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  1. Ancient fishing activities developed in Easter Island

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    Patricio M Arana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Easter Island, Rapa Nui or Te pito o te henua, is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean halfway between South America and Oceania, constituting one of the most isolated places on the planet. It was colonized by Polynesians at the end of the first millennium of the Christian era, thus becoming one of the extremes of the Polynesian triangle. The island is of volcanic origin, has a small surface area (166 km² and limited resources, and gave rise to a culture that is unique in the world, recognized internationally for its numerous megalithic constructions and large moai. Just as it was discovered and colonized by sea, the development and sustainability of the island is closely related to the ocean that surrounds it. The objective of this article is to describe the sailing and fishing techniques used by the Easter Islanders, or rapanuis, and their use of marine organisms prior to contact with Europeans, demonstrating their inventiveness and adaptation to the specific characteristics of this small territory.

  2. Paleoecology of Easter Island: Evidence and uncertainties

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    Rull, V.; Cañellas-Boltà, N.; Sáez, A.; Giralt, S.; Pla, S.; Margalef, O.

    2010-04-01

    The existence of palm-dominated forests covering the island since the last glaciation and the recent deforestation by humans are paradigmatic in Easter Island's paleoecological reconstructions. The timing and mode of the deforestation are controversial, but there is general agreement that it actually occurred, and it is often given as an example of a human-induced environmental catastrophe with philosophical implications for the future of the whole planet. To evaluate whether this is the only well-supported hypothesis or if there might be other scenarios compatible with the paleoecological data, this paper reviews all the available evidence on past vegetation changes on Easter Island. The discussion is centered on three main points: 1) the alleged nature and extension of the former forests, 2) the taxonomic identity of the dominant palms, and 3) the nature of the recent ecological changes leading to a treeless island. The potential causes of the assumed deforestation are beyond the scope of this study. Concerning the first point, palynological and anthracological results obtained so far are not only compatible with a forested island, but also with other scenarios, for example a mosaic vegetation pattern with forests restricted to sites with a high freshwater table (gallery forests), which are mostly around the permanent lakes and along the coasts. With regard to palm identity, some extant species have been proposed as potential candidates, but the palms that dominated these forests seem to have become extinct and their identity remains unknown. The existence of a sedimentary hiatus around the dates of forest decline complicates the picture and reinforces the possibility of climatic changes. It is concluded that the hypothesis of a previously forested island has yet to be demonstrated. Therefore, the recent ecological disaster, human-induced or not, is still speculative. Several types of future studies are proposed for a better understanding of Easter Island

  3. Fishing in Easter Island, a recent history (1950-2010

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    Kyrstn Zylich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Easter Island (Rapa Nui is well studied in terms of its archaeology; however, information regarding the history of fishing is extremely limited. Marine resources have likely been exploited from the time the first Polynesians arrived on this remote island. While large pelagics are part of the traditional Rapa Nui diet, inshore fish and invertebrates have also made their way into the diet. Official records of fisheries catches in what is now the Easter Island Province of Chile, which also includes the uninhabited island of Salas y Gómez, are very limited and were available for only some years. Using anecdotal information, historical descriptions and the limited quantitative information available, we reconstructed fisheries catches in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ of the Easter Island Province over the 1950-2010 time period. Totaling almost 6,000 ton, legal catches have been increasing rapidly since the late 1970s, but are now stagnating at around 150-200 ton yr-1. The main species targeted were Pacific chub or 'nanue' (Kyphosus sandwicensis and yellowfin tuna or 'kahi ave ave' (Thunnus albacares, with spiny lobster or 'ura' (Panulirus pascuensis being the most important invertebrate species. There are indications of a substantial illegal fishery for large pelagics in the EEZ of the province, estimated at 200-2,000 ton yr-1, which may have operated for two decades and may be the cause for the declining artisanal catch of tuna by Rapa Nui fishers. Continued pressure on these geographically remote oceanic and inshore marine species, especially those popular amongst tourists, makes accounting for fisheries catches an even greater priority.

  4. Biological oceanography, biogeochemical cycles, and pelagic ecosystem functioning of the east-central South Pacific Gyre: focus on Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island

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    Von Dassow , Peter; Collado-Fabbri , Silvana

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre (SPSG), putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (1905-2010). We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environm...

  5. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean

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    Marcelo A Flores

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species. Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There has been an increase in new records over the past six years but no systematic studies have been developed. The need for further research that focuses on ecological aspects and anthropogenic impacts is critical in order to develop adequate conservation strategies.

  6. On the magnetic anomaly at Easter Island during the 2010 Chile tsunami

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    Benlong Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A magnetic anomaly was recorded at Easter Island on 27 February 2010 during the Chile tsunami event. The physics of the magnetic anomaly is analyzed using kinematic dynamo theory. Using a single wave model, the space and time behavior of the magnetic field is given. By joint analysis of the magnetic observations, tide gauge data and numerical results of the global tsunami propagation, we show the close resemblance between the predicted spatial and temporal magnetic distributions and the field data, indicating the magnetic anomaly at Easter Island was actually induced by the motion of seawater under tsunami waves. Similarity between the field magnetic data at Easter Island during 2010 Chile tsunami and sea surface level is verified with realistic tsunami propagating model.

  7. [Detection of flavivirus in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Easter Island-Chile].

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    Collao, Ximena; Prado, Lorena; González, Christian; Vásquez, Ana; Araki, Romina; Henríquez, Tuki; Peña, Cindy M

    2015-02-01

    Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex (Culicidae) that are detected in tropical and subtropical areas. Main flaviviruses of public health importance are: dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, among others. In continental Chile, flaviviruses has not been detected. However, there are indigenous cases of dengue detected in Easter Island since 2002, as the presence of its vector Aedes aegypti. The aim of this study was: To determine diversity of flavivirus mosquitoes present in Easter Island. Thirty pools of mosquitoes collected in Hanga Roa were analyzed; a RT-PCR nested flavivirus was performed. Thirteen positive samples were detected and the amplification products were sequenced, identifying two specific flavivirus Insect, the Cell fusing agent virus and other related viruses Kamiti River. This is the first study in Chile showed the presence of flavivirus in vectors in Easter Island.

  8. Sustainability in a Differential Equations Course: A Case Study of Easter Island

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    Koss, Lorelei

    2011-01-01

    Easter Island is a fascinating example of resource depletion and population collapse, and its relatively short period of human habitation combined with its isolation lends itself well to investigation by students in a first-semester ordinary differential equations course. This article describes curricular materials for a semester-long case study…

  9. Climate windows for Polynesian voyaging to New Zealand and Easter Island.

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    Goodwin, Ian D; Browning, Stuart A; Anderson, Atholl J

    2014-10-14

    Debate about initial human migration across the immense area of East Polynesia has focused upon seafaring technology, both of navigation and canoe capabilities, while temporal variation in sailing conditions, notably through climate change, has received less attention. One model of Polynesian voyaging observes that as tradewind easterlies are currently dominant in the central Pacific, prehistoric colonization canoes voyaging eastward to and through central East Polynesia (CEP: Society, Tuamotu, Marquesas, Gambier, Southern Cook, and Austral Islands) and to Easter Island probably had a windward capacity. Similar arguments have been applied to voyaging from CEP to New Zealand against prevailing westerlies. An alternative view is that migration required reliable off-wind sailing routes. We investigate the marine climate and potential voyaging routes during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), A.D. 800-1300, when the initial colonization of CEP and New Zealand occurred. Paleoclimate data assimilation is used to reconstruct Pacific sea level pressure and wind field patterns at bidecadal resolution during the MCA. We argue here that changing wind field patterns associated with the MCA provided conditions in which voyaging to and from the most isolated East Polynesian islands, New Zealand, and Easter Island was readily possible by off-wind sailing. The intensification and poleward expansion of the Pacific subtropical anticyclone culminating in A.D. 1140-1260 opened an anomalous climate window for off-wind sailing routes to New Zealand from the Southern Austral Islands, the Southern Cook Islands, and Tonga/Fiji Islands.

  10. Models of Easter Island Human-Resource Dynamics: Advances and Gaps

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    Agostino Merico

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Finding solutions to the entangled problems of human population growth, resource exploitation, ecosystem degradation, and biodiversity loss is considered humanity's grand challenge. Small and isolated societies of the past, such as the Rapanui of Easter Island, constitute ideal laboratories for understanding the consequences of human-driven environmental degradation and associated crises. By integrating different processes into a coherent and quantitative framework, mathematical models can be effective tools for investigating the ecological and socioeconomic history of these ancient civilizations. Most models of Easter Island are grounded around the Malthusian theory of population growth and designed as Lotka-Volterra predator-prey systems. Within ranges of plausible parameter values, these dynamic systems models predict a population overshoot and collapse sequence, in line with the ecocidal view about the Rapanui. With new archaeological evidence coming to light, casting doubts on the classical narrative of a human-induced collapse, models have begun to incorporate the new pieces of evidence and started to describe a more complex historical ecology, in line with the view of a resilient society that suffered genocide after the contact with Europeans. Uncertainties affecting the archaeological evidence contribute to the formulation of contradictory narratives. Surprisingly, no agent-based models have been applied to Easter Island. I argue that these tools offer appealing possibilities for overcoming the limits of dynamic systems models and the uncertainties in the available archaeological data.

  11. Time-space variability of satellite chlorophyll-α in the Easter Island Province, southeastern Pacific Ocean

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    Isabel Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter Island Province (EIP encompasses Easter Island (EI and Salas y Gómez Island (SGI, which are located in the eastern boundary of the south Pacific subtropical gyre. This province is one of the most oligotrophic region in the world ocean with a high degree of endemism and distinguished by having the clearest waters in the world. Issues related to the biophysical coupling that sustains biological production in this region are still poorly understood. Satellite data compiled over a ten year period was used to characterize the spatial and temporal chlorophyll-α (Chl-α variability around the EIP and determine the relationship between Chl-α and several physical forcing. Results shows a clear Chl-α annual cycle around the EIP, with maximum concentration during the austral winter. Chl-α spatial distribution shows a strong zonal dipole over EI that divides the island into two zones: southeast and northwest. Due to its small size and low elevation of SGI, it does not generate a significant local effect in Chl-α concentration, but a Chl-α increase is observed southeast of this island (~2 km associated to a seamount. The mean geostrophic current in the EIP flows eastward, associated with the southeastern boundary of the subtropical gyre. However, recurrent mesoscale eddies traveling northwestward and produce large surface current variability with periods of high velocities in opposite direction. In the spring, wakes of high Chl-α concentration can be observed over EI, associated with the generation and detachment of submesoscale eddies from EI, which could have important biological implications during periods of low regional biological production.

  12. Polynesian land use decisions in Hawai`i and Rapa Nui (Easter Island) (Invited)

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    Chadwick, O.; Ladefoged, T. N.; Haoa, S.; Stevenson, C.; Vitousek, P.

    2009-12-01

    Over the span of several centuries ancient Hawaiians and Rapanui (Easter Islanders) developed a range of intensive agricultural systems in their volcanic homelands. In leeward Kohala (Hawai`i) people targeted relatively young geologic substrates that were naturally enriched soil nutrient zones to construct a 60 km2 intensive rain-fed field system. A series of earthen and rock embankments and trails were built to facilitate sweet potato and dryland taro production and distribution. By comparing nutrient levels under embankments of different ages it has been possible to document significant nutrient depletion over approximately 150 years of pre-European gardening. On the wet windward side of Kohala leaching driven by high rainfall depleted soil nutrients in upland areas naturally, to levels unsuitable for intensive rain-fed agriculture. As an alternative, people exploited colluvial and alluvial zones for intensive rain-fed and irrigated agriculture, respectively. Analyses from Pololu in Kohala and Halawa on Moloka`i suggests that soil nutrient levels within colluvial zones were rejuvenated by erosion and deposition from fresh bedrock. In alluvial areas, soil nutrient levels were enhanced through the deposition of soluble elements via weathering of minerals along the flowpath between rainfall and delivery of irrigation water to Hawaiian crops. On Rapa Nui the lack of perennial streams meant that people were reliant on intensive rain-fed systems for their subsistence and surplus needs. In response to the matrix of geologic substrate ages and rainfall levels several innovative agricultural strategies were employed. Basalt outcrops were intentionally broken apart and large quantities of rock were distributed over the barren landscape. In places these “rock gardens” consisted of boulder concentrations and/or smaller rock veneers, whereas in other zones rocks were mulched into the soil to a depth of 30 cm to create growing medium. The advantages of these techniques

  13. Sustainable Development or Eco-Collapse: Lessons for Tourism and Development from Easter Island

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    Eugenio Figueroa B.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While tourism brings many benefits to islands, it can also cause negative effects, especially when tourism development is a disorganised process, with significant environmental impacts. This has been the case of Easter Island: the recent, uncontrolled growth in tourist numbers together with social and political tensions, are signs of a socioeconomic process pursuing development that has neglected the institutional, environmental, social, and economic imperatives of sustainability for tourism management. The study initially presents the environmental impacts of tourism growth, including waste disposal and management issues, problems with sewage system, threats to water quality, and biodiversity loss. Next, using data from in situ fieldwork, interviews and surveys, it focuses on residents’ perceptions regarding environmental consequences of the vast tourism growth, as well as on the serious governance issues that Easter Island is currently facing and that complicate even further its sustainable development. Overall, our results indicate that—while acknowledging the negative impacts that uncontrolled tourism development has brought to the island and the need for it to become more sustainable—residents are in favour of tourism since it is the island’s main source of income and employment. The paper draws lessons for islands involved in the “development-through-tourism” model regarding the difficulties these islands will face in attaining their goals if they are not able to build and implement cooperative agreements among stakeholders to properly manage the common-pool resources involved. This is a warning sign for islands that enthusiastically promote tourism without implementing sound sustainability criteria to guide the management of their tourism sector.

  14. Biological oceanography, biogeochemical cycles, and pelagic ecosystem functioning of the east-central South Pacific Gyre: focus on Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island

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    Peter von Dassow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (SPSG, putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (19052010. We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environments. Plankton production is limited by lack of dissolved inorganic fixed nitrogen, not phosphorous. Higher organic nitrogen levels might be biologically unavailable. Short-term experiments suggested iron is not limiting, yet iron still likely limits nitrogen fixation, and thus production, at longer time scales, as the presence of nitrogen-fixers is exceptionally low compared to other ocean gyres. Plankton function is dominated by the smallest unicellular organisms, picoplankton (<3 μm in diameter. The SPSG represents a center of high biodiversity for picoplankton, as well as heterotrophic organisms such as tinntinids, siphonophores, and possibly amphipods, although data for key zooplankton, such as copepods, are lacking. Many groups exhibit negative relationships between diversity and total plankton biomass. High diversity might result from dispersal from a very large metacommunity and minimal competition within functional groups. Whether an island-mass effect causes a real or apparent increase in plankton biomass around Easter Island must be confirmed by high-resolution sampling in situ. Long-term threats to the planktonic ecosystem may include climate change-enhanced ocean stratification and plastic marine debris accumulation. Finally, priorities for future research are highlighted.

  15. Socio-ecological analysis of the artisanal fishing system on Easter Island

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    Eleuterio Yáñez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a socio-ecological analysis of the artisanal fisheries system on Easter Island (27°07'S, 109°22'W through the identification and interaction of stakeholders. It also comprises a structural analysis of the system aiming to identify any key issues and then propose research and development programs for multiple fisheries that will contribute to their sustainable development. The methodology is divided into four stages: i identification of issues with stakeholder (fishers, government workers and expert scientists participation, ii analysis of a structural matrix consisting of a direct causality study of the symmetric, structural and binary matrix based on socio-ecological issues allowing the calculation of the level of influence and dependence of each issue, iii identification of key issues with an influence/dependency diagram, and iv proposal of research and development programs according to the needs and opportunities identified in the previous stages. The Easter Island artisanal fishing system is used as a case study for this methodological approach. Thus, the fishers identified 108 issues, which were then grouped by similarity, reducing the number to 27 global issues, of which seven were identified as key. Surveyed local and central government workers and expert scientists identified 7, 2 and 5 issues, respectively. Finally, research and development programs are proposed that will encourage a series of changes to the fisheries situation on the island, in order to resolve issues and promote their sustainable development.

  16. Glacial to Holocene climate changes in Easter Island (SE Pacific, 27

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    Sáez, A.; Giralt, S.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Moreno, A.; Bao, R.; Pueyo, J. J.; Hernández, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sedimentary architecture and paleoclimate for the last 34 000 cal years BP and human activity during the last 850 years have been reconstructed from the Raraku Lake sediments in Easter Island (SE Pacific, 27°S) using a high-resolution multiproxy study of 8 cores, 36 AMS radiocarbon dates and correlation with previous core studies. The Last Glacial period was characterized by cold and relatively humid conditions between 34 to 28 cal kyr BP. High lake levels and clastic input dominated sedimentation in Raraku Lake and a relatively open forest developed at that time. Between 28 and 17.3 cal kyr BP, including LGM period, colder conditions contributed to a reduction of the tree coverage in the island. The end of Glacial Period occurred at 17.3 cal kyr BP and was characterized by a sharp decrease in lake level conducive to the development of major floods due to the erosion of littoral sediments. The Deglaciation Period (Termination 1) occurred between 17.3 and 12.5 cal kyr BP, characterized by an increase in lake productivity, a decrease in the terrigenous input and a rapid lake level recovery inaugurating a period of intermediate lake levels. During this period, the dominance of algal lamination is interpreted as a warmer climate. The timing and duration of this warming trend in Easter Island broadly agrees with other mid- and low latitude circum South Pacific terrestrial records. The early Holocene was characterized by low lake levels. The lake level dropped during the early Holocene (ca. 9.5 cal kyr BP) and peatbog and shallow lake conditions dominated till mid Holocene, partially caused by the colmatation of the lacustrine basin. During the mid Holocene an intense drought occurred that led to a persistent low water table period, subaerial exposure and erosion of some of the sediments, generating a sedimentary gap in the Raraku sequence, from 4.2 to 0.8 cal kyr BP. The palm deforestation of the Easter Island, attributed to the human colonization at about 850 cal yr

  17. Observations of Munitions Mobility During a Nor'easter at Wallops Island

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    Swann, C.; Frank, D. P.; Braithwaite, E. F., III; Hagg, R. K.; Calantoni, J.

    2017-12-01

    Unexploded ordnance (or munitions) may migrate, bury, or become exposed over time, and may pose a hazard to both humans and environment. Understanding the behavior of munitions under various wave and current conditions is central to management and remediation of contaminated underwater sites. We embedded Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) into inert replicas of large caliber munitions (81 mm - 155 mm), herein referred to as `smart munitions'. Several smart munitions were deployed in the field with IMUs logging at 16 Hz continuously. Simultaneously the local hydrodynamic conditions were monitored to correlate any resulting munitions mobility. Here, we present the response of the smart munitions to wave and current conditions observed during a nor'easter off the coast of Wallops Island, Virginia USA in about 10 m water depth. During the nor'easter, peak significant wave heights of 2.8 m were observed in 10 m water depth. Over a roughly 10-hour period, an 81 mm smart munition migrated approximately 206 ft in a net onshore direction. Displacement and heading of the migrated smart munition were estimated by divers during the recovery. Integration of the trajectory of motion for the smart munition using a custom signal processing algorithm was in good agreement with the diver measurements. Discussion will focus on the relationship of the local sediment type and the potential for munitions mobility.

  18. Glacial to Holocene climate changes in the SE Pacific. The Raraku Lake sedimentary record (Easter Island, 27°S)

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    Sáez, Alberto; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago; Moreno, Ana; Bao, Roberto; Pueyo, Juan J.; Hernández, Armand; Casas, David

    2009-12-01

    Easter Island (SE Pacific, 27°S) provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct past climate changes in the South Pacific region based on terrestrial archives. Although the general climate evolution of the south Pacific since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is coherent with terrestrial records in southern South America and Polynesia, the details of the dynamics of the shifting Westerlies, the South Pacific Convergence Zone and the South Pacific Anticyclone during the glacial-interglacial transition and the Holocene, and the large scale controls on precipitation in tropical and extratropical regions remain elusive. Here we present a high-resolution reconstruction of lake dynamics, watershed processes and paleohydrology for the last 34 000 cal yrs BP based on a sedimentological and geochemical multiproxy study of 8 cores from the Raraku Lake sediments constrained by 22 AMS radiocarbon dates. This multicore strategy has reconstructed the sedimentary architecture of the lake infilling and provided a stratigraphic framework to integrate and correlate previous core and vegetation studies conducted in the lake. High lake levels and clastic input dominated sedimentation in Raraku Lake between 34 and 28 cal kyr BP. Sedimentological and geochemical evidences support previously reported pollen data showing a relatively open forest and a cold and relatively humid climate during the Glacial period. Between 28 and 17.3 cal kyr BP, including the LGM period, colder conditions contributed to a reduction of the tree coverage in the island. The coherent climate patterns in subtropical and mid latitudes of Chile and Eastern Island for the LGM (more humid conditions) suggest stronger influence of the Antarctic circumpolar current and an enhancement of the Westerlies. The end of Glacial Period occurred at 17.3 cal kyr BP and was characterized by a sharp decrease in lake level conducive to the development of major flood events and erosion of littoral sediments. Deglaciation (Termination

  19. Ecological Catastrophes and Disturbance Relicts: A Case Study from Easter Island

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    Wynne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Caves are often considered buffered environments in terms of their ability to sustain near constant microclimatic conditions. However, environments within cave entrances are expected to respond most quickly to changing surface conditions. We cataloged a relict assemblage of at least 10 endemic arthropods likely restricted to caves and occurring primarily within cave entranceways. Of these animals, eight were considered new undescribed species. These endemic arthropods have persisted in Rapa Nui (Easter Island) caves despite a catastrophic ecological shift induced by island-wide deforestation, fire intolerance, and drought, as well as intensive livestock grazing and surface ecosystems dominated by invasive species. We consider these animals to be "disturbance relicts" - species whose distributions are now limited to areas that experienced minimal human disturbance historically. Today, these species represent one-third of the Rapa Nui's known endemic arthropods. Given the island's severely depauperate native fauna, these arthropods should be considered among the highest priority targets for biological conservation. In other regions globally, epigean examples of imperiled disturbance relicts persisting within narrow distributional ranges have been documented. As human activity intensifies, and habitat loss and fragmentation continues worldwide, additional disturbance relicts will be identified. We expect extinction debts, global climate change and interactions with invasive species will challenge the persistence of both hypogean and epigean disturbance relict species.

  20. The Pacific Rat Race to Easter Island: Tracking the Prehistoric Dispersal of Rattus exulans Using Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes

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    Katrina West

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The location of the immediate eastern Polynesian origin for the settlement of Easter Island (Rapa Nui, remains unclear with conflicting archeological and linguistic evidence. Previous genetic commensal research using the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans; a species transported by humans across Remote Oceania and throughout the Polynesian Triangle, has identified broad interaction spheres across the region. However, there has been limited success in distinguishing finer-scale movements between Remote Oceanic islands as the same mitochondrial control region haplotype has been identified in the majority of ancient rat specimens. To improve molecular resolution and identify a pattern of prehistoric dispersal to Easter Island, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient Pacific rat specimens obtained from early archeological contexts across West and East Polynesia. Ancient Polynesian rat haplotypes are closely related and reflect the widely supported scenario of a central East Polynesian homeland region from which eastern expansion occurred. An Easter Island and Tubuai (Austral Islands grouping of related haplotypes suggests that both islands were established by the same colonization wave, proposed to have originated in the central homeland region before dispersing through the south-eastern corridor of East Polynesia.

  1. [Reasons to recommend vaccination against dengue in Easter Island: Immunization Advisory Committee of Sociedad Chilena de Infectología].

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    Fica, Alberto; Potin, Marcela; Moreno, Gabriela; Véliz, Liliana; Cerda, Jaime; Escobar, Carola; Wilhelm, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Dengue was first diagnosed on Easter Island on year 2002 and thereafter recurrent outbreaks have occurred involving different serotypes of dengue virus. Its vector, Aedes aegypti has not been eliminated despite the small size of the island. Conditions at the local hospital preclude adequate management of severe and hemorrhagic cases due to the absence of a Critical Care Unit as well as no availability of platelets, or plasma units for transfusion. Besides, transfer, of severely affected patients to continental Chile is cumbersome, slow and expensive. In this scenario, it is advisable to implement selective vaccination of Easter Island habitants with an available quadrivalent attenuated dengue vaccine with the aim to reduce hemorrhagic and severe dengue cases. This strategy should not replace permanent efforts to control waste disposal sites, water sources, maintain vector surveillance and increase education of the population.

  2. Late Holocene vegetation dynamics and deforestation in Rano Aroi: Implications for Easter Island's ecological and cultural history

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    Rull, Valentí; Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Margalef, Olga; Sáez, Alberto; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) has been considered an example of how societies can cause their own destruction through the overexploitation of natural resources. The flagship of this ecocidal paradigm is the supposed abrupt, island-wide deforestation that occurred about one millennium ago, a few centuries after the arrival of Polynesian settlers to the island. Other hypotheses attribute the forest demise to different causes such as fruit consumption by rats or aridity but the occurrence of an abrupt, island-wide deforestation during the last millennium has become paradigmatic in Rapa Nui. We argue that such a view can be questioned, as it is based on the palynological study of incomplete records, owing to the existence of major sedimentary gaps. Here, we present a multiproxy (pollen, charcoal and geochemistry) study of the Aroi core, the first gap-free sedimentary sequence of the last millennia obtained to date in the island. Our results show changing vegetation patterns under the action of either climatic or anthropogenic drivers, or both, depending on the time interval considered. Palm forests were present in Aroi until the 16th century, when deforestation started, coinciding with fire exacerbation -likely of human origin- and a dry climate. This is the latest deforestation event recorded so far in the island and took place roughly a century before European contact. In comparison to other Easter Island records, this record shows that deforestation was neither simultaneous nor proceeded at the same pace over the whole island. These findings suggest that Easter Island's deforestation was a heterogeneous process in space and time, and highlights the relevance of local catchment traits in the island's environmental and land management history.

  3. The slow demise of Easter Island: insights from a modelling investigation

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    Gunnar eBrandt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of Easter Island and its supposed social-ecological collapse is often taken as a grim warning for the modern world. However, while the loss of a once lush palm forest is largely uncontested, causes and timing of the collapse remain controversial, because many paleoeological and archaeological data are afflicted with considerable uncertainties. According to a scenario named ecocide, the overharvesting of palm trees triggered a dramatic population decline, whereas a contrasting view termed genocide deems diseases and enslavement introduced by Europeans as the main reasons for the collapse. We propose here a third possibility, a slow demise, in which aspects of both ecocide and genocide concur to produce a long and slow decline of the society. We use a dynamic model to illustrate the consequences of the three alternatives with respect to the fate of the paleoecological system of the island.While none of the three model scenarios can be safely ruled out given the uncertainties of the available data, the slow demise appears to be the most plausible model scenario, in particular when considering the temporal pattern of deforestation as inferred from radiocarbon dates of charcoal remains.

  4. Natural and anthropogenic drivers of cultural change on Easter Island: Review and new insights

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    Rull, Valentí

    2016-10-01

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) is a remote Pacific island known for its megalithic statues, the moai, built by an ancient culture which disappearance is still debated. Theories claiming for either self-destruction (ecocide) of this ancient culture or an eventual genocide after the European contact have been the most popular. Anthropogenic drivers have been traditionally preferred as causes of this major cultural shift, whereas climatic changes have been dismissed or underrated. However, the latest findings suggest that the topic is more complex than formerly thought and demand a more holistic perspective. This paper reviews the main paleoclimatic, paleoecological, archaeological and historical evidence of the major Rapanui cultural shift leading to the end of the moai-building civilization and uses an integrated approach to analyze its timing and potential causes. The disappearance of the ancient Eastern Island culture that erected the moai was a dramatic cultural shift with significant changes in lifestyle, socio-political organization, religious performance, art and also in the geographical settlement of the cultural core of the Rapanui society. The ancient society, represented by the so called Ancient Cult (or moai cult) was centered on the Rano Raraku crater, to the east of the island, whose soft volcanic rocks (tuff) where suitable for moai carving. This society was replaced by the Birdman-Cult society, based on Rano Kao, to the westernmost end of the island. The assumed date for such shift is uncertain ranging between mid-16th and late-18th centuries. It is suggested that such geographical change, as well as the associated societal transformations, may have been the result of a combination of climatic, ecological and cultural drivers and events. The latest paleoecological reconstructions show that the Rano Raraku catchment was deforested by AD 1450 and the lake inside dried out by AD 1550 owing to an intense climatic drought. This would have caused a landscape

  5. Species catch composition, length structure and reproductive indices of swordfish (Xiphias gladius at Easter Island zone Composición de especies, estructura de tallas e índices reproductivos de pez espada (Xiphias gladius en la zona de isla de Pascua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vega

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The species composition, size distribution, and gonadal index (GI of swordfish (Xiphias gladius are reported from catches obtained by longliners in the zone of Easter Island in the southeastern Pacific. Five cruises were made during the summer season between 2001 and 2006 completing a total of 150 fishing sets. A total of 3,781 fish belonging to 24 species were registered, of which 17 were commercial and 6 were bycatch. Of the total, 44.1% were swordfish, 28.3%> sharks, 12.1% marlins, 8.4%> tunas and 7.1%o other teleosts. Amongst the sharks the most important species was the blue shark (Prionace glauca, 16.5%> followed by the brown shark (Carcharhinus spp., 6.9%>. Amongst the tunas and istiophorids, striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax, 8.0% and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares, 4.9% were also important (≥ 4% in number. The number of units by species, the nominal yield in number and weight and the gutted average weight are reported in addition to size statistics. The population structure of swordfish was dominated by males and differences in the average length between sexes were not found. Individuals with high values of GI were observed during every survey, mainly during December-February which suggests a reproductive area for this species. The blue shark showed a predominance of males, and differences in the average length between sexes were observed, possibly due to a spatial and temporal segregation.Se reportan la composición de especies, estructura de talla, y el índice gonádico (IG de pez espada (Xiphias gladius, desde capturas obtenidas por embarcaciones palangreras en la zona de isla de Pascua en el Pacífico suroriental. En el periodo estival entre 2001 y 2006, se realizaron cinco cruceros completando un total de 150 lances de pesca. Se registró un total de 3.781 peces pertenecientes a 24 especies, de las cuales 17 fueron comerciales y seis incidentales. Del total, 44,1% fue pez espada, 28,3%> tiburones, 12,1% marlines, 8,4%o atunes

  6. Synthesis of the state of knowledge about species richness of macroalgae, macroinvertebrates and fishes in coastal and oceanic waters of Easter and Salas y Gómez islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Fernández

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 19th century on, several small sampling trips as well as large national and international scientific expeditions have been carried out to Easter Island (EI and Salas y Gómez Island (SGI. The objective of this study is to compile, synthesize and analyze published information about the biodiversity of macroalgae, macroinvertebrates and fishes associated with EI-SGI, updating the state of knowledge and making it available for the development of conservation plans. We searched all the available sources of information, such as scientific publications, scientific expeditions, fisheries data, technical reports, books, databases and online sources. We found 964 species reported within EI-SGI (143 species of macroalgae, 605 macroinvertebrates and 216 fishes, the majority for EI (923; for SGI 171 species have been reported. Species richness has increased over time, without leveling off, as sampling effort increases. However, seamounts and hydrothermal vents have been poorly studied in Chile's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. A high percentage of endemism has been determined for the majority of the taxonomic groups, with mollusks and poriferans exhibiting the highest levels of endemism (33 -34%. Thus, the Rapanuian biogeographic province can be clearly identified, but information to differentiate between EI and SGI, and direct island-specific conservation efforts, is lacking. Nevertheless, the most vulnerable yet unprotected habitats (hydrothermal vents, higher diversity of seamounts size are located towards the western limit of the EEZ.

  7. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0840] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION... Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH. (a) Location. The...

  8. Vegetation changes and human settlement of Easter Island during the last millennia: a multiproxy study of the Lake Raraku sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Rull, Valentí; Sáez, Alberto; Margalef, Olga; Bao, Roberto; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Blaauw, Maarten; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Giralt, Santiago

    2013-07-01

    Earlier palynological studies of lake sediments from Easter Island suggest that the island underwent a recent and abrupt replacement of palm-dominated forests by grasslands, interpreted as a deforestation by indigenous people. However, the available evidence is inconclusive due to the existence of extended hiatuses and ambiguous chronological frameworks in most of the sedimentary sequences studied. This has given rise to an ongoing debate about the timing and causes of the assumed ecological degradation and cultural breakdown. Our multiproxy study of a core recovered from Lake Raraku highlights the vegetation dynamics and environmental shifts in the catchment and its surroundings during the late Holocene. The sequence contains shorter hiatuses than in previously recovered cores and provides a more continuous history of environmental changes. The results show a long, gradual and stepped landscape shift from palm-dominated forests to grasslands. This change started c. 450 BC and lasted about two thousand years. The presence of Verbena litoralis, a common weed, which is associated with human activities in the pollen record, the significant correlation between shifts in charcoal influx, and the dominant pollen types suggest human disturbance of the vegetation. Therefore, human settlement on the island occurred c. 450 BC, some 1500 years earlier than is assumed. Climate variability also exerted a major influence on environmental changes. Two sedimentary gaps in the record are interpreted as periods of droughts that could have prevented peat growth and favoured its erosion during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, respectively. At c. AD 1200, the water table rose and the former Raraku mire turned into a shallow lake, suggesting higher precipitation/evaporation rates coeval with a cooler and wetter Pan-Pacific AD 1300 event. Pollen and diatom records show large vegetation changes due to human activities c. AD 1200. Other recent vegetation changes also

  9. Marine mammals of Easter Island (Rapa Nui and Salas y Gómez Island (Motu Motiro Hiva, Chile: a review and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean oceanic islands Easter Island (Rapa Nui and Salas y Gómez Island (Motu Motiro Hiva have received little attention with regards to basic marine mammal investigations. Here we review and update available information on the status of marine mammals in this area from different sources, including published accounts, local interviews and two recent expeditions. We also provide detailed accounts for each confirmed family or species, including historical data from published archaeological studies and whalers' logbooks from the 18th to the 20th centuries. Results indicate that a total of five marine mammal families (Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae, Ziphiidae, Delphinidae and Phocidae have been confirmed within the study area, representing two mammalian orders (Cetartiodactyla and Carnivora. Within these, twelve species are known to occur: blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, unidentified minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis or B. acutorostrata, humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus, Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris, Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris, false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens, unidentified pilot whale (Globicephala sp., bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, common dolphin (Delphinus sp., southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina and leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx. We discuss the implications of some of most noteworthy records and make a plea for further studies to improve our knowledge of these top predators in one of the most isolated places in the world.

  10. RAPA NUI, ISLA DE PASCUA OR EASTER ISLAND: TRADITION, MODERNITY AND ALTERGLOBALIZATION IN INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Molina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research are described, analyze and compare the manifestations of the intercultural education in a difficult situation as it is Rapa Nui Island, traditionally isolated, in the “navel of the world” (Te pito o Te Henua, but “discovered” and assimilated by the western people and recovered for the intercultural idea that it surpasses this assimilation and/or global homogenization, in a alterglobalization context. We have analyzed four depth interviews and two biographical stories (life histories, dividing of the hypothesis of the necessity of a clear link between interculturality and education, to rethink the identity and the cultural continuity of their citizens. The obtained results suggest them programs of immersion in the school are not sufficient if they do not go accompanied of a holistic institutional work in the diverse scopes: cultural, educative, economic, environmental politician, leisure, etc. The construction of the identity sends again to individual and collective scopes, with the participation of the subject and the community. In this sense, intergenerational solidarity plays a fundamental role.

  11. Rain, Sun, Soil, and Sweat: A Consideration of Population Limits on Rapa Nui (Easter Island before European Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric O. Puleston

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The incongruity between the small and apparently impoverished Rapa Nui population that early European travelers encountered and the magnificence of its numerous and massive stone statues has fed a deep fascination with the island. Ethnographic and archaeological evidence suggest that the indigenous population was previously greater than the estimated 1,500–3,000 individuals observed by visitors in the eighteenth century. Our goal was to determine the maximum population that might have lived on the island by estimating its agricultural productivity in the time before European contact. To determine the agricultural potential of the island we sampled soils and established six weather stations in diverse contexts and recorded data over a 2-year period. We find that the island is wetter on average than previously believed. We also find that rainfall and temperature respond linearly to elevation, but a spatial model of precipitation requires correction for a rain shadow effect. We adapted to Rapa Nui an island-wide spatial model designed to identify agriculturally viable zones elsewhere in Polynesia. Based on functions relating climate and substrate age to measurements of soil base saturation, we identified 3,134 ha that were suitable for traditional dryland sweet potato cultivation, or about 19% of the 164 km2 island. We used a nutrient-cycling model to estimate yields. Modeled yields are highly sensitive to nitrogen (N inputs and reliable estimates of these rates are unavailable, requiring us to bracket the rate of N inputs. In the case of low N availability, yields under continuous cultivation were very small, averaging 1.5 t/ha of wet sweet potato tuber. When the N fixation rate was quadrupled sustainable yields increased to 5.1 t/ha. In each N scenario we used a model of food-limited demography to examine the consequences of altering agricultural practices, the labor supply, the ability of the population to control its fertility, and the

  12. 76 FR 61947 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound Zone. This action is necessary to provide... or anchoring within these zones is prohibited unless authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island Sound...

  13. 78 FR 24679 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... zones for fireworks displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound (LIS) Zone. This... Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective from April 27, 2013, until June 22, 2013. This...

  14. 77 FR 36396 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast... for fireworks displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound Zone. This action is... Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective from June 23, 2012 until July 21, 2012. This rule will be...

  15. 78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0021] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule... as follows: Sec. 165. 14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location...

  16. Sugar cane consumption on Rapanui (Easter Island) and the indicence of caries : evidence from stable isotope values of human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, B.F.; Quinn, C.J.; Seelenfreund, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pre-European people on Rapanui are known to have had a high rate of dental caries. One proposed explanation for this is that the people consumed a considerable amount of sugar cane, as a thirst quencher, since fresh water is scarce on the island. Human bone samples were analysed by isotope analysis to see if this explanation could be sustained. Results for three isotopes δ 13 C, δ 15 N and δ 34 S were then used in a stochastic model to estimate the proportions of five main food types in the diet of these people. This indicated that daily consumption of dry raw sugar cane was only about 32 to 42 g per day. This is very low and sugar cane consumption is therefore unlikely to be the only cause of the high rate of dental caries. (author).

  17. 78 FR 27877 - Safety Zone; McAloon Wedding Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; McAloon Wedding Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH AGENCY: Coast... fireworks display will be launched in conjunction with a wedding. The Captain of the Port Detroit has.... Add Sec. 165.T09-0165 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0165 Safety Zone; McAloon Wedding Fireworks...

  18. 76 FR 27253 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that are developed or...-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH AGENCY: Coast... restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the Catawba Island Club Memorial Day Fireworks. This...

  19. Geology of the Elephanta Island fault zone, western Indian rifted margin, and its significance for understanding the Panvel flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Hrishikesh; Pundalik, Ashwin; D'souza, Joseph; Sheth, Hetu; Lobo, Keegan Carmo; D'souza, Kyle; Patel, Vanit

    2017-02-01

    The Panvel flexure is a 150-km long tectonic structure, comprising prominently seaward-dipping Deccan flood basalts, on the western Indian rifted margin. Given the active tectonic faulting beneath the Panvel flexure zone inferred from microseismicity, better structural understanding of the region is needed. The geology of Elephanta Island in the Mumbai harbour, famous for the ca. mid-6th century A.D. Hindu rock-cut caves in Deccan basalt (a UNESCO World Heritage site) is poorly known. We describe a previously unreported but well-exposed fault zone on Elephanta Island, consisting of two large faults dipping steeply east-southeast and producing easterly downthrows. Well-developed slickensides and structural measurements indicate oblique slip on both faults. The Elephanta Island fault zone may be the northern extension of the Alibag-Uran fault zone previously described. This and two other known regional faults (Nhava-Sheva and Belpada faults) indicate a progressively eastward step-faulted structure of the Panvel flexure, with the important result that the individual movements were not simply downdip but also oblique-slip and locally even rotational (as at Uran). An interesting problem is the normal faulting, block tectonics and rifting of this region of the crust for which seismological data indicate a normal thickness (up to 41.3 km). A model of asymmetric rifting by simple shear may explain this observation and the consistently landward dips of the rifted margin faults.

