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Sample records for east-godavari delta andhra

  1. Analysing ethnobotanical and fishery-related importance of mangroves of the East-Godavari Delta (Andhra Pradesh, India for conservation and management purposes

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    Ravishankar T

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mangrove forests, though essentially common and wide-spread, are highly threatened. Local societies along with their knowledge about the mangrove also are endangered, while they are still underrepresented as scientific research topics. With the present study we document local utilization patterns, and perception of ecosystem change. We illustrate how information generated by ethnobiological research can be used to strengthen the management of the ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Godavari mangrove forest located in the East-Godavari District of the state Andhra Pradesh in India, where mangroves have been degrading due to over-exploitation, extensive development of aquaculture, and pollution from rural and urbanized areas (Kakinada. One hundred interviews were carried out among the fisherfolk population present in two mangrove zones in the study area, a wildlife sanctuary with strong conservation status and an adjacent zone. Results from the interviews indicated that Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh., a dominant species in the Godavari mangroves, is used most frequently as firewood and for construction. Multiple products of the mangrove included the bark of Ceriops decandra (Griff. Ding Hou to dye the fishing nets and improve their durability, the bark of Aegiceras corniculatum (L. Blanco to poison and catch fish, and the leaves of Avicennia spp. and Excoecaria agallocha L. as fodder for cattle. No medicinal uses of true mangrove species were reported, but there were a few traditional uses for mangrove associates. Utilization patterns varied in the two zones that we investigated, most likely due to differences in their ecology and legal status. The findings are discussed in relation with the demographic and socio-economic traits of the fisherfolk communities of the Godavari mangroves and indicate a clear dependency of their livelihood on the mangrove forest. Reported changes in the Godavari mangrove cover also differed in the two

  2. New population of Cycas spheric Roxb. (Cycadaceae discovered in Pinjarikonda Reserve Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    J.P. Rao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cycas sphaerica Roxb., an Eastern Ghats endemic, known from different localities of Odisha and Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh is located in Pinjarikonda Reserve Forest of East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh. Nearly 700 individuals were observed in the study area. Present report extends the distribution range of the species in Andhra Pradesh.

  3. CORONARY ARTERY DOMINANCE PATTERN IN EAST-GODAVARI DISTRICT: A CADAVERIC STUDY

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    Arindom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of coronary angiography, coronary artery diseases can be well combated; but with time sedentary life style and stress as our constant partner have kept coronary artery disease as one of the major causes of death. Revascularization procedures demand a sound knowledge of the course of coronary arteries and their branches, both normal and their quite common variations. In this regard, posterior inter-ventricular artery (PIVA deserves a special importance; PIVA determines the coronary dominance depending on its parent artery. Dominance can be right, left or of balanced type. Balanced type means that PIVA is derived from both right & left coronary arteries. Circulation can occur when both the coronary arteries emit a branch in that area. These and other variations form a very important repertoire of information based on which coronary bypass surgery and angioplasty can be safely and effectively performed. The aim of this study therefore is to document the coronary dominance pattern in this East Godavari district of Andhra-Pradesh. 60 adult human hearts were collected from museum of Anatomy department during the tenure of 5 years (2009 to 2014 and were preserved in 10% formalin. The hearts were dissected carefully to observe the posterior inter-ventricular artery in the posterior inter-ventricular sulcus of each heart and dominance pattern was recorded. In our present study right dominance type was the commonest (46 out of 60 followed by left dominance (10 out of 60. Only 4 out of 60 were of the balanced type. Present study, though not of the only member of its kind will definitely add up to the already existing vast knowledge, based on which various diagnostic and therapeutic intervention of coronary artery diseases can be done effectively and safely

  4. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Western Delta region of River Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara Rao, P. V.; Appa Rao, S.; Subba Rao, N.

    2017-05-01

    The present study on geochemical evolution of groundwater is taken up to assess the controlling processes of water chemistry in the Western Delta region of the River Godavari (Andhra Pradesh), which is one of the major rice-producing centers in India. The study region is underlain by coarse sand with black clay (buried channels), black silty clay of recent origin (floodplain) and gray/white fine sand of modern beach sediment of marine source (coastal zone), including brown silty clay with fine sand (paleo-beach ridges). Groundwater is mostly brackish and very hard. It is characterized by Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:HCO3 - > Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3 -, Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-, and Mg2+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > or Cl- > or > SO4 2- facies. The ionic relations (Ca2+ + Mg2+:HCO3 -, Ca2+ + Mg2+:SO4 2- + HCO3 -, Na+ + K+:TC, Na+ + K+:Cl- + SO4 2-, HCO3 -:TC, HCO3 -:Ca2+ + Mg2+, Na+:Cl- and Na+:Ca2+) indicate that the rock weathering, mineral dissolution, evaporation and ion exchange are the processes to control the aquifer chemistry. Anthropogenic and marine sources are also the supplementary factors for brackish water quality. These observations are further supported by Gibbs mechanisms that control the water chemistry. Thus, the study suggests that the initial quality of groundwater of geogenic origin has been subsequently modified by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources.

  5. Syn-Rift Systems of East Godavari Sub Basin: Its Evolution and Hydrocarbon Prospectivity

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    Dash, J., Jr.; Zaman, B.

    2014-12-01

    Krishna Godavari (K.G.) basin is a passive margin basin developed along the Eastern coast of India. This basin has a polyhistoric evolution with multiple rift systems. Rift basin exploration has provided the oil and gas industry with almost one third of discovered global hydrocarbon resources. Understanding synrift sequences, their evolution, depositional styles and hydrocarbon prospectivity has become important with recent discovery of the wells, G-4-6,YS-AF and KG-8 in the K.G. offshore basin. The East Godavari subbasin is a hydrocarbon producing basin from synrift and pre-rift sediments, and hence this was selected as the study area for this research. The study has been carried out by utilizing data of around 58 wells (w1-w58) drilled in the study area 25 of which are hydrocarbon bearing with organic thickness varying from 200 m to 600 m. Age data generated by palaentology and palynology studies have been utilized for calibration of key well logs to differentiate between formations within prerift and synrift sediments. The electrologs of wells like resistivity, gamma ray, neutron, density and sonic logs have been utilized for correlation of different formations in all the drilled wells. The individual thicknesses of sand, shale and coal in the formations have been calculated and tabulated. For Golapalli formation, the isopach and isolith maps were generated which revealed that there were four depocentres with input from the north direction. Schematic geological cross sections were prepared using the well data and seismic data to understand the facies variation across the basin. The sedimentological and petrophysical analysis reports and electro log suites were referred to decipher the environment of deposition, the reservoir characteristics, and play types. The geochemical reports [w4 (Tmax)= 455-468 °C; w1 (Tmax) = 467-514 °C; w4(VRO)= 0.65-0.85; w1(VRO)= 0.83-1.13] revealed the source facies, its maturation and migration timings i.e. the petroleum systems

  6. Geophysical and Seawater intrusion models to distinguish Modern and Palaeo salinity in the Central Godvari Delta, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Lagudu, S.; Nandan, M. J.; Durgaprasad, M.; Gurunadha Rao, V. V. S.

    2015-12-01

    Central Godavari Delta is located in the East coast of Andhra Pradesh along Bay of Bengal. Ample surface water is made available for irrigation and aqua culture through well distributed canals drawn from Godavari River since last 150 years. Groundwater in the area is highly saline though the groundwater levels are very shallow ranging from 1 to 3 m below ground level. Integrated Electrical Resistivity Tomograms (ERT), hydrochemical (pH, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, F-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, HCO3- and CO3-), isotopic (Br- and δ18O ) and density dependant solute tranport (SEAWAT) modelling studies have been carried out for four years (2006, 2007, 2014 and 2015) to identify the salinity sources and to understand the possible extent of seawater intrusion. The integration of all these data sets revealed that coarse grained sands exhibits resistivity of 4-20 Ωm forming the surface layer, clay layer exhibits Na2++ K+) and (Ca2++Mg2+), (Na+-Cl- ) vs. Ca2++Mg2+-HCO3--SO42-)) and ionic ratios ( Na2+/Cl-, SO42-/Cl-, Mg2+/Ca2+, Mg2+/Cl- and Cl-/Br) and δ18O does not reflect any modern seawater signatures. These models indicated that salinity in the shallow wells is due to dissolution of evaporitic minerals and ion exchange processes. In the pumping wells the salinity is due to upconing of entrapped sea water that belongs to Palaeo origin and wells located near the coast and mudflats is due to physical mixing of marine water. The estimated regional groundwater balance using SEAWAT model indicate significant amount of submarine groundwater discharge as outfall to the Bay of Bengal. Assuming observed hydrological conditions, no considerable advance in seawater intrusion would be expected into the delta region.

  7. The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikku, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra

  8. Compression of women's reproductive spans in Andhra Pradesh, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, SS; Hutter, [No Value; Willekens, F

    CONTEXT. The total fertility rate in Andhra Pradesh, India, has recently decreased to near-replacement level; however, the reasons for the fertility decline are unknown. METHODS: Data from the second round of the National Family Health Survey were used to examine the reproductive span-the duration

  9. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  10. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    residual gravity profile data were interpreted using 2-D prism models. The results ... Geological and geophysical layout map of the Gadwal schist belt area, Andhra Pradesh (after Ananda Murty and ... Observed gravity (Bouguer) values, regional, residual and inferred gravity models along traverse I of the Gadwal schist.

  11. Distribution of Lygosoma guentheri (Peter, 1879 (Reptilia: Scincidae in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    S.M.M. Javed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lygosoma guentheri (Peter, 1879, hitherto a Western Ghats endemic species, has been recently recorded from the central Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh based on a specimen collected in the Nallamalai Hills in 2003. Our herpetological surveys in Andhra Pradesh reveal the presence of Lygosoma guentheri (Peter, 1879 in a few more localities other than the Nallamalai Hills. This paper deals with the distribution and status of Lygosoma guentheri (Peter, 1879 in Andhra Pradesh based on recent sightings and collections.

  12. Personnel monitoring of DAE workers in Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma Savitri, P.; Bhattacharya, Madhumita; Reddy, K.S.; Chourasiya, G.

    2008-01-01

    Occupational exposure to radiation occurs in an organization, which involves work with radioactive sources directly or indirectly. It is recognized that radiation protection is only one component that must be addressed to protect the overall health and safety of the workers. Radiation monitoring is one of the key issues in radiological protection. TLD Unit, Hyderabad is part of the Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, HS and E group, BARC and has been functioning at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad since 1985. The unit monitors external dose to 1800 occupation workers from six Department of Atomic Energy units namely Nuclear Fuel Complex, Atomic Minerals Division, Electronic Corporation of India Limited, National Centre for Composition and Characterization of Materials, JONAKI, Hospital in Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru of Andhra Pradesh. This paper analyses dose distribution of radiation workers working in DAE facilities of Andhra Pradesh since the services started to the respective institutions. Excessive exposures of radiation cases are also presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Coastal processes along north Kakinada Coast, Andhra Pradesh based on short-term study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raju, N.S.N.; AshokKumar, K.; Gowthaman, R.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    Kakinada is situated in the central part of the Andhra Pradesh State on the east coast of India. To cater to recreational activities of the people in this coastal town, the Andhra Pradesh State Government has taken up an interactive to develop...

  14. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

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    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  15. Delta Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette

    . The warming air temperature affects the soil temperature and permafrost thaws and destabilizes the material in the coastal zone. In Greenland, the warming temperature lowers the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet and more material is transported to the coastal zone. The sea ice extent is thinning...... of a fjord and the second type is a wider fan-shaped open delta. Most deltas are directly coupled to the Greenland Ice Sheet or local icecaps and are highly influenced by the dynamics in the catchments. It is demonstrated how a modern changing climate directly affects delta dynamics, and that Greenlandic...... deltas are prograding, contrary to the global trend showing eroding Arctic coasts. Moreover, it is revealed that the increasing proglacial freshwater runoff, caused by a lowering of the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is the main determining agent in delta progradation. The final part...

  16. GIS for public health : A study of Andhra Pradesh

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    Shrinagesh, B.; Kalpana, Markandey; Kiran, Baktula

    2014-06-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing have capabilities that are ideally suited for use in infectious disease surveillance and control, particularly for the many vector-borne neglected diseases that are often found in poor populations in remote rural areas. They are also highly relevant to meet the demands of outbreak investigation and response, where prompt location of cases, rapid communication of information, and quick mapping of the epidemic's dynamics are vital. The situation has changed dramatically over the past few years. GIS helps in determining geographic distribution of diseases, analysing spatial and temporal trends, Mapping populations at risk, Stratifying risk factors, Assessing resource allocation, Planning and targeting interventions, Monitoring diseases and interventions over time. There are vast disparities in people's health even among the different districts across the state of Andhra Pradesh largely attributed to the resource allocation by the state government. Despite having centers of excellence in healthcare delivery, these facilities are limited and are inadequate in meeting the current healthcare demands. The main objectives are to study the prevalent diseases in Andhra Pradesh, to study the infrastructural facilities available in A.P. The methodology includes the Spatial Database, which will be mostly in the form of digitized format. The Non-Spatial Database includes both secondary data as well as the primary data.

  17. GIS for public health : A study of Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrinagesh, B; Kalpana, Markandey; Kiran, Baktula

    2014-01-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing have capabilities that are ideally suited for use in infectious disease surveillance and control, particularly for the many vector-borne neglected diseases that are often found in poor populations in remote rural areas. They are also highly relevant to meet the demands of outbreak investigation and response, where prompt location of cases, rapid communication of information, and quick mapping of the epidemic's dynamics are vital. The situation has changed dramatically over the past few years. GIS helps in determining geographic distribution of diseases, analysing spatial and temporal trends, Mapping populations at risk, Stratifying risk factors, Assessing resource allocation, Planning and targeting interventions, Monitoring diseases and interventions over time. There are vast disparities in people's health even among the different districts across the state of Andhra Pradesh largely attributed to the resource allocation by the state government. Despite having centers of excellence in healthcare delivery, these facilities are limited and are inadequate in meeting the current healthcare demands. The main objectives are to study the prevalent diseases in Andhra Pradesh, to study the infrastructural facilities available in A.P. The methodology includes the Spatial Database, which will be mostly in the form of digitized format. The Non-Spatial Database includes both secondary data as well as the primary data

  18. Maritime History of Andhra Pradesh and Prospects for Marine Archaeological Research

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Archaeological, epigraphical, numismatic and other sources confirm that similar to ports in other coastal states of India, the ports of Andhra Pradesh had played a significant role in spreading Indian culture overseas to other countries. In course...

  19. A Single-hole stone anchor from Kottapatnam: Early historic port site of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Rao, K.P.; Kumari, S.; Imsong, O.; Vanlalhruaitluangi, V.

    of Kottapatnam and this is the first stone anchor reported from Andhra coast. In this paper the single hole stone anchor has been detailed along with its probable period and the trade contacts of Kottapatnam as a port...

  20. Ethno – Medico – Botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar District, Andhra Pradesh

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    Kumar, T. Dharmachandra; Pullaiah, T.

    1999-01-01

    The present paper deals with the ethno-medico-botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar district, Andhra Pradesh. About fourty four plants are enumerated with knowledge of the tribals for their medicinal uses in curing different diseases and ailments. PMID:22556915

  1. The birds of Araku, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    T.S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avifaunal survey carried out from December 2006 to September 2007 in Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, revealed the presence of a total of 147 species of birds belonging to 43 families. One-hundred-twelve species of birds in Araku Valley were resident breeders, 23 species winter visitors, nine species local migrants, two species passage migrants and one species summer visitor. Many bird species were seen in more than one habitat for nesting, roosting and foraging. The dominant feeding guild of birds was insectivorous. Four globally threatened species, namely, the Purple Wood-Pigeon Columba punicea Blyth, 1842, the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga Pallas, 1811, the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Fleischer, 1818 and the Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus (S.G. Gmelin, 1770, were recorded during the survey from the area

  2. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

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    Srinivas Moogala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. Results: In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Conclusion: Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.

  3. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CLINICOEPIDEMIOLOGY AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF SCORPION STING IN KONASEEMA REGION OF ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Gayatri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Scorpions live in warm, dry regions throughout India. They inhabit commonly the crevices of dwellings, underground burrows, under logs or debris, paddy husk, sugar cane fields, coconut and banana. Scorpion stings are primarily due to accidental contact with scorpion. Konaseema region of Andhra Pradesh is delta of Godavari river. Because of good irrigation there is rich cultivation of banana and paddy and there are plenty of coconut plantations, so that is a good habitat for scorpions. METHOD Present study is a hospital based retrospective study. All the data related to the scorpion sting in Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences admitted during Jan 2012 to Jan 2016 has been collected. RESULT Total 54 patients of all the age group and both the sexes were included in to the study. Out of 54 patients, 32 were male and 22 were female. Regarding signs of scorpion sting, tachycardia was present in 40 patients, ten patients developed hypertension. Six patients developed arrhythmia. Dyspnoea and convulsion was present in 6 and 2 patients respectively. DISCUSSION Scorpion venom is classified as per its structure, mode of action and binding site. Regarding complications of scorpion sting, four patients developed pulmonary oedema and 3 having convulsion. Out of all 54 patients, 53 were recovered and 1 patient died. CONCLUSION With the availability of potent vasodilators like prazosin and good ICU facilities, the incidence of death and complication due to scorpion bite has reduced.

  4. Natural radioactivity levels in Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.V.K.; Reddy, C.G.; Reddy, P.Y.; Reddy, K.R.; Reddy, B.S.; Sagar, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years, there has been a great deal of concern and awareness all over the world about the exposure from environmental radiation and its perceived detrimental effects. Therefore, it becomes mandatory to estimate the radiation levels not only for the purpose of prospecting for nuclear fuels but also for determination of safe human habitat regions. In the present study, an attempt is made to estimate the natural radioactivity levels in the soils of Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh, India using NaI(Tl) gamma scintillation spectrometer. The mean uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations in soils of the district are found to be 27±17, 81±51 and 726±289 Bq Kg -1 , respectively. The gamma dose rates are calculated using conversion factors recommended by UNSCEAR 2000. The gamma radiation dose in air is also measured directly by using thermoluminescence dosimetry and G.M.(Geiger - Muller) tube based survey meter. The correlation between the dose rates derived from these two techniques is discussed. The dose variation with the geology has been analysed. (authors)

  5. Tuberculosis management practices by private practitioners in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achanta, Shanta; Jaju, Jyoti; Kumar, Ajay M V; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Shamrao, Srinivas Rao Motta; Bandi, Sasidhar Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Harries, Anthony David; Nair, Sreenivas Achutan; Dewan, Puneet K

    2013-01-01

    Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC), and factors associated with compliance with ISTC. Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews. Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68%) were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6%) followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14%) private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment). Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine. Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance.

  6. Tuberculosis management practices by private practitioners in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta Achanta

    Full Text Available SETTING: Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC, and factors associated with compliance with ISTC. DESIGN: Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68% were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6% followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14% private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment. Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine. CONCLUSION: Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance.

  7. Games for groundwater governance: field experiments in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Ruth Meinzen-Dick

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a common-pool resource that is subject to depletion in many places around the world as a result of increased use of irrigation and water-demanding cash crops. Where state capacity to control groundwater use is limited, collective action is important to increase recharge and restrict highly water-consumptive crops. We present results of field experiments in hard rock areas of Andhra Pradesh, India, to examine factors affecting groundwater use. Two nongovernmental organizations (NGOs ran the games in communities where they were working to improve watershed and water management. Results indicate that, when the links between crop choice and groundwater depletion is made explicit, farmers can act cooperatively to address this problem. Longer NGO involvement in the villages was associated with more cooperative outcomes in the games. Individuals with more education and higher perceived community social capital played more cooperatively, but neither gender nor method of payment had a significantly effect on individual behavior. When participants could repeat the game with communication, similar crop choice patterns were observed. The games provided an entry point for discussion on the understanding of communities of the interconnectedness of groundwater use and crop choice.

  8. Diphtheria in Andhra Pradesh-a clinical-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Meera; M, Rajarao

    2014-02-01

    Clinical diphtheria is on the increase worldwide, mainly affecting developing countries. We sought to understand its presentation among patients at Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Tropical and Communicable Diseases in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Diphtheria patients presented with fever, pharyngitis, and a patch in the throat. Data collected for each patient included age, clinical presentation, morbidity, mortality, bacteria isolated from culture, and immunization status. Of 61 950 admissions from January 2008 to December 2012, 2925 (4.7%) had clinical diphtheria; 1194 had been immunized and 1731 were non-immunized. Immunized patients had a milder disease. Culture-positive immunized patients were positive for Corynebacterium other than diphtheriae (COD; n=104) or Corynebacterium diphtheriae (CD; n=23); these patients suffered mild disease and recovered completely. In contrast, culture-positive non-immunized patients were positive for COD (n=11) or CD (n=412). Eighty-one patients (3%) died, 77 of whom were non-immunized; death was usually as a result of myocarditis. Seventy-three percent of deaths were in patients aged diphtheria and its severity and morbidity differ considerably in immunized and non-immunized patients. Disease caused by CD can be deadly, while disease due to COD is mild and responds to treatment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Indoor thoron studies along the northeast coast of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinay Kumar Reddy, K.; Sudarshan, A.; Gopal Reddy, Ch.; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2013-01-01

    The beach sands of the northeast coast of Andhra Pradesh are well known for heavy metal mineralization. The process of extraction of the metals can enhance the natural background radiation levels and hence it is essential to establish the radiological base-line data to take necessary remedial action to preserve and protect the coastal environment. The assessment of indoor radioactivity levels has been carried out by choosing 13 villages long the northeast coast of Andhra Pradesh covering around 150 km from Vishakapattanam to Kalingapattanam. The present paper discusses the indoor thoron levels in the areas along the northeast coast of Andhra Pradesh. The SSNTD based twin chamber dosimeters were employed for the assessment of the concentration of thoron and its progeny levels. The average indoor thoron concentrations in this area are found to be 44.1 ± 28.2 Bq.m -3 . The inhalation dose due to thoron has been evaluated using equilibrium factors and discussed in detail. (author)

  10. Genetic structure of Rajaka caste and affinities with other caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvatheesam, C; Babu, B V; Babu, M C

    1997-01-01

    The present study gives an account of the genetic structure in terms of distribution of a few genetic markers, viz., A1A2B0, Rh(D), G6PD deficiency and haemoglobin among the Rajaka caste population of Andhra Pradesh, India. The genetic relationships of the Rajaka caste with other Andhra caste populations were investigated in terms of genetic distance, i.e., Sq B (mn) of Balakrishnan and Sanghvi. Relatively lesser distance was established between the Rajaka and two Panchama castes. Also, the pattern of genetic distance corroborates the hierarchical order of the Hindu varna system.

  11. Evaluation of children in six blind schools of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornby Stella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: 1.To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in special education in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. To compare the causes of blindness in two different regions in the state. 3. To evaluate improvement with correction of refractive error and low-vision devices (LVDs Methods: Children in 6 schools for the blind and in 3 integrated education programmes were examined by one ophthalmologist, and were refracted and assessed for LVDs by an optometrist. The major anatomical site and underlying aetiology of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL; <6/60 in the better eye were recorded using the standardised WHO reporting form. Results: Two hundred and ninety one students under 16 years were examined, and after refraction, 267 (91.7% were classified as being severely visually impaired or blind. The most common anatomical sites of SVI/BL were retina in 31.1% children; cornea in 24.3%; and whole globe in 20.2%. The aetiology was unknown in 38.2%, hereditary in 34.8% and childhood causes in 24%. 114 children (39.2% had functional low vision (i.e. visual acuity <6/18 to light perception with navigational vision. In this group, 36 children improved with spectacles and 16 benefited by LVDs. 41 children (15.4% were able to read N10 point though they were studying Braille. Conclusion: Overall 37.4% of children had "avoidable" causes of blindness. The major avoidable causes were vitamin-A deficiency and cataract. Vitamin-A deficiency and congenital anomalies were more common in the dry plateau areas of the state. One in seven children could read normal print with optical support.

  12. Combining Work and School: The Dynamics of Girls' Involvement in Agricultural Work in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Virginia; Vennam, Uma

    2010-01-01

    Child labour in India has long been the focus of research, policy concern and intervention. This article presents an analysis of children's involvement in agricultural work, particularly cottonseed production, drawing on evidence gathered for Young Lives in 2007 and 2008. In parts of Andhra Pradesh, children work in cotton fields for two or three…

  13. Organizational Climate as Perceived by Veterinary Assistant Surgeons of Andhra Pradesh in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Talata Chandrakanthi; Gupta, Jancy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify various organizational climatic factors responsible for role performances of veterinary officers in Andhra Pradesh, India. Design/methodology/approach: Study was conducted in 11 selected districts. Data were collected from 220 respondents through a pretested interview schedule and subjected to correlation and multiple…

  14. Additions to black mildews of Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Hosagoudar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an account of seven black mildew fungi belonging to the genera Asterina, Prillieuxina, Sarcinella and Schiffnerula. Of these, Sarcinella chloroxyli and Sarcinella strychni are the new species while the others are reported for the first time from Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India.

  15. Blocked learning in development aid? Reporting success rather than failure in Andhra Pradesh, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, Moeko; Pasgaard, Maya

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to understand why development organizations tend to report project success rather than failure which blocks learning from project problems. Drawing on the case of a World Bank forestry project in Andhra Pradesh, India, the article analyses different interlinked sites of project...

  16. Natural radioactivity levels in some villages near Nagarjuna Sagar, Nalgonda, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinay Kumar Reddy, K.; Sreenivasa Reddy, B.; Sreenath Reddy, M.; Ch Gopal Reddy; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2003-01-01

    Indoor radon/thoron and natural background radiation levels were estimated in and surrounding villages of Mallapur area near Nagarjuna Sagar, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Mallapur village is about 10 km away from the Lambapur and Peddagattu areas, which are identified for uranium mining by Atomic Minerals Directorate of Exploration and Research (AMD), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Mallapur area has been proposed for milling and processing of uranium ore. As the present study is undertaken to establish the baseline data before the actual milling operation starts, the observed indoor radon and thoron levels are found to be in the range of 28 to 195 Bq/m 3 and 5 to 277 Bq/m 3 respectively. (author)

  17. Feminist Collective Activism in Telangana, South India: Exemplary by the Andhra Pradesh Mahila Samatha Society

    OpenAIRE

    Ms Julia Guenther

    2014-01-01

    This research aims at contributing to the ongoing debate of feminist standpoint epistemology by introducing a study on feminist collective activism in Sangareddy and Yellareddy, two districts of the newly established 29th state of India, Telangana. The purpose here is to document the work of two sanghams (collectives) by the Andhra Pradesh Mahila Samatha Society (APMSS). The focus lies on songs created by Dalit and indigenous women, which are used as a form of, protest against societal and ge...

  18. Palynological dating of a coal seam in Ayyanapalem area, Khamman District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M.R.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Ramanujam, C.G.K. (Geological Survey of India, Hyderabad (India). Southern Region)

    1990-05-25

    A palynological study of five subsurface samples of a coal seam near Ayyanapalem, Chintalapudi sub-basin of Godavari valley, Andhra Pradesh, was carried out. Twenty-five genera, including monosaccate, striate and nonstriate bisaccate, and trilete sporomorphs were identified; striate bisaccates predominate. Based on occurrence of {ital Rhizomaspora, Microbaculispora, Indotriradites, Crucisaccites ital} and {ital Corisaccites}, the coal seam is inferred to be similar in age to the Permian age Barakar Formation of the Lower Gondwana. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Further new additions to the lichen mycota of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohabe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the lichen exploration in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh several interesting lichen taxa were collected of which 10 species are reported here as new records for the state. The species includes Biatorella conspersa (Biatorellaceae, Caloplaca bassiae, C. poliotera (Teloschistaceae, Dimelaena tenuis (Physciaceae, Lecanora chlarotera, L. helva, L. interjecta, L. psuedistera (Lecanoraceae, Pertusaria melastomella (Pertusariaceae and Porina tetracerae (Porinaceae. These taxa / species have been enumerated along with their characteristic features and distributional notes.

  20. Delta Plaza kohvik = Delta Plaza cafe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Tiiu Truusi tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Büroohoone Delta Plaza arhitektid Marika Lõoke ja Jüri Okas (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke)

  1. delta-vision

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Delta Vision is intended to identify a strategy for managing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta as a sustainable ecosystem that would continue to support environmental...

  2. Delta antibody radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Urbankova, J

    1985-11-15

    The principle and procedure are described of the radioimmunoassay of delta antibody (delta-Ab) using the ABBOTT ANTI-DELTA kit by Abbott Co. A description is given of the kit, the working procedure and the method of evaluation. The results are reported of the incidence of delta-Ab in sera of patients with viral hepatitis B, in haemophiliacs, carriers of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and blood donors. The presence was detected of delta-Ab in one HBsAg carrier. The necessity is emphasized of delta-Ab determinations in the blood of donors in view of the antibody transfer with blood and blood preparations.

  3. Role of Database Management Systems in Selected Engineering Institutions of Andhra Pradesh: An Analytical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutty Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the function of database management systems from the perspective of librarians working in engineering institutions in Andhra Pradesh. Ninety-eight librarians from one hundred thirty engineering institutions participated in the study. The paper reveals that training by computer suppliers and software packages are the significant mode of acquiring DBMS skills by librarians; three-fourths of the librarians are postgraduate degree holders. Most colleges use database applications for automation purposes and content value. Electrical problems and untrained staff seem to be major constraints faced by respondents for managing library databases.

  4. Biogeochemical study of termite mounds: a case study from Tummalapalle area of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arveti, Nagaraju; Reginald, S; Kumar, K Sunil; Harinath, V; Sreedhar, Y

    2012-04-01

    Termite mounds are abundant components of Tummalapalle area of uranium mineralization of Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh, India. The systematic research has been carried out on the application of termite mound sampling to mineral exploration in this region. The distribution of chemical elements Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Li, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U were studied both in termite soils and adjacent surface soils. Uranium accumulations were noticed in seven termite mounds ranging from 10 to 36 ppm. A biogeochemical parameter called "Biological Absorption Coefficient" of the termite mounds indicated the termite affected soils contained huge amounts of chemical elements than the adjacent soils.

  5. Ecology and conservation status of canebrakes in Warangal District of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suthari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes cane-cum-bat roost site at Palampet (Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Although notified as a cane reserve by the state government, it is not spared off the usual habitat depletion and destruction. The functional pyramid formed of Calamus-Terminalia-Pteropus is reported here as first of its kind. This article also places on record seven more cane sites besides noting the importance of the ecology of Morancha Vagu and stressing the need for preserving its banks by planting Calamus rotang L. Ecological education to the local people about biodiversity value and conservation at all levels of its organization is called for.

  6. CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PREVALENT IN SMALL VILLAGES OF NORTH COASTAL , ANDHRA PRADESH , INDIA , UDDANAM NEPHROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valluri Satya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hamlets in and around Uddanam , Gunupalli , Kaviti of Srikakulam District , a North Coastal Andhra P radesh region with high prevalence of CKD presenting clinically or sub clinically ultimately leading to high mortality and morbidity with RRT and other types of conservative management , we were detected some facts during our survey in these villages. The many of them who are living in that belt eat Dry salted fish , less water intake , hardworking people , these peo ple approach quacks , using illicit drugs etc.

  7. First report of Eutropis innovate (Blanford, 1870 (Reptilia: Scincidae from Nallamalai Hills, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Rao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first record of Eutropis innotata (Blanford, 1870 based on a specimen collected in 2002 from Gundla Brahmeswaram Metta Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India. The habitat from where it was collected is relatively undisturbed patch of forest in the Nallamalai Hills of Eastern Ghats. This constitutes the range extension of this species from central India to Nallamalai Hills in Eastern Ghats in peninsular India. We provide details on its diagnosis, habits and habitat, and key to species belonging to the genus Eutropis Fitzinger, 1843.

  8. Delta hedging strategies comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico; Ortobelli, S.; Rachev, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we implement dynamic delta hedging strategies based on several option pricing models. We analyze different subordinated option pricing models and we examine delta hedging costs using ex-post daily prices of S&P 500. Furthermore, we compare the performance of each subordinated model...

  9. Connectivity in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas host approximately half a billion people and are rich in ecosystem diversity and economic resources. However, human-induced activities and climatic shifts are significantly impacting deltas around the world; anthropogenic disturbance, natural subsidence, and eustatic sea-level rise are major causes of threat to deltas and in many cases have compromised their safety and sustainability, putting at risk the people that live on them. In this presentation, I will introduce a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. Here connectivity indicates both physical connectivity (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). I will explore several network representations and show how quantifying connectivity can advance our understanding of system functioning and can be used to inform coastal management and restoration. From connectivity considerations, the delta emerges as a leaky network that evolves over time and is characterized by continuous exchanges of fluxes of matter, energy, and information. I will discuss the implications of connectivity on delta functioning, land growth, and potential for nutrient removal.

  10. Stochastic Analysis of Wind Energy for Wind Pump Irrigation in Coastal Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. M.; Kumar, A.; Bisht, D.; Rao, D. B.

    2014-09-01

    The rapid escalation in the prices of oil and gas as well as increasing demand for energy has attracted the attention of scientists and researchers to explore the possibility of generating and utilizing the alternative and renewable sources of wind energy in the long coastal belt of India with considerable wind energy resources. A detailed analysis of wind potential is a prerequisite to harvest the wind energy resources efficiently. Keeping this in view, the present study was undertaken to analyze the wind energy potential to assess feasibility of the wind-pump operated irrigation system in the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India, where high ground water table conditions are available. The stochastic analysis of wind speed data were tested to fit a probability distribution, which describes the wind energy potential in the region. The normal and Weibull probability distributions were tested; and on the basis of Chi square test, the Weibull distribution gave better results. Hence, it was concluded that the Weibull probability distribution may be used to stochastically describe the annual wind speed data of coastal Andhra Pradesh with better accuracy. The size as well as the complete irrigation system with mass curve analysis was determined to satisfy various daily irrigation demands at different risk levels.

  11. Spatial distribution of uranium in groundwater around proposed NPP site at Kovvada Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Lenka, P.; Patra, A.C.; Tripathi, R.M.; Rama Rao, D.; Yungndhar, M.; Vinod Kumar, A.

    2018-01-01

    Uranium is the basic nuclear fuel of the present nuclear power programme. To meet the demand of electrical energy, it is proposed for establishment of two atomic power stations (2 x 1000 MW LWR) at Kovvada, Ranasthalam mandal of Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh. It is mandatory to generate the prevailing baseline levels of natural and manmade radionuclides along with conventional water and air quality parameters of the site. Under the baseline study, a comprehensive groundwater quality of the site is taken to establish the radionuclide levels in ground water samples of the coastal site. Natural radiation and radioactivity is a present in all the ecosystems naturally. Uranium is a naturally occurring low specific activity radionuclide present in the rock since the inception of the earth. Groundwater interact with the host rocks and the wet weathering process facilitate the solubility of uranium in groundwater. The physiochemical characteristics of the host rock and groundwater influence the leachability of uranium from rock to water and the contact time, temperature, salinity are also few influencing parameters. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the spatial distribution of uranium in groundwater around the proposed NPP site at Kovvada, Andhra Pradesh

  12. Diet & nutrition profile of Chenchu population - A vulnerable tribe in Telangana & Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K Mallikharjuna; Kumar, R Hari; Krishna, K Sreerama; Bhaskar, V; Laxmaiah, A

    2015-05-01

    Earlier studies have documented high prevalence of undernutrition, morbidity and mortality among Chenchus, a tribal population in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India. The present study was carried out to assess diet and nutritional status of Chenchus and cause of death. A total of 42 Chenchu villages (gudems) were covered using systematic random sampling procedure. In each gudem, all the households with at least one child under the age of five years were covered for various investigations. Weighment diet survey was carried out on a sub-sample of households. In addition, information on cause of death in the selected 42 gudems was collected for past one year using verbal autopsy method. A total of 1396 subjects of all age groups were covered for various investigations. The intakes of food and nutrients were lower than the recommended levels. The prevalences of underweight, stunting and wasting among under five children were 42 per cent (CI: 37.9-46.1), 53 and 13 per cent, respectively, while 41 per cent (CI: 37.8-47.2) men and 42 per cent (34.4-47.8) women had chronic energy deficiency (BMIpopulation was comparable with other tribal and rural counterparts in Andhra Pradesh, however, the crude death rate (11.7/1000) was higher among the Chenchus. Steps may be taken to promote consumption of balanced diet and utilization of optimal healthcare facilities to control morbidity and mortality.

