countries. A number of explanations for and implications of this apparent east-west polarization are suggested.

  17. A Comparative Study on Changes in the Spatial Industry Agglomeration in Eastern EU Developing Countries: Romania vs. Bulgaria

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    Madalina-Stefania Dirzu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking a closer look at the spatial distribution of industrial sectors, it becomes quite obvious that there is an increasing disposition for industries to concentrate in certain regions in order to benefit of agglomeration assets. In this context, we consider necessary to analyze how industrial agglomerations have evolved over time and to what extent major transformations have affected agglomeration phenomenon in lagging regions of Eastern countries, finally our paper bringing supportive evidence from Romania and Bulgaria. To what extent, have patterns of industrial agglomeration modified during the transition period? Has relocation of economic activities taken place? What are the main determinants of industrial concentration patterns? These are some crucial questions that we try to find a realistic response through the present paper. Eastern economies are notably challenging from this point of view because they experienced several decades long economic development period which was earmarked by socialist industrialization. Under the planned economy, these countries have faced more barriers to an efficient geographical allocation of economic activities across regions than their peers in the Western Europe especially because they faced the legacy of a planned economy system that determined locations for economic activities based on political decisions, not based on economic efficiency. Thus, our effort can be seen as a contribution to knowledge about agglomeration in the non-Western countries in general, and in developing regions in particular. Focusing our study on two-digit industrial sectors of 14 regions at NUTS2 level, this paper aims to identify and explain the changes regarding the evolution of industrial agglomerations in the last years across Romania compared to Bulgaria. In the end, our analysis will be able to conclude in what manner the effects of transition period influenced the patterns of industrial agglomeration in these two

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Initiatives and Adaptation Measures To Climate Change Undertaken in Poland and Eastern EU Countries

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    Michalak Dorota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the greatest contemporary threats to our planet’s environmental, social and economic condition. It is accompanied by massive changes in life support systems on Earth, where its far‑reaching effects will be felt in the upcoming decades. The development of a national adaptation policy (strategy and/or plan serves as an instrument that provides the necessary framework for adaptation by coordinating the consideration of climate change across relevant sectors, geographical scales, and levels of decision making. The purpose of this paper is to compare the degree of influence of climate change on the economy of the Eastern European Union and compare national strategies for adaptation to climate change in selected countries of Western Europe and Poland. The study shows that countries bearing the brunt of the negative impacts of climate change are Cyprus, Malta, Bulgaria and Poland. These countries recorded the highest climate change index, the greatest losses in terms of estimated GDP, household welfare, land losses, and lower incomes in the agricultural and tourism sectors. With appropriate adaptation measures, countries such as Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia can take advantage of the future changes in weather conditions. A shift in the productivity of the agricultural sector and tourism from south to north can be noted.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

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    Akiko Yokoyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1 capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2 relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3 relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs. Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs, the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106

  20. Consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents: a multi-national comparison of eleven countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ani, M F; Al Subhi, L K; Bose, S

    2016-03-28

    Regional cross-country profile of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is lacking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). This study examines the prevalence and differences of consuming F&V ≥5 times/d among adolescents in eleven EMR countries, and also describes differences in the proportions of taking F&V ≥5 times/d by sex, age and BMI. The study included 26 328 school adolescents (13-15 years) with complete data on consumption of F&V, age, sex, weight and height taken from the Global School-based Student Health Survey conducted in the EMR between 2005 and 2009. Overall, only 19·4 % of adolescents reported consuming F&V ≥5 times/d. The highest prevalence was reported in Djibouti (40·4 %) and the lowest was reported in Pakistan (10·0 %). Statistically significant differences in prevalence were observed across countries (P<0·05). With the exception of Oman, Libya and Djibouti, significantly more males than females ate F&V ≥5 times/d. Proportion of students consuming F&V ≥5 times/d also varied significantly in all counties based on BMI (P<0·0001), with students within normal BMI having the highest frequency. A negative trend was observed between age and the prevalence of taking F&V ≥5 times/d in most of the eleven EMR countries but Jordan, Djibouti and Morocco. The prevalence of adequate intake of F&V was low in the eleven EMR countries. There is a need for interventions to increase the prevalence of adolescents consuming F&V ≥5 times/d. Interventions should take into consideration psychosocial, environmental and socio-environmental factors influencing F&V intake within countries.

  1. Population structure of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa from West and Central African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Cholley

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA has a non-clonal, epidemic population with a few widely distributed and frequently encountered sequence types (STs called 'high-risk clusters'. Clinical P. aeruginosa (clinPA has been studied in all inhabited continents excepted in Africa, where a very few isolates have been analyzed. Here, we characterized a collection of clinPA isolates from four countries of West and Central Africa.184 non-redundant isolates of clinPA from hospitals of Senegal, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, and Central African Republic were genotyped by MLST. We assessed their resistance level to antibiotics by agar diffusion and identified the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs by sequencing. The population structure of the species was determined by a nucleotide-based analysis of the entire PA MLST database and further localized on the phylogenetic tree (i the sequence types (STs of the present collection, (ii the STs by continents, (iii ESBL- and MBL-producing STs from the MLST database.We found 80 distinct STs, of which 24 had no relationship with any known STs. 'High-risk' international clonal complexes (CC155, CC244, CC235 were frequently found in West and Central Africa. The five VIM-2-producing isolates belonged to CC233 and CC244. GES-1 and GES-9 enzymes were produced by one CC235 and one ST1469 isolate, respectively. We showed the spread of 'high-risk' international clonal complexes, often described as multidrug-resistant on other continents, with a fully susceptible phenotype. The MBL- and ESBL-producing STs were scattered throughout the phylogenetic tree and our data suggest a poor association between a continent and a specific phylogroup.ESBL- and MBL-encoding genes are borne by both successful international clonal complexes and distinct local STs in clinPA of West and Central Africa. Furthermore, our data suggest that the spread of a ST could be either due to its antibiotic resistance or to features

  2. Distribution and clinal trends of the ABO and Rh genes in select Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSuhaibani, E S; Kizilbash, N A; Afshan, K; Malik, S

    2015-09-09

    An understanding of the ABO and Rh blood group systems is important for blood transfusions and is also pertinent due to their potential association with certain morbidities and susceptibilities to infections. To investigate the diversity and differentiation of the ABO and Rh loci in Middle Eastern populations, data from twelve representative Middle Eastern populations were analyzed. Six populations were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the ABO locus. The pooled heterozygosity at both loci was calculated to be highest in the sample from Jordan and lowest in Bahrain. Heterogeneity was pronounced in the Northern compared to the Southern Middle Eastern populations. Overall, the absolute gene diversity was 0.0046 and gene differentiation was calculated to be 0.0100. Genetic diversity of the studied loci across all populations (HT) was estimated to be 0.4594, while the diversity within the populations (HS) was 0.4548. Nei's genetic distance analyses revealed highest affinities between the populations of Kuwait and Qatar, Oman and Yemen, and between Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. These results were displayed through a UGPMA dendrogram and principal component analyses, which established clustering of certain populations. Clinal trends of the allelic systems were observed by generating contour maps that allow a detailed appreciation of the distributions of alleles across the geography of the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East. Taken together, these analyses are helpful in understanding the differentiation of blood group loci and for designing prospective studies for establishing the associations of these loci with health variables in the populations studied.

  3. Congratulations on the 50th Anniversary of the Beginning of Diplomatic Relations between China and African Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the beginning of diplomatic relations between China and African countries. Over the past half a century, with the joint efforts by the leaders and peoples of China and Africa, the friendship between China and Africa has been increasingly consolidated and the relations between the two sides have grown to a new high. In November this year, the Beijing Summit and the Third Ministerial Meeting of the China-Africa Cooperation Forum will be held in Beijing to discuss the further strengthening of the relations and cooperation between China and Africa. To commemorate these historic events, the current issue of this Journal is bringing out four articles with regard to Sino-African relations and the situation in Africa to share with our readers.

  4. Review of national research ethics regulations and guidelines in Middle Eastern Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alahmad Ghiath

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research ethics guidelines are essential for conducting medical research. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to establish national clinical research documents in the countries of the Middle East. This article analyzes these documents. Methods Thirteen Arab countries in the Middle East were explored for available national codes, regulations, and guidelines concerning research ethics, and 10 documents from eight countries were found. We studied these documents, considering the ethical principles stated in the Declaration of Helsinki, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS guidelines, and the International Conference of Harmonization - Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP. Our paper comprises a complete list of protections, such as confidentiality, informed consent, ethics committees, and others. Results This study found different levels and kinds of research ethics regulations and guidelines in the countries examined. Two groups can be distinguished: the countries in the first group have one or more research ethics regulations or guidelines, while the countries in the second group have not yet established any. Most of the documents showed various degrees of deficiencies in regard to ethical protection. The majority of the documents that were examined refer to one or more international documents on biomedical research ethics. Conclusions Recently, a lot of efforts have been made in many countries in the Middle East. However, compared with international documents, most of the research ethics documents in use in this region demonstrate numerous deficiencies. As it relates to these documents, extensive differences could be observed in regard to development, structure, content, and reference to international guidelines.

  5. The peculiarities of trade specialization in creative industries in the Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika CHALA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of dynamic processes of creative economy development and resistance to the crisis of modern creative industries which occurs mainly in metropolitan areas, the interest in understanding these local processes as a factor of bringing international trade competitiveness and providing convergence among the countries where those metropolises are situated is of great value. The EU, and Central and East Europe (CEE in particular, is not an exception. This paper reveals the most productive creative industries in the EU; fins out the impact of metropolises’ creative activities development on countries’ international specialization. Perspective products’ and geographic patterns relating creative products’ international specialization for CEE countries, especially for those which have recently signed association agreements with the EU (Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia as an important East Neighbour for the EU are grounded. Using inter- and intra-trading estimations, the positioning of CEE countries in the EU 28(+3 international specialization pattern is indicated. The product specialization of metropolises in CEE countries which may (or may not contribute to further internationalization of creative industries in these countries has been revealed in the article.

  6. Impact of financial liberalization on banking sectors performance from central and eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andries, Alin Marius; Capraru, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the impact of financial liberalization and reforms on the banking performance in 17 countries from CEE for the period 2004-2008 using a two-stage empirical model that involves estimating bank performance in the first stage and assessing its determinants in the second one. From our analysis it results that banks from CEE countries with higher level of liberalization and openness are able to increase cost efficiency and eventually to offer cheaper services to clients. Banks from non-member EU countries are less cost efficient but experienced much higher total productivity growth level, and large sized banks are much more cost efficient than medium and small banks, while small sized banks show the highest growth in terms of productivity.

  7. Impact of financial liberalization on banking sectors performance from central and eastern European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Marius Andries

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the impact of financial liberalization and reforms on the banking performance in 17 countries from CEE for the period 2004-2008 using a two-stage empirical model that involves estimating bank performance in the first stage and assessing its determinants in the second one. From our analysis it results that banks from CEE countries with higher level of liberalization and openness are able to increase cost efficiency and eventually to offer cheaper services to clients. Banks from non-member EU countries are less cost efficient but experienced much higher total productivity growth level, and large sized banks are much more cost efficient than medium and small banks, while small sized banks show the highest growth in terms of productivity.

  8. Viewls - Possibilities and performance of international biofuel trade from CEEC to WEC[Central and Eastern European Countries; Western European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zeebroeck, B. van [Transport and Mobility Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Falkenberg, D.; Hein, M.; Schroeder, G.; Thraen, D.; Weber, M. [Inst. of Energy and Environment, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-05-13

    The EU has set high targets to increase the use of renewable energy sources from which a large part has to come from biomass. To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed, which requires large areas of land in the EU for energy crop production. However, the availability of good land for energy crop production is limited in Western European countries (WEC). This means that the potential from indigenous biomass resources is not sufficient to meet the set bioenergy targets. At the same time, the expansion of the EU and the inclusion of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) in agricultural and energy EU policies create potential difficulties as well as opportunities. Agriculture plays an important role in the CEEC furthermore, the share of agricultural employment is still large. In the future rationalization of the current agriculture in the CEEC is expected. This will lead to increased productivity and economic performance. On the other hand, unemployment and an increase in abandoned land are expected as well. A study of the technical biomass production potentials in the CEEC shows that in some scenarios the biomass production potential exceeds the current final energy consumption on a country level. The main objectives of this study are: 1) Define the critical factors to set up a stable international biofuel trade between CEEC and WEC, 2) Estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered in the WEC from the CEEC, 3) Analyze the regional differences in cost performance of the energy carriers in the CEEC. (BA)

  9. Dynamics of Techonology Upgrading of the Central and Eastern Europe Countries in a Comparative Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, Björn; Lacasa, Iciar Dominguez; Radosevic, Slavo

    in the upgrading process indicators measure technological knowledge sourcing across countries and interactions between foreign and indigenous actors. Based on 7 patent indicators covering the three upgrading dimensions the comparative analysis focuses on EU27 and its subregions and on the BRICS countries...... is within the BRIC pattern (with exception of China which in terms of technology upgrading has de facto delinked from BRICS). In the BRIC context, the CEE characterize very open innovation system with a high share of coinventions and foreign actors exploiting local inventions. This reveals weak...

  10. Breast cancer in South-Eastern European countries since 2000: Rising incidence and decreasing mortality at young and middle ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Nadya; Znaor, Ariana; Agius, Dominic; Eser, Sultan; Sekerija, Mario; Ryzhov, Anton; Primic-Žakelj, Maja; Coebergh, Jan Willem

    2017-09-01

    Marked variations exist in the incidence and mortality trends of major cancers in South-Eastern European (SEE) countries which have now been detailed by age for breast cancer (BC) to seek clues for improvement. We brought together and analysed data from 14 cancer registries (CRs), situated in SEE countries or directly adjacent. Age-standardised rate at world standard (ASRw) and truncated incidence and mortality rates during 2000-2010 by year, and for four age groups, were calculated. Average annual percentage change of rates was estimated using Joinpoint regression. Annual incidence rates increased significantly in countries and age groups, by 2-4% (15-39 years), 2-5% (40-49), 1-4% (50-69) and 1-6% (at 70+). Mortality rates decreased significantly in all age-groups in most countries, but increased up to 5% annually above age 55 in Ukraine, Serbia, Moldova and Cyprus. The BC data quality was evaluated by internationally agreed indicators which appeared suboptimal for Moldova, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Romania. The observed variations of incidence trends reflect the influence of risk factors, as well as levels of early detection activities (screening). While mortality rates were mostly decreasing, probably due to improved cancer care and introduction of more effective systemic treatment regimens, the worrying increasing mortality trends in the 55-plus age groups in some countries have to be addressed by health professionals and policymakers. In order to assess and monitor the effects of cancer control activities in the region, the CRs need substantial investments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Retracted article: Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Nan Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Retraction (http://www.efri.uniri.hr/prikaz.asp?txt_id=7366 This is to notify our respectful reading public that the Editorial Board of the journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business has retracted the following article from publication: “Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries“, by Hsu-Ling Chang, Chi-Wei Su, Meng-Nan Zhu, published in our journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business, 2011, vol. 29 (1, pp. 51-63 and almost concurrently published in the journal Eastern European Economics, 2011, vol. 49 (3, pp. 54-65. Being in contact with Josef C Brada, Professor Emeritus, Editor of the journal Eastern European Economics (EEE, we realized that the paper had been sent to both journals, although first published in the EEE and then in our Journal. According to professor Brada’s and our analysis, the paper published in these two journals is exactly the same, except for minor differences in wording, most likely due to editing the text before publication. The outstanding differences are in the title and the fact that the paper published in our Journal has three authors and in EEE journal has two. Whatsoever, owing to the fact that the article had been sent to both journals almost at the same time, it had been impossible to find out the case during the review procedure. Due to this unpleasant situation, our Editorial Board would like to inform our valuable readers that all the necessary measures to retract the paper from our publication have been undertaken and according to publishing ethical principles, cooperation with the authors of the retracted paper have been stopped. Although, in this case neither EEE nor our Journal had any

  12. Making sense of condoms: social representations in young people’s HIV-related narratives from six African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskell, Kate; Obyerodhyambo, Oby; Stephenson, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Condoms are an essential component of comprehensive efforts to control the HIV epidemic, both for those who know their status and for those who do not. Although young people account for almost half of all new HIV infections, reported condom use among them remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries. In order to inform education and communication efforts to increase condom use, we examined social representations of condoms among young people aged 10–24 in six African countries/regions with diverse HIV prevalence rates: Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. We used a unique data source, namely 11,354 creative ideas contributed from these countries to a continent-wide scriptwriting contest, held from 1st February to 15th April 2005, on the theme of HIV/AIDS. We stratified each country sample by the sex, age (10–14, 15–19, 20–24), and urban/rural location of the author and randomly selected up to 10 narratives for each of the 12 resulting strata, netting a total sample of 586 texts for the six countries. We analyzed the narratives qualitatively using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies. Differences were observed across settings in the prominence accorded to condoms, the assessment of their effectiveness, and certain barriers to and facilitators of their use. Moralization emerged as a key impediment to positive representations of condoms, while humour was an appealing means to normalize them. The social representations in the narratives identify communication needs in and across settings and provide youth-focused ideas and perspectives to inform future intervention efforts. PMID:21388731

  13. Insights Into Central And Eastern European Countries Competitiveness: On The Exposure Of Capital Markets To Exchange Rate Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra HOROBET

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected fluctuations in exchange rates represent a matter of concern for all businesses nowadays as the volatility in exchange rates impacts businesses’ cash flows, revenues and expenses, and eventually is reflected in the company’s risk-return profile. Companies’ exposures to exchange rate risk have considerably increased in the past decades, given the boost in international operations and the continuous diversification of businesses’ activities at the global level. Despite the attention that businesses display to nominal exchange rates changes, it is the real exchange rate that should be of more concern to corporate managers, since they induce changes at the level of the competitiveness of the business. Our paper comparatively analyzes the exposure to changes in the nominal and real exchanges rates of the local currencies that companies from a number of four Central and Eastern European countries (Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic and Poland and investigates the nature of the relationship between stock market performance and exchange rates in the four countries under consideration. We find limited evidence for contemporaneous and asymmetric exposure to nominal and real exchange rate risk in all four countries, but consistent evidence for three to four months lagged exposure.

  14. Substance abuse In Middle Eastern adolescents living in two different countries: spiritual, cultural, family and personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Taha, Asma; Dee, Vivien

    2014-08-01

    It is estimated that the percentage of students using illicit substances by sixth grade has tripled over the last decade not only in developed countries but in developing countries as well probably due to the transition to a more Western society. Although much has been done to understand the mechanisms underlying substance abuse, few studies have been conducted with minority ethnic and religious groups such as Middle Eastern Youth. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether there are differences in factors contributing to substance abuse in adolescents from Lebanon versus the U.S.A. and to decipher the role of spirituality, religion, and culture among other factors that may influence substance abuse. A correlational cross-sectional design was used with adolescents living in two different countries: Los Angeles, California and Beirut, Lebanon. Muslim adolescents had significantly less rates of alcohol and substance use than Christians in both Lebanon and Los Angeles. More years lived in the U.S.A. increases the likelihood of abuse for both Muslims and Christians. Attachment to God and family was negatively associated with substance abuse. These results among others facilitate a better understanding of the influence of culture, religion, family and personal factors on substance abuse. Culturally sensitive interventions could benefit from the findings of this pilot study.

  15. Rural Schools in Developing Countries: A Case of Donon Manga in Eastern Tandjile in Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoutorlengar, Médard; Djangrang, Man-na; Mamgue, Bassinang; Yongsi, H. B. Nguendo; Groza, Octavian

    2014-01-01

    The schools in rural areas in developing countries are often confronted with difficulties which are, in general, related to poverty, the quantitative and qualitative insufficiency of the professionals and the organization. Consequently, every year, the examinations results are unsatisfactory playing on the curriculum and excellence in the…

  16. Rural Schools in Developing Countries: A Case of Donon Manga in Eastern Tandjile in Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoutorlengar, Médard; Djangrang, Man-na; Mamgue, Bassinang; Yongsi, H. B. Nguendo; Groza, Octavian

    2014-01-01

    The schools in rural areas in developing countries are often confronted with difficulties which are, in general, related to poverty, the quantitative and qualitative insufficiency of the professionals and the organization. Consequently, every year, the examinations results are unsatisfactory playing on the curriculum and excellence in the…

  17. Compulsory Purchase in the Transitional Countries of Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Grover

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Until the ending of Communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the objective of compulsory purchase was the achievement of a socialist society in which the ownership of the means of production, including land, was to be collective rather than private. Compulsory purchase legislation and laws on ownership were used to expropriate private property. After 1990 the newly elected democratic governments changed the constitutions to permit and protect private ownership of land. However, compulsory purchase is essential in a market economy to deal with certain aspects of market failure. These include the need to facilitate the provision of collective goods, such as infrastructure and utility networks, and regeneration where the state may need to disrupt a prisoners’ dilemma situation. In spite of their commitment to the inviolability of private property, the transitional economies have had to develop compulsory purchase procedures and means of assessing compensation.

  18. Retail and wholesale buying behaviour for two different food products in six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    functions found between retailers were also found for wholesalers. The most important evaluative criteria used by wholesale buyers are price and financial requirements, quality, reliability of suppliers and marketing support offered. 7. The paper concludes with a discussion of managerial and theoretical...... implications and areas for future research. We propose that in the long term, the best strategy for Danish food exporters is to approach a number of key retailers and establish close relationships with these retailers in order to fulfil their specific requirements. Theoretically, we conclude that retail...... and wholesale buying behaviour in Eastern Europe can be analysed using concepts developed for studying retail buying behaviour in Western Europe. Finally, we believe that further research is needed regarding the importance of individual criteria, the relationship between economic development and the buying...

  19. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Pentz, Stephen; Blacklock, Claire; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    .... The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years...

  20. The seismotectonics of Southeastern Tanzania: Implications for the propagation of the eastern branch of the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2016-04-01

    Seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms in southeastern Tanzania, determined from data recorded on temporary and permanent AfricaArray seismic stations, have been used to investigate the propagation direction of the Eastern branch of the East African Rift System southward from the Northern Tanzania Divergence Zone (NTDZ). Within the NTDZ, the rift zone is defined by three segments, the Eyasi segment to the west, the Manyara segment in the middle, and the Pangani segment to the east. Results show that most of the seismicity (~ 75%) extends to the south of the Manyara segment along the eastern margin of the Tanzania Craton, and at ~ 6-7° S latitude trends to the SE along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate, connecting with a N-S zone of seismicity offshore southern Tanzania and Mozambique. A lesser amount of seismicity (~ 25%) is found extending from the SE corner of the Tanzania Craton at ~ 6-7° S latitude southwards towards Lake Nyasa. This finding supports a model of rift propagation via the Manyara segment to the southeast of the Tanzania Craton along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate. However, given the limited duration of the seismic recordings used in this study, the possibility of another zone of extension developing to the south towards Lake Nyasa (Malawi) cannot be ruled out. Focal mechanisms along the boundary between the Victoria and the Ruvuma microplates and offshore southeastern Tanzania show a combination of normal and strike slip faulting indicating mainly extension with some sinistral motion, consistent with the mapped geologic faults and a clockwise rotation of the Ruvuma microplate.

  1. Strategic challenges in upgrading the population’s health in the transition countries of South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the devastating nineties of the last century a slow but steady improvement of the living conditions in the region of South Eastern Europe (SEE has be observed. However, so far only three countries, i.e. Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia, have managed to ascent to the European Union and only Slovenia has joined the European currency. All others are still struggling with a difficult heritage of inappropriate vertical management structures, overstaffing and outmigration of the well educated young. This résumé applies also to the field of public health where, for example, the old hygienic tradition remained dominant, often maintaining huge laboratory facilities in the institutes of public health and very small numbers of staff being allocated to health promotion and modern participative management. This situation cannot be overcome easily nor in short term. Supported by funds from the German contribution to the European Stability Pact, the Forum for Public Health in South Eastern Europe (FPH-SEE: www.snz.hr/fphsee has established a permanent collaboration between the public health institutions in the region, including foremost the Schools of Public Health (SPH, the National Public Health Associations (PHA and some national Institutes of Public Health (IPH.

  2. Temporal change in functional richness and evenness in the eastern African plio-pleistocene carnivoran guild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Werdelin

    Full Text Available We analyze functional richness and functional evenness of the carnivoran guild in eastern Africa from 3.5 Ma to 1.5 Ma, and compare them to the present day. The data consist of characters of the craniodental apparatus of 76 species of fossil and extant carnivorans, divided into four 0.5 Ma time slices from 3.5 to 1.5 Ma, together with the modern fauna. Focus is on large (>21.5 kg carnivores. Results show that the large carnivore guild has lost nearly 99% of its functional richness since 3.5 Ma, in a process starting prior to 2 Ma. Measurement of functional evenness shows the modern large carnivore guild to be unique in being randomly distributed in morphospace while in all past time slices there is significant clustering of species. The results are analyzed in the light of known changes to climate and environment in eastern Africa. We conclude that climate change is unlikely to explain all of the changes found and suggest that the evolution of early hominins into carnivore niche space, especially the evolution of derived dietary strategies after 2 Ma, played a significant part in the reduction of carnivore functional richness.

  3. Sickle cell disease patients in eastern province of Saudi Arabia suffer less severe acute chest syndrome than patients with African haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Genetic studies suggest that the sickle cell mutation has arisen on at least four separate occasions in Africa and as a fifth independent mutation in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia or India. The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD is essentially similar in these different areas although the frequency and severity of complications may vary between areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of acute chest syndrome (ACS in SCD patients from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in comparison with patients with African haplotypes. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study involving 317 SCD patients who were two years or older, admitted to King Fahad Hospital Hofuf between January-May 2003 for different etiologies. Twenty six patients presented with different causes of ACS; 11 patients presented with different pathologies other than ACS, but had past history of ACS; 280 patients presented with different pathologies and never presented with ACS. Clinical features, CBC, Hb-electrophoresis, G6PD activity, cultures, chest X-ray, arterial oxygen saturation, blood transfusion rates and outcome were studied. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were carried out to evaluate influence on ACS. Comparison between SCD patients with ACS from this study and from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to patients with African haplotypes were carried out, using data reported in the literature. Results : During the period of this study, 37 patients with new or previous episodes of ACS were studied (accounting for 11.67% of admitted SCD patients. Most of the patients with ACS had only one episode, but five patients (13.51% had had episodes or more. One patient died giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 1/26 (3.85%. Comparison of recurrence of ACS and mortality between SCD patients in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to that of patients with African haplotype showed that recurrence is

  4. The constraints to the economic development in the former socialist EU countries from the Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last 25 years, most Central and Eastern European states have become detached from the centralized economy system thus demonstrating the reliability of the market economy. The unequivocal effect of the free market, with ups and downs, forces researchers to undertake increasingly complex economic analysis and further the profile of the new economy. With the accession of a number of countries from this region to the European Union there were some constraints and limitations in adopting the European acquis, whose knowledge and solution involves the use of specific policies and tools. We consider the problems related to the resolution of economic, social and technological discrepancies and gaps, of mitigating the negative impact of unfavourable demographic trends, of elucidating the role of the state amid the erosion of its duties due to the process of integration and globalization, of increasing pressure interdependencies interstate and others.

  5. Monetary Policy and Inflation: Is there a Neo- Fisher Effect? Evidence from Inflation Targeting Countries in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleșcău Ioana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we empirically investigate the influence of the low interest rate environmentadopted by inflation targeting countries from Central and Eastern Europe as a rescue measureafter the outbreak of the financial crisis. Moreover, we focus on examining the existence of a NeoFishereffect that may explain the positive relation between interest rates and inflation, withcausality from interest towards inflation rate. We employ a Vector Autoregressive model, togetherwith an impulse response analysis and a variance decomposition technique, to capture theresponse of economic growth and inflation to shocks to the monetary policy. Our main results pointto a negative relation between policy rates and economic growth, as predicted by the economicliterature. However, results show a significant positive relation between interest rates andinflation, meaning that negative shocks to interest rates lead to lower inflation. Also, we find thatthe response of inflation and economic growth is the same, regardless of the crisis or non-crisisperiod.