  20. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  1. Origin of the Easter Submarine Alignment: morphology and structural lineaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter submarine alignment corresponds to a sequence of seamounts and oceanic islands which runs from the Ahu-Umu volcanic fields in the west to its intersection with the Nazca Ridge in the east, with a total length of about 2.900 km and a strike of N85°E. Recent bathymetric compilations that include combined satellite derived and shipboard data (Global Topography and multibeam bathymetric data (from NGDC-NOAA are interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively by using a morphological analysis, which was comprised of the determination of bathymetric patterns, trends in lineations and structures; height measurements, computation of basal areas and volumes of seamounts, in order to establish clues on the origin of this seamount chain and to establish relationships with the regional tectonics. In the study region 514 seamounts were counted, of which 334 had a basal area less than the reference seamount (Moai. In general, the largest seamounts (>1000 m in height tend to align and to have a larger volume, with an elongation of their bases along the seamount chain. On the other hand, smaller seamounts tend to be distributed more randomly with more circular bases. As a consequence of the morphological analysis, the best possible mechanism that explains the origin of the seamount chain is the existence of a localized hotspot to the west of the Salas y Gómez Island. The corresponding plume would contribute additional magmatic material towards the East Pacific Rise through canalizations, whose secondary branches would feed intermediate volcanoes. It is possible that within the Easter Island region there would be another minor contribution through fractures in the crust, due to the crustal weakening that was produced by the Easter Fracture Zone.

  2. 76 FR 55566 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays and Surfing Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays and Surfing Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone... zones for marine events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound Zone for a surfing event... unless authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on...

  3. PLANT INVASIONS IN RHODE ISLAND RIPARIAN ZONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vegetation in riparian zones provides valuable wildlife habitat while enhancing instream habitat and water quality. Forest fragmentation, sunlit edges, and nutrient additions from adjacent development may be sources of stress on riparian zones. Landscape plants may include no...

  4. 77 FR 37326 - Safety Zone; Grand Hotel 125th Anniversary Fireworks Celebration, Mackinaw Island, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Grand Hotel 125th Anniversary Fireworks Celebration, Mackinaw Island, MI AGENCY... Hotel 125th Anniversary Fireworks Celebration, Mackinaw Island, Michigan. (a) Location. This safety zone... safety zone near Mackinaw Island, Michigan. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a...

  5. Geology of the Elephanta Island fault zone, western Indian rifted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 1. Geology of the Elephanta Island fault zone, western Indian rifted margin, and its significance for understanding the Panvel flexure. Hrishikesh Samant Ashwin Pundalik Joseph D'souza Hetu Sheth Keegan Carmo Lobo Kyle D'souza Vanit Patel. Volume ...

  6. Effect of Nearshore Islands on Tsunami Inundation in Shadow Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, J.; Kaihatu, J. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Lynett, P. J.; Synolakis, C.

    2017-12-01

    Field surveys performed in the wake of the 2010 Mentawai tsunami event have described the belief of local residents that offshore islands serve as possible tsunami sheltering mechanisms, reducing the corresponding inundation on beaches behind the islands, despite the fact that deduced inundation from debris lines show this to be in fact untrue (Hill et al. 2012). Recent numerical model studies (Stefanakis et al. 2014) have shown that inundation levels on beaches behind conical islands are indeed higher than they are on open coastlines. While work has been done on tsunami amplification on the lee side of islands (Briggs et al. 1995), no work has been done concerning tsunami inundation on beach areas behind the islands. A series of experiments to address this were conducted in the Directional Wave Basin (DWB) at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory at Oregon State University in summer 2016. A series of four sheet metal islands (two with a full conical section, two truncated at the water line) were placed at varying distances from the toe of a 1/10 sloping beach. Incident wave conditions consisting of solitary waves and full-stroke "dam break" waves were run over the islands. Free surface elevations, velocities, and beach runup were measured, with the intent of determining relationships between the wave condition, the island geometry and distance from the beach, and the tsunami characteristics. A series of runup measurements from a particular set of experiments can be seen in Figure 1. Based on these preliminary analyses, it was determined that: A) inundation was always amplified behind the island relative to areas outside this shadow zone; and B) inundation was generally highest with the island closest to the beach, except in the case where the tsunami wave broke prior to reaching the island. In this latter scenario, the inundation behind the island increased with island distance from the beach. The development of relationships between the inundation levels

  7. Fracture-zone tectonics at Zabargad Island, Red Sea (Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Stephen; Bonatti, Enrico; Brueckner, Hannes; Paulsen, Timothy

    1992-12-01

    Zabargad Island, which lies along the western margin of the Red Sea rift, is a remarkable place because it provides fresh exposures of undepleted mantle peridotite. How this peridotite came to be exposed on Zabargad remains unclear. Our field mapping indicates that most of the contacts between peridotite and the adjacent bodies of Pan-African gneiss and Cretaceous(?) Zabargad Formation on the island are now high-angle brittle faults. Zabargad Formation strata have been complexly folded, partly in response to this faulting. Overall, the array of high-angle faults and associated folds on the island resembles those found in cross-rift transfer zones. We suggest, therefore, that the Zabargad fracture zone, a band of submarine escarpments on the floor of the Red Sea north of the island, crosses Zabargad Island and has actively resolved differential movement between the central Red Sea rift and the northern Red Sea rift. The final stage of uplift that brought the unusual peridotite to the earth's surface is related to shallow crustal transpression, which may have inverted an earlier transtensional regime.

  8. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by a...

  9. 78 FR 61937 - Safety Zone; Port of Galveston, Pelican Island Bridge Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    ... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Port of Galveston, Pelican Island Bridge Repair AGENCY: Coast... zone in Galveston to maintain public safety during the Pelican Island Bridge Repair Project. This... Pelican Island Bridge; therefore immediate action is needed to protect public boaters and their vessels...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The waters... Officer, Explosive Ordnance Disposal Training and Evaluation Unit One, Barbers Point, Hawaii 96862-5600. ...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at Kaena... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The... shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Air Station, Barber's Point, Hawaii, 96862, and such...

  13. 77 FR 32394 - Safety Zones: Catawba Island Club Fire Works, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH; Racing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...[deg]51'18.70'' W (NAD 83). This safety zone will be enforced from 9:15 p.m. until 9:45 p.m. on May 27...[deg]51[min]18.70[sec] W (NAD 83). (2) Enforcement period. This safety zone will be enforced between 9...-AA00 Safety Zones: Catawba Island Club Fire Works, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH; Racing for...

  14. Lava inundation zone maps for Mauna Loa, Island of Hawaiʻi, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Zoeller, Michael H.

    2017-10-12

    Lava flows from Mauna Loa volcano, on the Island of Hawaiʻi, constitute a significant hazard to people and property. This report addresses those lava flow hazards, mapping 18 potential lava inundation zones on the island.

  15. 33 CFR 165.151 - Safety Zones; Long Island Sound annual fireworks displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....5″ W; and barge two, 41°20′51.75″ N, 72°05′18.90″ W. (11) Harbor Day Fireworks Safety Zone. All... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zones; Long Island Sound... § 165.151 Safety Zones; Long Island Sound annual fireworks displays. (a) Safety Zones. The following...

  16. 33 CFR 165.701 - Vicinity, Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida-security zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vicinity, Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida-security zone. 165.701 Section 165.701 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.701 Vicinity, Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida—security zone. (a) The water, land...

  17. 33 CFR 165.762 - Security Zone; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; St. Thomas, U.S....762 Security Zone; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. (a) Location. Moving and fixed security zones are established 50 yards around all cruise ships entering, departing, moored or anchored in the Port of St. Thomas...

  18. 33 CFR 165.154 - Safety and Security Zones: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: Long... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.154 Safety and Security Zones: Long Island Sound Marine...

  19. 78 FR 67086 - Safety Zone, Submarine Cable Replacement Operations, Kent Island Narrows; Queen Anne's County, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Submarine Cable Replacement Operations, Kent Island Narrows; Queen Anne's County... vessels on navigable waters during submarine cable replacement operations at the Kent Island Narrows (MD... involves the installation of a submarine cable within a federal navigation channel requiring divers, a...

  20. 75 FR 34934 - Safety Zone; Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA AGENCY... Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement... Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA (a) Regulated Area. The following area is a...

  1. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone. (a) The following is a safety zone: (1) The west and northwest shores of Snake Island; (2) The...

  2. 76 FR 39292 - Special Local Regulations & Safety Zones; Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... and fireworks displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound Zone. This action is... Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on July 6, 2011 through 6 p.m. on October 2, 2011...

  3. 78 FR 11116 - Safety Zone; Mamaroneck Beach and Yacht Club Fireworks, Mamaroneck Harbor, Long Island Sound, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mamaroneck Beach and Yacht Club Fireworks, Mamaroneck Harbor, Long Island Sound... to establish a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of... from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and immediately after the fireworks event. DATES...

  4. Prevalencia de caries en escolares de 6 a 15 años, Isla de Pascua Caries prevalence in 6 to 15 year-old school children, from Easter Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Gómez González

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia y severidad de caries de piezas permanentes y algunos factores de riesgo relacionados en un grupo de escolares de Isla de Pascua. Materiales y Métodos: 116 niños de 6 a 15 años de edad fueron seleccionados al azar. Se efectuó examen clínico individualizado y se registraron los índices COP-D, significante de caries (SIC, de Higiene Oral de Greene y Vermillon (G-V y se realizó una encuesta de dieta. Para conocer la frecuencia y recuento de Streptococcus mutans y Streptococcus sobrinus, se tomaron muestras de saliva estimulada a 23 niños Rapa Nui elegidos al azar. Finalmente, se analizaron muestras de agua potable en 3 sitios distintos de la isla para medir la cantidad de flúor disponible. Resultados: La prevalencia de caries en piezas permanentes fue 38%. El COP-D fue 1.19. El valor promedio del G-V fue 1.63. Se aisló e identificó S. mutans y S. sobrinus en el 56.2% y 13.2% respectivamente. El recuento promedio para S. mutans fue de 3.3x105 UFC/ml saliva y para S. sobrinus fue de 7.2x104 UFC/ml. Se observó un promedio de 0.223 ppm/Fluoruro en el agua. Desviación Estándar 0.025 ppm. Según la encuesta de dieta el 30% de los niños presenta bajo riesgo de caries, el 47% presenta mediano riesgo y el 23% presenta alto riesgo. Conclusión: El 38% presenta historia de caries en piezas permanentes. El COP-D promedio es 1.19. En niños Rapa Nui 0.9 y en No Rapa Nui 1.77.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of caries and some related risk factors in a group of school children from Easter Island. Materials and Methods: 116 children aged 6 to 15 years were randomly selected. Individual clinical examination was performed and index COP-D, significant caries index (SIC, Greene and Vermillon Oral Hygiene index (GV were recorded. A diet survey was performed. To determine the frequency and count of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

  5. 77 FR 51912 - Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Sands Point, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket Number USCG-2012-0618] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Sands Point, NY AGENCY.... 165.T01-0618 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T01-0618 Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long...

  6. 75 FR 33741 - Safety Zone; Tracey/Thompson Wedding, Lake Erie, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Tracey/Thompson Wedding, Lake Erie, Catawba Island, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... from portions of Lake Erie during the Tracey/Thompson Wedding Fireworks. This temporary safety zone is.../Thompson Wedding Fireworks Display. The fireworks display will occur between 09:30 p.m. and 10 p.m., August...

  7. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island - Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  8. 78 FR 16208 - Safety Zone; V. I. Carnival Finale; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; V. I. Carnival Finale; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands AGENCY... establish a safety zone on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands during the V..., 2013, and will entail a barge being positioned near the St. Thomas Harbor channel from which fireworks...

  9. 78 FR 16211 - Safety Zone, Corp. Event Finale UHC, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Corp. Event Finale UHC, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... establish a temporary safety zone on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... near the St. Thomas Harbor channel from which fireworks will be lit. DATES: Comments and related...

  10. 78 FR 29089 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... these safety zones is to expedite the evacuation of the harbors in the event a tsunami warning is issued... the 9.0 earthquake that struck Japan in 2011 reached Hawaiian shores in approximately seven hours. More recently, in 2012 a tsunami was generated by a 7.7 earthquake originating from the Queen Charlotte...

  11. 78 FR 39597 - Safety Zone; Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks, San Joaquin River, Venice Island, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Zone; Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks, San Joaquin River, Venice Island, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility...'' W (NAD83) for the Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191, Table 1, Item number 17. This...

  12. 75 FR 18056 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Patuxent River, Solomons Island Harbor, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... the event, and enhancing public and maritime safety. Basis and Purpose Fireworks displays are... promote public and maritime safety during a fireworks display, and to protect mariners transiting the area...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Patuxent River, Solomons Island Harbor, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard...

  13. Foraminifera from the tidal zone in the Netherlands Antilles and other West Indian Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofker, J.

    1964-01-01

    Through the kindness of Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK the author was enabled to study a number of samples from localities in the tidal zone of several West Indian islands. Previously, by courtesy of Dr. T. MORTENSEN, abundant material from some deepwater samples collected off Santa Cruz, Virgin

  14. African Easterly Wave Climatology, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AEWC dataset was created using a new algorithm developed by researchers at Georgia Tech and represents the first attempt to produce a standard easterly wave...

  15. Reconnaissance of intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Young, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island, Southeast Alaska, was performed May 20-22, 1986. The specific objectives were to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and plant resources, and to identify potential herring spawning sites. This effort was designed to supplement the existing ecological data base for Back Island that would be used during the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation process. A NEPA document will be prepared that describes the site environment and assesses impacts from the proposed construction and operation of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC). Nine diver transects were established around Back Island. Particular attention was devoted to proposed locations for the pier and float facilities and range-operations and shore-power cable run-ups.

  16. CRED 60 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of UTM Zone 2, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA within UTM Zone 2. Bottom coverage was...

  17. CRED 60 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of UTM Zone 1, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA within UTM Zone 1. Bottom coverage was...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 165.1406 Section 165.1406 Navigation and...), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety zone during launch operations at PMRF, Kauai, Hawaii: The waters bounded by the following coordinates: (22°01...

  19. 78 FR 15677 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...-BC25 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab... Amendment 42 to the Fishery Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP) for..., standardize reporting across participants, and reduce costs associated with the data collection. This action...

  20. 77 FR 53769 - Safety Zone; Liberty to Freedom Swims, Liberty Island, Upper Bay and Hudson River, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Liberty to Freedom Swims, Liberty Island... and the Lower Hudson River for the September 5, 2012 and September 15, 2012 Liberty to Freedom swim... Upper New York Bay and the Lower Hudson River, in the vicinity of Liberty Island, Jersey City, Manhattan...

  1. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program... program for the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands crab fisheries managed under the BSAI Crab Rationalization... Center Web site at http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/ . For further information on the Crab Rationalization...

  2. Radioactivity depth distribution of 500 m borehole samples through the Nojima fault zone in Awaji Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakama, M.; Yamashita, S.; Koori, N.; Nakayama, S.; Fushimi, K.; Murata, A.

    2003-01-01

    The movements of the Nojima Fault in the northwest region of the island of Awaji, southwest Japan, were caused by the 17 January 1995 Hanshin-Kobe-Awaji Earthquake. The earthquake epicentered on about 14 km underground point below Akashi Strait (N 34deg 36' and E 135deg 03') and the magnitude was record as Ms=7.2 on the epicenter. Many cities in the Hanshin area and the northern part of Awaji Island were devastated by the earthquake and the death toll reached more than about 6400 people. Immediately after the earthquake, in order to elucidate the displacement on the Nojima fault, three drillings were in 1995 and 1996 carried out at Ogura, Hokudan-cho in Awaji Island by the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University. In the drilling project, two 500 m boreholes in one of them were successfully drilled through the fault zone at a depth of 389.4 m. The 500 m borehole samples were collected in the regions of 0 to 455.3 m and 193.0 to 550.7 m, respectively. They were divided into about 80 core samples on the basis of lithology and the radioactive concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides included into those core samples were analyzed by a gamma-ray spectrometry. In this work, we report the relationship between the radioactivity depth distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides and the some strata including the fault zone up to the depth of 500 m underground. (author)

  3. 77 FR 74161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ...-BA82 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... crab fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the BSAI are managed under the FMP. The FMP was... historically active as crab processing ports continue to receive economic benefits from crab deliveries and to...

  4. 78 FR 6279 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... 110207108-2709-01] RIN 0648-BA82 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and... INFORMATION: The king and Tanner crab fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... sufficiently address timeliness, safety, economic efficiency, and other factors. Western Aleutian Islands...

  5. 76 FR 41691 - Safety Zone; BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port.... This zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie during the BGSU Football Gridiron... Purpose On July 25, 2011, Bowling Green State University will hold its BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf...

  6. African easterly wave energetics on intraseasonal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaka, Ghassan J., Jr.

    African easterly waves (AEWs) are synoptic-scale eddies that dominate North African weather in boreal summer. AEWs propagate westward with a maximum amplitude near 700 hPa and a period of 2.5-6-days. AEWs and associated perturbation kinetic energy (PKE) exhibit significant intraseasonal variability in tropical North Africa during boreal summer, which directly impacts local agriculture and tropical cyclogenesis. This study performs a comprehensive analysis of the 30-90-day variability of AEWs and associated energetics using both reanalysis data and model output. Specifically, the PKE and perturbation available potential energy (PAPE) budgets are used to understand the factors that contribute to PKE maxima in West Africa and the extent to which these surges of AEW activity are modulated by the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO). The role of the MJO in the intraseasonal variability of AEWs is assessed by comparing PKE sources as a function of an MJO index and a local 30-90-day West African PKE index. Since East Africa is an initiation zone for AEW activity and is modulated by the MJO, the relationship between this region and West Africa is a primary focus in this study. The intraseasonal variability of AEW energetics is first investigated in reanalysis products. While reanalysis data depicts a similar evolution of 30-90-day PKE anomalies in both the MJO and a local PKE index, the MJO index describes only a small (yet still significant) fraction of the local 30-90-day variance. In boreal summers with more significant MJO days, the correlation between the two indices is higher. Baroclinic energy conversions are important for the initiation of 30-90-day West African PKE events east of Lake Chad. In West Africa, both barotropic and baroclinic energy conversions maintain positive PKE anomalies before they propagate into the Atlantic. The primary role of diabatic heating is to destroy PAPE in a negative feedback to baroclinic energy conversions in West Africa. More frequent

  7. Sachs of Easterly als gids voor ontwikkelingshulp?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    Momenteel woedt een krachtig debat over de (on)zin van ontwikkelingshulp, waarin twee Amerikaanse economen de toon aangeven: Jeffrey Sachs en William Easterly. In dit debat spelen naast economische ook moreel-politieke factoren een voorname rol. Dit artikel analyseert de opvattingen van

  8. Tropical easterly jet located using TOMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhofer, William C.

    1987-01-01

    The formative stages of the onset of the 1979 southwest monsoon was marked by a WNW-ESE oriented band of marine convection over the South Arabian Sea. This convection was first observed on June 10, 1979 using satellite cloud imagery. The marine convection appeared during a major acceleration of the upper troposphere easterly wind field. A composite vertical meridional cross-section of upper level winds for June 11, revealed the core of the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) at 115 mb, 9.5 deg N. Time analysis of the upper level wind field over the Tropical Wind Observing Ship (TWOS) polygon show a lowering of both the pressure level of maximum wind and tropopause level with acceleration of the upper level easterlies. The tropopause was as much as 20 mb lower on the equatorial side of the TEJ. Streamline analysis of the maximum observed easterly winds over India did not reveal the horizontal position of the TEJ. Careful analysis of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for June 11, 1979 showed relatively high values of ozone south of India. It was observed that the latitudinal position of the TEJ on June 11, at approximately 70 deg E coincided with the northern edge of relatively high ozone values. Using this as a reference, the TEJ core was identified as far as NE Bay of Bengal (the limits of the available TOMS data).

  9. Fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of endemic plant species of Tenerife (Canary Islands): relationship to vegetation zones and environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge about fungal diversity scaling relationships relative to that of plants is important to understand ecosystem functioning. Tenerife Island, a natural laboratory to study terrestrial biodiversity, is represented by six different vegetation zones characterized by specific abiotic conditions...... and plant communities with a high proportion of endemic plants. Little is known about the biodiversity of associated fungi. To understand the relationship between plant and fungal communities, we analysed soil/rhizosphere fungi from all vegetation zones. From 12 sampling points dispersed on the whole island...

  10. Composition, diversity and distribution of microbenthos across the intertidal zones of Ryazhkov Island (the White Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azovsky, Andrey; Saburova, Maria; Tikhonenkov, Denis; Khazanova, Ksenya; Esaulov, Anton; Mazei, Yuri

    2013-11-01

    The composition and distribution of the main unicellular eukaryotic groups (diatom algae, ciliates, dinoflagellates (DF), other phototrophic (PF) and heterotrophic flagellates (HF)) were investigated in sandy sediments at five stations allocated across the tidal sheltered beach of the White Sea. Overall, 75 diatoms, 98 ciliates, 16 DF, 3 PF and 34 HF species were identified; some are new records for the White Sea. Common species for each group are illustrated. Diatoms and ciliates showed high alpha-diversity (species richness per sample), whereas flagellates were characterized by high beta-diversity (species turnover across the intertidal flat). Each group demonstrated its own spatial pattern that was best matched with its own subset of abiotic variables, reflecting group-specific responses to environmental gradients. Species richness increased from the upper intertidal zone seaward for ciliates but decreased for HF, whereas autotrophs showed a relatively uniform pattern with a slight peak at the mid-intertidal zone. Across the littoral zone, all groups showed distinct compositional changes; however, the position of the boundary between "upper" and "lower" intertidal communities varied among groups. Most of the species found at Ryazhkov Island are known from many other regions worldwide, indicating a wide geographic distribution of microbial eukaryotic species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Subcrustal earthquakes in the plate boundary zone of New Zealand's South Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, C. M.; Stern, T. A.; Townend, J.; Sheehan, A. F.; Molnar, P. H.; Collins, J. A.; Karalliyadda, S.; Bourguignon, S.; Bannister, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Sporadic, intermediate-depth earthquakes have been observed for ~40 years in the vicinity of the Alpine Fault, a 460 km-long transpressive fault forming the western boundary of the Southern Alps. The Alpine Fault represents the plate boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates in New Zealand and links two subduction zones of opposite polarity in the North and South. Several earthquakes at depths of 59-85 km have been recorded by the Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA) since its deployment in November 2008. Due to large numbers of impulsive phase arrivals, focal mechanisms were obtained for these events during routine processing. In 2009 and early 2010, several additional temporary seismometer networks were operating in the central Southern Alps (Alpine Fault Array ALFA, Deep Fault Drilling Project 2010 DFDP10) and the offshore region west of the South Island (Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa MOANA). To gain more insight about the cause and mechanism of these deep events, a comprehensive analysis has been performed incorporating data from all available instruments. Accurate hypocentres of 22 earthquakes (ML<4) and focal mechanisms of at least 14 events have been obtained. The focal mechanisms reveal that reverse faulting predominates at depth in the continental collision zone between the Pacific and Australian Plates. The intermediate-depth events occur below the Moho discontinuity, which has been mapped in detail using wide-angle reflection/refraction data obtained during the South Island Geophysical Transect (SIGHT) project in 1995/96. Although the cause for these subcrustal earthquakes is not yet clear, they have previously been interpreted to result from intra-continental subduction (Reyners 1987), high shear-strain gradients due to depressed geotherms and viscous deformation of mantle lithosphere (Kohler and Eberhart-Phillips 2003). On the basis of the locations and mechanisms obtained using SAMBA, we have argued that

  12. Internal bioerosion in dead and live hard corals in intertidal zone of Hormuz Island (Persian Gulf).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad Ali; Seyfabadi, Jafar; Shokri, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-30

    Internal macrobioeroders and their erosion rate in three live and dead coral genera (Favia, Platygyra and Porites) from the intertidal zone of the Hormuz Island were studied by collecting five live and five dead colonies from each genus, from which 4 mm cross-sections were cut and photographed. Photos were analyzed using the Coral Point Count with Excel extensions. Totally, 9 taxa were identified: four bivalve species, one sponge, three polychaetes, and one barnacle. Bioerosion rate did not significantly differ among the three live corals, but among the dead ones only Porites was significantly more eroded than Favia. Sponge had the highest role in the erosion of the dead Platygyra, while barnacles were the most effective eroding organism in the live Platygyra. Polychaetes, followed by bivalves, were the most destructive bioeroders on the dead and live Porites. Further, none of the bioeroding organisms had selectively chosen either the dead or live Favia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genesis of lavas of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. W.

    1981-07-01

    The Taupo Volcanic Zone forms part of the Taupo-Hikurangi subduction system, and comprises five volcanic centres: Tongariro, Taupo, Maroa, Okataina and Rotorua. Tongariro Volcanic Centre is formed almost entirely of andesite while the other four centres contain predominantly rhyolitic volcanics and later fissure eruptions of high-Al basalt. Estimated total volume of each lava type are as follows: 2 km 3 of high-Al basalt ( 10,000 km 3 of rhyolite and ignimbrite ( > 97.4%). The location of the andesites and vent alignments suggest a source from a subduction zone underlying the area. However, the lavas differ chemically from island-arc andesites such as those of Tonga; in particular by having higher contents of the alkali elements, light REE and Sr and Pb isotopes. This suggests some crustal contamination, and it is considered that this may occur beneath the wide accretionary prism of the subduction system. Amphibolite of the subduction zone will break down between 80 and 100 km and a partial melt will rise. A multi-stage process of magma genesis is then likely to occur. High-Al basalts are thought to be derived from partial melting of a garnet-free peridotite near the top of the mantle wedge overlying the subduction zone, locations of the vents controlled largely by faults within the crust. Rhyolites and ignimbrites were probably derived from partial melting of Mesozoic greywacke and argillite under the Taupo Volcanic Zone. Initial partial melting may have been due to hydration of the base of the crust; the "water" having come from dehydration of the downgoing slab. The partial melts would rise to form granodiorite plutons and final release of the magma to form rhyolites and ignimbrites was allowed because of extension within the Taupo graben. Dacites of the Bay of Plenty probably resulted from mixing of andesitic magma with small amounts of rhyolitic magma, but those on the eastern side of the Rotorua-Taupo area were more likely formed by a higher degree of partial

  14. 78 FR 65602 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-BD03 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... use by community residents in order to help minimize adverse economic impacts of the IFQ Program on... this action, and the economic and socioeconomic effects of the alternatives (see ADDRESSES). An IRFA is...

  15. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    .... 101126521-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA683 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering... retention of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2011 total allowable catch of octopus in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  16. 76 FR 63200 - Safety Zone; The Old Club Cannonade, Lake St. Clair, Muscamoot Bay, Harsens Island, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ..., design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that...-AA00 Safety Zone; The Old Club Cannonade, Lake St. Clair, Muscamoot Bay, Harsens Island, MI AGENCY... ``Search.'' They are also available for inspection or copying at the Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S...

  17. 77 FR 44216 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost... Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2012/2013 crab fishing year. DATES: Fee liability payments made by the Crab Rationalization...

  18. 76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost... Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage... that must be submitted by July 31, 2012. DATES: The Crab Rationalization Program Registered Crab...

  19. 75 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost... Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage... that must be submitted by July 31, 2011. DATES: The Crab Rationalization Program Registered Crab...

  20. 78 FR 46577 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost... Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage... that must be submitted by July 31, 2014. DATES: The Crab Rationalization Program Registered Crab...

  1. Coastal zone environment measurements at Sakhalin Island using autonomous mobile robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyugin, Dmitry; Kurkin, Andrey; Zaytsev, Andrey; Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    To perform continuous complex measurements of environment characteristics in coastal zones autonomous mobile robotic system was built. The main advantage of such system in comparison to manual measurements is an ability to quickly change location of the equipment and start measurements. AMRS allows to transport a set of sensors and appropriate power source for long distances. The equipment installed on the AMRS includes: a modern high-tech ship's radar «Micran» for sea waves measurements, multiparameter platform WXT 520 for weather monitoring, high precision GPS/GLONASS receiver OS-203 for georeferencing, laser scanner platform based on two Sick LMS-511 scanners which can provide 3D distance measurements in up to 80 meters on the AMRS route and rugged designed quad-core fanless computer Matrix MXE-5400 for data collecting and recording. The equipment is controlled by high performance modular software developed specially for the AMRS. During the summer 2016 the experiment was conducted. Measurements took place at the coastal zone of Sakhalin Island (Russia). The measuring system of AMRS was started in automatic mode controlled by the software. As result a lot of data was collected and processed to database. It consists of continuous measurements of the coastal zone including different weather conditions. The most interesting for investigation is a period of three-point storm detected on June, 2, 2016. Further work will relate to data processing of measured environment characteristics and numerical models verification based on the collected data. The presented results of research obtained by the support of the Russian president's scholarship for young scientists and graduate students №SP-193.2015.5

  2. Lo que podemos aprender de la mano de "EASTER BUNNY"

    OpenAIRE

    Cancelas y Ouviña, Lucía-Pilar

    1999-01-01

    En este trabajo analizamos en profundidad la festividad de Easter (origen, etimología, costumbres...) comenzando por el Shrove Tuesday o Pancake Day y finalizando en el Monday Easter. Analizamos las tradiciones asociadas a cada día de la Semana Santa anglosajona (Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, Easter Sunday y Easter Monday) describiendo loa actos principales, gastronomía y ritos que se celebran en estos días. Finalmente presentamos algunas propuestas didácticas para integra...

  3. Establishing physiographic provinces for an integrative approach of the coastal zone management - The case of Rhodes Island, Aegean Sea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Vasileios; Angelos Hatiris, Georgios; Sioulas, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The coastal zone is a dynamic natural system affected by terrestrial and marine processes as well as human intervention. The sediments derived by the land and supplied by the adjacent catchment are reworked and distributed according to the prevailing hydrodynamic regime. Based on inland and coastal physiography of Rhodes Island, six (6) main Physiographic Provinces were identified, which incorporate 56 main drainage basins and 168 interfluves. Moreover, the variety of coastal types was mapped and the total length of the island's coastline ( 285 km) was measured by using geospatial tools (ArcGIS and Google Earth). The coastline is comprised of depositional sandy beaches (44.5%), rocky coasts (47%) and coasts altered from anthropogenic constructions (8.5%). The Physiographic Provinces were defined in order to facilitate an Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) scheme for Rhodes Island and also adaptation measures. Overexploitation of the island's natural coastal environment by the tourism industry, mainly in the northern and northeastern parts of the island, left a series of adverse effects on the coastal area, such as erosion of beaches, water and energy overconsumption and land degradation.

  4. Assessing the relationship between surface urban heat islands and landscape patterns across climatic zones in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiquan; Huang, Xin; Li, Jiayi

    2017-08-24

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect exerts a great influence on the Earth's environment and human health and has been the subject of considerable attention. Landscape patterns are among the most important factors relevant to surface UHIs (SUHIs); however, the relationship between SUHIs and landscape patterns is poorly understood over large areas. In this study, the surface UHI intensity (SUHII) is defined as the temperature difference between urban and suburban areas, and the landscape patterns are quantified by the urban-suburban differences in several typical landscape metrics (ΔLMs). Temperature and land-cover classification datasets based on satellite observations were applied to analyze the relationship between SUHII and ΔLMs in 332 cities/city agglomerations distributed in different climatic zones of China. The results indicate that SUHII and its correlations with ΔLMs are profoundly influenced by seasonal, diurnal, and climatic factors. The impacts of different land-cover types on SUHIs are different, and the landscape patterns of the built-up and vegetation (including forest, grassland, and cultivated land) classes have the most significant effects on SUHIs. The results of this study will help us to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between the SUHI effect and landscape patterns.

  5. Easter Island, Chile Digital Elevation Model 3 arc-second

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Controls on groundwater dynamics and root zone aeration of a coastal fluvial delta island, Wax Lake, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M.; Hardison, A. K.; Moffett, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    Louisiana coastal wetlands are thought to function as buffers, filtering nutrient-rich terrestrial runoff as it travels to the Gulf of Mexico. While surface water filtration by these wetlands is a large and active area of research, flow through subsurface portions of the wetlands and possible nutrient cycling in the root zone has been largely overlooked. Specifically for Louisiana's coastal deltas, the physics and chemistry of island groundwater systems is unknown.To characterize these subsurface hydraulic dynamics at Pintail Island in the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana, we collected sediment core samples and penetrometer measurements, monitored surface water and groundwater levels and chemistry, and analyzed meteorological, tidal, and river discharge data. As a first step, we focused on identifying wetland sediment properties and the relative influence of the major hydrologic controls, tides, delta outlet discharge, rainfall, and evapotranspiration, on water table dynamics. Pintail Island is a two-layer system with fine sediments and organic matter overlying sandy deltaic deposits. The sediment layer interface occurs approximately 60 cm below ground surface, around the mean surface water level. The vegetation root zone is concentrated in the surficial layer, although willow roots can extend into the deeper, higher-permeability sandy layer. Groundwater data from the upper portion of this sandy layer (~1m deep) is most strongly influenced by tides but also responds to long-term changes in discharge. While the tides are damped as they propagate into the island sediments, they also flood interior island lagoons, setting up groundwater gradients to potentially drive fluid and nutrient fluxes through the islands. Although the tidally oscillating water table causes significant temporal variation in root zone fluid potentials, evapotranspiration dynamics do not appear to strongly influence groundwater dynamics at depth, consistent with the shallow concentration of roots

  7. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Cahoon, D.R.; Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Lynch, J.C.; Cormier, N.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marine communities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer mangroves a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level. In this study, we investigated sedimentation and elevation dynamics of mangrove forests in three hydrogeomorphic settings on the islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Surface accretion rates ranged from 2.9 to 20.8 mm y-1, and are high for naturally occurring mangroves. Although mangrove forests in Micronesian high islands appear to have a strong capacity to offset elevation losses by way of sedimentation, elevation change over 61/2 years ranged from -3.2 to 4.1 mm y-1, depending on the location. Mangrove surface elevation change also varied by hydrogeomorphic setting and river, and suggested differential, and not uniformly bleak, susceptibilities among Pacific high island mangroves to sea-level rise. Fringe, riverine, and interior settings registered elevation changes of -1.30, 0.46, and 1.56 mm y-1, respectively, with the greatest elevation deficit (-3.2 mm y-1) from a fringe zone on Pohnpei and the highest rate of elevation gain (4.1 mm y-1) from an interior zone on Kosrae. Relative to sea-level rise estimates for FSM (0.8-1.8 mm y-1) and assuming a consistent linear trend in these estimates, soil elevations in mangroves on Kosrae and Pohnpei are experiencing between an annual deficit of 4.95 mm and an annual surplus of 3.28 mm. Although natural disturbances are important in mediating elevation gain in some situations, constant allochthonous sediment deposition probably matters most on these Pacific high islands, and is especially helpful in certain hydrogeomorphic zones

  8. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 60 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Rota Island, Mariana Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (60 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  9. CRED 60 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of UTM Zone 3, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (netCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA within UTM Zone 3. Bottom coverage was...

  10. CRED 60 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of UTM Zone 1, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA within UTM Zone 1. Bottom coverage was...

  11. Dykes and structures of the NE rift of Tenerife, Canary Islands: a record of stabilisation and destabilisation of ocean island rift zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcamp, A.; Troll, V. R.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Carracedo, J. C.; Petronis, M. S.; Pérez-Torrado, F. J.; Deegan, F. M.

    2012-07-01

    Many oceanic island rift zones are associated with lateral sector collapses, and several models have been proposed to explain this link. The North-East Rift Zone (NERZ) of Tenerife Island, Spain offers an opportunity to explore this relationship, as three successive collapses are located on both sides of the rift. We have carried out a systematic and detailed mapping campaign on the rift zone, including analysis of about 400 dykes. We recorded dyke morphology, thickness, composition, internal textural features and orientation to provide a catalogue of the characteristics of rift zone dykes. Dykes were intruded along the rift, but also radiate from several nodes along the rift and form en échelon sets along the walls of collapse scars. A striking characteristic of the dykes along the collapse scars is that they dip away from rift or embayment axes and are oblique to the collapse walls. This dyke pattern is consistent with the lateral spreading of the sectors long before the collapse events. The slump sides would create the necessary strike-slip movement to promote en échelon dyke patterns. The spreading flank would probably involve a basal decollement. Lateral flank spreading could have been generated by the intense intrusive activity along the rift but sectorial spreading in turn focused intrusive activity and allowed the development of deep intra-volcanic intrusive complexes. With continued magma supply, spreading caused temporary stabilisation of the rift by reducing slopes and relaxing stress. However, as magmatic intrusion persisted, a critical point was reached, beyond which further intrusion led to large-scale flank failure and sector collapse. During the early stages of growth, the rift could have been influenced by regional stress/strain fields and by pre-existing oceanic structures, but its later and mature development probably depended largely on the local volcanic and magmatic stress/strain fields that are effectively controlled by the rift zone growth

  12. Spatio-temporal variability of urban heat islands in local climate zones of Delhi-NCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhiraja, Bakul; Pathak, Prasad; Agrawal, Girish

    2017-10-01

    Land use change is at the nexus of human territory expansion and urbanization. Human intrusion disturbs the natural heat energy balance of the area, although a new equilibrium of energy flux is attained but with greater diurnal range and adversely affecting the geo/physical variables. Modification in the trend of these variables causes a phenomenon known as Urban Heat Island (UHI) i.e. a dome of heat is formed around the city which has 7-10 °C high temperature than the nearby rural area at night. The study focuses on Surface UHI conventionally studied using thermal band of the remotely sensed satellite images. Land Surface Temperature (LST) is determined for the year 2015 using Landsat 8 for Delhi National Capital Region (NCR). This region was chosen because it is the biggest urban agglomeration in India, many satellite cities are coming in periphery and it has temperate climate. Quantification of UHI is predictably done using UHI intensity that is the difference between representative Urban and rural temperature. Recently the definition of urban and rural has been questioned because of various kinds of configurations of urban spaces across the globe. Delhi NCR urban configurations vary spatially- thus one UHI intensity does not give a deep understanding of the micro-climate. Advancement was made recently to standardize UHI intensity by dividing city into Local Climate Zones (LCZ), comes with 17 broad categories. LCZ map of Delhi NCR has been acquired from World Urban Database. The seasonality in LST across LCZ has been determined along with identifying warmest and coolest LCZ.

  13. Magma storage constrains by compositional zoning of plagioclase from dacites of the caldera forming eruptions of Vetrovoy Isthmus and Lvinaya Past’ Bay (Iturup Island, Kurile Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimovich, I. A.; Smirnov, S. Z.; Kotov, A. A.; Timina, T. Yu; Shevko, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The Vetrovoy Isthmus and the Lvinaya Past’ Bay on the Iturup island (Kuril island arc) are the results of large Plinian eruptions of compositionally similar dacitic magmas. This study is devoted to a comparative analysis of the storage and crystallization conditions for magma reservoirs, which were a source of large-scale explosive eruptions. The plagioclase is most informative mineral in studying of the melt evolution. The studied plagioclases possess a complex zoning patterns, which are not typical for silicic rocks in island-arc systems. It was shown that increase of Ca in the plagioclase up to unusually high An95 is related to increase of H2O pressure in both volcanic magma chambers. The study revealed that minerals of the Vetrovoy Isthmus and Lvinaya Past’ crystallized from compositionally similar melts. Despite the compositional similarity of the melts, the phenocryst assemblage of the Lvinaya Past’ differs from the Vetrovoy Isthmus by the presence of the amphibole, which indicates that the pressure in the magmatic chamber exceeded 1-2 kbar at a 4-6 wt. % of H2O in the melt. The rocks of the Vetrovoy Isthmus do not contain amphibole phenocrysts, but melt and fluid inclusions assemblages in plagioclase demonstrate that the magma degassed in the course of evolution. This is an indication that the pressure did not exceed significantly 1-2 kbar.