  13. Suicide deaths in rural Andhra Pradesh--a cause for global health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rohina; Guggilla, Rama; Praveen, Devarsetty; Maulik, Pallab K

    2015-02-01

    To determine the proportion of deaths attributable to suicides in rural Andhra Pradesh, India over a 4-year period using a verbal autopsy method. Deaths occurring in 45 villages (population 185,629) were documented over a 4-year period from 2003 to 2007 by non-physician healthcare workers trained in the use of a verbal autopsy tool. Causes of death were assigned by physicians trained in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10. All data were entered and processed electronically using a secure study website. Verbal autopsies were completed for 98.2% (5786) of the deaths (5895) recorded. The crude death rate was 8.0/1000. 4.8% (95% CI 4.3-5.4) of all deaths were suicides, giving a suicide rate of 37.5/100,000 population. Forty-three percent of suicides occurred in the age group 15-29 years, and 62% were in men. In the younger age groups (10-29 years), suicides by women (56%) were more common than by men (44%). Poisoning (40%) was the most common method of self-harm followed by hanging (12%). The suicide rate in this part of rural Andhra Pradesh is three times higher than the national average of 11.2/100,000, but is in line with that reported in the Million Death Study. There is an urgent need to develop strategies targeted at young individuals to prevent deaths by suicide in India. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. SPECTRUM OF THYROID CARCINOMAS IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Sepuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of cancer cases. In the Indian subcontinent, thyroid carcinoma exhibits a varied disease profile and geographic differences in the pattern of cancer, the knowledge of which impacts a more favourable clinical outcome. The present study aims to profile Thyroid carcinoma in areas of age, gender, geographic domicile, morphology & clinical features and referral paradigm of cases in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, the tertiary referral hospital for coastal Andhra Pradesh. METHODS & MATERIALS The Retrospective Study 1988-2004 includes 188 patients who attended Department of Nuclear Medicine for pre & postoperative nuclear scan, thyroid carcinoma treatment protocol, whose clinical features, relevant laboratory data, histopathological reports & prognosis were analysed. RESULTS Papillary thyroid carcinoma was present in 79% and Follicular thyroid carcinoma in 19%, Anaplastic & Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in 2% of cases (n=188, male to female ratio 1:0.62. Coastal city of Visakhapatnam recorded highest 59% of cases who were in their 3rd and 4th decades. West Godavari District had lowest at 5%. Clinical presentation of cases of Thyroid carcinoma as a Nodule (61% which was the most common form lead to maximum number of referrals (n=82 from the Department of Surgery, King George Hospital. CONCLUSION In coastal Andhra Pradesh, papillary thyroid carcinoma was the most dominant form. Women were more affected than men. Painless thyroid nodule was the most common clinical feature. Coastal city of Visakhapatnam recorded highest number of cases and maximum referrals were from Department of Surgery.

  15. Operational challenges in diagnosing multi-drug resistant TB and initiating treatment in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjit S Chadha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP, Andhra Pradesh, India. There is limited information on whether MDR-TB suspects are identified, undergo diagnostic assessment and are initiated on treatment according to the programme guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To assess i using the programme definition, the number and proportion of MDR-TB suspects in a large cohort of TB patients on first-line treatment under RNTCP ii the proportion of these MDR-TB suspects who underwent diagnosis for MDR-TB and iii the number and proportion of those diagnosed as MDR-TB who were successfully initiated on treatment. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis, by reviewing RNTCP records and reports, was conducted in four districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, among patients registered for first line treatment during October 2008 to December 2009. RESULTS: Among 23,999 TB patients registered for treatment there were 559 (2% MDR-TB suspects (according to programme definition of which 307 (55% underwent diagnosis and amongst these 169 (55% were found to be MDR-TB. Of the MDR-TB patients, 112 (66% were successfully initiated on treatment. Amongst those eligible for MDR-TB services, significant proportions are lost during the diagnostic and treatment initiation pathway due to a variety of operational challenges. The programme needs to urgently address these challenges for effective delivery and utilisation of the MDR-TB services.

  16. Aliiglaciecola coringensis sp. nov., isolated from a water sample collected from mangrove forest in Coringa, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, V.; Sharma, G.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    A Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, aerobic bacterium, designated as strain AK49(T) was isolated from a water sample from a mangrove forest in Coringa village, Andhra Pradesh, India. Strain AK49(T) was observed to form yellow coloured, smooth...

  17. Addition to araneofauna of Andhra Pradesh, India: occurrence of three species of Argyrodes Simon, 1864 (Araneae: Theridiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.M. Javed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We report three spider species, namely, Argyrodes nephilae Taczanowski, 1872, A. argentatus O.P.-Cambridge, 1880 and A. flavescens O.P.-Cambridge, 1880 from the family Theridiidae from Andhra Pradesh for the first time. A. nephilae constitutes the first record of this species from India. All the species have been recorded from the webs of Araneidae spiders.

  18. Design of a population-based study of visual impairment in India : The Andhra Pradesh eye disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Rakhi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable population-based epidemiologic data regarding vision and ocular morbidity, as well as those about the perceptions of people regarding visual impairment and eye care, are lacking for the most part in the developing world including India. These data are the basis on which effective eye care services can be developed. To meet this need we designed the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, a population-based epidemiology study of 10,000 people in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The design of this study is described in this paper. Various options for the sample size, study areas, sampling procedure, and recruitment of subjects were considered. A sample size of 10,000 people, 5,000 each in the < or = 30 and > 30 years age groups, was determined to obtain reasonable confidence in estimating the prevalence of diseases and odds ratios for risk factors of interest. A multistage sampling strategy was chosen for the study which was assumed to give a design effect of 1.5 for the estimates. One urban area, Hyderabad, and three rural areas, West Godavari, Adilabad and Mahbubnagar districts, were selected in Andhra Pradesh. Interview instruments were developed to obtain detailed information about demographic data, diet, ocular and systemic history, risk factors for eye diseases, visual function, quality of life, barriers to eye care, and knowledge about eye diseases. A detailed examination procedure was devised to obtain a broad range of normative and abnormal data related to eyes and vision. A protocol was developed for doing automated visual fields, slitlamp and fundus photography. Computer databases were made in FoxPro for data entry and subsequent analysis with SPSS. Pilot studies were done to test the instruments, procedures, and logistics of the study in urban and rural areas. Information from the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study is expected to help in planning and implementation of effective long-term preventive, curative, and

  19. The Niger Delta Crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... Department of History & International Studies, Delta State University, Abraka,. Nigeria. .... democracy implies popular power. That is ... Okonta (2006:5) draws attention to Anna Zalik's treatise called 'Petro-Vio- lence' and ...

  20. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  1. Delta 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Jeppe; Skott, Charlotte Krog; Jess, Kristine

    DELTA 2.0 er en ny og helt opdateret udgave af Delta, der i ti år været brugt i matematiklærernes grund-, efter- og videreuddannelse. DELTA 2.0 er seriens almene fagdidaktik. Der er også fagdidaktiske overvejelser i de øvrige bøger i serien, men de er knyttet til specifikt matematisk indhold. DELTA...... 2.0 behandler mere generelle matematikdidaktiske problemstillinger såsom læringsteoretiske overvejelser i forbindelse med matematik, centrale aspekter af det at undervise i matematik og digitale teknologier som værktøj til at støtte elevers faglige læring af matematik....

  2. Quality assurance in TL monitoring of occupational radiation workers in Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma Savitri, P.; Kamble, M.K.; Roy, Madhumita; Reddy, K.S.; Mahajan, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    TLD Services are rendered for personnel dosimetry to Nuclear Fuel Complex, Atomic Minerals Division, Electronic Corporation of India Limited, National Centre for Characterization of Materials, JONAKI, Medical, Research and Industrial institutions of Andhra Pradesh by TLD Unit, Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. To ensure the satisfactory performance of the unit, it is mandatory to participate in Quality Assurance Programme periodically. Setting the rules for the Quality Assurance Programme and implementing them systematically in the service requires considerable thought and effort. Quality Assurance and Quality Check Program addressed administrative data/information, equipment checking, issue/processing of dosimeters, dose evaluation, record keeping, reporting, traceability and reproducibility. In this paper results of Quality Assurance Checks conducted by TLD Unit, NFC as well as C and DRS, RPAD, BARC, Mumbai for the last six years and Internal Quality Checks conducted within TLD Unit, NFC are presented and discussed. Systematic errors in dose evaluation were identified and minimized. Methods to improve the performance are also suggested. (author)

  3. Analysis of female radiation workers dose records in the DAE Units of Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma Savitri, P.; Kamble, M.K.; Reddy, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    Basis for control of occupational exposures of women is same as that of men except for pregnant women. Percentage of women working in radiation areas of DAE has marginally increased in the last three decades. This paper analysed the data on the externally received personal dose equivalent for female radiation workers who have been exposed ti ionizing radiation in different occupations of DAE units in Andhra Pradesh. From this study we can say confidently that it is equally safe for women to work in radiation areas as long as they follow radiation protection principles. Hence, women in India should be made aware that it is safe to work in radiation areas and DAE is taking their care by periodical medical checkups, maintaining dose records, etc

  4. Traditional food consumption and nutritional status of Dalit mothers in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M A; Egeland, G M; Salomeyesudas, B; Satheesh, P V; Kuhnlein, H V

    2006-11-01

    To describe prevalence of malnutrition and their correlates of nutrient and traditional food consumption in rural Dalit mothers. In a cross-sectional study, we used socio-cultural questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and clinical eye examinations during the rainy season in 2003. Food frequency questionnaires and 24-h recalls were conducted during both summer and rainy seasons. Dalit mothers with young children were recruited from 37 villages in the Medak District of rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Dalit mothers (n = 220) participated. The prevalence of chronic energy-deficient (CED) mothers (body mass index women and active women were more likely to have CED than those literate and non-active (relative risks (RR) = 1.6 and 1.4, respectively, P Dalit women are predominant problems in this area. Increased consumption of local traditional Dalit food (particularly sorghum, pulses, vegetables and animal source food) should be incorporated as an important component of intervention strategies to improve nutritional status.

  5. Finger ridge count correlations among four tribes of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Y S; Babu, B V; Naidu, J M

    2002-06-01

    The present paper reports the distribution of finger ridge count correlations among four tribal populations from Andhra Pradesh, India viz., Dulia, Kotia, Manne Dora and Manzai Mali, and examines the intra and inter population variation. Higher correlations are recorded in left hands compared to right hands, but they are not significant. The homologous fingers exhibit a stronger correlation. In all the tribes, the correlations between right hand fingers are relatively higher among women when compared to men. Regarding inter population variation Dulia men differ significantly from the men of Manne Dora and the Manzai Mali tribes, and Kotia women also differ from the women of the Manne Dora significantly. The average correlation coefficient of the present populations is similar to other Indian populations reported earlier but lower than African and European populations.

  6. Assessment of Water Pollution in Tipparthy Revenue Sub-Division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medikondu Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study has been carried out to explore the physicochemical characteristics of drinking water sources of Tipparthy revenue sub-division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Totally 49 water samples were collected from the different locations (22 villages of the study area including bore well, open well and hand pump water and analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, total hardness, fluoride, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, phosphates, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, Iron and dissolved oxygen. On an average, in almost all the samples, one or the other chemical constituent was beyond the permissible limits it was also concluded that water sources in the study area not fit for potability. Sodium absorption ratio (SAR and water quality (WQI studies indicate water available from all sources not fit for irrigation also. The study indicates the need for periodic monitoring of ground water in the study area.

  7. mtDNA variation in caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamshad, M; Fraley, A E; Crawford, M H; Cann, R L; Busi, B R; Naidu, J M; Jorde, L B

    1996-02-01

    Various anthropological analyses have documented extensive regional variation among populations on the subcontinent of India using morphological, protein, blood group, and nuclear DNA polymorphisms. These patterns are the product of complex population structure (genetic drift, gene flow) and a population history noted for numerous branching events. As a result, the interpretation of relationships among caste populations of South India and between Indians and continental populations remains controversial. The Hindu caste system is a general model of genetic differentiation among endogamous populations stratified by social forces (e.g., religion and occupation). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has unique properties that facilitate the exploration of population structure. We analyzed 36 Hindu men born in Andhra Pradesh who were unrelated matrilineally through at least 3 generations and who represent 4 caste populations: Brahmin (9), Yadava (10), Kapu (7), and Relli (10). Individuals from Africa (36), Asia (36), and Europe (36) were sampled for comparison. A 200-base-pair segment of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS2) of the mtDNA control region was sequenced in all individuals. In the Indian castes 25 distinct haplotypes are identified. Aside from the Cambridge reference sequence, only two haplotypes are shared between caste populations. Middle castes form a highly supported cluster in a neighbor-joining network. Mean nucleotide diversity within each caste is 0.015, 0.012, 0.011, and 0.012 for the Brahmin, Yadava, Kapu, and Relli, respectively. mtDNA variation is highly structured between castes (GST = 0.17; p caste populations of Andhra Pradesh cluster more often with Africans than with Asians or Europeans. This is suggestive of admixture with African populations.

  8. Incidence of cleft Lip and palate in the state of Andhra Pradesh, South India

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    Reddy Srinivas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the incidence of cleft lip and palate defects in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Design Setting: The study was conducted in 2001 in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The state has a population of 76 million. Three districts, Cuddapah, Medak and Krishna, were identified for this study owing to their diversity. They were urban, semi-urban and rural, respectively. Literacy rates and consanguinity of the parents was elicited and was compared to national averages to find correlations to cleft births. Type and side of cleft were recorded to compare with other studies around the world and other parts of India. Results: The birth rate of clefts was found to be 1.09 for every 1000 live births. This study found that 65% of the children born with clefts were males. The distribution of the type of cleft showed 33% had CL, 64% had CLP, 2% had CP and 1% had rare craniofacial clefts. Unilateral cleft lips were found in 79% of the patients. Of the unilateral cleft lips 64% were left sided. There was a significant correlation of children with clefts being born to parents who shared a consanguineous relationship and those who were illiterate with the odds ratio between 5.25 and 7.21 for consanguinity and between 1.55 and 5.85 for illiteracy, respectively. Conclusion: The birth rate of clefts was found to be comparable with other Asian studies, but lower than found in other studies in Caucasian populations and higher than in African populations. The incidence was found to be similar to other studies done in other parts of India. The distribution over the various types of cleft was comparable to that found in other studies.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India

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    Kumar G Anil

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of the range of HIV prevention interventions is a useful contributor to decisions on the best use of resources to prevent HIV. We conducted this assessment for the state of Andhra Pradesh that has the highest HIV burden in India. Methods Based on data from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programs of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh, we have recently reported the number of HIV infections averted by each type of HIV prevention intervention and their cost. Using estimates of the age of onset of HIV infection, we used standard methods to calculate the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY saved as a measure of cost-effectiveness of each type of HIV prevention intervention. Results The point estimates of the cost per DALY saved were less than US $50 for blood banks, men who have sex with men programmes, voluntary counselling and testing centres, prevention of parent to child transmission clinics, sexually transmitted infection clinics, and women sex worker programmes; between US $50 and 100 for truckers and migrant labourer programmes; more than US $100 and up to US $410 for composite, street children, condom promotion, prisoners and workplace programmes and mass media campaign for the general public. The uncertainty range around these estimates was very wide for several interventions, with the ratio of the high to the low estimates infinite for five interventions. Conclusions The point estimates for the cost per DALY saved from the averted HIV infections for all interventions was much lower than the per capita gross domestic product in this Indian state. While these indicative cost-effectiveness estimates can inform HIV control planning currently, the wide uncertainty range around estimates for several interventions suggest the need for more firm data for estimating cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in India.

  10. Incidence of cleft Lip and palate in the state of Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Srinivas Gosla; Reddy, Rajgopal R.; Bronkhorst, Ewald M.; Prasad, Rajendra; Ettema, Anke M.; Sailer, Hermann F.; Bergé, Stefaan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the incidence of cleft lip and palate defects in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Design Setting: The study was conducted in 2001 in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The state has a population of 76 million. Three districts, Cuddapah, Medak and Krishna, were identified for this study owing to their diversity. They were urban, semi-urban and rural, respectively. Literacy rates and consanguinity of the parents was elicited and was compared to national averages to find correlations to cleft births. Type and side of cleft were recorded to compare with other studies around the world and other parts of India. Results: The birth rate of clefts was found to be 1.09 for every 1000 live births. This study found that 65% of the children born with clefts were males. The distribution of the type of cleft showed 33% had CL, 64% had CLP, 2% had CP and 1% had rare craniofacial clefts. Unilateral cleft lips were found in 79% of the patients. Of the unilateral cleft lips 64% were left sided. There was a significant correlation of children with clefts being born to parents who shared a consanguineous relationship and those who were illiterate with the odds ratio between 5.25 and 7.21 for consanguinity and between 1.55 and 5.85 for illiteracy, respectively. Conclusion: The birth rate of clefts was found to be comparable with other Asian studies, but lower than found in other studies in Caucasian populations and higher than in African populations. The incidence was found to be similar to other studies done in other parts of India. The distribution over the various types of cleft was comparable to that found in other studies. PMID:21217978

  11. Geospatial monitoring and prioritization of forest fire incidences in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaswini, G; Sudhakar Reddy, C

    2015-10-01

    Forest fire has been identified as one of the key environmental issue for long-term conservation of biodiversity and has impact on global climate. Spatially multiple observations are necessary for monitoring of forest fires in tropics for understanding conservation efficacy and sustaining biodiversity in protected areas. The present work was carried out to estimate the spatial extent of forest burnt areas and fire frequency using Resourcesat Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data (2009, 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014) in Andhra Pradesh, India. The spatio-temporal analysis shows that an area of 7514.10 km(2) (29.22% of total forest cover) has been affected by forest fires. Six major forest types are distributed in Andhra Pradesh, i.e. semi-evergreen, moist deciduous, dry deciduous, dry evergreen, thorn and mangroves. Of the total forest burnt area, dry deciduous forests account for >75%. District-wise analysis shows that Kurnool, Prakasam and Cuddapah have shown >100 km(2) of burnt area every year. The total forest burnt area estimate covering protected areas ranges between 6.9 and 22.3% during the study period. Spatial burnt area analysis for protected areas in 2014 indicates 37.2% of fire incidences in the Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve followed by 20.2 % in the Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary, 20.1% in the Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary and 17.4% in the Gundla Brahmeswaram Wildlife Sanctuary. The analysis of cumulative fire occurrences from 2009 to 2014 has helped in delineation of conservation priority hotspots using a spatial grid cell approach. Conservation priority hotspots I and II are distributed in major parts of study area including protected areas of the Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve and Gundla Brahmeswaram Wildlife Sanctuary. The spatial database generated will be useful in studies related to influence of fires on species adaptability, ecological damage assessment and conservation planning.

  12. Population-based assessment of prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2013-08-09

    To describe the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in a population-based sample of individuals aged 30 years and older in South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted in one urban and three rural locations in which 10,293 subjects were examined. All the subjects underwent comprehensive eye examination and a detailed interview by trained professionals. Pterygium was defined as fleshy fibro vascular growth, crossing the limbus, and typically seen on the nasal conjunctiva in either eye. Data were analyzed for 5586 subjects who were aged 30 years and older at the time of participation. The mean age of the participants was 47.5 years (SD 13 years; range 30-102 years). In total, 46.4% were male, 56.7% had no education, 52.2% of them were involved in outdoor occupations, and 25% belonged to urban area. The prevalence of pterygium was 11.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9-12.6). The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher odds of pterygium among older age groups, rural residents (odds ratio [OR]: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4; P > 0.01), and those involved in outdoor occupations (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.5-2.2, P protective effect (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.5-0.7; P Protecting the eyes from sunlight may decrease the risk of pterygium. However, the important public health challenge is to encourage the use of this protection as a routine in developing countries such as India.

  13. Difficulties in accessing and availing of public health care systems among rural population in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Geetha Lakshmi Sreerama; Sai Varun Matavalum; Paraiveedu Arumugam Chandresekharan; Veronica Thunga

    2015-01-01

    Context: Despite policies to make health care accessible to all, it is not universally accessible. Frequent evaluation of barriers to accessibility of health care services paves path for improvement. Hence, present study is undertaken to evaluate the factors and public health policies influencing health care access to rural people in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, which can be interpolated for other regions. Aims: To assess knowledge, perceptions, availing of public health care services, ...

  14. Focus on Fluoride and Fluorosis by Studying the Ground Water Quality in some Villages of Nalgonda, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    , Ishrath Aish; , B.L.P. Babu; , K. Sreenu

    2011-01-01

    The fluoride content of ground water was determined in eight villages of Shalsher vagu, Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, where it is the only source for drinking water. Various water quality parameters such as Hydrogen potential, Electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solids, Total hardness, Total Alkalies and Fluoride were determined. The results indicated considerable variations among the analysed samples with respect to the above parameters the concentration of Fluoride in groundwater ...

  15. Women of Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    The Indispensability of Women in Conflict Resolution in the Niger Delta ... The situation leads to a shift in gender roles with a dramatic increase in the number of women .... organization is to work in partnership with the Nigerian Government and the .... that “women are the impartial arbitrators in family or clan disputes or.

  16. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  17. Mystery of the delta(980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.N.; Landshoff, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    The apparent conflict between the dominance of the decay delta->etaπ in D->deltaπ and its absence in iota->deltaπ is analyzed. Explicit models are presented in which the nearby Kanti K threshold plays an important role in resolving the conflict. (orig.)

  18. Microfinance Impact on Socio-Economic Empowerment: A special Reference to Andhra Pradesh

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    V Vachya L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the role of microfinance and its impact on economic and social empowerment of women. There are great debates going on whether forming groups, membership for women, providing credit and imparting some business skills would change the social equations in the society or whether provision of credit may lead to pervasively entrenched political and economic relations among the genders. The proponents argue that providing credit, targeting women can prove to be a suitable mechanism in ameliorating poor women’s socio-economic conditions and thereby can alter the relations between gender and class. Undoubtedly, there have been significant advances in women empowerment in recent years and the concept and practice of SHG-based microfinance has now developed deep roots in many parts of the country. Impact assessment being rather limited so far, it is hard to measure and quantify the effect the Indian microfinance experience so far had on the poverty situation in rural India. The present study seeks to examine the process of women empowerment and changes in the economic status of SHG members in particular and rural women in general. For this study, multi-stage stratified proportionate random sampling technique was adopted for selecting the representative districts, mandals/talukas, villages and households. The primary data was collected from six villages in the three regions (Coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana of Andhra Pradesh. Tabular and statistical analyses were applied for examining the data. Empirically acclaimed logistic regression model has been employed for analyzing significant impact of plausible socio-economic factors on women empowerment. The study found that the socio-economic indicators have changed. It also emerged that there has been an increase in women participation in the household decision making process. The study has suggested that the government should prepare suitable plans and programmes

  19. DELTAS: A new Global Delta Sustainability Initiative (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Deltas are economic and environmental hotspots, food baskets for many nations, home to a large part of the world population, and hosts of exceptional biodiversity and rich ecosystems. Deltas, being at the land-water interface, are international, regional, and local transport hubs, thus providing the basis for intense economic activities. Yet, deltas are deteriorating at an alarming rate as 'victims' of human actions (e.g. water and sediment reduction due to upstream basin development), climatic impacts (e.g. sea level rise and flooding from rivers and intense tropical storms), and local exploration (e.g. sand or aggregates, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction). Although many efforts exist on individual deltas around the world, a comprehensive global delta sustainability initiative that promotes awareness, science integration, data and knowledge sharing, and development of decision support tools for an effective dialogue between scientists, managers and policy makers is lacking. Recently, the international scientific community proposed to establish the International Year of Deltas (IYD) to serve as the beginning of such a Global Delta Sustainability Initiative. The IYD was proposed as a year to: (1) increase awareness and attention to the value and vulnerability of deltas worldwide; (2) promote and enhance international and regional cooperation at the scientific, policy, and stakeholder level; and (3) serve as a launching pad for a 10-year committed effort to understand deltas as complex socio-ecological systems and ensure preparedness in protecting and restoring them in a rapidly changing environment. In this talk, the vision for such an international coordinated effort on delta sustainability will be presented as developed by a large number of international experts and recently funded through the Belmont Forum International Opportunities Fund. Participating countries include: U.S., France, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Brazil, Bangladesh

  20. Community managed services for persons with intellectual disability: Andhra Pradesh experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Jayanthi; Pratapkumar, Raja; Reddy, Sudhakara P

    2017-09-01

    In resource poor settings innovative and bottom-up approaches are required to provide services to people with with disabilities. In this context, the present paper explains a community-based model of manpower development and coordination of services for people with intellectual disabilities in unified state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Women with disabilities from the village were identified, and those willing to be trained to work as community resource persons (CRPs) were selected and given hands-on training in a phased manner. A total of 130 women were trained in five groups of 25-30 per group and were deployed in the community to screen, identify and refer children with intellectual disabilities. The training content included basic stimulation and interface with functionaries of other government departments of health, education and welfare to ensure comprehensive service delivery. Neighbourhood centres (NHCs) were established where the CRPs could meet with families collectively. The results indicated that the CRPs were welcomed by the families. The NHCs established primarily as recreation centres, promoted inclusion and functioned as information dissemination centre. The services provided by the CRPs were owned and monitored by the Women's self-help group and the disability groups thus ensuring sustainability of the model.

  1. Tree species diversity in the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India

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    M. Tarakeswara Naidu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to analyze tree species diversity in the tropical forests of the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India.  A total of 270 species of trees (≥15cm girth at breast height pertaining to 177 genera belonging to 55 families were recorded.  Among the 270 species, 141 species were observed to be common, 78 were occasional and 51 species were rare in the study area.  Fabaceae was the dominant family with 33 species followed by Rubiaceae with 15 species and Malvaceae, Moraceae and Phyllanthaceae with 13 species each.  The genera with the highest number of species include Ficus (12 species, Diospyros (8 species, Albizia and Grewia (6 species each, Acacia and Bauhinia (5 species each.  Forty-five percent of the species were indigenous. This illustrates the diversity of the tree species in the studied area of the Eastern Ghats and also emphasizes the need for their conservation. 

  2. A study of infant deaths in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Ushashree Garikipati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of neonatal deaths and its underlying correlates in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India Methods We conducted a two phase cross-sectional study (N=230. Semi- structured questionnaire schedules (in the vernacular-Telugu were used in the initial qualitative phase, to obtain specific information from mothers who delivered in a one year period prior to the study. Information from the analysed qualitative data was used to construct a questionnaire-schedule for the 2nd phase which used quantitative survey techniques. Results It was observed that Infant Mortality ratio (IMR in Vizianagaram district was 239 per 1000 live births in the tribal areas under study. This was ten times higher than that reported by the district (22/1000 and 4-5 times higher than SRS data of 2011 for AP. It was observed that 28% of infants died within first day, 68% within first week (including the first day and 81% within first month. Conclusions The high IMR observed in the within first month of life in tribal areas, interventions to tackle them should be prioritized in this ‘golden period’. The health workers should be re-trained to identify and manage the early warning signs of neonatal complications.

  3. Feminist Collective Activism in Telangana, South India: Exemplary by the Andhra Pradesh Mahila Samatha Society

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    Ms Julia Guenther

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at contributing to the ongoing debate of feminist standpoint epistemology by introducing a study on feminist collective activism in Sangareddy and Yellareddy, two districts of the newly established 29th state of India, Telangana. The purpose here is to document the work of two sanghams (collectives by the Andhra Pradesh Mahila Samatha Society (APMSS. The focus lies on songs created by Dalit and indigenous women, which are used as a form of, protest against societal and gender inequality. Those songs contribute in making a positive difference on a local level. Analysis of two group interviews strengthens this argument. The sanghams have shown that despite all societal differences, solidarity among women for a common cause can make a difference in combating social issues on a local level. Taking the APMSS as an example, this research shows that the use of a holistic approach to education to support women in their responses to social issues has an overall positive effect on women. Furthermore, and most importantly, women are strengthened in believing that their life-experiences matter. My research shows that literacy is not necessarily needed to be a successful advocate for women´s rights. What is needed, however, is an understanding of local contexts, social issues and ultimately the ability to link them to life-experiences.

  4. Seasonal Distribution of Phytoplankton in Riwada Reservoir, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Jyothi KAPARAPU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with seasonal variations, correlation coefficient and biodiversity indices of phytoplankton during April 2011 to March 2012 in the Riwada reservoir, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. Sampling was performed at five stations during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon. There were a total of 57 genera belonging to four major groups i.e., Chlorophyceae (27 genera, Bacillariophyceae (14 genera, Cyanophyceae (13 genera and Euglenophyceae (three genera. Maximum and minimum total phytoplankton population and percentages were recorded at station three in pre monsoon and at station two during monsoon. The maximum and minimum species richness (Menhinick index R2 were found to be 1.29 at station one and 1.10 at station three respectively. Maximum and minimum species diversity (H1 were found at station four (3.98 and station two (3.71. Maximum species evenness was recorded at stations one, being four and five; minimum species evenness was recorded at station two. Correlation coefficient matrix indicated significant positive relationship with water temperature, pH, transparency, biological oxygen demand and chlorides, negative relationship with electric conductivity, total solids, total dissolved solids, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, sulphates and phosphates of water. The diversity indices showed that the reservoir have a well balanced phytoplankton community.

  5. Knowledge, Attitude and Perception Regarding Biostatistics Among Postgraduate Students in Dental Institutions of Andhra Pradesh

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    Gautami S Penmetsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biostatistics is a discipline concerned with how we ought to make decisions when analysing biomedical data. As statistics is desirable at every stage of research to obtain scientifically important information and reliable results, the importance of biostatistics should definitely be informed to the researchers in health sciences. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and perception of dental professionals towards biostatistics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception regarding biostatistics among 721 postgraduate students in dental institutions of Andhra Pradesh. All the participants were provided with a pre-structured questionnaire comprising 21 questions, and answering was completely self-paced. Results: Among the respondents, 86% were aware of the importance of biostatistics in research. Forty-five percent of the respondents attempted to perform statistical analysis on their own. Of all the students, 53% were unable to identify the commonly used parametric tests in clinical trials. Conclusion: Majority of the participants were aware of the importance of biostatistics, but only a few of them attempted to perform statistical analysis. Therefore, dental institutions should take initiatives in organising workshops and training programmes for learning and application of biostatistics, concomitantly encourage research activity to conduct valuable research and add up evidence to literature.

  6. Groundwater quality from a part of Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba Rao, N.

    2018-03-01

    Quality of groundwater is assessed from a part of Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Groundwater samples collected from thirty locations from the study area were analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), bicarbonate ( {HCO}3^{ - } ), chloride (Cl-), sulphate ( {SO}4^{2 - } ), nitrate ( {NO}3^{ - } ) and fluoride (F-). The results of the chemical analysis indicate that the groundwater is alkaline in nature and are mainly characterized by Na+- {HCO}3^{ - } and Na+-Cl- facies. Groundwater chemistry reflects the dominance of rock weathering and is subsequently modified by human activities, which are supported by genetic geochemical evolution and hydrogeochemical relations. Further, the chemical parameters (pH, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, {HCO}3^{ - } , Cl-, {SO}4^{2 - } , {NO}3^{ - } and F-) were compared with the drinking water quality standards. The sodium adsorption ratio, percent sodium, permeability index, residual sodium carbonate, magnesium ratio and Kelly's ratio were computed and USSL, Wilcox and Doneen's diagrams were also used for evaluation of groundwater quality for irrigation. For industrial purpose, the pH, TDS, {HCO}3^{ - } , Cl- and {SO}4^{2 - } were used to assess the impact of incrustation and corrosion activities on metal surfaces. As a whole, it is observed that the groundwater quality is not suitable for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes due to one or more chemical parameters exceeding their standard limits. Therefore, groundwater management measures were suggested to improve the water quality.

  7. Awareness of association between periodontitis and PLBW among selected population of practising gynecologists in Andhra Pradesh

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    Rajasekhar Nutalapati

    2011-01-01

    Settings and Design: Random, cross-sectional study in a population of practicing gynecologists from Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A random study population was selected from the practicing gynecologists in Khammam and Hyderabad. Sixty practicing gynecologists, 30 each in Khammam and Hyderabad, were approached and they consented to join the study. Data were collected in questionnaire format from the subject population. Collected data were statistically analyzed. Chi-square test with Yates correction was used to analyze the data. A " P" value of <0.05 was taken as a significant difference. Results: 73.3% of the gynecologists said that their patients complain of bleeding gums, swellings and mobility. 58.3% of the gynecologists were aware that gum diseases occur at a higher rate in pregnant females. 38.3% of the gynecologists were aware that periodontal diseases can affect the outcome of delivery. No significant difference was found between the awareness levels of gynecologists in Khammam and in Hyderabad. Conclusions: There is a need for interdisciplinary approach for the prevention of PLBW cases by the integration of periodontal care into obstetric management. Effort should be made to increase awareness among the gynecologists.

  8. The Best Laid Plans: Access to the Rajiv Aarogyasri community health insurance scheme of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Narasimhan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a qualitative assessment of a public health insurance scheme in the state of Andhra Pradesh, south India, called the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme (or Aarogyasri, using the case-study method. Focusing on inpatient hospital care and especially on surgical treatments leaves the scheme wanting in meeting the health care needs of and addressing the impoverishing health expenditure incurred by the poor, especially those living in rural areas. Though well-intentioned, people from vulnerable sections of society may find the scheme ultimately unhelpful for their needs. Through an in-depth qualitative approach, the paper highlights not just financial difficulties but also the non-financial barriers to accessing health care, despite the existence of a scheme such as Aarogyasri. Narrative evidence from poor households offers powerful insights into why even the most innovative state health insurance schemes may not achieve their goals and systemic corrections needed to address barriers to health care.

  9. CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGY AND THERAPEUTIC OUTCOME OF SNAKE BITE IN KONASEEMA REGION OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Snake bite is a common and frequently devastating environmental and occupational problem, especially in rural areas of tropical developing countries. Snake bite incidence is high in Andhra Pradesh. With the onset of monsoon the incidence of snake bite used to increase. METHODS Present study is a retrospective study in which all the data of snake bite cases admitted in the Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences was collected in last two years; details of the patient was obtained from bed head ticket. RESULTS In two years of data collection, 46 snake bite cases are found as per our record. Out of 46 patients, twenty seven were male and nineteen were female. Maximum twenty two (22 patients were between ages 20 to 40 years. Out of forty six patients, forty four recovered and only two patients died, cause of death was acute pulmonary oedema with cardiac arrhythmia. DISCUSSION Most of the patients were given ASV (anti-snake venom, out of that only four patients developed reaction to ASV. Most of the patients who have received ASV were recovered. Only two deaths were reported which was due to acute pulmonary oedema with cardiac arrhythmia. CONCLUSION Awareness and education about snake is required.