  6. A stochastic risk assessment for Eastern Europe and Central Asian countries for earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Schaefer, Andreas; Toro, Joaquin; Murnane, Rick; Tijssen, Annegien; Simpson, Alanna; Saito, Keiko; Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip

    2015-04-01

    This systematic assessment of earthquake risk for 33 countries in the ECA region was motivated by the interest of the World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) in supporting Disaster Risk Management (DRM) efforts. They envisaged an exposure-based analysis that looked at the potential economic and/or social exposure of the populations of various countries to earthquake risk. Using a stochastic earthquake hazard model and historical catalogues, a unified earthquake catalogue was created for the 33 countries. A combined fault and background source model was created using data from many authors. The maximum magnitude and seismotectonic source zone discretization was undertaken using logic tree approaches. Site effects were taken into account on the basis of local topography and tectonic regime. Two approaches were used to calculate local ground motion - intensity prediction equations for MMI and a combination of GMPEs for stable and active settings. A 1km grid was used for analysis with aggregations of exposure quantified in terms of GDP and capital stock using disaggregated provincial analysis from CATDAT, as well as population data from Deltares. Vulnerability functions were calculated using socio-economic empirical functions derived by Daniell (2014) for the countries taking into account historical losses, seismic resistant code implementation and building typologies in each country. PML curves were created for each province in the 33 nations, through 3 methods; the 1st using direct historical values via the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database; the 2nd using normalization procedures in order to provide a quick estimate of the historical record quantified in today's terms filling in gaps; and the 3rd being a traditional stochastic modelling approach over a period of 10,000 years taking all uncertainties into account. SSP projections of growth from the OECD were used to quantify the risk in 2010, 2030 and 2080 in order to examine

  7. Aerosol radiative forcing during African desert dust events (2005-2010) over South-Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, A.; Olmo, F. J.; Lyamani, H.; Antón, M.; Quirantes, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-03-01

    The instantaneous values of the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) at the surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) were calculated during desert dust events occurred at Granada (Southeastern Spain) from 2005 to 2010. For that, the SBDART radiative transfer model was utilized to simulate the global irradiance values (0.3-2.8 μm) at the surface and TOA using as input the aerosol properties derived from a CIMEL sun-photometer measurements and an inversion methodology that uses the sky radiance measurements in principal plane configuration and non-spherical particle shapes approximation. The SBDART modeled global irradiances at surface have been successfully validated against experimental measurements obtained by CM-11 pyranometer, indicating the reliability of the radiative transfer model used in this work for the ARF calculations. The monthly ARF values at surface ranged from -32 W m-2 to -46 W m-2, being larger in April and July than in the rest of months. The seasonal ARF evolution was inconsistent with seasonal aerosol optical depth (AOD) variation due to the effects induced by other aerosol parameter such as the single scattering albedo. The ARF at TOA changed from -9 W m-2 to -29 W m-2. Thus, the atmospheric ARF values (ARF at TOA minus ARF at surface) ranged from +15 to +35 W m-2. These results suggest that the African dust caused local atmospheric heating over the study location. The instantaneous aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (ARFE), aerosol radiative forcing per unit of AOD (440 nm), at surface and TOA during African desert dust events was evaluated according to the desert dust source origins. The ARFE values at surface were relatively high (in absolute term) and were -157 ± 20 (Sector A), -154 ± 23 (Sector B), and -147 ± 23 (Sector C) W m-2. These values were larger than many of the values found in literature which could be due to the presence of more absorbing atmospheric particles during African desert dust intrusions over our study area

  8. Dynamics of Techonology Upgrading of the Central and Eastern Europe Countries in a Comparative Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, Björn; Lacasa, Iciar Dominguez; Radosevic, Slavo

    in the upgrading process indicators measure technological knowledge sourcing across countries and interactions between foreign and indigenous actors. Based on 7 patent indicators covering the three upgrading dimensions the comparative analysis focuses on EU27 and its subregions and on the BRICS countries...... capabilities are often less advanced. The CEE profile is much less coherent in terms of technology diversification/specialization and share of joint inventions. However, differences among CEECs are not significant. Still there are some notable national features. Poland, Romania and Slovenia have above average...... is within the BRIC pattern (with exception of China which in terms of technology upgrading has de facto delinked from BRICS). In the BRIC context, the CEE characterize very open innovation system with a high share of coinventions and foreign actors exploiting local inventions. This reveals weak...

  9. Imported malaria among African immigrants: is there still a relationship between developed countries and their ex-colonies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz José

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to compare cases of imported malaria originating from the Spanish ex-colony of Equatorial Guinea (EG with those originating from the rest of Africa (RA. Methods All the African cases detected in Barcelona between 1989 and 2007 were investigated in a retrospective analysis. Clinical-epidemiological variables such as sex, age, visiting friends and relatives (VFR, species, hospital admission and chemo-prophylaxis were compared. Data were analysed by logistic regression, calculating the Odds Ratio (OR and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI. Results Of the 489 African patients, 279 (57,1% had been born in EG and 210 (42,9% in the rest of Africa. The cumulative incidence of imported malaria among those from EG was 179.6 per thousand inhabitants, while in those from the RA it was 33.7 per thousand (p visiting friends and relatives (VFR category, and more individuals younger than 15 years or older than 37 years, and more women. They also visited a traveller's health centre more often, had fewer hospital admissions and were less likely to reside in the inner city. Conclusion Cases of imported malaria originating in Africa, are more likely to come from the Spanish ex-colony of EG, and VFR are more likely to be affected. It is recommended that developed countries promote prevention programmes, such as CP advice directed at African immigrants, and develop programmes of cooperation against malaria in their ex-colonies.

  10. Oil price and bank performance in the Middle Eastern oil exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kaffash, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University Banks as the most evident financial institutions which provide a range of financial services in their primary role as intermediary from lenders and borrowers of money to sophisticated tools concerned with credit and liquidity provision, risk management and remittance of funds play a vital role in the economy of countries. Measuring the performance of banks, and identifying the factors which im...

  11. African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Abebe

    2002-03-01

    Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

  12. Africa Is Not a Country: Teaching African Culture through Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Africa is made up of fifty-three nations and covers an area greater than the United States, China, Japan, and Europe combined. It is estimated that more than 800 languages are spoken in Africa. Some fifty African languages have more than half a million speakers each, but many others are spoken by relatively few people (Columbia Encyclopedia 2001).…

  13. The future of FDI in south eastern European countries: Messages from new EU member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penev Slavica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the interlinking of inward FDI, EU accession, and transition-related structural reform processes, and identifies the largest lags of SEE-6 countries in EU accession and transition processes, whose removal would have a positive impact on inward FDI. The analysis is based on EBRD Transition Indicators, the World Bank Doing Business Index, and the World Bank Governance Index. We find an obvious correlation of inward FDI, transition, and EU accession processes of NMS-10 countries and claim that SEE-6 countries will broadly follow the same pattern: their relative position as FDI recipients will gradually improve along with the progress of EU accession and transition processes. The analysis identifies the following main gaps of the SEE-6 in these processes: (i in terms of economic system development - enterprise restructuring and governance, and sectoral reforms in energy, infrastructure, capital markets, and private equity; (ii in terms of the governance of economy and society at large - regulatory quality and rule of law; and (iii in terms of the business environment - dealing with construction permits, enforcing contracts, and registering property. Progress in narrowing down these gaps would mean a step forward in EU accession and transition, and consequently an improvement of SEE-6 countries’ positions as locations for inward FDI.

  14. The Impact of Internal Migration on under-Five Mortality in 27 Sub-Saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Renzaho, Andre M N

    2016-01-01

    The literature on the impact of internal migration on under-five mortality in sub-Saharan Africa has been limited. This study examined the impact of internal migration on under-five mortality rate in 27 sub-Saharan African countries. The analysis used cross-sectional data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of 27 sub-Saharan African countries. Information on the number of live births and the number of under-five deaths in the five years preceding the surveys in these countries was examined. Using variables from which migration data were generated, four migration statuses were computed, and the impact of each migration status on under-five mortality was analysed by using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. Of the 96333 live births, 7036 deaths were reported. In the unadjusted model, we found that, compared to urban non-migrant mothers, hazard of under-five mortality was 20% [HR: 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.06–1.35)], 40% [HR: 1.40; 95% CI: (1.29–1.53)], and 43% [HR: 1.43; 95% CI: (1.30–1.58)] higher among urban-rural migrant, rural non-migrant, and rural-urban migrant mothers respectively. The likelihood of children dying did not change considerably when country and demographic variables were adjusted for. However, after controlling for health care service utilization factors, the results remained consistently significant for rurality. That is, mortality rates remained significantly higher among children of rural non-migrant [(HR: 1.20; 95% CI: (1.08–1.33), P-value (p) internal migrant mothers.

  15. Study of the influencing factors of the blood levels of toxic elements in Africans from 16 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Pérez Arellano, José Luis; González-Antuña, Ana; Almeida-González, Maira; Barry-Rodríguez, Carlos; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María

    2017-07-19

    Africa's economy is growing faster than any other continent and it has been estimated that the middle class in Africa now exceeds 350 million people. This has meant a parallel increase in the importation of consumer goods and in the implementation of communication and information technologies (ICT), but also in the generation of large quantities of e-waste. However, inadequate infrastructure development remains a major constraint to the continent's economic growth and these highly toxic residues are not always adequately managed. Few studies have been conducted to date assessing the possible association between socioeconomic development factors, including e-waste generation, and blood levels of inorganic elements in African population. To disclose the role of geographical, anthropogenic, and socioeconomic development determinants on the blood levels of Ag, Al, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and V -all of them frequently found in e-waste-, an immigrant population-based study was made including a total of 245 subjects from 16 countries recently arrived to the Canary Islands (Spain). Women presented higher levels of blood elements than men, and Northern Africans (Moroccans) were the most contaminated. People from low-income countries exhibited significantly lower blood levels of inorganic elements than those from middle-income countries. We found a significant association between the use of motor vehicles and the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT) and the level of contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment, telephone and internet use had higher levels of inorganic elements. In general terms, the higher level of economic development the higher the blood levels of inorganic pollutants, suggesting that the economic development of Africa, in parallel to e-waste generation and the existence of informal recycling sites, have directly affected the level of contamination

  16. Coping, stress and suicide ideation in the South African Police Service in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Meyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between coping and stress on the one hand and suicide ideation among police members on the other. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The study population (N = 307 consisted of uniformed police members in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The COPE, Police Stress Inventory, Adult Suicide Ideation Questionnaire and a Biographical Questionnaire were used as measuring instruments. The results showed that passive coping strategies are related to suicide ideation. A discriminant analysis showed that suicide attempt, passive coping strategies, medical conditions, use of alcohol, problem-focused coping strategies and police-specific demands correctly classified 64.29 per cent of participants who scored high on suicide ideation.

  17. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen, North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared. Results The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from $1.8 to $4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%. G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%. G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected. Conclusions RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.

  18. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: inferring the environmental context of human evolution from eastern African rift lake deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A.; Campisano, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Asrat, A.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A.; Feibel, C.; Hill, A.; Johnson, R.; Kingston, J.; Lamb, H.; Lowenstein, T.; Noren, A.; Olago, D.; Owen, R. B.; Potts, R.; Reed, K.; Renaut, R.; Schäbitz, F.; Tiercelin, J.-J.; Trauth, M. H.; Wynn, J.; Ivory, S.; Brady, K.; O'Grady, R.; Rodysill, J.; Githiri, J.; Russell, J.; Foerster, V.; Dommain, R.; Rucina, S.; Deocampo, D.; Russell, J.; Billingsley, A.; Beck, C.; Dorenbeck, G.; Dullo, L.; Feary, D.; Garello, D.; Gromig, R.; Johnson, T.; Junginger, A.; Karanja, M.; Kimburi, E.; Mbuthia, A.; McCartney, T.; McNulty, E.; Muiruri, V.; Nambiro, E.; Negash, E. W.; Njagi, D.; Wilson, J. N.; Rabideaux, N.; Raub, T.; Sier, M. J.; Smith, P.; Urban, J.; Warren, M.; Yadeta, M.; Yost, C.; Zinaye, B.

    2016-02-01

    The role that climate and environmental history may have played in influencing human evolution has been the focus of considerable interest and controversy among paleoanthropologists for decades. Prior attempts to understand the environmental history side of this equation have centered around the study of outcrop sediments and fossils adjacent to where fossil hominins (ancestors or close relatives of modern humans) are found, or from the study of deep sea drill cores. However, outcrop sediments are often highly weathered and thus are unsuitable for some types of paleoclimatic records, and deep sea core records come from long distances away from the actual fossil and stone tool remains. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) was developed to address these issues. The project has focused its efforts on the eastern African Rift Valley, where much of the evidence for early hominins has been recovered. We have collected about 2 km of sediment drill core from six basins in Kenya and Ethiopia, in lake deposits immediately adjacent to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites. Collectively these cores cover in time many of the key transitions and critical intervals in human evolutionary history over the last 4 Ma, such as the earliest stone tools, the origin of our own genus Homo, and the earliest anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Here we document the initial field, physical property, and core description results of the 2012-2014 HSPDP coring campaign.

  19. [Health Communication: Preventing the Spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the Portuguese Spoken African Countries--Methodology KISS & KEYWORDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards.

  20. The Analysis of the Real Convergence of the Countries from Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Badircea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This thesis treats extremely present aspects regarding the evolutions of the emerging economies within the new member states of the European Union insisting on the analysis of the convergence process from a real perspective. Beside the achievement of a monetary union, one of the fundamental objectives of the European Union is represented by the reducing of the disparities regarding the level of development among the member states. One of the ways of appreciating the reduction of the disparities between the economies involve a reduction of the gap as far as the GDP level/inhabitant is concerned or in other words, a real convergence. A series of statistic data are analysed in order to point out the extent to which the central ad East-European states have managed to reduce the gap in report to the developed member states of the EMU, using indicators for the appreciation of the real convergence: the GDP per inhabitant, the monthly average salary, the poverty rate, the contribution of the main sectors of the economy in the formation of the GDP and the unemployment rate. From the analysis of the statistic data one can observe that the highest degree of real convergence is held by Slovenia, which distanced a lot from the other EEC states, followed by the Czech Republic. Regarding from the point of view of the evolution of the EEC countries during the entire analysed period, based on the dynamics of the indicators and of the speed of catching up the gaps we can also notice the performance of the Baltic countries. Unfortunately, Romania and Bulgaria are way behind the other EEC countries.

  1. Price-Quality Competition in the Exports of the Central and Eastern European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2000-01-01

    In the decade since the fall of the Berlin Wall the number of CEEC products able to compete in export markets has steadily increased. The quality level of these products still lags substantially behind that of EU products, however. The quality level of new CEEC products coming into the markeet is......, in fact, lower than that of older surviving products, indicating that the CEEC countries are increasingly specialising in price-sensitive sectors. The following article uses the concept of unit value to analyse the changes in the price-quality competitiviness of CEEC exports....

  2. Price-Quality Competition in the Exports of the Central and Eastern European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2000-01-01

    In the decade since the fall of the Berlin Wall the number of CEEC products able to compete in export markets has steadily increased. The quality level of these products still lags substantially behind that of EU products, however. The quality level of new CEEC products coming into the markeet is......, in fact, lower than that of older surviving products, indicating that the CEEC countries are increasingly specialising in price-sensitive sectors. The following article uses the concept of unit value to analyse the changes in the price-quality competitiviness of CEEC exports....

  3. ENDOGENOUS DETERMINANTS OF INVESTMENTS IN FARMS OF SELECTED COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify endogenous factors that determine the level of investment in farms of economic size over 16 ESU in selected CEE countries belonging to the European Union. The empirical material were data from Farm Accountancy Data Network FADN for the years 2004-2009. Analysis of endogenous factors determining investment activity farms showed that the positive effect depends on the level of executed investment economic situation of agricultural holdings, especially the level of generated net farm income and profitability of agricultural production and the level of farm support under the agricultural policy of the European Union.

  4. Western-Style Fast Food Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in an Eastern Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D.; Pereira, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Western-style fast food contributes to a dietary pattern portending poor cardiometabolic health in the United States. With globalization, this way of eating is becoming more common in developing and recently developed populations. Methods and Results We examined the association of Western-style fast food intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality in Chinese Singaporeans. This analysis included men and women 45 to 74 years of age who enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998. For CHD mortality, 52 584 participants were included and 1397 deaths were identified through December 31, 2009, via registry linkage. For type 2 diabetes mellitus, 43 176 participants were included and 2252 cases were identified during the follow-up interview (1999 –2004) and validated. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality were estimated with thorough adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fast food items (≥2 times per week) had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.54) and dying of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 –2.06) relative to their peers with little or no reported intake. These associations were not materially altered by adjustments for overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and body mass index. Conclusions Western-style fast food intake is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and of coronary heart disease mortality in an Eastern population. These findings suggest the need for further attention to global dietary acculturation in the context of ongoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions. PMID:22753304

  5. Immigrant Integration policies and perceived Group Threat: A Multilevel Study of 27 Western and Eastern European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Elmar; Meuleman, Bart; Davidov, Eldad

    2013-05-01

    Although immigrant integration policies have long been hypothesized to be associated with majority members' anti-immigrant sentiments, systematic empirical research exploring this relationship is largely absent. To address this gap in the literature, the present research takes a cross-national perspective. Drawing from theory and research on group conflict and intergroup norms, we conduct two studies to examine whether preexisting integration policies that are more permissive promote or impede majority group members' subsequent negative attitudes regarding immigrants. For several Western and Eastern European countries, we link country-level information on immigrant integration policies from 2006 with individual-level survey data from the Eurobarometer 71.3 collected in 2009 (Study 1) and from the fourth wave of the European Value Study collected between 2008 and 2009 (Study 2). For both studies, the results from multilevel regression models demonstrate that immigrant integration policies that are more permissive are associated with decreased perceptions of group threat from immigrants. These findings suggest that immigrant integration policies are of key importance in improving majority members' attitudes regarding immigrants, which is widely considered desirable in modern immigrant-receiving societies.

  6. Multivariate Granger causality between electricity consumption, exports and GDP. Evidence from a panel of Middle Eastern countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Smyth, Russell [School of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Deakin University (Australia); Department of Economics, Monash University, 900 Dandenong Road, Caulfield East, Vic. 3145 (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    This paper examines the causal relationship between electricity consumption, exports and gross domestic product (GDP) for a panel of Middle Eastern countries. We find that for the panel as a whole there are statistically significant feedback effects between these variables. A 1 per cent increase in electricity consumption increases GDP by 0.04 per cent, a 1 per cent increase in exports increases GDP by 0.17 per cent and a 1 per cent increase in GDP generates a 0.95 per cent increase in electricity consumption. The policy implications are that for the panel as a whole these countries should invest in electricity infrastructure and step up electricity conservation policies to avoid a reduction in electricity consumption adversely affecting economic growth. Further policy implications are that for the panel as a whole promoting exports, particularly non-oil exports, is a means to promote economic growth and that expansion of exports can be realized without having adverse effects on energy conservation policies. (author)

  7. Multivariate granger causality between electricity consumption, exports and GDP: Evidence from a panel of Middle Eastern countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Smyth, Russell, E-mail: Russell.Smyth@BusEco.monash.edu.au

    2009-01-15

    This paper examines the causal relationship between electricity consumption, exports and gross domestic product (GDP) for a panel of Middle Eastern countries. We find that for the panel as a whole there are statistically significant feedback effects between these variables. A 1 per cent increase in electricity consumption increases GDP by 0.04 per cent, a 1 per cent increase in exports increases GDP by 0.17 per cent and a 1 per cent increase in GDP generates a 0.95 per cent increase in electricity consumption. The policy implications are that for the panel as a whole these countries should invest in electricity infrastructure and step up electricity conservation policies to avoid a reduction in electricity consumption adversely affecting economic growth. Further policy implications are that for the panel as a whole promoting exports, particularly non-oil exports, is a means to promote economic growth and that expansion of exports can be realized without having adverse effects on energy conservation policies.

  8. Central and Eastern European countries between the 16+1 platform and Chinese OBOR - One Belt, One Road - Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cornel Dumitrescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the projects and the initiatives of the Central and Eastern European countries that have been finalised, are in progress or will be developed in the near future with the help of the existing or future financial instruments specific to the 16+1 platform and the One Belt, One Road complex program. For our research we selected four countries, namely: Poland, Romania, Serbia and Hungary, the group being relevant from the perspective of the transportation corridors connected to the ”One Belt, One Road” initiative: (1 - Piraeus, Skopje, Belgrade, Budapest, Western Europe; (2 - Suez Canal, Constanta and then Danube, Western Europe, or through Moldova towards Ukraine and Poland; (3 – Constanta, through the Black Sea and Caspian Sea and then the corridors mentioned at the previous point. We based our analysis on the data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, China-CEEC think-tank network and the literature in the field.

  9. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  10. Budget impact analysis of biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in six Central and Eastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Brodszky, Valentin; Baji, Petra; Balogh, Orsolya; Péntek, Márta

    2014-01-01

    The first biosimilar monoclonal antibody (infliximab, CT-P13) was registered by the European Medicines Agency in 2013 for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Biosimilar infliximab is first being marketed in the Central and Eastern European countries. This paper presents the estimated budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar infliximab in RA over a 3-year time period in six selected countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary...

  11. International Gold Market, Stock Market and Business Cycles: the Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Chirila

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During theeconomic recession periods, gold investments seem to become very importantbecause gold is considered a means to preserve the investment value. Gold has also maintained thisfeature during the financial and economic crisis that occurred at the end of theyear 2007. Althoughthe inflation rate has recorded significant increases, the investment in gold has kept its value becausethe price of gold has increased. After the beginning of the financial and economic crisis the price ofgold has also recorded a significant increase in volatility. The aims of this study focus on thecomparative analysis of the gold price cycles and the stock market cycles in the Central and EastEurope as well as the determination of the return of gold investment on the return and risk of stockmarkets in these countries. The results obtained confirm that both the return and the risk in some ofthe stock markets under analysis are influenced by the return of gold investment.

  12. Comparing HIV-related symbolic stigma in six African countries: social representations in young people’s narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskell, Kate; Hill, Elizabeth; Obyerodhyambo, Oby

    2011-01-01

    HIV-related symbolic stigma arises from moralistic value judgements attached to people living with HIV and has negative consequences from both public health and human rights perspectives. Relatively little is known about cross-national variation in symbolic stigma. With the purpose of informing stigma reduction efforts within and across settings, we compared social representations of HIV in six African countries with estimated adult HIV prevalence rates ranging from 1 to 33%. Our study used a unique data source, namely a stratified random sample (n=586, ~5%) from 11,354 creative ideas contributed from six countries to a continent-wide HIV-related scriptwriting contest held between February and April2005. The narratives were written by equal numbers of males and females aged 10–24 in urban and rural areas of Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Senegal. We combined three analytical approaches: descriptive statistics on certain quantifiable characteristics of the narratives, thematic data analysis, and a narrative-based approach. The association of HIV with outsiders (“othering”)and preoccupation with the circumstances of infection are more common in lower prevalence countries but vary substantially in tone depending on the sociocultural context. The highest proportion both of moralising narratives and of narratives with pessimistic outcomes come from South-East Nigeria and, to a lesser extent, from Kenya, countries with prevalence levels of 3.9 and 6.1% respectively, in which evangelical Christian movements, including Pentecostalism, have sizeable followings. The data provide a rare cross-cultural overview of symbolic stigma, identify country-specific needs, and point to strategies for future programming. Social representations from the highest prevalence countries, Swaziland and Namibia, and from lower prevalence Burkina Faso offer potential models for the framing of HIV in ways that serve to increase social proximity and counteract

  13. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR. The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Methods Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers’ abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Conclusion Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of

  14. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana; Jaafar, Maha

    2012-05-06

    Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers' abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of opportunity for moving towards more evidence informed policymaking.

  15. Evaluation of multiple measures of antiretroviral adherence in the Eastern European country of Georgia

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    Nikoloz Chkhartishvili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is little information on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART in the Eastern European region. This prospective study evaluated multiple measures of adherence and their association with viral suppression among HIV patients in Georgia. Methods: A prospective cohort study enrolled 100 consecutive antiretroviral-naïve adult (age ≥18 years patients, who were followed for three months. Adherence was assessed by medication refill and three self-report measures (an AIDS Clinical Trial Group [ACTG] tool for four-day adherence, a visual analogue scale [VAS] and a rating task for 30-day adherence. The VAS represented a line anchored by 0 and 100% corresponding to the percentage of prescribed doses taken. The rating task asked patients to rate their ability to take all medications as prescribed, with responses categorized into six levels of adherence: very poor (0%, poor (20%, fair (40%, good (60%, very good (80% and excellent (100%. Patients with adherence of ≥95% by medication refill, ACTG and VAS, and ≥80% by rating task, were defined as adherent. Results: Of 100 patients enrolled, eight had missing data and were excluded from analysis. Among the remaining 92 patients, the median age was 39 years, and 70% were men. Major modes of HIV acquisition were injection drug use (IDU; 47.3% and heterosexual contact (44.1%. The proportions of adherent patients were as follows: 68% by medication refill, 90% by ACTG questionnaire, 38% by VAS and 42% by rating task. On average, four months after commencing ART, 52 (56.5% patients had a viral load <400 copies/ml and 26 (28.3% patients had a viral load <50 copies/ml. Of 43 persons with a history of IDU, 22 (51.2% reached a viral load of <400 copies/ml. In multivariate analysis, only refill adherence was a statistically significant predictor of viral suppression of <400 copies/ml: the risk ratio was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1–2.8. Refill adherence, VAS and rating task were associated with viral

  16. TRUST, CORRUPTION, BRIBES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Iolanda Voda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the Western world has drawn on theoretical structures of classical and neoclassical liberalism for its explanatory support and sources of inspiration for centuries. Against this ideological background, institutionalists aim at showing that growth is a process of transformation, a double change: an economic and an institutional one. In this analysis, our purpose is to highlight the importance of informal institutional arrangements and their quality in explaining the disparities of revenues and developments between countries. In our approach, we will consider several indicators meant to highlight various aspects of research. The approach proposed is a transversal-comparative one and static methods pertain to uni- and multivariate analysis. The results obtained suggest the existence of major differences within the Central and East European area as far as informal institutions are concerned; moreover, the analysis conducted confirms the existence of a significant relation between the level of development and the structure of informal arrangements such as: trust level, bribe culture and corruption control.

  17. Smallholder farms in eastern African tropical highlands have low soil greenhouse gas fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, David; Rufino, Mariana; Rosenstock, Todd; Mango, Joash; Saiz, Gustavo; Diaz-Pines, Eugenio; Baldi, German; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Few field studies examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African agricultural systems, resulting in high uncertainty for national inventories. This lack of data is particularly noticeable in smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa, where low inputs are often correlated with low yields, often resulting in food insecurity as well. We provide the most comprehensive study in Africa to date, examining annual soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from 59 smallholder plots across different vegetation types, field types and land classes in western Kenya. The study area consists of a lowland area (approximately 1200 m a.s.l.) rising approximately 600 m to a highland plateau. Cumulative annual fluxes ranged from 2.8 to 15.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1, -6.0 to 2.4 kg CH4-C ha-1 and -0.1 to 1.8 kg N2O-N ha-1. Management intensity of the plots did not result in differences in annual GHG fluxes measured (P = 0.46, 0.14 and 0.67 for CO2, CH4 and N2O respectively). The similar emissions were likely related to low fertilizer input rates (≤ 20 kg N ha-1). Grazing plots had the highest CO2 fluxes (P = 0.005), treed plots (plantations) were a larger CH4 sink than grazing plots (P = 0.05), while soil N2O emissions were similar across vegetation types (P = 0.59). This study is likely representative for low fertilizer input, smallholder systems across sub-Saharan Africa, providing critical data for estimating regional or continental GHG inventories. Low crop yields, likely due to low fertilization inputs, resulted in high (up to 67 g N2O-N kg-1 aboveground N uptake) yield-scaled emissions. Improvement of crop production through better water and nutrient management might therefore be an important tool in increasing food security in the region while reducing the climate footprint per unit of food produced.

  18. Constraints to Applying Systems Thinking Concepts in Health Systems: A Regional Perspective from Surveying Stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi El-Jardali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Systems Thinking (ST has recently been promoted as an important approach to health systems strengthening. However, ST is not common practice, particularly in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs. This paper seeks to explore the barriers that may hinder its application in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR and possible strategies to mitigate them. Methods A survey consisting of open-ended questions was conducted with a purposive sample of health policymakers such as senior officials from the Ministry of Health (MoH, researchers, and other stakeholders such as civil society groups and professional associations from ten countries in the region. A total of 62 respondents participated in the study. Thematic analysis was conducted. Results There was strong recognition of the relevance and usefulness of ST to health systems policy-making and research, although misconceptions about what ST means were also identified. Experience with applying ST was very limited. Approaches to designing health policies in the EMR were perceived as reactive and fragmented (66%. Commonly perceived constraints to application of ST were: a perceived notion of its costliness combined with lack of the necessary funding to operationalize it (53%, competing political interests and lack of government accountability (50%, lack of awareness about relevance and value (47%, limited capacity to apply it (45%, and difficulty in coordinating and managing stakeholders (39%. Conclusion While several strategies have been proposed to mitigate most of these constraints, they emphasized the importance of political endorsement and adoption of ST at the leadership level, together with building the necessary capacity to apply it and apply the learning in research and practice.