  14. Groundwater management in coastal zones and on islands in crystalline bedrock areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater problems in coastal regions are usually not associated with the sparsely populated shores of water-rich Scandinavia. However, the combination of geology and the specific conditions of water usage create challenges even there. Along the Swedish coast, much of the groundwater occurs in fractured bedrock or in relatively small, shallow, and isolated quaternary sedimentary formations. Those aquifers cannot provide water to larger permanent settlements and are thus neither useful for the public water supply nor have previously received much attention from water authorities or researchers. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources in summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. In view of the increasing water demand, as well as the awareness of environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities now recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. Here, we present the results of an investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms a microcosm of coastal zone groundwater problems in Sweden. Koster's geology is dominated by fractured, crystalline bedrock with occasional shallow quaternary deposits in between. With around 300 permanent residents, and up to 6,000 summer guests in peak holiday season, the existing water supply based on 800 private wells is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and the current mode of operation is unsustainable. Therefore, the municipality must decide how to secure future water supply which involves complex legal problems, as well as social, cultural, economic, hydrogeological, and environmental questions. As there are no observation wells on the islands, we used approximately 220 of the 800 wells (65% dug and shallow, 35% drilled and up to 120m deep) for our monitoring. Additionally, water samples were collected by property owners on four

  15. Elucidating Native and Non-Native Plant-Fog Interactions Across Microclimatic Zones in San Cristobal Island, Galapagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, S.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Hu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in land use, such as the clear cutting of forests and the abandonment of land once used for agriculture, pose an incredible threat to the fragile ecosystems in the tropics. One such consequence of land use change in the tropics is the propagation of invasive plant species. The Galapagos Islands, an ecosystem subject to significant anthropogenic pressure by both increasing tourism and a growing native population, are especially threatened by invasive plant species. More than 800 plant species have been introduced in Galapagos, comprising over 60% of the total flora. San Cristobal Island in particular has been impacted by the introduction of non-native species; the combined pressures of invasive species and land use change have fundamentally altered 70% of the landscape of the island. We performed stable isotope analysis of fog water, surface water and plant xylem water to examine water use by both native and invasive plant species across different microclimatic zones. We conducted these measurements starting at the end of the rainy season and through the middle of the dry season. Our results represent an initial effort to characterize the effects of a changing vegetative cover on the water cycling of tropical islands and provide insight into the interactions between plants, surface water and groundwater at various spatial and temporal scales.

  16. 33 CFR 165.1141 - Safety Zone; San Clemente 3 NM Safety Zone, San Clemente Island, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast.... If the Navy determines that facilitating safe transit through the zone negatively impacts range...

  17. Identifying Local Scale Climate Zones of Urban Heat Island from HJ-1B Satellite Data Using Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, C. Z.; Blaschke, T.

    2016-10-01

    With the increasing acceleration of urbanization, the degeneration of the environment and the Urban Heat Island (UHI) has attracted more and more attention. Quantitative delineation of UHI has become crucial for a better understanding of the interregional interaction between urbanization processes and the urban environment system. First of all, our study used medium resolution Chinese satellite data-HJ-1B as the Earth Observation data source to derive parameters, including the percentage of Impervious Surface Areas, Land Surface Temperature, Land Surface Albedo, Normalized Differential Vegetation Index, and object edge detector indicators (Mean of Inner Border, Mean of Outer border) in the city of Guangzhou, China. Secondly, in order to establish a model to delineate the local climate zones of UHI, we used the Principal Component Analysis to explore the correlations between all these parameters, and estimate their contributions to the principal components of UHI zones. Finally, depending on the results of the PCA, we chose the most suitable parameters to classify the urban climate zones based on a Self-Organization Map (SOM). The results show that all six parameters are closely correlated with each other and have a high percentage of cumulative (95%) in the first two principal components. Therefore, the SOM algorithm automatically categorized the city of Guangzhou into five classes of UHI zones using these six spectral, structural and climate parameters as inputs. UHI zones have distinguishable physical characteristics, and could potentially help to provide the basis and decision support for further sustainable urban planning.

  18. IDENTIFYING LOCAL SCALE CLIMATE ZONES OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND FROM HJ-1B SATELLITE DATA USING SELF-ORGANIZING MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Z. Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing acceleration of urbanization, the degeneration of the environment and the Urban Heat Island (UHI has attracted more and more attention. Quantitative delineation of UHI has become crucial for a better understanding of the interregional interaction between urbanization processes and the urban environment system. First of all, our study used medium resolution Chinese satellite data-HJ-1B as the Earth Observation data source to derive parameters, including the percentage of Impervious Surface Areas, Land Surface Temperature, Land Surface Albedo, Normalized Differential Vegetation Index, and object edge detector indicators (Mean of Inner Border, Mean of Outer border in the city of Guangzhou, China. Secondly, in order to establish a model to delineate the local climate zones of UHI, we used the Principal Component Analysis to explore the correlations between all these parameters, and estimate their contributions to the principal components of UHI zones. Finally, depending on the results of the PCA, we chose the most suitable parameters to classify the urban climate zones based on a Self-Organization Map (SOM. The results show that all six parameters are closely correlated with each other and have a high percentage of cumulative (95% in the first two principal components. Therefore, the SOM algorithm automatically categorized the city of Guangzhou into five classes of UHI zones using these six spectral, structural and climate parameters as inputs. UHI zones have distinguishable physical characteristics, and could potentially help to provide the basis and decision support for further sustainable urban planning.

  19. Spatio-temporal forest cover characterisation of mascareignite zones of reunion Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouar, S.

    1998-01-01

    The endo-soils of the reunion island often present a particularity: the presence of a light soil level on surface, of vegetable composition, the mascareignite. In the framework of this study, mascareignite soils have been localized on the wet face of the island and have been compared with those of the dry face. The floristic past of these soils has been reconstituted with the pedo-anthracology tool (charcoal dating and identification). Ages given by the 14 C measures show that the mascareignite genesis is anterior to the human being presence in the island. The study of the actual vegetable cover distribution has been realized by satellite data. (A.L.B.)

  20. African Easterly Jet: Structure and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Man-Li C.; Reale, Oreste; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, Max J.; Koster, Randy D.; Pegion, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the African Easterly Jet (AEJ), its structure and the forcings contributing to its maintenance, critically revisiting previous work which attributed the maintenance of the jet to soil moisture gradients over tropical Africa. A state-of-the-art global model in a high-end computer framework is used to produce a 3-member 73-year ensemble run forced by observed SST to represent the Control run. The AEJ as produced by the Control is compared with the representation of the AEJ in the European Center for Medium Range Forecast Reanalyses (ERA-40) and other observational data sets and found very realistic. Five Experiments are then performed, each represented by sets of 3-member 22 year long (1980-2001) ensemble runs. The goal of the Experiments is to investigate the role of meridional soil moisture gradients, different land surface properties and orography. Unlike previous studies, which have suppressed soil moisture gradients within a highly idealized framework (i.e., the so-called bucket model), terrestrial evaporation control is here achieved with a highly sophisticated landsurface treatment and with an extensively tested and complex methodology. The results show that the AEJ is suppressed by a combination of absence of meridional evaporation gradients over Africa and constant vegetation, even if the individual forcings taken separately do not lead to the AEJ disappearance, but only its modification. Moreover, the suppression of orography also leads to a different circulation in which there is no AEJ. This work suggests that it is not just soil moisture gradients, but a unique combination of geographical features present only in northern tropical Africa, which causes and maintains the jet.

  1. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... loitering by any person, vessel, fishing boat or recreational craft within the danger zone during scheduled... regulations, the danger zone will be open to fishing and general navigation. Bomb drops between designated hours are expected to be intermittent, and when safe to do so, commercial fishing boats and other small...

  2. 33 CFR 165.121 - Safety and Security Zones: High Interest Vessels, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: High... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION... Guard District § 165.121 Safety and Security Zones: High Interest Vessels, Narragansett Bay, Rhode...

  3. Description and application of capture zone delineation for a wellfield at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water capture zone boundaries for individual pumped wells in a confined aquffer were delineated by using groundwater models. Both analytical and numerical (semi-analytical) models that more accurately represent the $round-water-flow system were used. All models delineated 2-dimensional boundaries (capture zones) that represent the areal extent of groundwater contribution to a pumped well. The resultant capture zones were evaluated on the basis of the ability of each model to realistically rapresent the part of the ground-water-flow system that contributed water to the pumped wells. Analytical models used were based on a fixed radius approach, and induded; an arbitrary radius model, a calculated fixed radius model based on the volumetric-flow equation with a time-of-travel criterion, and a calculated fixed radius model derived from modification of the Theis model with a drawdown criterion. Numerical models used induded the 2-dimensional, finite-difference models RESSQC and MWCAP. The arbitrary radius and Theis analytical models delineated capture zone boundaries that compared least favorably with capture zones delineated using the volumetric-flow analytical model and both numerical models. The numerical models produced more hydrologically reasonable capture zones (that were oriented parallel to the regional flow direction) than the volumetric-flow equation. The RESSQC numerical model computed more hydrologically realistic capture zones than the MWCAP numerical model by accounting for changes in the shape of capture zones caused by multiple-well interference. The capture zone boundaries generated by using both analytical and numerical models indicated that the curnmtly used 100-foot radius of protection around a wellhead in South Carolina is an underestimate of the extent of ground-water capture for pumped wetis in this particular wellfield in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The arbitrary fixed radius of 100 feet was shown to underestimate the upgradient

  4. Geophysical characteristics of the Ninetyeast Ridge–Andaman island arc/trench convergent zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, C.; Gireesh, R.; Chand, S.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Rao, D.G.

    by sediments and the NER, indicates that the NER is at the starting phase of its collision with the island arc and may not have started affecting the subduction process itself. It is inferred that the en-echelon block structure of the NER in the proximity...

  5. Development of climatic zones and passive design principles in the housing sector for the island of Madagascar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakoto Joseph, Onimihamina [Univ. d' Antananarivo, Ambohitsaina (Madagascar). Dept. de Physique; Garde, Francois [Univ. de La Reunion, Le Tampon-Ile (Reunion). Lab. de Physique du Batiment et des Systemes; Randrianasolo, Jean Paul [Univ. de Fianarantsoa (Madagascar)

    2008-07-01

    Creating suitable thermal conditions for satisfying human desires for thermal comfort has been recognized to be an essential requirement of the indoor environment. Bad thermal conditions can lead to occupant dissatisfaction and can affect their productivity as well as their performance and health. Therefore, it is essential that thermal comfort in buildings must be taken into serious consideration. The climate classification is extremely useful to building design for thermal comfort objectives. This paper presents the first work of climate classification for the island of Madagascar. Six Major climatic zones were identified. Psychometric charts for the six urban areas of Madagascar were set-up, and passive solar design related to each climate were briefly discussed. (orig.)

  6. Diffuse CO2 degassing monitoring for the volcanic surveillance of Tenerife North-East Rift Zone (NERZ) volcano, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F.; Thomas, G. E.; Wong, T.; García, E.; Melián, G.; Padron, E.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Hernández, P. A.; Perez, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    The North East Rift zone of Tenerife Island (NERZ, 210 km2) is one of the three major volcanic rift-zones of the island. The most recent eruptive activity along the NERZ took place in the 1704-1705 period with eruptions of Siete Fuentes, Fasnia and Arafo volcanoes. Since fumarolic activity is nowadays absent at the NERZ, soil CO2 degassing monitoring represent a potential geochemical tool for its volcanic surveillance. The aim of this study is to report the results of the last CO2 efflux survey performed in June 2017, with 658 sampling sites. In-situ measurements of CO2 efflux from the surface environment of the NERZ were performed by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) following the accumulation chamber method. To quantify the total CO2 emission, soil CO2 efflux spatial distribution maps were constructed using Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) as interpolation method. The diffuse CO2 emission values ranged between 0 - 41.1 g m-2 d-1. The probability plot technique applied to the data allowed to distinguish two different geochemical populations; background (B) and peak (P) represented by 81.8% and 18.2% of the total data, respectively, with geometric means of 3.9 and 15.0 g m-2 d-1, respectively. The average map constructed with 100 equiprobable simulations showed an emission rate of 1,361±35 t d-1. This value relatively higher than the background average of CO2 emission estimated on 415 t d-1 and slightly higher than the background range of 148 t d-1 (-1σ) and 1,189 t d-1 (+1σ) observed at the NERZ. This study reinforces the importance of performing soil CO2 efflux surveys as an effective surveillance volcanic tool in the NERZ.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 million barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and 244 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in the Puerto Rico–U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone.

  8. The chemical composition and source identification of soil dissolved organic matter in riparian buffer zones from Chongming Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulai; Yang, Changming; Li, Jianhua; Shen, Shuo

    2014-09-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) that is derived from the soil of riparian buffer zones has a complex chemical composition, and it plays an important role in the transport and transformation of pollutants. To identify the source of DOM and to better understand its chemical and structural properties, we collected 33 soil samples from zones with fluctuating water levels along the major rivers on Chongming Island, evaluated the DOM contents in riparian soil, analyzed the chemical composition and functional groups and traced DOM origins by using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) combined with clustering analysis. All sampling sites were divided into four groups by principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of the DOM molecules. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the DOM contents between every two groups; however, the DOM fractions differed significantly among the different site groups in the following order: Σ lipids and Σ proteins>Σ sugars and Σ fatty acids>Σ amino acids, Σ indoles and Σ alkaloids. DOM in the riparian buffer zones originated from riparian plants, domestic sewage and agricultural activities, and the hydrophobic and amphiphilic fractions accounting for over 60% of the identified molecules were the dominant fractions. Our study has confirmed the heterogeneous properties of DOM, and it is of vital importance to isolate and characterize the various DOM fractions at the molecular level for a better understanding of the behavior and roles of DOM in the natural environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Regional hard coral distribution within geomorphic and reef flat ecological zones determined by satellite imagery of the Xisha Islands, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiuling; Su, Fenzhen; Zhao, Huanting; Zhang, Junjue; Wang, Qi; Wu, Di

    2017-05-01

    Coral reefs in the Xisha Islands (also known as the Paracel Islands in English), South China Sea, have experienced dramatic declines in coral cover. However, the current regional scale hard coral distribution of geomorphic and ecological zones, essential for reefs management in the context of global warming and ocean acidification, is not well documented. We analyzed data from field surveys, Landsat-8 and GF-1 images to map the distribution of hard coral within geomorphic zones and reef flat ecological zones. In situ surveys conducted in June 2014 on nine reefs provided a complete picture of reef status with regard to live coral diversity, evenness of coral cover and reef health (live versus dead cover) for the Xisha Islands. Mean coral cover was 12.5% in 2014 and damaged reefs seemed to show signs of recovery. Coral cover in sheltered habitats such as lagoon patch reefs and biotic dense zones of reef flats was higher, but there were large regional differences and low diversity. In contrast, the more exposed reef slopes had high coral diversity, along with high and more equal distributions of coral cover. Mean hard coral cover of other zones was zone of the reef flat was a very common zone on all simple atolls, especially the broader northern reef flats. The total cover of live and dead coral can reach above 70% in this zone, showing an equilibrium between live and dead coral as opposed to coral and algae. This information regarding the spatial distribution of hard coral can support and inform the management of Xisha reef ecosystems.

  10. Seventeen years of monitoring diffuse CO2 emission from the Tenerife North-West Rift Zone (NWRZ) volcano, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Germán D.; Evans, Bethany J.; Provis, Aaron R.; Asensio, María; Alonso, Mar; Calvo, David; Hernández, Pedro; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Tenerife together and Gran Canaria are the central islands of the Canarian archipelago, which have developed a central volcanic complex characterized by the eruption of differentiated magmas. Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands (2100 km2) and at present, the North-West Rift-Zone (NWRZ) is one of the most active volcanic structures of the three volcanic rift-zone of the island, which has hosted two historical eruptions (Arenas Negras in 1706 and Chinyero in 1909). In order to monitor the volcanic activity of NWRZ, since the year 2000, 49 soil CO2 efflux surveys have been performed at NWRZ (more than 300 observation sites each one) to evaluate the temporal an spatial variations of CO2 efflux and their relationships with the volcanic-seismic activity. Measurements were performed in accordance with the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. To quantify the total CO2 emission from the studied area, 100 simulations for each survey have been performed. We report herein the results of the last diffuse CO2 efflux surveys at the NWRZ undertaken in July and October 2016 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area. During July and October 2016 surveys, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 32.4 and 53.7 g m-2 d-1, respectively. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere were estimated at 255 ± 9 and 338 ± 18 t d-1, respectively, values higher than the background CO2 emission estimated on 144 t d-1. Since 2000, soil CO2 efflux values have ranged from non-detectable up to 141 g m-2 d-1, with the highest values measured in May 2005 whereas total CO2 output ranged between 52 and 867 t d-1. Long-term variations in the total CO2 output have shown a temporal correlation with the onsets of seismic activity at Tenerife, supporting unrest of the volcanic system, as is also suggested by anomalous seismic activity recorded in the studied area

  11. Low- δ18O tephra from a compositionally zoned magma body: Fisher Caldera, Unimak Island, Aleutians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindeman, Ilya N.; Fournelle, John H.; Valley, John W.

    2001-11-01

    We present the results of an oxygen isotope study of phenocrysts in pumice clasts and ash layers produced by the 9100 yr BP composite dacite-basaltic andesite climactic eruption that formed Fisher Caldera in the eastern Aleutians. Products of the eruption represent a low-δ18O magma with δ18O plagioclase (+4.79±0.24‰) and clinopyroxene (3.81±0.23‰) corresponding to equilibrium at magmatic temperatures. Dacitic and overlying basaltic-andesitic tephra of the climactic eruption, subsequent intracaldera basaltic to andesitic lavas, and a cumulate inclusion, are similarly low in δ18O. Other analyzed lavas and pyroclastics of Unimak island and the lower Alaska peninsula, as well as precaldera Fisher basalt, have normal δ18O magmatic values (>+5.5‰). We propose a model in which prior to 9100 yr BP, normal mantle-derived basaltic magma coalesced in a large shallow precaldera magma chamber during Late Wisconsin glaciation. Lowering of magmatic δ18O resulted then from long-term assimilation of ∼5-10% of syn-glacial hydrothermally-altered country rocks. Differentiation of basaltic magma was concurrent with this assimilation and produced low-δ18O Fisher dacites, cumulates, and post-caldera crystal-richer lavas. We propose the use of δ18O values of phenocrysts (especially alteration-resistant pyroxene) in tephra as a tool for tephrochronological and tephrostratigraphic correlation. Distinctly low-δ18O values are useful in identification of the Fisher ash in the eastern Aleutians and in the lower Alaska Peninsula.

  12. Examining the Role of Local Climate Zones in Urban Heat Island Assessment Using Remotely-Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcher, P. S.; Brunsell, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    More than half of the world population resides in urban areas where the urban heat island (UHI) effect enhances heat-related hazards. To mitigate the impacts of rising temperatures, it is necessary to develop tools to help public administrators formulate strategies to reduce heat exposure, increase access to cooling, and modify building design. We used Google Earth Engine's Landsat archive to classify local climate zones (LCZ) that consist of ten urban and seven non-urban classifications of land cover. To examine the influence of urban morphology on the surface energy balance (SEB) in high-density, medium-density, and low-density urban regions over one annual cycle, we used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products. We used the triangle method to examine variability in energy balance partitioning in relation to urban density. As urban density decreases, the variation of evapotranspiration increases. These results indicate that variations in the SEB can be detected using the LCZ classification method. The results from analysis in Fr-LST space of the annual cycles over several years can be used to detect changes in the SEB as urbanization increases.

  13. Bathymetric Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 20 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Johnston Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from gridded (20 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. BPI Zones was created using the Benthic...

  14. Bathymetric Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 40 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from gridded (40 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. BPI Zones was created using the Benthic...

  15. Rupture Along 400 km of the Bering Fracture Zone in the Komandorsky Islands Earthquake (MW 7.8) of 17 July 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Thorne; Ye, Lingling; Bai, Yefei; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Kanamori, Hiroo; Freymueller, Jeffrey; Steblov, Grigory M.; Kogan, Mikhail G.

    2017-12-01

    The 17 July 2017 Komandorsky Islands MW 7.8 earthquake involved arc-parallel right-lateral patchy strike-slip faulting along 400 km of the Bering Fracture Zone (BFZ) in the westernmost Aleutian Islands back arc. The large size of the earthquake indicates that the BFZ serves regionally as the primary plate boundary extending from the Near Islands to Kamchatka, with the fore-arc Komandorsky Sliver translating rapidly parallel to the Aleutian Trench. The slip distribution is determined by analysis of seismic, tsunami, and geodetic observations. Fault displacements of 4 to 8.5 m, mostly in the upper 15 km, but with localized extension to 20 to 30 km depth along a 100 km long segment of the BFZ, are comparable to the possible slip deficit since the last major earthquakes in this region in 1849 and 1858, given an estimated 5.1 cm/yr rate between the Komandorsky Sliver and the Bering Plate.

  16. Correlated Paleoseismic Interpretation of Turbidites from 3 Distinct Sedimentary Environments in the Cascadia Subduction Zone Off Vancouver Island Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, R. J.; Hamilton, T. S.; Rogers, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Sedimentary sequences containing turbidites can provide important paleoseismic records. We present sedimentary records from 3 distinct sedimentary systems which provide a reliable well-dated paleseismic record. All 3 sites are subject to strong ground shaking in the event of a megathrust earthquake along the Cascadia Subduction Zone near Vancouver Island, Canada. Effingham Inlet is an anoxic fjord on the west coast of Vancouver Island with an age model based on radiocarbon dates from terrestrial plant material (no marine correction), the Mazama Ash, and sedimentation rates constrained by annual laminations [Dallimore et al. 2008, Enkin et al., 2013]. Barkley Canyon [Goldfinger et al., 2012], 150 km SW, has been sampled at the abyssal plain fan in front of a submarine canyon. Slipstream Slump [ms submitted], 40 km north of Barkley Canyon, is a well-preserved 3 km wide sedimentary failure from the frontal ridge of the Cascadia accretionary wedge. At Slipstream, given the 2300 m water depth and the thin weak crust at the outer edge of the accretionary wedge, megathrust earthquake shaking is the most likely trigger for the turbidity currents, with sediments sourced exclusively from the exposed slide scar. Correlations based on sedimentology and physical property logging are made between turbidites observed at Barkley Canyon and Slipstream Slump, and a mutually consistent age model is defined using only planktonic foraminiferal dates and Bayesian analysis with a Poisson-process sedimentation model. A young marine reservoir age of ΔR=0 yr brings the top to the present and produces age correlations consistent with the thickest (>10 cm) Effingham Inlet turbidites. Correlations of physical property logs tie the Effingham Inlet record to the offshore, despite the extreme differences in the sedimentology. Having good marine geophysical data and well positioned core transects allows the facies analysis needed to interpret the turbidite record. This study provides a much

  17. SWB Groundwater Recharge Analysis, Catalina Island, California: Assessing Spatial and Temporal Recharge Patterns Within a Mediterranean Climate Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater recharge quantification is a key parameter for sustainable groundwater management. Many recharge quantification techniques have been devised, each with advantages and disadvantages. A free, GIS based recharge quantification tool - the Soil Water Balance (SWB) model - was developed by the USGS to produce fine-tuned recharge constraints in watersheds and illuminate spatial and temporal dynamics of recharge. The subject of this research is to examine SWB within a Mediterranean climate zone, focusing on the Catalina Island, California. This project relied on publicly available online resources with the exception the geospatial processing software, ArcGIS. Daily climate station precipitation and temperature data was obtained from the Desert Research Institute for the years 2008-2014. Precipitation interpolations were performed with ArcGIS using the Natural Neighbor method. The USGS-National Map Viewer (NMV) website provided a 30-meter DEM - to interpolate high and low temperature ASCII grids using the Temperature Lapse Rate (TLR) method, to construct a D-8 flow direction grid for downhill redirection of soil-moisture saturated runoff toward non-saturated cells, and for aesthetic map creation. NMV also provided a modified Anderson land cover classification raster. The US Department of Agriculture-National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey website provided shapefiles of soil water capacity and hydrologic soil groups. The Hargreaves and Samani method was implemented to determine evapotranspiration rates. The resulting SWB output data, in the form of ASCII grids are easily added to ArcGIS for quick visualization and data analysis (Figure 1). Calculated average recharge for 2008-2014 was 3537 inches/year, or 0.0174 acre feet/year. Recharge was 10.2% of the islands gross precipitation. The spatial distribution of the most significant recharge is in hotspots which dominate the residential hills above Avalon, followed by grassy/unvegetated areas

  18. Using local climate zone classifications to assess the influence of urban morphology on the urban heat island effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcher, P. S.; Brunsell, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Alterations to land cover resulting from urbanization interact with the atmospheric boundary layer inducing elevated surface and air temperatures, changes to the surface energy balance (SEB), and modifications to regional circulations and climates. These changes pose risks to public health, ecological systems, and have the potential to affect economic interests. We used Google Earth Engine's Landsat archive to classify local climate zones (LCZ) that consist of ten urban and seven non-urban classes to examine the influence of urban morphology on the urban heat island (UHI) effect. We used geostatistical methods to determine the significance of the spatial distributions of LCZs to land surface temperatures (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. We used the triangle method to assess the variability of SEB partitioning in relation to high, medium, and low density LCZ classes. Fractional vegetation cover (Fr) was calculated using NDVI data. Linear regressions of observations in Fr-LST space for select LCZ classes were compared for selected eight-day periods to determine changes in energy partitioning and relative soil moisture availability. The magnitude of each flux is not needed to determine changes to the SEB. The regressions will examine near surface soil moisture, which is indicative of how much radiation is partitioned into evaporation. To compare changes occurring over one decade, we used MODIS NDVI and LST data from 2005 and 2015. Results indicated that variations in the SEB can be detected using the LCZ classification method. The results from analysis in Fr-LST space of the annual cycles over several years can be used to detect changes in the SEB as urbanization increases.

  19. Evaluation of buffer zone effectiveness in mitigating the risks associated with agricultural runoff in Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A M; Julien, G; Ernst, W R; Cook, A; Doe, K G; Jackman, P M

    2011-02-01

    To minimize the risk posed by runoff from row crops, Prince Edward Island introduced buffer legislation in 2000. The legislation mandates 10-m and 20-m buffers, respectively, for moderate sloped (i.e. 5%) agricultural fields that border streams. Since 2001, Environment Canada has been evaluating the effectiveness of various buffer widths on operational farms in reducing toxicity and contaminant concentrations in runoff. Sample collectors, placed in 44 fields at the field edge (0m), 10m and at distances out to 30m, collected overland flow following rainfall-induced runoff events. Samples were collected within 24 hours of an event and analysed for seven pesticides (endosulfan, chlorothalonil, carbofuran, linuron, metribuzin, metalaxyl, mancozeb), water quality parameters and Daphnia magna toxicity. The 10-m buffer required for moderate sloped fields was effective at reducing contaminant concentrations but not always to less than lethal concentrations to Daphnia magna. Limited data beyond 10m for fields of both slope types precluded making recommendations on a suitable buffer width for shallow sloped fields and evaluating the effectiveness of 20-m buffers for steep sloped fields. When paired data were combined and statistically tested for all fields, the studied pesticides underwent a 52-98% and 68-100% reduction in aqueous and particulate concentrations within 10m and 30m, respectively. In addition, by 10m, soluble phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen and total suspended solids were reduced by 34%, 38% and 64%, respectively. Results suggest buffer zones on operational farms are capable of achieving contaminant reductions comparable to those reported for controlled experiments. Inconsistent siting of sample collectors beyond 10m limited the evaluation of the effects of field slope and buffer width on buffer effectiveness on working farms. Future studies on buffer efficiency on operational farms should focus on building the data set beyond 10m and evaluating load reductions

  20. Initiation and intensification of east Pacific easterly waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydbeck, Adam V.

    The background atmospheric state of the east Pacific (EPAC) warm pool in which easterly waves (EWs) develop varies dramatically on intraseasonal time scales. EPAC intraseasonal variability is well known to modulate local convective and circulation patterns. Westerly intraseasonal phases are associated with westerly low-level wind and positive convective anomalies and easterly intraseasonal phases are associated with easterly low-level wind and negative convective anomalies. This study first investigates the perturbation available potential energy (PAPE) and perturbation kinetic energy (PKE) budgets of easterly waves composited during westerly, easterly, and neutral intraseasonal phases, respectively. During neutral and westerly intraseasonal phases, the generation of PAPE associated with perturbation diabatic heating that is subsequently converted to PKE is enhanced and is the dominant energy source for EWs. EWs draw energy from low-level barotropic conversion, regardless of phase. A novel and previously unrecognized result is the detection of strong barotropic generation of PKE at midlevels during westerly intraseasonal phases. This previously unidentified source of PKE at midlevels is in part due to strong intraseasonal modulation of the background midlevel winds. Processes associated with the local amplification of EWs in the EPAC warm pool are then explored. Developing EWs favor convection in the southwest and northeast quadrants of the disturbance. In nascent EWs, convection favors the southwest quadrant. In these quadrants, lower tropospheric vorticity is generated locally through vertical stretching that supports a horizontal tilt of the wave from the southwest to the northeast. EWs with such tilts are then able to draw energy via barotropic conversion from the background cyclonic zonal wind shear present in the east Pacific. EWs during westerly and neutral intraseasonal periods are associated with robust convection anomalies. Easterly intraseasonal periods

  1. ZONASI PERIKANAN PASI UNTUK KEPENTINGAN PEMANFAATAN SECARA BERKELANJUTAN SUMBERDAYA IKAN KAKAP MERAH DI KEPULAUAN LEASE (Pasi Zone for Interest Sustainable Utilization of Red Snapper Resources in Lease Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delly Dominggas Paulina Matrutty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pasi adalah daerah penangkapan spesifik ikan kakap merah di Kepulauan Lease. Eksploitasi terhadap sumberdaya ikan kakap merah cenderung tinggi akhir-akhir ini karena sangat disukai di pasar lokal, regional maupun internasional, selain dijadikan sebagai objek wisata pancing. Kondisi ini akan mengancam kelestarian sumberdaya jika tidak dikelola dengan baik. Penetapan zonasi merupakan salah satu alternatif pengelolaan sumberdaya perikanan yang baik, dan jika dilakukan dengan benar akan memberikan nilai tambah bagi masyarakat, tanpa mengganggu kelestariannya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan zonasi perikanan pasi untuk kepentingan pemanfaatan berkelanjutan sumberdaya ikan kakap merah di Kepulauan Lease. Data yang digunakan meliputi hasil kajian potensi sumberdaya ikan kakap merah, kondisi oseanografi  daerah penangkapan (pasi, dan sistem nilai perikanan pasi yang meliputi komponen nilai dasar ekologi, sosial dan teknologi, serta metode Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA.  Berdasarkan kriteria yang dibangun dari seluruh aspek tersebut  maka dibuat zonasi khusus untuk kawasan pasi di Kepulauan Lease.  Berdasarkan hasil  analisis  diperoleh 4 (empat dari  25  pasi  ditetapkan sebagai zona lindung, 21 pasi ditetapkan sebagai zona perikanan berkelanjutan sub-zona perikanan tangkap, sedangkan 13 di antaranya ditetapkan sebagai zona pemanfaatan sub-zona wisata pancing. ABSTRACT Pasi is a specific fishing ground for Red Snapper in Lease Islands.  Recently, the exploitation of the red snapper population is tend to increase due to high demand of local, regional and international market as well as object for fishing tourism. This condition will threat the sustainability of the resources as if it is unmanaged in good way.  Zone determination is one of the alternatives of good fisheries resources management. If it is done in a right way, it will add value to community without disturbing the sustainability. The objectives of the present

  2. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands o Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Krauss; D.R. Cahoon; J.A. Allen; K.C. Ewel; J.C. Lynch; N. Cormier

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marinecommunities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer...

  3. 76 FR 35772 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Tanner Crabs. Amendment 34 amends the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program to... for the Crab Rationalization Program are available from the NMFS Alaska Region Web site at http...

  4. 76 FR 35781 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Amendment 37 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Tanner Crabs (FMP). This action amends the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program by... Assessment prepared for the Crab Rationalization Program are available from the NMFS Alaska Region Web site...

  5. 33 CFR 165.153 - Regulated Navigation Area: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (203) 468-4418, or letter addressed to Captain of the Port, Long Island Sound, 120 Woodward Ave., New...) 468-4401, facsimile at (203) 468-4418, or letter addressed to Captain of the Port, Long Island Sound..., master, COTP, or the designated COTP on-scene patrol. (7) Vessels engaged in commercial service. No...

  6. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones derived from gridded bathymetry of Swains Island,Territory of American Samoa, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from gridded (40 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. BPI Zones was created using the Benthic...

  7. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 5m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Tinian Island, Aguijan Island and Tatsumi Bank, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The bathymetry grid (5 m cell size) is derived from bathymetry from three sources:...

  8. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 5 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Rota Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  9. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Maug Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  10. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Sarigan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  11. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Alamagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  12. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected aboard NOAA...

  13. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Agrihan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  14. 76 FR 17088 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    .... 0910301387-91390-01] RIN 0648-AY33 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and...-7228. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The King and Tanner crab fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of... vessels that may be deployed in the groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the BSAI and...

  15. 78 FR 12627 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    .... 110321210-3057-02] RIN 0648-BA93 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and... the U.S. groundfish fisheries of the BSAI in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) under the Fishery... 679 is amended as follows: PART 679-- FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 0 1. The...

  16. Pre-existing oblique transfer zones and transfer/transform relationships in continental margins: New insights from the southeastern Gulf of Aden, Socotra Island, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahsen, N.; Leroy, S.; Autin, J.; Razin, P.; d'Acremont, E.; Sloan, H.; Pik, R.; Ahmed, A.; Khanbari, K.

    2013-11-01

    Transfer zones are ubiquitous features in continental rifts and margins, as are transform faults in oceanic lithosphere. Here, we present a structural study of the Hadibo Transfer Zone (HTZ), located in Socotra Island (Yemen) in the southeastern Gulf of Aden. There, we interpret this continental transfer fault zone to represent a reactivated pre-existing structure. Its trend is oblique to the direction of divergence and it has been active from the early up to the latest stages of rifting. One of the main oceanic fracture zones (FZ), the Hadibo-Sharbithat FZ, is aligned with and appears to be an extension of the HTZ and is probably genetically linked to it. Comparing this setting with observations from other Afro-Arabian rifts as well as with passive margins worldwide, it appears that many continental transfer zones are reactivated pre-existing structures, oblique to divergence. We therefore establish a classification system for oceanic FZ based upon their relationship with syn-rift structures. Type 1 FZ form at syn-rift structures and are late syn-rift to early syn-OCT. Type 2 FZ form during the OCT formation and Type 3 FZ form within the oceanic domain, after the oceanic spreading onset. The latter are controlled by far-field forces, magmatic processes, spreading rates, and oceanic crust rheology.

  17. Impact of the slab dip change onto the deformation partitioning in the northern Lesser Antilles oblique subduction zone (Antigua-Virgin Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Muriel; Marcaillou, Boris; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Graindorge, David; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric; Laigle, Mireille; Lallemand, Serge

    2017-04-01

    Marine geophysical cruises Antithesis (2013-2016) investigate the impact of the variations in interplate geometry onto margin tectonic deformation along the strongly oblique Lesser Antilles subduction zone. A striking features of this margin is the drastic increase in earthquake number from the quiet Barbuda-St Martin segment to the Virgin Islands platform. Wide-angle seismic data highlight a northward shallowing of the downgoing plate: in a 150 km distance from the deformation front, the slab dipping angle in the convergence direction decreases from 12° offshore of Antigua Island to 7° offshore of Virgin Islands. North-South wide-angle seismic line substantiates a drastic slab-dip change that likely causes this northward shallowing. This dip change is located beneath the southern tip of the Virgin Islands platform where the Anegada Passage entails the upper plate. Based on deep seismic lines and bathymetric data, the Anegada Passage is a 450 km long W-E trending set of pull-apart basins and strike-slip faults that extends from the Lesser Antilles accretionary prism to Puerto Rico. The newly observed sedimentary architecture within pull-apart Sombrero and Malliwana basins indicates a polyphased tectonic history. A past prominent NW-SE extensive to transtensive phase, possibly related to the Bahamas Bank collision, opened the Anegada Passage as previously published. Transpressive tectonic evidences indicate that these structures have been recently reactivated in an en-echelon sinistral strike-slip system. The interpreted strain ellipsoid is consistent with deformation partitioning. We propose that the slab northward shallowing increases the interplate coupling and the seismic activity beneath the Virgin Islands platform comparatively to the quiet Barbuda-St Martin segment. It is noteworthy that the major tectonic partitioning structure in the Lesser Antilles forearc is located above the slab dip change where the interplate seismic coupling increases.

  18. Collection of Groundwater and Freshwater Fauna on the Islands of the South Pacific. Operation Raleigh -- Pacific Crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1988-01-01

    During this project about 150 groundwater habitats were sampled on a number of islands in the South Pacific. The main habitats sampled were: wells, springs, caves, beaches and streams. Groundwater fauna was only found on two islands. On Easter Island we found a new species belonging to the Isopoda

  19. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  20. Tropical Cyclogenesis in a Tropical Wave Critical Layer: Easterly Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerton, T. J.; Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside.

  1. Distribution and migration of aftershocks of the 2010 Mw 7.4 Ogasawara Islands intraplate normal-faulting earthquake related to a fracture zone in the Pacific plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Koichiro; Takahashi, Tsutomu; No, Tetsuo; Kaiho, Yuka; Kodaira, Shuichi; Yamashita, Mikiya; Sato, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takeshi

    2014-04-01

    describe the aftershocks of a Mw 7.4 intraplate normal-faulting earthquake that occurred 150 km east Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, on 21 December 2010. It occurred beneath the outer trench slope of the Izu-Ogasawara trench, where the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Philippine Sea plate. Aftershock observations using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) began soon after the earthquake and multichannel seismic reflection surveys were conducted across the aftershock area. Aftershocks were distributed in a NW-SE belt 140 km long, oblique to the N-S trench axis. They formed three subparallel lineations along a fracture zone in the Pacific plate. The OBS observations combined with data from stations on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima Islands revealed a migration of the aftershock activity. The first hour, which likely outlines the main shock rupture, was limited to an 80 km long area in the central part of the subsequent aftershock area. The first hour activity occurred mainly around, and appears to have been influenced by, nearby large seamounts and oceanic plateau, such as the Ogasawara Plateau and the Uyeda Ridge. Over the following days, the aftershocks expanded beyond or into these seamounts and plateau. The aftershock distribution and migration suggest that crustal heterogeneities related to a fracture zone and large seamounts and oceanic plateau in the incoming Pacific plate affected the rupture of the main shock. Such preexisting structures may influence intraplate normal-faulting earthquakes in other regions of plate flexure prior to subduction.

  2. 77 FR 59852 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    .... 110620343-2450-02] RIN 0648-BB18 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and... (BSAI) in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) under the FMP. The North Pacific Fishery Management Council... consideration or analysis of this issue, and the potential economic impacts that could result from the use of...

  3. 76 FR 80782 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... dependent upon the development of an age-structured model for the Aleutian Islands Pacific cod stock..., which provide updated estimates of stock biomass and spatial distribution, and changes to the models... 2010 survey data, Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) abundance is estimated at 379 million animals...

  4. 77 FR 10669 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... developing an age-structured model for the Aleutian Islands Pacific cod stock assessment that will be.... This is due to model changes for the calculation of octopuses OFL and ABC, and recommendations by the... the Council's recommendation. Based on 2011 survey data, Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) abundance...

  5. 76 FR 47493 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Amendments 38 and 39 to the Fishery Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs... overfishing limit and prevent overfishing. Amendment 39 modifies the snow crab rebuilding plan to define the...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the FMP, and other applicable laws. DATES: The amendment...

  6. 75 FR 56485 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    .../Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Recordkeeping and Reporting AGENCY: National Marine... rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues regulations to remove the Crab Rationalization Program requirements for.... Background The Crab Rationalization (CR) Program is a limited-access system that allocates crab managed under...

  7. 78 FR 28523 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... Rationalization Program (CR Program) by establishing a process whereby holders of regionally designated individual... scope of this action. Comment 9: One comment generally supported the Crab Rationalization Program...