  10. A study of infant deaths in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Ushashree Garikipati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of neonatal deaths and its underlying correlates in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India Methods We conducted a two phase cross-sectional study (N=230. Semi-structured questionnaire schedules (in the vernacular-Telugu were used in the initial qualitative phase, to obtain specific information from mothers who delivered in a one year period prior to the study. Information from the analysed qualitative data was used to construct a questionnaire-schedule for the 2nd phase which used quantitative survey techniques. Results It was observed that Infant Mortality ratio (IMR in Vizianagaram district was 239 per 1000 live births in the tribal areas under study. This was ten times higher than that reported by the district (22/1000 and 4-5 times higher than SRS data of 2011 for AP. It was observed that 28% of infants died within first day, 68% within first week (including the first day and 81% within first month. Conclusions The high IMR observed in the within first month of life in tribal areas, interventions to tackle them should be prioritized in this ‘golden period’. The health workers should be re-trained to identify and manage the early warning signs of neonatal complications.

  11. External gamma radiation dose studies in the proposed uranium mining areas of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.; Reddy, K.; Reddy, C.; Reddy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Natural radiation sources contribute the largest component to the total effective dose received by the human population. Among these sources, natural background gamma radiation shares a noteworthy amount. The present study aims at the establishment of baseline environmental gamma radiation data in the environs of proposed uranium mining areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. To this end, a systematic study has been undertaken using Thermoluminescence (T.L.) dosimeters and G.M. (Geiger - Muller) tube based survey meter. These levels are estimated both indoors and outdoors in the study area covering about 23 villages surrounding the proposed mining sites. The estimated external gamma radiation levels (air kerma) varied from 0.605 to 4.39 mGy.y -1 . The mean indoor to outdoor radiation level ratio is found to be 1.1 ± 0.1. The estimated mean equivalent doses due to external background radiation in the villages of the study area range from 1.03 to 2.83 mSv.y -1 with a mean of 2.34 ± 0.39 mSv.y -1 . (authors)

  12. Prevalence of precancerous lesions and conditions in Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    B Hari Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and conditions and to determine the potential risk factors associated among general population aged 20-70 years of Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: An oral screening campaign was organized with the help of local general dental practitioners in each district. All the relevant information regarding the subject was documented and clinical examination of the oral soft tissues was carried out. Clinically diagnosed as precancerous lesion or condition were subjected to punch (incisional biopsy biopsy and evaluated histopathologically to confirm the diagnosis. Results: Among 1200 screened, 150 subjects were chewers and 136 subjects were smokers with 29 chewers and 16 smokers had precancerous lesions and conditions. An overall prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and conditions were found to be 4.2% (males 5.5%; females 2.5%. Leukoplakia was seen in 0.8%, Oral submucous fibrosis in 1.3% and lichen planus in 2% of the study population. Conclusions: The prevalence of precancerous lesions and conditions in our study is higher when compared with the reports from different parts of the country and in South East Asia. These lesions can be prevented from malignant transformation by mass screening, close monitoring, early detection, appropriate treatment plan and prognosis.

  13. Knowledge and opinion about smoke-free laws and second-hand smoke among hospitality venue managers in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay K; Arora, Monika; Sharma, Indrani; Nazar, Gaurang P; Modi, Bhavesh; Singh, Deepti; Millett, Christopher; Reddy, K Srinath

    2013-01-01

    India's Smoke-Free Law (SFL) was implemented in 2004 and reinforced on 2nd October 2008. This research attempts to understand the knowledge and opinion of hospitality venue (HV) managers about second-hand smoke (SHS) and SFL as well as self-reported compliance with SFL in two Indian states. A survey was conducted among 804 randomly sampled HVs from project STEPS (Strengthening of tobacco control efforts through innovative partnerships and strategies) in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India. Four hundred and three HVs from two districts in Gujarat and 401 HVs from six districts in Andhra Pradesh were selected. The owner, manager or supervisor of each HV was interviewed using a pre-tested structured interview schedule. Association of opinion scales with respondents' background characteristics was assessed through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Out of the 403 respondents in Gujarat and 401 in Andhra Pradesh, 56.1% and 84.3% had knowledge about SFL respectively. Compliance of HVs with SFL was 21.8% in Gujarat and 31.2% in Andhra Pradesh as reported by the managers. Knowledge about SHS was noted among 39.7% of respondents in Gujarat and 25.4% in Andhra Pradesh. Bivariate results indicated that more educated HV managers showed higher support for smoke-free public places (P < 0.001) and were more concerned about the health effects of SHS exposure (P = 0.002). Complete self-reported compliance with, and knowledge of SFL as well as SHS was not found in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. The education level of HV managers is an important determinant to ensure compliance with SFL in public places.

  14. Addressing healthcare needs of people living below the poverty line: a rapid assessment of the Andhra Pradesh Health Insurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M; Ramachandra, S S; Bandyopadhyay, S; Chandran, A; Shidhaye, R; Tamisettynarayana, S; Thippaiah, A; Sitamma, M; Sunil George, M; Singh, V; Sivasankaran, S; Bangdiwala, S I

    2011-01-01

    Families living below the poverty line in countries which do not have universal healthcare coverage are drawn into indebtedness and bankruptcy. The state of Andhra Pradesh in India established the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme (RACHIS) in 2007 with the aim of breaking this cycle by improving the access of below the poverty line (BPL) families to secondary and tertiary healthcare. It covered a wide range of surgical and medical treatments for serious illnesses requiring specialist healthcare resources not always available at district-level government hospitals. The impact of this scheme was evaluated by a rapid assessment, commissioned by the government of Andhra Pradesh. The aim of the assessment was to explore the contribution of the scheme to the reduction of catastrophic health expenditure among the poor and to recommend ways by which delivery of the scheme could be improved. We report the findings of this assessment. Two types of data were used for the assessment. Patient data pertaining to 89 699 treatment requests approved by the scheme during its first 18 months were examined. Second, surveys of scheme beneficiaries and providers were undertaken in 6 randomly selected districts of Andhra Pradesh. This novel scheme was beginning to reach the BPL households in the state and providing access to free secondary and tertiary healthcare to seriously ill poor people. An integrated model encompassing primary, secondary and tertiary care would be of greater benefit to families below the poverty line and more cost-effective for the government. There is considerable potential for the government to build on this successful start and to strengthen equity of access and the quality of care provided by the scheme. Copyright 2011, NMJI.

  15. Applications of Self-Organising Map (SOM) for prioritisation of endemic zones of filariasis in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Upadhayula Suryanaryana; Rao, Mutheneni Srinivasa; Sriram, K; Rao, K Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Entomological and epidemiological data of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) was collected from 120 villages of four districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. Self-Organising Maps (SOMs), data-mining techniques, was used to classify and prioritise the endemic zones of filariasis. The results show that, SOMs classified all the villages into three major clusters by considering the data of Microfilaria (MF) rate, infection, infectivity rate and Per Man Hour (PMH). By considering the patterns of cluster, appropriate decision can be drawn for each parameter that is responsible for disease transmission of filariasis. Hence, SOM will certainly be a suitable tool for management of filariasis. The detailed application of SOM is discussed in this paper.

  16. Consanguinity and its relationship to differential fertility and mortality in the Kotia: a tribal population of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasim; Naidu, J M; Mascie-Taylor, C G

    1997-04-01

    Data on patterns of marriage, differential fertility and mortality were collected from 211 Kotia women residing in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Consanguineous marriages made up just over a quarter of the total, and of these, father's sister's daughter (FSD) were more common than mother's brother's daughter (MBD). The mean inbreeding coefficient for the sample (F) was 0.0172. Women in consanguineous marriages had a lower mean number of total conceptions, live births and living offspring (net fertility) than women in non-consanguineous marriages. Significant heterogeneity was found in the means of living offspring for FSD, MBD and non-consanguineous couples, but not for conceptions and live births.

  17. Correlation of indoor radon levels with physical properties of local soil in Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa Reddy, B.; Bhaskar Reddy, G.; Sreenath Reddy, M.; Gopal Reddy, Ch; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor radon contributes significantly to the total radiation exposure caused to human beings. As might be expected, the physical characteristics of soil play key roles in determining the radon concentration in nearby buildings. The physical characteristics of soil, such as density, specific gravity and porosity in the vicinity of the dwellings of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India, have been determined using core cutter and specific gravity bottle. In the present paper, these parameters are correlated with the average indoor radon levels estimated for a year using solid state nuclear track detectors. (author)

  18. Value added products with popular low grade rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, G; Rajyalakshmi, P

    2014-12-01

    Eight Popular Low Grade Rice Varieties (PLRVs) MTU 3626, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, MTU 4870 and NLR 145, NLR 34242, NLR 30491, NLR 34449, (developed and released by ANGR agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh) having poor cooking quality were selected for the study. ANGRAU variety BPT 5204 popularly consumed as staple rice was used as check. Eight products of traditional/commercial importance were standardized incorporating PLRVs as a major ingredient in the form of rice flour (burfi, noodles and extruded snack product and vennaundalu (butter coated balls), palathalikalu (dough rolled into strips, steamed/cooked in milk); rice semolina (instant kheer mix and instant upma mix), and flaked rice (nutritious bar). The products were evaluated for nutritional, cooking quality characteristics, consumer acceptability and shelf-life. Consumer acceptability of the PLR products was carried out with 60 farm women based on 9 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life of the products (packed in both metalized PP and PE pouches) was evaluated monthly for chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Energy values of control and PLR products showed no significant difference. Upon cooking, PLR Noodles showed no significant difference with water absorption and volume but more (p instant kheer mix (92%) and extruded product (88%). As per sensory scores, all the PLR products were well accepted with no observable changes in flavor or taste upon storage. PLR products showed increased (P noodles and highest for burfi (though in safe limits). Extruded snacks (control and PLR) showed no microbial growth during the entire storage period. Considering the poor marketability of PLRVs for consumption as staple rice, the study signifies the utilitarian value of PLRVs in making products of convenience/commercial importance.

  19. Barriers to accessing eye care services among visually impaired populations in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovai Vilas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To understand the reasons why people in rural south India with visual impairment arising from various ocular diseases do not seek eye care. Materials and Methods: A total of 5,573 persons above the age of 15 were interviewed and examined in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh covering the districts of Adilabad, West Godavari and Mahaboobnagar. A pre-tested structured questionnaire on barriers to eye care was administered by trained field investigators. Results: Of the eligible subjects, 1234 (22.1%, N=5573 presented with distant visual acuity < 20/60 or equivalent visual field loss in the better eye. Of these, 898 (72.7%, N=1234 subjects had not sought treatment despite noticing a decrease in vision citing personal, economic and social reasons. The analysis also showed that the odds of seeking treatment was significantly higher for literates [odds ratio (OR 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.38 to 2.65], for those who would be defined as blind by visual acuity category (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.90 and for those with cataract and other causes of visual impairment (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.03. Barriers to seeking treatment among those who had not sought treatment despite noticing a decrease in vision over the past five years were personal in 52% of the respondents, economic in 37% and social in 21%. Conclusion: Routine planning for eye care services in rural areas of India must address the barriers to eye care perceived by communities to increase the utilization of services.

  20. Incidence of agenesis of palmaris longus in the Andhra population of India

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    K Devi Sankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The knowledge of Palmaris longus (PL is a growing interest for its wide role in reconstructive plastic surgeries as a donor tendon for transfer or transplant. The prevalence of the PL agenesis has been well-documented by many authors in different ethnic groups or populations. Many conventional tests for determining the presence of the PL has been described, but lamentably there are many discrepancies in confirming its presence or absence. Slight modifications of the prevailing methods can still give authenticate results. Aim : This prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence of unilateral and bilateral agenesis of PL and its association with sex and side of the limb in the Andhra population of India. Materials and Methods : A total of 942 subjects of both sexes belonging to 18-23 years were used to access the PL using various tendon examination techniques including our modified Schaeffer′s test. The data collected were analyzed by Pearsons χ2 test using SPSS software. Results : Overall agenesis of muscle in both sexes was 264 (28.0%, out of which 40.2% was seen in females and 14.7% in males with the ratio of 3:1. The unilateral agenesis was seen in 70.5% and bilateral agenesis in 29.5% subjects. The left side agenesis was seen in 51.6% and right side in 48.4% subjects. Conclusions : The prevalence of bilateral and unilateral agenesis was more common on left side with a greater likelihood in the female subjects. The proposed technique could bring better results in all subjects and can be implemented in manual examination of PL.

  1. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Saroj; Krishna, Rama; Prabhakar, Parimi; Panyam, Swarup; Anand, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW). The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%). The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%), clout/influence of the client (45%), risk of losing client (27%), and forced sex (1.2%). Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98%) while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.

  2. Are dentists happy? A study among dental practitioners in coastal Andhra Pradesh using subjective happiness scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Kaipa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of dental professionals in the society is vital. This profession allows the flexibility to balance a professional and personal life. Practice of dentistry at times is quite stressful, and stress impedes happiness and subjective well-being. Several studies have reported about stress among dental professionals and their various effects; however, studies evaluating the level of happiness (happiness index among dentists are few and lack in this geographic region. Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the subjective happiness level among dental professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 194 dentists in Andhra Pradesh, India. A questionnaire measuring dimensions of professional satisfaction by Subjective Happiness Scale was used to assess the happiness level. The results were expressed in percentages, means, and mean rank. Independent samples nonparametric tests (Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis test and multivariable analyses were used to assess the determinants of happiness. Results: The mean happiness index of the respondents was 21.71 (0.26 standard error. Overall 67% of the respondents had an above average happiness score. Higher happiness score was found to be significantly associated with age, postgraduate degree, male gender, type of professional attachment, duration of practice, urban location of practice, and spouse employment status in univariate analysis. However, multivariable analysis showed association with type of professional attachment only. Conclusion: Although dentistry has been recognized as a stressful profession, majority of the dentists under study had a happiness score above the mean, and the level of satisfaction was influenced by various sociodemographic factors.

  3. Profile of antibiotic consumption, sensitivity and resistance in an urban area of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripi, Sunita Bhargavi; Thadepalli, Venu Gopala Rao; Khagga, Mukkanti; Tripuraribhatla, Prasanna Krishna; Bharadwaj, Dinesh Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Antibiotics are an important category of drugs in which indiscriminate use can affect the susceptibility patterns among infectious organisms, resulting in antibiotic resistance. Data on antibiotic usage and susceptibility patterns were collected from public and private health centres in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India, through the use of questionnaires. The data collected were then coded, tabulated, computed and evaluated using statistical analysis. The consumption profile of the different categories of drugs used in public and private hospitals was as follows: nutrition and metabolism products 19.0%; gastrointestinal disorder-related drugs 18.5%; antibiotics 16.8%; anti-pyretics and anti-analgesics 20.6%. These drugs were found to be in high demand. Among the antibiotics, aminoglycosides (amikacin), quinolones (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin), tetracyclines (doxycycline), penicillin (ampicillin) and sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) were the most commonly prescribed drugs for antibiotic therapy. 46% of the culture laboratory reports were positive with the following organism profile: Escherichia coli (36%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16%), Staphylococcus aureus (29%), Enterococcus faecalis (9%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10%). In terms of the sensitivity profile of antibacterials, amikacin (66.9%) was the only antibiotic showing sensitivity patterns, while the majority of antibiotics, such as cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, amoxicillin, gentamycin and norfloxacin, had acquired a resistance rate of 55.1%-80.6%. The results of this study suggest that indiscriminate prescription and consumption of new broad-spectrum antibiotics against sensitive organisms results in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to curb the excessive use of antibiotics in local hospitals in order to control the trend of increasing antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics.

  4. Consumer preferences for household water treatment products in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Christine; Yang, Jui-Chen; Patil, Sumeet R; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Wood, Siri; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gonzalez, Juan Marcos

    2012-08-01

    Over 5 billion people worldwide are exposed to unsafe water. Given the obstacles to ensuring sustainable improvements in water supply infrastructure and the unhygienic handling of water after collection, household water treatment and storage (HWTS) products have been viewed as important mechanisms for increasing access to safe water. Although studies have shown that HWTS technologies can reduce the likelihood of diarrheal illness by about 30%, levels of adoption and continued use remain low. An understanding of household preferences for HWTS products can be used to create demand through effective product positioning and social marketing, and ultimately improve and ensure commercial sustainability and scalability of these products. However, there has been little systematic research on consumer preferences for HWTS products. This paper reports the results of the first state-of-the-art conjoint analysis study of HWTS products. In 2008, we conducted a conjoint analysis survey of a representative sample of households in Andhra Pradesh (AP), India to elicit and quantify household preferences for commercial HWTS products. Controlling for attribute non-attendance in an error components mixed logit model, the study results indicate that the most important features to respondents, in terms of the effect on utility, were the type of product, followed by the extent to which the product removes pathogens, the retail outlet and, the time required to treat 10 L. Holding all other product attributes constant, filters were preferred to combination products and chemical additives. Department stores and weekly markets were the most favorable sales outlets, followed by mobile salespeople. In general, households do not prefer to purchase HWTS products at local shops. Our results can inform the types of products and sales outlets that are likely to be successful in commercial HWTS markets in AP, as well as the influence of different pricing and financing strategies on product demand

  5. Maternal autonomy is inversely related to child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Monal; Griffiths, Paula; Adair, Linda; Suchindran, Chirayath; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Child stunting, an outcome of chronic undernutrition, contributes to poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. In South Asia, the low status of women is thought to be one of the primary determinants of undernutrition across the lifespan. Low female status can result in compromised health outcomes for women, which in turn are related to lower infant birthweight and may affect the quality of infant care and nutrition. Maternal autonomy (defined as a woman's personal power in the household and her ability to influence and change her environment) is likely an important factor influencing child care and ultimately infant and child health outcomes. To examine the relationship between maternal autonomy and child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India, we analysed data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-2. We used cross-sectional demographic, health and anthropometric information for mothers and their oldest child autonomy are presented by four dimensions - decision making, permission to travel, attitude towards domestic violence and financial autonomy - constructed using seven binary variables. Logistic regression models were used to test associations between indicators of female autonomy and the risk of having a stunted child. Women with higher autonomy {indicated by access to money [odds ratio (OR) = 0.731; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.546, 0.981] and freedom to choose to go to the market [OR = 0.593; 95% CI 0.376, 0.933]} were significantly less likely to have a stunted child, after controlling for household socio-economic status and mother's education. In this south Indian state, two dimensions of female autonomy have an independent effect on child growth, suggesting the need for interventions that increase women's financial and physical autonomy.

  6. Thermostatted delta f

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The delta f simulation method is revisited. Statistical coarse-graining is used to rigorously derive the equation for the fluctuation delta f in the particle distribution. It is argued that completely collisionless simulation is incompatible with the achievement of true statistically steady states with nonzero turbulent fluxes because the variance of the particle weights w grows with time. To ensure such steady states, it is shown that for dynamically collisionless situations a generalized thermostat or W-stat may be used in lieu of a full collision operator to absorb the flow of entropy to unresolved fine scales in velocity space. The simplest W-stat can be implemented as a self-consistently determined, time-dependent damping applied to w. A precise kinematic analogy to thermostatted nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) is pointed out, and the justification of W-stats for simulations of turbulence is discussed. An extrapolation procedure is proposed such that the long-time, steady-state, collisionless flux can be deduced from several short W-statted runs with large effective collisionality, and a numerical demonstration is given

  7. People of the Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, L.

    2007-09-15

    The potential impacts of both global warming and the $16 billion Mackenzie pipeline project on communities in the Mackenzie Delta were discussed. A consortium of oil and gas developers is now planning to exploit the natural gas reserves located near the mouth of the Delta, whose largest town is Inuvik. The project is expected to place a significant burden on the resources and infrastructure of the town, which currently has a population of 6000. The community, comprised of a diverse international population and an Inuit majority, is largely in favour of the pipeline project. The Inuvialuit people have invested a significant amount of time to ensure that the project, which was stalled due to land claims in 1977, benefits their communities. Public hearings are now being held to consider the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of the project. Separate hearings are also being held to consider the project's design. The pipeline project includes 3 natural gas production facilities, a gas-processing facility, a pipeline gathering system, a 480 km natural gas liquids pipeline to the Northwest Territories, and a 1220 km natural gas pipeline to northern Alberta. The pipeline will be buried to minimize environmental impacts. The project is expected to create 8200 jobs at the height of its construction. However, communities located near the site of the natural gas reserves, such as the town of Tuktoyaktuk are now threatened by soil erosion that has been attributed to global warming. 21 figs.

  8. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR

    1999-01-01

    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia

  9. Peat compaction in deltas : implications for Holocene delta evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many deltas contain substantial amounts of peat, which is the most compressible soil type. Therefore, peat compaction potentially leads to high amounts of subsidence in deltas. The main objective of this research was to quantify subsidence due to peat compaction in Holocene fluvial-deltaic settings

  10. Haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium at DRD2 locus--a study on four population groups of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Mukhopadhyay, Rupak; Shukla, Deepti; Kaur, Harpreet; Sachdeva, Mohinder Pal; Rao, A P; Saksena, Deepti; Kalla, Aloke Kumar

    2009-02-01

    Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) is expressed in the central nervous system and has a high affinity for many antipsychotic drugs. Besides several epidemiological investigations on association of DRD2 locus polymorphism(s) with neuropsychiatric problems and addictive behavior, a few polymorphisms in this locus have also been used to understand genomic diversity and population migratory histories globally. The present study attempts to understand the genomic diversity/affinity among four endogamous groups of Andhra Pradesh (India) against the backdrop of diversity studies from other parts of India and the rest of the world, with special reference to DRD2 locus. The four population groups from Adilabad District of Andhra Pradesh, namely, Brahmin (n=50), Nayakpod (n=49), Thoti (n=52), and Kolam (n=53), were included in the study. The DRD2 markers typed for the present study are three biallelic restriction fragments, that is, TaqI A (rs1800497), TaqI B (rs1079597), and TaqI D (rs1800498). Scoring of DRD2 haplotypes with respect to the three TaqI sites shows that five out of eight possible haplotypes are shared by the four populations. Ancestral haplotype B2D2A1 is most frequent among Thotis (0.359). The results of the present study indicate a differential gene flow into South India followed by certain important demographic events resulting in diversified peopling of India.

  11. Challenges, Approaches and Experiences from Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta : Regional Training Workshop on Delta Planning and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2013-01-01

    River delta's, like the Mekong Delta (Vietnam), Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh), Ayeyarwady Delta (Myanmar), Nile (Egypt) and Ciliwung Delta (Indonesia) are developing rapidly and are characterised by large-scale urbanisation and industrialization processes. They are facing serious planning

  12. Increasing Choice or Inequality? Pathways through Early Education in Andhra Pradesh, India. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 58. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streuli, Natalia; Vennam, Uma; Woodhead, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This working paper is part of the Studies in Early Transitions series emerging from "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores recent trends for children growing up in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's most populous states, based on Young Lives survey data collected for…

  13. Mida pakub Delta? / Teele Kurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurm, Teele

    2011-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võtab kasutusele ühise Siseministeeriumi infotehnoloogia- ja arenduskeskuse ning Webmedia AS koostööna loodud dokumendihaldussüsteemi Delta. Kust sai Delta oma nime? Projekti "Dokumendihaldussüsteemi juurutamine Siseministeeriumi haldusalas" eesmärgid

  14. Delta isobars in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliara Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of delta isobars in beta-stable matter is regulated by the behavior of the symmetry energy at densities larger than saturation density. We show that by taking into account recent constraints on the density derivative of the symmetry energy and the theoretical and experimental results on the excitations of delta isobars in nuclei, delta isobars are necessary ingredients for the equations of state used for studying neutron stars. We analyze the effect of the appearance of deltas on the structure of neutron stars: as in the case of hyperons, matter containing delta is too soft for allowing the existence of 2M⊙ neutron stars. Quark stars on the other hand, could reach very massive configurations and they could form from a process of conversion of hadronic stars in which an initial seed of strangeness appears through hyperons.

  15. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  16. Maternal nutritional status & practices & perinatal, neonatal mortality in rural Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamji, Mahtab S; V S Murthy, P V; Williams, Livia; Vardhana Rao, M Vishnu

    2008-01-01

    Despite a vast network of primary health centres and sub-centres, health care outreach in rural parts of India is poor. The Dangoria Charitable Trust (DCT), Hyderabad, has developed a model of health care outreach through trained Village Health and Nutrition Entrepreneur and Mobilisers (HNEMs) in five villages of Medak district in Andhra Pradesh, not serviced by the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) of the Government of India. Impact of such a link worker on perinatal/ neonatal mortality has been positive. The present study attempts to examine the association of maternal nutrition and related factors with perinatal, and neonatal mortality in these villages. Women from five selected villages who had delivered between June 1998 and September 2003, were identified. Those who had lost a child before one month (28 days), including stillbirths, (group 1- mortality group), who could be contacted and were willing to participate, were compared with those who had not lost a child (group II- no mortality), through a structured questionnaire and physical examination for anthropometric status and signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Categorical data were analysed using Pearson chi square analysis. Continuous data were analysed using Student's t test. Mortality during perinatal, neonatal period was 8.2 per cent of all births. Malnutrition was rampant. Over 90 per cent women had 3 or more antenatal check-ups, had taken tetanus injections and had complied with regular consumption of iron-folic acid tablets. Higher percentage of women in group I (mortality group) tended to have height less than 145 cm (high risk) and signs and symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies. However, differences between groups I and II were not statistically significant. Pre-term delivery, difficult labour (use of forceps), first parity, birth asphyxia (no cry at birth) and day of initiating breastfeeding showed significant association with mortality. Significant association between signs

  17. A STUDY OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY AND KIDNEY FUNCTION TEST IN NEWLYDIAGNOSED HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramswaroop

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND As per the fact sheet published by World Health Organisation, South East Asia, nearly one billion people have high blood pressure and are one of the most common causes of premature death worldwide. About one third of the adult population in the South East Asia region is having hypertension. In our country, the number of people with hypertension are undiagnosed and untreated, so early detection and treatment of hypertension will decrease the complication of hypertension and premature death due to it. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study conducted in the Department of General Medicine, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences, Amalapuram, from May 2015 to August 2017. This study was started with an aim to know that electrocardiographic abnormalities and kidney function at the time of diagnosis of hypertension in a patient in coastal Andhra Pradesh. RESULTS We have found ECG changes in both the stages of hypertensive group patients. In stage-1 hypertensive group patients, out of 80 patients, 6 patients having sinus tachycardia, 2 having sinus bradycardia, 4 patients having left bundle-branch block and 6 having right bundle-branch block. ST elevation was found in 1 patient and ST depression was found in 8 patients. AV block was present in 2 patients. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present in 1 patient and left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 4 patients. T-wave inversion was found in 4 patients. In stage-2 hypertensive patients, sinus tachycardia in 6 patients and bradycardia in 1 patient, LBBB was found in 8 patients. ST depression was found in 6 patients and ST elevation was found in 2 patients out of 40 patients. AV block was present in 3 patients. Left ventricular hypertrophy patients 16 out of 40, but right ventricular hypertrophy was only 1. T-wave inversion was found in 6 patients. CONCLUSION In our study, we have found that stage-2 hypertensive patients have higher BMI, serum urea and creatinine than stage-1

  18. AWARENESS OF TUBERCULOSIS AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF A TOWN IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Shankar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is an age old disease which has remained as a major global public health problem with socioeconomic implications in developing countries. The interaction with HIV/AIDS and emergence of drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis bacilli has worsened the situation. India has a high burden of tuberculosis in terms of incidence, prevalence and mortality. RNTCP in India follows a passive case detection method for case finding in chest symptomatics. This makes it essential for the community at large and the younger generation in particular to have adequate knowledge and awareness regarding tuberculosis since it is highly infectious. High school children can be effectively sensitised and motivated to be change agents in the community and play a key role in combating tuberculosis. AIM To assess the awareness levels of 8 th to 10 th grade school students in Amalapuram, a town in coastal area of Andhra Pradesh regarding tuberculosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS After the study protocol was cleared by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation, Amalapuram, permission was sought from the authorities of five private schools and one government school in Amalapuram to carry out this study among the 8 th to 10 th grade students of these schools. A predesigned, pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to capture information related to basic demographic details of the participants followed by questions related tuberculosis to assess their awareness. A cross-sectional survey was carried out and once the filled-in questionnaires were collected, an interactive session was held where various aspects of tuberculosis were elaborately explained, the answers to the questions were told in detail and doubts of the students were clarified. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The data collected was entered into a template created in computer using Microsoft Excel 2007. EPI INFO 6 software was used for

  19. Fast delta Hadamard transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Weston, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    In many fields (e.g., spectroscopy, imaging spectroscopy, photoacoustic imaging, coded aperture imaging) binary bit patterns known as m sequences are used to encode (by multiplexing) a series of measurements in order to obtain a larger throughput. The observed measurements must be decoded to obtain the desired spectrum (or image in the case of coded aperture imaging). Decoding in the past has used a technique called the fast Hadamard transform (FHT) whose chief advantage is that it can reduce the computational effort from N 2 multiplies of N log 2 N additions or subtractions. However, the FHT has the disadvantage that it does not readily allow one to sample more finely than the number of bits used in the m sequence. This can limit the obtainable resolution and cause confusion near the sample boundaries (phasing errors). Both 1-D and 2-D methods (called fast delta Hadamard transforms, FDHT) have been developed which overcome both of the above limitations. Applications of the FDHT are discussed in the context of Hadamard spectroscopy and coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays. Special emphasis has been placed on how the FDHT can unite techniques used by both of these fields into the same mathematical basis

  20. Energy deposition by delta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigand, F.C.; Braby, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations for proton tracks were extended to projectile with more complex electronic structures which add additional delta ray production processes. An experimental apparatus was used to detect gas gain and resolution for H 2+ and 3 He ++

  1. Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable Development of Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: The Case of Rivers State. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study is on Niger Delta Development Commission and sustainable development of Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the case of Rivers State. The main objective of the ...

  2. Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme in Andhra Pradesh, India: a comprehensive analytic view of private public partnership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sunita; Mary, Immaculate

    2013-01-01

    The Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance (RACHI) in Andhra Pradesh (AP) has been very popular social insurance scheme with a private public partnership model to deal with the problems of catastrophic medical expenditures at tertiary level care for the poor households. A brief analysis of the RACHI scheme based on officially available data and media reports has been undertaken from a public health perspective to understand the nature and financing of partnership and the lessons it provides. The analysis of the annual budget spent on the surgeries in private hospitals compared to tertiary public hospitals shows that the current scheme is not sustainable and pose huge burden on the state exchequers. The private hospital association's in AP, further acts as pressure groups to increase the budget or threaten to withdraw services. Thus, profits are privatized and losses are socialized.

  3. $\\delta$-Expansion at Finite Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rudnei O.

    1996-01-01

    We apply the $\\delta$-expansion perturbation scheme to the $\\lambda \\phi^{4}$ self-interacting scalar field theory in 3+1 D at finite temperature. In the $\\delta$-expansion the interaction term is written as $\\lambda (\\phi^{2})^{ 1 + \\delta}$ and $\\delta$ is considered as the perturbation parameter. We compute within this perturbative approach the renormalized mass at finite temperature at a finite order in $\\delta$. The results are compared with the usual loop-expansion at finite temperature.

  4. Cost and efficiency of public sector sexually transmitted infection clinics in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh YK

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs is an important part of the effort to reduce the risk of HIV/AIDS. STI clinics in the government hospitals in India provide services predominantly to the poor. Data on the cost and efficiency of providing STI services in India are not available to help guide efficient use of public resources for these services. Methods Standardised methods were used to obtain detailed cost and output data for the 2003–2004 fiscal year from written records and interviews in 14 government STI clinics in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The economic cost per patient receiving STI treatment was calculated, and the variations of total and unit costs across the STI clinics analysed. Multivariate regression technique was used to estimate incremental unit costs. The optimal number of STIs that could be handled by the clinics was estimated. Results 18807 STIs were diagnosed and treated at the 14 STI clinics in fiscal year 2003–2004 (range 323–2784, median 1199. The economic cost of treating each STI varied 5-fold from Indian Rupees (INR 225.5 (US$ 4.91 to INR 1201.5 (US$ 26.15 between 13 clinics, with one other clinic having a very high cost of INR 2478.5 (US$ 53.94. The average cost per STI treated for all 14 clinics combined was INR 729.5 (US$ 15.88. Personnel salaries made up 76.2% of the total cost. The number of STIs treated per doctor full-time equivalent and cost-efficiency for each STI treated had a significant direct non-linear relation (p 2 = 0.81; power function. With a multiple regression model, apart from the fixed costs, the incremental cost for each STI detected and cost of treatment was INR 55.57 (US$ 1.21 and for each follow-up visit was INR 3.75 (US$ 0.08. Based on estimates of optimal STI cases that could be handled without compromising quality by each doctor full-time equivalent available, it was projected that at 8 of the 14 clinics substantially more STI cases could be

  5. Anaerobic Transformation of Furfural by Methanococcus deltae (Delta)LH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, N.; Boopathy, R.; Voskuilen, G.

    1997-01-01

    Methanococcus deltae (Delta)LH was grown on H(inf2)-CO(inf2) in the presence of various concentrations of furfural. Furfural at higher concentrations, namely, 20 and 25 mM, inhibited growth of this organism. At concentration of 5 and 10 mM, no inhibition of growth was observed. The other methanogens in this study were not inhibited by 10 mM furfural. Among the methanogens tested, M. deltae was capable of transforming furfural, whereas Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg, Methanosarcina barkeri 227, Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium lacked this capability. One hundred percent removal of furfural was observed within 48 h of incubation in M. deltae cultures. The end product observed during furfural metabolism was furfuryl alcohol. An almost stoichiometric amount of furfuryl alcohol was produced by M. deltae. This transformation is likely to be of value in the detoxification of furfural and in its ultimate conversion to methane and CO(inf2) by anaerobic digestion. PMID:16535618

  6. Sediment fluxes and the littoral drift along northeast Andhra Pradesh Coast, India: Estimation by remote sensing

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Alagarsamy, R.; Hursthouse, A.S.

    ). However, field study revealed a predominance of erosion rather than deposition along the estuarine banks and delta front shoreline (Malini and Rao 2004). The study reported here analyzes the littoral-drift regime along the coastal stretch between... by detecting the landform and shoreline changes during the decade (1988/89 to 2000). The multi-date color composite for each sector was generated by assigning red color to a band of ETM 8 data and green and blue color to the corresponding band of TM data...

  7. Detection and confirmation of PPR virus antigen in sheep and goats by sandwich-ELISA and RT-PCR in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saritha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild small ruminants. Rapid and accurate laboratory assay are essential to enable the implementation of appropriate control strategies to restrict the spread of PPR. The present study was designed to detect the PPR virus (PPRV antigen (N-gene in nasal swabs and tissue samples. A total of 195 samples comprising of 138 nasal swabs from PPR suspected sheep (n=72 and goats (n=66, and 57 tissue samples comprising of lymph nodes from dead sheep (n=39 and goats (n=18 were collected from certain parts of Andhra Pradesh. The samples were subjected to sandwich-ELISA followed by RT-PCR for confirmatory diagnosis. In this study, PPRV could be detected in 27.53% (n=38/138 nasal swabs and 49.12% (n=28/57 tissue samples. Data showed that PPRV infection is widespread in the Andhra Pradesh, India.

  8. Learning networks matter: challenges to developing learning-based competence in mango production and post-harvest in Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, L.P.; Odame, H.H.; Hall, A.; Sulaiman, R.V.

    2008-01-01

    This discussion paper explores aspects of innovation systems ideas in the analysis of mango production and export by smallscale farmers in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The paper shows how despite favourable agro-ecological conditions and being the largest international mango producer, India still struggles to build momentum in rapidly emerging export markets. An analysis of the sector's recent history combined with an empirical account of inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral linkage...