  19. Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Adam, Taghreed; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana; Jaafar, Maha

    2014-12-01

    Systems Thinking (ST) has recently been promoted as an important approach to health systems strengthening. However, ST is not common practice, particularly in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). This paper seeks to explore the barriers that may hinder its application in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) and possible strategies to mitigate them. A survey consisting of open-ended questions was conducted with a purposive sample of health policy-makers such as senior officials from the Ministry of Health (MoH), researchers, and other stakeholders such as civil society groups and professional associations from ten countries in the region. A total of 62 respondents participated in the study. Thematic analysis was conducted. There was strong recognition of the relevance and usefulness of ST to health systems policy-making and research, although misconceptions about what ST means were also identified. Experience with applying ST was very limited. Approaches to designing health policies in the EMR were perceived as reactive and fragmented (66%). Commonly perceived constraints to application of ST were: a perceived notion of its costliness combined with lack of the necessary funding to operationalize it (53%), competing political interests and lack of government accountability (50%), lack of awareness about relevance and value (47%), limited capacity to apply it (45%), and difficulty in coordinating and managing stakeholders (39%). While several strategies have been proposed to mitigate most of these constraints, they emphasized the importance of political endorsement and adoption of ST at the leadership level, together with building the necessary capacity to apply it and apply the learning in research and practice.

  20. Possible asphyxiation from carbon dioxide of a cross-country skier in eastern California: a deadly volcanic hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P M

    2000-01-01

    This report describes an incident in which exceedingly high levels of carbon dioxide may have contributed to the death of a skier in eastern California. A cross-country skier was found dead inside a large, mostly covered snow cave, 1 day after he was reported missing. The autopsy report suggests that the skier died of acute pulmonary edema consistent with asphyxiation; carbon dioxide measurements inside the hole in which he was found reached 70%. This area is known for having a high carbon dioxide flux attributed to degassing of a large body of magma (molten rock) 10 to 20 km beneath the ski area. The literature describes many incidents of fatal carbon dioxide exposures associated with volcanic systems in other parts of the world. We believe this case represents the first reported death associated with volcanically produced carbon dioxide in the United States. Disaster and wilderness medicine specialists should be aware of and plan for this potential health hazard associated with active volcanoes.

  1. Human resources for health through conflict and recovery: lessons from African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavignani, Enrico

    2011-10-01

    A protracted conflict affects human resources for health (HRH) in multiple ways. In most cases, the inflicted damage constitutes the main obstacle to health sector recovery. Interventions aimed at healing derelict human resources are however fraught with difficulties of a political, technical, financial and administrative order. The experience accumulated in past recovery processes has made some important players aware of the cost incurred by neglecting human resource development. Several transitions from conflict to peace have been documented, even if largely in unpublished reports. This paper presents condensed descriptions of some African HRH-related recovery processes, which provide useful lessons. The technical work demanded to resuscitate a derelict health workforce is fairly well understood. In most situations, the highest hurdles lie outside of the health domain, and are of a political and administrative nature. Success stories are rare. But useful lessons are taught by failure as well as by success.

  2. Business owners' action planning and its relationship to business success in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Michael; Krauss, Stefanie I; Keith, Nina; Escher, Susanne; Grabarkiewicz, Rafal; Luneng, Siv Tonje; Heers, Constanze; Unger, Jens; Friedrich, Christian

    2007-11-01

    A model of business success was developed with motivational resources (locus of control, self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and self-reported personal initiative) and cognitive resources (cognitive ability and human capital) as independent variables, business owners' elaborate and proactive planning as a mediator, and business size and growth as dependent variables. Three studies with a total of 408 African micro and small-scale business owners were conducted in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Namibia. Structural equation analyses partially supported the hypotheses on the importance of psychological planning by the business owners. Elaborate and proactive planning was substantially related to business size and to an external evaluation of business success and was a (partial) mediator for the relationship between cognitive resources and business success. The model carries important implications for selection, training, and coaching of business owners. (c) 2007 APA

  3. Establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems in African countries for Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, T. C.; Troxler, T.

    2015-12-01

    As signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developing countries are required to produce greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories every two years. For many developing countries, including many of those in Africa, this is a significant challenge as it requires establishing a robust and sustainable GHG inventory system. In order to help support these efforts, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked in collaboration with the UNFCCC to assist African countries in establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems and generating high-quality inventories on a regular basis. The sectors we have focused on for these GHG inventory capacity building efforts in Africa are Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) as these tend to represent a significant portion of their GHG emissions profile and the data requirements and methodologies are often more complex than for other sectors. To support these efforts, the U.S. EPA has provided technical assistance in understanding the methods in the IPCC Guidelines, assembling activity data and emission factors, including developing land-use maps for representing a country's land base, and implementing the calculations. EPA has also supported development of various tools such as a Template Workbook that helps the country build the institutional arrangement and strong documentation that are necessary for generating GHG inventories on a regular basis, as well as performing other procedures as identified by IPCC Good Practice Guidance such as quality assurance/quality control, key category analysis and archiving. Another tool used in these projects and helps country's implement the methods from the IPCC Guidelines for the Agriculture and LULUCF sectors is the Agriculture and Land Use (ALU) tool. This tool helps countries assemble the activity data and emission factors, including supporting the import of GIS maps, and applying the equations from the IPPC Guidelines to

  4. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degboe Arnold N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and

  5. PEPFAR Funding and Reduction in HIV Infection Rates in 12 Focus Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger J. Chin, MA, MPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV and AIDS continue to have a calamitous effect on individuals living on the continent of Africa. U.S. President George W. Bush implemented the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR with the objective of committing approximately $15 billion from 2004 through 2008 to assist with the reduction of the HIV pandemic worldwide. The majority of the PEPFAR policy and funding focused on 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The policy question this research paper seeks to analyze is whether the PEPFAR funding (as a % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP allocated to the 12 countries in Africa had any effect on the decrease of HIV infection rates of males and females between the ages of 15 and 49. Methods: A fixed-effects panel regression analysis was conducted to determine if this association exists. This study examined the 12 African countries that received PEPFAR funding over the years 2002 to 2010; even though PEPFAR was only active from 2004 through 2008, this research included two years prior and two years after this timeframe in order to better estimate the effect of PEPFAR funding on HIV reduction. Results: The results illustrate that on average, ceteris paribus, for every 1 percentage point increase in PEPFAR funding per GDP a country received, the country’s HIV infection rate decreased by 0.355 percentage points. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: While the empirical findings in this study suggested that the correlation between PEPFAR funding and HIV reduction is statistically significant, the practical significance is perhaps less obvious. Arguably, the reduction rate should be higher given the extent of funding targeted to this project. The conclusion of this research provides suggestions on future research and the policy implications of PEPFAR.

  6. Palliative care and support for persons with HIV/AIDS in 7 African countries: implementation experience and future priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Carla S; Memiah, Peter; Henley, Yvonne B; Kaiza-Kangalawe, Angela; Shumbusho, Anna Joyce; Obiefune, Michael; Enejoh, Victor; Stanis-Ezeobi, Winifred; Eze, Charity; Odion, Ehekhaye; Akpenna, Donald; Effiong, Amana; Miriti, Kenneth; Aduda, Samson; Oko, John; Melaku, Gebremedhin D; Baribwira, Cyprien; Umutesi, Hassina; Shimabale, Mope; Mugisa, Emmanuel; Amoroso, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    To combat morbidity and mortality from the worldwide epidemic of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the United States Congress implemented a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in 30 resource-limited countries to integrate combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for both prevention and cure. Over 35% of eligible persons have been successfully treated. Initial legislation cited palliative care as an essential aspect of this plan but overall health strengthening became critical to sustainability of programming and funding priorities shifted to assure staffing for care delivery sites; laboratory and pharmaceutical infrastructure; data collection and reporting; and financial management as individual countries are being encouraged to assume control of in-country funding. Given infrastructure requisites, individual care delivery beyond ART management alone has received minimal funding yet care remains necessary for durable viral suppression and overall quality of life for individuals. Technical assistance staff of one implementing partner representing seven African countries met to clarify domains of palliative care compared with the substituted term "care and support" to understand potential gaps in on-going HIV care. They prioritized care needs as: 1) mental health (depression and other mood disorders); 2) communication skills (age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status); 3) support of care-providers (stress management for sustainability of a skilled HIV workforce); 4) Tied Priorities: symptom management in opportunistic infections; end-of-life care; spiritual history-taking; and 5) Tied Priorities: attention to grief-related needs of patients, their families and staff; and management of HIV co-morbidities. This process can inform health policy as funding transitions to new priorities.

  7. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  8. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  9. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D; Michaelsen, Joel C; Verdin, James P; Brown, Molly E; Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew

    2008-08-12

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by approximately 15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling "millions of undernourished people" as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability.

  10. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C.; Dettinger, M.D.; Michaelsen, J.C.; Verdin, J.P.; Brown, M.E.; Barlow, M.; Hoell, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by ???15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling 'millions of undernourished people' as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  11. Qualitative assessment of PMIP3 rainfall simulations across the eastern African monsoon domains during the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Manuel; Brewer, Simon; Chase, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we compare a compilation of multiproxy records spanning the eastern African margin with general circulation model simulations of seasonal precipitation fields for the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) carried out as part of the third phase of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). Results show good agreement during the mid-Holocene (the '6K experiment'), with palaeodata and model outputs correlating well and indicating that changes in insolation drove a stronger northern African monsoon (north of ∼0-5°S) during the terminal "African Humid Period" and a weaker southeast African monsoon. For the LGM (the '21K experiment'), however, significant discrepancies exist both between model simulations, and between existing palaeodata and simulated conditions, both in terms of direction and amplitude of change. None of the PMIP3 simulations reflect the pattern inferred from the palaeodata. Two major discrepancies have been identified to explain this: 1) the limited sensitivity of the southern monsoon domain to the colder temperatures of the Indian Ocean (-2 °C), and 2) the absence of changes in the dynamic of the Indian Ocean Walker circulation over the entire basin, despite the exposure of the Sahul and Sunda shelves that weakened convection over the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool during the LGM. These results indicate that some major features of the atmospheric and oceanic teleconnections between the different monsoon regions require further consideration as models evolve.

  12. 'Side effects' are 'central effects' that challenge retention on antiretroviral therapy in HIV treatment programmes in six sub-Saharan African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renju, Jenny; Moshabela, Mosa; McLean, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the bodily and relational experience of taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the subsequent effect on retention in HIV care in six sub-Saharan African countries. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 130 people living with HIV (PLHIV) who had initiated ART, 38...

  13. Higher Education Institutions and International Students' Hindrances: A Case of Students from the African Portuguese-Speaking Countries at Two European Portuguese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrósio, Susana; Marques, João Filipe; Santos, Lucília; Doutor, Catarina

    2017-01-01

    We present a study to comprehend if the support given by higher education institution (HEI) to international students coming from the Portuguese-Speaking African Countries meets their academic and social hindrances. Our starting point was a set of semi-structured interviews focused on the perspectives of these students, their Professors and Course…

  14. Institutional perceptions, adaptive capacity and climate change response in a post-conflict country: a case study from Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, H.C.P.; Smit, B.; Somorin, O.A.; Sonwa, D.J.; Ngana, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Republic (CAR) faces increased vulnerability to climate change because it is a low-income country with low adaptive capacity; a situation that is exacerbated by recent civil conflict. This research analysed the perceptions of decision-makers within, and the response of diverse na

  15. Position paper: researching and developing open architectures for national health information systems in developing African countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available and include an open and participatory approach that encourages reuse and sharing of artifacts and experiences [10]. The framework should o er a generalized methodology and suite of tools that can be used by many countries following customization... implementation. The development of an health enterprise architectural framework (HEAF) and an architectural artifact repository (HEART) are two of HEAL?s current activities towards creating an open architectural framework. HIS designers and implementers...

  16. Overweight and obesity among women: analysis of demographic and health survey data from 32 Sub-Saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Subas; Prakash, K C; Doku, David Teye

    2016-01-13

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for many chronic diseases globally. However, the extent of the problem in low-income countries like Sub-Saharan Africa is unclear. We assessed the magnitude and disparity of both phenomena by place of residence, level of education and wealth quintile using cross-sectional data from 32 countries. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data collected in 32 Sub-Saharan African countries between January 2005 and December 2013 were used. A total of 250651 women (aged 15-49 years) were analyzed. Trained personnel using a standardized procedure measured body weight and height. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing body weight by height squared. Prevalence of overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) were estimated for each country. Analysis of the relationships of overweight and obesity with place of residence, education and wealth index were carried out using logistic regression. The pooled prevalence of overweight for the region was 15.9% (95% CI, 15.7-16.0) with the lowest in Madagascar 5.6% (95% CI, 5.1-6.1) and the highest in Swaziland 27.7% (95% CI, 26.4-29.0). Similarly, the prevalence of obesity was also lowest in Madagascar 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9-1.4) and highest in Swaziland 23.0 (95% CI, 21.8-24.2). The women in urban residence and those who were classified as rich, with respect to the quintile of the wealth index, had higher likelihood of overweight and obesity. In the pooled results, high education was significantly associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity varied highly between the countries and wealth index (rich vs. poor) was found to be the strongest predictor in most of the countries. Interventions that will address the socio-cultural barriers to maintaining healthy body size can contribute to curbing the overweight and obesity epidemic in Africa.

  17. Community-level intimate partner violence and the circumstances of first sex among young women from five African countries

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    Speizer Ilene S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH. Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Methods Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital among young women (ages 20-29 was examined. Results In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. Conclusion These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.

  18. Effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development in nineteen countries of the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses M; Nganda, Benjamin M; Mwikisa, Chris N; Cardoso, Bernardino

    2011-04-13

    There is ample evidence in Asia and Latin America showing that past economic crises resulted in cuts in expenditures on health, lower utilization of health services, and deterioration of child and maternal nutrition and health outcomes. Evidence on the impact of past economic crises on health sector in Africa is lacking. The objectives of this article are to present the findings of a quick survey conducted among countries of the WHO African Region to monitor the effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development; and to discuss the way forward. This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent by email to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Office for facilitation and follow up. The questionnaires were completed by directors of policy and planning in ministries of health. The data were entered and analyzed in Excel spreadsheet. The main limitations of this study were that authors did not ask whether other relevant sectors were consulted in the process of completing the survey questionnaire; and that the overall response rate was low. The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 41.3% (19/46 countries); 36.8% (7/19) indicated they had been notified by the Ministry of Finance that the budget for health would be cut; 15.8% (3/19) had been notified by partners of their intention to cut health funding; 61.1% (11/18) indicated that the prices of medicines had increased recently; 83.3% (15/18) indicated that the prices of basic food stuffs had increased recently; 38.8% (7/18) indicated that their local currency had been devalued against the US dollar; 47.1% (8/17) affirmed that the levels of unemployment had increased since the onset of global financial crisis; and 64.7% (11/17) indicated that the ministry of health had taken some measures already, either in reaction to the global financing crisis, or in anticipation. A rapid assessment, like the one reported in this article, of the

  19. Effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development in nineteen countries of the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwikisa Chris N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is ample evidence in Asia and Latin America showing that past economic crises resulted in cuts in expenditures on health, lower utilization of health services, and deterioration of child and maternal nutrition and health outcomes. Evidence on the impact of past economic crises on health sector in Africa is lacking. The objectives of this article are to present the findings of a quick survey conducted among countries of the WHO African Region to monitor the effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development; and to discuss the way forward. Methods This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent by email to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Office for facilitation and follow up. The questionnaires were completed by directors of policy and planning in ministries of health. The data were entered and analyzed in Excel spreadsheet. The main limitations of this study were that authors did not ask whether other relevant sectors were consulted in the process of completing the survey questionnaire; and that the overall response rate was low. Results The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 41.3% (19/46 countries; 36.8% (7/19 indicated they had been notified by the Ministry of Finance that the budget for health would be cut; 15.8% (3/19 had been notified by partners of their intention to cut health funding; 61.1% (11/18 indicated that the prices of medicines had increased recently; 83.3% (15/18 indicated that the prices of basic food stuffs had increased recently; 38.8% (7/18 indicated that their local currency had been devalued against the US dollar; 47.1% (8/17 affirmed that the levels of unemployment had increased since the onset of global financial crisis; and 64.7% (11/17 indicated that the ministry of health had taken some measures already, either in reaction to the global financing crisis, or in anticipation. Conclusion A rapid

  20. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Delphine; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Akilimali, Laurent; Anne, Jean-Claude; Bidjada, Pawou; Bompangue, Didier; Bwire, Godfrey; Coulibaly, Daouda; Dengo-Baloi, Liliana; Dosso, Mireille; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Inguane, Dorteia; Kagirita, Atek; Kacou-N'Douba, Adele; Keita, Sakoba; Kere Banla, Abiba; Kouame, Yao Jean-Pierre; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Langa, Jose Paulo; Makumbi, Issa; Miwanda, Berthe; Malimbo, Muggaga; Mutombo, Guy; Mutombo, Annie; NGuetta, Emilienne Niamke; Saliou, Mamadou; Sarr, Veronique; Senga, Raphael Kakongo; Sory, Fode; Sema, Cynthia; Tante, Ouyi Valentin; Gessner, Bradford D; Mengel, Martin A

    2016-05-01

    Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org). During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  1. Perceived Barriers for Accessing Health Services among Individuals with Disability in Four African Countries.

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    Arne H Eide

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality.

  2. Perceived Barriers for Accessing Health Services among Individuals with Disability in Four African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Arne H; Mannan, Hasheem; Khogali, Mustafa; van Rooy, Gert; Swartz, Leslie; Munthali, Alister; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Dyrstad, Karin

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality.

  3. HIV-related discrimination among grade six students in nine Southern African countries.

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    Brendan Maughan-Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-related stigmatisation and discrimination by young children towards their peers have important consequences at the individual level and for our response to the epidemic, yet research on this area is limited. METHODS: We used nationally representative data to examine discrimination of HIV-positive children by grade six students (n = 39,664 across nine countries in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Descriptive statistics are used to compare discrimination by country, gender, geographic location and socioeconomic status. Multivariate logistic regression is employed to assess potential determinants of discrimination. RESULTS: The levels and determinants of discrimination varied significantly between the nine countries. While one in ten students in Botswana, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland would "avoid or shun" an HIV positive friend, the proportions in Lesotho, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe were twice as high (approximately 20%. A large proportion of students believed that HIV positive children should not be allowed to continue to attend school, particularly in Zambia (33%, Lesotho (37% and Zimbabwe (42%. The corresponding figures for Malawi and Swaziland were significantly lower at 13% and 12% respectively. Small differences were found by gender. Children from rural areas and poorer schools were much more likely to discriminate than those from urban areas and wealthier schools. Importantly, we identified factors consistently associated with discrimination across the region: students with greater exposure to HIV information, better general HIV knowledge and fewer misconceptions about transmission of HIV via casual contact were less likely to report discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: Our study points toward the need for early interventions (grade six or before to reduce stigma and discrimination among children, especially in schools situated in rural areas

  4. Perceived Barriers for Accessing Health Services among Individuals with Disability in Four African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Arne H.; Mannan, Hasheem; Khogali, Mustafa; van Rooy, Gert; Swartz, Leslie; Munthali, Alister; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Dyrstad, Karin

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality. PMID:25993307

  5. Equity in HIV testing: evidence from a cross-sectional study in ten Southern African countries

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    Mitchell Steven

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing with counseling is an integral component of most national HIV and AIDS prevention strategies in southern Africa. Equity in testing implies that people at higher risk for HIV such as women; those who do not use condoms consistently; those with multiple partners; those who have suffered gender based violence; and those who are unable to implement prevention choices (the choice-disabled are tested and can have access to treatment. Methods We conducted a household survey of 24,069 people in nationally stratified random samples of communities in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We asked about testing for HIV in the last 12 months, intention to test, and about HIV risk behaviour, socioeconomic indicators, access to information, and attitudes related to stigma. Results Across the ten countries, seven out of every ten people said they planned to have an HIV test but the actual proportion tested in the last 12 months varied from 24% in Mozambique to 64% in Botswana. Generally, people at higher risk of HIV were not more likely to have been tested in the last year than those at lower risk, although women were more likely than men to have been tested in six of the ten countries. In Swaziland, those who experienced partner violence were more likely to test, but in Botswana those who were choice-disabled for condom use were less likely to be tested. The two most consistent factors associated with HIV testing across the countries were having heard about HIV/AIDS from a clinic or health centre, and having talked to someone about HIV and AIDS. Conclusions HIV testing programmes need to encourage people at higher risk of HIV to get tested, particularly those who do not interact regularly with the health system. Service providers need to recognise that some people are not able to implement HIV preventive actions and may not feel empowered to get themselves

  6. Tobacco use and its determinants in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in West African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Antoine; Ekouevi, Didier-Koumavi; Aboubakrine, Maiga; Bashi, Jules; Messou, Eugène; Maiga, Moussa; Traore, Hamar-Alassane; Zannou, Marcel; Guehi, Calixte; Ba-Gomis, Franck-Olivier; Minga, Albert; Allou, Gérard; Eholie, Serge-Paul; Dabis, Francois; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Sasco, Annie-Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Tobacco smoking is common in HIV-infected patients from industrialized countries. In West Africa, few data exist concerning tobacco consumption. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) network in West Africa. Health workers administered to patients receiving antiretroviral treatment a questionnaire assessing tobacco and cannabis consumption. Regular smokers were defined as present smokers who smoked >1 cigarette per day for ≥1 year. RESULTS Overall, 2920 patients were enrolled in three countries. The prevalence of ever smokers and present smokers were 46.2% (95% CI 42.8–49.5) and 15.6% (95% CI 13.2–18.0) in men and 3.7% (95% CI 2.9–4.5) and 0.6% (95% CI 0.3–0.9) in women, respectively. Regular smoking was associated being from Côte d’Ivoire or Mali compared to Benin (OR 4.6; 95% CI 2.9–7.3 and 7.7; 95% CI 4.4–13.6), a severely impaired immunological status at HAART initiation (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1–2.2) and a history of tuberculosis (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–3.0). CONCLUSION Marked differences of smoking prevalence exist between these West African countries. This survey approach also provides evidences concerning the association between cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients, a major public health issue in this part of the world. PMID:19861019

  7. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk among women in three sub-Saharan African countries.

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    Frank Qian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol drinking is linked to the development of breast cancer. However, there is little knowledge about the impact of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk among African women. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study among 2,138 women with invasive breast cancer and 2,589 controls in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda from 1998 to 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, defined as consuming alcoholic beverages at least once a week for six months or more. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI. RESULTS: Among healthy controls, the overall alcohol consumption prevalence was 10.4%, and the prevalence in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda were 5.0%, 34.6%, and 50.0%, respectively. Cases were more likely to have consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33-1.97. Both past (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.19-2.00 and current drinking (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.30-2.23 were associated with breast cancer risk. A dose-response relationship was observed for duration of alcohol drinking (P-trend <0.001, with 10-year increase of drinking associated with a 54% increased risk (95% CI: 1.29-1.84. CONCLUSION: We found a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk, suggesting that this modifiable risk factor should be addressed in breast cancer prevention programs in Africa.

  8. Contestation in multi-level party systems with institutional constraints: A look at ethnically divided countries in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    of party systems restricts party plurality at the local or regional level, non-partisan candidates and groups will emerge. Hypotheses are tested, looking at the political representation and plurality of representation in minority regions in Central and Eastern Europe, investigating ethnic minorities...... in Romania, Slovakia, Moldova, and Macedonia. The effect of national electoral laws in these countries allows for substantial variation in its degree of restrictiveness...

  9. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

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    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  10. Public-health research: are there differences between northern, southern and eastern european countries? A perspective from national public health associations

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    Alice Mannocci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Research provides the important evidence base for public health practice. We sought to compare the current support for public health research within European countries.

    Methods: Within a collaborative study SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe, we developed an e-mail questionnaire and sent it to 93 representatives of national member associations of the European Public Health Association. We compared the answers with reference to tree macro-areas: Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe.

    Results: We gained responses for 22 of the 39 European countries (56% country response rate. Current priorities at national level were: health service and patient safety for Northern Europe; infectious disease, health service and cardiovascular disease for Southern Europe; and food safety and nutrition, environmental and occupational health for Eastern Europe. Respondents gave fewer priorities for international research. In Northern Europe the priorities empathized were health promotion, prevention and education (26.3% together the injuries and alcohol habits (26.3%; health economics, health impact assessment, evaluations of services and programmes in Southern and Eastern Europe respectively 30% and 41.7%.

    Conclusions: Support for public-health research differs across Europe, and barriers to undertaking better research included structures and sufficient personnel. National public health associations and public authorities should cooperate in order to find effective answers to common problems.

  11. Remittances, Financial Development and Economic Growth: The Case of North African Countries

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    Zouheir Abida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the causal linkage between remittances, financial development, and economic growth in a panel of 4 countries of North Africa (Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria and Egypt over the period 1980-2011. Using system Generalized Method of Moment (GMM panel data analysis, we find strong evidence of a positive relationship between remittances and economic growth. We also find evidence that remittances appear to be working as a complement to financial development and, moreover, that the effect of remittances is more pronounced in the presence of the financial development variable. The policy implications of this study appeared clear. Improvement efforts need to be driven by local-level reforms to ensure the development of domestic financial system in order to take advantage of remittances.

  12. Financial Development, Trade Openness and Economic Growth in North African Countries

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    Nahed Zghidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution investigates the causal interactions between financial development, trade openness and economic growth in a panel of 3 countries of North Africa (Tunisia, Morocco, and Egypt over the period 1980-2012. Using system Generalized Method of Moment (GMM panel data analysis, we find strong evidence of a positive link between trade openness and economic growth. We also find evidence that trade openness appear to be working as a complement to financial development and, moreover, that the effect of trade openness is more pronounced in the presence of the financial development variable. The policy implications of this study appeared clear. Improvement efforts need to be driven by local-level reforms to ensure the development of domestic financial system in order to take advantage of trade liberalization.

  13. Preparing for Ebola Virus Disease in West African countries not yet affected: perspectives from Ghanaian health professionals.

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    Nyarko, Yaw; Goldfrank, Lewis; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Soghoian, Sari; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2015-02-26

    The current Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic has ravaged the social fabric of three West African countries and affected people worldwide. We report key themes from an agenda-setting, multi-disciplinary roundtable convened to examine experiences and implications for health systems in Ghana, a nation without cases but where risk for spread is high and the economic, social and political impact of the impending threat is already felt. Participants' personal stories and the broader debates to define fundamental issues and opportunities for preparedness focused on three inter-related themes. First, the dangers of the fear response itself were highlighted as a threat to the integrity and continuity of quality care. Second, healthcare workers' fears were compounded by a demonstrable lack of societal and personal protections for infection prevention and control in communities and healthcare facilities, as evidenced by an ongoing cholera epidemic affecting over 20,000 patients in the capital Accra alone since June 2014. Third, a lack of coherent messaging and direction from leadership seems to have limited coordination and reinforced a level of mistrust in the government's ability and commitment to mobilize an adequate response. Initial recommendations include urgent investment in the needed supplies and infrastructure for basic, routine infection control in communities and healthcare facilities, provision of assurances with securities for frontline healthcare workers, establishment of a multi-sector, "all-hazards" outbreak surveillance system, and engaging directly with key community groups to co-produce contextually relevant educational messages that will help decrease stigma, fear, and the demoralizing perception that the disease defies remedy or control. The EVD epidemic provides an unprecedented opportunity for West African countries not yet affected by EVD cases to make progress on tackling long-standing health systems weaknesses. This roundtable discussion

  14. Using a human resource management approach to support community health workers: experiences from five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Joanna; Akweongo, Patricia; Baba, Amuda; Baine, Sebastian Olikira; Sall, Mohamadou Guelaye; Buzuzi, Stephen; Martineau, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Like any other health worker, community health workers (CHWs) need to be supported to ensure that they are able to contribute effectively to health programmes. Management challenges, similar to those of managing any other health worker, relate to improving attraction, retention and performance. Exploratory case studies of CHW programmes in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Senegal, Uganda and Zimbabwe were conducted to provide an understanding of the practices for supporting and managing CHWs from a multi-actor perspective. Document reviews (n = 43), in-depth interviews with programme managers, supervisors and community members involved in managing CHWs (n = 31) and focus group discussions with CHWs (n = 13) were conducted across the five countries. Data were transcribed, translated and analysed using the framework approach. CHWs had many expectations of their role in healthcare, including serving the community, enhancing skills, receiving financial benefits and their role as a CHW fitting in with their other responsibilities. Many human resource management (HRM) practices are employed, but how well they are implemented, the degree to which they meet the expectations of the CHWs and their effects on human resource (HR) outcomes vary across contexts. Front-line supervisors, such as health centre nurses and senior CHWs, play a major role in the management of CHWs and are central to the implementation of HRM practices. On the other hand, community members and programme managers have little involvement with managing the CHWs. This study highlighted that CHW expectations are not always met through HRM practices. This paper calls for a coordinated HRM approach to support CHWs, whereby HRM practices are designed to not only address expectations but also ensure that the CHW programme meets its goals. There is a need to work with all three groups of management actors (front-line supervisors, programme managers and community members) to ensure the use of an effective

  15. Utility and effectiveness of orbito-ocular B-scan ultrasonography in an African developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Boniface I; Onu, Augustine C; Imo, Augustine O; Mgbor, Samuel O

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic orbito-ocular ultrasonography is a safe, affordable, and cost-effective procedure that is especially suited for resource-poor developing countries. Periodic evaluation of its utility and effectiveness is important in the light of phenomenal advances in medical imaging. To assess the utility and effectiveness of B-scan orbito-ocular ultrasonography in a Nigerian ophthalmic patient population. The Hansa Clinic's database was retrospectively reviewed, between January 2006 and December 2010, to obtain patients' relevant demographic and clinical data. Results . The subjects comprised 119 males and 81 females. The leading sonographic diagnoses were ocular (90.4%): retinal detachment-23.3%, cataract-14.0%, and vitreous haemorrhage-10.5%; orbital (8.3%): 'mass lesion'-4.8% and myopathies-0.8%. The agreement between clinical and sonographic diagnoses was complete in 35.5% eyes. At Hansa Clinics, intraocular lesions are the main findings of diagnostic orbito-ocular sonography. There is poor agreement between clinical and sonographic diagnoses. Improved correlation of patients' clinic-pathologic data is suggested.