  8. 78 FR 27124 - Pacific Ocean Off the Kekaha Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... regulation, if adopted, will not have a significant impact to the quality of the human environment and... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Pacific Ocean Off... Pacific Ocean off the Kekaha Range Facility, Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. The proposed...

  9. 76 FR 8700 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for comments.../ Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program by establishing a process for eligible contract signatories... applicable law. DATES: Comments must be received no later than April 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may submit...

  10. Easterly wave activity and associated heavy rainfall during the pre-monsoon season of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaisarje, G. K.; Khare, Prakash; Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.; Puviarasan, N.; Ranalkar, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Waves in easterlies are a tropical disturbance, which are moving from east to west or west-northwest (WNW). Over the Indian region, easterly waves occur mainly in winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. These easterly waves have attracted the attention of many researchers due to the associated heavy rainfall, lightning and thunder squalls. Influence of easterly waves is less explored during pre-monsoon season. It is seen that during years 2001-2015, a total of 80 cases of trough in easterlies were witnessed by southern peninsular India in the pre-monsoon season. The maxima occurred in March (43 cases), followed by April (25 cases) and May (12 cases). It is observed that the year 2005 witnessed the longest spell of easterly waves for 18 days during 24 March to 10 April 2005, which is quite unusual. The event has claimed a death toll of 55 people in the two states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, and heavy rains associated with this event damaged many houses and huts in Tamil Nadu. The unusual nature of the event has prompted us to undertake the study in details. In all, the event witnessed six systems as troughs in easterlies with their movement westwards from south Andaman Sea region to Lakshadweep and southeast Arabian Sea and Sri Lanka and adjoining Cape Comorin area. An attempt has been made to study the event of easterly waves during the year 2005 by exploring winds, temperature advection, vorticity, moisture convergence and potential instability. The causative reason is due to culmination of positive temperature advection, its multiple interactions with deep convective clouds and moisture incursion from anticyclonic flow close to eastern coast of south peninsular region of India. Observing the waves with the internal mechanism makes the study useful for operational forecasting and provides a better understanding of easterly waves.

  11. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 60 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (60 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V...

  12. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 5 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Tau Island, Territory of American Samoa, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V...

  13. CRED Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  14. 75 FR 48298 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... exclusion memorandum may be obtained from the Alaska Region website at http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov... 680-SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 1. The authority citation for part...

  15. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 5m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Saipan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The bathymetry grid (5 m cell size) is derived from bathymetry from two sources: Multibeam...

  16. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 5 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Ni'ihau Island, Hawaii, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  17. Fault fracture zone evaluation using borehole geophysical logs; case study at Nojima fault, Awaji island; Kosei butsuri kenso ni yoru danso hasaitai no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, R.; Omura, K. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Ikeda, et al., in their examination of log data obtained from a borehole (2000m deep) drilled at Ashio, Tochigi Prefecture, where micro-earthquakes swarm at very shallow levels, pay special attention to porosity. Using correlationship between the porosity and elastic wave velocity/resistivity, the authors endeavor to find the presence of secondary pores, dimensions of faults, composition of water in strata in faults, and difference in matrix between rocks, all these for the classification and evaluation of fault fracture zones. In the present report, log data from a borehole (1800m deep) drilled to penetrate the Nojima fault (Nojima-Hirabayashi, Awaji island) that emerged during the Great Hanshin-Himeji Earthquake are analyzed in the same way as the above-named Ashio data, and the results are compared with the Ashio results. Immediately below the Nojima-Hirabayashi fault fractured zone, stress is found remarkably reduced and the difference stress quite small in size. This is interpreted as indicating a state in which clay has already developed well in the fault fractured zone ready to allow the occurrence of shear fracture or a state in which such has already occurred for the release of stress. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer: easterly waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Dunkerton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside. The critical layer equatorward of the easterly jet axis is important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i a region of

  19. Hepatoprotective Activity of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) Bulb Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenping; Munafo, John P; Palatini, Kimberly; Esposito, Debora; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Ho, Chi-Tang; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-11-11

    The hepatoprotective activities of two different extracts, a hydroethanolic crude bulb extract (CB) and a steroidal glycoside-rich 1-butanol extract (BuOH), prepared from the bulbs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.), were evaluated in a 24 week study in the female KK.Cg-A(y)/J Type 2 diabetic mouse model. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 16): control mice received Easter lily bulb extract-free drinking water together with a low- or high-fat diet (diabetic control); drinking water for the remaining groups was supplemented with CB extract (1%), BuOH extract (0.1 or 0.2%), and reference drug Metformin (0.001%), together with a high-fat diet. Both CB and BuOH extract treatment groups exhibited significantly improved liver function based on comparisons of triglycerides [diabetic 219 ± 34 mg/dL, CB 131 ± 27 mg/dL, BuOH(0.2%) 114 ± 35 mg/dL], CB total cholesterol (TC) (diabetic 196 ± 12 mg/dL, CB 159 ± 5 mg/dL), average liver mass [diabetic 2.96 ± 0.13 g, CB 2.58 ± 0.08 g, BuOH(0.1%) 2.48 ± 0.13 g], alanine transferase [diabetic 74 ± 5 units/L, CB 25 ± 1 units/L, BuOH(0.1%) 45 ± 1 units/L], and histological examinations. Glucose metabolism was improved only in CB, which was confirmed by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice exposed to CB extract. These data suggest that steroidal glycosides 1-5 might play a role in the hepatoprotective activity of the BuOH extracts, while the results of the TC measurements and OGTT study indicate that other constituents present in the CB extract are responsible for its hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic activity.

  20. Stress Orientations and Strain Rates in the Upper Plate of a `Locked' subduction zone, at southernmost North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanzia, D. A. D.; Lamb, S. H.; Savage, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    The southern North Island, New Zealand is located at the southern Hikurangi Margin, where the Pacific Plate is obliquely subducting westward underneath the Australian Plate. The orientations of the principle stresses in the overriding plate are determined from microseismic focal mechanisms detected and located using the temporary SAHKE and permanent GeoNet seismic array operating during 2009-2010. The microseismic earthquakes are located with the NonLinLoc method, using a New Zealand specific 3D velocity model; only those earthquakes located above the modelled subduction plate interface are used. Strain rate parameters calculations are calculated using cGPS velocities from 56 stations located from the central North Island to the northernmost South Island, New Zealand. In the region west of the Tararua-range-bounding Wairarapa fault (the Western region), the orientations of stresses indicate a normal regime (S1: vertical; S2 & S3: horizontal), with SHmax trending ENE. In the Central Basin region (east of the Wairarapa fault) the orientations of the stresses indicate a reverse regime (S3: vertical; S1 & S2: horizontal), with SHmax orientated NW. The low seismicity rates in the Eastern region make the results unreliable. There is a distinct difference between the strain rate and vorticity on either side the Wairarapa fault. Strain rate and vorticity rates increase west and decreased east of the Wairarapa; this correlates well with the pattern of observed seismicity. The southern North Island is predominately contracting, except for a region on the West coast, where some expansion is occurs. This pattern of expansion in the West and contraction in the center of the study area, calculated from cGPS, is similar the stress inversion results calculated from focal mechanisms. These similarities suggest that the present stress and strain rates are collinear, as occurs in isotropic media.

  1. [Biodemographical study in the Island of Pascua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, B; Campusano, C; Figueroa, H

    1993-06-01

    The aim of this study was to know the degree of miscegenation in the Easter Island population. One hundred two weddings carried out between 1987 and 1991 were recorded and the proportion of marriages between islanders and immigrants was analyzed. Also, ABO and Rh blood groups of all deliveries occurred between 1988 and 1991 were compiled. There was a particular tendency of islanders to marry with immigrants and the proportion of miscegenation was 75.5%. Additionally a decline in the frequency of A blood group is observed, comparing results from studies performed since 1932 up to date.

  2. Dynamics and controls of urban heat sink and island phenomena in a desert city: Development of a local climate zone scheme using remotely-sensed inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Ahmed K.; Blackburn, G. Alan; Whyatt, J. Duncan

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine the dynamics and controls of Surface Urban Heat Sinks (SUHS) and Surface Urban Heat Islands (SUHI) in desert cities, using Dubai as a case study. A Local Climate Zone (LCZ) schema was developed to subdivide the city into different zones based on similarities in land cover and urban geometry. Proximity to the Gulf Coast was also determined for each LCZ. The LCZs were then used to sample seasonal and daily imagery from the MODIS thermal sensor to determine Land Surface Temperature (LST) variations relative to desert sand. Canonical correlation techniques were then applied to determine which factors explained the variability between urban and desert LST. Our results indicate that the daytime SUHS effect is greatest during the summer months (typically ∼3.0 °C) with the strongest cooling effects in open high-rise zones of the city. In contrast, the night-time SUHI effect is greatest during the winter months (typically ∼3.5 °C) with the strongest warming effects in compact mid-rise zones of the city. Proximity to the Arabian Gulf had the largest influence on both SUHS and SUHI phenomena, promoting daytime cooling in the summer months and night-time warming in the winter months. However, other parameters associated with the urban environment such as building height had an influence on daytime cooling, with larger buildings promoting shade and variations in airflow. Likewise, other parameters such as sky view factor contributed to night-time warming, with higher temperatures associated with limited views of the sky.

  3. 49 CFR Appendix F to Subchapter B... - Commercial Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... zones determined generally, with exceptions. 45 Controlling distances and population data. Section 1New York, N.Y. (a) The application of § 372.241 Commercial Zones determined generally, with exceptions, is..., thence northerly along Treecourt Avenue to its junction with Big Bend Road, thence easterly along Big...

  4. The Easter bunny in October: is it disguised as a duck?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, P; Brugger, S

    1993-04-01

    To study the influence of motivational expectancy on perception, the ambiguous drawing of a duck/rabbit was shown to 265 subjects on Easter and to 276 subjects in October. The ambiguous drawing, though perceived as a bird by a majority of subjects in October, was most frequently named a bunny on Easter. This biasing effect of expectancy upon perception was observed for young children (2 to 10 years) as well as for older subjects (11 to 93 years).

  5. Marine mineral resources of Pacific Islands - a review of the Exclusive Economic Zones of islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding the State of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Piper, David Z.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was established in 1983 and comprises all marine areas within 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) of the nearest U.S. land. This vast area of 3.38 million square nautical miles (11.6 million square kilometers) is about 20 percent greater than the entire land area of the United States. The resource potential of the vast mineral deposits that occur within the U.S. EEZ is unknown, despite field studies that have taken place during the past 25 years. Since about 1975, information on marine mineral deposits has been obtained by numerous research cruises to the Pacific Ocean by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), equivalent government agencies in Germany, Canada, France, Russia, Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand, and by academic researchers from all of these nations. Although most of the cruises by other nations explored areas outside the U.S. EEZ, information gained from those studies can aid in the evaluation of the mineral potential in the U.S. EEZ. However, the global effort remains inadequate to allow for the quantitative evaluation of mineral resources contained within the EEZ of nations or within international regions of the oceans.

  6. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the fishermen and small-craft operators, announcements will be made on the marine radio. (4) When a scheduled firing is about to be undertaken, fishing boats and other small craft will be contacted... otherwise provided in this section, the danger zone will be open to fishing and general navigation. (3) The...

  7. Method of estimating delay time for groundwater recharge through vadose zone in the Hancheon watershed in Jeju island, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Won; Na, Hanna; Chung, Il-Moon; Lee, Jeongwoo

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the delay time for groundwater recharge was estimated by comparing simulated groundwater recharge by means of SWAT(Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model and WTF(Water Table Fluctuation) method. SWAT model uses the delay time for groundwater recharge when the water from rainfall travelled through vadose zone just after getting out of soil zone bottom. Since measuring delay time is almost impossible, we had to choose the method of comparing the estimated values from modeling(SWAT) and analytic method(WTF). The test site is Hancheon watershed which has 8 groundwater measurement stations. The results show that the altitude has a linear relationship with the estimated delay time values. To validate these results, we conducted corelation analysis between transformed groundwater levels and observed ones. The results showed that computed groundwater levels have good correlation. The estimated delay time would be used for the groundwater behaviour characteristics in vadose zone. keywords: Water Table Fluctuation, vadose zone, groundwater recharge, Soil and Water Assessment Tool Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Regional Innovative Technology Project 2B from KICTTEP.

  8. 78 FR 59908 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council submitted Amendment 99 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of... vessel to catch and process Pacific cod in the BSAI hook-and-line fisheries to use newly built or... review and comment. NMFS manages the U.S. groundfish fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off...

  9. Seismically active column and volcanic plumbing system beneath the island arc of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří; Hanuš, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 3 (2009), s. 1301-1312 ISSN 0956-540X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : seismicity and tectonics * volcano seismology * subduction zone processes * volcanic arc processes * magma migration and fragmentation * Pacific Ocean Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2009

  10. Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone: Part 2, A preliminary sample survey, Kapoho, Kamaili and Kilauea geothermal subzones, Puna District, Hawaii island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.T.K.; Burtchard, G.C. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a preliminary sample inventory and offers an initial evaluation of settlement and land-use patterns for the Geothermal Resources Subzones (GRS) area, located in Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The report is the second of a two part project dealing with archaeology of the Puna GRS area -- or more generally, the Kilauea East Rift Zone. In the first phase of the project, a long-term land-use model and inventory research design was developed for the GRS area and Puna District generally. That report is available under separate cover as Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone, Part I: Land-Use Model and Research Design. The present report gives results of a limited cultural resource survey built on research design recommendations. It offers a preliminary evaluation of modeled land-use expectations and offers recommendations for continuing research into Puna`s rich cultural heritage. The present survey was conducted under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy, and subcontracted to International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (IARII) by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The purpose of the archaeological work is to contribute toward the preparation of an environmental impact statement by identifying cultural materials which could be impacted through completion of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project.

  11. Characteristics of an African Easterly Wave Observed During NAMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Lang, T.; Rutledge, S. A.; Guy, N.

    2009-04-01

    The evolution of an African Easterly Wave (AEW) is described using ground based radar data from 3 distinct locations in West Africa: Niamey, Niger (continental), Dakar, Senegal (coastal), and Praia, Republic of Cape Verde (oceanic). The data were collected during the combined African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) and NASA-AMMA (NAMMA) campaigns in August-September, 2006. The wave (hereafter referred to as Wave 5) was tracked using a combination of ECMWF analyses, upper air sounding, and METEOSAT outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data. Lightning data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), and satellite (TRMM) data were also used to explore the relationship between the large-scale features of the AEW and mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) observed by the ground-based radars and WWLLN. OLR and ECMWF data showed that Wave 5 formed over the Joss plateau near 10°E on 30 August, 2006, passing through Niamey, Dakar, and Praia on 31 August, 2 September, and 3 September, respectively. Further tracking westward indicated that this wave likely interacted with a previous AEW disturbance near 55°W on 7 September and the combined complex became tropical storm Gordon on 11 September. Gordon later became the most intense Atlantic hurricane of the 2006 season. During it's passage across west Africa, Wave 5 had a complicated structure with multiple vorticity centers. In particular, a vorticity center at 700 mb remained south of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) and at least two low-level (925 mb) vorticity centers straddled the AEJ during the wave passage over west Africa. The precipitation in Wave 5 was primarily concentrated on the south side of the AEJ, in association with one of the low-level vorticity centers and the region where low-level moisture was concentrated. The low-level vorticity centers later merged after the AEW exited the west African coast. The radar and lightning data indicated that precipitation characteristics associated with Wave 5

  12. Redox zone II. Coupled modeling of groundwater flow, solute transport, chemical reactions and microbial processes in the Aespoe island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samper, Javier; Molinero, Jorge; Changbing Yang; Guoxiang Zhang

    2003-12-01

    The Redox Zone Experiment was carried out at the Aespoe HRL in order to study the redox behaviour and the hydrochemistry of an isolated vertical fracture zone disturbed by the excavation of an access tunnel. Overall results and interpretation of the Redox Zone Project were reported by Banwart et al. Later, Banwart presented a summary of the hydrochemistry of the Redox Zone Experiment. Coupled groundwater flow and reactive transport models of this experiment were carried out by Molinero who proposed a revised conceptual model for the hydrogeology of the Redox Zone Experiment which could explain simultaneously measured drawdown and salinity data. The numerical model was found useful to understand the natural system. Several conclusions were drawn about the redox conditions of recharge waters, cation exchange capacity of the fracture zone and the role of mineral phases such as pyrite, calcite, hematite and goethite. This model could reproduce the measured trends of dissolved species, except for bicarbonate and sulphate which are affected by microbially-mediated processes. In order to explore the role of microbial processes, a coupled numerical model has been constructed which accounts for water flow, reactive transport and microbial processes. The results of this model is presented in this report. This model accounts for groundwater flow and reactive transport in a manner similar to that of Molinero and extends the preliminary microbial model of Zhang by accounting for microbially-driven organic matter fermentation and organic matter oxidation. This updated microbial model considers simultaneously the fermentation of particulate organic matter by yeast and the oxidation of dissolved organic matter, a product of fermentation. Dissolved organic matter is produced by yeast and serves also as a substrate for iron-reducing bacteria. Model results reproduce the observed increase in bicarbonate and sulfaphe concentration, thus adding additional evidence for the possibility

  13. Redox zone II. Coupled modeling of groundwater flow, solute transport, chemical reactions and microbial processes in the Aespoe island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samper, Javier; Molinero, Jorge; Changbing Yang; Guoxiang Zhang [Univ. Da Coruna (Spain)

    2003-12-01

    The Redox Zone Experiment was carried out at the Aespoe HRL in order to study the redox behaviour and the hydrochemistry of an isolated vertical fracture zone disturbed by the excavation of an access tunnel. Overall results and interpretation of the Redox Zone Project were reported by Banwart et al. Later, Banwart presented a summary of the hydrochemistry of the Redox Zone Experiment. Coupled groundwater flow and reactive transport models of this experiment were carried out by Molinero who proposed a revised conceptual model for the hydrogeology of the Redox Zone Experiment which could explain simultaneously measured drawdown and salinity data. The numerical model was found useful to understand the natural system. Several conclusions were drawn about the redox conditions of recharge waters, cation exchange capacity of the fracture zone and the role of mineral phases such as pyrite, calcite, hematite and goethite. This model could reproduce the measured trends of dissolved species, except for bicarbonate and sulphate which are affected by microbially-mediated processes. In order to explore the role of microbial processes, a coupled numerical model has been constructed which accounts for water flow, reactive transport and microbial processes. The results of this model is presented in this report. This model accounts for groundwater flow and reactive transport in a manner similar to that of Molinero and extends the preliminary microbial model of Zhang by accounting for microbially-driven organic matter fermentation and organic matter oxidation. This updated microbial model considers simultaneously the fermentation of particulate organic matter by yeast and the oxidation of dissolved organic matter, a product of fermentation. Dissolved organic matter is produced by yeast and serves also as a substrate for iron-reducing bacteria. Model results reproduce the observed increase in bicarbonate and sulfaphe concentration, thus adding additional evidence for the possibility

  14. Mysteries and Discoveries of Archaeoastronomy From Pre-history to Easter Island

    CERN Document Server

    Magli, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Shows the limitations of orthodox archeology in the face of astronomically-based artifacts and tries to understand what led the ancients to construct buildings such as the city of Teotihuacan in the Mexico Valley, the Ceremonial Centre of Chaco Canyon in the USA, the Avebury stone circle in Great Britain or the Great Pyramids in Egypt

  15. Urban Heat Island Analysis over the Land Use Zoning Plan of Bangkok by Means of Landsat 8 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyapon Keeratikasikorn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface urban heat island (SUHI maps retrieved from spaceborne sensor data are increasingly recognized as an efficient scientific support to be considered in sustainable urban planning. By means of reflective and thermal data from Landsat 8 imagery in the time interval 2014–2016, this work deals with the SUHI pattern identification within the different land use categories of Bangkok city plan. This study first provides an overview of the SUHI phenomenon in Bangkok, then singles out the surface heating behavior in each land use category. To describe the SUHI dynamics within the different classes, the main statistics of the SUHI intensity (mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum are computed. Overall, the analysis points out that the categories placed in the city core (high-density residential; commercial; historical and military classes exhibit the highest mean SUHI intensities (around 4 °C; whilst the vegetated pixels exert a less cool effect with respect to the greenery of categories mainly placed farther from the city center. The proposed analysis can help to identify if the land use plan requires targeted future actions for the SUHI mitigation; or if the maintenance of the current urban development model is in line with the environmental sustainability.

  16. Observed Change in Sahel Rainfall, Circulations, African Easterly Waves, and Atlantic Hurricanes Since 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yu Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we examine the dynamic properties associated with the recent increase in the Sahel rainfall using an ensemble of five global reanalysis datasets (1979–2010. The rainfall that has been observed to be increasing over the Sahel is accounted for by enhancements in both the tropical easterly jet and the African easterly jet, both of which are known to induce wet anomalies. Moreover, positional shifts in the African easterly jet and African easterly waves (AEWs accompanied the northward migration of the Sahel rainband. Change in the African easterly jet and AEWs are coupled to a northward shift and amplification of convective activity; this signals an increased potential for the occurrence of flash floods along the northern Sahel. In addition, the result from a wave tracking analysis suggests that the change in AEWs is closely linked to increased activity of intense hurricanes in the North Atlantic. The synoptic concurrence of AEWs in driving the dynamics of the Sahel greening and the increase in tropical cyclogeneses over the North Atlantic is an important aspect in the evaluation of climate model projections.

  17. Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone: Part 1, Land-use model and research design, Kapoho, Kamaili and Kilauea Geothermal Subzones, Puna District, Hawaii Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtchard, G.C.; Moblo, P. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The Puna Geothermal Resource Subzones (GRS) project area encompasses approximately 22,000 acres centered on the Kilauea East Rift Zone in Puna District, Hawaii Island. The area is divided into three subzones proposed for geothermal power development -- Kilauea Middle East Rift, Kamaili and Kapoho GRS. Throughout the time of human occupation, eruptive episodes along the rift have maintained a dynamic landscape. Periodic volcanic events, for example, have changed the coastline configuration, altered patterns of agriculturally suitable sediments, and created an assortment of periodically active, periodically quiescent, volcanic hazards. Because of the active character of the rift zone, then, the area`s occupants have always been obliged to organize their use of the landscape to accommodate a dynamic mosaic of lava flow types and ages. While the specific configuration of settlements and agricultural areas necessarily changed in response to volcanic events, it is possible to anticipate general patterns in the manner in which populations used the landscape through time. This research design offers a model that predicts the spatial results of long-term land-use patterns and relates them to the character of the archaeological record of that use. In essence, the environmental/land-use model developed here predicts that highest population levels, and hence the greatest abundance and complexity of identifiable prehistoric remains, tended to cluster near the coast at places that maximized access to productive fisheries and agricultural soils. With the possible exception of a few inland settlements, the density of archaeological remains expected to decrease with distance from the coastline. The pattern is generally supported in the regions existing ethnohistoric and archaeological record.

  18. CHRISTMAS AND EASTER THEMES IN THE LITERARY HERITAGE OF YURIY MIROLYUBOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Dmitrenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A  Russian emigrant writer Yuri Mirolyubov (1892—1970 wrote a  lot about Slavic antiquities. His name is associated with the origin of a  legendary “The book of Veles”  (Velesova kniga. This article studies his literary works in a historical and literary context, thematically associated with Christmas and Easter. The son of a priest, Mirolyubov was able to create original Christmas and Easter tales. As a priest’s son Mirolyubov managed to create indigenous Christmas and Easter stories. He brought back an already existing genre tradition of Christmas and Easter literature to its folklore origins, freed it from absolutely literary accretions and narrative stereotypes. Yuri Mirolyubov strived to put the Christmas and Easter stories beyond moral (much less entertaining literature, put them in the mainstream of a  folk, “Russian epic” (Ivan Shmelyov. That was a defi nition given by an author Ivan Shmelyov to his writing “The Lord’s summer”  (Leto Gospodne, who also updated the Canon of Russian calendar (Christmas and Easter literature in his own way. In fictional prose Yuri Mirolyubov acted as a scientist-ethnographer, a  sensitive receptionist of  everyday phenomena and psychological states. But in the works defi ned as scientific, he became a true artist, who felt free to deal with the most complicated and poorly studied material, however, existing in the depths of people’s consciousness.

  19. Two-stage rifting of Zealandia-Australia-Antarctica: Evidence from 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry of the Sisters shear zone, Stewart Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Joseph; Tulloch, Andy; Spell, Terry L.; Wells, Michael L.

    2007-05-01

    The Sisters shear zone is a newly discovered Late Cretaceous detachment fault system exposed for 40 km along the southeast coast of Stewart Island, southernmost New Zealand. Footwall rocks consist of variably deformed ca. 310 and 105 Ma granites that range from undeformed to protomylonite, mylonite, and ultramylonite. The hanging wall includes non-marine conglomerate and brittley deformed granite. K-feldspar thermochronometry of the footwall indicates moderately rapid cooling (20 30 C°/m.y.) due to tectonic denudation over the interval ca. 89 82 Ma. Return to slow cooling at 82 Ma coincides with the age of the oldest seafloor adjacent to the Campbell Plateau and reflects the mechanical transition from continental extension to lithospheric rupture and formation of the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Our findings support a two-stage rift model for continental breakup of this part of the Gondwana margin. Stage one (ca. 101 88 Ma) is the northward propagation of continental extension and the Tasman Ridge as recorded in mylonite dredged from the Ross Sea and the Paparoa core complex. Stage two (ca. 89 82 Ma) is extension between the Campbell Plateau and West Antarctica leading to formation of the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge.

  20. Frequency distribution, isotopic composition and physical characterization of plutonium-bearing particles from the Fig-Quince zone on Runit Island, Enewetak Atoll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Terry F.; Jernström, Jussi; Martinelli, Roger E.

    2009-01-01

    Runit Island on Enewetak Atoll was very heavily impacted by the U.S. nuclear testing campaign in the northern Marshall Islands (1946–58). The primary source of contamination on Runit Island was the 1958 Quince safety test where a large quantity of device plutonium (Pu) was scattered over the area...... surface soils from Fig-Quince with a view towards providing recommendations on the future management and possible cleanup of the site. Today, Runit Island remains under an administrative quarantine....

  1. Cracking The Code Of Easter Or, Understanding Why The Date Of Easter “Hops” All Over The Calendars Of March And April

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Ware

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Why is it that in most years, but not every year, Western Christians--both Catholic and Protestant--celebrate Easter at least one week before Eastern (Orthodox Christians?  Furthermore, since the Bible portrays the resurrection of Jesus as occurring on the Sunday morning directly after Passover, why is it that in many years both Eastern and Western Christians celebrate Easter more than a week after Passover, or even before Passover?  The major key to understanding the cycle of annual dates for Passover, Orthodox Easter, and Western Easter is the Metonic Cycle, and how it was shaped and applied in three different historical contexts.  This article seeks to explore the historical genesis of the Metonic Cycle and how it was applied to each of these festivals to yield the results we see today. Kenapa kebanyakan tahun, walaupan bukan setiap tahun, Gereja-gereja barat, yaitu gereja Katolik dan gereja Protestan, merayakan Paskah paling sedikit satu minggu sebelum Paskah Kristen Timur (gereja Ortodoks?  Selanjutnya, karena Alkitab menjelaskan kebangkitan Yesus ditentukan pada pagi hari Minggu langsung setelah Paskah Yahudi, mengapa terkadang orang-orang Kristen Timur dan orang-orang Kristen Barat merayakan Paskah lebih dari satu minggu sesudah Paskah Yahudi, ataupun sebelumnya?  Kunci yang paling penting untuk mengerti putaran tanggal ini antara Paskah Yahudi, Paskah gereja Ortodoks, dan Paskah gereja Barat adalah Putaran Metonik, dan bagaimana Putaran ini dibentukan dan diterapkan dalam ketiga konteks historis.  Artikel ini mau menyelidiki permulaian Putaran Metonik ini dan bagaimana Putaran ini diterapkan pada setiap festival ini sampai apa yang kita lihat hari ini. 

  2. Analysis of Precipitation Characteristics Within an African Easterly Wave: A Multi-Platform Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Lang, T.; Rutledge, S. A.; Zipser, E. J.; Tanelli, S.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) campaign was conducted primarily to explore the relationship between African Easterly Waves (AEWs) and tropical cyclogenesis in the Atlantic basin, as well as the role of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) in modulating the intensity of the waves and incipient tropical cyclone growth. The NASA TOGA C-band radar was deployed near Praia, Republic of Cape Verde ( approximately 600 km west of Dakar, Senegal) from 16 August to 16 September 2006. This location provided a unique opportunity to observe the transition of continental convection over Africa into the maritime environment. The primary objective of TOGA was to document convection and accompanying mesoscale processes associated with passage of large-scale disturbances (i.e., AEWs) over the region. Herein, we describe the evolution of convection embedded within an AEW that passed through the region sampled by TOGA on 2-3 September, 2006. This AEW may have been the precursor to hurricane Gordon, the most intense tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin during the 2006 season. Although the circulation center was located several hundred kilometers south of the Cape Verde Islands, the TOGA radar sampled extensive precipitation associated with the wave passage. Convective echoes, embedded within the stratiform precipitation region, produced significant flash flooding in the nearby city of Praia. The NASA DC-8 flew a series of coordinated flight tracks through the AEW on 3 September and collected a suite of in-situ and remote sensing observations. The DC-8 also coordinated observations with TOGA in order to provide a more detailed picture of the precipitation structure of the AEW. A spiral descent was performed within a broad area of stratiform precipitation near TOGA and dropsondes were launched to sample environmental winds and thermodynamic structure. In this study, the TOGA observations are combined with observations from the NASA 2nd generation airborne

  3. Il Doge and Easter Processions at San Marco in Early Modern Venice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2010-01-01

    The splendour of ducal processions in Venice as an expression of political mythology connected to La serenissima is well known and has been discussed – among others – by Edward Muir. In this paper I propose to discuss features of the early modern Good Friday and Easter morning processions, c. 1500...

  4. Cytological changes of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) upon root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans) infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White, commonly known as Easter lily, is an important floral crop with an annual wholesale value of over $26 million in the U.S. The root lesion nematode (RLN), Pratylenchus penetrans, is a major pest of lily due to the significant root damage it causes. In this study w...

  5. Carbohydrate changes during flower senescence of the Easter Lily (Lilium Longiflorum Thunb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was initiated to examine changes in ethanol soluble carbohydrates and cell wall neutral sugar composition in various floral organs of cut Lilium longiflorum Thunb. (Easter lily) flowers. Fresh weight of anthers decreased sharply, reaching a minimum level 3 days post-anthesis (DPA). T...

  6. Problems Associated with Crop Rotation for Management of Pratylenchus penetrans on Easter Lily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, B B; Giraud, D; Etter, S; Riddle, L J; Anderson, C A

    1998-12-01

    In Humboldt and Del Norte counties of California and Curry County, Oregon, Easter lilies (Lilium longiflotum) are grown commercially in a 3- to 6-year rotation with pasture for cattle and sheep. Bulbs are sold to greenhouse operations to produce flowering plants. The lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, is a serious detriment to Easter lily production. Both soil and planting stock are often infested; typically, a dual nematicide application is used consisting of a preplant soil fumigation followed by an at-planting application of an organophosphate or carbamate. Nematicide usage has resulted in ground-water contamination. Several factors that could lead to an improved crop rotation program were examined in five field trials in Oregon. Examining the relative nematode host status of crops for feeding cattle and sheep indicated differences in host suitability among clovers and fescues that could prove useful in development of pasture mixes. Populations of P. penetrans under continuous fallow and pasture were monitored for 4 years following harvest of Easter lilies. Populations fluctuated in both situations but generally increased on pasture plants and decreased under fallow. Nematodes were still detectable at the end of 4 years of weed-free fallow. Populations of P. penetrans on Easter lilies were followed over two successive crops. Numbers in soil peaked in July and then decreased while numbers within roots continued to increase until harvest in October.

  7. Why Parents Should Think Twice Before Giving Baby Birds to Young Children for Easter

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-07

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast for kids and parents teaches that baby birds are not good Easter presents due to the risk of illness from Salmonella.  Created: 4/7/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/7/2009.

  8. The Great Easter Egg Hunt: The Void's Incredible Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    An image made of about 300 million pixels is being released by ESO, based on more than 64 hours of observations with the Wide-Field Camera on the 2.2m telescope at La Silla (Chile). The image covers an 'empty' region of the sky five times the size of the full moon, opening an exceptionally clear view towards the most distant part of our universe. It reveals objects that are 100 million times fainter than what the unaided eye can see. Easter is in many countries a time of great excitement for children who are on the big hunt for chocolate eggs, hidden all about the places. Astronomers, however, do not need to wait this special day to get such an excitement: it is indeed daily that they look for faraway objects concealed in deep images of the sky. And as with chocolate eggs, deep sky objects, such as galaxies, quasars or gravitational lenses, come in the wildest variety of colours and shapes. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 14a/06 The Deep 3 'Empty' Field The image presented here is one of such very deep image of the sky. It is the combination of 714 frames for a total exposure time of 64.5 hours obtained through four different filters (B, V, R, and I)! It consists of four adjacent Wide-Field Camera pointings (each 33x34 arcmin), covering a total area larger than one square degree. Yet, if you were to look at this large portion of the firmament with the unaided eye, you would just see... nothing. The area, named Deep 3, was indeed chosen to be a random but empty, high galactic latitude field, positioned in such a way that it can be observed from the La Silla observatory all over the year. Together with two other regions, Deep 1 and Deep 2, Deep 3 is part of the Deep Public Survey (DPS), based on ideas submitted by the ESO community and covering a total sky area of 3 square degrees. Deep 1 and Deep 2 were selected because they overlapped with regions of other scientific interest. For instance, Deep 1 was chosen to complement the deep ATESP radio survey carried out

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO_{2} degassing at the Tenerife North-South Rift Zone (NSRZ) volcano (Canary Islands) during the period 2002-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; McCollum, John J. K.; Orland, Elijah D. M.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán D.; Calvo, David; Amonte, Cecilia; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Subaerial volcanic activity on Tenerife (2034 km2), the largest island of the Canary archipelago, started 14 My ago and 4 volcanic eruptions have occurred in historical times during the last 300 years. The main volcano-structural and geomorphological features of Tenerife are (i) the central volcanic complex, nowadays formed by Las Cañadas caldera, a volcanic depression measuring 16×9 km that resulted from multiple vertical collapses and partially filled by post-caldera volcanic products and (ii) the triple junction-shaped rift system, formed by numerous aligned monogenetic cones. Up to 297 mafic monogenetic cones have been recognized on Tenerife, and they represent the most common eruptive activity occurring on the island during the last 1 My (Dóniz et al., 2008). The North-South Rift Zone (NSRZ) of Tenerife comprises at least 139 cones. The main structural characteristic of the NSRZ of the island is an apparent absence of a distinct ridge, and a fan shaped distribution of monogenetic cones. Since there are currently no visible gas emissions at the NSRZ, diffuse degassing surveys have become an important geochemical tool for the surveillance of this volcanic system. Five diffuse CO2 degassing surveys have been carried out at NSRZ of Tenerife since 2002, the last one in the summer period of 2016, to evaluate the spatio-temporal variations of CO2 degassing as a volcanic surveillance tool for the NSRZ of Tenerife. At each survey, around 600 sampling sites were selected to cover homogenously the study area (325 km2) using the accumulation chamber method. The diffuse CO2 output ranged from 78 to 707 t/d in the study period, with the highest emission rate measured in 2015. The backgroung emission rate was estimated in 300 t/d. The last results the soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 24.7 g m-2 d-1. The spatial distribution map, constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure, showed the highest CO2 values as multiple

  10. Micro-textures in plagioclase from 1994–1995 eruption, Barren Island Volcano: Evidence of dynamic magma plumbing system in the Andaman subduction zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Renjith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic account of micro-textures and a few compositional profiles of plagioclase from high-alumina basaltic aa lava erupted during the year 1994–1995, from Barren Island Volcano, NE India ocean, are presented for the first time. The identified micro-textures can be grouped into two categories: (i Growth related textures in the form of coarse/fine-sieve morphology, fine-scale oscillatory zoning and resorption surfaces resulted when the equilibrium at the crystal-melt interface was fluctuated due to change in temperature or H2O or pressure or composition of the crystallizing melt; and (ii morphological texture, like glomerocryst, synneusis, swallow-tailed crystal, microlite and broken crystals, formed by the influence of dynamic behavior of the crystallizing magma (convection, turbulence, degassing, etc.. Each micro-texture has developed in a specific magmatic environment, accordingly, a first order magma plumbing model and crystallization dynamics are envisaged for the studied lava unit. Magma generated has undergone extensive fractional crystallization of An-rich plagioclase in stable magmatic environment at a deeper depth. Subsequently they ascend to a shallow chamber where the newly brought crystals and pre-existing crystals have undergone dynamic crystallization via dissolution-regrowth processes in a convective self-mixing environment. Such repeated recharge-recycling processes have produced various populations of plagioclase with different micro-textural stratigraphy in the studied lava unit. Intermittent degassing and eruption related decompression have also played a major role in the final stage of crystallization dynamics.

  11. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  12. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  13. Spatio-temporal forest cover characterisation of mascareignite zones of reunion Island; Caracterisation spatio-temporelle du couvert vegetal des zones a mascareignite des hauts de l'Ile de la Reunion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouar, S

    1998-07-01

    The endo-soils of the reunion island often present a particularity: the presence of a light soil level on surface, of vegetable composition, the mascareignite. In the framework of this study, mascareignite soils have been localized on the wet face of the island and have been compared with those of the dry face. The floristic past of these soils has been reconstituted with the pedo-anthracology tool (charcoal dating and identification). Ages given by the {sup 14}C measures show that the mascareignite genesis is anterior to the human being presence in the island. The study of the actual vegetable cover distribution has been realized by satellite data. (A.L.B.)

  14. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  15. Petrology and isotope geochemistry of lavas from the Line Islands Chain, central Pacific basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Michael O.; Park, Kye-Hun; Davis, Geoffrey T.; Staudigel, Hubert; Mattey, David P.

    The Line Islands chain is a product of multiple hotspots. The main portion of the chain formed between 42 and 93 Ma. Along some parts of the chain, this phase of volcanism was preceded and succeeded by hotspot volcanism. There is no chemical distinction among the lavas from the different episodes of hotspot volcanism. Ratios of Sr and Pb isotopes and trace elements are similar even for tholeiitic and alkalic lavas. These ratios are similar to those for lavas from Easter and Sala y Gomez islands. The range of Sr and Pb isotopes and the Nb/Zr ratios for Line Islands lavas require three source components. The most likely candidates are a high 206Pb/204Pb and Nb/Zr, low 87Sr/86Sr source (HIMU); an enriched source (EMI); and a depleted mantle source. Backtracking the positions of the age-dated Line Islands volcanoes to where they probably formed indicates that the main group is unrelated to any known hotspot. The pre-hotspot volcanoes may be related to the Easter and/or the Sala y Gomez hotspots. The post-hotspot volcanoes do not backtrack to any known hotspot but are closest to the Marquesas. The compositions, positions and ages of the backtracked Line Islands volcanoes indicate that the eastern portion of the South Pacific isotopic and thermal anomaly (SOPITA) has persisted for at least 90 my. and that the Easter and Sala y Gomez hotspots may have produced geochemically similar lavas for the last 70 m.y.