  9. Four new Delta Scuti stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Four new Delta Scuti stars are reported. Power, modified into amplitude, spectra, and light curves are used to determine periodicities. A complete frequency analysis is not performed due to the lack of a sufficient time base in the data. These new variables help verify the many predictions that Delta Scuti stars probably exist in prolific numbers as small amplitude variables. Two of these stars, HR 4344 and HD 107513, are possibly Am stars. If so, they are among the minority of variable stars which are also Am stars.

  10. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Udayagiri area, Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh, South India Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arveti Nagaraju

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeochemical studies were carried out in and around Udayagiri area of Andhra Pradesh in order to assess the chemistry of the groundwater and to identify the dominant hydrogeochemical processes and mechanisms responsible for the evolution of the chemical composition of the groundwater. Descriptive statistics, correlation matrices, principal component analysis (PCA, together with cluster analysis (CA were used to gain an understanding of the hydrogeochemical processes in the study area. PCA has identified 4 main processes influencing the groundwater chemistry viz., mineral precipitation and dissolution, seawater intrusion, cation exchange, and carbonate balance. Further, three clusters C1, C2 and C3 were obtained. Samples from C1 contain high level of Cl− and may be due to the intensive evaporation and contamination from landfill leachate. Most of the samples from C2 are located closer to the sea and the high level of Na+ +K+ in these samples may be attributed to seawater intrusion. The geochemistry of water samples in C3 are more likely to originate from rock weathering. This has been supported by Gibbs diagram. The groundwater geochemistry in the study area is mostly of natural origin, but is influenced to some degree by human activity.    Evaluación de la calidad del agua subterránea a través de técnicas estadísticas multivariadas en el área Udayagiri, distrito Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, en el sur de India Resumen Se realizaron estudios hidrogeoquímicos en y alrededor del área Udayagiri de Andhra Pradesh para evaluar la química del agua subterránea e identificar los procesos hidrogeoquímicos dominantes y los mecanismos responsables de la evolución en la composición química del agua subterránea. Se utilizaron estadísticas descriptivas, matrices de correlación, análisis de componentes principales, al igual que análisis de grupos, para obtener y entender los procesos hidrogeoquímicos en el área de estudio. Los an

  11. Hydrological and Climatic Significance of Martian Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Vaz, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    We a) review the geomorphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of the martian deltas record and b) present the results of a quantitative study of the hydrology and sedimentology of martian deltas using modified version of terrestrial model Sedflux.

  12. Adaptive delta management : Roots and branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, J.S.; Haasnoot, M.; Hermans, L.M.; Kwakkel, J.H.; Rutten, M.M.; Thissen, W.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy,

  13. Adaptive Delta Management : Roots and Branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan H.; Rutten, Maarten; Thissen, Wil A.H.; Mynett, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy,

  14. Delta Vegetation and Land Use [ds292

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vegetation and land use are mapped for the approximately 725,000 acres constituting the Legal Delta portion of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta area....

  15. Delta Scuti variables. Lecture 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The class of variables near or on the upper main sequence, the delta Scuti variables, are not only the usual ones about the masses, radii, and luminosities, but also the age, rotation, element diffusion to change the surface layer composition, the occurance of convection and the presence of radial and nonradial pulsation modes

  16. about the Dirac Delta Function(?)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balakrishnan is in the. Department of ... and sweet as befits this impatient age. It said (in its en- ... to get down to real work by shutting down the system and reverting to ... the Dirac delta function" - but do note the all-important question mark in ...

  17. What influences the decision to undergo institutional delivery by skilled birth attendants? A cohort study in rural Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M; Ariana, P; Webster, P

    2012-01-01

    Despite continuing efforts to promote skilled institutional delivery, eight women die every hour in India due to causes related to pregnancy and child birth. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and the determinants of institutional delivery by skilled birth attendants in a rural population in Andhra Pradesh, India. This cross-sectional study used data from 'Young Lives', a longitudinal study on childhood poverty, and the study population was a cohort of 1419 rural, economically deprived women (from the Young Lives study) in Andhra Pradesh, India. The data are from round-1 of Young Lives younger cohort recruited in 2002 and followed until 2015. The participation rate of households was 99.5%. Prevalence of skilled institutional delivery was 36.8%. Women's education (odds ratio [OR] for secondary education 2.06; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.33-3.19), desire to be pregnant (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.12-3.22) and adequate prenatal care (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.30-2.21) were found to be the positive determinants of skilled institutional delivery. High birth order (OR for second birth 0.44; 95% CI 0.32-0.60, OR for third birth 0.47; 95% CI 0.30-0.72 and OR for ≥fourth 0.47; 95% CI 0.27-0.81), schedule caste/schedule tribe social background (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.53-0.93) and poor economic status of the household (OR for the poorest households 0.67; 95% CI 0.46-0.99) were negatively associated with skilled institutional delivery. Despite existence of supporting schemes, the utilisation of skilled institutional delivery services was low in the study population. Educated women and women with adequate prenatal care who have a desired pregnancy were more likely to utilise health institutions and skilled delivery care. There is a need for integrated approaches through maternal health, family planning and education programs, and a focus on uneducated, poor women belonging to disadvantaged social groups.

  18. Variation in leaf water delta D and delta 18O values during the evapotranspiration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Foloni, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to evaluate leaf water delta D and delta 18 O variation in relation to: leaf temperature, relative humidity converted to leaf temperature and delta D and delta 18 O values of atmospheric water vapour and soil water. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. An analytical framework for strategic delta planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijger, C.; Douven, W.; Halsema, van G.; Hermans, L.; Evers, J.; Phi, H.L.; Khan, M.F.; Brunner, J.; Pols, L.; Ligtvoet, W.; Koole, S.; Slager, K.; Vermoolen, M.S.; Hasan, S.; Thi Minh Hoang, Vo

    2017-01-01

    Sectoral planning on water, agriculture and urban development has not been able to prevent increased flood risks and environmental degradation in many deltas. Governments conceive strategic delta planning as a promising planning approach and develop strategic delta plans. Such plans are linked to

  20. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  1. Molecular characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes causing scrub typhus outbreak in southern region of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, K; Kumar, E; Kalawat, Usha; Kumar, B Siddhartha; Chaudhury, A; Gopal, D V R Sai

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic infection caused by Orientiatsutsugamushi. Local epidemiology of the circulating serotypes of scrub typhus is not available from most parts of India. We conducted this study for the diagnosis of scrub typhus using IgM ELISA and to detect O. tsutsugamushi serotypes circulating in southern Andhra Pradesh, India. Samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus and were subjected to IgM ELISA to measure IgM antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed targeting strain-specific regions in ELISA-positive samples. Of a total of 663 samples, 258 (38.91%) were found to be positive by IgM ELISA. Serotypes could be detected in 230 (34.69%) samples only. Only two serotypes, Karp and Kawasaki, were found in the serum samples, with the former being predominant. The dual infection of Karp and Kawasaki serotypes was found in seven patients. Other serotypes such as Gilliam, Kuroki and Kato were not detected in the samples. The nested PCR products proved useful in presumptively identifying the endemic O. tsutsugamushi serotypes. The present study could be significant in understanding scrub typhus epidemiology in this region.

  2. Methodological issues in developing a community forestry greenhouse gas emissions mitigation project in Mancherial forest division of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, I.K.; Hegde, G.T.; Sudha, P.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    There are several contentious issues related to forestry mitigation projects. The special report of the IPCC and literature published so far have shown that permanence, leakage, baseline establishment, measurement, monitoring, etc., could be addressed satisfactorily using existing scientific methods and accounting rules. To understand the methodological issues of developing community forestry projects, a case study was conducted in Mancherial forest division of Adilabad district in Andhra Pradesh, India. This paper addresses: the setting of project boundaries, baseline selection, establishment of additionality and the calculation of carbon sequestration as a result of the project, prior to project implementation. The steps involved in development of the project and the different methods used for establishing baseline, estimating leakage and transaction cost of developing a community forestry project are presented. The stock is projected to increase by 1480 x 10 3 t C during 2000-2012 over the baseline scenario under the modeling approach and the cost of establishing a baseline and project formulation for a project extending over 32,956 ha is estimated to be US$ 1.25 ha -1 and US$ 4 t C -1

  3. Institutional dynamics and barriers in wind energy development. A case study of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeesh, Anumakonda

    1999-09-01

    In India, there was a boom in 1995-96 when 282 MW windfarms were set up in Tamil Nadu and the capacity in Andhra Pradesh increased by 39 MW. Then there was a steady decline in the windfarm development in both states. The case study described in this report attempts to trace the reasons for the boom and the factors that have contributed to the slump in windfarm development in these two states. The role of institutions in determining the effectiveness of national and regional public sector initiatives to promote and disseminate wind energy in the two states is discussed. The study also examines the financial, technical, transaction and institutional barriers, which inhibit the diffusion of wind energy in the states. It is suggested that important measures must be taken if wind energy is to develop rapidly in the two states. The result of the case study may be used to improve public policy intervention in disseminating wind energy in India. It may also be relevant to multilateral and bilateral aid agencies in their projects and/or programmes to promote cost-effective wind energy technology dissemination in developing countries. 25 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. On the fission track dating and annealing behaviour of accessory minerals of Eastern Ghats (Andhra Pradesh, India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    Use of the etching of fission fragment damage tracks for an estimation of the uranium content of apatite and zircon crystals is described. The etching conditions have been studied for which visible tracks are developed. Fission track determined ages of 25 samples of apatite and zircon crystals from four widely separated regions of India; the Borra mines (Vishakapatanam), Kashipatnam (Vishakapatnam), the Khamam area (Andhra Pradesh) and the Kodrama mines (Bihar) have been determined. Mean ages for these regions are 456 +- 5, 389 +- 4, 486 +- 7 and 664 +- 7 million years respectively. It is concluded that the fission track ages of the minerals date the last metamorphic event of the Eastern Ghats, known as the Indian Ocean Cycle. Annealing studies confirm that radiation damaged fossil tracks can be erased in minerals under intense metamorphic episodes, thus resetting the geological clock. Extrapolation of the experimentally determined temperatures for annealing suggest that a temperature of 170 0 C in 10 6 years will erase all the tracks in the apatite mineral. The uranium concentration has been estimated to be approximately 10 -8 gm/gm in apatite and approximately 10 -6 gm/gm in zircon. (Auth.)

  5. Poverty and development in a marginal community: case study of a settlement of the Sugali Tribe in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasi, Eswarappa

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of poverty and development have many meanings in contemporary globalized societies. Development by definition implies desired changes in terms of livelihood, improved quality of life and better access to assets and services, etc. However in reality development programmes sometimes have negative consequences, perhaps unintended, multiplying the acute scarcity of resources and opportunities, or reproducing poverty. Also, the consequences of developmental programmes often appear to be out of focus, and seen at the ground level, there seems to be a gap between what is intended and what is actualized. In this framework, this paper presents a case study of the social, cultural and economic correlates of the development processes in Adadakulapalle, a settlement of Sugali peoples, once a semi-nomadic tribe, in Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh, South India. The paper shows how factionalism and faction politics affect the implementation of development interventions. It also looks at the poverty in the settlement and focuses on the types of change that people have experienced with the implementation of different schemes by both government and other agencies. The type of change is discussed in the present study through the macro and micro analysis of development programmes.

  6. Rearranging social space: Boundary-making and boundary-work in a joint forest management project, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito-Jensen Moeko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, there has been an increasing trend in developing countries to shift from state driven approaches to Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM. In order to ensure sustainability of resources, the need for creating and maintaining clear resource use boundaries has been emphasised, both theoretically and in practice. However, there has been less attention to the varied social consequences for involved villages (whose inhabitants can access resources within the new boundaries and for excluded villages (whose inhabitants are prevented from accessing resources due to these boundaries. Drawing on a case study of three villages affected by the Joint Forest Management project in Andhra Pradesh, India, this article shows how resource use boundaries interact with social categories such as caste, gender and livelihood occupation in ways that facilitate asymmetric distribution of costs and benefits among local people. The article calls for more consultative processes in constituting new resources use boundaries and for flexible interventions to reconcile conflicts arising from boundary-making.

  7. Correlates of health care utilization under targeted interventions: The case of female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Varun; Suryawanshi, Dipak; Saggurti, Niranjan; Bharat, Shalini

    2017-11-01

    Accessibility and frequency of use of health care services among female sex workers (FSWs) are constrained by various factors. In this analysis, we examined the correlates of frequency of using health care services under targeted interventions among FSWs. A sample of FSWs (N = 1,973) was obtained from a second round (2012) of Behavioral Tracking Survey, conducted in five districts of Andhra Pradesh, a high-HIV-prevalence state in southern India. We used negative binomial regression models to analyze frequency of utilization of health care services among FSWs. Based on our analysis, we suggest that various predisposing and enabling factors were found to be significantly associated with the visit to NGO clinics for treatment of any health problem, any sexually transmitted infection symptom, and the number of condoms received from the peer worker or condom depot. We suggest the need for further research with respect to various correlates of frequency of using health care among FSWs to develop effective intervention strategies in countries that have high HIV prevalence among FSWs and targeted interventions need more diligent implementation to reach the unreached.

  8. STUDY OF SPECTRUM OF PYREXIA OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Suryaprakasa Rao Salla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO/Fever of Unknown Origin (FUO was defined in 1961 by Petersdorf RG and Beeson PB2 as the following- A temperature greater than 38.3°C (101°F on several occasions; more than 3 weeks' duration of illness; and failure to reach a diagnosis despite 1 week of inpatient investigation. The aim of the study is to study the spectrum of cases of Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO/Fever of Unknown Origin (FUO in a tertiary care hospital in coastal Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS All patients with PUO admitted under the Department of General Medicine in the NRI Institute of Medical Sciences (Anil Neerukonda Hospital Sangivalasa, Visakhapatnam, during the period from 1st September, 2016, to 31st August, 2017, and who fulfil inclusion and exclusion criteria of classic PUO defined by Durrack and AC street1 were selected for the study. RESULTS The present study included 34 patients with pyrexia of unknown origin in which the patients’ age ranged from 15 years to 77 years. Most of the cases, 41.2% were in the age group 21 to 40 years and 35.3% in the age group 41 to 60 yrs. This indicates PUO is common in middle age group in our study. CONCLUSION Noninfectious causes like collagen vascular disease and neoplasms are becoming important differential diagnosis. But, in India, infections like tuberculosis, enteric fever are still the most common cause of FUO.

  9. Future Change to Tide-Influenced Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Hoitink, A. J. F. (Ton); Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    2018-04-01

    Tides tend to widen deltaic channels and shape delta morphology. Here we present a predictive approach to assess a priori the effect of fluvial discharge and tides on deltaic channels. We show that downstream channel widening can be quantified by the ratio of the tide-driven discharge and the fluvial discharge, along with a second metric representing flow velocities. A test of our new theory on a selection of 72 deltas globally shows good correspondence to a wide range of environments, including wave-dominated deltas, river-dominated deltas, and alluvial estuaries. By quantitatively relating tides and fluvial discharge to delta morphology, we offer a first-order prediction of deltaic change that may be expected from altered delta hydrology. For example, we expect that reduced fluvial discharge in response to dam construction will lead to increased tidal intrusion followed by enhanced tide-driven sediment import into deltas, with implications for navigation and other human needs.

  10. Astrometric Observation of Delta Cepheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Naomi; Wilson, Betsie; Estrada, Chris; Crisafi, Kim; King, Jackie; Jones, Stephany; Salam, Akash; Warren, Glenn; Collins, S. Jananne; Genet, Russell

    2012-04-01

    Members of a Cuesta College astronomy research seminar used a manually-controlled 10-inch Newtonian Reflector telescope to determine the separation and position angle of the binary star Delta Cepheus. It was observed on the night of Saturday, October 29, 2011, at Star Hill in Santa Margarita, California. Their values of 40.2 arc seconds and 192.4 degrees were similar to those reported in the WDS (1910).

  11. Deformation characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y., E-mail: haiyanzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, S.H., E-mail: shzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cheng, M. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Z.X. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautica1 Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The hot working characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy during isothermal compression deformation at temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s{sup -1}, were studied by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. The results showed that the dissolution of plate-like {delta} phase and the precipitation of spherical {delta} phase particles coexisted during the deformation, and the content of {delta} phase decreased from 7.05 wt.% to 5.14 wt.%. As a result of deformation breakage and dissolution breakage, the plate-like {delta} phase was spheroidized and transferred to spherical {delta} phase particles. In the center with largest strain, the plate-like {delta} phase disappeared and spherical {delta} phase appeared in the interior of grains and grain boundaries.

  12. Migration in Deltas: An Integrated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Hutton, Craig W.; Lazar, Attila; Adger, W. Neil; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Vincent, Katharine; Rahman, Munsur; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Sugata, Hazra; Ghosh, Tuhin; Codjoe, Sam; Appeaning-Addo, Kwasi

    2017-04-01

    Deltas and low-lying coastal regions have long been perceived as vulnerable to global sea-level rise, with the potential for mass displacement of exposed populations. The assumption of mass displacement of populations in deltas requires a comprehensive reassessment in the light of present and future migration in deltas, including the potential role of adaptation to influence these decisions. At present, deltas are subject to multiple drivers of environmental change and often have high population densities as they are accessible and productive ecosystems. Climate change, catchment management, subsidence and land cover change drive environmental change across all deltas. Populations in deltas are also highly mobile, with significant urbanization trends and the growth of large cities and mega-cities within or adjacent to deltas across Asia and Africa. Such migration is driven primarily by economic opportunity, yet environmental change in general, and climate change in particular, are likely to play an increasing direct and indirect role in future migration trends. The policy challenges centre on the role of migration within regional adaptation strategies to climate change; the protection of vulnerable populations; and the future of urban settlements within deltas. This paper reviews current knowledge on migration and adaptation to environmental change to discern specific issues pertinent to delta regions. It develops a new integrated methodology to assess present and future migration in deltas using the Volta delta in Ghana, Mahanadi delta in India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta across India and Bangladesh. The integrated method focuses on: biophysical changes and spatial distribution of vulnerability; demographic changes and migration decision-making using multiple methods and data; macro-economic trends and scenarios in the deltas; and the policies and governance structures that constrain and enable adaptation. The analysis is facilitated by a range of

  13. Tides Stabilize Deltas until Humans Interfere

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    Hoitink, T.; Zheng Bing, W.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kastner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Despite global concerns about river delta degradation caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs and sea-level rise, human activity in the world's largest deltas intensifies. In this review, we argue that tides tend to stabilize deltas until humans interfere. Under natural circumstances, delta channels subject to tides are more stable than their fluvial-dominated counterparts. The oscillatory tidal flow counteracts the processes responsible for bank erosion, which explains why unprotected tidal channels migrate only slowly. Peak river discharges attenuate the tides, which creates storage space to accommodate the extra river discharge during extreme events and as a consequence, reduce flood risk. With stronger tides, the river discharge is being distributed more evenly over the various branches in a delta, preventing silting up of smaller channels. Human interference in deltas is massive. Storm surge barriers are constructed, new land is being reclaimed and large-scale sand excavation takes place, to collect building material. Evidence from deltas around the globe shows that in human-controlled deltas the tidal motion often plays a destabilizing role. In channels of the Rhine-Meuse Delta, some 100 scour holes are identified, which relates to the altered tidal motion after completion of a storm surge barrier. Sand mining has led to widespread river bank failures in the tidally-influenced Mekong Delta. The catastrophic flood event in the Gauges-Brahmaputra Delta by Cyclone Aila, which caused the inundation of an embanked polder area for over two years, was preceded by river bank erosion at the mouths of formal tidal channels that were blocked by the embankment. Efforts to predict the developments of degrading deltas are few. Existing delta models are capable of reproducing expanding deltas, which is essentially a matter of simulating the transport of sediment from source in a catchment to the sink in a delta. Processes of soil

  14. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  15. COMMD1 regulates the delta epithelial sodium channel ({delta}ENaC) through trafficking and ubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tina; Ke, Ying; Ly, Kevin [Department of Physiology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand); McDonald, Fiona J., E-mail: fiona.mcdonald@otago.ac.nz [Department of Physiology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} The COMM domain of COMMD1 mediates binding to {delta}ENaC. {yields} COMMD1 reduces the cell surface population of {delta}ENaC. {yields} COMMD1 increases the population of {delta}ENaC-ubiquitin. {yields} Both endogenous and transfected {delta}ENaC localize with COMMD1 and transferrin suggesting they are located in early/recycling endosomes. -- Abstract: The delta subunit of the epithelial sodium channel ({delta}ENaC) is a member of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels. {delta}ENaC is distinct from the related {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}ENaC subunits, known for their role in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure control, as {delta}ENaC is expressed in brain neurons and activated by external protons. COMMD1 (copper metabolism Murr1 domain 1) was previously found to associate with and downregulate {delta}ENaC activity. Here, we show that COMMD1 interacts with {delta}ENaC through its COMM domain. Co-expression of {delta}ENaC with COMMD1 significantly reduced {delta}ENaC surface expression, and led to an increase in {delta}ENaC ubiquitination. Immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy studies show that COMMD1 promoted localization of {delta}ENaC to the early/recycling endosomal pool where the two proteins were localized together. These results suggest that COMMD1 downregulates {delta}ENaC activity by reducing {delta}ENaC surface expression through promoting internalization of surface {delta}ENaC to an intracellular recycling pool, possibly via enhanced ubiquitination.

  16. Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge Inundation and Velocity Hazard Mapping of the State of Andhra Pradesh (India) using ADCIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackins, J. T.; Kalyanapu, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Northern Indian Ocean Bay of Bengal region, including parts of India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka, is the largest bay in the world and is structured in such a manner as to produce the world's largest tropical cyclone (TC) storm surges (SS), with approximately five surge events greater than 5 meters in magnitude each decade. (Needham et al. 2015). Although some studies have been performed to attempt to capture the magnitude and location of historical surges (Shaji et al. 2014) and to model surges in the immediate sense, there is a notable lack of application to the effects on coastal infrastructure in these areas. Given that these areas are some of the most densely populated and least economically able to prepare and recover, it is important to consider the potential effects of storm surge to discover areas where improvements can be made with the limited resources available to these areas. To this end, an ADvanced-CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model (Luettich and Westerink 2004) was created for the Bay of Bengal, using the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO 2014) as bathymetric and topographic data, and a combination of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and India Meteorological Department (IMD) records for storm tracks. For the state of Andhra Pradesh, several major TC events ranging from 1977 to 2014 were selected to be modeled with the goal of creating hazard maps of storm surge inundation and velocity for the state. These hazard maps would be used to identify high-vulnerability areas with the goal of implementing land-use planning and coastal development practices that will aid in ameliorating both the loss of life and economic damages sustained as a result of these TCs.

  17. Has the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh Addressed the Educational Divide in Accessing Health Care?

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    Mala Rao

    Full Text Available Equity of access to healthcare remains a major challenge with families continuing to face financial and non-financial barriers to services. Lack of education has been shown to be a key risk factor for 'catastrophic' health expenditure (CHE, in many countries including India. Consequently, ways to address the education divide need to be explored. We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient care among households with varying levels of education.We used the National Sample Survey Organization 2004 survey as our baseline and the same survey design to collect post-intervention data from 8623 households in the state in 2012. Two outcomes, hospitalisation and CHE for inpatient care, were estimated using education as a measure of socio-economic status and transforming levels of education into ridit scores. We derived relative indices of inequality by regressing the outcome measures on education, transformed as a ridit score, using logistic regression models with appropriate weights and accounting for the complex survey design.Between 2004 and 2012, there was a 39% reduction in the likelihood of the most educated person being hospitalised compared to the least educated, with reductions observed in all households as well as those that had used the Aarogyasri. For CHE the inequality disappeared in 2012 in both groups. Sub-group analyses by economic status, social groups and rural-urban residence showed a decrease in relative indices of inequality in most groups. Nevertheless, inequalities in hospitalisation and CHE persisted across most groups.During the time of the Aarogyasri scheme implementation inequalities in access to hospital care were substantially reduced but not eliminated across the education divide. Universal access to education and schemes such as Aarogyasri have the synergistic potential

  18. Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    P.S. Raju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag petal displaying a conspicuous nectar guide, and the presence of nectar with a high sugar concentration. Extra-floral nectar along the rachis is an additional attractant and is easily perceivable by bees. The plant is pollinated almost exclusively by bees, especially carpenter bees. The floral characteristics such as free petals, fully exposed stamens with dry and powdery pollen grains and hairy stigma facilitate anemophily which is effective due to high winds during the rainy season. The prolific growth and near synchronous flowering at population level contribute to pollen availability in huge quantities and enable anemophily as an effective mode of pollination. The functionality of melittophily and anemophily together constitutes ambophily. Hand-pollination experiments indicated that the plant is principally out-crossing. The natural fruit set does not exceed 10%; this lowest percentage could be partly due to flower-feeding by the beetle, Mylabris phalerata. The fruits are indehiscent, 1-seeded, which are buoyant and are not dispersed far away from the parental sites. The viable seeds produce new plants in the vicinity of parental plants during the rainy season. This plant builds up its population as small patches or in pure stands and hence is important in building landward mangrove cover.

  19. Periodontal health awareness and self-perceived halitosis among various professional students of West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh

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    Gautami S Penmetsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is an essential part of maintaining overall health, and poor oral health can have a profound effect on the quality of life. Among the various sections of the population present in the society, professional students include a large group of population and are believed to have a better awareness pertaining to oral health than the common population. Aim: This study aims to determine the periodontal health awareness levels along with the self-perception of halitosis among the medical, pharmacy, and engineering students in the West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1230 students from medical, engineering, and pharmacy professions. A self-administered 27-item structured questionnaire was used to assess periodontal health and knowledge pertaining to oral hygiene practices along with the assessment of self-perceived halitosis. Tests of the association between self-perceived halitosis and the risk factors were conducted using Chi-square test. Intergroup comparison was conducted by ANOVA and t-test. Results: Self-perceived malodor reported was 50%, 54%, and 60% by medical, pharmacy, and engineering students, respectively. The difference in the levels of overall periodontal health awareness was statistically significant among the different specialities with the highest score gained by medical students (4.1 ± 2.0, followed by the pharmacy (2.9 ± 1.6, and engineering (1.6 ± 1.3 students. Conclusions: Even though professional students do have an acceptable level of knowledge regarding oral health, the level of awareness pertaining to periodontal health in particular is lacking. Hence, there is a need to extend the horizon for oral healthcare to other professional students at an elementary level.

  20. Socio-ecological studies on marine fishing villages in the selective south coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M Jaya Kumar; Rao, P Brahmaji

    2016-12-01

    Coasts are an amazing gift of nature. Industrialization, infrastructure development, urbanisation, tourism, mechanized fishing, disposal of industrial and urban wastes and effluents, are all ringing the death-knell of the sensitive coastal ecosystems of recently separated State of Andhra Pradesh. These modern interventions have been violent, disregarding both nature's rejuvenating mechanisms, and the symbiotic relationship that exist between the coast and traditional marine fishing communities. Modern fishing tecnologies using mechanized trawlers and small meshed nets lead directly to overexploitation, which is not sustainable. It is evident that fish have to breed successfully and need to have time to grow if the yield has to be used sustainably. Multiple pressures and excessive technological invasion on these marine fishing villages had created an environment in which life has become physically and mentally unhealthy. The focus of this paper is to emphasize that investing in large-scale industrial fishing, building bigger boats, and giving subsidies for pursuing deep sea fishing would be a waste of resources as the fish hauls in these selelctive districts i.e. Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore coastal communities have dropped off alarmingly in recent years. It is essential and crucial to focus research and scientific analysis and establish awareness and education to provide a means of distinguishing responses between improvements in quality of ecosystem and those of damages. The study is to elaborate that long-term ecological gains cannot be sacrificed for short-term economic gains that unfortunately lead to environmental damage. Investigating coastal regulations, policies, and their implementation is an urgent social need for the sake of socio-ecological safety and security of coasts and host communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. IDENTIFYING THE ROTATIONAL AXES OF DISTAL FEMUR IN SOUTH ANDHRA POPULATION OF INDIA USING IMAGE TOOL SOFTWARE

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    Sharmila Bhanu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To study the normal relationship of the anteroposterior (APA, transepicondylar (TEA and posterior condylar (PCA axis of normal cadaveric femoral bones using digital technology and special computer program. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study comprised of 196 dry adult femora from 98 right and 98 left sides irrespective of sex and age b elonging to Andhra Pradesh population of India. The bone collections were obtained from the Anatomy department, Narayana medical college, Nellore, India. The femurs were kept in normal anatomical position on OB. The photographs were taken from the distal e nd of all the femurs placing the camera lens 10cm constantly away from it with a digital camera. Using the reference points, angle between APA - TEA, APA - PCA and TEA - PCA were identified. The statistical significance of difference between the right and left g roups was evaluated by using Student paired t - test. Data were presented as mean±SD. P - value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS : The relationship of the angle between the APA - TEA, APA - PCA and TEA - PCA were observed. The angle o f AP - TE, AP - PC and TE - PC was 94.84±3.43°, 87.64±1.62° and 6.84±2.71° respectively on right side. On the left side, the angle of AP - TE, AP - PC and TE - PC was 92.36±4.06°, 93.61±2.54° and 3.19±0.99° respectively. CONCLUSION: The normal femoral rotational alignment from cadaveric bone study using computer aided software can be helpful to the surgeon in selecting appropriate reference axis in any particular knee surgeries. In this regard the present data can be taken into consi deration for the femoral rotational alignment during any intraoperative surgeries of knee and in total knee arthroplasty

  2. The timing of death in patients with tuberculosis who die during anti-tuberculosis treatment in Andhra Pradesh, South India

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    Jonnalagada Subbanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India has 2.0 million estimated tuberculosis (TB cases per annum with an estimated 280,000 TB-related deaths per year. Understanding when in the course of TB treatment patients die is important for determining the type of intervention to be offered and crucially when this intervention should be given. The objectives of the current study were to determine in a large cohort of TB patients in India:- i treatment outcomes including the number who died while on treatment, ii the month of death and iii characteristics associated with "early" death, occurring in the initial 8 weeks of treatment. Methods This was a retrospective study in 16 selected Designated Microscopy Centres (DMCs in Hyderabad, Krishna and Adilabad districts of Andhra Pradesh, South India. A review was performed of treatment cards and medical records of all TB patients (adults and children registered and placed on standardized anti-tuberculosis treatment from January 2005 to September 2009. Results There were 8,240 TB patients (5183 males of whom 492 (6% were known to have died during treatment. Case-fatality was higher in those previously treated (12% and lower in those with extra-pulmonary TB (2%. There was an even distribution of deaths during anti-tuberculosis treatment, with 28% of all patients dying in the first 8 weeks of treatment. Increasing age and new as compared to recurrent TB disease were significantly associated with "early death". Conclusion In this large cohort of TB patients, deaths occurred with an even frequency throughout anti-TB treatment. Reasons may relate to i the treatment of the disease itself, raising concerns about drug adherence, quality of anti-tuberculosis drugs or the presence of undetected drug resistance and ii co-morbidities, such as HIV/AIDS and diabetes mellitus, which are known to influence mortality. More research in this area from prospective and retrospective studies is needed.

  3. The Niger Delta Amnesty Program

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    Benjamin A. Okonofua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The armed conflict between militias and government forces in Nigeria’s Niger Delta region has spanned for more than two decades, defying all solutions. A disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR program was established in August 2015 in effort to end the violence and has remained in place. It is a radically different approach from past approaches that displayed zero tolerance to all political challenges to oil production or the allocation of oil profits. The approach appeared to be immediately successful in that it forced a ceasefire, engaged militants in planned programs to rehabilitate and reintegrate them into civilian society, and opened up the oil wells (many of which had been shut due to the crisis with the effect of increasing government revenue, which depends 85% on oil exports. Yet, few studies have attempted to understand the dynamics within the country that are responsible for the design and implementation of this broad policy shift or to understand whether and how the current initiative is able to end the conflict and institute peace beyond the short term. This study, therefore, is important because it provides a critical perspective that anticipates and explains emerging issues with the Niger Delta Amnesty Program, which have implications for DDR adaptation and implementation all over the world. Ultimately, the research demonstrates how the DDR program both transforms the Niger Delta conflict and becomes embroiled in intense contestations not only about the mechanism for transforming the targeted population but also whether and how the program incorporates women who are being deprioritized by the program.

  4. Groundwater targeting in a hard-rock terrain using fracture-pattern modeling, Niva River basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, Y.; Reddy, T. V. K.; Nayudu, P. T.

    2000-09-01

    In hard-rock terrain, due to the lack of primary porosity in the bedrock, joints, fault zones, and weathered zones are the sources for groundwater occurrence and movement. To study the groundwater potential in the hard-rock terrain and drought-prone area in the Niva River basin, southern Andhra Pradesh state, India, Landsat 5 photographic data were used to prepare an integrated hydrogeomorphology map. Larsson's integrated deformation model was applied to identify the various fracture systems, to pinpoint those younger tensile fracture sets that are the main groundwater reservoirs, and to understand the importance of fracture density in groundwater prospecting. N35°-55°E fractures were identified as tensile and N35°-55°W fractures as both tensile and shear in the study area. Apparently, these fractures are the youngest open fractures. Wherever N35°-55°E and N35°-55°W fracture densities are high, weathered-zone thickness is greater, water-table fluctuations are small, and well yields are high. Groundwater-potential zones were delineated and classified as very good, good to very good, moderate to good, and poor. Résumé. Dans les roches de socle, l'absence de porosité primaire dans la roche fait que les fractures, les zones de faille et les zones d'altération sont les sites où l'eau souterraine est présente et s'écoule. Pour étudier le potentiel en eau souterraine dans la région de socle sujette à la sécheresse du bassin de la rivière Niva (sud de l'État d'Andhra Pradesh, Inde), des données photographiques de Landsat 5 ont été utilisées pour préparer une carte hydro-géomorphologique. Le modèle intégré de déformation de Larssons a été mis en œuvre pour identifier les différents systèmes de fractures, pour mettre l'accent sur les ensembles de fractures en extension les plus jeunes qui constituent les principaux réservoirs d'eau souterraine, et pour comprendre l'importance de la densité de fractures pour la prospection de l

  5. Penelope Delta, recently discovered writer

    OpenAIRE

    MALAPANI A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a Greek writer, Penelope Delta. This writer has recently come up in the field of the studies of the Greek literature and, although thereare neither many translations of her works in foreign languages nor many theses or dissertations, she was chosen for the great interest for her works. Her books have been read by many generations, so she is considered a classical writer of Modern Greek Literature. The way she uses the Greek language, the unique characters...