  16. Geochemistry and Sm-Nd isotopic composition of the Imiter Pan-African granitoids (Saghro massif, eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Geotectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidada, Bouchra; Cousens, Brian; Alansari, Abdelkhalek; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane; Barbey, Pierre; Ilmen, Said; Ikenne, Moha

    2017-03-01

    The Imiter inlier (eastern part of the Moroccan Anti-Atlas) is located on the northwestern border of the West African Craton (WAC) and exhibits a range of Pan-African granitoids. Three massifs that crosscut the Imiter Saghro Group were targeted in this work: the Igoudrane granodiorite, Bou Teglimt granodiorite and Bou Fliou granite. We present here additional geochemical analyses (major and trace elements) and Sm-Nd isotopic data, which define two distinct groups: (i) the Igoudrane massif (677 Ma) and (ii) the Bou Teglimt granodiorite (576 Ma) and the Bou Fliou granite (550 Ma). Geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline signature of the studied granitoids. Both groups of granitoids are slightly peraluminous and show strong negative anomalies in Nb, Ta and Ti in multi-element plots normalized to the primitive mantle. The granitoids have low 143Nd/144Nd initial ratios (0.5116-0.5117), with TDM model ages ranging from 1.73 to 1.52Ga. The εNd(t) values are negative, decreasing from the Igoudrane samples (-1.1 to -3.1) to the Bou Teglimt granodiorite (-3.0 to -3.3) and Bou Fliou (-4.2 to -4.8). All these data suggest a mixed magmatic origin involving a juvenile mantle source and an old, at least Paleoproterozoic crust. Given Mesoproterozoic rocks are lacking or very scarce in the Anti-Atlas, these results confirm the existence of an old cratonic basement beneath the eastern Anti-Atlas, and therefore suggest that the northern border of the West African Craton must be placed further to the north, as suggested by previous work in this region.

  17. Validation of a French adaptation of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among torture survivors from sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capucine de Fouchier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date no validated instrument in the French language exists to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in survivors of torture and organized violence. Objective: The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ to this population. Method: The adapted version was administered to 52 French-speaking torture survivors, originally from sub-Saharan African countries, receiving psychological treatment in specialized treatment centers. A structured clinical interview for DSM was also conducted in order to assess if they met criteria for PTSD. Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the HTQ Part 4 was adequate (0.95. Criterion validity was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis that generated good classification accuracy for PTSD (0.83. At the original cut-off score of 2.5, the HTQ demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity (0.87 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusion: Results support the reliability and validity of the French version of the HTQ.

  18. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen

    2016-04-01

    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed.

  19. Socio-demographic and reproductive determinants of cervical neoplasia in seven sub-Sahara African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwonge, Richard; Ngo Mbus, Louise; Ngoma, Twalib; Gombe Mbalawa, Charles; Dolo, Amadou; da Ganda Manuel, Miraldina; Nouhou, Hassan; Nacoulma, Marius; Mwaiselage, Julius; Koulibaly, Moussa; Bayo, Siné; Nsonde Malanda, Judith; De Vuyst, Hugo; Herrero, Rolando; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Keita, Namory

    2016-12-01

    Since most human papilloma virus (HPV) infections regress without any intervention, HPV is a necessary but may not be a solely sufficient cause of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. Hence, the influence of cofactors on progression from cervical HPV infection to high-grade CIN and invasive cervical cancer has been a subject of intensive research. We assessed the effect of socio-demographic and sexual reproductive factors on the prevalence of invasive cervical cancer and CIN diagnosed in cross-sectional cervical cancer screening projects carried out in seven sites of different sub-Saharan countries. Between January 2000 and August 2007, healthy women aged 25-59 who participated in the screening projects were interviewed for socio-demographic, reproductive, and behavioral characteristics, investigated for disease confirmation with colposcopy, and had biopsies directed from colposcopically abnormal areas by trained local physicians. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effect of women characteristics on CIN 1, CIN 2-3, CIN 3, and invasive cancer outcome measures. Among 47,361 women screened and investigated for disease confirmation, CIN 1 was diagnosed in 1,069 (2.3%), CIN 2 in 517 (1.1%), CIN 3 in 175 (0.5%), and invasive cancer in 485 (1.0%). The site-specific prevalence of CIN 2-3 lesions ranged from 0.3 to 5.1% and from 0.2 to 1.9% for invasive cancers. Risk factors for CIN 2-3 were being widowed or separated versus currently married (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7 a); and having had at least four pregnancies versus zero or one pregnancy (OR at least 1.4-fold, 95% CI 1.1-1.8). Risk factors for invasive cancer were being widowed or separated versus currently married (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.1); and having had at least three pregnancies versus zero or one pregnancy (OR at least 3.0-fold, 95% CI 2.1-4.2). Additionally, cervical cancer risk increased with increasing age, age

  20. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries.

  1. Making the market right for environmentally sound energy-efficient technologies: US buildings sector successes that might work in developing countries and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

    1991-12-01

    Between 1973 and 1985, when energy prices were high, all Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries improved their E/GNP by about 2.5% annually. Increased energy efficiency accounted for 2/3rds of this improvement; the remaining portion was due to structural changes in the economy. In the US, analytic and policy tools that have successfully promoted energy efficiency include integrated resource planning, energy use labels, energy use standards, ``Golden Carrot`` incentive programs, and revenue-neutral ``feebates.`` In addition, a number of low cost, environmentally sound, energy-efficient technologies, such as electronic ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows, have recently been developed. We discuss how many of these policies and technologies are probably exportable to developing countries and Eastern Europe, giving examples of successful starts in India, the ASEAN countries, and Brazil.

  2. Improving health information systems for decision making across five sub-Saharan African countries: Implementation strategies from the African Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Chintu, Namwinga; Amoroso, Cheryl; Awoonor-Williams, Koku; Phillips, James; Baynes, Colin; Michel, Cathy; Taylor, Angela; Sherr, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Weak health information systems (HIS) are a critical challenge to reaching the health-related Millennium Development Goals because health systems performance cannot be adequately assessed or monitored where HIS data are incomplete, inaccurate, or untimely. The Population Health Implementation and Training (PHIT) Partnerships were established in five sub-Saharan African countries (Ghana, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia) to catalyze advances in strengthening district health systems. Interventions were tailored to the setting in which activities were planned. All five PHIT Partnerships share a common feature in their goal of enhancing HIS and linking data with improved decision-making, specific strategies varied. Mozambique, Ghana, and Tanzania all focus on improving the quality and use of the existing Ministry of Health HIS, while the Zambia and Rwanda partnerships have introduced new information and communication technology systems or tools. All partnerships have adopted a flexible, iterative approach in designing and refining the development of new tools and approaches for HIS enhancement (such as routine data quality audits and automated troubleshooting), as well as improving decision making through timely feedback on health system performance (such as through summary data dashboards or routine data review meetings). The most striking differences between partnership approaches can be found in the level of emphasis of data collection (patient versus health facility), and consequently the level of decision making enhancement (community, facility, district, or provincial leadership). Design differences across PHIT Partnerships reflect differing theories of change, particularly regarding what information is needed, who will use the information to affect change, and how this change is expected to manifest. The iterative process of data use to monitor and assess the health system has been heavily communication dependent, with challenges due to poor feedback

  3. Forum: challenges in STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking African countries: contributions from social research and from a gender approach. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Simone

    2009-03-01

    This forum on the challenges of preventing STD/AIDS in Portuguese-speaking African countries contains three articles and a postscript. The first paper reviews academic production on the topic from the fields of the social sciences and of health, with special attention on how local cultural and socioeconomic factors impact the dynamics of the epidemic. Based on an ethnographic study of a region in southern Mozambique, the second paper analyzes the notion of 'tradition' within the context of Mozambique and how it affects perceptions of the local population's vulnerability to STD/AIDS. The third and final article discusses common ground and differences between government and civil society in gender approaches by community HIV/AIDS projects in Mozambique. Their observations suggest that important mistakes have been made in STD/AIDS prevention discourse and initiatives in African countries because the unique features of local development models and cultural systems have not been taken into account.

  4. Does a wife's education influence spousal agreement on approval of family planning?: Random-effects Modeling using data from two West African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mian; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Rogers, Laurencia

    2014-05-01

    Spousal approval of family planning is critical for contraceptive use. Both contraceptive use rates and women's education are low in many West-African countries and this study examines the role of wives' education in spousal agreement on approval of family planning in two sub-Saharan West African countries. We used couples' data from Demographic Health Surveys in Senegal and in Niger, conducted in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Multiple logistic regression results using multilevel modeling show that the odds of spousal agreement on approval of family planning were slightly over three times [OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.32 to 7.57] in Senegal and were about three times [OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.64 to 5.76] in Niger higher for women with more than primary education. Findings suggest that improvement in women's education could lead to spousal agreement on approval of family planning, which may lead to use of family planning in sub-Saharan African countries.

  5. Determinants of Early Introduction of Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods among Infants Aged 3–5 Months in Four Anglophone West African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abukari I. Issaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008, Liberia (LDHS, 2007, Nigeria (NDHS, 2013 and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3–5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant’s age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early.

  6. [Public health research: are there differences among northern, southern and eastern European countries? A perspective from national associations of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Mannocci, Alice; McCarthy, Mark; Ricciardi, Walter; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2010-01-01

    Research provides the important evidence base for public health practice. We sought to compare the current support for public health research within European countries. Within a collaborative study SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe), we developed an e-mail questionnaire and sent it to 93 representatives of national member associations of the European Public Health Association. We compared the answers with reference to tree macro-areas: Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe. We gained responses for 22 of 39 European countries (56% country response rate). Current priorities at national level were: health service and patient safety for Northern Europe; infectious disease, health service and cardiovascular disease for Southern Europe; and food safety and nutrition, environmental and occupational health for Eastern Europe. Respondents gave fewer priorities for international research. In the North Europe the priorities empathized were health promotion, prevention and education (26.3%) together the injuries and alcohol habits (26.3%). Support for public-health research differs across Europe, and barriers to undertaking better research include structures and sufficient personnel. National public health associations and public authorities should cooperate in order to find effective answers to common problems. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  7. The European Struggle to Educate and Include Roma People: A Critique of Differences in Policy and Practice in Western and Eastern EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine O'Hanlon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiculturalism is an established feature of the UK and other European States since the establishment of the Treaty of Rome in 1959. Enlargement has brought EU membership from six (1952 to twenty eight members since its foundation, and allowed free migration across its borders. However, many countries, in spite of agreements to adhere to ‘democratic’ practices, deny minority citizens their full rights, particularly in education contexts. Some recent accession EU States have education systems that are less adaptive to expected policy responsibilities. It is a more unstable aspect of Eastern Europe because of the failure of many of these countries to reduce social and educational inequalities and to establish rights for minority groups, particularly the Roma. An educational focus is used as a platform to highlight issues re the segregation, and discrimination against, Roma children in Europe, typically through the use of special education, which is not suitable for them. Europe generally, both East and West has failed to fully integrate the Roma. Often, institutional blame is placed on Roma communities, rather than situate them socially and economically due to ingrained structural inequalities. Stereotyped categories are often used to ‘label’ them. Countries with high Roma populations, four in Western and five in Eastern Europe are evaluated and compared in relation to the education of Roma children.

  8. Unmet reproductive health needs among women in some West African countries: a systematic review of outcome measures and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanore, Martin Amogre; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2016-01-16

    Identifying relevant measures of women's reproductive health needs is critical to improve women's chances of service utilization. The study aims to systematically review and analyze the adequacy of outcome measures and determinants applied in previous studies for assessing women reproductive health needs across West Africa. Evidence on outcomes and determinants of unmet reproductive health needs among women of childbearing age in diverse multicultural, religious, and ethnic settings in West African countries was systematically reviewed. The review included recent English language publications (from January 2009 - March 2014). Clinical studies particularly on obstetric care services and reproductive services in relation to HIV/AIDS were excluded. We acknowledge the possibility to have excluded non-English publications and yet-to-be-published articles related to the study aim and objectives. Outcomes and determinants were assessed and defined at three main levels; contraceptive use, obstetric care, and antenatal care utilization. Results show increasing unmet need for women's reproductive health needs. Socio-cultural norms and practices resulting in discontinuation of service use, economic constraints, travel distance to access services and low education levels of women were found to be key predictors of service utilization for contraception, antenatal and obstetric care services. Outcome measures were mainly assessed based on service utilization, satisfaction, cost, and quality of services available as core measures across the three levels assessed in this review. Evidence from this review indicates that currently applied measures of women's reproductive health needs might be inadequate in attaining best maternal outcomes since they appear rather broad. More support and research for developing and advancing context-related measures may help to improve women's maternal health.

  9. Clustering asian and north african countries according to trend of colon and rectum cancer mortality rates: an application of growth mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayeri, Farid; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death with half a million deaths per year. Incidence and mortality rates have demonstrated notable changes in Asian and African countries during the last few decades. In this study, we first aimed to determine the trend of colorectal cancer mortality rate in each Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) region, and then re-classify them to find more homogenous classes. Our study population consisted of 52 countries of Asia and North Africa in six IHME pre-defined regions for both genders and age-standardized groups from 1990 to 2010.We first applied simple growth models for pre-defined IHME regions to estimate the intercepts and slopes of mortality rate trends. Then, we clustered the 52 described countries using the latent growth mixture modeling approach for classifying them based on their colorectal mortality rates over time. Statistical analysis revealed that males and people in high income Asia pacific and East Asia countries were at greater risk of death from colon and rectum cancer. In addition, South Asia region had the lowest rates of mortality due to this cancer. Simple growth modeling showed that majority of IHME regions had decreasing trend in mortality rate of colorectal cancer. However, re-classification these countries based on their mortality trend using the latent growth mixture model resulted in more homogeneous classes according to colorectal mortality trend. In general, our statistical analyses showed that most Asian and North African countries had upward trend in their colorectal cancer mortality. We therefore urge the health policy makers in these countries to evaluate the causes of growing mortality and study the interventional programs of successful countries in managing the consequences of this cancer.

  10. Update on the Risk of Introduction of African Swine Fever by Wild Boar into Disease-Free European Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J; Rodríguez, A; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Jurado, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; de la Torre, A

    2016-06-28

    Despite efforts to prevent the appearance and spread of African swine fever (ASF) in the European Union, several Member States are now affected (Lithuania, Poland, Latvia and Estonia). Disease appearance in 2014 was associated with multiple entrances linked to wild boar movement from endemic areas (EFSA Journal, 8, 2015, 1556), but the risk of new introductions remains high (Gallardo et al., Porcine Health Management, 1, and 21) as ASF continues to be active in endemic countries (Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine). Since 2014, the number of ASF notifications has increased substantially, particularly in wild boar (WB), in parallel with slow but constant geographical advance of the disease. This situation suggests a real risk of further disease spread into other Member States, posing a great threat to pig production in the EU. Following the principles of the risk-based veterinary surveillance, this article applies a methodology developed by De la Torre et al. (Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 62, and 272) to assess the relative risk of new introductions of ASF by natural movements of WB according to the current epidemiological situation. This update incorporates the most recent available data and an improved version of the most important risk estimator: an optimized cartographic tool of WB distribution to analyse wild boar suitable habitat. The highest relative risk values were estimated for Slovakia (5) and Romania (5), followed by Finland (4), Czech Republic (3) and Germany (3). Relative risk for Romania and Finland is associated mainly with disease entrance from endemic areas such as the Russian Federation and Ukraine, where the disease is currently spreading; relative risk for Germany and Czech Republic is associated mainly with the potential progress of the disease through the EU, and relative risk for Slovakia is associated with both pathways. WB habitat is the most important risk estimator, whereas WB density is the least significant, suggesting

  11. Coverage of nevirapine-based services to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in 4 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Elizabeth M; Ekouevi, Didier K; Coetzee, David; Tih, Pius M; Creek, Tracy L; Stinson, Kathryn; Giganti, Mark J; Welty, Thomas K; Chintu, Namwinga; Chi, Benjamin H; Wilfert, Catherine M; Shaffer, Nathan; Dabis, Francois; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2010-07-21

    Few studies have objectively evaluated the coverage of services to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from mother to child. To measure the coverage of services to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in 4 African countries. Cross-sectional surveillance study of mother-infant pairs using umbilical cord blood samples collected between June 10, 2007, and October 30, 2008, from 43 randomly selected facilities (grouped as 25 service clusters) providing delivery services in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. All sites used at least single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission and some sites used additional prophylaxis drugs. Population nevirapine coverage, defined as the proportion of HIV-exposed infants in the sample with both maternal nevirapine ingestion (confirmed by cord blood chromatography) and infant nevirapine ingestion (confirmed by direct observation). A total of 27,893 cord blood specimens were tested, of which 3324 were HIV seropositive (12%). Complete data for cord blood nevirapine results were available on 3196 HIV-seropositive mother-infant pairs. Nevirapine coverage varied significantly by site (range: 0%-82%). Adjusted for country, the overall coverage estimate was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49%-53%). In multivariable analysis, failed coverage of nevirapine-based services was significantly associated with maternal age younger than 20 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18-1.76) and maternal age between 20 and 25 years (AOR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.54) vs maternal age of older than 30 years; 1 or fewer antenatal care visits (AOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 2.40-3.54), 2 or 3 antenatal care visits (AOR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.60-2.33), and 4 or 5 antenatal care visits (AOR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.34-1.80) vs 6 or more antenatal care visits; vaginal delivery (AOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.44) vs cesarean delivery; and infant birth weight of less than 2500 g (AOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11-1.62) vs birth

  12. Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton Joanna

    2010-06-01

    adverse events experienced and the proportion reporting drunkenness. Conclusions We find an association between experience of adverse childhood events and drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries. The complex impacts of adverse childhood experiences on young people's development and behavior may have an important bearing on the effectiveness of interventions geared at reducing alcohol dependence among the youth.

  13. Benefits, barriers, attitudes, and beliefs about soy meat-alternatives among African American parishioners living in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Corbett, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess benefits, barriers, attitude, and beliefs about nutrient content and health effects, and sensory analysis of soy meat-alternatives among 40 African Americans, mean (SD) aged 54 (10), 78% of whom were females, participating in a faith-based nutrition program. Perceived benefits received higher scores than perceived barriers to eat soy meat-alternatives. Beliefs about nutrient content and health effects of consuming soy meat-alternatives were consistent with the scientific findings. The results indicate that soy meat-alternatives may be considered viable options to include in a diet of some African Americans.

  14. Welfare regimes in Central and Eastern Europe: Incorporating post-communist countries in a welfare regime typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.M. Fenger (Menno)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article uses hierarchical cluster analysis to empirically assess if the postcommunist welfare states of Central and Eastern Europe can be classified according to any of Esping-Andersen’s well-known welfare types, or if they form a distinct group of their own. It shows that

  15. The institutional structure and political economy of food distribution systems: A comparative analysis of six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    are analysed and important developments in the institutional structure are noted. The internal political economy of distribution channels in Eastern Europe is analysed and the modernisation of distribution systems discussed. Finally, some conclusions are offered and areas for future research suggested....

  16. Three West African Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of variance for fresh yield, all main effects were significant. First order interaction ... A plot of environmental mean yields against coefficient of variation (CV) per cent judged genotype. 82/00942 as ..... have low stability. By Shukla's definition,.

  17. Transition from a localized to wide deformation along Eastern branch of Central East African Rift: Insights from 3D numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, S. D.; Koptev, A.; Burov, E. B.; Calais, E.; Gerya, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Central East African Rift (CEAR) bifurcates in two branches (eastern, magma-rich and western, magma-poor) surrounding strong Tanzanian craton. Intensive magmatism and continental flood basalts are largely present in many of the eastern rift segments, but other segments, first of all the western branch, exhibit very small volcanic activity. The Eastern rift is characterized by southward progression of the onset of volcanism, the extensional features and topographic expression of the rift vary significantly north-southward: in northern Kenya the deformation is very wide (some 150-250 km in E-W direction), to the south the rift narrows to 60-70 km, yet further to the south the deformation widens again in the so-called Tanzania divergence zone. Widening of the Eastern branch within its southern part is associated with the impingement of the southward-propagating rift on the strong Masai block situated to east of the Tanzanian craton. To understand the mechanisms behind this complex deformation distribution, we implemented a 3Dl ultra-high resolution visco-plastic thermo-mechanical numerical model accounting for thermo-rheological structure of the lithosphere and hence captures essential features of the CEAR. The preferred model has a plume seeded slightly to the northeast of the craton center, consistent with seismic tomography, and produces surface strain distribution that is in good agreement with observed variation of deformation zone width along eastern side of Tanzanian craton: localized above bulk of mantle material deflected by cratonic keel narrow high strain zone (Kenia Rift) is replaced by wide distributed deformations within areas situated to north (northern Kenya, Turkana Rift) and to south (Tanzania divergence, Masai block) of it. These results demonstrate significant differences in the impact of the rheological profile on rifting style in case of dominant active rifting compared to dominant passive rifting. Narrow rifting, conventionally attributed to

  18. Modeling the Impact of Integration Processes on the Development of International Tourism (on the Example of the Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemets Mariia S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The publication is aimed at identifying and studying the factors of influence on the development of international tourism in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE in the context of integration. The authors also search for ways to compile a system of indicators of integration in terms of tourism along with building mathematical models of the impact of integration processes on the development of international tourism. The study has identified the indicators of integration, which positively impact the value of the resulting variable, although not all built models have a high significance. In general, the publication confirms the hypothesis that factors, associated with integration processes, do influence on the development of tourism in the countries of the region, but the nature of such influence is not always unambiguous.

  19. Energy partitioning over the West African savanna: multi-year evaporation and surface conductance measurements in Eastern Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagayoko, F.; Yonkeu, S.; Elbers, J.A.; Giesen, van de N.

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variability of the energy partitioning was analyzed with a combination of eddy fluxes of sensible and latent heat and weather data on intensely farmed land in the savanna area of Eastern Burkina Faso, West Africa. The analysis covers two rainy seasons (May-October 2003 and 2004), one dry se

  20. THE FLAT TAX EFFECTS a€“ THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE IN WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moga Aura Carmen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a close look at the advantages and disadvantages of the flat tax and looks at its proven benefits and failings in some European countries which adopted it and its theoretical or possible effects on the economies of other European countrie

  1. Coronary artery disease prevalence and outcome in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure: an observational report from seven Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Amar M; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi; Aljaraallah, Mohammed; Al Faleh, Husam; Elasfar, Abdelfatah; Panduranga, Prasanth; Singh, Rajvir; Abi Khalil, Charbel; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report prevalence, clinical characteristics, precipitating factors, management and outcome of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) in seven Middle Eastern countries and compare them to non-CAD patients. Data were derived from Gulf CARE (Gulf aCute heArt failuRe rEgistry), a prospective multicenter study of 5005 consecutive patients hospitalized with acute HF during February-November 2012 in 7 Middle Eastern countries. The prevalence of CAD among Acute Heart Failure (AHF) patients was 60.2% and varied significantly among the 7 countries (Qatar 65.7%, UAE 66.6%, Kuwait 68.0%, Oman 65.9%, Saudi Arabia 62.5%, Bahrain 52.7% and Yemen 49.1%) with lower values in the lower income countries. CAD patients were older and more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease. Moreover, CAD patients were more likely to have history of cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease when compared to non-CAD patients. In-hospital mortality rates were comparable although CAD patients had more frequent re-hospitalization and worse long-term outcome. However, CAD was not an independent predictor of poor outcome. The prevalence of CAD amongst patients with HF in the Middle East is variable and may be related to healthcare sources. Regional and national studies are needed for assessing further the impact of various etiologies of HF and for developing appropriate strategies to combat this global concern.

  2. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurinovic, M.; Witthöft, C.; Tepsic, J.; Ranic, M.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Porubska, J.; Gohar, A.; Debeljak-Martacic, J.; Petrovic-Oggiano, G.; Novakovic, R.N.; Glibetic, M.; Oshaug, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support

  3. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurinovic, M.; Witthöft, C.; Tepsic, J.; Ranic, M.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Porubska, J.; Gohar, A.; Debeljak-Martacic, J.; Petrovic-Oggiano, G.; Novakovic, R.N.; Glibetic, M.; Oshaug, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastruct

  4. Where to Target Conservation Agriculture for African Smallholders? How to Overcome Challenges Associated with its Implementation? Experience from Eastern and Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Baudron

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the paper by Giller et al. (2009, the debate surrounding the suitability of conservation agriculture (CA for African smallholders has remained polarized between proponents and opponents. The debate also gave rise to a few studies that attempted to identify the “niche” where CA would fit in the region, but the insight offered by these studies has been limited. In this paper, we first analyze the rationale of adoption where it occurred globally to define “drivers” of adoption. Our analysis suggests that CA has first and foremost been adopted under the premises of being energy-saving (time and/or power, erosion-controlling, and water-use efficient, but rarely to increase yield. We then define the niche where CA fits, based on these drivers of adoption, as systems where (1 the energy available for crop establishment is limited and/or costly (including labor and draft power; (2 delayed planting results in a significant yield decline; (3 yield is limited or co-limited by water; and/or (4 severe erosion problems threaten the short- to medium-term productivity of farmland. In Eastern and Southern Africa, this niche appears rather large and likely to expand in the near future. When implemented within this niche, CA may still be limited by “performance challenges” that do not constitute drivers or barriers to adoption, but limitations to the performance of CA. We argue that most of these performance challenges can (and should be addressed by agronomic and socio-economic research, and provide four examples where the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT and its partners have been successfully alleviating four very different challenges through research and development (R&D in Eastern and Southern Africa. Finally, we describe an iterative and multi-scale R&D approach currently used by CIMMYT in Eastern and Southern Africa to overcome challenges associated with the implementation of CA by African smallholders. This

  5. Regulation of genomic and biobanking research in Africa: a content analysis of ethics guidelines, policies and procedures from 22 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jantina; Munung, Syntia Nchangwi; Matimba, Alice; McCurdy, Sheryl; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Staunton, Ciara; Yakubu, Aminu; Tindana, Paulina

    2017-02-02

    The introduction of genomics and biobanking methodologies to the African research context has also introduced novel ways of doing science, based on values of sharing and reuse of data and samples. This shift raises ethical challenges that need to be considered when research is reviewed by ethics committees, relating for instance to broad consent, the feedback of individual genetic findings, and regulation of secondary sample access and use. Yet existing ethics guidelines and regulations in Africa do not successfully regulate research based on sharing, causing confusion about what is allowed, where and when. In order to understand better the ethics regulatory landscape around genomic research and biobanking, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of existing ethics guidelines, policies and other similar sources. We sourced 30 ethics regulatory documents from 22 African countries. We used software that assists with qualitative data analysis to conduct a thematic analysis of these documents. Surprisingly considering how contentious broad consent is in Africa, we found that most countries allow the use of this consent model, with its use banned in only three of the countries we investigated. In a likely response to fears about exploitation, the export of samples outside of the continent is strictly regulated, sometimes in conjunction with regulations around international collaboration. We also found that whilst an essential and critical component of ensuring ethical best practice in genomics research relates to the governance framework that accompanies sample and data sharing, this was most sparingly covered in the guidelines. There is a need for ethics guidelines in African countries to be adapted to the changing science policy landscape, which increasingly supports principles of openness, storage, sharing and secondary use. Current guidelines are not pertinent to the ethical challenges that such a new orientation raises, and therefore fail to provide accurate guidance

  6. Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Emmanuel Chidiebere; Ngogang, Jeane Yonkeu

    2014-01-01

    quickly adopted by allied ministries and organisations in African countries in epidemic and pandemic responses; (ii) harnessing all stakeholders commitment and advocacy in sustained funding, collaboration, communication and networking including community participation to enhance a coordinated responses, as well as tracking and prompt case management to combat challenges; (iii) more research and development in new drug discovery and vaccines; and (iv) understanding the involvement of global health to promote the establishment of public health surveillance response systems with functions of early warning, as well as monitoring and evaluation in upholding research-action programmes and innovative interventions.