  16. Coupled Hf-Nd-Pb isotope co-variations of HIMU oceanic island basalts suggest an Archean source component in the mantle transition zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nebel, O.; Arculus, R.J.; van Westrenen, W.; Woodhead, J.D.; Jenner, F.E.; Nebel-Jacobsen, Y.J.; Wille, M.; Eggins, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that oceanic island basalts (OIB) sample geochemically distinct mantle reservoirs including recycled oceanic crust, the composition, age, and locus of these reservoirs remain uncertain. OIB with highly radiogenic Pb isotope signatures are grouped as HIMU (high-μ, with

  17. Perfil sensorial de ovos de Páscoa Descriptive analysis of easter eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria P. R. MINIM

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Ovo de Páscoa é um produto de chocolate na forma de ovo comercializado no Brasil durante a Páscoa. No presente estudo, Análise Descritiva Quantitativa foi aplicada para levantar atributos sensoriais que melhor definem modificações na aparência, aroma, sabor e textura, quando sucedâneos da manteiga de cacau (SUMC são adicionados ao ovo de Páscoa. Amostras com e sem a adição de SUMC foram avaliadas por uma equipe selecionada de provadores e quatorze atributos sensorial foram definidos. Após um período de treinamento, os provadores avaliaram as amostras através de delineamento de blocos completos balanceadas usando escala não estruturada de 9cm. Os resultados foram analisados através da análise do componente principal, ANOVA e teste de Tukey (pEaster egg is a popular chocolate-candy in egg form commercialized in Brazil during Easter time. In this research, Quantitative Descriptive Analysis was applied to select sensory attributes which best define the modifications in appearance, aroma, flavor and texture when cocoa butter equivalent (CBE is added to Easter eggs. Samples with and without CBE were evaluated by a selected panel and fourteen attributes best describing similarities and differences between them, were defined. Terms definition, reference materials and a consensus ballot were developed. After a training period, panelists evaluated the samples in a Complete Block Design using a 9 cm unstructured scale. Principal Component Analysis, ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05 were applied to the data in order to select attributes which best discriminated and characterized the samples. Samples showed significant differences (p<0.05 in all attributes. Easter egg without CBE showed higher intensities (p<0.05 in relation to the following descriptors: brown color, characteristic aroma, cocoa mass aroma, cocoa butter aroma, characteristic flavor, cocoa mass flavor, hardness and brittleness.

  18. Benthic Habitat and Zone Maps of St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands - Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA, 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ther are 25 habitat and zone PDF products. This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science,...

  19. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 5 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Ofu and Olosega Islands, Territory of American Samoa, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V...

  20. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Supply Reef, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  1. Environmental (in)dependence of a hybrid zone: Insights from molecular markers and ecological niche modeling in a hybrid zone ofOriganum(Lamiaceae) on the island of Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariotakis, Michael; Koutroumpa, Konstantina; Karousou, Regina; Pirintsos, Stergios A

    2016-12-01

    The role of environment and the relative significance of endogenous versus exogenous selection in shaping hybrid zones have been crucial issues in the studies of hybridization. Recent advances in ecological niche modeling (ENM) offer new methodological tools, especially in combination with the genotyping of individuals in the hybrid zone. Here, we study the hybrid zone between the widely known spices Origanum onites and Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum in Crete. We analyze the genetic structure of both parental taxa and their hybrid Origanum  ×  intercendens using AFLP markers on 15 sympatric and 12 allopatric populations and employ ecological niche modeling and niche similarity tests to study their niche patterns. We complement these analyses with seed viability measurements. Our study revealed that the hybridizing taxa O. onites and O. vulgare ssp. hirtum and the resulting genotypic classes showed geographical and environmental niche similarities based on the predictions of ENMs and the subsequent similarity tests. The occurrence of the hybrid zone is not directly dependent on environmental factors which favor the fitness of the hybrid compared to the parental taxa, but rather on aspects such as historical factors and management practices, which may contribute to the localization and maintenance of the contact zone between parental species. Our results suggest that if a minimum required niche differentiation between genotypic classes is not achieved, environmental dependence might not have a prominent role on the outcome of the hybridization.

  2. Declining Radial Growth Response of Coastal Forests to Hurricanes and Nor'easters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Arnold; Rollinson, Christine R.; Kearney, William S.; Dietze, Michael C.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2018-03-01

    The Mid-Atlantic coastal forests in Virginia are stressed by episodic disturbance from hurricanes and nor'easters. Using annual tree ring data, we adopt a dendroclimatic and statistical modeling approach to understand the response and resilience of a coastal pine forest to extreme storm events, over the past few decades. Results indicate that radial growth of trees in the study area is influenced by age, regional climate trends, and individual tree effects but dominated periodically by growth disturbance due to storms. We evaluated seven local extreme storm events to understand the effect of nor'easters and hurricanes on radial growth. A general decline in radial growth was observed in the year of the extreme storm and 3 years following it, after which the radial growth started recovering. The decline in radial growth showed a statistically significant correlation with the magnitude of the extreme storm (storm surge height and wind speed). This study contributes to understanding declining tree growth response and resilience of coastal forests to past disturbances. Given the potential increase in hurricanes and storm surge severity in the region, this can help predict vegetation response patterns to similar disturbances in the future.

  3. Paleomagnetism of San Cristobal Island, Galapagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A.

    1971-01-01

    Isla San Cristobal, the most easterly of the Galapagos Islands, consists of two parts: a large volcano constitutes the southwest half of the island and an irregular apron of small cones and flows makes up the northeast half. As some of the younger flows on the flanks of the large volcano are reversely magnetized, the minimum age of the volcano is 0.7 my, which is the age of the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal boundary. The true age is probably several times greater. The cones and flows to the northeast are all normally magnetized. The between-site angular dispersion of virtual poles is 11.3?? - a value consistent with mathematical models for the latitude dependence of geomagnetic secular variation. ?? 1971.

  4. Multibeam collection for PASC03WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1983-03-03 to 1983-03-28, Easter Island, Chile to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Multibeam collection for RAPA03WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1991-01-07 to 1991-02-18, Easter Island, Chile to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. EASTER CHRONOTOPE IN GOETHE'S "FAUST": APPROACHES AND ESTIMATIONS IN THE TRANSLATIONS OF NIKOLAI KHOLODKOVSKY AND BORIS PASTERNAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malchukov L. I.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the most famous experiences of the Goethe's text presentations in Russian. The difference between Kholodkovsky and Pasternak’s translation strategies in the interpretation of Faust's salvation is particularly striking, as far as they can be understood only in the context of the Easter chronotope of tragedy.

  7. MacLiammóir's minstrel and Johnston's morality : cultural memories of the Easter Rising at the Dublin Gate Theatre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beuken, Ruud

    This article explores how Micheál MacLiammóir and Denis Johnston attempted to perform cultural memories of the Easter Rising at the Dublin Gate Theatre and thereby articulated their respective views on a colonial past that had to be reassessed anew, on the one hand, and a postcolonial future that

  8. Effects of Saharan Mineral Dust Aerosols on the Dynamics of an Idealized African Easterly Jet-African Easterly Wave System over North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Dustin Francis Phillip

    The central objective of this work is to examine the direct radiative effects of Saharan mineral dust aerosols on the dynamics of African easterly waves (AEWs) and the African easterly jet (AEJ). Achieving this objective is built around two tasks that use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to an online dust model (WRF-dust model). The first task (Chapter 2) examines the linear dynamics of AEWs; the second task (Chapter 3) examines the nonlinear evolution of AEWs and their interactions with the AEJ. In Chapter 2, the direct radiative effects of dust on the linear dynamics of AEWs are examined analytically and numerically. The analytical analysis combines the thermodynamic equation with a dust continuity equation to form an expression for the generation of eddy available potential energy (APE) by the dust field. The generation of eddy APE is a function of the transmissivity and spatial gradients of the dust, which are modulated by the Doppler-shifted frequency. The expression predicts that for a fixed dust distribution, the wave response will be largest in regions where the dust gradients are maximized and the Doppler-shifted frequency vanishes. The numerical analysis calculates the linear dynamics of AEWs using zonally averaged basic states for wind, temperature and dust consistent with summertime conditions over North Africa. For the fastest growing AEW, the dust increases the growth rate from ~15% to 90% for aerosol optical depths ranging from tau=1.0 to tau=2.5. A local energetics analysis shows that for tau=1.0, the dust increases the maximum barotropic and baroclinic energy conversions by ~50% and ~100%, respectively. The maxima in the generation of APE and conversions of energy are co-located and occur where the meridional dust gradient is maximized near the critical layer, i.e., where the Doppler-shifted frequency is small, in agreement with the prediction from the analytical analysis. In Chapter 3, the direct radiative effects of dust

  9. Lifetime of an ocean island volcano feeder zone: constraints from U-Pb dating on coexisting zircon and baddeleyite, and 40/39Ar age determinations, Fuerteventura, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allibon, James; Ovtcharova, Maria; Bussy, Francois; Cosca, Michael; Schaltegger, Urs; Bussien, Denise; Lewin, Eric

    2011-01-01

    High-precision isotope dilution - thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite ages from the PX1 vertically layered mafic intrusion Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, indicate initiation of magma crystallization at 22.10 ± 0.07 Ma. The magmatic activity lasted a minimum of 0.52 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar amphibole dating yielded ages from 21.9 ± 0.6 to 21.8 ± 0.3, identical within errors to the U-Pb ages, despite the expected 1% theoretical bias between 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dates. This overlap could result from (i) rapid cooling of the intrusion (i.e., less than the 0.3 to 0.6 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age uncertainties) from closure temperatures (Tc) of zircon (699-988 °C) to amphibole (500-600 °C); (ii) lead loss affecting the youngest zircons; or (iii) excess argon shifting the plateau ages towards older values. The combination of the 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb datasets implies that the maximum amount of time PX1 intrusion took to cool below amphibole Tc is 0.8 Ma, suggesting PX1 lifetime of 520,000 to 800,000 Ma. Age disparities among coexisting baddeleyite and zircon (22.10 ± 0.07/0.08/0.15 Ma and 21.58 ± 0.15/0.16/0.31 Ma) in a gabbro sample from the pluton margin suggest complex genetic relationships between phases. Baddeleyite is found preserved in plagioclase cores and crystallized early from low silica activity magma. Zircon crystallized later in a higher silica activity environment and is found in secondary scapolite and is found close to calcite veins, in secondary scapolite that recrystallised from plagioclase. close to calcite veins. Oxygen isotope δ18O values of altered plagioclase are high (+7.7), indicating interaction with fluids derived from host-rock carbonatites. The coexistence of baddeleyite and zircon is ascribed to interaction of the PX1 gabbro with CO2-rich carbonatite-derived fluids released during contact metamorphism.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Phenylpropanoid Glycerol Glucosides in Different Organs of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, John P; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-05-20

    The Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) is esteemed worldwide as an attractive ornamental plant, and the flower buds and bulbs are used for both culinary and medicinal purposes in many parts of the world. L. longiflorum contains significant amounts of phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides, a group of compounds that may contribute to plant pathogen defense, ultraviolet/high-intensity visible light (UV/high light) protection, and the purported medicinal uses of lilies. To define the natural distribution of these compounds within the plant, a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method performed in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was employed for the quantitative analysis of five phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides, namely, (2S)-1-O-caffeoyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylglycerol, 1; (2R)-1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2-O-p-coumaroylglycerol, 2; (2S)-1-O-p-coumaroyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylglycerol, 3; (2S)-1-O-caffeoyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-acetylglycerol, 4; and (2S)-1-O-p-coumaroyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-acetylglycerol, 5, in the different organs of L. longiflorum. The p-coumaroyl-based 3 and its acetylated derivative 5 were determined to be the most abundant of the phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides found in Easter lily bulbs, at 776.3 ± 8.4 and 650.7 ± 32.6 μg/g dry weight, respectively. The acetylated p-coumaroyl- and caffeoyl-based derivatives, 5 and 4, accumulated to the highest concentration in the closed flower buds, at 4925.2 ± 512.8 and 3216.8 ± 406.4 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Compound 4, followed by 5 and 1, proved to be the most abundant in the mature flowers, occurring at 6006.2 ± 625.8, 2160.3 ± 556.5, and 1535.8 ± 174.1 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Total concentrations of the phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides were 10-100-fold higher in the above-ground plant organs as compared to the bulbs and fleshy roots. Two of the five compounds, 1 and 2, were identified in L. longiflorum for the first time. The quantitative

  11. “Dublin Traitors” or “Gallants of Dublin” The Argentine Newspapers and the Easter Rising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Galazzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Easter Rising was a turning point in contemporary Irish history. Although it lasted for a few days, from Monday 24 to Saturday 29 April, 1916, it had great impact in Ireland itself, and it also aroused considerable interest in many other countries, particularly in those with a significant Irish community, as in the case of Argentina. The aim of this paper is to study the way in which the contemporary Argentine graphic media (published in Spanish and in English presented and commented about the events that took place in Dublin. While it will try to contribute to the knowledge of the global echoes of the Easter Rising, this analysis will seek to help in a better understanding of the ideas of the English-speaking groups in Argentina, and particularly of the Irish community in that country, a group formed mainly by Argentine-born people of Irish descent.

  12. The origin, function and disappearance of the “Twelve”: Continuity from Jesus to the post-Easter community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich-Alex Koch

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The group of the Twelve is mentioned 28 times in the Synoptic Gospels. However, the Evangelists were not familiar with the historical role of the Twelve. Even the pre-Easter origin of Matthew 19:28/Luke 22:30 is debatable. On the other hand 1 Corinth 15:3b-5 provides a solid basis for the assumption of a pre-Easter origin of the Twelve. They functioned as a group representing the twelve tribes of Israel as the eschatological people of God. Reaffirmed in this role by the risen Lord they had for a short time a leading role in the early Christian community in Jerusalem. But their importance soon declined because after a short time the twelve former disciples from Galilee could no longer be representative of a rapidly expanding community. In the last decades of the first century the Twelve got a new importance on the literary level of the Gospels.

  13. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Of how the Father of Heaven, the Easter bunny, Santa and the angels were living together in the sky!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Cerisara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This text refers to the following question: After all, where was that the children took the idea that the Father of Heaven, the Easter Rabbit, the angels and Santa Claus live together in heaven? This may be appropriate to assist us in thinking about how the subject - in particular the children - is a given culture and the relationship between the imagined and the real world activity in human conduct.

  15. The Response of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones to Suppression of African Easterly Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricola, Christina M.; Saravanan, R.; Chang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) genesis is strongly linked with African easterly waves (AEWs) on the synoptic time scale. However, the TC-AEW relationship is unclear on interannual to climate time scales, and it is unknown whether AEWs are necessary to maintain climatological TC frequency, that is, whether TCs are limited by AEWs. We investigated the impact of AEW suppression on seasonal Atlantic TC activity using a 10-member ensemble of regional climate model simulations in which AEWs were either prescribed or removed through the lateral boundary condition. The climate model experiments produced no significant change in seasonal Atlantic TC number, indicating that AEWs are not necessary to maintain climatological basin-wide TC frequency even though TCs readily originate from these types of disturbances. This suggests that the specific type of "seedling" disturbance is unimportant for determining basin-wide seasonal Atlantic TC number and that in the absence of AEWs, TCs will generate by other mechanisms. The results imply that changes in the presence of AEWs may not be reliable predictors of seasonal variability and future change in Atlantic TC frequency.

  16. Tropical Atlantic Hurricanes, Easterly Waves, and West African Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves K. Kouadio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between tropical Atlantic hurricanes (Hs, atmospheric easterly waves (AEWs, and West African mesoscale convective systems (MCSs is investigated. It points out atmospheric conditions over West Africa before hurricane formation. The analysis was performed for two periods, June–November in 2004 and 2005, during which 12 hurricanes (seven in 2004, five in 2005 were selected. Using the AEW signature in the 700 hPa vorticity, a backward trajectory was performed to the African coast, starting from the date and position of each hurricane, when and where it was catalogued as a tropical depression. At this step, using the Meteosat-7 satellite dataset, we selected all the MCSs around this time and region, and tracked them from their initiation until their dissipation. This procedure allowed us to relate each of the selected Hs with AEWs and a succession of MCSs that occurred a few times over West Africa before initiation of the hurricane. Finally, a dipole in sea surface temperature (SST was observed with a positive SST anomaly within the region of H generation and a negative SST anomaly within the Gulf of Guinea. This SST anomaly dipole could contribute to enhance the continental convergence associated with the monsoon that impacts on the West African MCSs formation.

  17. On flavourful Easter eggs for New Physics hunger and lepton flavour universality violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciuchini, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Coutinho, Antonio M. [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Rome (Italy); Fedele, Marco [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Franco, Enrico; Paul, Ayan; Silvestrini, Luca; Valli, Mauro [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    Within the standard approach of effective field theory of weak interactions for ΔB = 1 transitions, we look for possibly unexpected subtle New Physics effects, here dubbed ''flavourful Easter eggs''. We perform a Bayesian global fit using the publicly available HEPfit package, taking into account state-of-the-art experimental information concerning these processes, including the suggestive measurements from LHCb of R{sub K} and R{sub K{sup *}}, the latter available only very recently. We parametrise New Physics contributions to b → s transitions in terms of shifts of Wilson coefficients of the electromagnetic dipole and semileptonic operators, assuming CP-conserving effects, but allowing in general for violation of lepton flavour universality. We show how optimistic/conservative hadronic estimates can impact quantitatively the size of New Physics extracted from the fit. With a conservative approach to hadronic uncertainties we find nonzero New Physics contributions to Wilson coefficients at the level of ∝ 3σ, depending on the model chosen. Furthermore, given the interplay between hadronic contributions and New Physics effects in the leptonic vector current, a scenario with nonstandard leptonic axial currents is comparable to the more widely advocated one with New Physics in the leptonic vector current. (orig.)

  18. On flavourful Easter eggs for New Physics hunger and lepton flavour universality violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciuchini, Marco; Coutinho, Antonio M.; Fedele, Marco; Franco, Enrico; Paul, Ayan; Silvestrini, Luca; Valli, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Within the standard approach of effective field theory of weak interactions for ΔB = 1 transitions, we look for possibly unexpected subtle New Physics effects, here dubbed ''flavourful Easter eggs''. We perform a Bayesian global fit using the publicly available HEPfit package, taking into account state-of-the-art experimental information concerning these processes, including the suggestive measurements from LHCb of R K and R K * , the latter available only very recently. We parametrise New Physics contributions to b → s transitions in terms of shifts of Wilson coefficients of the electromagnetic dipole and semileptonic operators, assuming CP-conserving effects, but allowing in general for violation of lepton flavour universality. We show how optimistic/conservative hadronic estimates can impact quantitatively the size of New Physics extracted from the fit. With a conservative approach to hadronic uncertainties we find nonzero New Physics contributions to Wilson coefficients at the level of ∝ 3σ, depending on the model chosen. Furthermore, given the interplay between hadronic contributions and New Physics effects in the leptonic vector current, a scenario with nonstandard leptonic axial currents is comparable to the more widely advocated one with New Physics in the leptonic vector current. (orig.)

  19. Flowering pathway is regulated by bulb size in Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazare, S; Zaccai, M

    2016-07-01

    Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily) vegetative propagation occurs through production of underground bulbs containing apical and axillary meristems. In addition, sexual reproduction is achieved by flowering of elongated shoots above the bulb. It is generally accepted that L. longiflorum has an obligatory requirement for vernalisation and that long day (LD) regime hastens flowering. However, the effect of bulb size and origin, with respect to axillary or apical meristems on flowering, as well as the interactions between these meristems are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of bulb size, vernalisation and photoperiod on L. longiflorum flowering. To this end, we applied vernalisation and photoperiod treatments to the different bulb sizes and used a system of constant ambient temperature of 25 °C, above vernalisation spectrum, to avoid cold-dependent floral induction during plant growth. Vernalisation and LD hasten flowering in all bulbs. Large, non-vernalised bulbs invariably remained at a vegetative stage. However, small non-vernalised bulbs flowered under LD conditions. These results demonstrate for the first time that cold exposure is not an obligatory prerequisite for L. longiflorum flowering, and that an alternative flowering pathway can bypass vernalisation in small bulbs. We suggest that apical dominance interactions determine the distinct flowering pathways of the apical and axillary meristems. Similar floral induction is achieved in propagated bulblets from scaling. These innovative findings in the field of geophyte floral induction represent valuable applicative knowledge for lily production. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Examining High/Low Variability Forecasts of African Easterly Waves in the ECMWF Ensemble Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elless, Travis; Torn, Ryan

    2017-04-01

    During the boreal summer, African Easterly Waves (AEWs) are the primary synoptic-scale feature that influences North African weather, and are associated with the majority of summer rainfall found in this region. Although numerous studies have investigated the composite mean structure and evolution of these waves through observational case studies and idealized modeling, few studies have explored the skill and predictability of these systems in operational deterministic or ensemble forecasts. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the predictability of these features depends on the large-scale environmental factors, such as equatorial waves, mid-level moisture, etc. This study investigates the predictability of AEW forecasts, defined here as the ensemble standard deviation, using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble forecasts, which are available through the THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) dataset, during the periods of July-August-September 2007—2009 and 2011—2013. Whereas the ensemble standard deviation in AEW position forecasts increase at a relatively constant rate with time, the ensemble standard deviation in AEW intensity forecasts often exhibit rapid non-linear growth. Therefore, this study explores forecasts exhibiting the largest standard deviation in intensity at 72h (top 10% of forecasts) and compares them against forecasts with the smallest standard deviation in intensity (bottom 10%). Preliminary results from 2007—2009 suggest the growth of variability is strongly associated to large-scale factors that would promote convection near the AEW, after the first diurnal cycle. Whereas variability in forecasts from 2011—2013 are more associated with the initial AEW structure instead of the large-scale environment.

  1. Contrasting Features of Monsoon Precipitation Around the Meghalaya Plateau Under Westerly and Easterly Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinami, Hatsuki; Sato, Tomonori; Kanamori, Hironari; Murata, Fumie

    2017-09-01

    Precipitation features around the Meghalaya Plateau, northeast India, during summer are investigated using a 17 year (1998-2014) high-spatial-resolution Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar data set. Precipitation around the plateau fell into two distinct regimes based on the low-level wind direction that fluctuates on intraseasonal time scales over Bangladesh, windward of the plateau: a westerly regime (WR) and an easterly regime (ER). Under the WR, strong low-level onshore southwesterlies across Bangladesh encounter the plateau, and localized strong low-level southerlies running parallel to the Arakan Mountains (i.e., the barrier jet) also blow toward the plateau, concentrating convective unstable air onto its southern slopes. The low-level wind fields and large-scale upper level divergent fields promote frequent and intense orographic rainfall along the southern slopes due to forced uplift, generating high precipitation. In contrast, under the ER, strong southeasterlies that blow along the Gangetic Plain without encountering the plateau and subsidence inhibit upward motion around the plateau, resulting in low precipitation. Diurnal variations in precipitation significantly affect the daily precipitation around the plateau under both regimes. High rainfall frequency persists over the southern slopes between 2100 and 1200 LT of the next day under the WR, whereas modest rainfall frequency occurs between 0000 and 0600 LT under the ER, with a daytime minimum and nocturnal maximum in both regimes. The atmospheric boundary layer processes over Bangladesh regulate the wind speed and vertical structure of the low-level wind toward the plateau, with deceleration during daytime and acceleration at night (i.e., nocturnal jet) that result in the nocturnal rainfall maximum.

  2. Projected changes in African easterly wave intensity and track in response to greenhouse forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Christopher Bryan; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2014-05-13

    Synoptic-scale African easterly waves (AEWs) impact weather throughout the greater Atlantic basin. Over the African continent, AEWs are instrumental in initiating and organizing precipitation in the drought-vulnerable Sahel region. AEWs also serve as the precursors to the most intense Atlantic hurricanes, and contribute to the global transport of Saharan dust. Given the relevance of AEWs for the climate of the greater Atlantic basin, we investigate the response of AEWs to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Using an ensemble of general circulation models, we find a robust increase in the strength of the winds associated with AEWs along the Intertropical Front in West Africa by the late 21st century of the representative concentration pathway 8.5. AEW energy increases directly due to an increase in baroclinicity associated with an enhanced meridional temperature gradient between the Sahara and Guinea Coast. Further, the pattern of low-level warming supports AEW development by enhancing monsoon flow, resulting in greater convergence and uplift along the Intertropical Front. These changes in energetics result in robust increases in the occurrence of conditions that currently produce AEWs. Given relationships observed in the current climate, such changes in the location of AEW tracks and the magnitude of AEW winds carry implications for the relationship between AEWs and precipitation in the Sahel, the mobilization of Saharan dust, and the likelihood of cyclogenesis in the Atlantic. Our results therefore suggest that changes in AEW characteristics could play a critical role in shaping the response of Atlantic basin climate to future increases in greenhouse gas concentrations.

  3. A comprehensive sediment budget for the Mississippi Barrier Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.; De Vroeg, J.H.; Van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.; Swinkels, C.; Luijendijk, A.P.; De Boer, W.P.; Hoekstra, R.; Hoonhout, B.; Henrotte, J.; Smolders, T.; Dekker, F.; Godsey, E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to conceive any realistic plan for post-Katrina island restoration, it is necessary to understand the physical processes that move sand along the littoral drift zone off the coast of Mississippi. This littoral zone influences the character of the Mississippi barrier islands as they exist in

  4. Geochronology, stratigraphy and geochemistry of Cambro-Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian volcanic rocks of the Saxothuringian Zone in NE Bavaria (Germany)—new constraints for Gondwana break up and ocean-island magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, Stefan; Koglin, Nikola; Klopf, Lisa; Schüssler, Ulrich; Tragelehn, Harald; Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Zeh, Armin; Brätz, Helene

    2018-01-01

    Stratigraphically well-defined volcanic rocks in Palaeozoic volcano-sedimentary units of the Frankenwald area (Saxothuringian Zone, Variscan Orogen) were sampled for geochemical characterisation and U-Pb zircon dating. The oldest rock suite comprises quartz keratophyre, brecciated keratophyre, quartz keratophyre tuff and basalt, formed in Upper Cambrian to Tremadocian time (c. 497-478 Ma). Basaltic volcanism continued until the Silurian. Quartz keratophyre shows post-collisional calc-alkaline signature, the Ordovician-Silurian basalt has alkaline signature typical of continental rift environments. The combined datasets provide evidence of Cambro-Ordovician bimodal volcanism and successive rifting until the Silurian. This evolution very likely resulted from break-up of the northern Gondwana margin, as recorded in many terranes throughout Europe. The position at the northern Gondwana margin is supported by detrital zircon grains in some tuffs, with typical Gondwana-derived age spectra mostly recording ages of 550-750 Ma and minor age populations of 950-1100 and 1700-2700 Ma. The absence of N-MORB basalt in the Frankenwald area points to a retarded break-off of the Saxothuringian terrane along a continental rift system from Uppermost Cambrian to Middle Silurian time. Geochemical data for a second suite of Upper Devonian basalt provide evidence of emplacement in a hot spot-related ocean-island setting south of the Rheic Ocean. Our results also require partial revision of the lithostratigraphy of the Frankenwald area. The basal volcanic unit of the Randschiefer Formation yielded a Tremadocian age and, therefore, should be attributed to the Vogtendorf Formation. Keratophyre of the Vogtendorf Formation, previously assigned to the Tremadoc, is most likely of Upper Devonian age.

  5. Diagnosing GCM errors over West Africa using relaxation experiments. Part II: intraseasonal variability and African easterly waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Benjamin [CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Centre de Recherches de Climatologie, CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); Douville, Herve [CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France, CNRS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-10-15

    A near-global grid-point nudging of the Arpege-Climat atmospheric General Circulation Model towards ECMWF reanalyses is used to diagnose the regional versus remote origin of the summer model biases and variability over West Africa. First part of this study revealed a limited impact on the monsoon climatology compared to a control experiment without nudging, but a significant improvement of interannual variability, although the amplitude of the seasonal anomalies remained underestimated. Focus is given here on intraseasonal variability of monsoon rainfall and dynamics. The reproducible part of these signals is investigated through 30-member ensemble experiments computed for the 1994 rainy season, a year abnormally wet over the Sahel but representative of the model systematic biases. In the control experiment, Arpege-Climat simulates too few rainy days that are associated with too low rainfall amounts over the central and western Sahel, in line with the seasonal dry biases. Nudging the model outside Africa tends to slightly increase the number of rainy days over the Sahel, but has little effect on associated rainfall amounts. However, results do indicate that a significant part of the monsoon intraseasonal variability simulated by Arpege-Climat is controlled by lateral boundary conditions. Parts of the wet/dry spells over the Sahel occur in phase in the 30 members of the nudging experiment, and are therefore embedded in larger-scale variability patterns. Inter-member spread is however not constant across the selected summer season. It is partly controlled by African Easterly Waves, which show dissimilar amplitude from one member to another, but a coherent phasing in all members. A lowpass filtering of the nudging fields suggests that low frequency variations in the lateral boundary conditions can lead to eastward extensions of the African Easterly Jet, creating a favorable environment for easterly waves, while high frequency perturbations seem to control their

  6. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The full text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty with its Annexes endorsed on 6 August 1985 by the South Pacific Forum (a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific, namely Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Nive, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa) is presented

  7. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [es

  8. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [ru

  9. Of how the Father of Heaven, the Easter bunny, Santa and the angels were living together in the sky!

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Beatriz Cerisara

    2002-01-01

    This text refers to the following question: After all, where was that the children took the idea that the Father of Heaven, the Easter Rabbit, the angels and Santa Claus live together in heaven? This may be appropriate to assist us in thinking about how the subject - in particular the children - is a given culture and the relationship between the imagined and the real world activity in human conduct. Este texto nos remete à seguinte questão: Afinal, de onde foi que as crianças tiraram esta...

  10. What Role do Nor'Easters have on the Jamaica Bay Wetlands Sediment Budget?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R. C.; Bentley, S. J.; Wang, H.; Smith, J.

    2017-12-01

    The wetlands of Jamaica Bay, located on the outskirts of Queens, New York, have lost over half their surface area in the last 50 years due both anthropogenic and natural causes, including channel dredging, urban drainage construction, and greater tidal amplitudes partially due to rising local sea levels. Superstorm Sandy made landfall in 2014 as a powerful coastal geomorphic agent, highlighting the vulnerability of that region to large cyclonic storms that are more commonly encountered along coastal reaches of southeastern North America. After this event, research aimed at quantifying the geomorphic impact of Superstorm Sandy and to evaluate the record of past documented major winter storms on Jamaica Bay's wetlands. 12 sediment cores were collected from the surface of remaining wetlands in August 2014 by the USGS Wetland and Aquatic Research Center; the cores have been analyzed for Pb-210/Cs-137 geochronology, organic content, and water content to establish chronology of mineral sediment supply to the wetlands over the past 120 years. Most cores were found to be organic-rich, marked with periodic cm-scale beds with increased mineral content. Historic storm data, dating as far back as the late 1800's, were used to identify hurricanes and major winter storms determined by the National Weather Service passing within 100 km of the study area. Likely storm-event deposits in each core were identified as layers with mineral content higher than the core mean plus one standard deviation, and were matched to historic events via radioisotope geochronology, incorporating age-model uncertainty. Overall, 22 out of the 35 defined storm layers match the timing of historic strong storms (within uncertainty ranging from 2 to 5 years) from 1894 to Superstorm Sandy in 2014. Our findings show that over multidecadal timescales, nor'easters and winter storms play a role in the vertical accretion of sediment in the Jamaica Bay wetlands, but are substantially less important than sediment

  11. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) flowers reveals unprecedented structural variability of steroidal glycoalkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Silvio; Hussain, Fozia; Wisløff, Helene

    2014-12-15

    Several Lilium species are nephrotoxic in cats (Felis silvestris catus), among them Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum). Although clinical trials have been carried out, the causative toxic phytochemicals have not yet been identified. We thus aimed to determine the toxic constituents of Easter lily flowers applying a bioassay-guided approach based on a feline kidney cell line model. The bioassay-guided fractionation traced the observed cytotoxicity to a complex mixture of compounds that were tentatively identified as steroidal glycoalkaloids of the solasodine-type, based on multiple-fragmentation ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The glycoalkaloids in the active fraction possessed trisaccharide chains, and at least 16 different congeners could be separated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The two principal compounds were solasodine trisaccharides containing two hexose and one deoxy-hexose unit. In the remaining 14 analogues, one or two of the hydroxyl groups of the second hexose from the aglycone were acetylated. In addition, some of the analogues appeared to be carbonate esters. Esterification of steroidal glycoalkaloids in plants has only been reported once and was in accordance with higher antifungal activity of the acetylated versus the parent congener. Our pilot study shows that esterification of steroidal glycoalkaloids in Lilium species might be common resulting in an array of different analogues with largely unexplored structural variability and bioactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Permafrost at its limits: The most easterly evidence of existing permafrost in the European Alps as indicated by ground temperature and geoelectrical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, A.; Kühnast, B.

    2009-04-01

    Mountain permafrost is a widespread phenomenon in alpine regions in the European Alps. For instance, some 2000 km² or 4% of the Austrian Alps are underlain by permafrost. Up to recent times most research on permafrost issues in Austria focused on the central and highest section of the Austrian Alps. By contrast, knowledge concerning marginal permafrost zones is fairly limited. To increase knowledge about the easternmost limit of permafrost in the European Alps, a research project focusing on the Seckauer Tauern Mountains (14°30'E to 15°00'E) and particularly on the Hochreichart area was initiated in 2004 by the first author. Since then, different methods have been applied such as e.g. geomorphic mapping, numerical permafrost modelling, multi-annual BTS measurements (since 2004) or continuous ground surface and near ground surface temperature measurements by miniature temperature data loggers/MTDs (since 2004). In order to verify the temperature data and to extend the spatial knowledge about permafrost distribution beyond point information, a geoelectrical survey was carried out at the end of August 2008 by applying the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method along a 120 m long profile covering the upper part of the rooting zone of a (more-or-less) relict rock glacier and the talus slope above. For this survey the two-dimensional (2D) electrical surveys was performed using the Wenner-Alfa configuration with 2.5 m spacing and an LGM-Lippmann 4-Punkt light hp resistivity-meter. The ERT results indicate an active layer of 2 to 4 m underlain by a permafrost body along 3/4 of the entire profile with resistivity values between 50 to 100 kOhm.m and extending to a depth of 10 to 15 m. The permafrost body is substantially thicker at the lower part of the profile (rock glacier; first 50 m of profile) compared to most of the upper part (talus slope). Focusing on the talus slope, the permafrost body is thickest on the central section of the profile (~5-6 m thickness

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Rhode Island. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Rhode Island.

  14. Secas Island Stable Isotope Data (delta 18O) for 1707 to 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Secas Island Coral d18O, used to reconstruct seasonal and interannual variability in the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Site Location: Secas Island, Gulf of...

  15. Comprehensive study of the seismotectonics of the easter Aleutian arc and associated volcanic systems. Annual progress report, March 1, 1978--February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, K.H.; Davies, J.N.; Beavan, J.; Johnson, D.; House, L.; Krause, J.; Hickman, S.; Winslow, M.; Hauptman, J.; Mori, J.; Sykes, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the historic seismic record and accurate hypocenter data obtained from the eastern Aleutian seismic network, a relationship between the subduction-zone seismicity, volcano-trench separation, and the occurrence of great thrust earthquakes has been established for the Aleutian arc. On the basis of strong-motion accelerometer data it was found that high stress drops (540 t 650 bars) were associated with two moderate-size earthquakes (m/sub b/ = 6.0 and 5.8) within the Shumagin Islands seismic gap. This indicates that near the down-dip end of the major thrust zone, at depths of about 40 km, high tectonic stresses have accumulated within the gap segment of the arc. That such accumulation of stress is presently an ongoing process is corroborated by results from geodetic precision leveling on Unga Island. The leveling data indicate tilt rates of about 1 microradian/year. The tilting is directed down towards the trench and up towards the volcanic arc. Whether the recent activity of Pavlof, Shishaldin and Westdahl volcanoes indicates transmission of high tectonic stresses from the major thrust zone to the volcanic arc is unresolved. The search for a shallow magma chamber beneath the seismically monitored Pavlof volcano is still inconclusive although large amounts of recently acquired data remain to be analyzed. A geologic reconnaissance of the Shumagin Islands and the Adjacent Alaska Peninsula revealed Quaternary uplifted marine terraces and evidence for Holocene faulting. Both findings have severe implications for long-term tectonic activity and seismic hazards in the region of this seismic gap, portions of which are presently considered for off-shore hydrocarbon exploration and development. A critical analysis of th presently operating seimic data acquisition system reveals that a major change in remote sensing and central recording equipment is urgently needed for the Pavlof, Cold Bay, and Shumagin sections of the seismic array.

  16. Some Fantasy Characters of Young Children: An Examination of Children's Beliefs in Santa Claus, the Tooth Fairy, and the Easter Bunny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosevitz, Martin; Prentice, Norman M.

    This study examined children's beliefs in Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny, and the Tooth Fairy as well as the effects of parental encouragement or support of these fantasy characters upon the children's beliefs. Subjects were 60 children aged 4, 6 and 8 years and their parents. Measures included a parental questionnaire and child interviews. Partial…

  17. MacLiammóir’s Minstrel and Johnston’s Morality: Cultural Memories of the Easter Rising at the Dublin Gate Theatre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuken, R.H. van den

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how Micheál MacLiammóir and Denis Johnston attempted to perform cultural memories of the Easter Rising at the Dublin Gate Theatre and thereby articulated their respective views on a colonial past that had to be reassessed anew, on the one hand, and a postcolonial future that

  18. The most oligotrophic subtropical zones of the global ocean: similarities and differences in terms of chlorophyll and yellow substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The cores of the subtropical anticyclonic gyres are characterized by their oligotrophic status and minimal chlorophyll concentration, compared to that of the whole ocean. These zones are unambiguously detected by space borne ocean color sensors thanks to their typical spectral reflectance, which is that of extremely clear and deep blue waters. Not only the low chlorophyll (denoted [Chl] level, but also a reduced amount of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM or "yellow substance" account for this clarity. The oligotrophic waters of the North and South Pacific gyres, the North and South Atlantic gyres, and the South Indian gyre have been comparatively studied with respect to both [Chl] and CDOM contents, by using 10-year data (1998–2007 of the Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, NASA. Albeit similar these oligotrophic zones are not identical regarding their [Chl] and CDOM contents, as well as their seasonal cycles. According to the zone, the averaged [Chl] value varies from 0.026 to 0.059 mg m−3, whereas the ay(443 average (the absorption coefficient due to CDOM at 443 nm is between 0.0033 and 0.0072 m−1. The CDOM-to-[Chl] relative proportions also differ between the zones. The clearest waters, corresponding to the lowest [Chl] and CDOM concentrations, are found near Easter Island and near Mariana Islands in the western part of the North Pacific Ocean. In spite of its low [Chl], the Sargasso Sea presents the highest CDOM content amongst the six zones studied. Except in the North Pacific gyre (near Mariana and south of Hawaii islands, a conspicuous seasonality appears to be the rule in the other 4 gyres and affects both [Chl] and CDOM; both quantities vary in a ratio of about 2 (maximum-to-minimum. Coinciding [Chl] and CDOM peaks occur just after the local winter solstice, which is also the period of the maximal mixed layer depth in these latitudes. It is hypothesized that the vertical

  19. Morphotectonics of the Mascarene Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Scheidegger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the orientations (strikes/trends of joints, valleys, ridges and lineaments, i.e. of the (potentially morphotectonic features, of the Mascarene Islands (Reunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean. It turns out that a connection exists between these features on all islands. For the joints alone, the results for Mauritius as a whole agree closely with those for Rodrigues as a whole, and also partially with those of Reunion. Inasmuch as the trends of the valleys, ridges and lineaments are related to the trends (strikes of the joints, a common morphotectonic predesign seems to be present for all features studied. The morphotectonic orientations on the island also agree closely with the trends of fracture zones, ridges and trenches in the nearby ocean bottom; which has had a bearing on the theories of the origin of the Mascarene Islands. Generally, a hot-spot origin is preferred for Reunion, and may be for Mauritius as well, although differing opinions have also been voiced. The dynamics of a hot-spot is hard to reconcile with the close fit of the joint strikes in Réunion with the trends of the Madagascar and Rodrigues fracture zones. The closely agreeing joint maxima in Mauritius and Rodrigues í across the deep Mauritius trench í also agree with the trend of that trench and with the trend of the Rodrigues fracture zone. Thus, it would appear as most likely that the trends of joints and of fracture zones are all part of the same pattern and are due to the same cause: viz. to action of the neotectonic stress field.

  20. Climate change: Effects on reef island resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1988-06-27

    The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

  1. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  2. 76 FR 38077 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...: All Zone. waters of Long Island Sound in an area bound by the following points: 40[deg]51'43.5'' N 073... Zone. located in approximate position 40[deg]51'52'' N 073[deg]56'24'' W (NAD 1983), approximately 1750...] RIN 1625-AA00; 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone. 334.1380 Section... Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii—Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone. (a) The danger zone...