  6. Climate change and the Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Anderson, Jamie; Anderson, Michael L.; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Maurer, Edwin P.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change amounts to a rapidly approaching, “new” stressor in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta system. In response to California’s extreme natural hydroclimatic variability, complex water-management systems have been developed, even as the Delta’s natural ecosystems have been largely devastated. Climate change is projected to challenge these management and ecological systems in different ways that are characterized by different levels of uncertainty. For example, there is high certainty that climate will warm by about 2°C more (than late-20th-century averages) by mid-century and about 4°C by end of century, if greenhouse-gas emissions continue their current rates of acceleration. Future precipitation changes are much less certain, with as many climate models projecting wetter conditions as drier. However, the same projections agree that precipitation will be more intense when storms do arrive, even as more dry days will separate storms. Warmer temperatures will likely enhance evaporative demands and raise water temperatures. Consequently, climate change is projected to yield both more extreme flood risks and greater drought risks. Sea level rise (SLR) during the 20th century was about 22cm, and is projected to increase by at least 3-fold this century. SLR together with land subsidence threatens the Delta with greater vulnerabilities to inundation and salinity intrusion. Effects on the Delta ecosystem that are traceable to warming include SLR, reduced snowpack, earlier snowmelt and larger storm-driven streamflows, warmer and longer summers, warmer summer water temperatures, and water-quality changes. These changes and their uncertainties will challenge the operations of water projects and uses throughout the Delta’s watershed and delivery areas. Although the effects of climate change on Delta ecosystems may be profound, the end results are difficult to predict, except that native species will fare worse than invaders. Successful

  7. From Natural to Design River Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    Productive and biologically diverse, deltaic lowlands attracted humans since prehistory and may have spurred the emergence of the first urban civilizations. Deltas continued to be an important nexus for economic development across the world and are currently home for over half a billion people. But recently, under the double whammy of sea level rise and inland sediment capture behind dams, they have become the most threatened coastal landscape. Here I will address several deceptively simple questions to sketch some unexpected answers using example deltas from across the world from the Arctic to the Tropics, from the Danube to the Indus, Mississippi to Godavari and Krishna, Mackenzie to Yukon. What is a river delta? What is natural and what is not in a river delta? Are the geological and human histories of a delta important for its current management? Is maintaining a delta the same to building a new one? Can we design better deltas than Nature? These answers help us see clearly that survival of deltas in the next century depends on human intervention and is neither assured nor simple to address or universally applicable. Empirical observations on the hydrology, geology, biology and biochemistry of deltas are significantly lagging behind modeling capabilities endangering the applicability of numerical-based reconstruction solutions and need to be ramped up significantly and rapidly across the world.

  8. An analytical framework for strategic delta planning : negotiating consent for long-term sustainable delta development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijger, C.; Douven, W; Hermans, L.M.; Evers, J.; Phi, H. L.; Brunner, J.; Pols, L.; Ligtvoet, W.; Koole, S.; Slager, K.; Vermoolen, M.S.; Hasan, S.; Hoang, V. T M; van Halsema, G

    2016-01-01

    Sectoral planning on water, agriculture and urban development has not been able to prevent increased flood risks and environmental degradation in many deltas. Governments conceive strategic delta planning as a promising planning approach and develop strategic delta plans. Such plans are linked to

  9. NRAMP1 and VDR gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis among Andhra Pradesh population in India: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medapati, Rooth Vasantha; Suvvari, Sridevi; Godi, Sudhakar; Gangisetti, Paddaiah

    2017-06-05

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of NRAMP1 -3'UTR, 274-CT,VDR- Fok1 VDR-Taq1 Polymorphisms with the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. A case -control study was conducted on Andhra Pradesh Population of India. Analysis of gene polymorphisms of NRAMP1 gene (3'UTR, 274CT) and VDR gene (Fok1 and Taq1) was done by using Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in Tuberculosis (TB) patients and healthy controls. The obtained results were observed using 2% Agarose Gel electrophoresis and analysed statistically using Chi-square test and Odds Ratio. Statistical significance was observed between the patients and the controls in the NRAMP1-3'UTR (P = 0.005; OR = 2.997; 95% CI = 1.019-8.813) and VDR-Taq1 (P  0.05). 3'UTR-NRAMP1 gene and VDR-Taq1 gene Polymorphisms are statistically associated with the susceptibility of TB in Andhra Pradesh Population in India.

  10. Entropy and optimality in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Edmonds, Douglas A.; Zaliapin, Ilya; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-10-01

    The form and function of river deltas is intricately linked to the evolving structure of their channel networks, which controls how effectively deltas are nourished with sediments and nutrients. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. To date, however, a unified theory explaining how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment up to the shoreline remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence for an optimality principle underlying the self-organized partition of fluxes in delta channel networks. By introducing a suitable nonlocal entropy rate (nER) and by analyzing field and simulated deltas, we suggest that delta networks achieve configurations that maximize the diversity of water and sediment flux delivery to the shoreline. We thus suggest that prograding deltas attain dynamically accessible optima of flux distributions on their channel network topologies, thus effectively decoupling evolutionary time scales of geomorphology and hydrology. When interpreted in terms of delta resilience, high nER configurations reflect an increased ability to withstand perturbations. However, the distributive mechanism responsible for both diversifying flux delivery to the shoreline and dampening possible perturbations might lead to catastrophic events when those perturbations exceed certain intensity thresholds.

  11. A Modal Logic for Abstract Delta Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.S. de Boer (Frank); M. Helvensteijn (Michiel); J. Winter (Joost)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractAbstract Delta Modeling is a technique for implementing (software) product lines. Deltas are put in a partial order which restricts their application and are then sequentially applied to a core product in order to form specific products in the product line. In this paper we explore the

  12. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Wang, Z.B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.

    2017-01-01

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world's largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and

  13. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Wang, Zhengbing; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y; Kästner, K

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and

  14. Floating City IJmeer : Accelerator for Delta Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, R.; Fremouw, M.; Van Bueren, B.; Czapiewska, K.; Kuijper, M.

    2006-01-01

    Climate change, sea level rise, population growth and ongoing urbanization result in higher vulnerability of the Rhine delta because it will result in increased flooding frequency, increasing investments and increased use of water, energy and other resources. The Rhine Delta also faces strong

  15. Entendiendo Delta desde las Humanidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calvo Tello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stylometry is one of the research areas in greater development within Digital Humanities. However, few studies have worked until recently with texts in Spanish and even less so from Spanish-speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to present in Spanish, and without prior statistical knowledge from the reader, one of the main methods used in stylometry, the measure of textual distance Burrows’ Delta. This paper explains this measure using a very small corpus of proverbs and then checks the results in a corpus of Spanish novels. Both data and Python scripts are available to the community through GitHub, commented step by step so that you can play and visualize each step.

  16. EEHG at FLASH and DELTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molo, Robert; Hoener, Markus; Huck, Holger; Hacker, Kirsten; Khan, Shaukat; Schick, Andreas; Ungelenk, Peter; Zeinalzadeh, Maryam [Center for Synchrotron Radiation (DELTA), TU Dortmund University (Germany); Meulen, Peter van der; Salen, Peter [Stockholm University (Sweden); Angelova Hamberg, Gergana; Ziemann, Volker [Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme utilizes two modulators with two magnetic chicanes in order to generate an electron density modulation with high harmonic content. In contrast to free-electron lasers (FEL) based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), the radiation of an EEHG FEL has better longitudinal coherence and is naturally synchronized with an external laser, which is advantageous for pump-probe applications. At the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH), an EEHG experiment is currently under preparation. The short-pulse facility at DELTA (a 1.5-GeV synchrotron light source operated by the TU Dortmund University) based on coherent harmonic generation (CHG) will be upgraded using the EEHG technique in order to reach shorter wavelengths.

  17. Growth laws for delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.

    2016-02-01

    River deltas are accumulations of sedimentary deposits delivered by rivers via a network of distributary channels. Worldwide they are threatened by environmental changes, including subsidence, global sea level rise and a suite of other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions, thereby reinitiating the delta cycle. While economically efficient, there are too few analogs of small deltas aside from laboratory studies, numerical modeling studies, theoretical approaches, and limited field driven observations. Anthropogenic crevasses in the modern delta are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for "rapid" channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Crevasse metrics were obtained using a combination of geospatial tools, extracting key parameters (bifurcation length and width, channel order and depth) that were non-dimensionalized and compared to river-dominated delta networks previously studied. Analysis showed that most crevasses in the MRD appear to obey delta growth laws and delta allometry relationships, suggesting that crevasses do exhibit similar planform metrics to larger Deltas; the distance to mouth bar versus bifurcation order demonstrated to be a very reasonable first order estimate of delta-top footprint. However, some crevasses exhibited different growth metrics. To better understand the hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls governing crevasse evolution in the MRD, we assess delta dynamics via a suite of field observations and numerical modeling in both well-established and newly constructed crevasses. Our analysis suggests that delta development is affected by the relative influence of external (upstream and downstream) and internal controls on the hydrodynamic and sediment transport patterns in these systems.

  18. Water-borne radon and hydrogeochemical based uranium exploration in Rajamundry sandstone, W. Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyagopal, A.V.; Rajaraman, H.S.; Som, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    The lithology and sedimentary structures of the Rajamundry Formation of the Mio-Pliocene age covering an area of 1100 sq.km. indicate that it may be a typical valley fill sediment. It is about 600 m thick comprising sandstone and clay with lignite as the main lithounits. It is continental in onshore and marine in the offshore and is in contact with Gondwana sediments and Rajamundry traps. Tertiary sandstones are important hosts for uranium mineralisation. The reducing gas (Methane or other volatile hydrocarbon) moving to uraniferous oxidising water has precipitated uranium in the sediments in South Texas and Northwest Colorado, USA: (a) along faults, (b) above petroliferous aquifers, (c) vertically above hydrocarbon accumulations and (d) oil-water interface at hydrocarbon accumulations i.e., at the points of introduction of reducent into oxidising ground waters. In this context, Rajamundry sandstone lying above the natural gas and petroleum bearing Krishna Godavari basin with faults is an important geological setting for uranium mineralisation. The exploration strategies of hydrogeochemical survey and water-borne Radon (Rn) surveys were selected in this soil-covered area. Hydrogeochemical survey carried out in the Rajamundry sandstone has brought out four hydro-uranium anomalous zones with water samples (10-45ppb) falling around Kadiyadda, Madhavaram, Erramalla and Chinna Malapalle areas of West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh. The zones vary from 9 to 24 sq km area. Water-borne Radon was utilized as a tool for exploration of uranium in this soil covered terrain. Rn contours cluster around two zones around Kadiyadda and SW of Gollagudem wherein the Rn value is >60 counts/50 sec/500 ml. These Rn anomalies fall within the above mentioned hydrouranium anomalous zones. Gamma-ray logging of private bore wells has recorded relatively higher radioactivity in Kommugudem, which also falls in the high hydrouranium - high waterborne radon zone. These data and

  19. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes of rivers based on existing geoinformatics tools and technologies. In the present study, SRTM DEM and AWiFS datasets coupled with land-use/land -cover, geomorphology, soil and interpolated rainfall surface maps have been used to identify the potential routes in geospatial domain for interlinking of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The first order derivatives are derived from DEM and road, railway and drainage networks have been delineated using the satellite data. The inundation map has been prepared using AWiFS derived Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The Drought prone areas were delineated on the satellite image as per the records declared by Revenue Department, Srikakulam. Majority Rule Based (MRB) aggregation technique is performed to optimize the resolution of obtained data in order to retain the spatial variability of the classes. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is implemented to obtain the prioritization of parameters like geomorphology, soil, DEM, slope, and land use/land-cover. A likelihood grid has been generated and all the thematic layers are overlaid to identify the potential grids for routing optimization. To give a better routing map, impedance map has been generated and several other constraints are considered. The implementation of canal construction needs extra cost in some areas. The developed routing map is published into OGC WMS services using open source Geo

  20. Separation of zircon from the beach sand deposit of Srikurmam area, Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.V.S.U.; Sharma, A.K.; Seshadrinath, S.T.; Fahmi, Sohail; William Prasad, Ch.; Nagabhushanam, B.

    2011-01-01

    Beach sand placer deposits occur along the eastern and western coasts of India, which contain heavy minerals, such as ilmenite, rutile, garnet, monazite, zircon and sillimanite. Among these, zircon is used in zircaloys (nuclear industry), ceramics, refractories, abrasives, etc. Separation and chemical characterization of pure zircon is a prelude for understanding the different elements and impurities present and its industrial application. In recent times, several methods are developed for beneficiation and separation of individual heavy minerals from beach sands. In this paper, separation of zircon from beach sand of Srikurmam area, Andhra Pradesh was taken up as a case study. The process flow sheet adopted for separation and isolation of pure zircon from beach sand sample consists of desliming of beach sand, wet tabling of sand fraction, removal of magnetite by low intensity magnetic separation from table concentrate, perm roll magnetic separation and induced roll magnetic separation of table concentrate. The concentrates were further subjected to iso-dynamic magnetic separator after observing impurity present in the sample under binocular stereomicroscope. In the present process, about 95% pure zircon was obtained. Further concentration of zircon was carried out under the binocular stereomicroscope by hand picking of impurity to obtain 99.5% pure zircon concentrate. The pure zircon concentrate was analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by chemical method for characterization of zircon and cross validation of physical processes through which the zircon concentrate was obtained. Chemical analysis of the pure zircon concentrate indicated 63.15 to 64.79% ZrO 2 and 32.2 to 32.8% SiO 2 . These values are nearer to that of pure zircon, which stoichiometrically contains 67.2% ZrO 2 and 32.8 % SiO 2 with little iron. In the present study, ZrO 2 +HfO 2 content varies from 65.27 to 66.17% and hafnium from 1.25 to 1.46% HfO 2 in the zircon concentrate. The variation

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population: The Andhra Pradesh Eye disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sannapaneni Krishnaiah

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sannapaneni Krishnaiah1,2,3, Marmamula Srinivas1,2,3, Rohit C Khanna1,2, Gullapalli N Rao1,2,31L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India; 2International Center for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India; 3Vision CRC, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAim: To report the prevalence, risk factors and associated population attributable risk percentage (PAR for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population.Methods: A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A multistage cluster, systematic, stratified random sampling method was used to obtain participants (n = 10293 for this study.Results: The age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence rates in those ≥40 years of age were determined for myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] < −0.5 D 34.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.1–36.1, high-myopia (SE < −5.0 D 4.5% (95% CI: 3.8–5.2, hyperopia (SE > +0.5 D 18.4% (95% CI: 17.1–19.7, astigmatism (cylinder < −0.5 D 37.6% (95% CI: 36–39.2, and anisometropia (SE difference between right and left eyes >0.5 D 13.0% (95% CI: 11.9–14.1. The prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, high-myopia, and anisometropia significantly increased with increasing age (all p < 0.0001. There was no gender difference in prevalence rates in any type of refractive error, though women had a significantly higher rate of hyperopia than men (p < 0.0001. Hyperopia was significantly higher among those with a higher educational level (odds ratio [OR] 2.49; 95% CI: 1.51–3.95 and significantly higher among the hypertensive group (OR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03–1.49. The severity of lens nuclear opacity was positively associated with myopia and negatively associated with hyperopia.Conclusions: The prevalence of myopia in this adult Indian population is much higher than in similarly aged white populations. These results confirm the previously

  2. Population based outcomes of cataract surgery in three tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh, India: risk factors for poor outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit C Khanna

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report visual outcomes and risk factors for poor outcomes of cataract surgery in three Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using validated Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB methodology, a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted in three ITDA areas. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 7281 participants aged 50 years and above. Vision assessment using a tumbling E chart and standard ocular examinations were completed. Visual outcomes and risk factors for poor outcomes were assessed among subjects undergoing cataract surgery (1548 eyes of 1124 subjects. Mean age at surgery was 67±8 years; Among the operated eyes, presenting visual acuity (PVA and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA worse than 6/18 was seen in 492 (31.8%; 95% CI, 29.5-34.2% and 298 eyes (19.3%; 95% CI, 17.3-21.3%, respectively. Similarly, PVA and BCVA worse than 6/60 was seen in 219 (14.1%; 95% CI, 12.4-16% and 147 eyes (9.5%; 95% CI, 8.1-11.1%, respectively. When either eye was taken into consideration, the PVA and BCVA worse than 6/18 was seen in 323 (20.1%; 95% CI, 18.9-23% and 144 subjects (9.3%; 95% CI, 7.9-10.9%, respectively. PVA and BCVA worse than 6/60 was seen in 74 (4.8%; 95% CI, 3.8-6% and 49 subjects (3.2%; 95% CI, 2.4-4.2%, respectively. Posterior capsular opacification was seen in 51 of 1316 pseudophakic eyes (3.9%; 95% CI, 2.9-5.1%. In multivariable analysis among pseudophakic subjects with PVA worse than 6/18, increasing age (p = 0.002 and undergoing free surgery (p = 0.05 were independent risk factors. Undergoing surgery before 2005 (p = 0.05 and being illiterate (p = 0.05 were independent risk factors for BCVA worse than 6/18. CONCLUSIONS: There are changing trends with improved outcomes in cataract surgery among these tribal populations of India. However, post-operative refractive error correction remains an issue, especially for those

  3. Influence of different organic fertilizers on quality parameters and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Paolo; Camin, Federica; Fabroni, Simona; Perini, Matteo; Torrisi, Biagio; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of different types of fertilizers on quality parameters, N-containing compounds, and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta (34)S, and delta(18)O values of citrus fruit, a study was performed on the orange fruit cv. 'Valencia late' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), which was harvested in four plots (three organic and one conventional) located on the same farm. The results demonstrated that different types of organic fertilizers containing the same amount of nitrogen did not effect important changes in orange fruit quality parameters. The levels of total N and N-containing compounds such as synephrine in fruit juice were not statistically different among the different treatments. The delta(15)N values of orange fruit grown under fertilizer derived from animal origin as well as from vegetable compost were statistically higher than those grown with mineral fertilizer. Therefore, delta(15)N values can be used as an indicator of citrus fertilization management (organic or conventional), because even when applied organic fertilizers are of different origins, the natural abundance of (15)N in organic citrus fruit remains higher than in conventional ones. These treatments also did not effect differences in the delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of fruit.

  4. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.

    2017-09-01

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and land reclamation emerge as key contemporary factors that exert an impact on delta morphology. Tides interacting with river discharge can play a crucial role in the morphodynamic development of deltas under pressure. Emerging insights into tidal controls on river delta morphology suggest that--despite the active morphodynamics in tidal channels and mouth bar regions--tidal motion acts to stabilize delta morphology at the landscape scale under the condition that sediment import during low flows largely balances sediment export during high flows. Distributary channels subject to tides show lower migration rates and are less easily flooded by the river because of opposing non-linear interactions between river discharge and the tide. These interactions lead to flow changes within channels, and a more uniform distribution of discharge across channels. Sediment depletion and rigorous human interventions in deltas, including storm surge defence works, disrupt the dynamic morphological equilibrium and can lead to erosion and severe scour at the channel bed, even decades after an intervention.

  5. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  6. Comparative study of gamma-ray logging and radiometric core assay of boreholes in block-I of Tummalapalle area, Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh using statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa Reddy, M.; Mandal, G.; Bhaumik, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study has been carried out between gamma-ray logging and radiometric core assay data of boreholes in Block-I of Tummalapalle area, South Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh using statistical methods. The product of average grade (in %eU 3 O 8 ) and thickness (in m) of uranium mineralization has been used for this purpose. The outcome of statistical analysis revealed a strong relation between gamma-ray logging and radiometric core assay data. Slope of the line is close to 1.0 and intercept is not different from 0.0. It ensures homogeneity of uranium ore distribution in the host rock. The calculated value from t-test is well within the limit and ensures the negligibility in the difference of means. This indicates that either of the data can be used for ore reserve calculation. (author)

  7. Delta Electroproduction in 12-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLauchlan, Steven [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    The Δ-nucleus potential is a crucial element in the understanding of the nuclear system. Previous electroexcitation measurements in the delta region reported a Q2 dependence of the Δ mass indicating that this potential is dependent on the momentum of the Δ. Such a dependence is not observed for protons and neutrons in the nuclear medium. This thesis presents the experimental study of the electroexcitation of the Δ resonance in 12C, performed using the high energy electron beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and the near 4π acceptance detector CLAS that enables the detection of the full reaction final state. Inclusive, semi inclusive, and exclusive cross sections were measured with an incident electron beam energy of 1.162GeV over the Q2 range 0.175-0.475 (GeV/c)2. A Q2 dependence of the Δ mass was only observed in the exclusive measurements indicating that the Δ-nucleus potential is affected by the momentum of the Δ.

  8. Legal Delta Boundary, 2001, DWR [ds586

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The original topographic maps containing the drawn delta border were scanned from the Department of Water Resources. Images were registered to 1:24,000 USGS DRG's in...

  9. sheltered creeks in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... 273 and 115,000 barrels, respectively, making the delta. *Corresponding author. .... content was transferred to savillex digestion bombs and concen- trated hydrochloric ... metals (Zn, Pb and Cu) by flame atomic absorption.

  10. South Local Government Area, Delta S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    environs, Aniocha- South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out with a view to determining the ... supply for physical industrial development to achieve maximum human .... the Schlumberger O' Neil software package.

  11. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  12. Damped Oscillator with Delta-Kicked Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, O. V.

    1996-01-01

    Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for quantum damped oscillator subject to frequency delta-kick describing squeezed states are obtained. The cases of strong, intermediate, and weak damping are investigated.

  13. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  14. 2016 Rose Ojowhoh Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OJOHWOH ROSE

    The study examined staff development and library services in academic libraries in Bayelsa and Delta States. ... academic libraries, whose responsibility will be to cater for the development of staff in all ramifications. ..... Human resource.

  15. AMNESTY IN THE NIGER DELTA: VERTICAL MOVEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    federal government, the Niger Delta communities claim that they are entitled to ... instability, macroeconomic challenges, inconsistent policy regimes to ..... continues they cannot threaten the stability of the country nor affect its continued.

  16. Astrobee Periodic Technical Review (PTR) Delta 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Christopher; Smith, Marion F.; Smith, Ernest Everett; Bualat, Maria Gabriele; Barlow, Jonathan Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Astrobee is a free flying robot for the inside of the International Space Station (ISS). The Periodic Technical Review (PTR) delta 3 is the final design review of the system presented to stakeholders.

  17. Condom use and prevalence of syphilis and HIV among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India – following a large-scale HIV prevention intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachakulla Hari Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS initiative began HIV prevention interventions in 2003 in Andhra Pradesh (AP among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs, to help contain the HIV epidemic. This manuscript describes an assessment of this intervention using the published Avahan evaluation framework and assesses the coverage, outcomes and changes in STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs. Methodology Multiple data sources were utilized including Avahan routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional survey data (in 2006 and 2009 and STI clinical quality monitoring assessments. Bi-variate and multivariate analyses, Wald Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to measure changes in behavioural and biological outcomes over time and their association. Results Avahan scaled up in conjunction with the Government program to operate in all districts in AP by March 2009. By March 2009, 80% of the FSWs were being contacted monthly and 21% were coming to STI services monthly. Survey data confirmed an increase in peer educator contacts with the mean number increasing from 2.9 in 2006 to 5.3 in 2009. By 2008 free and Avahan-supported socially marketed condoms were adequate to cover the estimated number of commercial sex acts, at 45 condoms/FSW/month. Consistent condom use was reported to increase with regular (63.6% to 83.4%; AOR=2.98; p Conclusions The absence of control groups is a limitation of this study and does not allow attribution of changes in outcomes and declines in HIV and STI to the Avahan program. However, the large scale implementation, high coverage, intermediate outcomes and association of these outcomes to the Avahan program provide plausible evidence that the declines were likely associated with Avahan. Declining HIV prevalence among the general population in Andhra Pradesh points towards a combined impact of Avahan and government interventions.

  18. Migration in Vulnerable Deltas: A Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Allan, A.

    2015-12-01

    C. Hutton1, & R. J. Nicholls1, , 1 University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO17 1BJ. cwh@geodata. soton.ac.ukAbstractGlobally, deltas contain 500 million people and with rising sea levels often linked to large number of forced migrants are expected in the coming century. However, migration is already a major process in deltas, such as the growth of major cities such as Dhaka and Kolkata. Climate and environmental change interacts with a range of catchment and delta level drivers, which encompass a nexus of sea-level rise, storms, freshwater and sediment supply from the catchment, land degradation, subsidence, agricultural loss and socio-economic stresses. DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation/CARRIA) is investigating migration in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), Mahanadi and Volta Deltas, including the influence of climate change. The research will explore migration from a range of perspectives including governance and stakeholder analysis, demographic analysis, household surveys of sending and receiving areas, macro-economic analysis, and hazards and hotspot analysis both historically and into the future. Migration under climate change will depend on other adaptation in the deltas and this will be examined. Collectively, integrated analysis will be developed to examine migration, other adaptation and development pathways with a particular focus on the implications for the poorest. This will require the development of input scenarios, including expert-derived exogenous scenarios (e.g., climate change) and endogenous scenarios of the delta developed in a participatory manner. This applied research will facilitate decision support methods for the development of deltas under climate change, with a focus on migration and other adaptation strategies.

  19. A novel mouse PKC{delta} splice variant, PKC{delta}IX, inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung D. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Kwang W. [Department of Internal Medicines, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun A.; Quang, Nguyen N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hong R. [Department of Surgery, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Byungsuk, E-mail: bskwon@mail.ulsan.as.kr [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel PKC{delta} isoform, named PKC{delta}IX, that lacks the C1 domain and the ATP-binding site is ubiquitously expressed. {yields} PKC{delta}IX inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis. {yields} PKC{delta}IX may function as an endogenous dominant negative isoform for PKC{delta}. -- Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) {delta} plays an important role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The catalytic fragment of PKC{delta} generated by caspase-dependent cleavage is essential for the initiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis. In this study, we identified a novel mouse PKC{delta} isoform named PKC{delta}IX (Genebank Accession No. (HQ840432)). PKC{delta}IX is generated by alternative splicing and is ubiquitously expressed, as seen in its full-length PKC{delta}. PKC{delta}IX lacks the C1 domain, the caspase 3 cleavage site, and the ATP binding site but preserves an almost intact c-terminal catalytic domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The structural characteristics of PKC{delta}IX provided a possibility that this PKC{delta} isozyme functions as a novel dominant-negative form for PKC{delta} due to its lack of the ATP-binding domain that is required for the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. Indeed, overexpression of PKC{delta}IX significantly inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, an in vitro kinase assay showed that recombinant PKC{delta}IX protein could competitively inhibit the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. We conclude that PKC{delta}IX can function as a natural dominant-negative inhibitor of PKC{delta}in vivo.

  20. Delta infection evidenced by radioimmunoanalysis in selected collectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Horejsi, J; Urbankova, J

    1987-01-01

    The presence of the Delta agent within the population was tested by means of the Delta-antibody radioimmunoassay using competitive kits of the firms ABBOTT (ABBOTT-ANTI-DELTA) and SORIN (AB-DELTAK). The Delta-antibody was found in 3.2% HBV patients, 5% HBsAg carriers, and in 20.8% of specific anti-Hbs-immunoglobulin. In hemophiliacs and blood donors no Delta-antibody was seen.

  1. Delta infection evidenced by radioimmunoanalysis in selected collectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kselikova, M.; Horejsi, J.; Urbankova, J.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of the Delta agent within the population was tested by means of the Delta-antibody radioimmunoassay using competitive kits of the firms ABBOTT (ABBOTT-ANTI-DELTA) and SORIN (AB-DELTAK). The Delta-antibody was found in 3.2% HBV patients, 5% HBsAg carriers, and in 20.8% of specific anti-Hbs-immunoglobulin. In hemophiliacs and blood donors no Delta-antibody was seen. (author)

  2. Growth laws for sub-delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Straub, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas are threatened by environmental change, including subsidence, global sea level rise, reduced sediment inputs and other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions to reinitiate the delta cycle. Deltas were studied extensively using numerical models, theoretical and conceptual frameworks, empirical scaling relationships, laboratory models and field observations. But predicting the future of deltas relies on field observations where for most deltas data are still lacking. Moreover, empirical and theoretical scaling laws may be influenced by the data used to develop them, while laboratory deltas may be influenced by scaling issues. Anthropogenic crevasses in the MRD are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for rapid channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Here we assessed growth laws of sub-delta crevasses (SDC) in the MRD, in two experimental laboratory deltas (LD - weakly and strongly cohesive) and compared them to river dominated deltas worldwide. Channel and delta geometry metrics for each system were obtained using geospatial tools, bathymetric datasets, sediment size, and hydrodynamic observations. Results show that SDC follow growth laws similar to large river dominated deltas, with the exception of some that exhibit anomalous behavior with respect to the frequency and distance to a bifurcation and the fraction of wetted delta shoreline (allometry metrics). Most SDC exhibit a systematic decrease of non-dimensional channel geometries with increased bifurcation order, indicating that channels are adjusting to decreased flow after bifurcations occur, and exhibit linear trends for land allometry and width-depth ratio, although geometries decrease more rapidly per bifurcation order. Measured distance to bifurcations in SDC

  3. Knowledge and exercise of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights: a cross-sectional study of female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men in Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ganju, Deepika; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Adhikary, Rajatashurva

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV prevention interventions recognize the need to protect the rights of key populations and support them to claim their rights as a vulnerability reduction strategy. This study explores knowledge of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights, among female sex workers (FSWs) and high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) who are beneficiaries of a community mobilization intervention in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods Data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey...

  4. Houtman Abrolhos Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1795 to 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DESCRIPTION: VARIABLES AND UNITS: Column #1: core depth in mm Column #2: delta C-13 vs V-PDB Column #3: delta O-18 vs V-PDB Column #4: assigned date in years A.D....

  5. The Enabling Delta Life Initiative - Global Programme of Action on Deltas - Programme description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, van W.F.; Skyllerstedt, S.; Wosten, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Being ‘hotspots’ of human activity with generally high population densities, deltas are vulnerable to changes induced by a range of driving forces, both natural and anthropogenic. In addition to already existing challenges, uncertainty of the possible impacts of climate change, low lying deltas

  6. Holocene evolution of a wave-dominated fan-delta: Godavari delta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Nageswara Rao, K.; Nagakumar, K.; Demudu, G.; Rajawat, A.; Kubo, S.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Godavari delta is one of the world's largest wave-dominated deltas. The Godavari River arises in the Western Ghats near the west coast of India and drains an area of about 3.1x10^5 km^2, flowing about 1465 km southeast across the Indian peninsula to the Bay of Bengal. The Godavari delta consists of a gentle seaward slope from its apex (12 m elevation) at Rajahmundry and a coastal beach-ridge plain over a distance of about 75 km and covers ~5200 km^2 as a delta plain. The river splits into two major distributary channels, the Gautami and the Vasishta, at a barrage constructed in the mid-1800s. The coastal environment of the deltaic coast is microtidal (~1 m mean tidal range) and wave-dominated (~1.5 m mean wave height in the June-September SW monsoon season, ~0.8 m in the NE monsoon season). Models of the Holocene evolution of the Godavari delta have changed from a zonal progradation model (e.g. Nageswara Rao & Sadakata, 1993) to a truncated cuspate delta model (Nageswara Rao et al., 2005, 2012). Twelve borehole cores (340 m total length), taken in the coastal delta plain during 2010-2013, yielded more than 100 C-14 dates. Sediment facies and C-14 dates from these and previous cores and remote-sensing data support a new delta evolution model. The Holocene coastal delta plain is divided into two parts by a set of linear beach ridges 12-14 km landward from the present shoreline in the central part of the delta. The location of the main depocenter (lobe) has shifted during the Holocene from 1) the center to 2) the west, 3) east, 4) center, 5) west, and 6) east. The linear beach ridges separate the first three from the last three stages. These lobe shifts are controlled by river channel shifts near the apex. Just as the current linear shoreline of the central part of the delta and the concave-up nearshore topography are the result of coastal erosion of a cuspate delta, the linear beach ridges indicate a former eroded shoreline. An unconformity within the deltaic

  7. Open source integrated modeling environment Delta Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, B.; van Putten, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decade, integrated modelling has become a very popular topic in environmental modelling since it helps solving problems, which is difficult to model using a single model. However, managing complexity of integrated models and minimizing time required for their setup remains a challenging task. The integrated modelling environment Delta Shell simplifies this task. The software components of Delta Shell are easy to reuse separately from each other as well as a part of integrated environment that can run in a command-line or a graphical user interface mode. The most components of the Delta Shell are developed using C# programming language and include libraries used to define, save and visualize various scientific data structures as well as coupled model configurations. Here we present two examples showing how Delta Shell simplifies process of setting up integrated models from the end user and developer perspectives. The first example shows coupling of a rainfall-runoff, a river flow and a run-time control models. The second example shows how coastal morphological database integrates with the coastal morphological model (XBeach) and a custom nourishment designer. Delta Shell is also available as open-source software released under LGPL license and accessible via http://oss.deltares.nl.

  8. QCD in the {delta}-regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Cundy, N. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Lattice Gauge Theory Research Center; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The {delta}-regime of QCD is characterised by light quarks in a small spatial box, but a large extent in (Euclidean) time. In this setting a specific variant of chiral perturbation theory - the {delta}-expansion - applies, based on a quantum mechanical treatment of the quasi onedimensional system. In particular, for vanishing quark masses one obtains a residual pion mass M{sup R}{sub {pi}}, which has been computed to the third order in the {delta}-expansion. A comparison with numerical measurements of this residual mass allows for a new determination of some Low Energy Constants, which appear in the chiral Lagrangian. We first review the attempts to simulate 2-flavour QCD directly in the {delta}-regime. This is very tedious, but results compatible with the predictions for M{sup R}{sub {pi}} have been obtained. Then we show that an extrapolation of pion masses measured in a larger volume towards the {delta}-regime leads to good agreement with the theoretical predictions. From those results, we also extract a value for the (controversial) sub-leading Low Energy Constant anti l{sub 3}. (orig.)

  9. El plan del delta - Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available Holland is very poor in land resources. Hence its development has been directed towards intensive industrialization and maximum agricultural exploitation. The western part of the country is below sea level and is occupied by 65 percent of the population. Originally the coast consisted of a number of islands, estuaries and slight elevations. Man has transformed this coastline, first making a number of artificial lakes, or polders, and then converting these into fertile districts. These projects protect the soil by means of dykes, which require careful conservation, but even so violent floods are not infrequent. One of the difficult problems involved in this vast enterprise is the complex system of water supply, lines of communication and flow of the rivers into the sea along the estuary zone. This zone is on the south west, and to protect it a National Commission has been set up. After careful study, it was decided that the best defense against the violence of the sea would consist in closing off the inroads of the sea into the continental coastline. The set of hydraulic projects which constitutes this plan for the improvement of the sea defences will take 25 years to fulfil. The general project is highly ambitious and includes both maritime, road and structural works, in which there is a variety of stonework constructions. This paper describes, in brief outline, the main contents of the 11 headings into which the general construction project has been subdivided. In addition, this is supplemented with information on the projects which are already initiated and on the constructional procedure that is being adopted. Of these latter projects, the Nabla bridge is of particular interest. It is situated on the delta. It is made in prestressed concrete, and consists of 17 spans, of 60 length each. This enormous structure, in addition to its great length, and supporting a 22.8 ms wide roadway, is subjected to the tremendous forces 11» of the sea on one

  10. Large old trees influence patterns of delta13C and delta15N in forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Pascale; Bol, Roland; Dixon, Liz; Bardgett, Richard D

    2008-06-01

    Large old trees are the dominant primary producers of native pine forest, but their influence on spatial patterns of soil properties and potential feedback to tree regeneration in their neighbourhood is poorly understood. We measured stable isotopes of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) in soil and litter taken from three zones of influence (inner, middle and outer zone) around the trunk of freestanding old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees, to determine the trees' influence on below-ground properties. We also measured delta(15)N and delta(13)C in wood cores extracted from the old trees and from regenerating trees growing within their three zones of influence. We found a significant and positive gradient in soil delta(15)N from the inner zone, nearest to the tree centre, to the outer zone beyond the tree crown. This was probably caused by the higher input of (15)N-depleted litter below the tree crown. In contrast, the soil delta(13)C did not change along the gradient of tree influence. Distance-related trends, although weak, were visible in the wood delta(15)N and delta(13)C of regenerating trees. Moreover, the wood delta(15)N of small trees showed a weak negative relationship with soil N content in the relevant zone of influence. Our results indicate that large old trees control below-ground conditions in their immediate surroundings, and that stable isotopes might act as markers for the spatial and temporal extent of these below-ground effects. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  11. Hepatitis delta genotypes in chronic delta infection in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrina, M; Buti, M; Jardi, R; Quer, J; Rodriguez, F; Pascual, C; Esteban, R; Guardia, J

    1998-06-01

    Based on genetic analysis of variants obtained around the world, three genotypes of the hepatitis delta virus have been defined. Hepatitis delta virus variants have been associated with different disease patterns and geographic distributions. To determine the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus genotypes in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia) and the correlation with transmission routes and clinical disease, we studied the nucleotide divergence of the consensus sequence of HDV RNA obtained from 33 patients with chronic delta hepatitis (24 were intravenous drug users and nine had no risk factors), and four patients with acute self-limited delta infection. Serum HDV RNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction technique and a fragment of 350 nucleotides (nt 910 to 1259) was directly sequenced. Genetic analysis of the nucleotide consensus sequence obtained showed a high degree of conservation among sequences (93% of mean). Comparison of these sequences with those derived from different geographic areas and pertaining to genotypes I, II and III, showed a mean sequence identity of 92% with genotype I, 73% with genotype II and 61% with genotype III. At the amino acid level (aa 115 to 214), the mean identity was 87% with genotype I, 63% with genotype II and 56% with genotype III. Conserved regions included the RNA editing domain, the carboxyl terminal 19 amino acids of the hepatitis delta antigen and the polyadenylation signal of the viral mRNA. Hepatitis delta virus isolates in the northeast of Spain are exclusively genotype I, independently of the transmission route and the type of infection. No hepatitis delta virus subgenotypes were found, suggesting that the origin of hepatitis delta virus infection in our geographical area is homogeneous.