  7. Willingness to pay for publicly financed health care services in Central and Eastern Europe: evidence from six countries based on a contingent valuation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Rechel, Bernd; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The increased interest in patient cost-sharing as a measure for sustainable health care financing calls for evidence to support the development of effective patient payment policies. In this paper, we present an application of a stated willingness-to-pay technique, i.e. contingent valuation method, to investigate the consumer's willingness and ability to pay for publicly financed health care services, specifically hospitalisations and consultations with specialists. Contingent valuation data were collected in nationally representative population-based surveys conducted in 2010 in six Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine) using an identical survey methodology. The results indicate that the majority of health care consumers in the six CEE countries are willing to pay an official fee for publicly financed health care services that are of good quality and quick access. The consumers' willingness to pay is limited by the lack of financial ability to pay for services, and to a lesser extent by objection to pay. Significant differences across the six countries are observed, though. The results illustrate that the contingent valuation method can provide decision-makers with a broad range of information to facilitate cost-sharing policies. Nevertheless, the intrinsic limitations of the method (i.e. its hypothetical nature) and the context of CEE countries call for caution when applying its results.

  8. Implications of the Eu Enlargement on the Foreign Trade Activity of the Eastern and Central European Countries which Recently Joined the Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa-Aurelia Chitiba

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU-27 is by far the largest exporter of goods worldwide: in 2007, goods worth EUR 1 240 billionwere exported, against EUR 848 billion by the United States and EUR 889 billion by China. The United States importedslightly more than the EU-27 (EUR 1 472 billion and EUR 1 426billion respectively, more than double the value of totalimports registered by China (EUR 698 billion.Under the influence of a lot of general and specific factors, the foreign trade of Central and Eastern European(CEE countries which recently joined the European Union has been constantly growing till the second part of 2008 year,registering higher yearly growth rates than the total of EU-27.In the last years, for the foreign trade of all the ten new EU members CEE states it appears like a common tracethe deeply process of growing the importance of the intra EU commercial relationship within the total internationaleconomic relationship of these countries. Between the new EU members, the most important weight of the intra EUcommerce in their total foreign trade is registered by the Check Republic (83%, Slovakia (80%, Latvia (76%, Poland(75%, and Estonia (75%.In business environment, institutional, and logistics performance, the EU accession countries stand out as the bestperformers. Most new EU member states are in fact catching up to OECD countries on some measures of logisticsperformance, and all rank in the top 50 with the exception of Lithuania (ranked 58th.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY’S IMPACT UPON INFLATION RATE IN CENTRAL, EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EUROPE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Stoica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to estimate the inflationary effect of adoption of the Common Agricultural Policy in countries which joined the European Union in 2004, using two approaches. The first one supposes the comparison of consumer food prices before (May-December 2001-2003 and January – April 2002-2004 and after joining the European Union (May – December 2004 and January – April 2005, in all ten states. The second approach consist in the application of a multifactorial regression model for the period 2003-2010 in six countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The results of the study shows that, contrary to the usual perception, the influence of the agricultural products prices on the food price and, implicitly, on the consumer prices have been relatively low in all the analysed countries, in some countries being counterbalanced by the appreciation of the national currency and the elimination of import custom duties.

  10. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, James P.; Brown, Molly E.; Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by ≈15% in f...

  11. On Deng Xiaoping ’ s Diplomatic Thoughts towards African Countries%论邓小平对非洲国家的外交政策思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚明

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between China and African countries has been essential ingredient of the Chi -nese foreign relationship .After the reform and opening-up, China has maintained friendship and continuity of policies with and towards African countries , meanwhile there have been some shifts in Chinese foreign policy towards Africa compared with that of the 1950 s to 1970 s.Deng Xiaoping made great contributions to the ad-justment of Chinese foreign policy towards Africa .His main thoughts include the following:China will always stand on the side of the third world , and will never seek hegemony;China will go on to aid Africa;China will undermine the ideology of the relationship of the CCP and the foreign parties; China will seek equality and mu-tual benefit in economy , exchange development experience , and struggle against hegemonism .Practically, the relationship between China and African countries in 1980 s formed a connecting link between the proceeding and the following and continued to forge ahead , which not only emphasized Africa ’ s importance in the world politics in the period of Mao Zedong , but also enhanced the meaning of economical diplomacy , and strength-ened the economical foundation of the economical cooperation between China and African countries .Due to the significance African countries play in the world and China ’ s foreign relations , there is historic and realistic significance in the research on Deng Xiaoping ’ s thoughts towards and impact on African countries .%中国与非洲国家的关系是中国对外关系的重要组成部分。与50-70年代中国对非洲国家外交政策的特点相比,改革开放以后的中国对非洲国家的外交政策在保持友好合作和政策连续性的同时,出现了一些变化。邓小平在中非外交政策调整中作出了重大贡献,主要思想有:中国永远站在第三世界一边,中国永远不称霸;继续援助非洲国家;淡化国家关系和党际关系的

  12. Assessing Progress, Impact, and Next Steps in Rolling Out Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in 14 Priority Countries in Eastern and Southern Africa through 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available In 2007, the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS identified 14 priority countries across eastern and southern Africa for scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC services. Several years into this effort, we reflect on progress.Using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool (DMPPT 2.1, we assessed age-specific impact, cost-effectiveness, and coverage attributable to circumcisions performed through 2014. We also compared impact of actual progress to that of achieving 80% coverage among men ages 15-49 in 12 VMMC priority countries and Nyanza Province, Kenya. We populated the models with age-disaggregated VMMC service statistics and with population, mortality, and HIV incidence and prevalence projections exported from country-specific Spectrum/Goals files. We assumed each country achieved UNAIDS' 90-90-90 treatment targets.More than 9 million VMMCs were conducted through 2014: 43% of the estimated 20.9 million VMMCs required to reach 80% coverage by the end of 2015. The model assumed each country reaches the UNAIDS targets, and projected that VMMCs conducted through 2014 will avert 240,000 infections by the end of 2025, compared to 1.1 million if each country had reached 80% coverage by the end of 2015. The median estimated cost per HIV infection averted was $4,400. Nyanza Province in Kenya, the 11 priority regions in Tanzania, and Uganda have reached or are approaching MC coverage targets among males ages 15-24, while coverage in other age groups is lower. Across all countries modeled, more than half of the projected HIV infections averted were attributable to circumcising 10- to 19-year-olds.The priority countries have made considerable progress in VMMC scale-up, and VMMC remains a cost-effective strategy for epidemic impact, even assuming near-universal HIV diagnosis, treatment coverage, and viral suppression. Examining circumcision coverage by five-year age groups will inform

  13. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries: e0129464

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvia Wojczewski; Stephen Pentz; Claire Blacklock; Kathryn Hoffmann; Wim Peersman; Oathokwa Nkomazana; Ruth Kutalek

    2015-01-01

    .... The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years...

  14. Societal characteristics and health in the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Martin; Murphy, Mike; Rose, Richard; Marmot, Michael

    2007-11-01

    To examine whether, in former communist countries that have undergone profound social and economic transformation, health status is associated with income inequality and other societal characteristics, and whether this represents something more than the association of health status with individual socioeconomic circumstances. Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data. 13 Countries from Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Population samples aged 18+ years (a total of 15 331 respondents). Poor self-rated health. There were marked differences among participating countries in rates of poor health (a greater than twofold difference between the countries with the highest and lowest rates of poor health), gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity (a greater than threefold difference), the Gini coefficient of income inequality (twofold difference), corruption index (twofold difference) and homicide rates (20-fold difference). Ecologically, the age- and sex-standardised prevalence of poor self-rated health correlated strongly with life expectancy at age 15 (r = -0.73). In multilevel analyses, societal (country-level) measures of income inequality were not associated with poor health. Corruption and gross domestic product per capita were associated with poor health after controlling for individuals' socioeconomic circumstances (education, household income, marital status and ownership of household items); the odds ratios were 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.29) per 1 unit (on a 10-point scale) increase in the corruption index and 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.93) per $5000 increase in gross domestic product per capita. The effects of gross domestic product and corruption were virtually identical in people whose household income was below and above the median. Societal measures of prosperity and corruption, but not income inequalities, were associated with health independently of individual

  15. Energy-water-food nexus under financial constraint environment: good, the bad, and the ugly sustainability reforms in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Khalid; Shamsuddin, Sadaf; Ahmad, Mehboob

    2017-05-01

    Environmental sustainability agenda are generally compromised by energy, water, and food production resources, while in the recent waves of global financial crisis, it mediates to increase the intensity of air pollutants, which largely affected the less developing countries due to their ease of environmental regulation policies and lack of optimal utilization of economic resources. Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are no exception that majorly hit by the recent global financial crisis, which affected the country's natural environment through the channel of unsustainable energy-water-food production. The study employed panel random effect model that addresses the country-specific time-invariant shocks to examine the non-linear relationship between water-energy-food resources and air pollutants in a panel of 19 selected SSA countries, for a period of 2000-2014. The results confirmed the carbon-fossil-methane environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) that turned into inverted U-shaped relationships in a panel of selected SSA countries. Food resources largely affected greenhouse gas (GHG), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions while water resource decreases carbon dioxide (CO2), fossil fuel, and CH4 emissions in a region. Energy efficiency improves air quality indicators while industry value added increases CO2 emissions, fossil fuel energy, and GHG emissions. Global financial crisis increases the risk of climate change across countries. The study concludes that although SSA countries strive hard to take some "good" initiatives to reduce environmental degradation in a form of improved water and energy sources, however, due to lack of optimal utilization of food resources and global financial constraints, it leads to "the bad" and "the ugly" sustainability reforms in a region.

  16. Are national quality standards for traditional Chinese herbal medicine sufficient? Current governmental regulations for traditional Chinese herbal medicine in certain Western countries and China as the Eastern origin country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, G J; Tan, L; Cohen, M H; McIntyre, M; Bauer, R; Li, X; Bensoussan, A

    2005-09-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal Medicine (TCHM) has been gaining interest and acceptance world wide. TCHM provides on the one side promising perspective of scientific interest and on the other side possible health risks if TCHM drugs are not controlled with respect to quality standards or if practitioners for TCHM are not well trained. This paper outlines an introduction to the scientific aspects and potential risks of TCHM therapy followed by a brief, exploratory overview of the current status of TCHM regulations in certain Western countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia and in China as the Eastern origin country of TCHM. Legal foundations to establish quality and safety standards for TCHM crude drugs and ready-made formulas exist in some countries on a local basis but in practice are poorly enforced, where this products have no drug status. In addition practitioners treating patients with TCHM should be well versed in the pharmacology, side effects, and interactions of these substances with Western medicines and should be certified on a regular basis.

  17. Assessing Progress, Impact, and Next Steps in Rolling Out Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in 14 Priority Countries in Eastern and Southern Africa through 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Samuelson, Julia; Schnure, Melissa; Dalal, Shona; Farley, Timothy; Hankins, Catherine; Thomas, Anne G.; Reed, Jason; Stegman, Peter; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2007, the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) identified 14 priority countries across eastern and southern Africa for scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services. Several years into this effort, we reflect on progress. Methods Using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool (DMPPT) 2.1, we assessed age-specific impact, cost-effectiveness, and coverage attributable to circumcisions performed through 2014. We also compared impact of actual progress to that of achieving 80% coverage among men ages 15–49 in 12 VMMC priority countries and Nyanza Province, Kenya. We populated the models with age-disaggregated VMMC service statistics and with population, mortality, and HIV incidence and prevalence projections exported from country-specific Spectrum/Goals files. We assumed each country achieved UNAIDS’ 90-90-90 treatment targets. Results More than 9 million VMMCs were conducted through 2014: 43% of the estimated 20.9 million VMMCs required to reach 80% coverage by the end of 2015. The model assumed each country reaches the UNAIDS targets, and projected that VMMCs conducted through 2014 will avert 240,000 infections by the end of 2025, compared to 1.1 million if each country had reached 80% coverage by the end of 2015. The median estimated cost per HIV infection averted was $4,400. Nyanza Province in Kenya, the 11 priority regions in Tanzania, and Uganda have reached or are approaching MC coverage targets among males ages 15–24, while coverage in other age groups is lower. Across all countries modeled, more than half of the projected HIV infections averted were attributable to circumcising 10- to 19-year-olds. Conclusions The priority countries have made considerable progress in VMMC scale-up, and VMMC remains a cost-effective strategy for epidemic impact, even assuming near-universal HIV diagnosis, treatment coverage, and viral suppression. Examining circumcision coverage by five

  18. THE LEVEL AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE. CONVERGENCE OR DIVERGENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Karmowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to analyse certain aspects of poverty and the operation of the safety system before the limiting social exclusion and poverty. In the paper an attempt to answer the question: Is social policy between the new Member States and the countries of the “old Union” (EU15 the phenomenon of convergence or divergence? Research material were data from Eurostat and European Commission reports. The results of the comparative analysis of macroeconomic indicators of countries belonging to the European Union have not given a clear reply to the question. In turn, poverty rate analysis has shown that the most vulnerable population is living in sparsely populated rural areas. Also the problem of system solutions used in order to reduce poverty and, in particular, the level and dynamics of changes in the minimum wages was discussed. Besides, size and fi nancial structure were analysed for the implementation of operations in the framework of social policy. On the basis of the obtained research results, it was found that in the new Member States, the fi nancial assistance granted in the framework of social protection is about half lower than in the EU15 countries. There is still a large variation between EU countries in terms of economic development and the level of social services that directly impact the living conditions of the inhabitants.

  19. REAL CONVERGENCE IN ROMANIA - A COMPARATIVE APPROACH TO NON-ERM II COUNTRIES FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA SOCOL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to survey the issue of real convergence in Central and Eastern Europe, based our approach on the literature review in the field and intended to develop a comparative approach of the main criteria of real convergence. We comparatively study Romania’s situation face to European Union Member States that did not adhere until now to ERM Exchange Rate Mechanism II and that do not benefit of special opt-outs stipulations - Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Bulgaria. The challenges of the paper consisted in identification and choose of the criteria which properly characterize the real convergence issue of the national economies. This approach is imposed by the widespread concept of real convergence and its different meanings or measurement manners.

  20. Y-chromosome and mtDNA genetics reveal significant contrasts in affinities of modern Middle Eastern populations with European and African populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle A Badro

    Full Text Available The Middle East was a funnel of human expansion out of Africa, a staging area for the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, and the home to some of the earliest world empires. Post LGM expansions into the region and subsequent population movements created a striking genetic mosaic with distinct sex-based genetic differentiation. While prior studies have examined the mtDNA and Y-chromosome contrast in focal populations in the Middle East, none have undertaken a broad-spectrum survey including North and sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and Middle Eastern populations. In this study 5,174 mtDNA and 4,658 Y-chromosome samples were investigated using PCA, MDS, mean-linkage clustering, AMOVA, and Fisher exact tests of F(ST's, R(ST's, and haplogroup frequencies. Geographic differentiation in affinities of Middle Eastern populations with Africa and Europe showed distinct contrasts between mtDNA and Y-chromosome data. Specifically, Lebanon's mtDNA shows a very strong association to Europe, while Yemen shows very strong affinity with Egypt and North and East Africa. Previous Y-chromosome results showed a Levantine coastal-inland contrast marked by J1 and J2, and a very strong North African component was evident throughout the Middle East. Neither of these patterns were observed in the mtDNA. While J2 has penetrated into Europe, the pattern of Y-chromosome diversity in Lebanon does not show the widespread affinities with Europe indicated by the mtDNA data. Lastly, while each population shows evidence of connections with expansions that now define the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, many of the populations in the Middle East show distinctive mtDNA and Y-haplogroup characteristics that indicate long standing settlement with relatively little impact from and movement into other populations.

  1. Policy-Relevant Context of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking among University Students in Six Countries Across the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Hamadeh, Randah; Thomas, Justin; Mostafa, Aya; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Macauda, Mark M; Theis, Ryan P; El Kadi, Lama; Johnson, Evan J; Darawad, Muhammad W; Nakkash, Rima

    2017-09-27

    Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates in the Eastern Mediterranean region are some of the highest worldwide, especially among young people. This study aimed to improve our knowledge of the policy-relevant context of waterpipe smoking among six countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted in Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and the United Arab Emirates. Participants were young adult university students (18-29 years) from both genders who had ever smoked the waterpipe, recruited from universities participating in this study. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: A total of 53 in-depth interviews were conducted in Arabic in 2016. Findings were organized around 5 themes: waterpipe product characteristics; patterns of waterpipe smoking; the waterpipe café setting; perceived health consequences; and health warning labels. Waterpipe smoking was commonly perceived as a safe alternative to cigarettes. Waterpipe tobacco was reported to be widely accessible and affordable to young participants. There is a lack of knowledge among waterpipe smokers about the associated health effects. Warning labels are effective at communicating health risks associated with waterpipe smoking. Conclusions: Regulatory frameworks for waterpipe tobacco smoking should be developed and enforced, including waterpipe-specific health warning labels that elucidate the harmful effects of waterpipe smoking. Creative Commons Attribution License

  2. Do unsafe tetanus toxoid injections play a significant role in the transmission of HIV/AIDS? Evidence from seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Walque, D

    2008-04-01

    Although sexual transmission is generally considered to be the main factor driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa, recent studies have claimed that iatrogenic transmission should be considered as an important source of HIV infection. In particular, receipt of tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy has been reported to be associated with HIV infection in Kenya. The objective of this paper is to assess the robustness of this association among women in nationally representative HIV surveys in seven African countries. The association between prophylactic tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy and HIV infection was analysed, using individual-level data from women who gave birth in the past five years. These data are from the nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys, which included HIV testing in seven African countries: Burkina Faso 2003 (N = 2424), Cameroon 2004 (N = 2600), Ethiopia 2005 (N = 2886), Ghana 2003 (N = 2560), Kenya 2003 (N = 1617), Lesotho 2004 (N = 1278) and Senegal 2005 (N = 2126). Once the odds ratios (OR) were adjusted for five-year age groups and for ethnic, urban and regional indicators, the association between prophylactic tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy and HIV infection was never statistically significant in any of the seven countries. Only in Cameroon was there an association between previous tetanus toxoid injection and HIV positivity but it became weaker (OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.57) once urban location and ethnic group were adjusted for. Although the risk of HIV infection through unsafe injections and healthcare should not be ignored and should be reduced, it does not seem that there is, at present and in the seven countries studied, strong evidence supporting the claim that unsafe tetanus toxoid injections are a major factor driving the HIV epidemic.

  3. The Post-Socialist Transformation of Central and Eastern European Countries at the Turn of the Century: Regional Development and Economic Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askar Akayevich Akayev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the socio-economic systems is a non-linear process and it contains periods with smooth changes and subsequent periods of sharp jump transformation. The general design of new prospects opens at a stage of the birth of evolutionary processes, their forecasting requires the analysis of the historical prerequisites and risks, which are closely integrated to the change of moods in society. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the newly independent states have passed the transformational and evolutional stage of development from the regional economy (they actually were the regions to the economy of the state; the Central and Eastern European countries have experienced a dramatic “drift” to the European Union. In the article, the results of almost 25 years’ transformation of these states are considered. New states, formed as a result of the collapse of the USSR, passed throughout three types of transformation. Firstly, it is the transformation at the ideological level. The transformation of the second type was purely economic. The third type can be characterized as the institutional (including structural and financial transformation. It is shown that one of the important reasons for the modest economic performance in the post-Soviet space is that newly independent states ignore and do not use in the practice the principles of regional policy and regional modernization. One of the important characteristic of the social and economic evolution of the countries of Eastern Europe after 1990 became the process of stratification and social differentiation of society with an insufficiently strong middle class and the polarization in income levels between the different regions. The increasing polarization in the income levels of the various regions acts as the dominating trend of the growing economic inequality

  4. Triple Crises during the Transformation of Middle and Eastern European Countries%中东欧国家转型过程中的三重危机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓中

    2015-01-01

    After the transformation, the middle and eastern European countries experienced transformation crisis in the early 1990s; after 2004, they were trapped into the crisis caused by the entry into EU; then after 2008, there was the economic crisis resulted from the sovereign debt crisis in Euro zone, so that they deviate the mainstream development in Europe and the "recession" of democratization becomes the new trend. The triple crises reflect the problems of the middle and eastern European countries occurring in the social-economic region, social-political region and social-cultural region. However, they may be the "creative crises" which may bring a better future.%自转型以来,中东欧国家在20世纪90年代初期经历了转型危机, 2004年之后陷入了加入欧盟后危机,2008年之后又经历了欧元区主权债务危机引发的经济危机,出现了背离欧洲发展主流的现象,民主化的"回落"成为新趋势.三重危机反映了中东欧国家在社会经济领域、社会政治领域和社会文化领域中发生的问题.但三重危机或许也是能够带来更好未来的"创造性危机".

  5. A cost effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to reduce coronary heart disease in four Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mason

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD is rising in middle income countries. Population based strategies to reduce specific CHD risk factors have an important role to play in reducing overall CHD mortality. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce CHD events. This paper presents an economic evaluation of population based salt reduction policies in Tunisia, Syria, Palestine and Turkey. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three policies to reduce dietary salt intake were evaluated: a health promotion campaign, labelling of food packaging and mandatory reformulation of salt content in processed food. These were evaluated separately and in combination. Estimates of the effectiveness of salt reduction on blood pressure were based on a literature review. The reduction in mortality was estimated using the IMPACT CHD model specific to that country. Cumulative population health effects were quantified as life years gained (LYG over a 10 year time frame. The costs of each policy were estimated using evidence from comparable policies and expert opinion including public sector costs and costs to the food industry. Health care costs associated with CHDs were estimated using standardized unit costs. The total cost of implementing each policy was compared against the current baseline (no policy. All costs were calculated using 2010 PPP exchange rates. In all four countries most policies were cost saving compared with the baseline. The combination of all three policies (reducing salt consumption by 30% resulted in estimated cost savings of $235,000,000 and 6455 LYG in Tunisia; $39,000,000 and 31674 LYG in Syria; $6,000,000 and 2682 LYG in Palestine and $1,3000,000,000 and 378439 LYG in Turkey. CONCLUSION: Decreasing dietary salt intake will reduce coronary heart disease deaths in the four countries. A comprehensive strategy of health education and food industry actions to label and reduce salt content would save both money and lives.

  6. A cost effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to reduce coronary heart disease in four Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Helen; Shoaibi, Azza; Ghandour, Rula; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Khatib, Rana; Jabr, Samer; Unal, Belgin; Sözmen, Kaan; Arfa, Chokri; Aissi, Wafa; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Al-Ali, Radwan; Husseini, Abdullatif

    2014-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is rising in middle income countries. Population based strategies to reduce specific CHD risk factors have an important role to play in reducing overall CHD mortality. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce CHD events. This paper presents an economic evaluation of population based salt reduction policies in Tunisia, Syria, Palestine and Turkey. Three policies to reduce dietary salt intake were evaluated: a health promotion campaign, labelling of food packaging and mandatory reformulation of salt content in processed food. These were evaluated separately and in combination. Estimates of the effectiveness of salt reduction on blood pressure were based on a literature review. The reduction in mortality was estimated using the IMPACT CHD model specific to that country. Cumulative population health effects were quantified as life years gained (LYG) over a 10 year time frame. The costs of each policy were estimated using evidence from comparable policies and expert opinion including public sector costs and costs to the food industry. Health care costs associated with CHDs were estimated using standardized unit costs. The total cost of implementing each policy was compared against the current baseline (no policy). All costs were calculated using 2010 PPP exchange rates. In all four countries most policies were cost saving compared with the baseline. The combination of all three policies (reducing salt consumption by 30%) resulted in estimated cost savings of $235,000,000 and 6455 LYG in Tunisia; $39,000,000 and 31674 LYG in Syria; $6,000,000 and 2682 LYG in Palestine and $1,3000,000,000 and 378439 LYG in Turkey. Decreasing dietary salt intake will reduce coronary heart disease deaths in the four countries. A comprehensive strategy of health education and food industry actions to label and reduce salt content would save both money and lives.

  7. Histological observations on the dendretic organ of the farmed adult African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus from eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikpegbu Ekele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The histology of the accessory respiratory organ of the African catfish - dendretic organ was investigated to reveal its microanatomy. The data obtained will provide baseline data for further investigative research and assist fish pathologists. The histology showed that the tubular shaped dendretic organ was covered by stratified squamous epithelium containing periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and alcian blue (AB positive mucous cells. On most surfaces, the epithelial cells were organized into columns with mucous cells placed in-between the epithelial cell columns. At the tip of the surface, capillaries were lined by endothelium at the surface epithelium/air contact area. The subepithelial layer was of loose connective tissue containing adipose tissue and occasional blood vessels. The core of the dendretic organ contained elastic cartilage surrounded by a dense layer of perichondrium. Elastic fibres were observed the territorial and inter-territorial spaces.

  8. Oil and gas trends in African oil-producing countries. Part 1. Algeria and Libya; Africa san`yukoku no sekiyu gas doko. 1. Arujeria, Ribia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norie, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the recent crude oil and natural gas trends in Algeria and Libya out of the 6 African countries which account for more than 90% of crude and natural gas produced in the African continent. Algeria is now under severe economic situations, with deficits totalling 26 billion dollars. She depends on crude and natural gas for 95% of her foreign-exchange earnings. A number of foreign firms are now developing the oil and gas fields under dynamic political situations, with the Islamic fundamentalism radicals gaining power. She is now planning to expand the exportation of natural gas to European countries, produces 1.15 M B/D of oil (1994), having an R/P ratio of 34 years and refining capacity of 470 K B/D, and has the gas reserves of 3.7 trillion m{sup 3}, selling a total quantity of 53.9 billion m{sup 3}/y (1993). The UN`s sanctions on Libya for its acts of terrorism, such as blasting of a PamAm plane, have not had a fatal wound influenced on the Libyan economy. Oil exportation of 1.3 million B/D, accounting for 95% of her foreign- exchange earnings, gives the highest GNP per capita in Africa. Her oil reserves total 22.8 billion B (R/P ratio: 46 years). 6 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Migration of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui, to north-eastern Spain is aided by African wind currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Constantí; Alarcón, Marta; Avila, Anna

    2007-09-01

    1. Thousands of records of migratory butterfly species such as Vanessa cardui flying just above ground-level on fixed compass bearings have led to the common belief that these insects migrate within the so-called 'flight-boundary layer', where movements are relatively independent of the wind. 2. Given the selective advantages of windborne migration and the existence of a number of observations of flights of V. cardui from the upper levels of the atmosphere, we tested the hypothesis that migration from North Africa to southern Europe in this species is influenced by synoptic-scale wind currents. 3. Even with modern technology, it is extremely difficult to observe high-altitude flights directly, so we rely on an indirect approach that examines whether or not arrival peaks in north-eastern Spain are associated with winds blowing from Africa. 4. Arrivals of V. cardui were determined for the spring period (1 March-27 June, 1997-2006) at 79 sites in the Catalan Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Wind patterns were described on the basis of synoptic-scale maps, transport models and back-trajectories calculated for each day of the spring period. 5. We found a strong association between migration and winds from North Africa, both for the whole data set (1997-2006; chi(2) = 4.7, P = 0.03) and for a restricted data set that excludes years in which the species was very scarce (chi(2) = 7.26, P = 0.007). 6. Episodes of massive northward migration within the species' flight-boundary layer also coincided with spells of winds from North Africa, suggesting a connection between low-altitude (observational) and high-altitude flights (inferred from wind patterns). 7. Finally, on the assumption that migration in V. cardui is windborne, a source-receptor transport model applied to spring abundance data in north-eastern Spain enables us to identify the most probable population source areas in North Africa.