  4. Monitoring of tsetse and trypanosomosis control programmes in south easter Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuna, N.M.; Magona, J.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 3035 cattle, 2733 from a tsetse infested area and 302 from a tsetse free area, were screened for trypanosomosis by the buffy coat technique (BCT). In addition, sample from the tsetse free area were analysed for the presence of trypasonome antigens by antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA). Using the BCT, trypanosome were detected in 64 cattle from the tsetse infested are and none were detected in the animals from the tsetse free area. However, using the Ag-ELISA, 17(5.6%) of the cattle from the tsetse free area were found positive for T. brucei, one (0.3%) for T. vivax and none for T. congolense. The results indicate that the tsetse and animal trypanosomosis situation has improved markedly since the control programme started in 1990. However both tsetse and animal trypanosomosis still occur particularly in the souther zones of the control area. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  5. Magnetic anomalies over the Andaman Islands and their geological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Andaman Islands form part of the outer-arc accretionary sedimentary complex belonging to the. Andaman–Sumatra active subduction zone. The islands are characterized by thick cover of Neogene sediments along with exposed ophiolite rocks at few places. A regional magnetic survey was carried out for the first time ...

  6. Steroidal glycosides from the bulbs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) promote dermal fibroblast migration in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Debora; Munafo, John P; Lucibello, Teresa; Baldeon, Manuel; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2013-07-09

    Preparations derived from bulbs of various Lilium species have been used to promote the healing of skin abrasions, sores and burns and to aid in healing wounds in Traditional Chinese and Greco-Roman Medicine. To evaluate fractionated Easter lily bulb extracts and their steroidal glycosides (1-5) for the promotion of dermal fibroblast migration in vitro, a model for the early events in wound healing. An activity-guided screening approach was used by coupling sequential solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and semi-preparative reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with an in vitro dermal fibroblast migration assay. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT). To gain insight into the mode of action of the steroidal glycosides, nitric oxide (NO) production, and expression of genes for transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β) and its receptors were evaluated. Fractionated bulb extracts and the two isolated steroidal glycoalkaloids (1) and (2) induced NO production and TGF-β receptor I mRNA expression in fibroblast cell culture. In a cytotoxicity assay, steroidal glycosides (1) and (3) had IC50 values of 8.2 and 8.7 µM, but the natural acetylation of the C-6″' hydroxy of the terminal glucose unit in (2) resulted in a 3-fold decrease in cell cytotoxicity when compared with (1). Results from the dermal fibroblast migration assay revealed that the steroidal glycoalkaloids (1) and (2), and the furostanol saponin (3) promoted fibroblast migration from the range of 23.7±5.7 to 37.7±5.1%, as compared with the control. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the steroidal glycosides present in Easter lily bulbs induce, at least in part, the observed dermal fibroblast migration activity of the bulb extracts. This is the first evidence that steroidal glycosides from Lilium longiflorum may potentially play a role in the wound healing process and may provide a scientific basis for the historical use of lily

  7. Climate change vulnerability to agrarian ecosystem of small Island: evidence from Sagar Island, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S.; Satpati, L. N.; Choudhury, B. U.; Sadhu, S.

    2018-04-01

    The present study assessed climate change vulnerability in agricultural sector of low-lying Sagar Island of Bay of Bengal. Vulnerability indices were estimated using spatially aggregated biophysical and socio-economic parameters by applying principal component analysis and equal weight method. The similarities and differences of outputs of these two methods were analysed across the island. From the integration of outputs and based on the severity of vulnerability, explicit vulnerable zones were demarcated spatially. Results revealed that life subsistence agriculture in 11.8% geographical area (2829 ha) of the island along the western coast falls under very high vulnerable zone (VHVZ VI of 84-99%) to climate change. Comparatively higher values of exposure (0.53 ± 0.26) and sensitivity (0.78 ± 0.14) subindices affirmed that the VHV zone is highly exposed to climate stressor with very low adaptive capacity (ADI= 0.24 ± 0.16) to combat vulnerability to climate change. Hence, food security for a population of >22 thousands comprising >3.7 thousand agrarian households are highly exposed to climate change. Another 17% area comprising 17.5% population covering 20% villages in north-western and eastern parts of the island also falls under high vulnerable (VI= 61%-77%) zone. Findings revealed large spatial heterogeneity in the degree of vulnerability across the island and thus, demands devising area specific planning (adaptation and mitigation strategies) to address the climate change impact implications both at macro and micro levels.

  8. Antifungal activity and fungal metabolism of steroidal glycosides of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) by the plant pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, John P; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2011-06-08

    Botrytis cinerea Pers. Fr. is a plant pathogenic fungus and the causal organism of blossom blight of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.). Easter lily is a rich source of steroidal glycosides, compounds which may play a role in the plant-pathogen interaction of Easter lily. Five steroidal glycosides, including two steroidal glycoalkaloids and three furostanol saponins, were isolated from L. longiflorum and evaluated for fungal growth inhibition activity against B. cinerea, using an in vitro plate assay. All of the compounds showed fungal growth inhibition activity; however, the natural acetylation of C-6''' of the terminal glucose in the steroidal glycoalkaloid, (22R,25R)-spirosol-5-en-3β-yl O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[6-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), increased antifungal activity by inhibiting the rate of metabolism of the compound by B. cinerea. Acetylation of the glycoalkaloid may be a plant defense response to the evolution of detoxifying mechanisms by the pathogen. The biotransformation of the steroidal glycoalkaloids by B. cinerea led to the isolation and characterization of several fungal metabolites. The fungal metabolites that were generated in the model system were also identified in Easter lily tissues infected with the fungus by LC-MS. In addition, a steroidal glycoalkaloid, (22R,25R)-spirosol-5-en-3β-yl O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), was identified as both a fungal metabolite of the steroidal glycoalkaloids and as a natural product in L. longiflorum for the first time.

  9. Photosynthesis in a sub-Antarctic shore-zone lichen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, V.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Photosynthetic responses to moisture, light, temperature, salinity and inorganic nitrogen fertilization are reported for a shore-zone lichen Turgidiusculum complicatulum (formerly Mastodia tesselata), a possible recent introduction to sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Optimum moisture contents for net

  10. Manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    The distribution of manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the island nation Mauritius was delineated during cruise SK-35 of ORV Sagar Kanya in 1987. The areas surveyed included Saya de Malha and Nazareth Banks, the Cargados Carajos...

  11. A Two-Layer Quasi-Geostrophic Model of Summer Trough Formation in the Australian Subtropical Easterlies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandry, C. B.; Leslie, L. M.

    1984-03-01

    C.B. FandryCSIRO Division of Oceanography, G.P.O. Box 1538, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia 7001 L.M. LeslieAustralian Numerical Meteorology Research Centre, G.P.O. Box 5089AA, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 3001A dominant feature of the low-level easterly wind flow in the Australian subtropics during summer is the trough development that occurs on both the western and eastern sides of the continent. This phenomenon is investigated analytically with a two-level model. A generalized solution is derived from the steady-state quasi-geostrophic equations governing uniform flow over arbitrarily shaped orography. The model solutions indicate that orography acting alone is of only marginal importance in producing the western trough. However, the high east coast orography is of significance in the formation of the eastern trough.Land-sea temperature contrast is parameterized in terms of equivalent orography with localized surface heating being mathematically equivalent to an orographic depression. The solutions including orography and surface heating acting together simulate well the lower layer flow over the Australian subtropics.

  12. Comparison of the effect of easterly and westerly vertical wind shear on tropical cyclone intensity change over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Wei; Xinghai, Zhang; Lianshou, Chen; Hao, Hu

    2018-03-01

    The effects of vertical wind shear (VWS) with different directions on tropical cyclone (TC) intensity change are compared in this statistical study based on TCs occurring between 1982 and 2015 over the western North Pacific (WNP). Results show that a westerly VWS has a much higher correlation (‑0.36) with change in TC intensity than an easterly VWS (‑0.07) over the WNP, especially south-westerly VWS (‑0.43). Sea surface temperature (SST) is found to modulate the effect of VWS on TC intensity change as it has a close relationship with zonal VWS (‑0.48). The favorable effect of SST, which increases with increase in easterly VWS, could offset the detrimental effect of VWS, leading to a relatively low correlation coefficient between easterly VWS and TC intensity change. By contrast, westerly VWS increases with decreasing SST, and the largest correlation coefficient appears when SST is around 301 K. Therefore, it is suggested that the direction of VWS as well as its value is taken into consideration in models used to predict TC intensity.

  13. Economic competition, sustainability, and survival endurance: The extinction of the dodo, the Easter Island case, and the tragedy of the commons effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Moreira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A fast developing industry worldwide, tourism demands a monumental extent of resources, and at times devastates and condemns the very own environments that are fundamental to the economic survival of organizations and the sustainability of travel destinations. The purpose of the study is to link three established scientific themes on survival and sustainability to empirical results in the field of economic decision and behavior. The discussion of this link may also represent the originality value of the paper. Departing from the results of a series of decision games obtained under a quasi-experimental design, behavioral patterns were analyzed and extrapolated to explore the terminal effects of competition trends on the survival and economic viability of organizations and travel destinations in restricted environments. The findings show that the identified competition tendency neutralized an important share of the economic potential offered by the decision game, with significant negative effects on the economic efficiency. If persistent, the competition tendency is expected to produce long term effects on the sustainability and economic survival of organizations and travel destinations in restricted environments. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v2i4.84

  14. Economic Competition, Sustainability, and Survival Endurance: The Extinction of the Dodo, the Easter Island Case, and the Tragedy of the Commons Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    A fast developing industry worldwide, tourism demands a monumental extent of resources, and at times devastates and condemns the very own environments that are fundamental to the economic survival of organizations and the sustainability of travel destinations. The purpose of the study is to link three established scientific themes on survival and…

  15. Multibeam collection for EW9106: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1991-09-21 to 1991-11-01, Easter Island, Chile to Lyttelton, New Zealand

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  16. Multibeam collection for EW9105: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1991-08-04 to 1991-09-11, Valparaiso, Chile to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  17. Multibeam collection for RAPA02WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1990-12-18 to 1991-01-05, Manzanillo, Mexico to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  18. Multibeam collection for DRFT06RR: Multibeam data collected aboard Roger Revelle from 2001-11-05 to 2001-12-14, Callao, Peru to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  19. Multibeam collection for GLOR02MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1992-11-05 to 1992-12-10, Acapulco, Mexico to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  20. Multibeam collection for AT03L31: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 1999-01-26 to 1999-03-06, Easter Island, Chile to Manzanillo, Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  1. Multibeam collection for GLOR03MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1992-12-12 to 1993-01-06, Easter Island, Chile to Papeete, French Polynesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Multibeam collection for AT03L28: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 1998-10-10 to 1998-11-17, Easter Island, Chile to Manzanillo, Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Multibeam collection for AT11L23: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2005-01-30 to 2005-03-08, Easter Island, Chile to Tahiti

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. Multibeam collection for PANR04MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1998-01-15 to 1998-03-02, Valparaiso, Chile to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Multibeam collection for COOK16MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2001-11-09 to 2001-12-23, Papeete, French Polynesia to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. Multibeam collection for GLOR08MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1993-05-31 to 1993-07-01, Easter Island, Chile to Acapulco, Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  7. Multibeam collection for GLOR05MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1993-02-09 to 1993-03-20, Papeete, French Polynesia to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  8. Multibeam collection for PHNX03MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1992-08-18 to 1992-09-02, Easter Island, Chile to Acapulco, Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  9. Multibeam collection for GLOR07MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1993-05-09 to 1993-05-28, Easter Island, Chile to Valparaiso, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Multibeam collection for COOK17MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2001-12-24 to 2002-01-02, Easter Island, Chile to Papeete, French Polynesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Multibeam collection for PASC04WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1983-04-01 to 1983-04-30, Easter Island, Chile to Callao, Peru

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Traffic Analysis Zones, Traffic Counts; s44ttc02; This data set contains the annual 24 Hour Average Daily Traffic Count Locations on State maintained roads in Rhode Island for 2001., Published in 2003, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Traffic Analysis Zones dataset current as of 2003. Traffic Counts; s44ttc02; This data set contains the annual 24 Hour Average Daily Traffic Count Locations on State...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii. The waters adjacent to Kahoolawe Island within the area encompassed by the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger..., Hawaii; danger zones. (a) Danger zones—(1) Aerial bombing and strafing target surrounding Kaula Rock...

  14. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  15. Temporal variability of marine debris deposition at Tern Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin, Alyssa E; Merrifield, Mark A; Potemra, James T; Morishige, Carey

    2015-12-15

    A twenty-two year record of marine debris collected on Tern Island is used to characterize the temporal variability of debris deposition at a coral atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Debris deposition tends to be episodic, without a significant relationship to local forcing processes associated with winds, sea level, waves, and proximity to the Subtropical Convergence Zone. The General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment is used to estimate likely debris pathways for Tern Island. The majority of modeled arrivals come from the northeast following prevailing trade winds and surface currents, with trajectories indicating the importance of the convergence zone, or garbage patch, in the North Pacific High region. Although debris deposition does not generally exhibit a significant seasonal cycle, some debris types contain considerable 3 cycle/yr variability that is coherent with wind and surface pressure over a broad region north of Tern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The new record orchids from Wawonii Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAH SULISTIARINI

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Wawonii Island is belonging to Province of South-east Sulawesi, which covers area of about 650 km2. The areas is divided into four forest zones that were protected forests, production forests, limited production forests and social forests. This island was selected as a study site with consideration that this island estimated to have unique flora as same as to Sulawesi Island in general. In addition, so far there is no information about flora in this area. The study was conducted by exploring where the forest area visited, in order to collected and inventoried of plant with special attention to orchid species. Out of this study there are about 80 species of orchid were recorded and three species of them were Anoectochilus cetaceus Bl., Cryptostylis javanica J.J. Sm. and Malaxis koordersii (J.J. Sm. Bakh. f., identified as new record from Wawonii Island. Those three species according to previous information were admitted as endemic of Java. Although morphologically those three species collected from Wawonii were little bit different to which occurred in Java, but based on the species character they unable to be considered as different species. Consequently since those three the species found in Wawonii Island, those species should be categorized as non endemic of Java.

  17. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  18. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, E

    1965-12-17

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  19. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  1. 77 FR 6954 - Special Local Regulations; Safety and Security Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ...] RIN 1625-AA00; 1625-AA08; 1625-AA87 Special Local Regulations; Safety and Security Zones; Recurring... local regulations, permanent safety zones for annual recurring marine events and a permanent security... Regulations; Safety and Security Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone in the...

  2. Origin of three-armed rifts in volcanic islands: the case of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Jiménez, Inés; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-04-01

    Rifts zones in volcanic oceanic islands are common structures that have been explained through several theories/models. However, despite all these models it is as yet unclear whether it is the intense intrusive activity or the sector collapses that actually control the structural evolution and geometry of oceanic-island rift zones. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the origin and characteristics of the feeding system of oceanic-island rift zones based on the analysis of more than 1700 surface, subsurface (water galleries), and submarine structural data from El Hierro (Canary Islands). El Hierro's geological structure is primarily controlled by a three-armed rift-zone, the arms striking NE, WSW and S. Between the rift axes there are three valleys formed during huge landslides: El Golfo, El Julan, and Las Playas. Our results show: (1) a predominant NE-SW strike of structural elements, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary Archipelago as a whole; (2) a clear radial strike distribution of structural elements for the whole volcanic edifice (including submarine flanks) with respect to the centre of the island; (3) that the rift zones are mainly subaerial structures and do not propagate through the submarine edifice; (4) that it is only in the NE rift that structures have a general strike similar to that of the rift as a whole, and; (5) that in the W and S rifts there is not clear main direction, showing the structural elements in the W rift a fan distribution coinciding with the general radial pattern in the island as a whole. Based on these data, we suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields that operated during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice, that is, the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures, reflect local stress fields related

  3. Climate reconstruction from Barrow Island, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, C.; Coningham, K.; Turner, L.; Veth, P.; Ditchfield, K.; Wurster, C. M.; Kendrick, P.

    2016-12-01

    Barrow Island ( 20.7°S) is ideally situated to register the first coastal occupations in Australia as well as peoples' responses to major changes in sea level, climate and eventual isolation from critical resources on the mainland. Its location in the arid region between monsoonal and extratropical rainfall belts also imply that Barrow Island may have experienced dramatic changes in precipitation over the period of human occupation. Boodie cave has been the focus of Barrow Island Archeological Project and records a rich record of human occupation. Also present at Boodie cave are significant quantities of water-lain cave carbonates (flowstones, stalactites, and stalagmites). Active (modern) deposition of such carbonates is limited to very small encrustations and consists primarily of stalactites that are less than 5 cm in diameter. This situation indicates that deposition of significant carbonates is indicative of wetter conditions at Barrow Island and dating of these carbonates using the U/Th method provides a record of wet intervals at Barrow Island over the last 120 thousand years. In addition to ages from flowstones, three complete speleothems were collected Ledge Cave for climatic reconstruction using stable isotopes. Ledge cave is large subterranean with high relative humidity (>98%) and abundant, but largely inactive speleothems. The wettest interval in our cave carbonate record predates stratigraphic units with cultural material, but indicates that wet intervals on Barrow Island were broadly coincidental with lake expansions on the Australian mainland. In particular, a very wet interval between 120 and 90 ka is recorded in two of the Ledge Cave speleothems. The Barrow Island speleothem record suggests that displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the strength of the Indo-Australian monsoon may have been the most important influence on water balance at Barrow Island. Continued development of these climate archives will offer insights

  4. 77 FR 35860 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Island Bay, Erie, PA. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque... rulemaking entitled Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA in the Federal Register (77 FR 18739...

  5. 75 FR 79330 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    .... 100413185-0213-01] RIN 0648-AY84 Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American... fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area under the... part 679 is proposed to be amended as follows: PART 679--FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF...

  6. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  7. Birth of two volcanic islands in the southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin

    2015-05-26

    Submarine eruptions that lead to the formation of new volcanic islands are rare and far from being fully understood; only a few such eruptions have been witnessed since Surtsey Island emerged to the south of Iceland in the 1960s. Here we report on two new volcanic islands that were formed in the Zubair archipelago of the southern Red Sea in 2011–2013. Using high-resolution optical satellite images, we find that the new islands grew rapidly during their initial eruptive phases and that coastal erosion significantly modified their shapes within months. Satellite radar data indicate that two north–south-oriented dykes, much longer than the small islands might suggest, fed the eruptions. These events occurred contemporaneously with several local earthquake swarms of the type that typically accompany magma intrusions. Earthquake activity has been affecting the southern Red Sea for decades, suggesting the presence of a magmatically active zone that has previously escaped notice.

  8. Modeling potential tsunami sources for deposits near Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Selle, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    In regions with little seismic data and short historical records of earthquakes, we can use preserved tsunami deposits and tsunami modeling to infer if, when and where tsunamigenic earthquakes have occurred. The Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone in the region offshore of Unalaska Island is one such region where the historical and paleo-seismicity is poorly understood. This section of the subduction zone is not thought to have ruptured historically in a large earthquake, leading some to designate the region as a seismic gap. By modeling various historical and synthetic earthquake sources, we investigate whether or not tsunamis that left deposits near Unalaska Island were generated by earthquakes rupturing through Unalaska Gap. Preliminary field investigations near the eastern end of Unalaska Island have identified paleotsunami deposits well above sea level, suggesting that multiple tsunamis in the last 5,000 years have flooded low-lying areas over 1 km inland. Other indicators of tsunami inundation, such as a breached cobble beach berm and driftwood logs stranded far inland, were tentatively attributed to the March 9, 1957 tsunami, which had reported runup of 13 to 22 meters on Umnak and Unimak Islands, to the west and east of Unalaska. In order to determine if tsunami inundation could have reached the runup markers observed on Unalaska, we modeled the 1957 tsunami using GeoCLAW, a numerical model that simulates tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation. The published rupture orientation and slip distribution for the MW 8.6, 1957 earthquake (Johnson et al., 1994) was used as the tsunami source, which delineates a 1200 km long rupture zone along the Aleutian trench from Delarof Island to Unimak Island. Model results indicate that runup and inundation from this particular source are too low to account for the runup markers observed in the field, because slip is concentrated in the western half of the rupture zone, far from Unalaska. To ascertain if any realistic

  9. SWFSC/MMTD/PI: Hawaiian Islands Cetacean and Ecosystem Assessment Survey (HICEAS) 2002, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaiian Islands Cetacean and Ecosystem Assessment Survey, called HICEAS, is a marine mammal assessment survey of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Hawaiian...

  10. SWFSC/MMTD/PI: Pacific Islands Cetacean Ecosystem Assessment Survey (PICEAS) 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PICEAS (Pacific Islands Cetacean Ecosystem Assessment Survey) 2005 was an ecosystem survey in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters of Palmyra and Johnston...

  11. Late Miocene radiolarian biostratigraphy and paleoceanography of Sawai Bay formation, Neill Island, Andamans, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.; Srinivasan, M.S.

    Late Miocene radiolarian zones are encountered from mudstone strata of Sawai Bay Formation, Neill Island, Andamans. Percentage data of forty-five coarser taxonomic groups of radiolarians were subjected to Q-mode cluster analysis. Based...

  12. A hybrid zone between Bathymodiolus mussel lineages from eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Shannon B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhabitants of deep-sea hydrothermal vents occupy ephemeral island-like habitats distributed sporadically along tectonic spreading-centers, back-arc basins, and volcanically active seamounts. The majority of vent taxa undergo a pelagic larval phase, and thus varying degrees of geographical subdivision, ranging from no impedance of dispersal to complete isolation, often exist among taxa that span common geomorphological boundaries. Two lineages of Bathymodiolus mussels segregate on either side of the Easter Microplate, a boundary that separates the East Pacific Rise from spreading centers connected to the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Results A recent sample from the northwest flank of the Easter Microplate contained an admixture of northern and southern mitochondrial haplotypes and corresponding alleles at five nuclear gene loci. Genotypic frequencies in this sample did not fit random mating expectation. Significant heterozygote deficiencies at nuclear loci and gametic disequilibria between loci suggested that this transitional region might be a ‘Tension Zone’ maintained by immigration of parental types and possibly hybrid unfitness. An analysis of recombination history in the nuclear genes suggests a prolonged history of parapatric contact between the two mussel lineages. We hereby elevate the southern lineage to species status as Bathymodiolus antarcticus n. sp. and restrict the use of Bathymodiolus thermophilus to the northern lineage. Conclusions Because B. thermophilus s.s. exhibits no evidence for subdivision or isolation-by-distance across its 4000 km range along the EPR axis and Galápagos Rift, partial isolation of B. antarcticus n. sp. requires explanation. The time needed to produce the observed degree of mitochondrial differentiation is consistent with the age of the Easter Microplate (2.5 to 5.3 million years. The complex geomorphology of the Easter Microplate region forces strong cross-axis currents that

  13. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  14. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1430 - Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1430 Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam; restricted area. (a) The restricted area. The waters within Apra Inner Harbor and...

  16. Studies on the littoral seaweed epifauna of St. Croix Island. I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The physical and biological features of the littoral zone of St. Croix Island are described as a prelude to studies on the seaweed epifauna. Wave action is the most important physical variable and shore community structure is markedly influenced by the differing degrees of wave action around the Island. Sheltered ...

  17. Electricity storage in island systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahiou, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    France's 'electric islands' are the overseas departments and Corsica that have small, isolated grids in zones which are not connected with the continental grid (ZNI). Renewable, intermittent forms of energy (especially photovoltaic) have grown exponentially on these islands since 2008, thanks to the backing of public policies for setting objectives, tax exemptions, and the rates for purchasing the electricity thus generated. However, the rapid and massive deployment of wind and solar energy may endanger the stability of the electric system: these productions are subject to rapid variations that are difficult to predict and that other local energy source are not able to compensate properly. As a consequence, a regulatory technical acceptability limit for intermittent energy has been defined to 30% above which it becomes difficult to balance the system. With controlled energy storage, it will be possible to maintain the stability and security of the electricity system. Owing to several experiments of storage of electricity, the ZNIs have become laboratories for anticipating the future difficulties that interconnected electricity grids will have to handle once the share of renewable, intermittent electricity will have risen significantly in the energy mix. (author)

  18. Metallogeny of subduction zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokhtin N. O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the multistage mechanism of the Earth's crust enrichment in ore elements in underthrust zones. The processes of metamorphism and the formation of hydrothermal solutions at pulling of the watered oceanic lithospheric plate into the subduction zone have been described. Some physical and chemical transformation regularities of structural-material complexes in these areas and mechanisms of the formation of ore deposits have been discussed. Spatio-temporal patterns of the localization of a number of endogenetic and exogenetic deposits have been described using metallogeny of the Ural and the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma Fold Belts as an example. It has been shown that in nature there are several effective mechanisms of the enrichment of the crust in ore minerals. One of them is the process of pulling into subduction zone of metalliferous sediments and ferromanganese crusts as well as seabed nodules, their metamorphic transformation, partial melting and transition of ore components into magmatic melts and mineralized fluids. In the future this leads to the release of ore material by magmas and hydrothermal solutions into the folded formations of island-arc and Andean types and the formation of igneous, metasomatic and hydrothermal deposits. Another, yet no less powerful natural mechanism of a conveyor enrichment of the crust in ore elements is the process of destruction and sedimentation of mineral deposits formed in the folded areas as well as the formation of placers and their transfer to the marginal parts of the continent. Later, during the collision of active and passive margins of two lithospheric plates, such as the collision of the Kolyma Massif with the eastern part of the Siberian craton in the middle of the Mesozoic there was a thrusting of a younger lithospheric plate over a more ancient one. As a result, the sedimentary sequences of the passive margin of the Siberian plate were submerged and partially melted by the basic magmas

  19. Nearshore sediment thickness, Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Stanley D.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Wadman, Heidi M.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Forde, Arnell S.; Stalk, Chelsea A.

    2017-04-03

    Investigations of coastal change at Fire Island, New York (N.Y.), sought to characterize sediment budgets and determine geologic framework controls on coastal processes. Nearshore sediment thickness is critical for assessing coastal system sediment availability, but it is largely unquantified due to the difficulty of conducting geological or geophysical surveys across the nearshore. This study used an amphibious vessel to acquire chirp subbottom profiles. These profiles were used to characterize nearshore geology and provide an assessment of nearshore sediment volume. Two resulting sediment-thickness maps are provided: total Holocene sediment thickness and the thickness of the active shoreface. The Holocene sediment section represents deposition above the maximum flooding surface that is related to the most recent marine transgression. The active shoreface section is the uppermost Holocene sediment, which is interpreted to represent the portion of the shoreface thought to contribute to present and future coastal behavior. The sediment distribution patterns correspond to previously defined zones of erosion, accretion, and stability along the island, demonstrating the importance of sediment availability in the coastal response to storms and seasonal variability. The eastern zone has a thin nearshore sediment thickness, except for an ebb-tidal deposit at the wilderness breach caused by Hurricane Sandy. Thicker sediment is found along a central zone that includes shoreface-attached sand ridges, which is consistent with a stable or accretional coastline in this area. The thickest overall Holocene section is found in the western zone of the study, where a thicker lower section of Holocene sediment appears related to the westward migration of Fire Island Inlet over several hundred years.

  20. A novel islanding detection scheme for synchronous distributed generation using rate of change of exciter voltage over reactive power at DG-Side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostami, Ali; Bagheri, Marzieh; Naderi, Seyed Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Penetration of distributed generation (DG) in distribution networks is rapidly increasing. DGs' application enhances system's reliability and power quality. However, along their benefits, there are some issues. One of the most important issues of DGs' application is the islanding. This paper...... islanding and non-islanding conditions even with zero non-detection zones (NDZs) of active and reactive power mismatch....

  1. Influence of insemination time on fertility of Rhodes island white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of insemination time on fertility of Rhodes island white chicken (Gallus domestica) raised in northern guinea savannah zone of Nigeria. D Zahraddeen, ISR Butswat, KM Bello, AA Washik. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems Vol. 1 (4) 2007: pp. 378-383. Full Text:.

  2. Preliminary Geologic Map of Mount Pagan Volcano, Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Moore, Richard B.; Sako, Maurice K.

    2006-01-01

    Pagan Island is the subaerial portion of two adjoining Quaternary stratovolcanoes near the middle of the active Mariana Arc, [FAT1]north of Saipan. Pagan and the other volcanic islands that constitute part of the Arc form the northern half of the East Mariana Ridge[FAT2], which extends about 2-4 km above the ocean floor. The > 6-km-deep Mariana Trench adjoins the East Mariana Ridge on the east, and the Mariana Trough, partly filled with young lava flows and volcaniclastic sediment, lies on the west of the Northern Mariana Islands (East Mariana Ridge. The submarine West Mariana Ridge, Tertiary in age, bounds the western side of the Mariana Trough. The Mariana Trench and Northern Mariana Islands (East Mariana Ridge) overlie an active subduction zone where the Pacific Plate, moving northwest at about 10.3 cm/year, is passing beneath the Philippine Plate, moving west-northwest at 6.8 cm/year. Beneath the Northern Mariana Islands, earthquake hypocenters at depths of 50-250 km identify the location of the west-dipping subduction zone, which farther west becomes nearly vertical and extends to 700 km depth. During the past century, more than 40 earthquakes of magnitude 6.5-8.1 have shaken the Mariana Trench. The Mariana Islands form two sub-parallel, concentric, concave-west arcs. The southern islands comprise the outer arc and extend north from Guam to Farallon de Medinilla. They consist of Eocene to Miocene volcanic rocks and uplifted Tertiary and Quaternary limestone. The nine northern islands extend from Anatahan to Farallon de Pajaros and form part of the inner arc. The active inner arc extends south from Anatahan, where volcanoes, some of which are active, form seamounts west of the older outer arc. Other volcanic seamounts of the active arc surmount the East Mariana Ridge in the vicinity of Anatahan and Sarigan and north and south of Farallon de Pajaros. Six volcanoes (Farallon de Pajaros, Asuncion, Agrigan, Mount Pagan, Guguan, and Anatahan) in the northern islands

  3. Impact of tourism on island freshwater lenses of the North German coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Georg

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of tourism on the extraction of groundwater from fresh water lenses on some of the barrier island off the North German Coast were investigated. On the island of Langeoog, consumption steadily rose until the 1980s, parallel to increasing tourism. With the slow but steady implementation of water-saving household appliances and toilets in the 1990s, consumption has significantly decreased since. In 2011 extraction amounted to 333,000 m³/a. This is about a quarter less than the peak extraction of 452,000 m³/a recorded in 1983, although the number of overnight stays has increased in the same period! In 2011 around 1,540,000 overnight stays and 124,000 day visitors were counted. The permanent population on the island is about 2,000 inhabitants, with 150 additional seasonal workers present during the summer months. At least since 1990 the numbers for overnight stays and day visitors have remained relatively stable.The lowest water demand recorded during the off-season (winter) of 2011 was 238 m³/d while the maximum during the Easter holidays reached 1,894 m³/d, a factor of eight between maximum and minimum! The highest demand in summer corresponds to the season of lowest groundwater recharge. Consumption due to tourism is equivalent to about 72 % of all extraction. Water levels and chloride concentrations indicate stable conditions of the lens, though.

  4. 33 CFR 165.506 - Safety Zones; Fifth Coast Guard District Fireworks Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Kent Island Narrows, MD, Safety Zone. All waters of the Chester River, within an area bound by a line... to the point of origin, located approximately 900 yards north of Kent Island Narrows (US-50/301... approximate position latitude 38°34′08″ N, longitude 077°15′34″ W, located near Cherry Hill, Virginia. (c...

  5. Crust and Mantle Structure Beneath the Samoan Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, J. M.; Courtier, A. M.; Jackson, M. G.; Lekic, V.; Hart, S. R.; Collins, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We used teleseismic receiver functions to map the seismic structure under the Samoan Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. We acquired seismograms for the permanent seismic station, AFI, and for five temporary stations located across the island chain from the Samoan Lithospheric Integrated Seismic Experiment (SLISE). We used multiple-taper correlation and Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms to calculate receiver functions for events with epicentral distance of 30° to 95° and examined the results in a frequency range of 1.0 - 5.0 Hz for crustal structure and 0.1 - 2.0 Hz for mantle structure. We identify complex crustal layering, including the interface between volcanic rocks and the ocean crust and a substantial underplated layer beneath the normal ocean crust. We find that the crust thins with decreasing age across the Samoan Islands and correlates with previous observations from gravity data (Workman, 2005). We additionally identify a velocity increase in the range of 50-100 km depth, potentially the Hales discontinuity. Deeper in the mantle, we observe transition zone thickness of 245-250 km across the island chain, which is within the margin of error for globally observed transition zone thickness. When migrated with IASP, transition zone discontinuity depths do appear deeper beneath the youngest island, indicating slower velocities and/or deeper discontinuity depths relative to the older islands in the system. We will provide improved constraints on transition zone discontinuity depths from ScS reverberations for all stations, and will place the crust and mantle results into a multi-disciplinary context, with comparisons to geochemical and surface observations. Workman, R., 2005. Geochemical characterization of endmember mantle components, Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, http://dspace.mit/edu/handle/1721.1/33721.

  6. Geomorphology and depositional subenvironments of Gulf Islands National Seashore, Perdido Key and Santa Rosa Island, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Montgomery, Marilyn C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is studying coastal hazards and coastal change to improve our understanding of coastal ecosystems and to develop better capabilities of predicting future coastal change. One approach to understanding the dynamics of coastal systems is to monitor changes in barrier-island subenvironments through time. This involves examining morphologic and topographic change at temporal scales ranging from millennia to years and spatial scales ranging from tens of kilometers to meters. Of particular interest are the processes that produce those changes and the determination of whether or not those processes are likely to persist into the future. In these analyses of hazards and change, both natural and anthropogenic influences are considered. Quantifying past magnitudes and rates of coastal change and knowing the principal factors that govern those changes are critical to predicting what changes are likely to occur under different scenarios, such as short-term impacts of extreme storms or long-term impacts of sea-level rise. Gulf Islands National Seashore was selected for detailed mapping of barrier-island morphology and topography because the islands offer a diversity of depositional subenvironments and because island areas and positions have changed substantially in historical time. The geomorphologic and subenvironmental maps emphasize the processes that formed the surficial features and also serve as a basis for documenting which subenvironments are relatively stable, such as the vegetated barrier core, and those which are highly dynamic, such as the beach and inactive overwash zones.

  7. Small islands awash in a sea of troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, A

    1995-01-01

    The Caribbean islands contain an enormous ecological variety, and with the influx of people, they are left with denuded forests and disappearance of animals and people. Despite their limited size, these islands could sustain development with their own water, vegetation, soil, air, and wildlife resources. The Exclusive Economic Zones, approved by the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, extends the coastline up to 200 miles, thus providing an increased amount of resource area. However, these natural resources are abused in various ways. Some of the white sand beaches are disappearing due to growing tourism. Furthermore, these islands are vulnerable to hazardous wastes and nuclear tests and other destructive natural forces that produce a dramatic change in the climate. To counteract this environmental degradation, the government implemented environmental initiatives that protect these natural resources with the aid of international agencies and organizations. These islands, though seen as a small capsule, represent the problems of the world magnified many times.

  8. Geology of the Elephanta Island fault zone, western Indian rifted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    distinct faults ∼70 m apart. The inner (western) fault (figure 4a, b) is best observed at the south- western top edge of the quarry. It has an overall. N25. ◦. E trend, and a steep ... Mumbai harbour, with parts of Nhava–Sheva port immedi- ately to the east ... to and parallel with the fault surface; view looking down along the fault ...

  9. Geology of the Elephanta Island fault zone, western Indian rifted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Panel (e) shows a hand-held red bole specimen with slickenlines. Small white arrows indicate two of the steps on the .... groups based on their morphology, namely 'V' or crescentic markings, steps, fractures, trains ..... evolution of the deep ocean basins adjoining the west- ern continental margin of India – a proposed model ...

  10. A new species of the genus Paracypria (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Cypridoidea) from the Fiji Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Prerna; Kamiya, Takahiro

    2016-08-30

    A new marine species of the genus Paracypria (Paracypria fijiensis n. sp.) is reported from the Fiji Islands, a small island archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean. This is the first report of a Paracypria species from the Fiji Islands. Descriptions of soft parts and valves of Paracypria fijiensis n. sp. are presented herein, and morphological comparisons are made with existing Paracypria species from Australia, Japan and New Caledonia. Although eight coastal sites were sampled across the Fiji Islands, the new Paracypria species was found at only three sites. Large numbers of P. fijiensis n. sp. were recorded from intertidal flats, indicating it to be highly tolerant of the dynamic intertidal zone conditions.

  11. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  12. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  13. Macroscopic coherent magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcelli, F.; Airoldi, A.; Angioni, C.

    2001-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical investigations on the dynamics of coherent magnetic islands in high temperature, magnetically confined plasmas of thermonuclear interest, and of their effects on plasma transport. (author)

  14. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  15. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen

    2017-04-11

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  16. Nearshore coastal bathymetry data collected in 2016 from West Ship Island to Horn Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Stalk, Chelsea A.; Fredericks, Jake J.; Flocks, James G.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Farmer, Andrew S.; Tuten, Thomas M.; Buster, Noreen A.

    2018-04-13

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, conducted bathymetric surveys of the nearshore waters surrounding Ship and Horn Islands, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi. The objective of this study was to establish base-level elevation conditions around West Ship, East Ship, and Horn Islands and their associated active littoral system prior to restoration activities. These activities include the closure of Camille Cut and the placement of sediment in the littoral zone of East Ship Island. These surveys can be compared with future surveys to monitor sediment migration patterns post-restoration and can also be measured against historic bathymetric datasets to further our understanding of island evolution.The USGS collected 667 line-kilometers (km) of single-beam bathymetry data and 844 line-km of interferometric swath bathymetry data in July 2016 under Field Activity Number 2016-347-FA. Data are provided in three datums: (1) the International Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2000 (ellipsoid height); (2) the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) CORS96 realization and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 with respect to the GEOID12B model (orthometric height); and (3) NAD83 (CORS96) and Mean Lower Low Water (tidal datum). Data products, including x,y,zpoint datasets, trackline shapefiles, digital and handwritten Field Activity Collection Systems logs, 50-meter digital elevation model, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata, are available for download.

  17. Hydrologic conditions, recharge, and baseline water quality of the surficial aquifer system at Jekyll Island, Georgia, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Torak, Lynn J.

    2016-03-08

    An increase of groundwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system on Jekyll Island, Georgia, prompted an investigation of hydrologic conditions and water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey during October 2012 through December 2013. The study demonstrated the importance of rainfall as the island’s main source of recharge to maintain freshwater resources by replenishing the water table from the effects of hydrologic stresses, primarily evapotranspiration and pumping. Groundwater-flow directions, recharge, and water quality of the water-table zone on the island were investigated by installing 26 shallow wells and three pond staff gages to monitor groundwater levels and water quality in the water-table zone. Climatic data from Brunswick, Georgia, were used to calculate potential maximum recharge to the water-table zone on Jekyll Island. A weather station located on the island provided only precipitation data. Additional meteorological data from the island would enhance potential evapotranspiration estimates for recharge calculations.

  18. 77 FR 18739 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... of Presque Island Bay, Erie, PA. This proposed safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a... will take place on Presque Isle Bay near Erie, PA. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that...

  19. Combined multibeam and bathymetry data from Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound: a regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; McMullen, Katherine Y.; Danforth, William W.; Blankenship, Mark R.; Clos, Andrew R.; Glomb, Kimberly A.; Lewit, Peter G.; Nadeau, Megan A.; Wood, Douglas A.; Parker, Castleton E.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds are of great interest to the New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts research and management communities because of this area's ecological, recreational, and commercial importance. Geologically interpreted digital terrain models from individual surveys provide important benthic environmental information, yet many applications of this information require a geographically broader perspective. For example, individual surveys are of limited use for the planning and construction of cross-sound infrastructure, such as cables and pipelines, or for the testing of regional circulation models. To address this need, we integrated 14 contiguous multibeam bathymetric datasets that were produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration during charting operations into one digital terrain model that covers much of Block Island Sound and extends eastward across Rhode Island Sound. The new dataset, which covers over 1244 square kilometers, is adjusted to mean lower low water, gridded to 4-meter resolution, and provided in Universal Transverse Mercator Zone 19, North American Datum of 1983 and geographic World Geodetic Survey of 1984 projections. This resolution is adequate for sea-floor feature and process interpretation but is small enough to be queried and manipulated with standard Geographic Information System programs and to allow for future growth. Natural features visible in the data include boulder lag deposits of winnowed Pleistocene strata, sand-wave fields, and scour depressions that reflect the strength of oscillating tidal currents and scour by storm-induced waves. Bedform asymmetry allows interpretations of net sediment transport. Anthropogenic features visible in the data include shipwrecks and dredged channels. Together the merged data reveal a larger, more continuous perspective of bathymetric topography than previously available, providing a fundamental framework for

  20. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A fan...