  12. Abraham Reef Stable Isotope Data (delta 13C, delta 18O, delta 14C) for 1635-1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Abraham Reef, 22ó 06'S, 153ó 00'E, Porites australiensus, Radiocarbon (delta 14C) and Stable Isotope (del 18O and del 13C) results from bi-annual samples from...

  13. Deltas on the move. Making deltas cope with the effects of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reker, J.; Van Winden, A.; Braakhekke, W.; Vermaat, J.; Eleveld, M.; Janssen, R.; De Reus, N.; Omzigt, N.

    2006-01-01

    This scoping study is the first phase of a study aimed at: (a) providing knowledge on the potential of a system-based approach to deal with the effects of climate change as an alternative for the more traditional technical measures such as dams, dikes and surge barriers. This should be shown for both rich and poor countries and should address hydrological, ecological as well as socio-economic aspects; and (b) identifying the potential to market these results worldwide. To reach these objectives four research steps are defined: (1) to make an inventory of deltas: their vulnerability to the effects of climate change; (2) development of indicators for successful use of a system-based approach; (3) to provide an overview of the potential of soft measures for these deltas; (4) to select a number of deltas with potential for marketing system-based measures and the development of strategies to link economic and ecological objectives. This scoping study addresses step 1 only. The results from step 1 will be used as a starting point for steps 2 and 3. The outputs of this scoping study are threefold: a background report (this report); a flyer with a brief description of the findings; a website with information on delta's and how these may be affected by climate change. The scoping study will roughly outline which deltas are still functioning in a more or less natural manner - or could be (re)developed in that direction - and thus would be good candidates for a system-based approach. Chapter 2 gives a description of the geomorphological and ecological processes in a delta. In addition, those aspects of climate change that can have an effect on deltas are described. The third chapter deals with human interventions in deltas and whether or not they fit within a system-based approach. In a system-based approach, as presented in Chapter 4, natural processes are given free reign where possible. Chapter 5 shows how available data on deltas could be used in such a system

  14. Condom use and prevalence of syphilis and HIV among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India – following a large-scale HIV prevention intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Avahan, the India AIDS initiative began HIV prevention interventions in 2003 in Andhra Pradesh (AP) among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs), to help contain the HIV epidemic. This manuscript describes an assessment of this intervention using the published Avahan evaluation framework and assesses the coverage, outcomes and changes in STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs. Methodology Multiple data sources were utilized including Avahan routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional survey data (in 2006 and 2009) and STI clinical quality monitoring assessments. Bi-variate and multivariate analyses, Wald Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to measure changes in behavioural and biological outcomes over time and their association. Results Avahan scaled up in conjunction with the Government program to operate in all districts in AP by March 2009. By March 2009, 80% of the FSWs were being contacted monthly and 21% were coming to STI services monthly. Survey data confirmed an increase in peer educator contacts with the mean number increasing from 2.9 in 2006 to 5.3 in 2009. By 2008 free and Avahan-supported socially marketed condoms were adequate to cover the estimated number of commercial sex acts, at 45 condoms/FSW/month. Consistent condom use was reported to increase with regular (63.6% to 83.4%; AOR=2.98; p<0.001) and occasional clients (70.8% to 83.7%; AOR=2.20; p<0.001). The prevalence of lifetime syphilis decreased (10.8% to 6.1%; AOR=0.39; p<0.001) and HIV prevalence decreased in all districts combined (17.7% to 13.2%; AOR 0.68; p<0.01). Prevalence of HIV among younger FSWs (aged 18 to 20 years) decreased (17.7% to 8.2%, p=0.008). A significant increase in condom use at last sex with occasional and regular clients and consistent condom use with occasional clients was observed among FSWs exposed to the Avahan program. There was no association between exposure and HIV or STIs, although numbers

  15. Micro-Women Entrepreneurship and its potential for hospitality and tourism related enterprises amongst others: a study on YSR District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Saritha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The position of women and their status in any society is an index of its level of civilization. Women are to be considered as equal partners in the process of development. But, because of centuries of exploitation and subjugation, Indian women have remained at the receiving end. Women in India have been neglected a great deal. The rate of growth of women employment in India is very low when compared to developed nations. This is because of the low growth rate of new and productive employment. There is a scheme which women can access with less effort than the traditional routes to business development in areas such as food production and even hospitality and tourism, and this is the Self Help Group (SHG which is categorized as micro finance. It is a tool to eradicate poverty and improve entrepreneurship and financial support for women in India. An SHG is a small economically homogeneous affinity group of the rural poor which voluntarily comes together to save small amounts of money but on a regular basis. SHGs enhance the equality and status of women as participants, decision-makers and beneficiaries in the democratic, economic, social and cultural spheres of life. The article focuses on SHG formation, women entrepreneurship and economic empowerment of women after they have joined SHGs in YSR district, A.P. India. YSR district (Kadapa district is one of the pioneering districts for the implementation of the SHG programme as a pilot project in the Andhra Pradesh state. At the present time there are 21 Mandals in YSR district of Andhra Pradesh which consist of a total of 35,338 SHGs. Of these, the best two mandals, namely, Kodur and Ramapuram were selected for this study because of the SHGs in these mandals which are operating very successfully. This success is based on age, education, income level, nature of family, size of the family, reasons for joining SHGs and the amount of loan availed of by the selected women entrepreneurs. There are 19087

  16. The Economic Dimensions of the Niger Delta Ethnic Conflicts (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1970, the price of international oil stepped upwards following the Middle. Eastern Yom Kippur .... Over the years, the pleas of the Niger Delta people for accommodation are ignored or .... In a labour surplus region like the Niger Delta, budget.

  17. Conceptualizing delta forms and processes in Arctic coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Kroon, Aart

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming in the Arctic directly causes two opposite changes in Arctic coastal systems: increased melt-water discharge through rivers induces extra influx of sediments and extended open water season increases wave impact which reworks and erodes the shores. A shoreline change analysis along...... and popped up as hotspots. The Tuapaat delta and Skansen delta showed large progradation rates (1.5 and 7m/yr) and migration of the adjacent barriers and spits. The dynamic behavior at the delta mouths was mainly caused by classic delta channel lobe switching at one delta (Tuapaat), and by a breach...... of the fringing spit at the other delta (Skansen). The longshore and cross-shore transports are responsible for reworking the sediment with a result of migrating delta mouths and adjacent subaqueous mouth bars. Seaward progradation of the deltas is limited due to the steep nature of the bathymetry in Disko Bay...

  18. Binding energies of two deltas bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Saito, Koichi.

    1982-06-01

    Bound states of the two-deltas system are investigated by employing the realistic one boson exchange potential. It is found that there exist many bound states in each isospin channel and also found that the tensor interaction plays important role in producing these bound states. Relationship between these bound states and dibaryon resonances is discussed. (J.P.N.)

  19. Solubility of hydrogen in delta iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.I.; Trofimenko, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The solubility of hydrogen in iron (less than 0.002 % impurities) at temperatures of 800-1510 deg C and a pressure of 100 atm was measured. The heat of solution of hydrogen in delta-Fe, equal to 73 kJ/g-atom, is by far greater than the corresponding values for α- and γ-Fe

  20. Applications of Dirac's Delta Function in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri, Andre

    2004-01-01

    The Dirac delta function has been used successfully in mathematical physics for many years. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to several useful applications of this function in mathematical statistics. Some of these applications include a unified representation of the distribution of a function (or functions) of one or several…

  1. Managing flood risks in the Mekong Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Long Phi; Biesbroek, Robbert; Tri, Van Pham Dang; Kummu, Matti; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Leemans, Rik; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco

    2018-01-01

    Climate change and accelerating socioeconomic developments increasingly challenge flood-risk management in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta—a typical large, economically dynamic and highly vulnerable delta. This study identifies and addresses the emerging challenges for flood-risk management.

  2. Bioluminescent hydrocarbonclastic bacteria of the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of three petroleum hydrocarbons (Mobil SAE 40 Engine Oil, Diesel and Bonny light Crude Oil) by four bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio harveyi, V. fisheri, Photobacterium leiognathi and P. Phosphoreum isolated from the Bonny estuary in the Niger Delta, Nigeria was investigated. Microbial utilization was monitored ...

  3. The Delta Team: Empowering Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Marian White

    1994-01-01

    In response to adolescent girls' concerns about teen violence, rumors, grooming, careers, and equity, four women teachers and a woman administrator at a Maryland middle school developed the Delta Program. The program provides positive learning experiences, teaches social skills and conflict management techniques, empowers girls through mentoring…

  4. delta. -isobars and photodisintegration at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzumura, Jun-ichi; Futami, Yasuhiko [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1982-12-01

    The dynamics of the peak considered to be due to the two-nucleon process in the reaction /sup 9/Be(gamma, p) anything is investigated with the quasi-deuteron model. We show that the process is dominated by a two-nucleon mechanism with pion and rho-meson exchange through virtual delta-isobar formation (author).

  5. Morphodynamics of a cyclic prograding delta: the Red River, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maren, D.S. van

    2004-01-01

    River deltas are inhabited by over 60% of the world population, and are, consequently, of paramount agricultural and economical importance. They constitute unique wetland envi ronments which gives river deltas ecological importance as well. Additionally, many deltas contain large accumulations of

  6. Environmental challenges in Nigeria's Delta Region and Agriculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discussed the environmental challenges in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria with emphasis on the impacts on agricultural production. It thus discussed the concepts of Niger-Delta, Environmental pollution, Niger-Delta crises and Agriculture. The paper posits that there are positive relationships between these ...

  7. Hydrogeological and groundwater modeling studies to estimate the groundwater inflows into the coal Mines at different mine development stages using MODFLOW, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Surinaidu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Singareni Collieries Company Ltd (SCCL is exploiting coal in the Godavari valley coal fields spread over 5.33 km2 in Andhra Pradesh, India. In the area, six workable coal seams have been identified in Barakar formation by the analysis of the geologic logs of 183 bore wells. A finite difference based numerical groundwater flow model is developed with twenty conceptual layers and with a total thickness of 320 m. The flow model was calibrated under steady state conditions and predicted groundwater inflows into the mine pits at different mine development stages. The groundwater budget results revealed that the mining area would receive net groundwater inflows of 5877 m3 day−1, 12,818 m3 day−1, 12,910 m3 day−1, 20,428 m3 day−1, 22,617 m3 day−1 and 14,504 m3 day−1 at six mine development stages of +124 m (amsl, +93 m (amsl, +64 m (amsl, +41 m (amsl, +0 m (amsl and −41 m (amsl, respectively. The results of the study can be used to plan optimal groundwater pumping and the possible locations to dewater the groundwater for safe mining at different mine development stages.

  8. Documentation of ethnomedicinal information and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Ganugapenta village, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savithramma, Nataru; Yugandhar, Pulicherla; Devi, Pallipati Suvarnalatha; Ankanna, Sade; Suhrulatha, Damai; Prasad, Koya Siva; Ranjani, Ramakrishanan; Nagaraju, Nagoji; Chetty, Kummara Madhava

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to document the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study was mainly focused on documentation of medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe to treat different diseases with a standard questionnaire. These plants were cross-checked in Dr. Dukes Database and available literature to know the significance of this tribe on medicinal knowledge. Among the documented plants, T. populnea was selected for antimicrobial activity with disc diffusion assay. Among the documented medicinal plants, herbs were the most utilized plants, followed by leaf part of the plants; paste form of medicinal preparation was the dominant one among the mode of preparations and oral administration was generally followed by this tribe. When checked these plants in Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Database most of the medicinal plants were matched at least one medicinal use and most of them were correlated with existing literature. In antimicrobial activity, the microbial pathogens Klebsiella pneumonia among bacteria and Rhizopus arrhizus among fungi were most susceptible to methanol extract of T. populnea . From this study, we conclude that the preparation and dosage of the medicines by Yanadi tribe of this area is unique and the correlation of medicinal data with Duke's Database and existing literature reveals high medicinal significance of claimed data of this tribe and potential inhibitory activity of T. populnea could be studied further to isolate effective antimicrobial agents.

  9. Assessment of satellite and model derived long term solar radiation for spatial crop models: A case study using DSSAT in Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anima Biswal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop Simulation models are mathematical representations of the soil plant-atmosphere system that calculate crop growth and yield, as well as the soil and plant water and nutrient balances, as a function of environmental conditions and crop management practices on daily time scale. Crop simulation models require meteorological data as inputs, but data availability and quality are often problematic particularly in spatialising the model for a regional studies. Among these weather variables, daily total solar radiation and air temperature (Tmax and Tmin have the greatest influence on crop phenology and yield potential. The scarcity of good quality solar radiation data can be a major limitation to the use of crop models. Satellite-sensed weather data have been proposed as an alternative when weather station data are not available. These satellite and modeled based products are global and, in general, contiguous in time and also been shown to be accurate enough to provide reliable solar and meteorological resource data over large regions where surface measurements are sparse or nonexistent. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the satellite and model derived daily solar radiation for simulating groundnut crop growth in the rainfed distrcits of Andhra Pradesh. From our preliminary investigation, we propose that satellite derived daily solar radiation data could be used along with ground observed temperature and rainfall data for regional crop simulation studies where the information on ground observed solar radiation is missing or not available.

  10. Understanding the causes and consequences of injuries to adolescents growing up in poverty in Ethiopia, Andhra Pradesh (India), Vietnam and Peru: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Virginia; Barnett, Inka; Vujcich, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost half of all premature deaths among 15- to 19-year olds can be attributed to injuries with most (95%) fatal injuries occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Yet the evidence base for adolescent injuries in low-income countries is poor. This article uses a mixed method approach to gain an understanding of patterns, causes and consequences of unintentional injuries among adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years in four low-income country settings. Survey data collected in 2009 in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam (from ~900 adolescents in each country) were integrated with qualitative research (conducted between 2007 and 2011) with a nested sample of older cohort children in Ethiopia (n = 25) and India (n = 25) using an iterative process. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine potential risk factors for injuries. Injuries were a concern for adolescents in all countries and occurred during work, recreation and sports or transportation. Being male was associated with an increased risk for all types of injuries, whereas being poor was only significantly associated with work injuries. Area of residence (urban vs rural) made a difference in some countries and for some kinds of injuries as did perceived health status. Qualitative findings highlight the consequences of injuries not only for the adolescents but also for the social and economic status of the entire household. Injury prevention programmes need to be specific to cultural and environmental settings, expectations of adolescent's responsibilities and responsive to the context of poverty.

  11. A survey of severe visual impairment in children attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, S; Subba Rao, B; Lakshmi Narasamma, K; Amit, G

    2012-08-01

    To identify the major causes of severe childhood visual impairment and blindness among students attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in South India. Children ≤ 16 years of age attending six schools for the blind in the study area were interviewed and examined in the year 2009, and causes were classified according to the World Health Organization Program for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) childhood blindness proforma. A total of 113 children underwent a detailed eye examination by an experienced ophthalmologist. The major causes of blindness were congenital eye anomalies in 46 children (41.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 32.3-50.6), followed by retinal disorders in 21 children (18.9%; 95% CI: 11.6-26.2), cataract in 9 children (9.7%; 95% CI: 2.9-12.9), and corneal conditions (scar and Staphyloma) in 8 children (7.1%; 95% CI: 2.4-11.8). More than half the children (56.6%) were blind due to conditions that could have been treated or prevented. Congenital anomalies were found to be the most common cause of blindness. The majority of the cases were due to avoidable causes of blindness. Therefore, robust screening measures may help reduce the burden of visual impairment in children.

  12. deltaPlotR: An R Package for Di?erential Item Functioning Analysis with Ango? s Delta Plot

    OpenAIRE

    David Magis; Bruno Facon

    2014-01-01

    Angoff's delta plot is a straightforward and not computationally intensive method to identify differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. This approach was recently improved by proposing an optimal threshold selection and by considering several item purification processes. Moreover, to support practical DIF analyses with the delta plot and these improvements, the R package deltaPlotR was also developed. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to outline the delta plot ...

  13. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta Δ(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe Δ-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented

  14. Inhibition of cortiocosteroidogenesis by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, W; Harris, L S; Carchman, R A

    1977-12-01

    ACTH, cholera toxin, cyclic AMP but not pregnenolone-induced steroidogenesis in Y-1 functional mouse adrenal tumor cells was significantly inhibited by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol. The inhibition of steroidogenesis could not be correlated with a general depression in cell function or viability. The data suggest that cannabinoids inhibit corticosteroidogenesis at a site between the synthesis of cAMP and of pregnenolone.

  15. Determination of the positions and residues of the. delta. /sup + +/ and. delta. /sup 0/ poles. [Phase shifts,coulomb corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasan, S S [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-04-19

    The poles and the associated residues in the ..pi..N P/sub 33/ amplitude corresponding to the resonances ..delta../sup + +/ and ..delta../sup 0/ are determined by fitting the ..pi../sup +/p and ..pi../sup -/p hadronic phase shifts from the Carter 73 analysis. The ..delta../sup + +/ and ..delta../sup 0/ pole positions are determined also from the nuclear phase shifts, these being the phase shifts made up of the hadronic phase shifts plus the Coulomb corrections. The pole positions obtained from the two sets of phase shifts are different, the differences being larger in the case of the ..delta../sup + +/.

  16. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropolization) and cultural (multi-ethnic) perspectives. This multi-faceted dynamic character of delta areas warrants the emergence of a branch of applied adaptation science, Adaptive Delta Management, which explicitly focuses on climate adaptation of such highly dynamic and deeply uncertain systems. The application of Adaptive Delta Management in the Dutch Delta Program and its active international dissemination by Dutch professionals results in the rapid dissemination of Adaptive Delta Management to deltas worldwide. This global dissemination raises concerns among professionals in delta management on its applicability in deltas with cultural conditions and historical developments quite different from those found in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom where the practices now labelled as Adaptive Delta Management first emerged. This research develops an approach and gives a first analysis of the interaction between the characteristics of different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management and their alignment with the cultural conditions encountered in various delta's globally. In this analysis, first different management theories underlying approaches to Adaptive Delta Management as encountered in both scientific and professional publications are identified and characterized on three dimensions: The characteristics dimensions used are: orientation on today, orientation on the future, and decision making (Timmermans, 2015). The different underlying management theories encountered are policy analysis, strategic management, transition management, and adaptive management. These four management theories underlying different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management are connected to

  17. Delta count-rate monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Etten, D.; Olsen, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    A need for a more effective way to rapidly search for gamma-ray contamination over large areas led to the design and construction of a very sensitive gamma detection system. The delta count-rate monitoring system was installed in a four-wheel-drive van instrumented for environmental surveillance and accident response. The system consists of four main sections: (1) two scintillation detectors, (2) high-voltage power supply amplifier and single-channel analyzer, (3) delta count-rate monitor, and (4) count-rate meter and recorder. The van's 6.5-kW generator powers the standard nuclear instrument modular design system. The two detectors are mounted in the rear corners of the van and can be run singly or jointly. A solid-state bar-graph count-rate meter mounted on the dashboard can be read easily by both the driver and passenger. A solid-state strip chart recorder shows trends and provides a permanent record of the data. An audible alarm is sounded at the delta monitor and at the dashboard count-rate meter if a detected radiation level exceeds the set background level by a predetermined amount

  18. The sensitivity of the ESA DELTA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Walker, R.; Klinkrad, H.

    Long-term debris environment models play a vital role in furthering our understanding of the future debris environment, and in aiding the determination of a strategy to preserve the Earth orbital environment for future use. By their very nature these models have to make certain assumptions to enable informative future projections to be made. Examples of these assumptions include the projection of future traffic, including launch and explosion rates, and the methodology used to simulate break-up events. To ensure a sound basis for future projections, and consequently for assessing the effectiveness of various mitigation measures, it is essential that the sensitivity of these models to variations in key assumptions is examined. The DELTA (Debris Environment Long Term Analysis) model, developed by QinetiQ for the European Space Agency, allows the future projection of the debris environment throughout Earth orbit. Extensive analyses with this model have been performed under the auspices of the ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook and following the recent upgrade of the model to DELTA 3.0. This paper draws on these analyses to present the sensitivity of the DELTA model to changes in key model parameters and assumptions. Specifically the paper will address the variation in future traffic rates, including the deployment of satellite constellations, and the variation in the break-up model and criteria used to simulate future explosion and collision events.

  19. Understanding delta-sigma data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, Shanti; Temes, Gabor C

    2017-01-01

    This new edition introduces novel analysis and design techniques for delta-sigma (ΔΣ) converters in physical and conceptual terms, and includes new chapters that explore developments in the field over the last decade. This book explains the principles and operation of delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in physical and conceptual terms in accordance with the most recent developments in the field. The interest of ΔΣ converter designers has shifted significantly over the past decade, due to many new applications for data converters at the far ends of the frequency spectrum. Continuous-time delta-sigma A/D converters with GHz clocks, of both lowpass and bandpass types, are required for wireless applications. At the other extreme, multiplexed ADCs with very narrow (sometimes 10 Hz wide) signal bandwidths, but very high accuracy are needed in the interfaces of biomedical and environmental sensors. To reflect the changing eeds of designers, the second edition includes significant new material on bo...

  20. Formation of conjugated delta8,delta10-double bonds by delta12-oleic-acid desaturase-related enzymes: biosynthetic origin of calendic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, E B; Ripp, K G; Hall, S E; Kinney, A J

    2001-01-26

    Divergent forms of the plant Delta(12)-oleic-acid desaturase (FAD2) have previously been shown to catalyze the formation of acetylenic bonds, epoxy groups, and conjugated Delta(11),Delta(13)-double bonds by modification of an existing Delta(12)-double bond in C(18) fatty acids. Here, we report a class of FAD2-related enzymes that modifies a Delta(9)-double bond to produce the conjugated trans-Delta(8),trans-Delta(10)-double bonds found in calendic acid (18:3Delta(8trans,10trans,12cis)), the major component of the seed oil of Calendula officinalis. Using an expressed sequence tag approach, cDNAs for two closely related FAD2-like enzymes, designated CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2, were identified from a C. officinalis developing seed cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequences of these polypeptides share 40-50% identity with those of other FAD2 and FAD2-related enzymes. Expression of either CoFADX-1 or CoFADX-2 in somatic soybean embryos resulted in the production of calendic acid. In embryos expressing CoFADX-2, calendic acid accumulated to as high as 22% (w/w) of the total fatty acids. In addition, expression of CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accompanied by calendic acid accumulation when induced cells were supplied exogenous linoleic acid (18:2Delta(9cis,12cis)). These results are thus consistent with a route of calendic acid synthesis involving modification of the Delta(9)-double bond of linoleic acid. Regiospecificity for Delta(9)-double bonds is unprecedented among FAD2-related enzymes and further expands the functional diversity found in this family of enzymes.

  1. Biomass co-firing for Delta Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2014-01-01

    Electricity generator Delta Electricity has implemented a biomass co-firing program at its Vales Point power station on the Central Coast to reduce its reliance on coal and emissions of CO 2 . The program comprises two parts: direct co-firing with coal of up to 5% biomass; and development of Continuous Biomass Converter (CBC) technology with the Crucible Group to remove technology constraints and enable much higher rates of biomass co-firing. It is talking industrial scale tests. Delta increased biomass co-firing in 2013/14 to 32,000 tonnes, up from just 3,000 tonnes the previous year, and conducted biochar co-firing trials at a rate equivalent to 400,000 tonnes per annum to demonstrate the potential of CBC technology. It reduced CO 2 emissions in 2013/14 by more than 32,000 tonnes. 'Legislation and regulations define biomass as renewable,' said Delta Electricity sustainability manager Justin Flood. 'By preferring biomass over coal, the carbon in the coal is not burnt and remains locked up.' One biomass source is wood waste that would normally go to landfill, but the primary driver of Delta's recent increase in co-firing is sawmill residues. 'Previously there was a higher value market for the residues for paper pulp. However, when that market evaporated the timber industry was left with a sizable problem in terms of what to do with its residues and the loss of revenue,' said Flood. The way greenhouse gas accounting is conducted in Australia, with carbon emissions based on site activities, makes it difficult to undertake a life cycle assessment of the program. 'However, some of the international studies looking at this issue have concluded that the net carbon emissions of the biomass system are significantly lower than the coal system because of the uptake of carbon during biomass growth,' said Flood. Delta identified two challenges, sourcing the feedstock and that biomass conversion to electricity is slightly less

  2. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THE NUTRIENT FORAMINA OF UNKNOWN RADIUS AND ULNA AND THEIR CLINICAL IMPORTANCE IN THE REGION OF KADAPA [RAYALASEEMA], ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guthi Reddy Manoj Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY The aim of the present study is to determine the number, direction of nutrient foramina in human bones of forearm and to determine the most common location of nutrient foramina of bones in the forearm and to calculate the foramen index (FI of the bones of the forearm. PLACE OF THE STUDY This study was done in the Department of Anatomy of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences[RIMS], Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh. PERIOD OF STUDY This study was conducted during the month of September-October 2015 (Two months study. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred and four unknown dry human forearm bones namely radius and ulna constituted the materials for the present study. These bones were studied [radii 54 (28Lt+26Rt, ulnae 50 (28Lt+22Rt] from the Dept. of Anatomy of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa. Andhra Pradesh. Each bone was studied for the presence of nutrient foramina, their number, location and the direction were carefully studied and recorded in various tables. RESULTS Twenty eight radii of the left side were studied. A single nutrient foramen was present in 27 bones, double nutrient foramina seen in only one bone (Specimen No. 20, (Figure No. 1. Nutrient foramina were present on the anterior surface in 26 bones (Figure No. 2, and in two bones they were seen on the interosseous border (Specimen Nos. 6 and 14, (Figure No. 3. Twenty six radii of the right side were studied. A single nutrient foramen was present in twenty five bones, double NF seen in one bone. (Specimen No. 10. Nutrient foramen was present on the anterior surface in twenty three bones and in two bones, they were present on the interosseous border (Specimen Nos. 14 and 19 and in one bone on the posterior surface (Specimen No. 15, (Figure No. 4. The mean length of radius on left side was 23.6 cm; mean distance of NF from proximal end of bone was 7.8 cm. (Figure Nos. 8 and 9. The mean length of radius on right side was 24.6 cm; mean distance of nutrient

  3. Prevalence and distribution of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV types in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and in normal women in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao BN

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the high incidence of cervical cancer reported from India, large scale population based studies on the HPV prevalence and genotype distribution are very few from this region. In view of the clinical trials for HPV vaccine taking place in India, it is of utmost importance to understand the prevalence of HPV genotypes in various geographical regions of India. We investigated the genotype distribution of high-risk HPV types in squamous cell carcinomas and the prevalence of high-risk HPV in cervicovaginal samples in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh (AP, India. Methods HPV genotyping was done in cervical cancer specimens (n = 41 obtained from women attending a regional cancer hospital in Hyderabad. HPV-DNA testing was also done in cervicovaginal samples (n = 185 collected from women enrolled in the cervical cancer screening pilot study conducted in the rural community, of Medchal Mandal, twenty kilometers away from Hyderabad. Results High-risk HPV types were found in 87.8% (n = 36/41 of the squamous cell carcinomas using a PCR-based line blot assay. Among the HPV positive cancers, the overall type distribution of the major high-risk HPV types was as follows: HPV 16 (66.7%, HPV 18 (19.4%, HPV 33 (5.6%, HPV 35 (5.6%, HPV 45 (5.6%, HPV 52 (2.8%, HPV 58(2.8%, HPV 59(2.8% and HPV 73 (2.8%. Women participating in the community screening programme provided both a self-collected vaginal swab and a clinician-collected cervical swab for HPV DNA testing. Primary screening for high risk HPV was performed using the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2 assay. All hc2 positive samples by any one method of collection were further analyzed using the Roche PCR-based line blot for genotype determination. The prevalence of high risk HPV infection in this community-based screening population was 10.3% (19/185 using the clinician-collected and 7.0% (13/185 using the self-collected samples. The overall agreement between self-collected and clinician

  4. Community advocacy groups as a means to address the social environment of female sex workers: a case study in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyam, Swarup; Pullikalu, Renuka Somanatha; Mishra, Ram Manohar; Sandri, Prashanth; Mutupuru, Balakrishna Prasad; Kokku, Suresh Babu; Parimi, Prabhakar

    2012-10-01

    To examine the association between the presence of community advocacy groups (CAGs) and female sex workers' (FSWs) access to social entitlements and outcomes of police advocacy. Data were used from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010-2011 among 1986 FSWs and 104 NGO outreach workers from five districts of Andhra Pradesh. FSWs were recruited using a probability-based sampling from 104 primary sampling units (PSUs). A PSU is a geographical area covered by one outreach worker and is expected to have an active CAG as per community mobilisation efforts. The presence of active CAGs was defined as the presence of an active committee or advocacy group in the area (PSU). Outcome indicators included acquisition of different social entitlements and measures of police response as reported by FSWs. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations. Areas with active CAGs compared with their counterparts had a significantly higher mean number of FSWs linked to ration cards (12.8 vs 6.8; p<0.01), bank accounts (9.3 vs 5.9; p=0.05) and health insurance (13.1 vs 7.0; p=0.02). A significantly higher percentage of FSWs from areas with active CAGs as compared with others reported that the police treat them more fairly now than a year before (79.7% vs 70.3%; p<0.05) and the police explained the reasons for arrest when arrested the last time (95.7% vs 87%; p<0.05). FSWs from areas with active CAGs were more likely to access certain social entitlements and to receive a fair response from the police, highlighting the contributions of CAGs in community mobilisation.

  5. Documentation of ethnomedicinal information and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Ganugapenta village, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataru Savithramma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to document the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study was mainly focused on documentation of medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe to treat different diseases with a standard questionnaire. These plants were cross checked in Dr. Dukes database and available literature to know the significance of this tribe on medicinal knowledge. Among the documented plants T. populnea was selected for antimicrobial activity with disc diffusion assay. Results: Among the documented medicinal plants, herbs were the most utilized plants, followed by leaf part of the plants; paste form of medicinal preparation was the dominant one among the mode of preparations and oral administration was generally followed by this tribe. When checked these plants in Dr. Duke’s phytochemical and ethnobotanical database most of the medicinal plants were matched at least one medicinal use and most of them were correlated with existing literature. In antimicrobial activity, the microbial pathogens K. pneumonia among bacteria and R. arrhizus among fungi were most susceptible to methanol extract of T. populnea. Conclusion: From this study, we conclude that the preparation and dosage of the medicines by Yanadi tribe of this area is unique and the correlation of medicinal data with Duke’s database and existing literature reveals high medicinal significance of claimed data of this tribe and potential inhibitory activity of T. populnea could be studied further to isolate effective antimicrobial agents. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 158-169

  6. Socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk in rural Indian adolescents: evidence from the Andhra Pradesh children and parents study (APCAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinra, S; Johnson, M; Kulkarni, B; Rameshwar Sarma, K V; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Smith, G D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined association between socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents to investigate whether childhood socio-economic position is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease, independently of adult behaviours. Participants (n = 1128, 46% girls, aged 13-18 years) were members of a birth cohort (Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study or APCAPS) established to investigate long-term effects of a pregnancy and childhood nutritional supplementation trial conducted in 29 villages near Hyderabad in South India. Cross-sectional associations between socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors were examined using linear regression models. The mean BMI was 16.7 kg/m(2) for boys and 17.8 kg/m(2) for girls. Socio-economic position was positively associated with fat mass index (0.15 kg/m(2); 95% CI: 0.05-0.25) and inversely associated with central-peripheral skinfold ratio (-0.04; 95% CI: -0.06 to -0.01) and, in boys, fasting triglycerides (-0.05; 95% CI: -0.09 to -0.01). Association of socio-economic position with other risk factors (blood pressure, arterial stiffness, fasting glucose, insulin and cholesterol) was weak and inconsistent, and did not persist after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, pubertal stage, height, adiposity and nutrition supplementation. The study thus showed that lower socio-economic position may be associated with greater central adiposity and higher triglyceride levels in these settings. Socio-economic gradient in cardiovascular risk may strengthen in future with later economic and lifestyle changes. Cardiovascular disease prevention strategies should therefore focus on the youth from the low income group. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy on the Survival of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive Adult Patients in Andhra Pradesh, India: A Retrospective Cohort Study, 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Bajpai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The survival outcomes of antiretroviral treatment (ART programs have not been systematically evaluated at the state level in India. This retrospective study assessed the survival rates and factors associated with survival among adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods The present study used data from 139 679 HIV patients aged ≥15 years on ART who were registered from 2007 to 2011 and were followed up through December 2013. The primary end point was death of the patient. Mortality densities (per 1000 person-years were calculated. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression models were used to estimate survival and explore the factors associated with survival. Results The overall median follow-up time was 16.0 months (2.0 months for the deceased and 14.0 months for those lost to follow-up. Approximately 13.2% of those newly initiated on ART died during follow-up. Of those deaths, 56% occurred in the first three months. The crude mortality rate was 80.9 per 1000 person-years at risk. The CD4 count (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR],4.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.36 to 5.46 for 350 cells/mm3, functional status (aHR, 3.05; 95% CI, 2.82 to 3.30 for bedridden vs. normal, and body weight (aHR, 3.69; 95% CI, 3.42 to 3.97 for 60 kg were strongly associated with the survival of HIV patients. Conclusions The study findings revealed that high mortality was observed within the first three months of ART initiation. Patients with poor baseline clinical characteristics had a higher risk of mortality. Expanded testing and counseling should be encouraged, with the goal of ensuring early enrollment into the program followed by the initiation of ART in HIV-infected patients.