  10. Prevalence of HIV infection in conflict-affected and displaced people in seven sub-Saharan African countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Paul B; Bennedsen, Anne Rygaard; Claass, Johanna; Bruns, Laurie; Patterson, Njogu; Yiweza, Dieudonne; Schilperoord, Marian

    2007-06-30

    Violence and rape are believed to fuel the HIV epidemic in countries affected by conflict. We compared HIV prevalence in populations directly affected by conflict with that in those not directly affected and in refugees versus the nearest surrounding host communities in sub-Saharan African countries. Seven countries affected by conflict (Democratic Republic of Congo, southern Sudan, Rwanda, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, and Burundi) were chosen since HIV prevalence surveys within the past 5 years had been done and data, including original antenatal-care sentinel surveillance data, were available. We did a systematic and comprehensive literature search using Medline and Embase. Only articles and reports that contained original data for prevalence of HIV infection were included. All survey reports were independently evaluated by two epidemiologists to assess internationally accepted guidelines for HIV sentinel surveillance and population-based surveys. Whenever possible, data from the nearest antenatal care and host country sentinel site of the neighbouring countries were presented. 95% CIs were provided when available. Of the 295 articles that met our search criteria, 88 had original prevalence data and 65 had data from the seven selected countries. Data from these countries did not show an increase in prevalence of HIV infection during periods of conflict, irrespective of prevalence when conflict began. Prevalence in urban areas affected by conflict decreased in Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda at similar rates to urban areas unaffected by conflict in their respective countries. Prevalence in conflict-affected rural areas remained low and fairly stable in these countries. Of the 12 sets of refugee camps, nine had a lower prevalence of HIV infection, two a similar prevalence, and one a higher prevalence than their respective host communities. Despite wide-scale rape in many countries, there are no data to show that rape increased prevalence of HIV infection at the

  11. Improvements on restricted insecticide application protocol for control of Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis in eastern Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Muhanguzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African trypanosomes constrain livestock and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, and aggravate poverty and hunger of these otherwise largely livestock-keeping communities. To solve this, there is need to develop and use effective and cheap tsetse control methods. To this end, we aimed at determining the smallest proportion of a cattle herd that needs to be sprayed on the legs, bellies and ears (RAP for effective Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (HAT/AAT control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Cattle in 20 villages were ear-tagged and injected with two doses of diminazene diaceturate (DA forty days apart, and randomly allocated to one of five treatment regimens namely; no treatment, 25%, 50%, 75% monthly RAP and every 3 month Albendazole drench. Cattle trypanosome re-infection rate was determined by molecular techniques. ArcMap V10.3 was used to map apparent tsetse density (FTD from trap catches. The effect of graded RAP on incidence risk ratios and trypanosome prevalence was determined using Poisson and logistic random effect models in R and STATA V12.1 respectively. Incidence was estimated at 9.8/100 years in RAP regimens, significantly lower compared to 25.7/100 years in the non-RAP regimens (incidence rate ratio: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.22-0.65; P<0.001. Likewise, trypanosome prevalence after one year of follow up was significantly lower in RAP animals than in non-RAP animals (4% vs 15%, OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.08-0.44; P<0.001. Contrary to our expectation, level of protection did not increase with increasing proportion of animals treated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reduction in RAP coverage did not significantly affect efficacy of treatment. This is envisaged to improve RAP adaptability to low income livestock keepers but needs further evaluation in different tsetse challenge, HAT/AAT transmission rates and management systems before adopting it for routine tsetse control programs.

  12. Building public health associations in the transition countries of south-eastern Europe: the example of Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshi, Enver; Burazeri, Genc; Bjegovic, Vesna; Georgieva, Lidia; Donev, Doncho; Scintee, Gabriela; Hysa, Bajram; Laaser, Ulrich

    2006-06-01

    The Albanian Forum of Public Health (AFPH), an umbrella organization including different public health associations operating in Albania, was established in March 2004 with the support of the European Public Health Association (EUPHA) and the Open Society Institute (OSI). Ever since its establishment the AFPH has been an open arena wherein opinions and options for rational health policies comprising all relevant issues of the New Public Health are discussed, formulated, and documented near the Albanian Ministry of Health. Notwithstanding the laudable mission of the AFPH, there is an emerging need to establish a regional Public Health Forum in south-east Europe as a basic prerequisite for sustainable development of public health in these countries. Most conveniently, this regional umbrella organization should have a supporting Secretariat based in one of the south-east European countries. Nevertheless, there is a clear call for international funding with participation of different agencies and bodies (OSI, EUPHA, Canadian International Development Agency, and the Stability Pact). A regional association in the south-east Europe would enable the organization of annual conferences in the most renowned institutions in the region. Also, a regional collaboration among public health associations would be a suitable start for the development of research in south-east Europe. Furthermore, the existence of a regional public health association would make feasible the establishment of a scientific public health journal for south-east Europe in the English language.

  13. LiDAR, geophysical and field surveys at Ancient Epomanduodurum site and its surrounding country (Doubs, Eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplaige, Clement; Bossuet, Gilles; Thivet, Matthieu

    2010-05-01

    Integrated geophysical studies were carried out over several years, at Mandeure-Mathay (Franche-Comté Region, Eastern France) for the archaeological evaluation of ancient Epomanduodurum. The site is of major scientific interest to understand the territorial structure of earlier agglomerations in Eastern Gaul at the end of the Iron Age and during the Roman period. As regards its size, urban equipment, monuments and function, the ancient town is considered rating second behind the civitas capital of Sequani, Besançon-Vesontio. It is located in the Doubs valley, where the plain of Alsace opens into the marches of Burgundy, in a traffic zone between the Vosges and the Jura. This location allows transit between the Rhône valley and the Rhein plain, through the Saône and Doubs valleys. This geographical situation was a significant factor in the creation of the late Iron Age settlement, later to turn into a major Gallo-roman town. The whole site of the Ancient town includes urban centre and two artisan suburbs. The buried ruins stretch on more than 500 hectares outside and inside a meander of the Doubs River. From the beginning of the survey, in 2001, high resolution and non invasive geophysical methods (magnetic mapping and Automatic Restivity Profiling (ARP) were performed on large scale, both on the terrace and in the floodplain). Excavations associated to geophysical prospection allow to produce a general plan of the Gallo roman structures and to reconstruct the settlement evolution. While human occupation on open land is certified by a lot of indications, on the contrary, the forest-covered zones on table-land appear as less documented areas. The explanation is that some of the classic methods (such as aerial reconnaissance and field walking) are less efficient in the archaeological prospection of table-lands and hills, naturally marked by omnipresent forest. In our new research program (LIEPPEC and PCR Mandeure, 2008-2010), it appears necessary to better

  14. Use of the World Health Organization’s Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use Guidance in sub-Saharan African Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Melissa J; Gaffield, Mary E; Kiarie, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Given recent updates to the postpartum contraception recommendations in the fifth edition of the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (MEC), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the extent to which national family planning policies in sub-Saharan African countries are in agreement with the WHO MEC, particularly with regard to postpartum contraceptive use. WHO headquarters sent questionnaires to country-level focal points to complete with their Ministry of Health counterparts. Between February and May 2016, 23 of 32 (72%) surveys were completed. All respondents reported that their countries had used the MEC document in the past, with most reporting that they had used the guidance as a reference (n = 20, 87%), for training purposes (n = 19, 83%), to change clinical practices (n = 17, 74%), and to develop national policies (n = 16, 70%). While many respondents (16, 70%) indicated their countries already include immediate postpartum intrauterine device insertion among breastfeeding women in their family planning policies, few reported currently allowing use of progestogen-only pills (n = 8, 35%) or implants (n = 8, 35%) during the immediate postpartum period (i.e., less than 48 hours after delivery) for breastfeeding women. A higher percentage of respondents indicated their countries allowed breastfeeding women the option of progestogen-only pills (n = 16, 70%) and implants (n = 13, 57%) between 48 hours and 6 weeks postpartum. Findings from this baseline assessment suggest that many countries may benefit from training and policy formulation support to adapt both new WHO MEC updates as well as existing recommendations from previous MEC revisions into national family planning guidelines. PMID:27688720

  15. Development, features and application of DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP) software in supporting public health nutrition research in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Kadvan, Agnes; Nikolić, Marina; Zeković, Milica; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet growing public health nutrition challenges in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC) and Balkan countries, development of a Research Infrastructure (RI) and availability of an effective nutrition surveillance system are a prerequisite. The building block of this RI is an innovative tool called DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP), which is a platform for standardized and harmonized food consumption collection, comprehensive dietary intake assessment and nutrition planning. Its unique structure enables application of national food composition databases (FCDBs) from the European food composition exchange platform (28 national FCDBs) developed by EuroFIR (http://www.eurofir.org/) and in addition allows communication with other tools. DAP is used for daily menu and/or long-term diet planning in diverse public sector settings, foods design/reformulation, food labelling, nutrient intake assessment and calculation of the dietary diversity indicator, Minimum Dietary Diversity-Women (MDD-W). As a validated tool in different national and international projects, DAP represents an important RI in public health nutrition epidemiology in the CEEC region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pivot Tables - Toolkit: the Constraints to the Business Development in the Former Socialist EU Countries from the Central and Eastern Europe between (2008-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Daniela Zeca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When cooperation between countries is in harmony, trade and investment patterns are based on economic considerations. However, in times of geopolitical reconfiguration of ranking supremacy, economic events held on a stage that sums up all the world, with everything that means material resources, financial resources, polarized areas of intervention, causation so "equation", sometimes with many and unpredictable variables, may not be so easy to solve it. The measurements and econometric calculation are indisputable correct, analysis and the economic forecasts must be accompanied by correct investment strategies on international road map being important to not overlook tension that may weaken national strategy. Informational abundance is as dangerous, or more correctly ineffective, like is the shortage of information. I approached the topic " Pivot tables - toolkit: the constraints to the business development in the former EU socialist countries from the Central and Eastern Europe" in terms of the possibility of accessing easy, accurate and timely a lot of sources of information because, this aspect is desirable, that the result of research overcome the academic space and to become a useful and efficient tool both to researchers, the decision makers and for vectors of economic policy. How large were the constraints and limitations which occurred, which is architecture of their evolution curve for the horizon 2008, 2016, all of these are coagulated aspects in this paper and accessible with one click.

  17. Seismicity of the diffusive Iberian/African plate boundary at the eastern terminus of the Azores-Gibraltar Transform fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, D.; Grevemeyer, I.; Matias, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    The plate boundary at the eastern terminus of the Azores-Gibraltar transform fault between Africa and Iberia is poorly defined. The deformation in the area is forced by the slow NW-SE convergence of 4 mm/yr between the oceanic domains of Iberia/Eurasia and Africa and is accommodated over a 200 km broad tectonically-active deformation zone. The region, however, is also characterized by large earthquakes, such as the 1969 Mw=7.9 Horseshoe event and the November 1, 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake with an estimated magnitude of Mw~8.5. The exact location of the source of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake is still unknown. Recent work may suggest that the event occurred in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault, an oblique thrust fault. However, estimates of tsunami arrival times suggested a source near the Gorringe Bank, a ~180 km-long and ~70 km-wide ridge that has a relieve of ~5000 m. Deep Sea Drilling (DSDP) and rock samples indicated that the bank is mainly composed of serpentinized peridotites with gabbroic intrusions, perhaps being created by overthrusting of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain onto the Tagus Abyssal Plain in NW direction. Further, the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain is marked by the presence of compressive structures with a roughly NE-SW orientation and E-W trending, segmented, crustal-scale, strike slip faults that extend from the Gorringe Bank to the Gibraltar Arc in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz, which were called "South West Iberian Margin" or SWIM faults. The fault system may mark a developing Eurasia-Africa plate boundary. Two local seismic networks were operated in the area. First, a network of 14 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) was operated between April and October 2012 in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault between 10°W to 11°W, and 35°50'N to 36°10'N. From October 2013 to March 2014 a second network of 15 OBS monitored seismicity at the Gorringe Bank. Both networks benefitted from seismic stations operated in Portugal. The first network provided in the order of

  18. IS THERE A LINK BETWEEN MONETARY POLICY AND RISK PERCEPTION IN EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IMPLEMENTING INFLATION TARGETING REGIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydan Kansu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent financial crisis of August 2007 in US, economists and policy makers hold the view that monetary policy may have an effect on real economic activity through ‘risk taking channel’ which indicates the risk behavior of economic agents and the linkages between monetary policy and perception of risk. In this study, we examine whether changes in monetary policy stance influence the risk perceptions and generates any impact on the real side of the economy in Czech Republic, Poland, Russian Federation and Turkey implementing inflation targeting. In the context of a SVAR model, we find that monetary policy does not affect risk perception reflected by stock price variability and any attempt by central banks to stimulate real economic activity through monetary policy also appears to be ineffective in these countries.

  19. Image quality and dose in mammography in 17 countries in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe: Results from IAEA projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera, E-mail: ociraj@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Serbia); Avramova-Cholakova, Simona, E-mail: s_avramova@mail.bg [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP), Ministry of Health, Sofia (Bulgaria); Beganovic, Adnan, E-mail: adnanbeg@gmail.com [University of Sarajevo, Institute of Radiology, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Economides, Sotirios, E-mail: adnanbeg@gmail.com [Ministry of Development, Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Athens (Greece); Faj, Dario, E-mail: dariofaj@mefos.hr [University Hospital Osijek, Osijek (Croatia); Gershan, Vesna, E-mail: vgersan@gmail.com [National Commission on Radiation Protection, Institute of Radiology, Skopje, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Grupetta, Edward, E-mail: edward.gruppetta@gov.mt [St. Luke' s Hospital, Diagnostic Radiology Unit, Guardamangia (Malta); Kharita, M.H., E-mail: mhkharita@aec.org.sy [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Department of Protection and Safety, Radiation and Nuclear Regulatory Office, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Milakovic, Milomir, E-mail: mmilomir@teol.net [Ministry of Health of the Republic of Srpska, Public Health Institute of Republic of Srpska, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Milu, Constantin, E-mail: milu.constantin@yahoo.com [Institute of Public Health, SSDL, Bucharest (Romania); Muhogora, Wilbroad E., E-mail: wmuhogora@yahoo.com [Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Arusha, Tanzania (Tanzania, United Republic of); Muthuvelu, Pirunthavany, E-mail: mpvany@gmail.com [Ministry of Health, Radiation Health Safety Branch, Putra Jaya (Malaysia); Oola, Samuel, E-mail: ooladavidson@yahoo.com [Mulago Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kampala (Uganda); Setayeshi, Saeid, E-mail: setayesh@aut.ac.ir [Ministry of Health, Treatment, and Medical Training, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: The objective is to study mammography practice from an optimisation point of view by assessing the impact of simple and immediately implementable corrective actions on image quality. Materials and methods: This prospective multinational study included 54 mammography units in 17 countries. More than 21,000 mammography images were evaluated using a three-level image quality scoring system. Following initial assessment, appropriate corrective actions were implemented and image quality was re-assessed in 24 units. Results: The fraction of images that were considered acceptable without any remark in the first phase (before the implementation of corrective actions) was 70% and 75% for cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique projections, respectively. The main causes for poor image quality before corrective actions were related to film processing, damaged or scratched image receptors, or film-screen combinations that are not spectrally matched, inappropriate radiographic techniques and lack of training. Average glandular dose to a standard breast was 1.5 mGy (mean and range 0.59–3.2 mGy). After optimisation the frequency of poor quality images decreased, but the relative contributions of the various causes remained similar. Image quality improvements following appropriate corrective actions were up to 50 percentage points in some facilities. Conclusions: Poor image quality is a major source of unnecessary radiation dose to the breast. An increased awareness of good quality mammograms is of particular importance for countries that are moving towards introduction of population-based screening programmes. The study demonstrated how simple and low-cost measures can be a valuable tool in improving of image quality in mammography.

  20. Role of health technology assessment in the process of implementation of the EU Transparency Directive: relevant experience from Central Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Katarzyna; Kalo, Zoltan; Zah, Vladimir; Dolezal, Tomas

    2012-06-01

    A total of 7 years after the addition of Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary to the EU, the pricing and reimbursement regulations introduced in these countries are still considered to be not fully compliant with Directive 89/105/EEC, commonly referred to as the 'Transparency Directive' (TD). The TD aims to ensure the transparency of the pricing and reimbursement processes for medicinal products established by the member states. Among the most difficult barriers on the way to successful implementation of the TD discussed are meeting the timelines indicated by the TD, the implementation of objective and verifiable criteria for decisions, and the availability of remedies for negative decisions. Health technology assessment (HTA) has been introduced in to the reimbursement systems in Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary almost simultaneously to their accession to the EU. Even though Central Eastern European (CEE) countries faced similar challenges during the transformation to a democratic system, certain differences in the extent to which HTA principles have been implemented in these countries could be distinguished. Hence, it is thought-provoking to consider the different views of HTA experts on the role of HTA in the adaptation of the TD in the CEE region. The key objective of this article will be to discuss whether the adaptation of HTA principles has supported or only triggered additional challenges in the process of successful implementation of the TD in the CEE region. In particular, the article will discuss whether the introduction of mandatory HTA recommendations or explicit willingness-to-pay threshold would encourage or discourage implementation of the TD. The importance of the independent HTA agency as a condition for successful introduction of the TD will also be debated.

  1. Budget impact analysis of biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodszky, Valentin; Baji, Petra; Balogh, Orsolya; Péntek, Márta

    2014-05-01

    The first biosimilar monoclonal antibody (infliximab, CT-P13) was registered by the European Medicines Agency in 2013 for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Biosimilar infliximab is first being marketed in the Central and Eastern European countries. This paper presents the estimated budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar infliximab in RA over a 3-year time period in six selected countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. A prevalence-based model was constructed for budget impact analysis. Two scenarios were compared to the reference scenario (RSc) where no biosimilar infliximab is available: biosimilar scenario 1 (BSc1), where interchanging the originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab is disallowed, and only patients who start new biological therapy are allowed to use biosimilar infliximab; as well as biosimilar scenario 2 (BSc2), where interchanging the originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab is allowed, and 80% of patients treated with originator infliximab are interchanged to biosimilar infliximab. Compared to the RSc, the net savings are estimated to be €15.3 or €20.8 M in BSc1 and BSc2, respectively, over the 3 years. If budget savings were spent on reimbursement of additional biosimilar infliximab treatment, approximately 1,200 or 1,800 more patients could be treated in the six countries within 3 years in the two biosimilar scenarios, respectively. The actual saving is most sensitive to the assumption of the acquisition cost of the biosimilar drug and to the initial number of patients treated with biological therapy. The study focused on one indication (RA) and demonstrated that the introduction of biosimilar infliximab can lead to substantial budget savings in health care budgets. Further savings are expected for other indications where biosimilar medicines are implemented.

  2. FINANCIAL SECTOR AND GROWTH PROCESS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE'S FORMER SOCIALIST COUNTRIES: COULD A KALDORIAN CUMULATIVE CAUSATION APPROACH HELP TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE LINKS BETWEEN THEM?

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    Stavroula DIMKOU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The reform and development of the financial sector was one of the most significant challenges that the former socialist countries faced during their transition to a market economy. At the start of this transition, their financial system was underdeveloped and centralised (monobank, where the central bank of each economy also functioned as a commercial bank. The restructuring, integration and development of the financial sector to enhance viability and enable it to respond to new demands was imperative, particularly for economic growth and the convergence of these economies with the developed economies of the region. This process of financial integration suffered a powerful shock with the economic crisis transmitted to the region in 2009. The initial aim of this paper is to highlight the problems created after the global economic crisis affecting the financial institutions of the former socialist countries of South-eastern Europe, as well as the problems that already existed, though not apparent, and were nevertheless exacerbated by the outbreak of the crisis. An attempt to investigate the role of the financial sector, dominated by the banking sector, follows, with regard to achieving macroeconomic equilibrium among the economies of the countries in the region and the potential for sustaining it in future as part of a path to growth. To fully satisfy this goal, we propose that it is preferable to avoid a linear approach to the issue, abandoning equilibrium theory to adopt an analysis inspired by the method of cumulative causation, based on the work of Nicholas Kaldor. Our analysis allows us to postulate that, in a post-crisis period, conditions prevail for the potential appearance of future structural impasses of a cumulative nature, which could lead to a systemic crisis and leave the development process of the region's economies exposed.

  3. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE MARKETS EFFICIENCY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    Botoş Horia Mircea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of the Global financial crisis on the efficiency of four Central and Eastern European emerging unit-linked insurance markets, applying the automatic variance ratio (AVR test of Kim (2009 and variance ratio tests using ranks and signs by Wright (2000 for entire, pre-crisis and crisis periods. This study contributes to the existing literature on efficient market hypothesis with several distinct features: it provides a systematic review of the weak-form market efficiency literature that examines return predictability of the daily ING unit-linked funds prices; also the article aims at monitoring any improvement in the degree of efficiency in time and also examines the relative efficiency of unit-linked insurance markets in pre-crisis and crisis periods. Unit linked insurance are life insurance policies with investment component. In the literature there are few studies investigating the effects of a financial crisis on the potential of predictability and implicitly on the degree of efficiency of financial markets. The occurrence of a market crash or financial crisis is a possible contributing factor of market inefficiency. Most of the studies are focused on the Asian crisis in 1997: Holden et al. (2005 examined the weak-form efficiency of eight emerging Asian stock markets using VR tests before, during and after the Asian crisis; Kim and Shamsuddin (2008 used three different types of multiple VR tests for nine Asian stock markets; the findings reported by Lim et al. (2008 are consistent with those reported by Cheong et al. (2007, in which the highest inefficiency occurs during the crisis period. Todea and Lazar (2010 investigated the effects of the Global crisis on the relative efficiency of ten CEE stock markets, using Generalized Spectral test of Escanciano and Velasco (2006. Wright (2000 proposes the alternative non-parametric variance ratio tests using ranks and signs of return and demonstrates that

  4. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH – EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    Florin Cornel Dumiter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization and globalization of economical problems, industrial manufacturing, and the movement of financial capital, determine the investment activities to become a global one, with implications for all the national and world wide economies. As a result, the foreign direct investments, throughout their economical constitution and substance, form a part of the economical relationships and international cooperation, which bring an essential contribution to the economical growth, creating work places, optimize the allocation of resources, enabling technology transfer and stimulate trading. Foreign Direct Investments have presently become the most important source of external funding for all the countries, regardless of their level of development. This kind of investments proved to be a more stable and used source of funding than the portfolio investments or the bank loans, as they are less affected by the financial crisis. Against this background, global direct financial investments flows remain one of the main manifestations of globalization, which is easily demonstrated if we reflect on the fact that currently over 50% of everything that happens in the world, be it product or services, is carried out by subsidiaries of transnational corporations, namely companies resulting from direct financial investments. It is estimated that the volume, structure and geographical distribution of foreign direct investments will be "patterned" in the proportion of 50% by the international economic situation, the implications of the crisis on the global financial system.

  5. Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET

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    Mukanga David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET’s approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. The Relationship between Livestock Ownership and Child Stunting in Three Countries in Eastern Africa Using National Survey Data.

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    Emily M Mosites

    Full Text Available Livestock ownership has the potential to improve child nutrition through various mechanisms, although direct evaluations of household livestock and child stunting status are uncommon. We conducted an analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS datasets from Ethiopia (2011, Kenya (2008-2009, and Uganda (2010 among rural children under 5 years of age to compare stunting status across levels of livestock ownership. We classified livestock ownership by summing reported household numbers of goats, sheep, cattle and chickens, as well as calculating a weighted score to combine multiple species. The primary association was assessed separately by country using a log-binomial model adjusted for wealth and region, which was then stratified by child diarrheal illness, animal-source foods intake, sub-region, and wealth index. This analysis included n = 8079 children from Ethiopia, n = 3903 children from Kenya, and n = 1645 from Uganda. A ten-fold increase in household livestock ownership had significant association with lower stunting prevalence in Ethiopia (Prevalence Ratio [PR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98 and Uganda (PR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.97, but not Kenya (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96-1.07. The weighted livestock score was only marginally associated with stunting status. The findings varied slightly by region, but not by wealth, diarrheal disease, or animal-source food intake. This analysis suggested a slightly beneficial effect of household livestock ownership on child stunting prevalence. The small effect size observed may be related to limitations of the DHS dataset or the potentially complicated relationship between malnutrition and livestock ownership, including livestock health and productivity.

  7. Amniotic band syndrome (ABS): can something be done during pregnancy in African poor countries? Three cases and review of the literature.

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    Mian, D B; Nguessan, K L P; Aissi, G; Boni, S

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is a fetal congenital malformation, affecting mainly the limbs, but also the craniofacial area and internal organs. Two mains pathogenic mechanisms are proposed in its genesis. Firstly the early amnion rupture (exogenous theory) leading to fibrous bands, which wrap up the fetal body; secondly, the endogenous theory privileges vascular origin, mesoblastic strings not being a causal agent. The authors believe that the second theory explain the occurrence of ABS. The outcome of the disease during pregnancy depends on the gravity of the malformations. Interruption of the pregnancy is usually proposed when diagnosis of severe craniofacial and visceral abnormalities is confirmed. Whereas minor limb defects can be repaired with postnatal surgery. In case of an isolated amniotic band with a constricted limb, in utero lysis of the band can be considered to avoid a natural amputation. In an African country, such treatment is not possible as far as the antenatal diagnosis.

  8. The Pan-African calc-alkaline granitoids and the associated mafic microgranular enclaves (MME around Wadi Abu Zawal area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt: geology, geochemistry and petrogenesis

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    Asran Mohamed Asran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The area around Wadi Abu Zawal is occupied by gneisses-migmatites, island arcs metavolcanics, Dokhan volcanics, Hammamat sediments, intrusive rocks of granitic and gabbroic composition and dyke swarms.Materials and Methods: The present work concerning on the geology, geochemistry and petrogenesis of the MME and the host granitoid rocks of that area. The analytical methods for major and trace elements of some representative samples were carried out by XRF technique at the Institute of BGR in Hannover, Germany.Results: Mineralogically, MME are composed mainly of plagioclase, hornblende, biotite and quartz with accessory of sphene, acicular apatite and opaque oxides, while chlorite and epidote are secondary ones. Whereas Abu Zawal granitoid rocks are subsolvus and consist of variable contents of plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz, and biotite, with accessory sphene, zircon and opaque oxides, typical of I-type granites. The studied Abu Zawal area represents part of the northeastern Egypt which formed by regional crustal extension and magmatic-arc regimes during Pan-African orogenic event.The MME display major, trace element contents and tectonic setting comparable with the end members of (GDT and (IAG of the Eastern Desert which produced (by fractionation from a mantle-derived tholeiitic magma in an island-arc tectonic environment. Abu Zawal granitoid rocks exhibit trace element characteristics of volcanic-arc granites, and formed in an Andean-type setting.Conclusions: On the variation diagrams, major and trace element contents of the MME and granitoid rocks display conspicuous gap and two distinct trends one for the MME, (IAG and the other for the Abu Zawal granitoid rocks, which indicates that they are not genetically related and suggest the crustal source for the host granitoid rock.

  9. An update of the tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae distribution and African animal trypanosomosis prevalence in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    Chantel J. de Beer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An unpredicted outbreak of African animal trypanosomosis or nagana in 1990 in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal necessitated an emergency control programme, utilising the extensive cattledipping system in the area, as well as a reassessment of the tsetse and trypanosomosis problem in the province. Since 1990, sporadic blood sampling of cattle at the dip tanks in the naganainfested areas were undertaken to identify trypanosome species involved and to determine the infection prevalence in cattle. The distribution and species composition of the tsetse populations in the area were also investigated. From November 2005 to November 2007 selected dip tanks were surveyed for trypanosome infection prevalence. During April 2005 to August 2009 the distribution and abundance of tsetse populations were assessed with odour-baited H traps. The tsetse and trypanosome distribution maps were updated and potential correlations between tsetse apparent densities (ADs and the prevalence of trypanosomosis were assessed. Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead were recorded in locations where they have not previously been collected. No significant correlation between tsetse relative abundance and nagana prevalence was found, which indicated complex interactions between tsetse fly presence and disease prevalence. This was epitomised by data that indicated that despite large differences in the ADs of G. austeni and G. brevipalpis, trypanosome infection prevalence was similar in all three districts in the area. This study clearly indicated that both tsetse species play significant roles in trypanosome transmission and that it will be essential that any control strategy, which aims at sustainable management of the disease, should target both species.Keywords: Tsetse distribution; Glossina brevipalpis; Glossina austeni; trypanosome infection prevalence

  10. 我国对非洲矿业投资的战略%The mining investment is key point of our country to the African investment strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, our country positively realized superiority supplementarily of China and Africa, expanded investment to the African, Chinese and Africa's friendly cooperation already penetrates into each level, each aspect, each domain. China and Africa multiplies gradually in the cooperation of resources development and the minerals trade, and has yielded the very big result. Mineral resource is extremely rich in Africa, and has the very strong complementarity with our country. Chinese and Africa are willing in the resources domain development mutual benefit win-win cooperation, seize the opportunity and communal development. One hand, Economy development of African first needs take raw material as a foundation; On the other hand, our country economy development also needs to solve a problem of bottleneck of the energy and the mineral resource, therefore, our country invests to Africa should place in with emphasis the mining industry and the processing industry.%近年来,我国积极实现中非优势互补,扩大对非投资,中国与非洲的友好合作已经深入到各个层次、各个方面、各个领域.中非在资源开发方面的合作与矿产品贸易的内容逐渐多元化,并取得了很大成果.非洲的矿产资源十分丰富,并且与我国具有很强的互补性.中非两国愿意在资源领域开展互利双赢的合作,把握机遇,共同发展.由于一方面,非洲经济的发展首先需要以原材料为基础;另一方面,我国经济的发展也需要解决能源及矿产资源的瓶颈问题,因此,我国对非洲投资的重点应该放在矿业及其加工业上.

  11. The significance of context for curriculum development in engineering education: a case study across three African countries

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    Case, Jennifer M.; Fraser, Duncan M.; Kumar, Anil; Itika, Ambrose

    2016-05-01

    Curriculum reform is a key topic in the engineering education literature, but much of this discussion proceeds with little engagement with the impact of the local context in which the programme resides. This article thus seeks to understand the influence of local contextual dynamics on curriculum reform in engineering education. The empirical study is a comparative analysis of the context for curriculum reform in three different chemical engineering departments on the African continent, located in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. All three departments are currently engaged in processes of curriculum reform, but the analysis shows how the different contexts in which these efforts are taking place exert strong shaping effects on the processes and outcomes for that reform.