  1. Reconstructed Marine Fisheries Catches at a Remote Island Group: Pitcairn Islands (1950–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Coghlan

    2017-09-01

    effort levels and shift target fishing zones. Implementation of MPAs such as the Pitcairn Island Marine Reserve protect large oceanic areas from risk of future industrial exploitation, whilst protecting near-shore reef and deep-water zones, maintaining domestic coastal fisheries vital for local communities.

  2. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  3. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  4. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  5. Block Island fault: A Paleozoic crustal boundary on the Long Island platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Detrick, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    A major fault cutting through most of the crust can be identified and mapped on the Long Island platform using multichannel seismic reflection profiles and magnetic data. The fault, here called the Block Island fault (BIF), strikes north-northeast, dips westward at low angle, and does not resemble the thin-skinned thrust faulting observed in the foreland of the Appalachians. The BIF is located within the hinterland of the Appalachian mountain belt in the collision zone between Africa and North America. We present several interpretations but favor one in which the fault originated as an east-verging mid–late Paleozoic thrust fault, possibly related to the collision of Avalon or Meguma with North America. It was probably reactivated during early Mesozoic continental breakup and again in the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary, causing the steeply dipping postrift New Shoreham fault to form, either as an antithetic (normal) or splay (reverse) fault.

  6. The tectonic evolution of the New Siberian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepjohn, K.; Brandes, C.; Gaedicke, C.; Franke, D.; Mrugalla, S.; Sobolev, N.; Tolmacheva, T.

    2012-04-01

    The New Siberian Islands are located on the wide arctic shelf between the Laptev Sea in the west and the East-Siberian Sea in the east and represent the westernmost part of the Chuchotka-Alaska Terrane. Geologically, they are bounded by the Laptev Sea Rift in the west, the passive continental margin towards the Arctic Ocean in the north and the South Anyui Suture Zone in the south. Two scenarios are discussed: (1) the New Siberian Islands were situated at the North American margin before the start of the break-up of Laurasia in Jurassic times, and (2) the New Siberian Islands are part of the Siberian platform since at least Palaeozoic times. Compared with the structural evolution of Severnaya Semlya, Franz Joseph Land and Svalbard, the sedimentary succession of the New Siberian Islands is only very little affected by tectonicdeformation. There is no evidence for the Caledonian and Ellesmerian orogeny on the New Siberian Islands. Although there are some Late Ordovician volcanics exposed on the DeLong Islands, the stratigraphic succession continues without important breaks from Cambrian to Middle Carboniferous, a time span which includes both orogenies. Furthermore, the Paleozoic evolution of the sedimentary basin on the New Siberian Islands has more affinities to the Siberian platform than to Severnaya Semlya, Franz Joseph Land and Svalbard. The only observed deformation on the New Siberian Islands is related to the plate tectonic re-organisation of the recent Arctic during the break-up of the Arctic Ocean in probably Early Tertiary times. The deformation on the Anyui Islands is characterized by mostly gentle, open synclines and anticlines with NW-SE trending axis. The deformation increases westwards towards the Laptev Sea, and is dominated by tight folding, thrusting and partly cleavage-development at the west coast of Koteĺny Island and on Beĺkovski Island. The fold-vergencies and the cross-cutting relationships of bedding and cleavage indicate NE

  7. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  8. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  9. Over/Undervoltage and undervoltage shift of hybrid islanding detection method of distributed generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingram, Manop; Premrudeepreechacharn, Suttichai

    2015-01-01

    The mainly used local islanding detection methods may be classified as active and passive methods. Passive methods do not perturb the system but they have larger nondetection zones, whereas active methods have smaller nondetection zones but they perturb the system. In this paper, a new hybrid method is proposed to solve this problem. An over/undervoltage (passive method) has been used to initiate an undervoltage shift (active method), which changes the undervoltage shift of inverter, when the passive method cannot have a clear discrimination between islanding and other events in the system. Simulation results on MATLAB/SIMULINK show that over/undervoltage and undervoltage shifts of hybrid islanding detection method are very effective because they can determine anti-islanding condition very fast. ΔP/P > 38.41% could determine anti-islanding condition within 0.04 s; ΔP/P anti-islanding condition within 0.04 s; -24.39% ≤ ΔP/P ≤ 38.41% could determine anti-islanding condition within 0.08 s. This method perturbed the system, only in the case of -24.39% ≤ ΔP/P ≤ 38.41% at which the control system of inverter injected a signal of undervoltage shift as necessary to check if the occurrence condition was an islanding condition or not.

  10. Over/Undervoltage and Undervoltage Shift of Hybrid Islanding Detection Method of Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manop Yingram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mainly used local islanding detection methods may be classified as active and passive methods. Passive methods do not perturb the system but they have larger nondetection zones, whereas active methods have smaller nondetection zones but they perturb the system. In this paper, a new hybrid method is proposed to solve this problem. An over/undervoltage (passive method has been used to initiate an undervoltage shift (active method, which changes the undervoltage shift of inverter, when the passive method cannot have a clear discrimination between islanding and other events in the system. Simulation results on MATLAB/SIMULINK show that over/undervoltage and undervoltage shifts of hybrid islanding detection method are very effective because they can determine anti-islanding condition very fast. ΔP/P>38.41% could determine anti-islanding condition within 0.04 s; ΔP/P<-24.39% could determine anti-islanding condition within 0.04 s; -24.39%≤ΔP/P≤ 38.41% could determine anti-islanding condition within 0.08 s. This method perturbed the system, only in the case of -24.39% ≤ΔP/P ≤38.41% at which the control system of inverter injected a signal of undervoltage shift as necessary to check if the occurrence condition was an islanding condition or not.

  11. Barrier island morphology and sediment characteristics affect the recovery of dune building grasses following storm-induced overwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Steven T; Bissett, Spencer N; Young, Donald R; Wolner, Catherine W V; Moore, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed) barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae) on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. (Poaceae) on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p = 0.005) where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected community

  12. Barrier island morphology and sediment characteristics affect the recovery of dune building grasses following storm-induced overwash.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Brantley

    Full Text Available Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton Muhl. (Poaceae on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p = 0.005 where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected

  13. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  14. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    bird populations of the island group have led to it being declared an Important Bird Area by BirdLife .... 2000) and South African (Barnes 2000) classifications of conservation status are indicated, as well as the trend over the most recent decade ..... Congruity with a number of Southern Ocean is- land nature reserves of other ...

  15. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  16. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  17. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  18. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy produ...

  19. 76 FR 34855 - Safety Zones; Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ..., including a large community fund raising festival and many festivals put on by local small businesses. Many... p.m. to 10:30 p.m. Location: Waters of Atlantic Ocean off Umbrella Beach, Montauk, NY in approximate...

  20. 75 FR 28194 - Safety Zone; San Clemente 3 NM Safety Zone, San Clemente Island, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Regional Stakeholder Group. The Navy has a longstanding appreciation of the economic importance of San... rule elsewhere in this preamble. Taking of Private Property This rule will not cause a taking of private property or otherwise have taking implications under Executive Order 12630, Governmental Actions...

  1. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  2. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatan Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Daniel Scott

    Roatan Island is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras. These islands form an emergent crest off the Caribbean coast of Honduras called the Bonacca Ridge. The Bartlett Trough to the north and subsequent Bonacca Ridge were likely formed due to the transform fault system of the Motagua-Swan Islands Fault System. This fault system forms the tectonic plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Although the timing and kinematics are poorly constrained, the Bay Islands and the Bonacca Ridge were likely uplifted due to transpression along this left-lateral strike-slip system. With limited regional exposures along the adjacent tectonic boundary, this study aimed to present a structural interpretation for Roatan. This new interpretation is further explained through regional considerations for a suggested geologic history of the northwestern Caribbean. In order to better constrain the kinematics of uplift and exhumation of Roatan Island, structural, gravity, and magnetic surveys were conducted. Principal attention was directed to the structural relationship between the geologic units and their relationship to one another through deformation. Resulting geologic cross-sections from this study present the metamorphic basement exposed throughout the island to be in a normal structural order consisting of biotite schist and gneiss, with overlying units of chlorite schist, carbonate, and conglomerate. These units have relatively concordant strike and dip measurements, consistent with resultant magnetic survey readings. Additionally, large and irregular bodies of amphibolite and serpentinite throughout the island are interpreted to have been emplaced as mafic and ultra-mafic intrusions in weakness zones along Early Paleogene transform system fault planes. The interpretation and suggested geologic history from this study demonstrate the importance of transpressive tectonics both local to Roatan and regionally throughout geologic history. Consideration of

  3. Determination of green, blue and yellow artificial food colorants and their abuse in herb-coloured green Easter beers on tap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachová, Ivana; Lhotská, Ivona; Solich, Petr; Šatínský, Dalibor

    2016-07-01

    Beer is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages worldwide. For consumer acceptance, significant factors are its taste, flavour and colour. This study determines selected synthetic green, blue and yellow food colorants in popular Easter herb-coloured green beers on tap produced in breweries on Holy Thursday. The abuse of beer colouring with Tartrazine (E 102), Quinoline yellow (E 104), Sunset yellow (E 110), Patent blue (E 131), Indigo carmine (E 132), Brilliant blue FCF (E 133), Green S (E 142) and Fast green FCF (E 143) was assessed in 11 green beer samples purchased in local restaurants. HPLC was used for the separation and detection of artificial colorants with diode-array detection and a Chromolith Performance CN 100 × 4.6 mm column with guard pre-column Chromolith CN 5 × 4.6 mm. Separation was performed in gradient elution with mobile phase containing methanol-aqueous 2% ammonium acetate at pH 7.0. The study showed that eight beers (70%) marketed in the Czech Republic contained artificial colorants (Tartrazine and Brilliant blue FCF). The concentration of colorants found in analysed green herb-coloured beers ranged from 1.58 to 3.49 mg l(-)(1) for Tartrazine, 0.45-2.18 mg l(-)(1) for Brilliant blue, while Indigo carmine was detected only once at concentration 2.36 mg l(-)(1). Only three beers showed no addition of the synthetic colorants. However, the levels of artificial colorants found in beers marketed in the Czech region were very low and did not show a serious risk for consumers' health.

  4. The twentieth century Africal easterly waves in reanalysis systems and IPCC simulations, from intra-seasonal to inter-annual variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruti, Paolo; Dell' Aquila, Alessandro [ENEA, CR Casaccia, UTMEA-CLIM, Rome (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    The nature of intraseasonal and interannual variability of African easterly waves (AEWs) in IPCC-CMIP3 global simulations is investigated in comparison with 40-year NCEP and ERA40 products. AEWs are a major source of atmospheric variability over the Sahel and particularly over West Africa. An accurate representation of AEWs dynamics is therefore an important precondition to skilled climate predictions and seasonal forecasts for this area. We describe the synoptic features of these disturbances and we illustrate a statistical link, at interannual timescale, between Sea Surface Temperature and AEWs activity. At intraseasonal time scale, the models exhibit a wide variety of behaviours in reproducing the synoptic features of the disturbances, namely AEWs amplitude and pattern. It is possible to classify the models into two groups, one localizing intense variability well inside the continental area, and the other exhibiting a weaker variance mostly placed over West Africa. Concerning the inter-annual variability, we point out a statistical link between SST anomalies and AEWs activity that reveals a strong influence of the ENSO events on the variability of the disturbances over the Guinean coasts. Warm/cold ENSO events occur in conjunction with suppressed/enhanced AEWs through upper tropospheric teleconnection bridge. Only two model running at significantly different vertical and horizontal resolution (INM and INGV-SGX) are able to reproduce this mechanism in accordance to what observed in the global reanalysis systems. Our result introduces non-negligible caveats with respect to the ability of most of CMIP3 models in obtaining reliable description of AEWs. (orig.)

  5. Commemoration in conflict. Comparing the generation of solidarity at the 1916 Easter Rising Commemorations in Belfast Northern Ireland and the 1948 ‘Nakba’ Commemorations in Ramallah, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Browne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article takes as its focus the generation of solidarity through the commemoration of key and defining moments in modern Irish and Palestinian history, namely; the 1916 Easter Rising and the 1948 Palestinian Nakba. The paper explores the means by which annual commemorative rituals that take place in areas experiencing conflict, or a period of transition away from conflict, are constructed in such a way as to strengthen social cohesion between groups for whom the past is relevant. Reflecting on data gathered through semi-structured interviews with key respondents and ethnographic observations made over a three year period, (2010- 2013, the article reveals a more cohesive approach to commemoration in areas where the level of on-going conflict remains particularly high (Palestine and more fragmented and disjointed ritual activity when the commemoration takes place against the backdrop of relative peace and stability (Northern Ireland. In accounting for the difference in approach to constructing commemorative events against a conflicted or transitional background, the conclusion is reached whereby it is suggested that the relatively peaceful political climate, characterised through a reduction in violence with a once hostile ‘other’, permits for the emergence of heterogeneity, with rival factions permitted space to promote alternative interpretations of the past and different visions for the future through the highly public median of the commemorative ritual. Far from being events that generate a sense of social cohesion between groups for whom the past is relevant, commemorative rituals which take place in a hostile environment can be arenas of dissent; opportunities for marginalised factions to challenge the often state-sponsored hegemonic narrative, thus revealing the limits to the solidarity thesis.

  6. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  7. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  8. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores...... patterns (five questions in total); island ontogeny and past climate change (4); island rules and syndromes (3); island biogeography theory (4); immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics (5); speciation and diversification (4); dispersal and colonization (3); community assembly (6); biotic interactions (2...

  9. Effects of 2010 Hurricane Earl amidst geologic evidence for greater overwash at Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    OpenAIRE

    B. F. Atwater; Z. Fuentes; R. B. Halley; U. S. Ten Brink; M. P. Tuttle

    2014-01-01

    A post-hurricane survey of a Caribbean island affords comparisons with geologic evidence for greater overwash at the same place. This comparison, though of limited application to other places, helps calibrate coastal geology for assessment of earthquake and tsunami potential along the Antilles Subduction Zone. The surveyed island, Anegada, is 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench and is near the paths of hurricanes Donna (1960) and Earl (2010), which were at or near ...

  10. Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Percy, Diana M; Garver, Adam M; Wagner, Warren L; James, Helen F; Cunningham, Clifford W; Miller, Scott E; Fleischer, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the evolutionary history of plants that are ecologically dominant in modern ecosystems is critical to understanding the historical development of those ecosystems. Metrosideros is a plant genus found in many ecological and altitudinal zones throughout the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha is an ecologically dominant species and is also highly polymorphic in both growth form and ecology. Using 10 non-coding chloroplast regions, we investigated haplotype div...

  11. 77 FR 63927 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Island, with its greater mass and higher elevations, has more distinctive climatic zones and ecosystems... arid conditions predominate (USFWS 1996, p. 6; Mitchell et al. 2005a, pp. 6-71). A rain shadow effect... grasslands, from sea level to 1,000 ft (300 m) in elevation, generally within a narrow zone above the...

  12. Methanotrophy controls groundwater methane export from a barrier island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Charles A.; Wilson, Alicia M.; Evans, Tyler; Moore, Willard S.; Joye, Samantha B.

    2016-04-01

    Methane concentrations can be high in coastal groundwater, resulting in methane export driven by submarine groundwater discharge. However, the magnitude of this methane flux depends significantly on the rate of methanotrophy, the often overlooked process of microbial methane consumption that occurs within coastal aquifer sediments. Here we describe a zone of methanogenesis within the freshwater lens of a barrier island aquifer and investigate the methane source/sink behavior of the barrier island system as a whole. The median concentration of methane dissolved in fresh groundwater beneath the center of the island was 0.6 mM, supported by high rates of potential methanogenesis (22 mmol m-2 day-1). However, rates of microbial methane consumption were also elevated in surrounding sediments (18 mmol m-2 day-1). Groundwater flowing from the zone of methanogenesis to the point of discharge into the ocean had a long residence time within methanotrophic sediments (∼195 days) such that the majority of the methane produced within the barrier island aquifer was likely consumed there.

  13. Proposed Sandia frequency shift for anti-islanding detection method based on artificial immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Hatata

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sandia frequency shift (SFS is one of the active anti-islanding detection methods that depend on frequency drift to detect an islanding condition for inverter-based distributed generation. The non-detection zone (NDZ of the SFS method depends to a great extent on its parameters. Improper adjusting of these parameters may result in failure of the method. This paper presents a proposed artificial immune system (AIS-based technique to obtain optimal parameters of SFS anti-islanding detection method. The immune system is highly distributed, highly adaptive, and self-organizing in nature, maintains a memory of past encounters, and has the ability to continually learn about new encounters. The proposed method generates less total harmonic distortion (THD than the conventional SFS, which results in faster island detection and better non-detection zone. The performance of the proposed method is derived analytically and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. Two case studies are used to verify the proposed method. The first case includes a photovoltaic (PV connected to grid and the second includes a wind turbine connected to grid. The deduced optimized parameter setting helps to achieve the “non-islanding inverter” as well as least potential adverse impact on power quality. Keywords: Anti-islanding detection, Sandia frequency shift (SFS, Non-detection zone (NDZ, Total harmonic distortion (THD, Artificial immune system (AIS, Clonal selection algorithm

  14. Benthic substrate classification map: Gulf Islands National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn; Flocks, James; Twichell, Dave; Rose, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The 2005 hurricane season was devastating for the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Hurricane Katrina caused significant degradation of the barrier islands that compose the Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS). Because of the ability of coastal barrier islands to help mitigate hurricane damage to the mainland, restoring these habitats prior to the onset of future storms will help protect the islands themselves and the surrounding habitats. During Hurricane Katrina, coastal barrier islands reduced storm surge by approximately 10 percent and moderated wave heights (Wamsley and others, 2009). Islands protected the mainland by preventing ocean waves from maintaining their size as they approached the mainland. In addition to storm protection, it is advantageous to restore these islands to preserve the cultural heritage present there (for example, Fort Massachusetts) and because of the influence that these islands have on marine ecology. For example, these islands help maintain a salinity regime favorable to oysters in the Mississippi Sound and provide critical habitats for many migratory birds and endangered species such as sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, and Dermochelys coriacea), Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi), and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2009a). As land manager for the GUIS, the National Park Service (NPS) has been working with the State of Mississippi and the Mobile District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide a set of recommendations to the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) that will guide restoration planning. The final set of recommendations includes directly renourishing both West Ship Island (to protect Fort Massachusetts) and East Ship Island (to restore the French Warehouse archaeological site); filling Camille Cut to recreate a continuous Ship Island; and restoring natural regional sediment transport processes by placing sand in the littoral zone just east of Petit Bois

  15. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  16. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  17. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  18. Coastal debris survey in a Remote Island of the Chilean Northern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Venegas, D; Pavés, H; Pulgar, J; Ahrendt, C; Seguel, M; Galbán-Malagón, C J

    2017-12-15

    Global marine litter pollution is increasing dramatically, and oceanic islands are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems due to their high debris accumulation rate compared to continental sites. Remote areas, such as inhabited islands, represent a perfect study case to track marine debris sources, due to the assumed low rates of local production of debris. Guafo Island is one of the largest islands of the Chilean Northern Patagonia and is considered a remote zone. The accessible coast of Guafo Island was monitored during four austral summers revealing higher levels of marine debris accumulation than continental Chile. Plastic was the most abundant type of debris constituting 50% of the total litter monitored. Our results suggest that most of the plastic identified is likely to be related to local fisheries activities. Mitigation measures including collaboration among fishing communities and scientists could contribute to reduce the coastal debris pollution in remote areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Further ecological and shoreline stability reconnaissance surveys of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.S.; Strand, J.A.; Ecker, R.M.

    1987-09-01

    A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island was performed to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and marine plant resources occurring at three proposed alternate pier sites on the west side of Back Island. Additionally, a limited survey of terrestrial vegetation was conducted in the vicinity of one of the proposed alternate pier sites to describe the littoral community and to list the dominant plant species found there. Finally, a reconnaissance survey of the shoreline of Back Island was conducted to evaluate potential changes in shoreline stability resulting from construction of onshore portions of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC).

  20. Groundwater flow in a relatively old oceanic volcanic island: The Betancuria area, Fuerteventura Island, Canary Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Christian, E-mail: cherrera@ucn.cl [Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile); Custodio, Emilio [Department of Geo-Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    The island of Fuerteventura is the oldest of the Canary Islands' volcanic archipelago. It is constituted by volcanic submarine and subaerial activity and intrusive Miocene events, with some residual later volcanism and Quaternary volcanic deposits that have favored groundwater recharge. The climate is arid, with an average rainfall that barely attains 60 mm/year in the coast and up to 200 mm/year in the highlands. The aquifer recharge is small but significant; it is brackish due to large airborne atmospheric salinity, between 7 and 15 g m{sup −2} year{sup −1} of chloride deposition, and high evapo-concentration in the soil. The average recharge is estimated to be less than about 5 mm/year at low altitude and up to 10 mm/year in the highlands, and up to 20 mm/year associated to recent lava fields. Hydrochemical and water isotopic studies, supported by water table data and well and borehole descriptions, contribute a preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow and water origin in the Betancuria area, the central area of the island. In general, water from springs and shallow wells tends to be naturally brackish and of recent origin. Deep saline groundwater is found and is explained as remnants of very old marine water trapped in isolated features in the very low permeability intrusive rocks. Preliminary radiocarbon dating indicates that this deep groundwater has an apparent age of less than 5000 years BP but it is the result of mixing recent water recharge with very old deep groundwater. Most of the groundwater flow occurs through the old raised volcanic shield of submarine and subaerial formations and later Miocene subaerial basalts. Groundwater transit time through the unsaturated zone is of a few decades, which allows the consideration of long-term quasi-steady state recharge. Transit times are up to a few centuries through the saturated old volcanics and up to several millennia in the intrusive formations, where isolated pockets of very old water may

  1. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  2. Zonation pattern, succession process and invasion by aliens in species-poor insular vegetation of the Galapagos Islands.

    OpenAIRE

    Itow, Syuzo

    2003-01-01

    The Galapagos Islands, located 1,000 km west of the South American coast on the equator in the easternmost Pacific, are of volcanic origin. The vascular plant flora is poor and disharmonic, comprising ca. 200 endemic taxa. The vegetation is altitudinally arranged, roughly related to the increase in precipitation, from the maritime and dry zones in the lowlands, through the transition and moist zones, to the treeless highland zone. The zonation is deflected upward in elevation on the leeward s...

  3. Synchronisation of two separate zones in a standalone microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Standalone microgrids that comprise distributed generation sources (DGSs or energy storage systems (ESSs exist on off-shore islands or remote areas. When a fault occurs in a standalone microgrid, the microgrid is separated into several zones with pre-specified DGS or ESS supplying power to local loads. After the fault is cleared, the three-phase voltages and frequencies may differ among these zones. To restore the original microgrid topology, these zones must be reconnected to each other by synchronisation. A synchronisation controller of the DGS/ESS that accounts for slightly different three-phase voltages and frequencies in two separate zones is presented. The Clark transform and Mamdani fuzzy rules are used to implement the controller, providing fast and seamless synchronisation. Simulation results using a standalone microgrid show the practical applicability of the proposed method.

  4. Structural interpretation of El Hierro (Canary Islands) rifts system from gravity inversion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Maza, S.; Montesinos, F. G.; Martí, J.; Arnoso, J.; Calvo, M.; Borreguero, A.

    2017-08-01

    Recent volcanism in El Hierro Island is mostly concentrated along three elongated and narrow zones which converge at the center of the island. These zones with extensive volcanism have been identified as rift zones. The presence of similar structures is common in many volcanic oceanic islands, so understanding their origin, dynamics and structure is important to conduct hazard assessment in such environments. There is still not consensus on the origin of the El Hierro rift zones, having been associated with mantle uplift or interpreted as resulting from gravitational spreading and flank instability. To further understand the internal structure and origin of the El Hierro rift systems, starting from the previous gravity studies, we developed a new 3D gravity inversion model for its shallower layers, gathering a detailed picture of this part of the island, which has permitted a new interpretation about these rifts. Previous models already identified a main central magma accumulation zone and several shallower high density bodies. The new model allows a better resolution of the pathways that connect both levels and the surface. Our results do not point to any correspondence between the upper parts of these pathways and the rift identified at the surface. Non-clear evidence of progression toward deeper parts into the volcanic system is shown, so we interpret them as very shallow structures, probably originated by local extensional stresses derived from gravitational loading and flank instability, which are used to facilitate the lateral transport of magma when it arrives close to the surface.

  5. Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Diana M; Garver, Adam M; Wagner, Warren L; James, Helen F; Cunningham, Clifford W; Miller, Scott E; Fleischer, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the evolutionary history of plants that are ecologically dominant in modern ecosystems is critical to understanding the historical development of those ecosystems. Metrosideros is a plant genus found in many ecological and altitudinal zones throughout the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha is an ecologically dominant species and is also highly polymorphic in both growth form and ecology. Using 10 non-coding chloroplast regions, we investigated haplotype diversity in the five currently recognized Hawaiian Metrosideros species and an established out-group, Metrosideros collina, from French Polynesia. Multiple haplotype groups were found, but these did not match morphological delimitations. Alternative morphologies sharing the same haplotype, as well as similar morphologies occurring within several distinct island clades, could be the result of developmental plasticity, parallel evolution or chloroplast capture. The geographical structure of the data is consistent with a pattern of age progressive island colonizations and suggests de novo intra-island diversification. If single colonization events resulted in a similar array of morphologies on each island, this would represent parallel radiations within a single, highly polymorphic species. However, we were unable to resolve whether the pattern is instead explained by ancient introgression and incomplete lineage sorting resulting in repeated chloroplast capture. Using several calibration methods, we estimate the colonization of the Hawaiian Islands to be potentially as old as 3.9 (−6.3) Myr with an ancestral position for Kaua'i in the colonization and evolution of Metrosideros in the Hawaiian Islands. This would represent a more ancient arrival of Metrosideros to this region than previous studies have suggested. PMID:18426752

  6. Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Diana M; Garver, Adam M; Wagner, Warren L; James, Helen F; Cunningham, Clifford W; Miller, Scott E; Fleischer, Robert C

    2008-07-07

    Knowledge of the evolutionary history of plants that are ecologically dominant in modern ecosystems is critical to understanding the historical development of those ecosystems. Metrosideros is a plant genus found in many ecological and altitudinal zones throughout the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha is an ecologically dominant species and is also highly polymorphic in both growth form and ecology. Using 10 non-coding chloroplast regions, we investigated haplotype diversity in the five currently recognized Hawaiian Metrosideros species and an established out-group, Metrosideros collina, from French Polynesia. Multiple haplotype groups were found, but these did not match morphological delimitations. Alternative morphologies sharing the same haplotype, as well as similar morphologies occurring within several distinct island clades, could be the result of developmental plasticity, parallel evolution or chloroplast capture. The geographical structure of the data is consistent with a pattern of age progressive island colonizations and suggests de novo intra-island diversification. If single colonization events resulted in a similar array of morphologies on each island, this would represent parallel radiations within a single, highly polymorphic species. However, we were unable to resolve whether the pattern is instead explained by ancient introgression and incomplete lineage sorting resulting in repeated chloroplast capture. Using several calibration methods, we estimate the colonization of the Hawaiian Islands to be potentially as old as 3.9 (-6.3) Myr with an ancestral position for Kaua'i in the colonization and evolution of Metrosideros in the Hawaiian Islands. This would represent a more ancient arrival of Metrosideros to this region than previous studies have suggested.

  7. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE : EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    As Friday, April 18 and Monday, April 21, 2003 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP : Bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (AVENANCE : Bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday and Sunday, April 19 - 20. They will reopen on Tuesday, April 22 at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR : Bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. On Thursday, April 17, all three restaurants will operate according to the usual times except for restaurant no. 1 which will close at 21h00 instead of 1 o'clock in the morning.

  8. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE : EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2002-01-01

    As Friday 29 March and Monday 1st April 2002 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP, bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (Avenance, bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday and Sunday 30-31 March. They will reopen on Tuesday 2 April at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR, bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. On Thursday 28 March, all three restaurants will operate according to the usual times except for restaurant no. 1 which will close at 21h00 instead of 1 o'clock in the morning. Restaurant Supervisory Committee Tel. 77551

  9. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE: EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    As Friday, April 18 and Monday, April 21, 2003 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP : Bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (AVENANCE : Bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday and Sunday, April 19 - 20. They will reopen on Tuesday, April 22 at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR : Bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30.

  10. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE : EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2002-01-01

    As Friday, March 29 and Monday, April 1st, 2002 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP : Bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (Avenance : Bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday and Sunday, March 30 - 31. They will reopen on Tuesday, April 2 at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR : Bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. On Thursday, March 28, all three restaurants will operate according to the usual times except for restaurant no. 1 which will close at 21h00 instead of 1 o'clock in the morning.   Restaurant Supervisory Committee, tel. 77551

  11. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE: EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2001-01-01

    As Friday 13 and Monday 16 April 2001 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP, bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (Générale de Restauration, bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday 14 and Sunday 15 April. They will reopen on Tuesday 17 April at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR, bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. On Thursday 12 April, all three restaurants will operate according to the usual times except for restaurant no 1, which will close at 21h00 instead of 1 o'clock in the morning.

  12. Determination of Baseline Conditions for Introduced Marine Species in Nearshore Waters of the Island of Kaho'olawe, Hawaii in January 1998 (NODC Accession 0000715)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of the marine macroalgae and invertebrates in the intertidal and subtidal zones was conducted at seven sites around Kaho'olawe Island from January 12 to 14,...

  13. Determination of baseline conditions for introduced marine species in nearshore waters of the island of Kaho'olawe, Hawaii in January 1998 (NODC Accession 0000715)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of the marine macroalgae and invertebrates in the intertidal and subtidal zones was conducted at seven sites around Kaho'olawe Island from January 12 to 14,...

  14. Change detection studies of Sagar Island, India, using Indian Remote Sensing Satellite 1C linear imaging self-scan sensor III data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Gopinath, G.; Laluraj, C.M.; Seralathan, P.; Mitra, D.

    The coastal zone of Sagar Island, West Bengal, India, is subjected to various cyclic and random processes that continuously modify the region. The shoreline and land-use/land cover changes have been studied using Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IC...

  15. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  16. Work zone safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  17. Iowa Work Zone Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    From March through November, the Iowa DOT may have up to 500 road construction work zones, and each of the department's maintenance garages may establish one or more short-term work zones per day. Couple that with the work of cities and counties, and...

  18. Tourism infrastructure development prioritization in Sabang Island using analytic network process methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Hafnidar A.; Afifuddin, Moch.; Akbar, Herry

    2017-11-01

    Indonesia has been widely known as an archipelago country, with its geographical location is at the equator, which make this country as a tropical country. It has the topography of diverse islands which consist of lakes, mountains, and one of countries which have the longest coastline. This condition cause Indonesia has various beautiful tourism objects and become the attraction to the international tourists to come. Indonesia still has the other islands which are as beautiful as Bali Island offering different beauties. One of them is an island located in the most western island of Indonesia, which becomes the zero point of the country. It is Sabang Island in Aceh Province. Sabang Island is the small volcanic island located in the most western island of Sumatra. Infrastructure becomes the basic device in supporting this tourism aspect, which the buildings and service institutions play the important role in appropriate managing of economic and community needs. The problem in this study is how to determine the priority of tourism infrastructure development in Sabang Island. The objective of this study is to determine the priority rank of tourism infrastructure development and the priority rank of the potential investment in Sabang Island to be developed. The ranking results of the Analytic Network Process (ANP) calculations of tourism locations/zones and tourism supporting infrastructure found that Teupin Layeu and Gapang, and Rubiah Island have the highest priority to be developed in the hotel/accommodation infrastructure which scores are 0.02589 and 0.02120. Then followed by parking infrastructure in Teupin Layeu and access road to Km 0 which became as the main priority determined by Sabang government which scores are 0.01750 and 0.01618.

  19. [Geobotanical studies on the island of Tanegashima (affinity of world property island Yakushima)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, M; Kaburagi, K; Seki, T; Nozaki, T; Lee, I; Katsuki, S

    1999-01-01

    A list was drawn up of wild plants growing on Tanegashiama island that were identified in our field work, and the list was compared with the flora of the rest of Japan and the flora of Taiwan. There were 166 families and 1,218 species consisting of 23 families and 159 species of Pteridophyta, 4 families and 7 species of Gymnosperma, 113 families and 700 species of the dicotyledous Angiosperma, and 26 families and 353 species of monocotyledous Angiosperma. There are 229 families and 5,500 species of plants in Japan, 196 families and 3,019 species in Kyushu, and 228 families and 3,477 species in Taiwan. There are 11 species of endemic plants on Tanegashima and Yakushima, and the best known of them is Pinus armandii Francht. var. amamiana Hatsushima. There are 181 species of flora of flora limited to the northern element, including several important medicinal plants, such as Akebia quinata Decaisne and Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. The 69 species of flora limited to the southern element include several important tropical plants, such as Messerschmidia argentea Johnston and Clerodendrum inerme Gaertn. Most of these plants are distributed on both island, but some of are distributed only Tanegashima. We concluded that one of the temperate borderlines of Japanese flora in the temperate zone is the islands of Tokara. The flora of Tanegashima and Yakushima are having a closely affinity of plant species and having the rich plant species.

  20. 78 FR 53369 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    .... 121018563-3148-02] RIN 0648-XC832 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the...-7269. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS manages the groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1405 - Regulated Navigation Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including Cabras Island... Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including... point of origin. (2) Apra Harbor, Guam—All waters from surface to bottom of Apra Harbor, Guam, shoreward...

  2. 78 FR 23489 - Safety Zone; V.I. Carnival Finale, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S.V.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; V.I. Carnival Finale, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S.V.I. AGENCY: Coast Guard... waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands during the V.I. Carnival Finale, a... being positioned near the St. Thomas Harbor channel from which fireworks will be lit. The safety zone is...

  3. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery and colonization of islands by humans has invariably resulted in their widespread ecological transformation. The small and isolated populations of many island taxa, and their evolution in the absence of humans and their introduced taxa, mean that they are particularly vulnerable to ...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  4. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  5. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. Beginning... to latitude 37°45′00″, longitude 76°09′48″; thence to latitude 37°45′00″, longitude 76°08′51″; and...

  6. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands... geographic coordinates for Bucholz AAF in the Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI, Class D airspace legal...

  7. 76 FR 2572 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... part 71 by amending Class E airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI (75 FR 61993... Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI, as published in the Federal ] Register on October 7, 2010, FR Doc...

  8. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  9. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  10. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  11. Multibeam collection for AT03L27: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 1998-09-06 to 1998-10-06, San Diego, CA to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for RAPA04WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1991-02-20 to 1991-03-08, Easter Island, Chile to San Diego, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for DRFT07RR: Multibeam data collected aboard Roger Revelle from 2001-12-16 to 2002-01-02, Easter Island, Chile to Lyttelton, New Zealand

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for AT11L24: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2005-03-12 to 2005-04-06, Papeete, French Polynesia to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Implications of global warming for regional climate and water resources of tropical islands: Case studies over Sri Lanka and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawalagedara, R.; Kumar, D.; Oglesby, R. J.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The IPCC AR4 identifies small islands as particularly vulnerable to climate change. Here we consider the cases of two tropical islands: Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. The islands share a predominantly tropical climate with diverse topography and hence significant spatial variability of regional climate. Seasonal variability in temperatures is relatively small, but spatial variations can be large owing to topography. Precipitation mechanisms and patterns over the two islands are different however. Sri Lanka receives a majority of the annual rainfall from the summer and winter monsoons, with convective rainfall dominating in the inter-monsoon period. Rainfall generating mechanisms over Puerto Rico can range from orographic lifting, disturbances embedded in Easterly waves and synoptic frontal systems. Here we compare the projected changes in the regional and seasonal means and extremes of temperature and precipitation over the two islands during the middle of this century with the present conditions. Two 5-year regional climate model runs for each region, representing the present (2006-2010) and future (2056-2060) conditions, are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the lateral boundary conditions provided using the output from CCSM4 RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emissions pathway simulation from the CMIP5 ensemble. The consequences of global warming for water resources and the overall economy are examined. While both economies have substantial contributions from tourism, there are major differences: The agricultural sector is much more important over Sri Lanka compared to Puerto Rico, while the latter exhibits no recent growth in population or in urbanization trends unlike the former. Policy implications for water sustainability and security are discussed, which highlight how despite the differences, certain lessons learned may generalize across the two relatively small tropical islands, which in turn have diverse

  16. Quantifying anthropogenically driven morphologic changes on a barrier island: Fire Island National Seashore, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Hapke, Cheryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Beach scraping, beach replenishment, and the presence of moderate development have altered the morphology of the dune–beach system at Fire Island National Seashore, located on a barrier island on the south coast of Long Island, New York. Seventeen communities are interspersed with sections of natural, nonmodified land within the park boundary. Beach width, dune elevation change, volume change, and shoreline change were calculated from light detection and ranging (LIDAR), real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS), and beach profile data sets at two ∼4 km long study sites. Each site contains both modified (developed, replenished, and/or scraped) and nonmodified (natural) areas. The analysis spans 9 years, from 1998 to 2007, which encompasses both scraping and replenishment events at Fire Island. The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare morphological changes in modified and nonmodified zones, and to identify erosional areas within the study sites.Areas of increased volume and shoreline accretion were observed at both sites and at the western site are consistent with sand replenishment activities. The results indicate that from 1998 to 2007 locations backed by development and that employed beach scraping and/or replenishment as erosion control measures experienced more loss of volume, width, and dune elevation as compared with adjacent nonmodified areas. A detailed analysis of one specific modification, beach scraping, shows distinct morphological differences in scraped areas relative to nonscraped areas of the beach. In general, scraped areas where there is development on the dunes showed decreases in all measured parameters and are more likely to experience overwash during storm events. Furthermore, the rapid mobilization of material from the anthropogenic (scraped) dune results in increased beach accretion downcoast.National park lands are immediately adjacent to developed areas on Fire Island, and even relatively small human

  17. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were four times more likely than non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  18. Historical sites at the Prince Edward islands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, J

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available expeditions to Marion Island from 1948 to 1985 and research visits to Prince Edward Island from 1965 to 1985. A third appendix is a bibliography relevant to the study of historical sites at the Prince Edward islands...

  19. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  20. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  1. Benthic Habitat and Zone Maps of Puerto Rico 1999 - Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA, 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are 208 habitat and zone maps of Puerto Rico and is major islands. This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers...

  2. A Communication Based Islanding Detection Method for Photovoltaic Distributed Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökay Bayrak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PV based distributed generation (DG systems must have some electrical connection standards while they connected to an electrical grid. One of these electrical conditions and the most important one is unplanned islanding condition. Islanding is a very dangerous condition because it could damage the PV system and related electrical systems and also working people have been at risk in islanding condition. In this application study, a new communication based islanding detection method was introduced for grid tied PV systems. A real time controller was developed with Labview for detecting islanding condition. Developed method is a hybrid method which uses the effective ways of communication based and passive methods. The results obtained from the proposed real time islanding detection method show that proposed method is reliable, robust, and independent from load and inverter. Nondetection zone (NDZ is almost zero and islanding detection time is approximately 1-2 cycles indicated in experimental results so this time has a significant short response time according to IEEE 929-2000 standard. The proposed method is effective and presents a realistic solution to islanding so it could be implemented easily to grid tied PV systems and could be used in real system applications.