  8. Development and evaluation of the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parent Study Physical Activity Questionnaire (APCAPS-PAQ): a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Mika; Sullivan, Ruth; Ekelund, Ulf; Krishna, K V Radha; Kulkarni, Bharati; Collier, Tim; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kinra, Sanjay; Kuper, Hannah

    2016-01-19

    There is limited availability of context-specific physical activity questionnaires in low and middle income countries. The aim of this study was to develop and examine the validity of a new Indian physical activity questionnaire, the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parent Study Physical Activity Questionnaire (APCAPS-PAQ). The current study was conducted with the cohort from the Hyderabad DXA Study (n = 2321), recruited in 2009-2010. Criterion validity (n = 245) was examined by comparing the APCAPS-PAQ to a combined heart rate and motion sensor worn for 8 days. Construct validity (n = 2321) was assessed with linear regression, comparing APCAPS-PAQ against BMI, percent body fat, and pulse rate. The APCAPS-PAQ criterion validity was variable depending on the PA intensity groups (ρ = 0.26, 0.07, 0.39; к = 0.14, 0.04, 0.16 for sedentary, light, moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) respectively). Sedentary and light intensity activities from the questionnaire were underestimated when compared to the criterion data while MVPA in APCAPS-PAQ was overestimated. Higher time spent in sedentary activity in APCAPS-PAQ was associated with higher BMI and percent body fat, suggesting construct validity. The APCAPS-PAQ validity is comparable to other physical activity questionnaires. This tool is able to assess sedentary behavior, moderate/vigorous activity and physical activity energy expenditure on a group level with reasonable validity. This new questionnaire may be used for ranking individuals according to their sedentary time and physical activity in southern India.

  9. FOOD SAFETY KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES AMONG WOMEN IN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF URBAN HEALTH TRAINING CENTRE, ANDHRA MEDICAL COLLEGE, VISAKHAPATNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Food safety describes handling, prep aration and storage of food in ways to prevent foodborne illness . The contamination of food may occur at any stage in the process from food production to consumption (“farm to plate” - theme for World Health Day 2015.Unsafe food creates a vicious cycle of disease and malnutrition, particularly affecting infants, young children, elderly and the sick. Foodborne diseases include a wide spectrum of illnesses and a growing public health problem worldwide. METHODOLOGY: A cross - sectional community based study was done among 150 women in the field practice area of urban health training centre, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. Data was collected by administering questionnaire after taking informed consent. Data was entered in Epi data version 3.1 and analysed by usi ng SPSS version 16.Results were represented in form of proportions and Fischer’s Exact test was used to find significant association between variables. RESULTS: Among 150 participants, most of them were in age group of 21 - 30 years with mean age 33±11years.Ab out 68% belonged to low socioeconomic status, 76.7% were housewives, and 79.3% were literates. Among the participants, 94.7% had good knowledge regarding food safety, 30.7% had good practices showing gap between knowledge and practices. In 12% of cases ther e was history of foodborne illness. There was significant association between knowledge and literacy status; knowledge and past history of foodborne diseases (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: There is need for an education program in the community to improve the pract ices among women regarding food safety to fill the observed gap between knowledge and practices.

  10. Oral Health Status among 12- and 15-Year-Old Children from Government and Private Schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhabogi, J R; Shekar, Cbr; Hameed, Ia; Ramana, Iv; Sandhu, G

    2014-09-01

    The assessment of oral health status of children in government and private schools provide data on the oral health status of children from different socio-economic background. The aim of the following study is to assess and to compare the oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience between children from government and private schools in Andhra Pradesh, India. A combination of cluster and stratified random sampling was employed to select the study participants. Oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience was assessed and compared among 12- and 15-year-old children from three government and private schools each. The examination was carried out by three trained and calibrated investigators using a mouth mirror and explorer under natural daylight. A total of 604 children (331 government and 273 private) were examined in the study. The mean oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) was higher among government school children (2.9 [1.1]) compared private school children (0.6 [0.4]). The mean gingival score and mean decayed missing filled teeth were also higher among government school children compared with private school children. A significantly higher number of children in the government schools had poor oral hygiene status, moderate to severe gingivitis and caries experience. The prevalence of oral diseases was relatively less among children from private schools in comparison with those from government schools. Hence, the children from government schools should be given the priority compared with private school children in any school dental health programs planned on a statewide basis.

  11. Improved γ-linolenic acid production in Mucor circinelloides by homologous overexpressing of delta-12 and delta-6 desaturases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Luan, Xiao; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2017-06-21

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is important because of its nutritional value and medicinal applications. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microbial GLA have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between desaturases and GLA synthesis in oleaginous fungi is incomplete. In previous work, we found that a large amount of oleic acid (OA) had not been converted to linoleic acid (LA) or GLA in Mucor circinelloides CBS 277.49, which may be due to inadequate activities of the delta-12 or delta-6 desaturases, and thus leading to the accumulation of OA and LA. Thus, it is necessary to explore the main contributing factor during the process of GLA biosynthesis in M. circinelloides. To enhance GLA production in M. circinelloides, homologous overexpression of delta-12 and two delta-6 desaturases (named delta-6-1 and delta-6-2, respectively) were analyzed. When delta-6 desaturase were overexpressed in M. circinelloides, up to 43% GLA was produced in the total fatty acids, and the yield of GLA reached 180 mg/l, which were, respectively, 38 and 33% higher than the control strain. These findings revealed that delta-6 desaturase (especially for delta-6-1 desaturase) plays an important role in GLA synthesis by M. circinelloides. The strain overexpressing delta-6-1 desaturase may have potential application in microbial GLA production.

  12. Synoptic Lithostratigraphy of The Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwajide, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    The Tertiary Niger Delta is stratigraphically framed by the Dahomey, Anambra, Abakaliki, Afikpo and Calabar Flank basins. From the apex at Onitsha a fluvial plain splays southwards and translates progressively into a freshwater swamp, succeeded by a mangrove swamp belt. Along the coast is a strip of wave-washed barrier bars indented by large estuaries, fronted by submerged moth bars. Habitation in the delta is on levees, point bars, and barrier bars. These landforms provided the firm salients for buildings the ports that facilitated international trade from the pre-colonial times.There are four lithofacies-clean, pebbly, and muddy sandstones, and mudstones. Their subdivision, based on sedimentary structures, textures and fossil content yields twenty reservoir and seven nonreservoir classes. Their environments of deposition, identified using facies associations, fall into fluvial, wave-and tide-dominated, marginal, and shallow marine, with localised canyons incised into the delta front and filled with deeper marine facies.The reservoirs are composed of 70 90% quartz, 4 15% feldspar, and 3 13% clay matrix, with minor mica, bioclasts, carbonaceous debris, glauconite, and heavy minerals. Grain size varies from very fine to coarse and pebbly, implying the presence of sands of varying textural and compositional maturities. Silica, K-feldspar, and carbonates constitute the cements.Porosity in the reservoirs has remained about the same as at deposition due to low mechanical compaction occasioned by shallow burial. Meteoric water-flushed progradational sequence are characterised by cementation with quartz and kaolinite. In contrast, marine water-flushed transgressive sands show grain coating illite-smectite, chlorite and K-feldspar overgrowths

  13. THE RURAL TOURISM IN DANUBE DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the rural areas has market size and forecast its development as an economic activity. The present paper aims at analyzing the rural areas has in Danube Delta. In an enviable BAs which have responsibility for their particular isolated, such as the Danube Delta and the Danube that used, fishing and rural areas has the main activities that provide jobs and income sources for local populations. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was administered to customers’ rural hostel accommodation in Danube Delta. Descriptive statistics method was mainly adopted to calculate the mean with standard deviation of entry assumes variable, and to examine the different levels of consumers' awareness. The index values of product familiarity, the ratio between entries assumes product's familiarity value and the average value. Findings - the research results show hash has rural consumers have different perception and accomplished through behaviour. The information channels of brand hash mainly from friends, relatives and neighbours, so word of mouth spreading is very important for a brand. Women show a higher sensitivity in health and are currently operating the propensity than referred to follow the recommendations for nutrition. Research limitations/implications - This item is intended to synthesize developments and challenges," on June 13th rural market growth has. The results of this paper should be considered tentatively until has also features replicated by larger has rural consumers. Originality/value - members of rural areas has consumer's behavior would improve marketing and the development of rural areas has products, in order to reduce consumer confusion.

  14. Stratigraphy and Evolution of Delta Channel Deposits, Jezero Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, T. A.; Mohrig, D.; Cardenas, B. T.; Hughes, C. M.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    The Jezero impact crater hosted an open-basin lake that was active during the valley network forming era on early Mars. This basin contains a well exposed delta deposit at the mouth of the western inlet valley. The fluvial stratigraphy of this deposit provides a record of the channels that built the delta over time. Here we describe observations of the stratigraphy of the channel deposits of the Jezero western delta to help reconstruct its evolution.

  15. Tracks, spurs, blobs and delta-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.

    1983-01-01

    The track of a high-energy particle is the collection of all transient species created by the particle in the total degradation of its energy. Visible electron tracks are called delta rays. A microscopic description of the track with all its knocked-out electrons leads to spurs, blobs, and short tracks. Energy deposition criteria for these three track entities are 6 to 100 eV, 100 to 500 eV, and 500 eV to 5 keV, respectively

  16. The situation in the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitalis, E.

    2007-01-01

    An energy issue for the United States and a political challenge for Europe, Nigeria is experiencing growing instability and is on the verge of civil war; the ecosystem and the population of the Niger Delta are the main victims. The State, corrupt, is powerless to contain the rising violence and redistribute the proceeds of oil sales. It is high time for oil-consuming countries, starting with the United States, to concern themselves with stabilizing the region. Europe must contribute to the lasting development of this country. (author)

  17. Adaptive delta management: a comparison between the Netherlands and Bangladesh Delta Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevenbergen, Chris; Khan, Shah Alam; Alphen, van Jos; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Catharien; Veerbeek, William

    2018-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the central government, water authorities, provinces and municipalities are working together on a new Delta Program on Flood Risk Management and Fresh Water Supply (DP). Its primary goal is to protect the Netherlands against floods and ensure the availability of fresh water, now

  18. Tidal modulated flow and sediment flux through Wax Lake Delta distributary channels: Implications for delta development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanegan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Delft3D model of the Wax Lake Delta was developed to simulate flow and sediment flux through delta distributary channels. The model was calibrated for tidal constituents as well as velocity and sediment concentration across channel transects. The calibrated model was then used to simulate full spring–neap tidal cycles under constant low flow upstream boundary conditions, with grain size variation in suspended load represented using two sediment fractions. Flow and sediment flux results through distributary channel cross-sections were examined for spatial and temporal variability with the goal of characterizing the role of tides in sediment reworking and delta development. The Wax Lake Delta has prograded through channel extension, river mouth bar deposition, and channel bifurcation. Here we show that tidal modulation of currents influences suspended sand transport, and spatial acceleration through distributary channels at low tides is sufficient to suspend sand in distal reaches during lower flows. The basinward-increasing transport capacity in distributary channels indicates that erosive channel extension could be an important process, even during non-flood events.

  19. Delta Plaza kohvik = The Delta Plaza Café / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Hoone arhitektid Jüri Okas ja Marika Lõoke (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke). Žürii liikme Mait Summataveti arvamus kohvikust

  20. Studying medium effects with the optimized {delta} expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krein, G [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes, D P [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nielsen, M [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Pinto, M B [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Lab. de Physique Mathematique

    1995-04-01

    The possibility of using the optimized {delta} expansion for studying medium effects on hadronic properties in quark or nuclear matter is investigated. The {delta} expansion is employed to study density effects with two commonly used models in hadron and nuclear physics, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and the Walecka model for the equation of state of nuclear matter. The results obtained with the {delta} expansion are compared to those obtained with the traditional Hartree-Fock approximation. Perspectives for using the {delta} expansion in other field theoretic models in hadron and nuclear physics are discussed. (author). 17 refs, 9 figs.

  1. Optimality and self-organization in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, A.; Longjas, A.; Edmonds, D. A.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Georgiou, T. T.; Rinaldo, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas are nourished by channel networks, whose connectivity constrains, if not drives, the evolution, functionality and resilience of these systems. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. However, in contrast to tributary channel networks, to date, no theory has been proposed to explain how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment to the delta top and the shoreline. Here, we hypothesize the existence of an optimality principle underlying the self-organized partition of fluxes in delta channel networks. Specifically, we hypothesize that deltas distribute water and sediment fluxes on a given delta topology such as to maximize the diversity of flux delivery to the shoreline. By introducing the concept of nonlocal Entropy Rate (nER) and analyzing ten field deltas in diverse environments, we present evidence that supports our hypothesis, suggesting that delta networks achieve dynamically accessible maxima of their nER. Furthermore, by analyzing six simulated deltas using the Delf3D model and following their topologic and flux re-organization before and after major avulsions, we further study the evolution of nER and confirm our hypothesis. We discuss how optimal flux distributions in terms of nER, when interpreted in terms of resilience, are configurations that reflect an increased ability to withstand perturbations.

  2. Upper-division student difficulties with the Dirac delta function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R. Wilcox

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To characterize student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined students’ responses to traditional exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment, and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in the context of problem solving in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Common challenges included invoking the delta function spontaneously, translating a description of a charge distribution into a mathematical expression using delta functions, integrating 3D or non-Cartesian delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units. We also briefly discuss implications of these difficulties for instruction.

  3. Catalyzing action towards the sustainability of deltas: deltas as integrated socio-ecological systems and sentinels of regional and global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Tessler, Z. D.; Brondizio, E.; Overeem, I.; Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nicholls, R. J.; Anthony, E.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are highly dynamic and productive environments: they are food baskets of the world, home to biodiverse and rich ecosystems, and they play a central role in food and water security. However, they are becoming increasingly vulnerable to risks arising from human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. Our Belmont Forum DELTAS project (BF-DELTAS: Catalyzing actions towards delta sustainability) encompasses an international network of interdisciplinary research collaborators with focal areas in the Mekong, Ganges Brahmaputra, and the Amazon deltas. The project is organized around five main modules: (1) developing an analytical framework for assessing delta vulnerability and scenarios of change (Delta-SRES), (2) developing an open-acess, science-based integrative modeling framework for risk assessment and decision support (Delta-RADS), (3) developing tools to support quantitative mapping of the bio-physical and socio-economic environments of deltas and consolidate bio-physical and social data within shared data repositories (Delta-DAT), (4) developing Global Delta Vulnerability Indices (Delta-GDVI) that capture current and projected scenarios for major deltas around the world , and (5) collaborating with regional stakeholders to put the science, modeling, and data into action (Delta-ACT). In this talk, a research summary will be presented on three research domains around which significant collaborative work was developed: advancing biophysical classification of deltas, understanding deltas as coupled socio-ecological systems, and analyzing and informing social and environmental vulnerabilities in delta regions.

  4. Superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulzacchelli, J.F.; Lee, H.-S.; Misewich, J.A.; Ketchen, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Bandpass delta-sigma modulators digitize narrowband signals with high dynamic range and linearity. The required sampling rate is only a few times higher than the centre frequency of the input. This paper presents a superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator for direct analogue-to-digital conversion of RF signals in the GHz range. The input signal is capacitively coupled to one end of a microstrip transmission line, and a single flux quantum balanced comparator quantizes the current flowing out of the other end. Quantization noise is suppressed at the quarter-wave resonance of the transmission line (about 2 GHz in our design). Circuit performance at a 20 GHz sampling rate has been studied with several long JSIM simulations. Full-scale (FS) input sensitivity is 20 mV (rms), and in-band noise is -53 dBFS and -57 dBFS over bandwidths of 39 MHz and 19.5 MHz, respectively. In-band intermodulation distortion is better than -69 dBFS. (author)

  5. In vivo metabolism of the methyl homologues of delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and abn-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N K; Harvey, D J

    1988-04-01

    Methyl-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (methyl-delta-8-THC), methyl-delta-9-THC and abn-methyl-delta-8-THC were synthesized by condensation of orcinol and (1S)-cis-verbenol and were administered to male Charles River CD-1 mice. Extracted hepatic metabolites were isolated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as trimethylsilyl (TMS), (2H9)TMS and methyl ester/TMS derivatives. In addition, metabolic fractions were reduced with lithium aluminium deuteride to convert carboxylic acids to alcohols for structural correlation. Metabolites from methyl-delta-8-THC were similar with respect to the positions substituted to those produced by higher homologues; the major metabolite was methyl-delta-8-THC-11-oic acid. abn-Methyl-delta-8-THC was metabolized in a different manner. The location of the aromatic methyl group at the position adjacent to ring fusion appeared to inhibit metabolism at C(11) to a considerable extent and also to reduce the amount of the resulting alcohol from being oxidized to a carboxylic acid. This caused other metabolic pathways to become dominant, with the result that a compound containing a hydroxy group at the gem-methyl position was the major metabolite. Hydroxylation at this position has not been confirmed with any other cannabinoid, although it is thought to result in trace concentrations of hydroxy metabolites from some compounds. Metabolism of methyl-delta-9-THC was also similar to that of the higher homologues, with the exception that less metabolism occurred at C(8) and a higher percentage of the total metabolic fraction was accounted for by the 11-oic acid metabolite. Minor metabolites were mainly dihydroxy compounds and hydroxylated derivatives of delta-9-THC-11-oic acid.

  6. Sediment and Vegetation Controls on Delta Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, R.; Murray, A. B.; Piliouras, A.; Kim, W.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous factors control the patterns of distributary channels formed on a delta, including water and sediment discharge, grain size, sea level rise rates, and vegetation type. In turn, these channel networks influence the shape and evolution of a delta, including what types of plant and animal life - such as humans - it can support. Previous fluvial modeling and flume experiments, outside of the delta context, have addressed how interactions between sediment and vegetation, through their influence on lateral transport of sediment, determine what type of channel networks develops. Similar interactions likely also shape delta flow patterns. Vegetation introduces cohesion, tending to reduce channel migration rates and strengthen existing channel banks, reinforcing existing channels and resulting in localized, relatively stable flow patterns. On the other hand, sediment transport processes can result in lateral migration and frequent switching of active channels, resulting in flow resembling that of a braided stream. While previous studies of deltas have indirectly explored the effects of vegetation through the introduction of cohesive sediment, we directly incorporate key effects of vegetation on flow and sediment transport into the delta-building model DeltaRCM to explore how these effects influence delta channel network formation. Model development is informed by laboratory flume experiments at UT Austin. Here we present initial results of experiments exploring the effects of sea level rise rate, sediment grain size, vegetation type, and vegetation growth rate on delta channel network morphology. These results support the hypothesis that the ability for lateral transport of sediment to occur plays a key role in determining the evolution of delta channel networks and delta morphology.

  7. The Concentration Dependence of the (Delta)s Term in the Gibbs Free Energy Function: Application to Reversible Reactions in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Ronald K.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy function is described in relation to its application to reversible reactions in biochemistry. An intuitive and non-mathematical argument for the concentration dependence of the (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy equation is derived and the applicability of the equation to…

  8. Complex rearrangements within the human J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus and aberrant recombination between J alpha segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baer, R.; Boehm, T.; Yssel, H.; Spits, H.; Rabbitts, T. H.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined DNA rearrangements within a 120 kb cloned region of the human T cell receptor J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus. Three types of pattern emerge from an analysis of T cell lines and clones. Firstly, cells with two rearrangements within J delta-C delta; secondly, cells with one

  9. Spatio-temporal distributions of delta18O, delta D and salinity in the Arabian Sea: Identifying processes and controls

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshpande, R.D; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Singh, R.L.; Kumar, B.; Rao, M.S.; Dave, M.; Sivakumar, K.U.; Gupta, S.K.

    the geographic distributions of the delta18O and S; (2) in spite of a large scatter, a statistically significant delta18O–S relationship can be identified in much of the investigated part of the AS; (3) the delta18Odelta...

  10. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0662, 02/02-0661] DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint...

  11. Changes to subaqueous delta bathymetry following a high river flow event, Wax Lake Delta, LA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaling, A. R.; Shaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment transport capacity is increased during high river flow (flood) events which are characterized by discharges that exceed the 15 year median daily statistic. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) in coastal Louisiana has experienced 19 of these high flow events in the past 20 years, yet the depositional patterns of single floods are rarely measured in a field-scale deltaic setting. We characterize flood deposition and erosion patterns on the subaqueous portion of the WLD by differencing two Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) constructed from bathymetric surveys before and after the third largest flood in the WLD's recorded history. The total suspended sediment discharge for the 496 day inter-survey period was 2.14x107 cubic meters measured 21 km upstream of the delta apex. The difference map showed 1.06x107 cubic meters of sediment was deposited and 8.2x106 cubic meters was eroded, yielding 2.40x106 cubic meters of net deposition in the survey area ( 79.7 km2 ). Therefore the average deposition rate was 0.061 mm/day. Channel planform remained relatively unchanged for five out of six distributary passes however Gadwall Pass experienced a maximum channel displacement of 166 m ( 1 channel width) measured from the thalweg centerline. Channel tip extension was negligible. In addition, channel displacement was not concentrated at any portion along the channel centerline. Maximum erosion occurred within channel margins and increased upstream whereas maximum deposition occurred immediately outside the channel margins. Sediment eroded from the survey area was either subsequently re-deposited or transported out of the system. Our results show that up to 77.4% of deposition in the survey area originated from sediment eroded during the flood. Surprisingly, only 11.2% of the total suspended sediment discharge was retained in the subaqueous portion of the delta after the flood. We conclude that a high flow event does not produce channel progradation. Rather, high flow causes delta

  12. Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment and their associated risk factors, in three tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nakul; Eeda, Shiva Shankar; Gudapati, Bala Krishna; Reddy, Srinivasa; Kanade, Pushkar; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Rani, Padmaja Kumari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Khanna, Rohit C

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment (VI), their associated causes and underlying risk factors in three tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh, India and compare this data in conjunction with data from other countries with low and middle income settings. Using a validated Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology, a two stage sampling survey was performed in these areas involving probability proportionate to size sampling and compact segment sampling methods. Blindness, VI and severe visual impairment (SVI) were defined as per the WHO guidelines and Indian definitions. Based on a prior enumeration, 7281 (97.1%) subjects were enrolled (mean age = 61.0+/-7.9 years). Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA), the prevalences of VI, SVI and blindness were 16.9% (95% CI: 15.7-18.1), 2.9% (95% CI: 2.5-3.4), and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.9-2.7), respectively. When based on the Pinhole corrected visual acuity (PCVA), the prevalences were lower in VI (6.2%, 95% CI: 5.4-6.9), SVI (1.5%, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9) and blindness (2.1%, 95% CI: 1.7-2.5). Refractive error was the major cause of VI (71.4%), whereas, cataract was the major cause of SVI and blindness (70.3%). Based on the PVA, the odds ratio (OR) of blindness increased in the age groups of 60-69 years (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.8, 5.1), 70-79 years (OR = 10.6, 95% CI: 7.2, 15.5) and 80 years and above (OR = 30.7, 95% CI: 19.2, 49). The ORs were relatively higher in females (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6) and illiterate subjects (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.2, 8.5), but lower in those wearing glasses (OR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.4). This is perhaps the first study to assess the prevalence of blindness and VI in these tribal regions and the majority of the causes of blindness and SVI were avoidable (88.5%). These findings may be useful for planning eye care services in these underserved regions.

  13. Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Prevalence among 12 and 15-Year-Old School Children in Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhabogi, JR; Parthasarathi, P; Anjum, S; Shekar, BRC; Padma, CM; Rani, AS

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. Aim: The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries and dental fluorosis prevalence among 12 and 15-year-old school children in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Two stage cluster sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. The oral examination of available 12 and 15-year-old children fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria was carried out to assess dental caries and fluorosis. The examination was conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using the mouth mirror and community periodontal index probe under natural daylight. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration at the time of statistical analysis. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (IBM, Chicago, USA). Results: The caries prevalence was less among 12-year-old children (39.9% [369/924]) compared with 15-years-old children (46.7% [444/951]). The prevalence was more among females (50.4% [492/977]) than males (35.8% [321/898]). The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (60.5% [300/496]) followed by very high fluoride area (54.8% [201/367]), high fluoride area (32.4% [293/904]) and medium fluoride area (17.6% [19/108]) in the descending order. The fluorosis prevalence increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in gender and age distribution. Conclusion: Low fluoride areas require fluoridation or alternate sources of fluoride, whereas high fluoride areas require defluoridation. Defluoridation of water is an immediate requirement in areas with fluoride concentration of 4

  14. Client-perpetrated and husband-perpetrated violence among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: HIV/STI risk across personal and work contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Erausquin, J T; Groves, Allison K; Salazar, Marissa; Biradavolu, Monica; Blankenship, Kim M

    2016-09-01

    This study examines violence experienced in work and personal contexts and relation to HIV risk factors in these contexts among female sex workers (FSW) in Andhra Pradesh, India. FSW at least 18 years of age (n=2335) were recruited through three rounds of respondent-driven sampling between 2006 and 2010 for a survey on HIV risk. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression models, any sexual/physical violence (last 6 months) perpetrated by clients and husbands were separately assessed in association with accepting more money for sex without a condom (last 30 days), consistent condom use with clients and husbands (last 30 days), and sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms (last 6 months). The mean age among participants was 32, 22% reported being currently married, and 22% and 21% reported physical/sexual violence by clients and husbands, respectively. In adjusted logistic regression models, FSW who experienced client violence were more likely to report accepting more money for unprotected sex trades (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.7; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.2), less likely to report consistent condom use with clients (AOR=0.6; 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7) and more likely to report STI symptoms (AOR=3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.6). Women who reported husband violence were more likely to report accepting more money for unprotected sex trades (AOR=2.1; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.7), less likely to report consistent condom use with clients (AOR=0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.8) and more likely to report STI symptoms (AOR=2.6; 95% CI 1.6 to 4.1). Among FSW, experiences of violence in work and personal contexts are associated with sexual HIV risk behaviours with clients as well as STI symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Niger Delta Crisis and Security Implications for the Nation State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Niger Delta is the nation's treasure base, the Niger Delta provides over 80 percent of government revenue, 95 percent of export receipts, and 90 percent of ... The government should tackle the fundamental issue of basic necessities – provision of good motorable roads, pipe borne water, electricity, good hospitals, good ...

  16. Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta 1 LIST OF TABLES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kheira Kortenbout

    Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta. 1. LIST OF ... Location of Manyema Creek and its associated tidal delta platform at Kunduchi. Fig. 2. ... platform. Beachcomber. Hotel. Whitesands. Hotel. Kunduchi. Beach Hotel. Giraffe. Hotel. INDIAN. OCEAN. Mombasa. Dar es. Salaam. KUNDUCHI. KENYA. TANZANIA.

  17. Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Adaptive Delta Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Deltas are dynamic landforms at the boundary of land and sea, involving intricate mazes of rivers and small waterways, wetlands, estuaries and coastal barrier islands. They are home to over half a billion people. Deltas are also home to rich ecosystems, such as mangroves and marshes. They are

  18. Conflict resolution among Niger delta communities: A historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflict related issues have assumed endemic proportion in the Niger Delta. A proper assessment of the critical factors in motion must take cognizance of their historical underpinnings. Peaceful co-existence, the hallmark of conflict resolution, can be feasible in the Niger Delta, through sustainable dialogue. These, among

  19. Upper-Division Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them.…

  20. Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger delta: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our aim in this paper is to make a comparative analysis of Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger Delta of Nigeria. It will not be out of place to carry out such an analysis having seen, heard or read of the ongoing chaos, insecurity in the. Niger Delta Zone in Nigeria. We have to look at the past to find out such similar

  1. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ..., Suite 160, Pittsford, NY 14534. The financing was contemplated for working capital. The financing is... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0662] DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking... given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th Floor, Rochester, NY 14604, Federal...

  2. Central Delta languages: An overview | Kari | Stellenbosch Papers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an overview of the phonology, morphology and syntax of Central Delta languages. It also provides information on the geo-linguistic, demographic and sociolinguistic situation of these languages. It notes that Central Delta languages have a 20-vowel system, which divides into two sets of 10 vowels ...

  3. Downstream hydraulic geometry of a tidally influenced river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Brye, de B.; Deleersnijder, E.

    2012-01-01

    Channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas can show a mixed scaling behavior between that of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharge is both of river and tidal origin. We present a method of analysis to quantify the tidal signature on delta morphology, by

  4. Delta: the first pion nucleon resonance - its discovery and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, D.E.

    1984-07-01

    It is attempted to recapture some of the fun and excitement of the pion-scattering work that led to the discovery of what is now called the delta particle. How significant this discovery was became apparent only gradually. That the delta is alive today and thriving at Los Alamos (as well as other places) is described

  5. Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. TS McCarthy, T Gumbricht, RG Stewart, D Brandt, PJ Hancox, J McCarthy, AG Duse. Abstract. Many safari lodges in the Okavango Delta obtain their water supply from boreholes in near-surface aquifers while disposing of their wastewater via ...

  6. Remote stereocontrol by sulfinyl groups: reduction of delta-ketosulfoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ruano, José L; Fernández-Ibáñez, M Angeles; Maestro, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Fernández, M Mercedes

    2005-03-04

    The reduction of delta-ketosulfoxides constitutes the first evidence of the efficiency of the sulfinyl group to control the stereoselectivity of 1,5-asymmetric induction processes. The use of DIBAL/Yb(OTf)3 or L-Selectride as the reducing agents provides delta-hydroxysulfoxides with the opposite configuration at the hydroxylic carbon in a highly stereoselective way.

  7. Quark sea and the. delta. I=1/2 rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J F [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics; Golowich, E [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst (USA)

    1977-08-29

    The effect on nonleptonic processes of quark-antiquark pairs due to quantum chromodynamics is studied. Their presence improves agreement between theory and experiment for hyperon decays. In kaon decays a new ..delta..I=1/2 contribution is found, but ..delta..I=3/2 effects are still too large to be in agreement.

  8. Antinociceptive activity of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol non-ionic microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, P; Fadda, P; Marchese, G; Casu, G L; Pani, L

    2010-06-30

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the major psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L., has been widely studied for its potential pharmaceutical application in the treatment of various diseases and disturbs. This sparingly soluble terpeno-phenolic compound is not easy to handle and to be formulated in pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this work was to develop a stable aqueous Delta(9)-THC formulation acceptable for different ways of administration, and to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the new Delta(9)-THC based preparation for pain treatment. Due to the thermodynamic stability and advantages of microemulsion based systems, the study was focused on the identification of aqueous microemulsion based systems containing Delta(9)-THC. Oil in water Delta(9)-THC microemulsions were individuated through phase diagrams construction, using the non-ionic surfactant Solutol HS15, being this surfactant acceptable for parenteral administration in human. A selected microemulsion samples containing 0.2 wt% of Delta(9)-THC, stable up to 52 degrees C, was successfully assayed on animal models of pain. Significant antinociceptive activity has been detected by both intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of the new Delta(9)-THC pharmaceutical preparation. The effect has been highlighted in shorter time if compared to a preparation of the same active principle based on previously reported conventional preparation. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An annotated list of Fishes from the Niger Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1963-01-01

    At the end of November 1960, the Leiden Museum received an interesting collection of animals, mostly fishes, from the Niger delta. All specimens were collected by Mr. H. J. G. Beets, at the time employed by Shell B.P. — Delta Investigations, during the period May to August 1960, and in the region

  10. Topological Mappings via B&delta;g-Closed Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Maruthamuthu, Raja; Narayanasamy, Seenivasagan; Otchanathevar, Ravi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of functions called  B&delta;g-continuous functions. We obtain several characterizations and some their properties. Also we investigate its relationship with other types of functions. Further we introduce and study a new class of functions namely B&delta;g-irresolute.

  11. Estimation of Thermal Conductivity in the North- Western Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal conductivity estimates are computed from nineteen petroleum wells in the north-western Niger Delta, Nigeria, using a geometric mean model. Sonic and gamma-ray logs were digitised and used in the estimation of in situ conductivity. The Niger Delta is composed of three major diachronous lithostratigraphic units of ...

  12. How to deal with subsidence in the Dutch delta?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, E.; Erkens, G.

    2017-01-01

    In many deltas worldwide subsidence still is an underestimated problem, while the threat posed by land subsidence low-lying urbanizing and urbanized deltas exceeds the threat of sea-level rise induced by climate change. Human-induced subsidence is driven by the extraction of hydrocarbons and

  13. Dousing the tension in the Niger delta through administrative agency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dousing the tension in the Niger delta through administrative agency: A programme evaluation of Niger delta development commission as an intervention regime. ... the study concludes that because of systemic constraints arising from the hegemonic interests of the dominant coalitions in the Nigerian Social formation, ...

  14. Drones on the delta | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 nov. 2016 ... Waves wash ashore at Fuvemeh, a town in Ghana's Volta River delta that's threatened by coastal erosion and flooding. Brian Owens, Canadian Geographic. Ghana's Volta River delta is an area vulnerable to climate change, with rising seas and increasingly powerful storms driving flooding and erosion, ...

  15. Homosexuality amongst migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To determine the prevalence of homosexuality among migrant oil workers in Niger Delta. Methods: A prospective questionnaire – based study was conducted among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The design was to determine the prevalence of homosexuality in the workers in oil workers.

  16. T gamma/delta lymphocytes in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raasveld, M. H.; Bloemena, E.; Surachno, S.; ten Berge, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    T gamma/delta lymphocytes are able to perform allospecific cytotoxicity and natural killer cytotoxicity in vitro. However, very little is known about their function in vivo. To investigate the possible involvement of T gamma/delta lymphocytes in the immune response to renal allografts, fine-needle

  17. The evolution of a subaqueous delta in the Anthropocene: A stratigraphic investigation of the Brazos River delta, TX USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Joseph A.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, deltas are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities. As a result, deltas now evolve through the combined effects of natural and human-induced processes occurring throughout the fluvial-deltaic system. The Brazos River delta, located along the Texas coast in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, and its watershed have been impacted by direct and indirect human activities since the late 19th century. This provides an opportunity to investigate how such alterations have shaped the evolution of a delta in the Anthropocene, a time when humans are drivers of geological change. Historic alteration to the delta and watershed include extensive agricultural activity, jetty construction at the mouth in the late 1890s, mouth diversion ~10 km to the southwest in 1929, and reservoir construction throughout the early and mid 20th Century. Three subaerial deltaic geometries provided the framework to connect subaerial deltaic responses, to the anthropogenic alterations, to the resulting stratigraphic characteristics observed in the subaqueous delta. This study utilized high-resolution geophysical data (swath bathymetry, side scan sonar, CHIRP subbottom profiling) on the subaqueous delta to investigate the subaqueous delta stratigraphy and infer the processes that shaped the deltaic record over time. The results showed distinct areas across the subaqueous delta that were dominated by erosion and deposition. Erosional areas corresponded to earlier growth phase depocenters being exposed at the surface, while the depositional areas corresponded to areas with the most recent growth phase depocenter overlying the earlier depocenters. These results highlight that the subaqueous depocenter has migrated westward over time, consistent with the observed changes to the subaerial delta. Additionally, the data showed that evidence for these past growth phases and depocenters may be preserved within the subaqueous delta, even after subaerial portions of the delta returned to pre

  18. Losing ground in mega-deltas: basin-scale response to existential threats to the Mekong Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M. E.; Kondolf, G. M.; Schmitt, R. J. P.; Carling, P. A.; Darby, S. E.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.; Cochrane, T. A.; Gibson, S.; Kummu, M.; Oeurng, C.; Rubin, Z.; Wild, T. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong Delta is, in terms of the number of livelihoods it supports, its economic importance, and in its vulnerability to climate change and sinking lands, one of the world's critically threatened mega-deltas. Livelihoods depend on the mere existence of the delta, but also on ecosystem services provided by the delta's drainage basin spanning 795,000 km2 in six abutting countries. These ecosystem services include delivery of sand required to build delta land in the face of rising sea-levels and sediment bound nutrients, provision of spawning habitat for fish that are ultimately harvested in the delta, and hydrologic regulation driving the delta's unique flood-pulse regime. However, while the delta is mainly located in Vietnam, the basin of the Mekong River is shared among China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. In the context of the region's dynamic growth, individual countries are pushing their own development agendas, which include extensive dam building, in-channel sand mining, construction of dykes and canals, and groundwater pumping, all of which contribute to subsidence and erosion of the Delta. Our synthesis of recent research indicates that most of the Mekong's delta land will likely fall below sea-level by 2100 as result of these drivers, exacerbating the impacts of global climatic changes. In this context, local infrastructural projects and changes in land- and water-management may temporarily mitigate some negative effects, but do not address the existential threat to the delta as a whole. To prevent, or at least substantially postpone, the drowning of the Mekong Delta requires identification of the key drivers and immediate concerted management actions on the basin-scale to change the trajectory of subsidence and sediment deficit. A specific challenge is to find the institutional arrangements in this transnational context that could support the needed management changes and equitably distribute costs and impacts. The Mekong Delta is

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta activation leads to increased transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van der Velde, Astrid E.; van den Oever, Karin; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Huet, Stephane; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR delta) is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPAR delta markedly increases fecal neutral sterol secretion, the last step in reverse cholesterol transport. This phenomenon can neither be explained by increased

  20. Measurement of delta-rays in ATLAS silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    In the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, $\\delta$-rays originating from particle interactions in the silicon sensors may cause additional hit channels. A method for identifying silicon hit clusters that are enlarged due to the emission of a $\\delta$-ray is presented. Using pp collision data the expectation is confirmed that the $\\delta$-ray production rate depends linearly on the path length of the particle in silicon, independently of layer radius and detector technology. The range of the $\\delta$-rays, which is a property of the material and should not depend on anything else, is indeed found to be constant as a function of detector layer, path length in silicon and momentum of the particle traversing the silicon. As a by-product of this analysis a method is proposed that could correct for the effect of these $\\delta$-rays, and this could be used to improve track reconstruction.