  12. 19 CFR 10.178a - Special duty-free treatment for sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... article for which duty-free treatment is claimed; (d) Origin and related rules. The provisions of §§ 10... processing operations reflected in or applied to the article meet the country of origin rules set forth in... Crude Petroleum...

  13. Female Genital Mutilation: A Literature Review of the Current Status of Legislation and Policies in 27 African Countries and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthumbi, Jane; Svanemyr, Joar; Scolaro, Elisa; Temmerman, Marleen; Say, Lale

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the results of a literature review that has assessed the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) legislation in 28 countries (27 in Africa and Yemen) where FGM is concentrated. Evidence on the impact of FGM legislation was available on prevalence of FGM; changes in societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM; knowledge and awareness of FGM legislation and consequences, and the impact on medicalization. While the majority of countries have adopted legal frameworks prohibiting FGM, these measures have been ineffective in preventing and/or in accelerating the abandonment of the practice. Anti-FGM laws have had an impact on prevalence in only two countries where strict enforcement of legal measures has been complemented by robust monitoring, coupled with robust advocacy efforts in communities. Owing to poor enforcement and lax penalties, legal measures have had a limited impact on medicalization. Similarly, legal frameworks have had a limited impact on societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM, with evidence suggesting rigid enforcement of FGM laws has in some instances been counterproductive. Although evidence suggests legislation has not influenced the decline in FGM in the majority of countries, legal frameworks are nevertheless key components of a comprehensive response to the elimination and abandonment of the practice, and need to be complemented by measures that address the underlying socio-cultural norms that are the root of this practice.

  14. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers

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    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Methods Researchers who published health systems and policy relevant research in 12 countries in the EMR (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen were surveyed. Descriptive analysis and Linear Mixed Regression Models were performed for quantitative sections and the simple thematic analysis approach was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 238 researchers were asked to complete the survey (response rate 56%. Researchers indicated transferring results to other researchers (67.2% and policymakers in the government (40.5%. Less than one-quarter stated that they produced policy briefs (14.5%, disseminated messages that specified possible actions (24.4%, interacted with policymakers and stakeholders in priority-setting (16%, and involved them in their research (19.8%. Insufficient policy dialogue opportunities and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders (67.9%, practical constraints to implementation (66%, non-receptive policy environment (61.3%, and politically sensitive findings (57.7% hindered the use of evidence. Factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE activities in the region were associated with involving policymakers and stakeholders at various stages such as priority-setting exercises and provision of technical assistance. Conclusions Researchers in the EMR recognize the importance of using health systems evidence in health policymaking. Potential strategies to

  15. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE CULTURAL HERITAGE, TRAVEL n TOURISM, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    Dugulan Diana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cultural heritage, including, according to the UNESCO definition, the assembly of monuments, groups of buildings, and sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view, represents an important asset that can be engaged and capitalized in order to support the sustainable development. Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs in order to provide a better quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come, has become a concern and, in the same time, a priority for all the stakeholders of the society. Turning to the best account of the cultural heritage also represents an important driver for the sustainable development of the travel and tourism industry, as the cultural sites, institutions, goods and services, appropriately capitalized, represent significant attractions for the international and domestic tourists. The integration of the principles of sustainable development in the current functioning of the travel and tourism industry led to the development and implementation of the concept of sustainable tourism. The paper explores in a distinctive manner the relationships between the cultural heritage and the travel and tourism industry, respectively the cultural heritage and the sustainable development based on a set of related statistical indicators, and the specific secondary data, expressing the extent of the cultural heritage, the development of the travel and tourism industry, and the attained level of sustainable development in ten Central and Eastern European countries, members of the European Union. There are two major research questions the paper aims to answer: (1 How significant is the relationship between the cultural heritage and the development of the travel and tourism industry? (2 Is there a noteworthy connection between the cultural heritage and the sustainable

  16. Comparison of the effects of public and private health expenditures on the health status: a panel data analysis in eastern mediterranean countries.

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    Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Vahedi, Sajad; Teimourizad, Abedin; Esmaeilzadeh, Firooz; Hadian, Mohamad; Torabi Pour, Amin

    2013-08-01

    Health expenditures are divided in two parts of public and private health expenditures. Public health expenditures contain social security spending, taxing to private and public sectors, and foreign resources like loans and subventions. On the other hand, private health expenditures contain out of pocket expenditures and private insurances. Each of these has different effects on the health status. The present study aims to compare the effects of these expenditures on health in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). In this study, infant mortality rate was considered as an indicator of health status. We estimated the model using the panel data of EMR countries between 1995 and 2010. First, we used Pesaran CD test followed by Pesaran's CADF unit root test. After the confirmation of having unit root, we used Westerlund panel cointegration test and found that the model was cointegrated and then after using Hausman and Breusch-Pagan tests, we estimated the model using the random effects. The results showed that the public health expenditures had a strong negative relationship with infant mortality rate. However, a positive relationship was found between the private health expenditures and infant mortality rate (IMR). The relationship for public health expenditures was significant, but for private health expenditures was not. The study findings showed that the public health expenditures in the EMR countries improved health outcome, while the private health expenditures did not have any significant relationship with health status, so often increasing the public health expenditures leads to reduce IMR. But this relationship was not significant because of contradictory effects for poor and wealthy peoples.

  17. Antiretroviral therapy enrollment characteristics and outcomes among HIV-infected adolescents and young adults compared with older adults--seven African countries, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Andrew F; Agolory, Simon G; Shiraishi, Ray W; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Mulenga, Modest; Hachizovu, Sebastian; Asadu, Emeka; Tuho, Moise Zanga; Ettiegne-Traore, Virginie; Mbofana, Francisco; Okello, Velephi; Azih, Charles; Denison, Julie A; Tsui, Sharon; Koole, Olivier; Kamiru, Harrison; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Alfredo, Charity; Jobarteh, Kebba; Odafe, Solomon; Onotu, Dennis; Ekra, Kunomboa A; Kouakou, Joseph S; Ehrenkranz, Peter; Bicego, George; Torpey, Kwasi; Mukadi, Ya Diul; van Praag, Eric; Menten, Joris; Mastro, Timothy; Dukes Hamilton, Carol; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Dokubo, E Kainne; Baughman, Andrew L; Spira, Thomas; Colebunders, Robert; Bangsberg, David; Marlink, Richard; Zee, Aaron; Kaplan, Jonathan; Ellerbrock, Tedd V

    2014-11-28

    Although scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) since 2005 has contributed to declines of about 30% in the global annual number of human immunodeficiency (HIV)-related deaths and declines in global HIV incidence, estimated annual HIV-related deaths among adolescents have increased by about 50% and estimated adolescent HIV incidence has been relatively stable. In 2012, an estimated 2,500 (40%) of all 6,300 daily new HIV infections occurred among persons aged 15-24 years. Difficulty enrolling adolescents and young adults in ART and high rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU) after ART initiation might be contributing to mortality and HIV incidence in this age group, but data are limited. To evaluate age-related ART retention challenges, data from retrospective cohort studies conducted in seven African countries among 16,421 patients, aged ≥15 years at enrollment, who initiated ART during 2004-2012 were analyzed. ART enrollment and outcome data were compared among three groups defined by age at enrollment: adolescents and young adults (aged 15-24 years), middle-aged adults (aged 25-49 years), and older adults (aged ≥50 years). Enrollees aged 15-24 years were predominantly female (81%-92%), commonly pregnant (3%-32% of females), unmarried (54%-73%), and, in four countries with employment data, unemployed (53%-86%). In comparison, older adults were more likely to be male (padolescents and young adults had higher LTFU rates in all seven countries, reaching statistical significance in three countries in crude and multivariable analyses. Evidence-based interventions to reduce LTFU for adolescent and young adult ART enrollees could help reduce mortality and HIV incidence in this age group.

  18. Factors Associated with Early Introduction of Formula and/or Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods in Seven Francophone West African Countries

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    Abukari I. Issaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged three to five months in seven Francophone West African countries. The sources of data for the analyses were the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the seven countries, namely Benin (BDHS, 2012, Burkina Faso (BFDHS, 2010, Cote d’Ivoire (CIDHS, 2011–2012, Guinea (GDHS, 2012, Mali (MDHS, 2012–2013, Niger (NDHS, 2012 and Senegal (SDHS, 2010. The study used multiple logistic regression methods to analyse the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample was composed of 4158 infants aged between three and five months with: 671 from Benin, 811 from Burkina Faso, 362 from Cote d’Ivoire, 398 from Guinea, 519 from Mali, 767 from Niger and 630 from Senegal. Multiple analyses indicated that in three of the seven countries (Benin, Guinea and Senegal, infants who suffered illnesses, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, were significantly more likely to be introduced to formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods between the age of three and five months. Other significant factors included infants who: were born in second to fourth position (Benin, whose mothers did not attend any antenatal clinics (Burkina Faso and Niger, were male (Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal, lived in an urban areas (Senegal, or were delivered by traditional birth attendants (Guinea, Niger and Senegal. Programmes to discourage early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries should target the most vulnerable segments of the population in order to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices and reduce infant mortality.

  19. Skilled Birth Attendants: who is who? A descriptive study of definitions and roles from nine Sub Saharan African countries.

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    Adegoke, Adetoro; Utz, Bettina; Msuya, Sia E; van den Broek, Nynke

    2012-01-01

    Availability of a Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) during childbirth is a key indicator for MDG5 and a strategy for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality in Africa. There is limited information on how SBAs and their functions are defined. The aim of this study was to map the cadres of health providers considered SBAs in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA); to describe which signal functions of Essential Obstetric Care (EmOC) they perform and assess whether they are legislated to perform these functions. Key personnel in the Ministries of Health, teaching institutions, referral, regional and district hospitals completed structured questionnaires in nine SSA countries in 2009-2011. A total of 21 different cadres of health care providers (HCP) were reported to be SBA. Type and number of EmOC signal functions reported to be provided, varied substantially between cadres and countries. Parenteral antibiotics, uterotonic drugs and anticonvulsants were provided by most SBAs. Removal of retained products of conception and assisted vaginal delivery were the least provided signal functions. Except for the cadres of obstetricians, medical doctors and registered nurse-midwives, there was lack of clarity regarding signal functions reported to be performed and whether they were legislated to perform these. This was particularly for manual removal of placenta, removal of retained products and assisted vaginal delivery. In some countries, cadres not considered SBA performed deliveries and provided EmOC signal functions. In other settings, cadres reported to be SBA were able to but not legislated to perform key EmOC signal functions. Comparison of cadres of HCPs reported to be SBA across countries is difficult because of lack of standardization in names, training, and functions performed. There is a need for countries to develop clear guidelines defining who is a SBA and which EmOC signal functions each cadre of HCP is expected to provide.

  20. Skilled Birth Attendants: who is who? A descriptive study of definitions and roles from nine Sub Saharan African countries.

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    Adetoro Adegoke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Availability of a Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA during childbirth is a key indicator for MDG5 and a strategy for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality in Africa. There is limited information on how SBAs and their functions are defined. The aim of this study was to map the cadres of health providers considered SBAs in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA; to describe which signal functions of Essential Obstetric Care (EmOC they perform and assess whether they are legislated to perform these functions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Key personnel in the Ministries of Health, teaching institutions, referral, regional and district hospitals completed structured questionnaires in nine SSA countries in 2009-2011. A total of 21 different cadres of health care providers (HCP were reported to be SBA. Type and number of EmOC signal functions reported to be provided, varied substantially between cadres and countries. Parenteral antibiotics, uterotonic drugs and anticonvulsants were provided by most SBAs. Removal of retained products of conception and assisted vaginal delivery were the least provided signal functions. Except for the cadres of obstetricians, medical doctors and registered nurse-midwives, there was lack of clarity regarding signal functions reported to be performed and whether they were legislated to perform these. This was particularly for manual removal of placenta, removal of retained products and assisted vaginal delivery. In some countries, cadres not considered SBA performed deliveries and provided EmOC signal functions. In other settings, cadres reported to be SBA were able to but not legislated to perform key EmOC signal functions. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison of cadres of HCPs reported to be SBA across countries is difficult because of lack of standardization in names, training, and functions performed. There is a need for countries to develop clear guidelines defining who is a SBA and which EmOC signal functions each cadre of HCP is expected to

  1. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence from an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region

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    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Stringhini, Silvia; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background: While obesity continues to rise globally, the associations between body size, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations, and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. Purpose: We examined the gender and socioeconomic…

  2. Key Issues and Policy Considerations in Promoting Lifelong Learning in Selected African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda and Tanzania. UIL Publication Series on Lifelong Learning Policies and Strategies. No. 1

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    Walters, Shirley; Yang, Jim; Roslander, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This cross-national study focuses on key issues and policy considerations in promoting lifelong learning in Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, and Tanzania (the five African countries that took part in a pilot workshop on "Developing Capacity for Establishing Lifelong Learning Systems in UNESCO Member States: at the UNESCO Institute for…

  3. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

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    Roberts Les

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78 for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62 for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93 for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04 for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00 for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on

  4. The key challenge of corporate governance of firms: Empirical evidence from Sub-Saharan African anglophone (SSAA) countries

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    Afolabi, Adeoye Amuda

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Motivation:In the Sub-Saharan Africa countries there are several factors contributing to the collapse of firms. Most firms have failed due to poor corporate governance practices. The recent collapse of some firms in the financial and non-financial sectors in the Sub-region shows that there are challenges hindering effective corporate governance of firms in the Subregion. Consequently, this...

  5. A cross-sectional survey of emergency and essential surgical care capacity among hospitals with high trauma burden in a Central African country.

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    Kouo-Ngamby, Marquise; Dissak-Delon, Fanny Nadia; Feldhaus, Isabelle; Juillard, Catherine; Stevens, Kent A; Ekeke-Monono, Martin

    2015-10-23

    As the overwhelming surgical burden of injury and disease steadily increases, disproportionately affecting low- and middle-income countries, adequate surgical and trauma care systems are essential. Yet, little is known about the emergency and essential surgical care (EESC) capacity of facilities in many African countries. The objective of this study was to assess the EESC capacity in different types of hospitals across Cameroon. This cross-sectional survey used the WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess EESC, investigating four key areas: infrastructure, human resources, interventions, and equipment and supplies. Twelve hospitals were surveyed between August and September 2009. Facilities were conveniently sampled based on proximity to road traffic and sociodemographic composition of population served in four regions of Cameroon. To complete the survey, investigators interviewed heads of facilities, medical advisors, and nursing officers and consulted hospital records and statistics at each facility. Seven district hospitals, two regional hospitals, two general hospitals, and one missionary hospital completed the survey. Infrastructure for EESC was generally inadequate with the largest gaps in availability of oxygen concentrator supply, an on-site blood bank, and pain relief management guidelines. Human resources were scarce with a combined total of six qualified surgeons, seven qualified obstetrician/gynecologists, and no anesthesiologists at district, regional, and missionary hospitals. Of 35 surgical interventions, 16 were provided by all hospitals. District hospitals reported referring patients for 22 interventions. Only nine of the 67 pieces of equipment were available at all hospitals for all patients all of the time. Severe shortages highlighted by this survey demonstrate the significant gaps in capacity of hospitals to deliver EESC and effectively address the increasing surgical burden of disease and injury in Cameroon. This data provides a foundation

  6. Early Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Infants - One Caribbean and Six Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2011-2015.

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    Diallo, Karidia; Kim, Andrea A; Lecher, Shirley; Ellenberger, Dennis; Beard, R Suzanne; Dale, Helen; Hurlston, Mackenzie; Rivadeneira, Molly; Fonjungo, Peter N; Broyles, Laura N; Zhang, Guoqing; Sleeman, Katrina; Nguyen, Shon; Jadczak, Steve; Abiola, Nadine; Ewetola, Raimi; Muwonga, Jérémie; Fwamba, Franck; Mwangi, Christina; Naluguza, Mary; Kiyaga, Charles; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Varough, Deyde; Wysler, Domercant; Lowrance, David; Louis, Frantz Jean; Desinor, Olbeg; Buteau, Josiane; Kesner, Francois; Rouzier, Vanessa; Segaren, Nat; Lewis, Tessa; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Chipungu, Geoffrey; Gupta, Sundeep; Singer, Daniel; Mwenda, Reuben; Kapoteza, Hilary; Chipeta, Zawadi; Knight, Nancy; Carmona, Sergio; MacLeod, William; Sherman, Gayle; Pillay, Yogan; Ndongmo, Clement B; Mugisa, Bridget; Mwila, Annie; McAuley, James; Chipimo, Peter J; Kaonga, Wezi; Nsofwa, Dailess; Nsama, Davy; Mwamba, Fales Zulu; Moyo, Crispin; Phiri, Clement; Borget, Marie-Yolande; Ya-Kouadio, Leonard; Kouame, Abo; Adje-Toure, Christiane A; Nkengasong, John

    2016-11-25

    Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important public health issue in resource-limited settings. In 2015, 1.4 million children aged HIV (including 170,000 infants born in 2015), with the vast majority living in sub-Saharan Africa (1). In 2014, 150,000 children died from HIV-related causes worldwide (2). Access to timely HIV diagnosis and treatment for HIV-infected infants reduces HIV-associated mortality, which is approximately 50% by age 2 years without treatment (3). Since 2011, the annual number of HIV-infected children has declined by 50%. Despite this gain, in 2014, only 42% of HIV-exposed infants received a diagnostic test for HIV (2), and in 2015, only 51% of children living with HIV received antiretroviral therapy (1). Access to services for early infant diagnosis of HIV (which includes access to testing for HIV-exposed infants and clinical diagnosis of HIV-infected infants) is critical for reducing HIV-associated mortality in children aged HIV testing services for early infant diagnosis was assessed. During 2011-2015, the total number of HIV diagnostic tests performed among HIV-exposed infants within 6 weeks after birth (tests for early infant diagnosis of HIV), as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) increased in all seven countries (Cote d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia); however, in 2015, the rate of testing for early infant diagnosis among HIV-exposed infants was HIV positivity among those tested declined in all seven countries, with three countries (Cote d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda) reporting >50% decline. The most common challenges for access to testing for early infant diagnosis included difficulties in specimen transport, long turnaround time between specimen collection and receipt of results, and limitations in supply chain management. Further reductions in HIV mortality in children can be achieved through

  7. Comparison of all-cause and malaria-specific mortality from two West African countries with different malaria transmission patterns

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    Kouyaté Bocar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of death in children below five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. All-cause and malaria-specific mortality rates for children under-five years old in a mesoendemic malaria area (The Gambia were compared with those from a hyper/holoendemic area (Burkina Faso. Methods Information on observed person-years (PY, deaths and cause of death was extracted from online search, using key words: "Africa, The Gambia, Burkina Faso, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, mortality, child survival, morbidity". Missing person-years were estimated and all-cause and malaria-specific mortality were calculated as rates per 1,000 PY. Studies were classified as longitudinal/clinical studies or surveys/censuses. Linear regression was used to investigate mortality trends. Results Overall, 39 and 18 longitudinal/clinical studies plus 10 and 15 surveys and censuses were identified for The Gambia and Burkina Faso respectively (1960–2004. Model-based estimates for under-five all-cause mortality rates show a decline from 1960 to 2000 in both countries (Burkina Faso: from 71.8 to 39.0, but more markedly in The Gambia (from 104.5 to 28.4. The weighted-average malaria-specific mortality rate per 1000 person-years for Burkina Faso (15.4, 95% CI: 13.0–18.3 was higher than that in The Gambia (9.5, 95% CI: 9.1–10.1. Malaria mortality rates did not decline over time in either country. Conclusion Child mortality in both countries declined significantly in the period 1960 to 2004, possibly due to socio-economic development, improved health services and specific intervention projects. However, there was little decline in malaria mortality suggesting that there had been no major impact of malaria control programmes during this period. The difference in malaria mortality rates across countries points to significant differences in national disease control policies and/or disease transmission patterns.

  8. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

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    Matinhure Sheillah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs. We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case; and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three

  9. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries.

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    Luyirika, Emmanuel Bk; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia

    2016-01-01

    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa.

  10. Paediatric pharmacovigilance: use of pharmacovigilance data mining algorithms for signal detection in a safety dataset of a paediatric clinical study conducted in seven African countries.

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    Dan K Kajungu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmacovigilance programmes monitor and help ensuring the safe use of medicines which is critical to the success of public health programmes. The commonest method used for discovering previously unknown safety risks is spontaneous notifications. In this study we examine the use of data mining algorithms to identify signals from adverse events reported in a phase IIIb/IV clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of several Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in African children. METHODS: We used paediatric safety data from a multi-site, multi-country clinical study conducted in seven African countries (Burkina Faso, Gabon, Nigeria, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia, and Mozambique. Each site compared three out of four ACTs, namely amodiaquine-artesunate (ASAQ, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAPQ, artemether-lumefantrine (AL or chlorproguanil/dapsone and artesunate (CD+A. We examine two pharmacovigilance signal detection methods, namely proportional reporting ratio and Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network on the clinical safety dataset. RESULTS: Among the 4,116 children (6-59 months old enrolled and followed up for 28 days post treatment, a total of 6,238 adverse events were reported resulting into 346 drug-event combinations. Nine signals were generated both by proportional reporting ratio and Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network. A review of the manufacturer package leaflets, an online Multi-Drug Symptom/Interaction Checker (DoubleCheckMD and further by therapeutic area experts reduced the number of signals to five. The ranking of some drug-adverse reaction pairs on the basis of their signal index differed between the two methods. CONCLUSIONS: Our two data mining methods were equally able to generate suspected signals using the pooled safety data from a phase IIIb/IV clinical trial. This analysis demonstrated the possibility of utilising clinical studies safety data

  11. Biological evaluation of Trans-African highways

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    Adamatzky, Andrew; Kayem, Anne V. D. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-African highway network is a unique concept of integrated development of transport corridors spanning all African countries and providing landlocked countries access to seaports. The planned road system is still maturing and just partially complete, thus giving us a chance to play with different scenarios of its growth and to consider potential alternative transport networks. We study the evolving transport network in the African continent with a groundbreaking technique of imitating growing transport networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We represent the major urban areas of Africa with a source of nutrients, inoculate a piece of the slime mould in Cairo and allow the mould to span all urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We then compare the slime mould networks with existing and planned highway corridors. We found that slime mould provides a good approximation of the Trans-African highway network, with some roads of Eastern Africa delineated by P. polycephalum in a larger number of laboratory experiments. We demonstrate direct matches between protoplasmic tubes and Trans-Sahelian as well as Lagos-Mombasa corridors. Finally we analyse the bio-logic of transport network development in families of generalised Physarum graphs.

  12. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  13. Estimating the hypothetical dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom in selected sub-Saharan African countries

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    Mvundura M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercy Mvundura, Neeti Nundy, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Patricia S Coffey Technology Solutions Global Program, PATH, Seattle, WA, USA Background: Female condoms are the only currently available woman-initiated option that offers dual protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The Woman’s Condom is a new female condom designed to provide dual protection and to be highly pleasurable and acceptable. Objective: We sought to estimate the potential dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of a Woman’s Condom distribution program in 13 sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates >4% among adults aged 15–49 years. We used two separate, publicly available models for this analysis, the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International and the Population Services International disability-adjusted life years (DALY calculator program. We estimated the potential numbers of pregnancies and DALYs averted when the Woman’s Condom is used as a family planning method and the HIV infections and DALYs averted when it is used as an HIV prevention method. Results: Programming 100,000 Woman’s Condoms in each of 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa during a 1-year period could potentially prevent 194 pregnancies and an average of 21 HIV infections in each country. When using the World Health Organization CHOosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective (WHO-CHOICE criteria as a threshold to infer the potential cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom, we found that the Woman’s Condom would be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: This was a first and successful attempt to estimate the impact of dual protection of female condoms. The health impact is greater for the use of the Woman’s Condom as an HIV prevention method than for contraception. Dual use of the Woman’s Condom increases the overall health impact. The Woman’s Condom was found to be very cost-effective in all 13 countries in our sample. Keywords

  14. Fertility desires, family planning use and pregnancy experience: longitudinal examination of urban areas in three African countries.

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    Speizer, Ilene S; Lance, Peter

    2015-11-11

    Many women have inconsistent fertility desires and contraceptive use behaviors. This increases their risk of unintended pregnancies. Inconsistencies may reflect barriers to family planning (FP) use but may also reflect ambivalence toward future childbearing. Using urban data from Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal, this study examines the role of fertility desires and FP use behaviors on pregnancy experience over a 2-year follow-up period. Data come from baseline and 2-year follow-up among urban women interviewed in Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. At baseline (2010/2011), women were asked about their future fertility desires (want child soon, want to delay >2 years, does not want) and current FP use. At midterm (2012/2013), women were asked if they were currently pregnant or had a birth in the 2-year period. We examine the association between baseline fertility desires and FP use with pregnancy experience and desirability of an experienced pregnancy. In the 2-year follow-up period, 27-39% of women in union experienced a pregnancy or birth. In Kenya and Nigeria, 30-35% of women using a modern FP method experienced a pregnancy/birth; the percentage with a pregnancy/birth was slightly higher among women not using at baseline (41% in both countries). In Senegal, the distinction between pregnancy experience between users and non-users was greater (16% vs. 31%, respectively). In all countries, pregnancy was less common among users of long-acting and permanent methods; only a small percentage of women use these methods. Women not wanting any(more) children were the least likely to experience a pregnancy in the 2-year follow-up period. No differences were observed between those who wanted to delay and those who wanted soon. Multivariate findings demonstrate distinctions in pregnancy experience by fertility desires among modern FP users. Non-users have similar pregnancy experience by fertility desires. Fertility desires are not stable; providers need to consider the fluidity of

  15. An Assessment of Family Planning Decision Makers' and Advocates' Needs and Strategies in Three East African Countries.

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    Smith, Ellen; Musila, Ruth; Murunga, Violet; Godbole, Ramona

    2015-09-01

    Despite decades of evidence-based advocacy for family planning in developing countries, research on how decision makers perceive and respond to such efforts is lacking. A literature review yielded 10 peer-reviewed journal articles published between 1999 and 2012 on decision makers' needs for and experiences with health advocacy and evidence. Two sets of questions about family planning research and advocacy-one for decision makers and another for advocates-were developed from emerging themes and used in structured interviews with 68 key informants in Ethiopia, Kenya and Malawi. Decision makers reported understanding family planning's value and confirmed that advocacy had helped to spur recent favorable shifts in government support of family planning. Key informants stressed that advocacy messages and formats must be tailored to the needs and interests of particular audiences to be effective. Messages must also consider barriers to decision makers' support for family planning: constituents' negative attitudes; fear that increased adherence to family planning will shrink the size and influence of specific voting blocs and ethnic groups; and competing economic, social, cultural, religious and political priorities. Decision makers reported valuing the contributions of international family planning organizations and donors, but were more comfortable receiving advocacy messages from local sources. According to decision makers, sustained and strategic family planning advocacy developed and delivered by culturally attuned national actors, with support from international actors, can diminish barriers to government support for family planning.

  16. Sexual behavior, knowledge and information sources of very young adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries.