  3. UK scenario of islanded operation of active distribution networks with renewable distributed generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, S.P.; Chowdhury, S.; Gaunt, C.T. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701, Western Cape (South Africa); Crossley, P.A. [Joule Centre for Energy Research, The University of Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This paper reports on the current UK scenario of islanded operation of active distribution networks with renewable distributed generators (RDGs). Different surveys indicate that the present scenario does not economically justify islanding operation of active distribution networks with RDGs. Anti-islanding protection schemes currently enforce the renewable distributed generators (RDGs) to disconnect immediately and stop generation for grid faults through loss of grid (LOG) protection system. This greatly reduces the benefits of RDG deployment. With rising RDG penetration, much benefit would be lost if the RDGs are not allowed to island only due to conventional operational requirement of utilities. For preventing disconnection of RDGs during LOG, several islanding operation, control and protection schemes are being developed. Technical studies clearly indicate the need to review parts of the ESQCR (Electricity Safety, Quality and Continuity Regulations) for successful islanded operations. Commercial viability of islanding operation must be assessed in relation to enhancement of power quality, system reliability and supply of potential ancillary services through network support. Demonstration projects under Registered Power Zone and Technical Architecture Projects should be initiated to investigate the usefulness of DG islanding. However these efforts should be compounded with a realistic judgement of the associated technical and economic issues for the development of future power networks. (author)

  4. VT Data - Zoning 20081203, Norwich

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — BASE DISTRICTS. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator. All...

  5. VT Data - Zoning 20170710, Woodstock

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — BASE DISTRICTS. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator. All...

  6. VT Data - Zoning 20170227, Fairlee

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — BASE DISTRICTS. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator. All...

  7. VT Data - Zoning 20120709, Huntington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning district data for the Town of Huntington, Vermont. For details regarding each zoning district refer to the current zoning regulations on town of Huntington's...

  8. VT Data - Zoning 20170727, Westford

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning District data for Westford, Vermont. Data corresponds to the zoning regulations adopted by the Town of Westford. For details and descriptions of all zoning...

  9. Monitoring developments in island waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crellin, L.V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental effects of islands in the Irish Sea of the offshore oil and gas industry are discussed in this paper, in particular on sand and gravel resources. This information is considered by the Department of Trade and Industry when granting prospecting, exploration and production licenses. Consultation between industry and islanders forms part of the license granting process. (UK)

  10. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  11. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  12. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  13. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research describes a quantitative methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. In order to arrive at out objective, we provide a plausible answer to the following question: "Which...

  14. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  15. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  16. Electromagnetic methods for mapping freshwater lenses on Micronesian atoll islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    The overall shape of freshwater lenses can be determined by applying electromagnetic methods and inverse layered-earth modeling to the mapping of atoll island freshwater lenses. Conductivity profiles were run across the width of the inhabited islands at Mwoakilloa, Pingelap, and Sapwuahfik atolls of the Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia using a dual-loop, frequency-domain, electromagnetic profiling system. Six values of apparent conductivity were recorded at each sounding station and were used to interpret layer conductivities and/or thicknesses. A three-layer model that includes the unsaturated, freshwater, and saltwater zones was used to simulate apparent-conductivity data measured in the field. Interpreted results were compared with chloride-concentration data from monitoring wells and indicate that the interface between freshwater and saltwater layers, defined from electromagnetic data, is located in the upper part of the transition zone, where the chloride-concentration profile shows a rapid increase with depth. The electromagnetic method can be used to interpret the thickness of the freshwater between monitoring wells, but can not be used to interpret the thickness of freshwater from monitoring wells to the margin of an island. ?? 1992.

  17. Aridity, desalination plants and tourism in the eastern Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-León García-Rodríguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the easternmost of the Canary Islands, and are located on the southern edge of the temperate zone, in the subtropical anticyclone belt. With less than 150 mm of rainfall a year, they are classified as an arid zone. Their inhabitants have devised original agricultural systems to combat the aridity, although low yields have historically limited socio-economic development and population growth. These systems were used until the introduction of seawater desalination plants and the arrival of tourism in the last third of the twentieth century, which improved living standards for the local population but also led to a cultural transition. Nevertheless, these farming systems have left behind an important regional heritage, with an environmental and scenic value that has played an integral role in the latest phase of development. The systems have become a tourist attraction and have been central to the two islands being designated biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This article aims to analyse the main socioeconomic and land-use changes that have come about as a result of desalination technology.

  18. 76 FR 22675 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Permit Family of Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ...) Pacific Islands Region (PIR) manages the U.S. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the... participants in the fisheries of the EEZ in the western Pacific. II. Method of Collection Paper submissions and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific...

  19. Mesoscale geomorphic change on low energy barrier islands in Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. Andrew G.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an analysis of decadal (mesoscale) geomorphic change on sandy barrier islands in the fetch-limited environment of Chesapeake Bay. Low energy barrier islands exist in two settings: on the fringe of marshes and in open water and this analysis shows the various types of barrier island to be genetically related. Barrier islands that face the dominant wind and wave direction (E or W) retreat via barrier translation, preserving the barrier island volume. Those that exist in re-entrants are dominated by longshore transport processes, are strongly affected by sediment supply and are subject to disintegration. Marsh fringe barrier islands are perched on or draped over the surface of the underlying marsh. They migrate landwards via barrier translation during periodic high water events accompanied by large waves (hurricanes and northeasters). The underlying marsh surface erodes under all water levels and the rate of retreat of the barrier island and underlying marsh may take place at different rates, leading to various configurations from perched barrier islands several metres landward of the marsh edge, to barrier islands that have a sandy shoreface extending into the subtidal zone. The coastal configuration during landward retreat of marsh fringe barrier islands is subject to strong local control exerted by the underyling marsh topography. As erosion of marsh promontories occurs and marsh creeks are intersected and bypassed, the configuration is subject to rapid change. Periodic sediment influxes cause spits to develop at re-entrants in the marsh. The spits are initiated as extensions of adjacent marsh fringe barrier islands, but as the sediment volume is finite, the initial drift-aligned spits become sediment-starved and begin to develop a series of swash-aligned cells as they strive for morphodynamic equilibrium. The individual cells are stretched until breaches form in the barrier islands, creating inlets with tidal deltas. At this stage the low

  20. Shallow stratigraphy and paleolandscapes offshore from the Northern Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J. M.; Braje, T.; Gusick, A. E.; Ho, B.; Ball, D.

    2016-12-01

    New high-resolution Chirp and sidescan sonar data collected on the shelf offshore from the Northern Channel Islands image patterns of sediment distribution since the last glacial maximum (LGM), extensive faulting and deformation, and submerged paleolandscapes that may contain archaeological resources. During the last glacial maximum, the four Northern Channel Islands in the Southern California Bight formed an extensive landmass known as Santarosae. Sea-level transgression since the LGM has inundated over 70% of Santarosae, submerging the shelf around the modern islands. The islands are traversed by numerous faults that extend offshore and marine terraces are observed both onshore and offshore. This area is an ideal landscape to investigate the relationships between sediment supply, eustasy, and tectonics in controlling sediment distribution on continental shelves. Furthermore, the presence of Paleocoastal archaeological sites on the islands suggests that similar sites may be present on the submerged shelf. The new data reveal faulting and deformation associated with the Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz fault zones. Both faults offset acoustic horizons below a regional unconformity interpreted as the transgressive surface. Sediment thickness is variable above the transgressive surface and bedform spatial patterns imaged in the sidescan sonar do not appear to correlate with sediment thickness or depth. In Chirp data, we interpret several filled paleochannels extending across the shelf, some of which appear fault controlled. Along with possible estuarine deposits imaged near the modern submarine canyon, these paleolandforms would have been important resources for people living on Santarosae and may contain archaeological resources. Overall, these data elucidate effects of sea level transgression and patterns of sediment distribution on islands located along an active margin.

  1. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  2. High Resolution Modeling of the Orographically Forced Vertical Motion on the Island of Oahu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. E., Jr.; Businger, S.

    2014-12-01

    The weather on Oahu is dictated in large part by the orographic forcing by the Ko'olau Mountain range. Using a high-resolution vertical motion diagnostic model with 0.0005° grid spacing, vertical wind speeds are calculated over the island. The model initialization is done with uniform 10 m s-1 winds, with the wind direction gradually varied. The results show that increased vertical motion occurs for winds from 145° in the valleys along the south shore of Oahu and the Waianae Mountains. For northeast trade winds, the Ko'oalu Range ridgeline produces a maximum vertical motion enhancement. As the winds become more northerly, easterly, or southerly, the geometry of the orography increases in importance and preferential locations of upward motion are observed. Comparing the winds from 145° and 25°, the concave headwall structures of the Ko'olaus are shown to play a critical role in the vertical motion. The southerly wind causes enhanced vertical motion along the southern facing arms of the headwalls, and the northerly winds have an identical effect on the northern facing arms. These results are not limited to when the wind is perpendicular to the ridgeline. By forcing the model with sounding winds taken during the Hawaiian Educational Radar Opportunity, the results are consistent with rain showers occurring over the mountains down shear from locations of strongest updrafts.

  3. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  4. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  5. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over...... the last 130 years and through reconstruction of the vegetation from the end of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (5528 ± 75 cal year BP) using meta-barcoding of plant DNA recovered from the nunatak sediments (sedaDNA). Our results show that several of the plant species detected with sedaDNA are described from...

  6. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  7. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  8. Marte Valles Crater 'Island'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  9. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  10. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  11. The zone of tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titaeva, N.A.; Taskaev, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    Peculiarities of radionuclide migration in the zone of tundra are considered. High 232 Th content, high 232 Th/ 238 U values at low 238 U and 226 Ra concentrations in rocks are shown to be characteristic for the chosen zone. Data on methods of 238 U and 232 Th determination in natural waters, as well as content of radionuclides in water and bottom sediments are presented. Formation of soils under the conditions of mountain tundra is shown to result in noticeable redistribution of radioactive elements as well as all their isotopes. Data on U, Th, Ra isotope content in different plants and certain organs of plants are presented. Principal statistical parameters both of content of certain U, Th, Ra isotopes and their isotope relations on the whole by soil and vegetation of the investigated region are presented. When characterizing storage of isotopes of different elements in vegetation of the zone of tundra it is necessary to note that the dependence 226 Ra( 228 Ra)> 228 Th> 227 Th> 230 Th> 232 Th> 238 U> 234 U is typical for it. Intensity of radionuclide inclusion in the biogenic migration cycle in the zone of tundra is higher than in the zone of taiga

  12. Reliving Island Life: Staging Stories of the Blasket Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daithí Kearney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Blasket Islands are located off the south-west coast of Ireland. No longer inhabited, the Great Blasket Island and its distinctive culture have been documented by a variety of writers and are celebrated today in an interpretative centre on the mainland and in performances by Siamsa Tíre, The National Folk Theatre of Ireland. “Siamsa” developed from local initiatives in North Kerry during the early 1960s and is located today in Tralee, Co. Kerry. It aims to present Irish folklore and folk culture through the medium of theatre involving music, song, dance and mime but invariably no dialogue. In this paper, I focus on the production Oiléan, based loosely on the stories of the Blasket Islanders, which was initially devised as part of the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the departure of the last inhabitants of the islands in 2003.

  13. Freeway work zone lane capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this report is a capacity analysis of two long-term urban freeway Work Zones. Work Zone #1 : tapered four mainline lanes to two, using two separate tapers; Work Zone #2 tapered two mainline lanes to one. : Work Zone throughput was analyz...

  14. Development of climatic zones and passive solar design in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakoto-Joseph, O.; Garde, F.; David, M.; Adelard, L.; Randriamanantany, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    Climate classification is extremely useful to design buildings for thermal comfort purposes. This paper presents the first work for a climate classification of Madagascar Island. This classification is based on the meteorological data measured in different cities of this country. Three major climatic zones are identified. Psychometric charts for the six urban areas of Madagascar are proposed, and suited passive solar designs related to each climate are briefly discussed. Finally, a total of three passive design zones have been identified and appropriate design strategies such as solar heating, natural ventilation, thermal mass are suggested for each zone. The specificity of this work is that: it is the first published survey on the climate classification and the passive solar designs for this developing country

  15. Development of climatic zones and passive solar design in Madagascar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakoto-Joseph, O.; Randriamanantany, Z.A. [Department of Physics, University of Antananarivo, B.P. 566, Ambohitsaina (Madagascar); Garde, F.; David, M.; Adelard, L. [University of Reunion Island, L.P.B.S. (EA 4076), Faculty of Human and Environmental Science, 117 rue du General Ailleret 97430 Le Tampon Ile de La Reunion (Madagascar)

    2009-04-15

    Climate classification is extremely useful to design buildings for thermal comfort purposes. This paper presents the first work for a climate classification of Madagascar Island. This classification is based on the meteorological data measured in different cities of this country. Three major climatic zones are identified. Psychometric charts for the six urban areas of Madagascar are proposed, and suited passive solar designs related to each climate are briefly discussed. Finally, a total of three passive design zones have been identified and appropriate design strategies such as solar heating, natural ventilation, thermal mass are suggested for each zone. The specificity of this work is that: it is the first published survey on the climate classification and the passive solar designs for this developing country. (author)

  16. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    OpenAIRE

    KARSONO; ELIZABETH A. WIDJAJA

    2005-01-01

    Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001) Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species whi...

  17. The 1867 Virgin Island Tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zahibo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1867 Virgin Island Tsunami reached large magnitude on the coasts of the Caribbean Islands. A maximum tsunami height of 10 m was reported for two coastal locations (Deshaies and Sainte-Rose in Guadeloupe. Modelling of the 1867 tsunami is performed in the framework of the nonlinear shallow-water theory. The directivity of the tsunami wave source in the Caribbean Sea according to the assumed initial waveform is investigated. The tsunami records at the several coastal regions in the Lesser Antilles, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico and South America are simulated. The comparison between the computed and observed data is in reasonable agreement.

  18. Application of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Method in Investigating Saltwater Intrusion of Santiago Island (Cape Verde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui; Farzamian, Mohammad; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Represas, Patrícia; Mota Gomes, A.; Lobo de Pina, A. F.; Almeida, Eugénio P.

    2017-11-01

    Santiago Island, the biggest and most populated island of the Cape Verde Republic, is characterised by limited surface waters and strong dependence on groundwater sources as the primary source of natural water supply for extensive agricultural activity and human use. However, as a consequence of the scarce precipitation and high evaporation as well as the intense overexploitation of the groundwater resources, the freshwater management is also in a delicate balance with saltwater at coastal areas. The time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) method is used to locate the extent of saltwater intrusion in four important agricultural regions in Santiago Island; São Domingos, Santa Cruz, São Miguel, and Tarrafal. The application of this method in Santiago Island proves it to be a successful tool in imaging the fresh/saltwater interface location. Depths to the saline zones and extensions of saline water are mapped along eight TDEM profiles.

  19. Archive of side scan sonar and swath bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 10CCT03 offshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, from East Ship Island, Mississippi, to Dauphin Island, Alabama, April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Gibson, James N.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2012-01-01

    In April of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geophysical survey from the east end of East Ship Island, Miss., extending to the middle of Dauphin Island, Ala. (fig. 1). This survey had a dual purpose: (1) to interlink previously conducted nearshore geophysical surveys (shoreline to ~2 km) with those of offshore surveys (~2 to ~9 km) in the area, and (2) to extend the geophysical survey to include a portion of the Dauphin Island nearshore zone. The efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geological stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorpholocial changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration feasibility, particularly in Camille Cut, and efforts for the preservation of historical Fort Massachusetts. For more information refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/.

  20. Managing intermittent energy for generating electricity on islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahiou, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    France's 'electric islands' are the overseas departments and Corsica that have small, isolated grids in 'zones not interconnected' (ZNI) with the continental grid. What characterizes them is the strong growth of consumption and the quite high cost of electricity, the latter heavily subsidized through arrangements under the legal obligation to 'contribute to the public service of electricity'. Renewable, intermittent forms of energy (especially photovoltaic) have grown exponentially on these islands since 2008 thanks to the backing of public policies for setting objectives, tax exemptions, and the rates for purchasing the electricity thus generated. Owing to several experiments under way, the ZNIs have become laboratories for anticipating the future difficulties that interconnected electricity grids will have to handle once the share of renewable, intermittent electricity will have risen significantly in the energy mix

  1. A Global Characterization of Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, T.; Lee, X.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect refers to the higher temperatures in urban areas, and it is one of the most well-known consequences of urbanization on local climate. In the present study, we define a new simplified urban-boundary (SUB) algorithm to quantify the daytime and nighttime surface UHIs on a global scale based on 16 years of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data. The results from the algorithm are validated against previous studies and used to determine the diurnal, monthly, and long-term variation in the surface UHI for over 9000 urban clusters situated in the different Koppen-Geiger climate zones,namely equatorial, arid, warm temperate, snow, and polar. Thus, the variability of the surface UHI for each climate class is determined using a consistent methodology for the first time. The 16-year mean global daytime surface UHI is 0.71 ± 0.93 °C at 1030 LT and 1.00 ± 1.17 °C at 1330 LT, while the nighttime surface UHI is 0.51 ± 0.50 °C at 2230 LT and 0.42 ± 0.52 °C at 0130 LT. This is in good agreement with the results from previous studies, which have looked at the UHI for multiple cities. Summer surface UHI is larger than winter surface UHI across all climate zones. The annual daytime surface UHI is highest in the polar urban clusters (1.77 ± 1.61 °C), followed by snow (1.39 ± 1.17 °C), equatorial (1.21 ± 1.32 °C), warm temperate (1.02 ± 0.98 °C), and arid (0.18 ± 1.27 °C). Urban clusters in the arid climate are found to show different diurnal and seasonal patterns, with higher nighttime surface UHI (0.65 ± 0.58 °C) and two seasonal peaks during the year. The diurnal variation in surface UHI is highest in the polar zone (1.16 °C) and lowest in the arid zone (0.57 °C). The inter-seasonality is also highest in the polar Zone (2.20 °C) and lowest in the arid zone (0.80 °C). Finally, we investigate the change in the surface UHI in more than a decade (2001 to 2013 for MODIS TERRA and 2003 to 2013 for MODIS AQUA) and find a gradual

  2. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule..., Marshall Islands, RMI. The U.S. Army notified the FAA that the Kwajalein TACAN was decommissioned. This... feet or more above the surface of the earth at Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI...

  3. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections......The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...

  4. Nuclear free zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, T.

    1987-01-01

    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used? The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system

  5. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... for the ventilation equipment. To   overcome a shortcoming in Simulink to solve algebraic equations and matrix inversions, we have developed the library inspired by the so called dynamic node technique. We present simulation results using the presented library, and concludes with visions for further...

  6. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason J.; Swarzenski, Peter; Odigie, Kingsley O.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation and high evapotranspiration rates can limit recharge to the freshwater lens. Here we evaluate the effects of land-use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge on the hydrogeochemistry and supply of groundwater on Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur is an artificially conjoined island that has similar hydrogeology on the Roi and Namur lobes, but has contrasting land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge only on Roi. Vegetation removal and managed aquifer recharge operations have resulted in an estimated 8.6 × 10 5  m 3 of potable groundwater in the freshwater lens on Roi, compared to only 1.6 × 10 4  m 3 on Namur. We use groundwater samples from a suite of 33 vertically nested monitoring wells, statistical testing, and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC to show that the differences in land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge on Roi and Namur have a statistically significant effect on several groundwater-quality parameters and the controlling geochemical processes. Results also indicate a six-fold reduction in the dissolution of carbonate rock in the freshwater lens and overlying vadose zone of Roi compared to Namur. Mixing of seawater and the freshwater lens is a more dominant hydrogeochemical process on Roi because of the greater recharge and flushing of the aquifer with freshwater as compared to Namur. In contrast, equilibrium processes and dissolution-precipitation non-equilibrium reactions are more dominant on Namur because of the longer residence times relative to the rate of geochemical reactions. Findings from Roi-Namur Island support selective land

  7. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason; Swarzenski, Peter; Odigie, Kingsley; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation and high evapotranspiration rates can limit recharge to the freshwater lens. Here we evaluate the effects of land-use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge on the hydrogeochemistry and supply of groundwater on Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur is an artificially conjoined island that has similar hydrogeology on the Roi and Namur lobes, but has contrasting land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge only on Roi. Vegetation removal and managed aquifer recharge operations have resulted in an estimated 8.6 x 105 m3 of potable groundwater in the freshwater lens on Roi, compared to only 1.6 x 104 m3 on Namur. We use groundwater samples from a suite of 33 vertically nested monitoring wells, statistical testing, and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC to show that the differences in land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge on Roi and Namur have a statistically significant effect on several groundwater-quality parameters and the controlling geochemical processes. Results also indicate a seven-fold reduction in the dissolution of carbonate rock in the freshwater lens and overlying vadose zone of Roi compared to Namur. Mixing of seawater and the freshwater lens is a more dominant hydrogeochemical process on Roi because of the greater recharge and flushing of the aquifer with freshwater as compared to Namur. In contrast, equilibrium processes and dissolution-precipitation non-equilibrium reactions are more dominant on Namur because of the longer residence times relative to the rate of geochemical reactions. Findings from Roi-Namur Island support selective land-use/land-cover change and

  8. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards the left side of

  9. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  10. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  11. Chlorophyll increase due to internal waves in the shelf-break of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sangrà

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows observational evidence of internal wave generation and mixing in the southwest shelf-break region of Gran Canaria Island. Signals of periodic internal motion and related mixing events were detected through large pycnocline variations and subcritical gradient Richardson events. Broad areas of homogeneous dense water over the slope, where the vertical temperature field displays a wave-like pattern, provide further evidences of internal wave mixing in this region. The observed diapycnal chlorophyll transport matches with mixing events, suggesting a periodic nutrient supply to the euphotic zone through internal wave mixing. We postulate that internal wave mixing may be an important mechanism contributing to the biological enhancement reported southwest of Gran Canaria Island.

  12. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works.......The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  13. Sediment Management Options for Galveston Island, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. The shoreline along the...approximately 235°. The island is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico , the Galveston Entrance Channel to the northeast, West Bay to the northwest, and San...plants on both ends of the island are the best strategies to widen the beaches of Galveston Island, improve tourism , and better protect the island

  14. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  15. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document addresses the Three Mile Island accident which resulted in a core partial fusion. It recalls that other reactors of this plant are still being operated. The operation of this PWR is briefly described, and the main events and phases of the accident are briefly presented (failure of the secondary circuit supply pump, failure of a pressurizer component and wrong information about it, mistaken reaction in the control room, core partial fusion due to insufficient cooling means). It shows that the accident occurred because of a combination of technical failures and human mistakes. This situation has put operator education and organisation into question again. The main actors and their mistakes, weaknesses and responsibilities are indicated: Metropolitan Edison (the operator), the NRC (the US nuclear safety authority). Some key figures are recalled, as well as the context of construction of the plant. Impacts and consequences are reviewed: implementation of new standards, population concern. The document outlines that radioactive exposures due to the accident were minor

  16. Island mass effect in the Juan Fernández Archipelago (33°S), Southeastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Isabel; Sangrà, Pablo; Hormazabal, Samuel; Correa-Ramirez, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of the island mass effect (IME; defined as local increases of phytoplankton associated with the presence of islands) at the Juan Fernández Archipelago (JFA) is analyzed using chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) satellite data, altimetry, sea surface temperature, wind, geostrophic currents and net heat flux over a ten year period (2002-2012). The the JFA islands (Robinson Crusoe-Santa Clara (RC-SC) and Alejandro Selkirk (AS)) present wakes with significant Chl-a increases, mainly during spring time. These wakes can reach Chl-a values of one order of magnitude higher (~1 mg m-3) than the surrounding oligotrophic waters (<0.1 mg m-3). The wakes are similar to von Kármán vortex streets which have been used to explain the impact of IME on Chl-a increases in numerical models. The wakes are formed from a high productivity area in the lee of the island, extending to the oceanic region as high Chl-a patches associated with submesoscale eddies that are detached from the islands and connected by less-productive zones. This pattern coincides with previous models that predict the effects of island-generated flow perturbations on biological production variability. The IME is a recurrent feature of islands that has even been observed in decadal average fields. In such average fields, the Chl-a values in RC-SC and AS islands can exceed values found in a Control Zone (a zone without islands) by ~50% and 30%, respectively. Seasonal and interannual variability reveals that, as a consequence of the IME, the winter Chl-a maximum associated with the development of winter convection and mesoscale eddies that propagate from the continental zone, promote that the Chl-a maximum extends towards spring. The IME has an impact on the island on both a local as well as a more regional scale that affects an area of ~40,000 km2 (1°Latitude×4°Longitude) centered on the islands. The transport of high productivity patches associated with submesoscale eddies may be responsible

  17. Geology and geochemistry of the Geyser Bight Geothermal Area, Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, C.J. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (USA). Geophysical Inst. Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK (USA). Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Motyka, R.J. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Juneau, AK (USA). Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Turner, D.L. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (USA). Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairba

    1990-10-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area is located on Umnak Island in the central Aleutian Islands. It contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs and fumaroles in Alaska, and is only documented site in Alaska with geysers. The zone of hot springs and fumaroles lies at the head of Geyser Creek, 5 km up a broad, flat, alluvial valley from Geyser Bight. At present central Umnak is remote and undeveloped. This report describes results of a combined program of geologic mapping, K-Ar dating, detailed description of hot springs, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic and plutonic rock units, and chemistry of geothermal fluids. Our mapping documents the presence of plutonic rock much closer to the area of hotsprings and fumaroles than previously known, thus increasing the probability that plutonic rock may host the geothermal system. K-Ar dating of 23 samples provides a time framework for the eruptive history of volcanic rocks as well as a plutonic cooling age.

  18. Nuclear weapons free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The article analyses the concept and problems of the two nuclear weapons free zones in Latin America and in the South Pacific established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty of Rarotonga. So far the nuclear weapons states except China have refused to sign the additional protocols of the Treaties or have signed them only with considerable provisos. Therefore they don't fully recognize the nuclear weapons free status of those zones, or they don't recognize it at all. Both Treaties contain no provisions to regulate the transit of nuclear weapons through the zones. This allows de facto the stationing of nuclear weapons in the military bases of the US which are located within the nuclear weapons free zone of Latin America. The Treaty of Tlatelolco contains also the right of the states, party to the Treaty, to explode nuclear devices for peaceful purposes. Since peaceful and military nuclear explosions cannot be distinguished technically, this right could also undermine the nuclear weapons free status of the region. Important nuclear threshold countries like Argentina and Brazil have furthermore refrained from putting the Treaty into force. (orig.) [de

  19. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  20. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  1. Buffer Zone, Nicosia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Marie Louise

    2010-01-01

    Images of the United Nations Buffer Zone or Green Line which has partitioned Cyprus since 1974 The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n° 217411.

  2. Numerical simulations of significant orographic precipitation in Madeira island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Flavio Tiago; Ducrocq, Véronique; Salgado, Rui; Costa, Maria João

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution simulations of high precipitation events with the MESO-NH model are presented, and also used to verify that increasing horizontal resolution in zones of complex orography, such as in Madeira island, improve the simulation of the spatial distribution and total precipitation. The simulations succeeded in reproducing the general structure of the cloudy systems over the ocean in the four periods considered of significant accumulated precipitation. The accumulated precipitation over the Madeira was better represented with the 0.5 km horizontal resolution and occurred under four distinct synoptic situations. Different spatial patterns of the rainfall distribution over the Madeira have been identified.

  3. Early Cretaceous dextral transpressional deformation within the Median Batholith, Stewart Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Tulloch, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The character, timing, and significance of deformation within the Median Batholith has been debated since at least 1967, with allochthonous and autochthonous models proposed to account for internal variations in the character of the batholith. Stewart Island provides excellent exposures of intrabatholithic structures, allowing many aspects of the deformation history within the batholith to be analysed, far removed from the effects of later deformation related to the current plate boundary. Median Batholith rocks in northern and central Stewart Island are deformed by three major structures: the Freshwater Fault System, Escarpment Fault, and Gutter Shear Zone. Lineation orientations, Al in hornblende geobarometry, and Ar-Ar thermochronology indicate up to c. 7 km of NNE-directed uplift of the hanging wall of the Escarpment Fault between c. 110 and 105 Ma. Unlike the Escarpment Fault, a wide range of mineral elongation lineation orientations, including many oblique to the strike and dip of related foliations, characterise both the Gutter Shear Zone and Freshwater Fault System. Lineation and limited sense of shear data indicate dextral-reverse movement on both structures during development of their dominant ductile fabrics. Crosscutting and intrusive relationships indicate movement on the Freshwater Fault System after c. 130 Ma and on the Gutter Shear Zone between 120 and 112 Ma. The amount of movement on the Freshwater Fault System and Gutter Shear Zone remains largely unconstrained. However, the 342 ± 24 Ma age of a granite clast in a Paterson Group lithic tuff horizon at Abrahams Bay overlaps that of Carboniferous plutons in the block immediately south of the Freshwater Fault System, implying that the Paterson Group is little displaced from the basement rocks through which it was erupted. The three structures mapped on Stewart Island form part of a narrow transpressional mobile belt active within the Jurassic-Cretaceous arc on the outboard margin of the Western

  4. 76 FR 44803 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local... safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, regulated navigation areas or drawbridge...

  5. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... published in the Federal Register. This document lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local... safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, regulated navigation areas or drawbridge...

  6. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of our draft comprehensive conservation plan (CCP), draft wilderness stewardship plan (WSP), and environmental assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs, Refuges) for public review and comment. The Draft CCP/WSP/EA describes our alternatives, including our preferred alternative, for managing the Refuges for the 15 years following approval of the final CCP/WSP.

  7. Geomorphology and Depositional Subenvironments of Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Rogers, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is studying coastal hazards and coastal change to improve our understanding of coastal ecosystems and to develop better capabilities of predicting future coastal change. One approach to understanding the dynamics of coastal systems is to monitor changes in barrier-island subenvironments through time. This involves examining morphological and topographic change at temporal scales ranging from millennia to years and spatial scales ranging from tens of kilometers to meters. Of particular interest are the processes that produce those changes and the determination of whether or not those processes are likely to persist into the future. In these analyses of hazards and change, both natural and anthropogenic influences are considered. Quantifying past magnitudes and rates of coastal change and knowing the principal factors that govern those changes are critical to predicting what changes are likely to occur under different scenarios, such as short-term impacts of extreme storms or long-term impacts of sea-level rise. Gulf Islands National Seashore was selected for detailed mapping of barrier-island morphology and topography because the islands offer a diversity of depositional subenvironments and the islands' areas and positions have changed substantially in historical time. The geomorphologic and subenvironmental maps emphasize the processes that formed the surficial features and also serve as a basis for documenting which subenvironments are relatively stable, such as the beach ridge complex, and those which are highly dynamic, such as the beach and active overwash zones. The primary mapping procedures used supervised functions within a Geographic Information System (GIS) that classified depositional subenvironments and features (map units) and delineated boundaries of the features (shapefiles). The GIS classified units on the basis of tonal patterns of a feature in contrast to adjacent features observed on georeferenced aerial

  8. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  9. The oroclinal bend in the South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, N.

    2014-07-01

    Most of the South Island of New Zealand lies within an Eocene-Recent continental shear zone related to Pacific-Australia plate motion. Macroscopic finite strain in this shear zone has, in the past, been tracked through the deformation of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt. This paper identifies additional sub-vertical basement strain markers including: Buller-Takaka Terrane boundary, Darran Suite and Jurassic volcanic belt within the Median Batholith, Taieri-Wakatipu-Goulter Synform axial trace, Esk Head Melange and bedding form surfaces within the Buller, Takaka and Torlesse terranes. An analysis of the oroclinal bend over the entire Zealandia continent shows that it is a composite feature involving pre- as well as post-Eocene bending of basement structures. Satisfactory paleogeographic reconstructions of Zealandia cannot be made without the use of substantial regional scale, non-rigid intracontinental deformation.

  10. Evaluation of Ohio work zone speed zones process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of analyses performed to determine the effectiveness of Ohio Department of Transportation processes for establishing work zone speed zones. Researchers observed motorists speed choice upstream of a...

  11. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  12. Re-evaluating the origins of late Pleistocene fire areas on Santa Rosa Island, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Torben C.; Wah, John S.; Erlandson, Jon M.

    2012-09-01

    At the close of the Pleistocene, fire regimes in North America changed significantly in response to climate change, megafaunal extinctions, anthropogenic burning and, possibly, even an extraterrestrial impact. On California's Channel Islands, researchers have long debated the nature of late Pleistocene "fire areas," discrete red zones in sedimentary deposits, interpreted by some as prehistoric mammoth-roasting pits created by humans. Further research found no evidence that these red zones were cultural in origin, and two hypotheses were advanced to explain their origin: natural fires and groundwater processes. Radiocarbon dating, X-ray diffraction analysis, and identification of charcoal from six red zones on Santa Rosa Island suggest that the studied features date between ~ 27,500 and 11,400 cal yr BP and resulted from burning or heating, not from groundwater processes. Our results show that fire was a component of late Pleistocene Channel Island ecology prior to and after human colonization of the islands, with no clear evidence for increased fire frequency coincident with Paleoindian settlement, extinction of pygmy mammoths, or a proposed Younger Dryas impact event.

  13. Inferences from gravity data interpretation of the volcanic complexes of the Terceira Island (Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, Fuensanta G.; Nunes, Joao Carlos; Arnoso, José; Luque, Teresa; Medeiros, Sara; Benavent, Maite; Vieira, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Terceira Island, together with Graciosa, São Jorge, Pico and Faial islands form the Central Group of the Azores Archipelago. Located in the Terceira Rift, this island shows an active volcanism (with a wide variety of rocks compositions and structures) and an important seismic activity. From east to west, Terceira Island includes four central polygenetic volcanoes with caldera (Serra do Cume, Guilherme Moniz, Pico Alto and Santa Bárbara) and a Basaltic Fissural Zone, mainly in the central and SE parts of the island. The volcanic activity from these central volcanoes took place mostly in Quaternary times. After the settlement of the island (in the fifteenth century) three basaltic volcanic eruptions took place: in 1761 (on-land) and in 1867 and 1998-2000, the latter two off-shore the NW coast of the island. Regarding seismicity, Terceira Island has been affected by several damaging earthquakes, like the Praia da Vitória earthquakes in 1614 and in 1841, and the January 1st, 1980 earthquake, the strongest in Azores in the last century, with M=7.2. For most of these earthquakes and others (like the 1997 and 1998 seismic crisis) there was an anomalous Mercalli Modified Intensity distribution throughout the island, with higher intensity at the eastern zone. We present a study of the structural setting of the volcanic island of Terceira by the analysis and interpretation of high-resolution gravity, geological and volcanological data recently acquired over the island (the last gravity survey on July 2008). We have carried out a structural study of the subsurface by means of gravity inverse problem, looking for information about lateral changes in mass distribution for crustal-upper mantle models and their correlation with the geologic, tectonic and volcanic edifices of the island and also with local seismic amplification phenomena registered in the island. We employ an inverse methodology based in a genetic algorithm, which has been applied with success on other volcanic

  14. Morphostructural Development of Gunungsewu Karst, Jawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Tjia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.157Gunungsewu Karst (also known as Sewu karst in the literature is synonymous with morphology of a carbonate terrain dominated by hills crowned by accordant-level tops that developed in a humid tropical environment by comparatively more rapid dissolution and denudation. In addition, the hills are sinoid to cone-shaped. Surface drainage is negligible compared to subsurface water flow. Abandoned channel segments and spatial arrangements of karst hills have been found to correspond with fracture patterns that are genetically associated with the regional compression direction of Jawa Island. Images derived from space platforms show many landform patterns that were neither known from ground-based nor from aerial photograph study. Landforms arranged in ring, multi-ring, spiral, polygonal, and long linear to serpentine patterns are common beside the expected depressions of dolines, poljes, and uvalas. The orientations of the long linear ridges appear to change systematically from those near the coast to those located inland. These linear ridges are interpreted as depositional fronts, most likely representing breaker zones. The youngest depositional ridge fronts, located nearest to the present shoreline, are parallel to the geological strike of Jawa Island. Toward the island’s interior, linear depositional fronts deviate in orientation by as much as 40o. This is now interpreted to have resulted from counterclockwise rotation of the Gunungsewu microplate since the late Middle Miocene. Similar CCW rotations are indicated by the paleomagnetic orientations of igneous rocks located farther east in the southern range of the island. Active tectonics is expressed in stage-wise net uplift of Gunungsewu whereas regional tilting appears negligible. Stacked and often paired river terraces (thus suggesting land uplift have been used to relatively date paleoarcheological finds. Very recent uplift on the coast show up in lazy-V limestone

  15. Evidence for shallow megathrust slip across the Unalaska seismic gap during the great 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake, eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolsky, D. J.; Freymueller, J.T.; Witter, R.C.; Suleimani, E. N.; Koehler, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    We reassess the slip distribution of the 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake in the eastern part of the aftershock zone where published slip models infer little or no slip. Eyewitness reports, tide gauge data, and geological evidence for 9–23 m tsunami runups imply seafloor deformation offshore Unalaska Island in 1957, in contrast with previous studies that labeled the area a seismic gap. Here, we simulate tsunami dynamics for a suite of deformation models that vary in depth and amount of megathrust slip. Tsunami simulations show that a shallow (5–15 km deep) rupture with ~20 m of slip most closely reproduces the 1957 Dutch Harbor marigram and nearby >18 m runup at Sedanka Island marked by stranded drift logs. Models that place slip >20 km predict waves that arrive too soon. Our results imply that shallow slip on the megathrust in 1957 extended east into an area that presently creeps.

  16. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  17. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  18. Geology and geochronology of the sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.M.; Turnbull, I.M.; Sagar, M.W.; Tulloch, A.J.; Waight, T.E.; Palin, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The first comprehensive geological map, a summary of lithologies and new radiogenic isotope data (U-Pb, Rb-Sr) are presented for crystalline rocks of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, 150 km south of Stewart Island. The main lithology is Snares Granite (c. 109 Ma from U-Pb dating of zircon), which intrudes Broughton Granodiorite (c. 114 Ma from U-Pb zircon) on Broughton Island. Rafts of schist within Snares Granite are common on the outlying Western Chain islets, and rare on North East and Broughton islands. Zircon grains extracted from one schistose raft on Broughton Island are prismatic and yield an essentially unimodal age population of c. 116 Ma that is within error of the granodiorite. These properties suggest that the dated raft represents a meta-igneous rock despite its mica-rich nature. Some schistose rocks on the Western Chain contain coarse relict plagioclase phenocrysts and appear to have an igneous protolith. No conclusive metasedimentary rocks have been identified, although sillimanite-bearing mica-rich schist occurs on Rua. Deformation of the crystalline rocks occurred after Snares Granite intrusion and before cooling below muscovite K-Ar closure at 400 ± 50 degrees C at 95 Ma. This period overlaps the age of extensional ductile shear zones on Stewart Island. The discovery of several basaltic dykes, which cut across fabrics and are unmetamorphosed, indicates that volcanic rocks are associated with all Sub-Antarctic island groups. The larger of the islands are overlain by peat, which on North East Island also contains gravel deposits. (author).

  19. The nature of magnetic anomalies in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnitskii, A. M.; Brusilovskii, Yu. V.; Ivanenko, A. N.; Popov, K. V.; Shishkina, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of the magnetic survey data suggests the presence of a frontal zone of intense magnetic anomalies in a number of the Pacific island-arc systems. These zones with amplitudes of 100-300 nT are observed within the Kuril-Kamchatka and Aleutian island arc systems, in Southern and Central America, and Alaska. As demonstrated by the solution of the inverse problem and petromagnetic investigation of the rocks, these zones are presumably related to the serpentinite bodies which form as a result of the hydration of the upper mantle peridotites by the oceanic water penetrating through a system of cracks and fractures into the subducting slab at its bend. The rock magnetic studies show that magnetite is the main carrier of magnetization in these serpentinite bodies. Hydration of the subducting slab also causes hydration of the mantle rocks of the overriding plate with the formation of the magnetized serpentinite wedge. The decompaction of ultrabasic rocks under hydration is marked by a decrease in the gravity field and velocities of elastic waves. As the subducting plate loses water, it becomes embrittled and becomes the localization region for the epicenters of the strongest earthquakes. Magnetic survey can be used for revealing the potential sources of catastrophic earthquakes.

  20. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.