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    Bankole, Akinrinola; Biddlecom, Ann; Guiella, Georges; Singh, Susheela; Zulu, Eliya

    2007-12-01

    Adolescents are a key target group for HIV and pregnancy prevention efforts, yet very little is known about the youngest adolescents: those under age 15. New survey data from 12-14 year olds in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi and Uganda are used to describe their sexual activity, knowledge about HIV, STIs and pregnancy prevention, and sources of sexual and reproductive health information, including sex education in schools. Results show that very young adolescents are already beginning to be sexually active and many believe their close friends are sexually active. They have high levels of awareness but little in-depth knowledge about pregnancy and HIV prevention. Multiple information sources are used and preferred by very young adolescents. Given their needs for HIV, STI and pregnancy prevention information that is specific and practical and considering that the large majority are attending school in most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, school-based sex education is a particularly promising avenue for reaching adolescents under age 15.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Invasive Meningococcal Isolates from Countries in the African Meningitis Belt before Introduction of a Serogroup A Conjugate Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caugant, Dominique A.; Kristiansen, Paul A.; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Kandolo, Denis; Bougoudogo, Flabou; Sow, Samba; Bonte, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Background The serogroup A conjugate meningococcal vaccine, MenAfriVac, was introduced in mass vaccination campaigns in December 2010 in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. In the coming years, vaccination will be extended to other African countries at risk of epidemics. To document the molecular characteristics of disease-causing meningococcal strains circulating in the meningitis belt of Africa before vaccine introduction, the World Health Organization Collaborating Centers on Meningococci in Europe and United States established a common strain collection of 773 isolates from cases of invasive meningococcal disease collected between 2004 and 2010 from 13 sub-Saharan countries. Methodology All isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing, and 487 (62%) were also analyzed for genetic variation in the surface antigens PorA and FetA. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for part of the collection. Principal Findings Only 19 sequence types (STs) belonging to 6 clonal complexes were revealed. ST-5 clonal complex dominated with 578 (74.8%) isolates. All ST-5 complex isolates were remarkably homogeneous in their PorA (P1.20,9) and FetA (F3-1) and characterized the serogroup A strains which have been responsible for most epidemics during this time period. Sixty-eight (8.8%) of the 773 isolates belonged to the ST-11 clonal complex which was mainly represented by serogroup W135, while an additional 38 (4.9%) W135 isolates belonged to the ST-175 complex. Forty-eight (6.2%) serogroup X isolates from West Africa belonged to the ST-181 complex, while serogroup X cases in Kenya and Uganda were caused by an unrelated clone, ST-5403. Serogroup X, ST-181, emerged in Burkina Faso before vaccine introduction. Conclusions In the seven years preceding introduction of a new serogroup A conjugate vaccine, serogroup A of the ST-5 clonal complex was identified as the predominant disease-causing strain. PMID:23029368

  18. Cross-sectional observational assessment of quality of newborn care immediately after birth in health facilities across six sub-Saharan African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Vesel, Linda; Rosen, Heather E; Rawlins, Barbara; Abwao, Stella; Mazia, Goldy; Bozsa, Robert; Mwebesa, Winifrede; Khadka, Neena; Kamunya, Rosemary; Getachew, Ashebir; Tibaijuka, Gaudiosa; Rakotovao, Jean Pierre; Tekleberhan, Alemnesh

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present information on the quality of newborn care services and health facility readiness to provide newborn care in 6 African countries, and to advocate for the improvement of providers' essential newborn care knowledge and skills. Design Cross-sectional observational health facility assessment. Setting Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda and Tanzania. Participants Health workers in 643 facilities. 1016 health workers were interviewed, and 2377 babies were observed in the facilities surveyed. Main outcome measures Indicators of quality of newborn care included (1) provision of immediate essential newborn care: thermal care, hygienic cord care, and early and exclusive initiation of breast feeding; (2) actual and simulated resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn infants; and (3) knowledge of health workers on essential newborn care, including resuscitation. Results Sterile or clean cord cutting instruments, suction devices, and tables or firm surfaces for resuscitation were commonly available. 80% of newborns were immediately dried after birth and received clean cord care in most of the studied facilities. In all countries assessed, major deficiencies exist for essential newborn care supplies and equipment, as well as for health worker knowledge and performance of key routine newborn care practices, particularly for immediate skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding initiation. Of newborns who did not cry at birth, 89% either recovered on their own or through active steps taken by the provider through resuscitation with initial stimulation and/or ventilation. 11% of newborns died. Assessment of simulated resuscitation using a NeoNatalie anatomic model showed that less than a third of providers were able to demonstrate ventilation skills correctly. Conclusions The findings shared in this paper call attention to the critical need to improve health facility readiness to provide quality newborn care services and to ensure that service providers have

  19. Measuring coverage in MNCH: population HIV-free survival among children under two years of age in four African countries.

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    Jeffrey S A Stringer

    Full Text Available Population-based evaluations of programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT are scarce. We measured PMTCT service coverage, regimen use, and HIV-free survival among children ≤24 mo of age in Cameroon, Côte D'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia.We randomly sampled households in 26 communities and offered participation if a child had been born to a woman living there during the prior 24 mo. We tested consenting mothers with rapid HIV antibody tests and tested the children of seropositive mothers with HIV DNA PCR or rapid antibody tests. Our primary outcome was 24-mo HIV-free survival, estimated with survival analysis. In an individual-level analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of various PMTCT regimens. In a community-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between HIV-free survival and community PMTCT coverage (the proportion of HIV-exposed infants in each community that received any PMTCT intervention during gestation or breastfeeding. We also compared our community coverage results to those of a contemporaneous study conducted in the facilities serving each sampled community. Of 7,985 surveyed children under 2 y of age, 1,014 (12.7% were HIV-exposed. Of these, 110 (10.9% were HIV-infected, 851 (83.9% were HIV-uninfected, and 53 (5.2% were dead. HIV-free survival at 24 mo of age among all HIV-exposed children was 79.7% (95% CI: 76.4, 82.6 overall, with the following country-level estimates: Cameroon (72.6%; 95% CI: 62.3, 80.5, South Africa (77.7%; 95% CI: 72.5, 82.1, Zambia (83.1%; 95% CI: 78.4, 86.8, and Côte D'Ivoire (84.4%; 95% CI: 70.0, 92.2. In adjusted analyses, the risk of death or HIV infection was non-significantly lower in children whose mothers received a more complex regimen of either two or three antiretroviral drugs compared to those receiving no prophylaxis (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.06. Risk of death was not different for children whose mothers received a more complex regimen

  20. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Population HIV-Free Survival among Children under Two Years of Age in Four African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.; Stinson, Kathryn; Tih, Pius M.; Giganti, Mark J.; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Creek, Tracy L.; Welty, Thomas K.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Wilfert, Catherine M.; Shaffer, Nathan; Stringer, Elizabeth M.; Dabis, Francois; Coetzee, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Population-based evaluations of programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) are scarce. We measured PMTCT service coverage, regimen use, and HIV-free survival among children ≤24 mo of age in Cameroon, Côte D'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Methods and Findings We randomly sampled households in 26 communities and offered participation if a child had been born to a woman living there during the prior 24 mo. We tested consenting mothers with rapid HIV antibody tests and tested the children of seropositive mothers with HIV DNA PCR or rapid antibody tests. Our primary outcome was 24-mo HIV-free survival, estimated with survival analysis. In an individual-level analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of various PMTCT regimens. In a community-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between HIV-free survival and community PMTCT coverage (the proportion of HIV-exposed infants in each community that received any PMTCT intervention during gestation or breastfeeding). We also compared our community coverage results to those of a contemporaneous study conducted in the facilities serving each sampled community. Of 7,985 surveyed children under 2 y of age, 1,014 (12.7%) were HIV-exposed. Of these, 110 (10.9%) were HIV-infected, 851 (83.9%) were HIV-uninfected, and 53 (5.2%) were dead. HIV-free survival at 24 mo of age among all HIV-exposed children was 79.7% (95% CI: 76.4, 82.6) overall, with the following country-level estimates: Cameroon (72.6%; 95% CI: 62.3, 80.5), South Africa (77.7%; 95% CI: 72.5, 82.1), Zambia (83.1%; 95% CI: 78.4, 86.8), and Côte D'Ivoire (84.4%; 95% CI: 70.0, 92.2). In adjusted analyses, the risk of death or HIV infection was non-significantly lower in children whose mothers received a more complex regimen of either two or three antiretroviral drugs compared to those receiving no prophylaxis (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.06). Risk of death was not different for children whose mothers received

  1. Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

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    Mitchell Steve

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The baseline to assess impact of a mass education-entertainment programme offered an opportunity to identify risk factors for domestic physical violence. Methods In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all adults aged 16–60 years present on the day of the visit, without sub-sampling. 20,639 adults were interviewed. The questionnaire in 29 languages measured domestic physical violence by the question "In the last year, have you and your partner had violent arguments where your partner beat, kicked or slapped you?" There was no measure of severity or frequency of physical violence. Results 14% of men (weighted based on 1,294/8,113 and 18% of women (weighted based on 2,032/11,063 reported being a victim of partner physical violence in the last year. There was no convincing association with age, income, education, household size and remunerated occupation. Having multiple partners was strongly associated with partner physical violence. Other associations included the income gap within households, negative attitudes about sexuality (for example, men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts and negative attitudes about sexual violence (for example, forcing your partner to have sex is not rape. Particularly among men, experience of partner physical violence was associated with potentially dangerous attitudes to HIV infection. Conclusion Having multiple partners was the most consistent risk factor for domestic physical violence across all countries. This could be relevant to domestic violence prevention strategies.

  2. Use of a Comprehensive HIV Care Cascade for Evaluating HIV Program Performance: Findings From 4 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNairy, Margaret L.; Lamb, Matthew R.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Elul, Batya; Sahabo, Ruben; Hawken, Mark P.; Mussa, Antonio; Zwede, Ayele; Justman, Jessica; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The traditional HIV treatment cascade has been noted to have limitations. A proposed comprehensive HIV care cascade that uses cohort methodology offers additional information as it accounts for all patients. Using data from 4 countries, we compare patient outcomes using both approaches. Methods Data from 390,603 HIV-infected adults (>15 years) enrolled at 217 facilities in Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, and Tanzania from 2005 to 2011 were included. Outcomes of all patients at 3, 6, and 12 months after enrollment were categorized as optimal, suboptimal, or poor. Optimal outcomes included retention in care, antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, and documented transfer. Suboptimal outcomes included retention in care without ART initiation among eligible patients or those without eligibility data. Poor outcomes included loss to follow-up and death. Results The comprehensive HIV care cascade demonstrated that at 3, 6 and 12 months, 58%, 51%, and 49% of patients had optimal outcomes; 22%, 12%, and 7% had suboptimal outcomes, and 20%, 37% and 44% had poor outcomes. Of all patients enrolled in care, 56% were retained in care at 12 months after enrollment. In comparison, the traditional HIV treatment cascade found 89% of patients enrolled in HIV care were assessed for ART eligibility, of whom 48% were determined to be ART-eligible with 70% initiating ART, and 78% of those initiated on ART retained at 12 months. Conclusions The comprehensive HIV care cascade follows outcomes of all patients, including pre-ART patients, who enroll in HIV care over time and uses quality of care parameters for categorizing outcomes. The comprehensive HIV care cascade provides complementary information to that of the traditional HIV treatment cascade and is a valuable tool for monitoring HIV program performance. PMID:26375466

  3. Assessment of the main factors impacting community members’ attitudes towards tourism and protected areas in six southern African countries

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    Susan Snyman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order to garner their support. Although the results of these policies were mixed, it is clear that the future success of conservation and, consequently, ecotourism in many areas will depend on the attitudes and behaviour of communities living in or adjacent to protected areas. Managing and understanding community expectations and attitudes under varying socio-economic circumstances will lead to more efficient, equitable and sustainable community-based conservation and ecotourism models. This study was based on 1400 community interview schedules conducted in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, allowing for an accurate comparison of attitudes across countries, protected areas and communities. The results highlighted important demographic and socio-economic factors to consider in terms of understanding the attitudes of those living in and around protected areas. Suggestions were put forward for managing community relationships and garnering long-term support for protected areas and ecotourism. Conservation implications: It was observed that, in general, community members living in or adjacent to conservation areas in southern Africa have an understanding and appreciation of the importance of conservation. Formal education was found to positively impact attitudes and human–wildlife conflict negatively impacted attitudes, highlighting important policy focus areas.

  4. Orphan/vulnerable child caregiving moderates the association between women's autonomy and their BMI in three African countries.

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    Kanamori, Mariano; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Feldman, Robert; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of women's autonomy is a key factor for improving women's health and nutrition. With nearly 12 million orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) in Africa due to HIV/AIDS, the study of OVC primary caregivers' nutrition is fundamental. We investigated the association between married women's autonomy and their nutritional status; explored whether this relationship was modified by OVC primary caregiving; and analyzed whether decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional study used the data from Demographic Health Surveys collected during 2006-2007 from 20- to 49-year-old women in Namibia (n = 2633), Swaziland (n = 1395), and Zambia (n = 2920). Analyses included logistic regression, Sobel, and Goodman tests. Our results indicated that women's educational attainment increased the odds for being overweight (Swaziland and Zambia) and decreased the odds for being underweight (Namibia). In Zambia, having at least primary education increased the odds for being overweight only among child primary caregivers regardless of the OVC status of the child, and having autonomy for buying everyday household items increased the odds for being overweight only among OVC primary caregivers. Decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and OVC primary caregivers' BMI in Zambia (Z = 2.13, p value = 0.03). We concluded that depending on each country's contextual characteristics, having education can decrease the odds for being an underweight woman or increase the odds for being an overweight woman. Further studies should explore why in Namibia education has an effect on women's overweight status only among women who are caring for a child.

  5. Manganese Countries

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    Maria Sousa Galito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.

  6. Health facility characteristics and their relationship to coverage of PMTCT of HIV services across four African countries: the PEARL study.

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    Didier K Ekouevi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health facility characteristics associated with effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT coverage in sub-Saharan are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted surveys in health facilities with active PMTCT services in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Data was compiled via direct observation and exit interviews. We constructed composite scores to describe provision of PMTCT services across seven topical areas: antenatal quality, PMTCT quality, supplies available, patient satisfaction, patient understanding of medication, and infrastructure quality. Pearson correlations and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE to account for clustering of facilities within countries were used to evaluate the relationship between the composite scores, total time of visit and select individual variables with PMTCT coverage among women delivering. Between July 2008 and May 2009, we collected data from 32 facilities; 78% were managed by the government health system. An opt-out approach for HIV testing was used in 100% of facilities in Zambia, 63% in Cameroon, and none in Côte d'Ivoire or South Africa. Using Pearson correlations, PMTCT coverage (median of 55%, (IQR: 33-68 was correlated with PMTCT quality score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.003; infrastructure quality score (rho = 0.43; p = 0.017; time spent at clinic (rho = 0.47; p = 0.013; patient understanding of medications score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.006; and patient satisfaction quality score (rho = 0.38; p = 0.031. PMTCT coverage was marginally correlated with the antenatal quality score (rho = 0.304; p = 0.091. Using GEE adjustment for clustering, the, antenatal quality score became more strongly associated with PMTCT coverage (p<0.001 and the PMTCT quality score and patient understanding of medications remained marginally significant. CONCLUSIONS/RESULTS: We observed a positive relationship between

  7. HIV treatment and care services for adolescents: a situational analysis of 218 facilities in 23 sub-Saharan African countries.

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    Mark, Daniella; Armstrong, Alice; Andrade, Catarina; Penazzato, Martina; Hatane, Luann; Taing, Lina; Runciman, Toby; Ferguson, Jane

    2017-05-16

    In 2013, an estimated 2.1 million adolescents (age 10-19 years) were living with HIV globally. The extent to which health facilities provide appropriate treatment and care was unknown. To support understanding of service availability in 2014, Paediatric-Adolescent Treatment Africa (PATA), a non-governmental organisation (NGO) supporting a network of health facilities across sub-Saharan Africa, undertook a facility-level situational analysis of adolescent HIV treatment and care services in 23 countries. Two hundred and eighteen facilities, responsible for an estimated 80,072 HIV-infected adolescents in care, were surveyed. Sixty per cent of the sample were from PATA's network, with the remaining gathered via local NGO partners and snowball sampling. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and coding to describe central tendencies and identify themes. Respondents represented three subregions: West and Central Africa (n = 59; 27%), East Africa (n = 77, 35%) and southern Africa (n = 82, 38%). Half (50%) of the facilities were in urban areas, 17% peri-urban and 33% rural settings. Insufficient data disaggregation and outcomes monitoring were critical issues. A quarter of facilities did not have a working definition of adolescence. Facilities reported non-adherence as their key challenge in adolescent service provision, but had insufficient protocols for determining and managing poor adherence and loss to follow-up. Adherence counselling focused on implications of non-adherence rather than its drivers. Facilities recommended peer support as an effective adherence and retention intervention, yet not all offered these services. Almost two-thirds reported attending to adolescents with adults and/or children, and half had no transitioning protocols. Of those with transitioning protocols, 21% moved pregnant adolescents into adult services earlier than their peers. There was limited sexual and reproductive health integration, with 63% of facilities offering

  8. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E.; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background and Introduction: This review paper examines the growing implications of China’s engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. Methods: We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Results: Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China’s significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment

  9. The Problems in the Classification of the African Languages; Methodological and Theoretical Conclusions Concerning the Classification System of Joseph H. Greenberg. Studies on Developing Countries No.5.

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    Fodor, Istvan

    The present work deals with Africanistic problems, raising questions of interest for general linguists, and linguists working in Indo-European, Finno-Ugric, and other special branches. The first two chapters deal with the field and difficulties of African studies and the general characterization of the African languages. Following chapters discuss…

  10. Symptom Clusters in People Living with HIV Attending Five Palliative Care Facilities in Two Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Katrien; Siegert, Richard J; Taylor, Steve; Namisango, Eve; Harding, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Symptom research across conditions has historically focused on single symptoms, and the burden of multiple symptoms and their interactions has been relatively neglected especially in people living with HIV. Symptom cluster studies are required to set priorities in treatment planning, and to lessen the total symptom burden. This study aimed to identify and compare symptom clusters among people living with HIV attending five palliative care facilities in two sub-Saharan African countries. Data from cross-sectional self-report of seven-day symptom prevalence on the 32-item Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form were used. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted using Ward's method applying squared Euclidean Distance as the similarity measure to determine the clusters. Contingency tables, X2 tests and ANOVA were used to compare the clusters by patient specific characteristics and distress scores. Among the sample (N=217) the mean age was 36.5 (SD 9.0), 73.2% were female, and 49.1% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The cluster analysis produced five symptom clusters identified as: 1) dermatological; 2) generalised anxiety and elimination; 3) social and image; 4) persistently present; and 5) a gastrointestinal-related symptom cluster. The patients in the first three symptom clusters reported the highest physical and psychological distress scores. Patient characteristics varied significantly across the five clusters by functional status (worst functional physical status in cluster one, pclusters two and three, p=0.012); global distress (F=26.8, pcluster one, best for cluster four). The greatest burden is associated with cluster one, and should be prioritised in clinical management. Further symptom cluster research in people living with HIV with longitudinally collected symptom data to test cluster stability and identify common symptom trajectories is recommended.

  11. Cooking and season as risk factors for acute lower respiratory infections in African children: a cross-sectional multi-country analysis.

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    Hannes Buchner

    Full Text Available Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI are a leading cause of death among African children under five. A significant proportion of these are attributable to household air pollution from solid fuel use.We assessed the relationship between cooking practices and ALRI in pooled datasets of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2011 in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The impacts of main cooking fuel, cooking location and stove ventilation were examined in 18 (n = 56,437, 9 (n = 23,139 and 6 countries (n = 14,561 respectively. We used a causal diagram and multivariable logistic mixed models to assess the influence of covariates at individual, regional and national levels.Main cooking fuel had a statistically significant impact on ALRI risk (p<0.0001, with season acting as an effect modifier (p = 0.034. During the rainy season, relative to clean fuels, the odds of suffering from ALRI were raised for kerosene (OR 1.64; CI: 0.99, 2.71, coal and charcoal (OR 1.54; CI: 1.21, 1.97, wood (OR 1.20; CI: 0.95, 1.51 and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.49; CI: 0.93, 2.35. In contrast, during the dry season the corresponding odds were reduced for kerosene (OR 1.23; CI: 0.77, 1.95, coal and charcoal (OR 1.35; CI: 1.06, 1.72 and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.07; CI: 0.69, 1.66 but increased for wood (OR 1.32; CI: 1.04, 1.66. Cooking location also emerged as a season-dependent statistically significant (p = 0.0070 determinant of ALRI, in particular cooking indoors without a separate kitchen during the rainy season (OR 1.80; CI: 1.30, 2.50. Due to infrequent use in Africa we could, however, not demonstrate an effect of stove ventilation.We found differential and season-dependent risks for different types of solid fuels and kerosene as well as cooking location on child ALRI. Future household air pollution studies should consider potential effect modification of cooking fuel by season.

  12. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Featured Country: Ethiopia, Featured Journal: Journal of Business and Administrative ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... South African Journal of Education; Fundamental Objectives and Directives ...

  13. Urban-rural and geographic differences in overweight and obesity in four sub-Saharan African adult populations: a multi-country cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O; Adebamowo, Clement; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona; Diamond, Megan B; Bajunirwe, Francis; Guwatudde, David; Njelekela, Marina; Nankya-Mutyoba, Joan; Chiwanga, Faraja S; Volmink, Jimmy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Laurence, Carien; Reid, Todd G; Dockery, Douglas; Hemenway, David; Spiegelman, Donna; Holmes, Michelle D

    2016-10-28

    .53], SA [AOR = 4.97; 95 % CI: 3.18, 7.78], and Tanzania [AOR = 2.68; 95 % CI: 1.60, 4.49] were more likely to have BMI > =25 kg/m(2) compared with the rural and peri-urban sites. The high prevalence of overweight and obesity in these sub-Saharan African countries and the differentials in prevalence and risk factors further highlights the need for urgent focused intervention to stem this trend, especially among women, professionals and urban dwellers.

  14. Tetanus Cases After Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention - Eastern and Southern Africa, 2012-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-22

    Control and Prevention Notes from the Field Tetanus Cases After Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention — Eastern and Southern Africa...program reported 12 tetanus cases in five sub-Saharan African countries. Three cases occurred in 2012–2013 (one in Uganda and two in Zambia), six in...ventional VMMC surgery, and four received PrePex, a non- surgical male circumcision device. No other VMMC-related tetanus cases had been previously

  15. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic.

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    Sébastien Breurec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic.All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent's written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases.A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%.Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus, highlighting the urgent

  16. Symptom Clusters in People Living with HIV Attending Five Palliative Care Facilities in Two Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Moens

    Full Text Available Symptom research across conditions has historically focused on single symptoms, and the burden of multiple symptoms and their interactions has been relatively neglected especially in people living with HIV. Symptom cluster studies are required to set priorities in treatment planning, and to lessen the total symptom burden. This study aimed to identify and compare symptom clusters among people living with HIV attending five palliative care facilities in two sub-Saharan African countries.Data from cross-sectional self-report of seven-day symptom prevalence on the 32-item Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form were used. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted using Ward's method applying squared Euclidean Distance as the similarity measure to determine the clusters. Contingency tables, X2 tests and ANOVA were used to compare the clusters by patient specific characteristics and distress scores.Among the sample (N=217 the mean age was 36.5 (SD 9.0, 73.2% were female, and 49.1% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART. The cluster analysis produced five symptom clusters identified as: 1 dermatological; 2 generalised anxiety and elimination; 3 social and image; 4 persistently present; and 5 a gastrointestinal-related symptom cluster. The patients in the first three symptom clusters reported the highest physical and psychological distress scores. Patient characteristics varied significantly across the five clusters by functional status (worst functional physical status in cluster one, p<0.001; being on ART (highest proportions for clusters two and three, p=0.012; global distress (F=26.8, p<0.001, physical distress (F=36.3, p<0.001 and psychological distress subscale (F=21.8, p<0.001 (all subscales worst for cluster one, best for cluster four.The greatest burden is associated with cluster one, and should be prioritised in clinical management. Further symptom cluster research in people living with HIV with longitudinally collected symptom data to

  17. Proceedings of a workshop, held in Constanta, Romania on 22 May 2014, on Oral Health of Children in the Central and Eastern European Countries in the context of the current economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, Dorjan; Eaton, Kenneth A; Tsakos, George; Vassallo, Paula; Amariei, Corneliu

    2016-07-25

    This report presents the proceedings of a workshop held in Constanta, Romania on 22 May 2014. During the workshop, representatives from 18 Central and Eastern European countries gave oral presentations on the current oral health of children and young adults aged 16 years and younger. The aim of the workshop was to collect and present data relating to the oral health of children from Central and Eastern European countries and to discuss them in the context of the political changes that have taken place over the last two decades and the recent economic crisis.The presenters had previously completed a series of questions on oral epidemiological studies, prevention of oral disease, treatment and payment, dental personnel, uptake of oral health care and other considerations and structured their presentations on these topics plus the influence of the economic crisis on oral health. It should be remembered that this paper is a report of the proceedings of a workshop and not a study. Ethics approval is not required for workshops.After the 18 oral presentations a 90 min discussion took place during which further points were raised. The presentations, the discussion and the conclusions which were reached are reported in this manuscript.

  18. Diversity among African pygmies.

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    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  19. Improving the Quality of Host Country Ethical Oversight of International Research: The Use of a Collaborative 'Pre-Review' Mechanism for a Study of Fexinidazole for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Carl H; Ardiot, Chantal; Blesson, Séverine; Bonnin, Yves; Bompart, Francois; Colonna, Pierre; Dhai, Ames; Ecuru, Julius; Edielu, Andrew; Hervé, Christian; Hirsch, François; Kouyaté, Bocar; Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Maoundé, Dionko; Martinent, Eric; Ntsiba, Honoré; Pelé, Gérard; Quéva, Gilles; Reinmund, Marie-Christine; Sarr, Samba Cor; Sepou, Abdoulaye; Tarral, Antoine; Tetimian, Djetodjide; Valverde, Olaf; Van Nieuwenhove, Simon; Strub-Wourgaft, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Developing countries face numerous barriers to conducting effective and efficient ethics reviews of international collaborative research. In addition to potentially overlooking important scientific and ethical considerations, inadequate or insufficiently trained ethics committees may insist on unwarranted changes to protocols that can impair a study's scientific or ethical validity. Moreover, poorly functioning review systems can impose substantial delays on the commencement of research, which needlessly undermine the development of new interventions for urgent medical needs. In response to these concerns, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi), an independent nonprofit organization founded by a coalition of public sector and international organizations, developed a mechanism to facilitate more effective and efficient host country ethics review for a study of the use of fexinidazole for the treatment of late stage African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). The project involved the implementation of a novel 'pre-review' process of ethical oversight, conducted by an ad hoc committee of ethics committee representatives from African and European countries, in collaboration with internationally recognized scientific experts. This article examines the process and outcomes of this collaborative process.

  20. African swine fever virus eradication in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrith, Mary-Louise; Vosloo, Wilna; Jori, Ferran; Bastos, Armanda D S

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever was reported in domestic pigs in 26 African countries during the period 2009-2011. The virus exists in an ancient sylvatic cycle between warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) and argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata complex in many of the countries reporting outbreaks and in two further countries in the region. Eradication of the virus from the countries in eastern and southern Africa where the classic sylvatic cycle occurs is clearly not an option. However, the virus has become endemic in domestic pigs in 20 countries and the great majority of outbreaks in recent decades, even in some countries where the sylvatic cycle occurs, have been associated with movement of infected pigs and pig meat. Pig production and marketing and ASF control in Africa have been examined in order to identify risk factors for the maintenance and spread of ASF. These include large pig populations, traditional free-range husbandry systems, lack of biosecurity in semi-intensive and intensive husbandry systems, lack of organisation in both pig production and pig marketing that results in lack of incentives for investment in pig farming, and ineffective management of ASF. Most of these factors are linked to poverty, yet pigs are recognised as a livestock species that can be used to improve livelihoods and contribute significantly to food security. The changes needed and how they might be implemented in order to reduce the risk of ASF to pig producers in Africa and to the rest of the world are explored. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Labour Appropriation in Buhera District, South-Eastern Zimbabwe 1890-1930: the Accidental Proletarianization of an African Peasantry by a Foreign Capitalist Oligarchic Enterprise.

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    Davidson Mabweazara Mugodzwa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This presentation seeks to argue that before colonial rule, the African peasant populationin Buhera District [formerly called Charter District] was producing only at subsistencelevel: they did not seek employment outside their villages because they pursued acommunal system of production which was both economically self-sufficient and self-sustaining. Colonial records show that this African peasant population of Charter stood atthirty-two thousand people even as early as 1880s. [N9/1/5, NC Charter to CNCSalisbury, 31 March 1899]. The argument of this research is that such a large humanpopulation would need a consistent and reliable supply of staple grain and other traditionalfoods for its daily needs. Therefore pre-colonial Charter peasantry communities pursued asuccessful communal mode of production which largely depended on the availability ofabundant, fertile and well-watered agricultural land: accompanied by huge supply of willingorganized labour which was largely provided by men, women and children. Our argumentstems from the fact that during this pre-colonial era, land was neither bought nor sold butbelonged to the whole community under the collective management and administration ofchiefs and their subordinates who distributed land to all able-bodied adult males in thecommunity who needed such land.This research will largely be based on primary evidence, that is, oral traditions andcolonial documents but secondary published and unpublished supplementary sourceswill also be consulted in our endeavour to shade light on the area under research

  2. The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect: Generalizability of Social Comparison Processes over Two Age Cohorts from Western, Asian, and Middle Eastern Islamic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Parker, Philip; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Nagengast, Benjamin; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive support for the seemingly paradoxical negative effects of school- and class-average achievement on academic self-concept (ASC)-the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE)--is based largely on secondary students in Western countries or on cross-cultural Program for International Student Assessment studies. There is little research testing the…

  3. Interrelationship among School Characteristics, Parental Involvement, and Children's Characteristics in Predicting Children's Victimization by Peers: Comparison between the United States and Three Eastern Asia Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gang; Kim, Yanghee

    2016-01-01

    To identify ways that national culture, school characteristics, and individual attributes impact the victimization of students in Grade 8, data from the United States and three East Asian countries (i.e., Japan, S. Korea, and Taiwan) were compared using the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Hierarchical Liner…

  4. The Determinants of European Union (EU Foreign Direct Investments in the EU Countries from Central and Eastern Europe During 1994–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Donny

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the CEECs’ financial market development can explain the EU FDI in the CEECs during 1994