  1. (p,. pi. /sup -/) reaction and. delta. /sup + +/ components of nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisslinger, L S; Miller, G A [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1975-12-08

    The use of the (p,..pi../sup -/) reaction as a probe to determine ..delta../sup + +/(1232) components of nuclear wave functions is examined within the framework of a model which treats baryon resonances on the same footing as nucleons. Nuclear structure properties which affect the ..delta..-probability are discussed. Estimates of cross sections, at several energies, are made for the ..delta../sup + +/ transfer contribution as well as for the competing processes: proton charge exchange (p,n) followed by an (n,..gamma../sup -/) reaction; emission of a ..pi../sup 0/ followed by pion charge exchange (..pi../sup -/,..pi../sup 0/). Even with ..delta..-probabilities as small as 0.0001 the ..delta..-transfer process can compete with ordinary background charge-exchange reactions.

  2. Spectral factorization using the delta operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Morten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole

    1994-01-01

    In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral-factorize...... solution to the spectral factorization problem. The key idea is to use the gamma-operator resembled by its behavior to the differential operator....... in an efficient way. The discrete-time method of Kuccera will not be applied since numerical word-length characteristics will be poor for fast sampling rates. In this paper a new approach is considered. A new gamma-operator (Tustin operator) is introduced, in order to make an iterative and numerical stable...

  3. $\\delta N$ formalism from superpotential and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Garriga, Jaume; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2016-02-16

    We consider the superpotential formalism to describe the evolution of scalar fields during inflation, generalizing it to include the case with non-canonical kinetic terms. We provide a characterization of the attractor behaviour of the background evolution in terms of first and second slow-roll parameters (which need not be small). We find that the superpotential is useful in justifying the separate universe approximation from the gradient expansion, and also in computing the spectra of primordial perturbations around attractor solutions in the $\\delta N$ formalism. As an application, we consider a class of models where the background trajectories for the inflaton fields are derived from a product separable superpotential. In the perspective of the holographic inflation scenario, such models are dual to a deformed CFT boundary theory, with $D$ mutually uncorrelated deformation operators. We compute the bulk power spectra of primordial adiabatic and entropy cosmological perturbations, and show that the results...

  4. Head orientation prediction: delta quaternions versus quaternions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi

    2009-12-01

    Display lag in simulation environments with helmet-mounted displays causes a loss of immersion that degrades the value of virtual/augmented reality training simulators. Simulators use predictive tracking to compensate for display lag, preparing display updates based on the anticipated head motion. This paper proposes a new method for predicting head orientation using a delta quaternion (DQ)-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) and compares the performance to a quaternion EKF. The proposed framework operates on the change in quaternion between consecutive data frames (the DQ), which avoids the heavy computational burden of the quaternion motion equation. Head velocity is estimated from the DQ by an EKF and then used to predict future head orientation. We have tested the new framework with captured head motion data and compared it with the computationally expensive quaternion filter. Experimental results indicate that the proposed DQ method provides the accuracy of the quaternion method without the heavy computational burden.

  5. Dependence of {delta}E effect on internal stresses in nickel: Experimental results by laser interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicharro, J.M. [Dept. de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avd. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: josemanuel.chicharro@uclm.es; Bayon, A. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, E.T.S.I. Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Salazar, F. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, E.T.S.I. Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    The speckle heterodyne interferometry is applied to the study of the dependence of Young's modulus on both the magnetic field and the internal stresses in a soft ferromagnetic material. Young's modulus is determined from the first natural longitudinal frequency of a slender magnetic rod positioned within a solenoid. Vibration of the sample is detected by an optical heterodyne system with a wide bandwidth. The samples are heated to above the Curie point and then cooled at several rates in order to induce different internal stresses. The study refers to nickel rods 10mm in diameter and 110mm in length. The grain sizes of the samples are also determined and related to changes in {delta}E.

  6. Multimode delta-E effect magnetic field sensors with adapted electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Sebastian; Fichtner, Simon; Kirchhof, Christine; Quandt, Eckhard; Faupel, Franz, E-mail: ff@tf.uni-kiel.de [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Reermann, Jens; Schmidt, Gerhard [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Electrical Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Wagner, Bernhard [Fraunhofer Institute for Silicon Technology ISIT, Fraunhoferstraße 1, 25524 Itzehoe (Germany)

    2016-05-30

    We present an analytical and experimental study on low-noise piezoelectric thin film resonators that utilize the delta-E effect of a magnetostrictive layer to measure magnetic fields at low frequencies. Calculations from a physical model of the electromechanical resonator enable electrode designs to efficiently operate in the first and second transversal bending modes. As predicted by our calculations, the adapted electrode design improves the sensitivity by a factor of 6 and reduces the dynamic range of the sensor output by 16 dB, which significantly eases the requirements on readout electronics. Magnetic measurements show a bandwidth of 100 Hz at a noise level of about 100 pTHz{sup −0.5}.

  7. Perspectives on bay-delta science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Michael; Dettinger, Michael; Norgaard, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on novel conservation approaches. These longer and wider perspectives

  8. The Atchafalaya River Delta. Report 7. Analytical Analysis of the Development of the Atchafalaya River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    responsible for the abrupt increases in subaerial delta growth. 64. Through using satellite imagery, color infrared photog- raphy, and digital current...w RO CF = HO/A/BO/(2.-D) w (HH wo (2.-D) - 1.) + O.5/AA X2 = BO m 2.m AA a HHow(D-1.) o CF AREA = (2.wAAwB~ ww2 ) im (CKI*(1. + AmBO/HOwRO) ww2 &+ CK2 a

  9. Primary production in the Delta: Then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Robinson, April; Richey, Amy; Grenier, Letitia; Grossinger, Robin; Boyer, Katharyn E.; Burau, Jon; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; DeGeorge, John F.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Enright, Chris; Howe, Emily R.; Kneib, Ronald; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Naiman, Robert J.; Pinckney, James L.; Safran, Samuel M.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Simenstad, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850). Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1) produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2) convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3) use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  10. How Rapid Change Affects Deltas in the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Bendixen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas form where the river drains into the ocean. Consequently, delta depositional processes are impacted by either changes in the respective river drainage basin or by changes in the regional marine environment. In a warming Arctic region rapid change has occurred over the last few decades in both the terrestrial domain as well as in the marine domain. Important terrestrial controls include 1) change in permafrost possibly destabilizing river banks, 2) strong seasonality of river discharge due to a short melting season, 3) high sediment supply if basins are extensively glaciated, 4) lake outbursts and ice jams favoring river flooding. Whereas in the Arctic marine domain sea ice loss promotes wave and storm surge impact, and increased longshore transport. We here ask which of these factors dominate any morphological change in Arctic deltas. First, we analyze hydrological data to assess change in Arctic-wide river discharge characteristics and timing, and sea ice concentration data to map changes in sea ice regime. Based on this observational analysis we set up a number of scenarios of change. We then model hypothetical small-scale delta formation considering change in these primary controls by setting up a numerical delta model, and combining it dynamically with a permafrost model. We find that for typical Greenlandic deltas changes in river forcing due to ice sheet melt dominate the morphological change, which is corroborated by mapping of delta progradation from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Whereas in other areas, along the North Slope and the Canadian Arctic small deltas are more stable or experienced retreat. Our preliminary coupled model allows us to further disentangle the impact of major forcing factors on delta evolution in high-latitude systems.

  11. Hot deformation behavior of delta-processed superalloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wangyanhit@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Shao, W.Z.; Zhen, L.; Zhang, B.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The peak stress for hot deformation can be described by the Z parameter. {yields} The grain size of DRX was inversely proportional to the Z parameter. {yields} The dissolution of {delta} phases was greatly accelerated under hot deformation. {yields}The {delta} phase stimulated nucleation can serve as the main DRX mechanism. - Abstract: Flow stress behavior and microstructures during hot compression of delta-processed superalloy 718 at temperatures from 950 to 1100 deg. C with strain rates of 10{sup -3} to 1 s{sup -1} were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The relationship between the peak stress and the deformation conditions can be expressed by a hyperbolic-sine type equation. The activation energy for the delta-processed superalloy 718 is determined to be 467 kJ/mol. The change of the dominant deformation mechanisms leads to the decrease of stress exponent and the increase of activation energy with increasing temperature. The dynamically recrystallized grain size is inversely proportional to the Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameter. It is found that the dissolution rate of {delta} phases under hot deformation conditions is much faster than that under static conditions. Dislocation, vacancy and curvature play important roles in the dissolution of {delta} phases. The main nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) for the delta-processed superalloy 718 include the bulging of original grain boundaries and the {delta} phase stimulated DRX nucleation, which is closely related to the dissolution behavior of {delta} phases under certain deformation conditions.

  12. Primary Production in the Delta: Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Cloern

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss3art1To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850. Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1 produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2 convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3 use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  13. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN HEPATITIS DELTA: SOUTH AMERICA EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Souza LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The Amazon region is one of the main endemic areas of hepatitis delta in the world and the only one related to the presence of genotype 3 of the delta virus. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile, mortality and survival of cirrhotic patients submitted to liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis delta virus and compare with those transplanted by hepatitis B virus monoinfection. METHODS: Retrospective, observational and descriptive study. From May 2002 to December 2011, 629 liver transplants were performed at the Walter Cantídio University Hospital, of which 29 patients were transplanted due to cirrhosis caused by chronic delta virus infection and 40 by hepatitis B chronic monoinfection. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, MELD score, Child-Pugh score, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence before the transplantation, perioperative platelet count, mortality and survival. RESULTS: The Delta Group was younger and all came from the Brazilian Amazon Region. Group B presented a higher proportion of male patients (92.5% compared to Group D (58.6%. The occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding before transplantation, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score did not show statistical differences between groups. The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality were higher in the hepatitis B Group. The survival in 4 years was 95% in the Delta Group and 75% in the B Group, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.034. Patients with hepatitis delta presented more evident thrombocytopenia in the pre-transplantation and in the immediate postoperative period. CONCLUSION: The hepatitis by delta virus patients who underwent liver transplantation were predominantly male, coming from the Brazilian Amazon region and with similar liver function to the hepatitis B virus patients. They had a lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, more marked perioperative thrombocytopenia levels and frequent

  14. Delta Evolution at Røde Elv, Disko Island, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, A.; Arngrimson, J.; Bendixen, M.; Sigsgaard, C.

    2017-12-01

    Ice, snow and freezing temperatures have a large impact on coastal morphodynamics in Arctic polar environments. A recent warming of the Arctic climate induces many changes along the arctic shorelines. Sea-levels are rising due to thermal expansion and due to an increased fresh water flux from the glaciers and land ice masses. At the same time, the ice coverage of the coastal waters reduces and the open water periods in summer extend. There is a strong seasonal variation with open waters and active rivers in summer and ice-covered coastal waters and inactive rivers in winter. Coastal processes by waves and tides are thus limited to the summer and early fall. Besides, there is also a strong daily variation in fluvial discharges due to the daily variations in glacier melt with maximum melt in the afternoon and minimum values at night. At the same time, the actual flux of the river to the coastal bay is influenced by the tidal phase. Low tides will enhance the transport to the delta front, while high tides will create stagnant waters over the delta plain. The delta of the Røde Elv is located in southwestern Disko Island in west Greenland. It has a relatively small (ca. 101 km2) and partly glaciated drainage basin (ca. 20%) and its sediments consist of a mixture of basaltic sands and gravels. The Røde Elv delta is located at the end of a pro-glacial and fluvial valley at about 20 km from the glacier. The shores of the delta are reworked by waves, predominantly from southwestern, southern (largest fetch, over 50 km), and southeastern directions. The environment has a micro- to meso- tidal range with a spring tidal range of 2.7 m. The morphologic changes on the delta over the last decades clearly showed a seaward extension of the delta and a periodic shift in the location of the main delta channel. In this presentation, we focus on quantification of water discharges and suspended sediment fluxes to the Røde Elv delta in western Greenland, and on the morphological

  15. Late quaternary evolution of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.; Aslan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Orinoco Delta is the latest of a series of stacked deltas that have infilled the Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EVB) since the Oligocene. During the late Pleistocene sea-level lowstand (20,000 to 16,000 yrs BP), bedrock control points at the position of the present delta apex prevented the river channel from incising as deeply as many other major river systems. Shallow seismic data indicate that the late Pleistocene Orinoco incised into the present continental shelf, where it formed a braided-river complex that transported sediment to a series of shelf-edge deltas. As sea level rose from 16,000 to 9,500 yrs BP, the Orinoco shoreline shifted rapidly landward, causing shallow-marine waves and currents to form a widespread transgressive sand unit. Decelerating sea-level rise and a warmer, wetter climate during the early Holocene (9,500 to 6,000 yrs BP) induced delta development within the relatively quiet-water environment of the EVB embayment. Sea level approached its present stand in the middle Holocene (6,000 to 3,000 yrs BP), and the Orinoco coast prograded, broadening the delta plain and infilling the EVB embayment. Significant quantities of Amazon sediment began to be transported to the Orinoco coast by littoral currents. Continued progradation in the late Holocene caused the constriction at Boca de Serpientes to alter nearshore and shelf hydrodynamics and subdivide the submarine delta into two distinct areas: the Atlantic shelf and the Gulf of Paria. The increased influence of littoral currents along the coast promoted mudcape development. Because most of the water and sediment were transported across the delta plain through the Rio Grande distributary in the southern delta, much of the central and northwestern delta plain became sediment starved, promoting widespread accumulation of peat deposits. Human impacts on the delta are mostly associated with the Volca??n Dam on Can??o Manamo. However, human activities have had relatively little effect on the

  16. Is there a self-organization principle of river deltas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-04-01

    River deltas are known to possess a complex topological and flux-partitioning structure which has recently been quantified using spectral graph theory [Tejedor et al., 2015a,b]. By analysis of real and simulated deltas it has also been shown that there is promise in formalizing relationships between this topo-dynamic delta structure and the underlying delta forming processes [e.g., Tejedor et al., 2016]. The question we pose here is whether there exists a first order organizational principle behind the self-organization of river deltas and whether this principle can be unraveled from the co-evolving topo-dynamic structure encoded in the delta planform. To answer this question, we introduce a new metric, the nonlocal Entropy Rate (nER) that captures the information content of a delta network in terms of the degree of uncertainty in delivering fluxes from any point of the network to the shoreline. We hypothesize that if the "guiding principle" of undisturbed deltas is to efficiently and robustly build land by increasing the diversity of their flux pathways over the delta plane, then they would exhibit maximum nonlocal Entropy Rate at states at which geometry and flux dynamics are at equilibrium. At the same time, their nER would be non-optimal at transient states, such as before and after major avulsions during which topology and dynamics adjust to each other to reach a new equilibrium state. We will present our results for field and simulated deltas, which confirm this hypothesis and open up new ways of thinking about self-organization, complexity and robustness in river deltas. One particular connection of interest might have important implications since entropy rate and resilience are related by the fluctuation theorem [Demetrius and Manke, 2005], and therefore our results suggest that deltas might in fact self-organize to maximize their resilience to structural and dynamic perturbations. References: Tejedor, A., A. Longjas, I. Zaliapin, and E. Foufoula

  17. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  18. Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience--a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, V

    2015-01-01

    The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference.

  19. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  20. Chiral model for nucleon and delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birse, M.C.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    We propose a model of the nucleon and delta based on the idea that strong QCD forces on length scales approx.0.2--1 fm result in hidden chiral SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry and that there is a separation of roles between these forces which are also responsible for binding quarks in hadrons and the forces which produce absolute confinement. This leads us to study a linear sigma model describing the interactions of quarks, sigma mesons, and pions. We have solved this model in the semiclassical (mean-field) approximation for the hedgehog baryon state. We refer to this solution as a chiral soliton. In the semiclassical approximation the hedgehog state is a linear combination of N and Δ. We project this state onto states of good spin and isospin to calculate matrix elements of various operators in these states. Our results are in reasonable agreement with the observed properties of the nucleon. The mesonic contributions to g/sub A/ and sigma(πN) are about two to three times too large, suggesting the need for quantum corrections

  1. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  2. The situation in the Niger Delta; La situation dans le delta du Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitalis, E

    2007-07-15

    An energy issue for the United States and a political challenge for Europe, Nigeria is experiencing growing instability and is on the verge of civil war; the ecosystem and the population of the Niger Delta are the main victims. The State, corrupt, is powerless to contain the rising violence and redistribute the proceeds of oil sales. It is high time for oil-consuming countries, starting with the United States, to concern themselves with stabilizing the region. Europe must contribute to the lasting development of this country. (author)

  3. The Niger Delta Avengers, Autonomous Ethnic Clans and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    therefore investigated the sudden emergence of Niger Delta Avengers ... hardship, deprivations and environmental degradation occasioned by oil pipeline .... analysis of coded materials of the library such as books, magazines, journals,.

  4. Rarotonga Radiocarbon (delta 14C) for 1950 to 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rarotonga coral radiocarbon (14C) timeseries. Coral radiocarbon (Delta-14C) on untreated, low-speed drilled samples. Precision is +/- 4 per mil as documented by an...

  5. Novel urinary metabolite of d-delta-tocopherol in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiku, S.; Hamamura, K.; Nakamura, T.

    1984-01-01

    A novel metabolite of d-delta-tocopherol was isolated from the urine of rats given d-3,4-[ 3 H 2 ]-delta-tocopherol intravenously. The metabolite was collected from the urine of rats given d-delta-tocopherol in the same manner as that of the labeled compound. It was found that the metabolites consisted of sulfate conjugates. The portion of the major metabolite released with sulfatase was determined to be 2,8-dimethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-chromanol by infrared spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and mass spectra. The proposed structure was confirmed by comparing the analytical results with those of a synthetically derived compound. As a result of the structural elucidation of this novel metabolite, a pathway for the biological transformation of delta-tocopherol is proposed which is different from that of alpha-tocopherol. A characteristic feature of the pathway is the absence of any opening of the chroman ring throughout the sequence

  6. Environmental Law and Underdevelopment in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Law and Underdevelopment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. ... is composed of many ecosystems of great economic and social importance, ... producing companies contribute to the degradation of the environment which in ...

  7. Delta-ray spectroscopy of quasi-atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhuharov, C.

    1983-01-01

    The spectroscopy of high energy delta-rays, emitted in collisions of very heavy ions, is studied. The ''orange''-type beta-spectrometer and the achromatic electron channel are the experimental setups. Delta ray production probabilities are studied as a function of the distance of closest approach R /SUB min/ or the impact parameter b. Coulomb ionization, ion trajectory, scaling laws, double differential cross sections, and K-X-rays information is extracted from the experiment. The dependence of delta-ray emission on the united charge number Z /SUB u/ is discussed. Asymmetric collision systems with Z x alpha approx. = 1 (delta ray spectrum from Pb→Sn collisions) are studied. Finally, very heavy collisions, such as 208 Pb + 208 Pb collisions at bombarding energy fas below the Coulomb barrier are touched upon

  8. precise delta extraction scheme for reprogramming of wireless

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords- reprogramming; operating system, wireless sensor network, Delta. 1. INTRODUCTION ... It entails the transmission of only modified modules that are then ... higher power consumption and slow system execution are drawbacks ...

  9. Pattern of Complicated Unsafe Abortions in Niger Delta University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    of cases of complicated unsafe abortion managed at the. Niger Delta University ... previous termination of pregnancy and 87.3% of the patients had ... and outcome were obtained. ... life-threatening complications, post- abortion family planning.

  10. DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hutton C.W.

    Stakeholder Dialogue, London, June 19th, 2014. DEltas, vulnerability and Climate. Change: Migration and Adaptation. (DECCMA). Stakeholder Dialogue. Radisson Blu Edwardian Grafton Hotel, London, UK. June 19th, 2014 ...

  11. Ecohealth Approach to Flood Recession Farming in Okavango Delta ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, flood-recession farming (molapu) is a lucrative but ... Moreover, some practices involved in molapu farming may pose a threat to the ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  12. What are Pregnant Women in a Rural Niger Delta Community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Buchanan House, Glasgow Caledonian University Email: Caroline. ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of ..... sometimes you stay for the whole day.

  13. Inventory Management in Delta Allied Wire Industries Limited Asaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A good inventory system reduces production cost and consequently increases profit. Optimum management of inventory in the Delta – Allied Wire Industries ... under review and customers' handling processes equally studied for improvement.

  14. Nucleon and delta masses in twisted mass chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker-Loud, Andre; Wu, Jackson M.S.

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the masses of the nucleons and deltas in twisted mass heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. We work to quadratic order in a power counting scheme in which we treat the lattice spacing, a, and the quark masses, m q , to be of the same order. We give expressions for the mass and the mass splitting of the nucleons and deltas both in and away from the isospin limit. We give an argument using the chiral Lagrangian treatment that, in the strong isospin limit, the nucleons remain degenerate and the delta multiplet breaks into two degenerate pairs to all orders in chiral perturbation theory. We show that the mass splitting between the degenerate pairs of the deltas first appears at quadratic order in the lattice spacing. We discuss the subtleties in the effective chiral theory that arise from the inclusion of isospin breaking

  15. Restoration of Delta Streams: A Case History and Conceptual Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Killgore, K. J; Hoover, Jan J; Murphy, Catherine E; Parrish, Kent D; Johnson, David R; Myers, Karen F

    2008-01-01

    .... Low water, excessive sedimentation in smaller delta streams, and the accumulation of pesticides such as DDT are the consequences of these anthropogenic disturbances resulting in dominance of tolerant fish species...

  16. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  17. Environmental Risk Profiling of the Volta Delta, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, B. K.; Appeaning-Addo, K.; Amisigo, B.

    2017-12-01

    Volta Delta communities find it difficult to absorb or bear risk at different levels, because of the physical and economic impacts of environmental hazards. In this regards various agencies and organizations have in recent years launched initiatives to measure and identify risk areas with a set of indicators and indices. The theory underpinning this study is concepts of Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT). The Cox proportional hazards regression model will be used as the model for the risk profile. Finding the optimal level of environmental risk for activities in the Volta Delta considering the risk required, risk capacity and risk tolerance. Using data from different sources, an environmental risk profile was developed for the Volta Delta. The result indicates that risks are distributed across the Delta. However, areas that have government interventions, such as sea defense system and irrigation facilities have less threat. In addition wealthy areas do effectively reduce the threat of any form of disaster.

  18. Sedimentation patterns in floodplains of the Mekong Delta - Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manh, Nguyen; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Apel, Heiko

    2013-04-01

    Quantification of floodplain sedimentation during the flood season in the Mekong Delta (MD) plays a very important role in the assessment of flood deposits for a sustainable agro-economic development. Recent studies on floodplain sedimentation in the region are restricted to small pilot sites because of the large extend of the Delta, and the complex channel. This research aims at a quantification of the sediment deposition in floodplains of the whole Mekong Delta, and to access the impacts of the upstream basin development on the sedimentation in the Delta quantitatively. To achieve this, a suspended sediment transport model is developed based on the quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of the whole Mekong Delta developed by Dung et al. (2011). The model is calibrated and validated using observed data derived from several sediment measurement campaigns in channel networks and floodplains. Measured sediment data and hydrodynamic model quantify the spatio-temporal variability of sediment depositions in different spatial units: individual dyke compartments, and the sub-regions Plain of Reeds, Long Xuyen Quadrangle and the area between Tien River and Hau River. It is shown that the distribution of sediment deposition over the delta is highly depended on the flood magnitude, that in turn drives the operation policy of flood control systems in floodplains of the Mekong Delta. Thus, the sedimentation distribution is influenced by the protection level of the dyke systems in place and the distance to the Tien River and Hau River, the main branches of the Mekong in the Delta. This corroborates the main findings derived from data analysis obtained from a small scale test site by Hung et al, (2011, 2012a). Moreover, the results obtained here underlines the importance of the main channels for the sediment transport into the floodplains, and the deposition rate in floodplains is strongly driven by the intake locations and the distance from these to the main channels as well.

  19. Studies of Louisiana's Deltas and Wetlands using SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable coastal environments exist in delicate balance between subsidence, erosion, and sea level rise on one hand and accretion of sediment and retention of decomposing organic matter on the other. In this talk we present results from a series of studies using an airborne L-band SAR (UAVSAR) to measure changing conditions in the Mississippi River Delta and coastal wetlands of Louisiana. Change within the Mississippi River delta (MRD), which is a highly engineered environment, is contrasted to those in the Wax Lake Delta, a small, naturally evolving delta located to the west of the current-day lobe of the MRD. The UAVSAR studies provide evidence that in the MRD subsidence and erosion related to human activities are increasing risk of flooding, submergence, and land loss. These are not seen in the Wax Lake Delta, where new land is forming. We evaluate geomorphic and hydrologic changes In the Wax Lake Delta and wetlands hydrologically connected to the Wax Lake Outlet canal that are apparent on the timescales of the UAVSAR data set, which consists of both near-yearly acquisitions (2009-2016) and several series of repeat acquisitions in 2015 and 2016 capturing conditions across a tidal cycle. Using the yearly data, we observe the evolution of subaqueous channels and crevasses in the delta and changes in distributary channels within the wetlands. We use water level change derived from InSAR applied to the rapid repeat data acquired during different stages of a tidal cycle to study the natural pattern of water flux within the delta and the coastal wetlands. The studies, results, and plans for future work will be presented. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts with the California Dept. of Water Resources and with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. The Great Diversion: Danube Delta under Human Control (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, L.

    2009-12-01

    Many deltas around the world are suffering from sediment deficits that render them unstable to current and predicted rates of sea level rise. One solution proposed to alleviate the complete or partial drowning of such deltas is the use of river diversions to increase the quantity of sediment supplied to the delta plain to support marsh accretion. We examine the results of a half century old program of diversion in the Danube delta that led to the creation of an extensive diversion channel network akin in scope and size to a natural deltaic network. Danube’s importance as a shipping route increased after the Crimean War in the 1850s; the European Danube Commission was charged with maintaining the Sulina distributary as a shipping channel until 1940s. In the same period, several canals were dug to aid fishing in lakes and bring freshwater to brackish lagoons. After World War II, Communist authorities dramatically increased the number of canals for fishing, fish-farming and reed harvesting. New data on sedimentation rates and estimates of sediment fluxes suggest that the intensive canalization in the second half of the 20th Century led to increased sediment deposition that compensated the decreasing sediment discharge linked to damming within the internal fluvial part of the delta; however, the external marine delta has become increasingly sediment starved during the same interval. We emphasize the similarities and contrasts between the “human-controlled” and natural deltaic channel networks of the Danube delta and discuss the sustainability of the delta as a sediment budget problem within a sea level rise context.

  1. Governance of ‘long term delta planning’ in Bangladesh, Vietnam and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Deltas in Times of Climate Change Conference II, taking place in September 2014, Rotterdam, presented a suitable occasion to discuss both delta challenges and interesting approaches to how ‘delta dynamics’ are being dealt with worldwide.1 Delta dynamics include here both environmental (including

  2. Challenges and Approaches in River Delta Planning - Annexes to report on training workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Programme, participants and all powerpoint presentations of the Delta Alliance Training Workshop: Challenges and approaches in river delta planning, sharing experiences from SE Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta. 22-26 October 2012, WACC, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

  3. Natural levee evolution in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands, during the first millennium CE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, H.J.; Stouthamer, E.; Cohen, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents reconstructions on natural levee development in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands, during the first millennium CE, covering the full delta plain. It is the first study that performs this on a delta scale, which allows seeing the delta-wide trends on levee-forming controls

  4. An integrated assessment framework for land subsidence in delta cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. Bucx

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In many delta cities land subsidence exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten by excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without change, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other delta (and coastal cities will sink below sea level. Increased flooding and also other widespread impacts of land subsidence result already in damage of billions of dollars per year. In order to gain insight in the complex, multi-sectoral aspects of subsidence, to raise awareness and to support decision making on appropriate adaptation strategies and measures, an Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF for subsidence is introduced, illustrated by several (delta case studies. Based on that a list of 10 generic key issues and possible solutions is presented in order to further develop and support a (generic approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas. For exchange of experiences and knowledge development.on subsidence in deltas the Delta Alliance, a knowledge network of deltas worldwide, can be supportive.

  5. Sand transport, shear stress, and the building of a delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, W.; Miller, K. L.; Hiatt, M. R.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas distribute sediment to the coastal sea through a complex branching network of channels; however, the routing and storage of this sediment in and through the delta is poorly understood. We present results from field studies of the sediment and water transport through the branching Wax Lake Delta on the coast of Louisiana. Two channels studied, Main Pass and East Pass, maintain a near-equal total partitioning of flow and sediment. However, East Pass is narrower and has higher river velocities, lower tidal velocity fluctuations, less alluvial bed cover, and more sediment flux per unit width than Main Pass. We connect these differences to small differences in the geometry of the two channels and feedbacks between these differences. We link trends in measured sediment deposits to both measured and modeled shear velocities in Wax Lake Delta's channels and open water `islands' to understand how hydrologic processes shaped the sedimentary architecture of the delta. These connections define the sediment transport and deposition regimes in the WLD. We extend the results herein to suggest that the relationships between the available sediment and shear stress determines the basic planform of the Wax Lake Delta and cross-sectional geometries of its channels.

  6. The State of Bay–Delta Science 2016: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss2art5The State of Bay–Delta Science 2016 (SBDS is a collection of papers that summarizes the scientific understanding of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, emphasizing progress made during the past decade.It builds on the first SBDS edition (Healey et al. 2008. Paper topics for this edition address the most relevant scientific issues in the Delta identified by senior scientists and managers. The topical papers cover issues ranging from contaminants in the Delta to levee stability, and from Delta food webs to recent discoveries about salmon migration. These papers are written for a scientific audience. Two additional papers, one describing the challenges of managing water and ecosystems in the Delta and another that discusses policy implications of the recent scientific findings, are written for a general audience. The papers will be published in at least two issues of San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science and will be available as a set electronically.

  7. Metallicism and pulsation: an analysis of the delta Delphini stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    Fine abundance analyses of seven delta Delphini stars and one delta Scuti star relative to four comparison standards are presented. Five of the delta Del stars are shown to have abundances most similar to the evolved Am stars. It is argued that these abundances are different from the classical Am star and Ap star abundances and that similarities to the Ba II star abundances are coincidental. We suggest that the anomalous abundance delta Del stars are evolved metallic line stars on the basis of their abundances, position in the β, M/sub v/ plane, inferred rotational velocities, and perhaps their binary incidence. Some of the delta Del stars are delta Scuti pulsators. We argue that pulsation and metallicism are mutually exclusive among the classical Am stars but may coexist in other stars related to the classical Am stars. A preference for the diffusion hypothesis model for the metallic line stars is stated and supported and the implications of the coexistence of pulsation and diffusion are discussed

  8. How yield relates to ash content, Delta 13C and Delta 18O in maize grown under different water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Sánchez, Ciro; Araus, José Luis

    2009-11-01

    Stable isotopes have proved a valuable phenotyping tool when breeding for yield potential and drought adaptation; however, the cost and technical skills involved in isotope analysis limit its large-scale application in breeding programmes. This is particularly so for Delta(18)O despite the potential relevance of this trait in C(4) crops. The accumulation of minerals (measured as ash content) has been proposed as an inexpensive way to evaluate drought adaptation and yield in C(3) cereals, but little is known of the usefulness of this measure in C(4) cereals such as maize (Zea mays). The present study investigates how yield relates to ash content, Delta(13)C and Delta(18)O, and evaluates the use of ash content as an alternative or complementary criterion to stable isotopes in assessing yield potential and drought resistance in maize. A set of tropical maize hybrids developed by CIMMYT were subjected to different water availabilities, in order to induce water stress during the reproductive stages under field conditions. Ash content and Delta(13)C were determined in leaves and kernels. In addition, Delta(18)O was measured in kernels. Water regime significantly affected yield, ash content and stable isotopes. The results revealed a close relationship between ash content in leaves and the traits informing about plant water status. Ash content in kernels appeared to reflect differences in sink-source balance. Genotypic variation in grain yield was mainly explained by the combination of ash content and Delta(18)O, whilst Delta(13)C did not explain a significant percentage of such variation. Ash content in leaves and kernels proved a useful alternative or complementary criterion to Delta(18)O in kernels for assessing yield performance in maize grown under drought conditions.

  9. Population dynamics, delta vulnerability and environmental change: comparison of the Mekong, Ganges–Brahmaputra and Amazon delta regions

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, S.; Brondizio, E.; Renaud, F.G.; Hetrick, S.; Nicholls, R.; Matthews, Z.; Tessler, Z; Tejedor, A; Sebesvari, Z; Foufoula-Georgiou, E; da Costa, S; Dearing, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical delta regions are at risk of multiple threats including relative sea level rise and human alterations, making them more and more vulnerable to extreme floods, storms, surges, salinity intrusion, and other hazards which could also increase in magnitude and frequency with a changing climate. Given the environmental vulnerability of tropical deltas, understanding the interlinkages between population dynamics and environmental change in these regions is crucial for ensuring efficient pol...

  10. Mean proloculus size, delta super(13) C and delta super(18) O variations in recent benthic foraminifera from the west coast of India and their climatic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Sarkar, A.

    The interrelationship between mean proloculus size (MPS), delta super(18) O and delta super(13) C vatiations in benthic foraminiferal species Rotalidium annectens and their relation with temperature (T) and salinity (S) have been studied in samples...

  11. Perspectives on Bay–Delta Science and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art6The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on

  12. Lava delta deformation as a proxy for submarine slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Nolesini, Teresa; Solari, Lorenzo; Ciampalini, Andrea; Frodella, William; Steri, Damiano; Allotta, Benedetto; Rindi, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo; Monni, Niccolò; Galardi, Emanuele; Casagli, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    The instability of lava deltas is a recurrent phenomenon affecting volcanic islands, which can potentially cause secondary events such as littoral explosions (due to interactions between hot lava and seawater) and tsunamis. It has been shown that Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technique to forecast the collapse of newly emplaced lava deltas. This work goes further, demonstrating that the monitoring of lava deltas is a successful strategy by which to observe the long-term deformation of subaerial-submarine landslide systems on unstable volcanic flanks. In this paper, displacement measurements derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery were used to detect lava delta instability at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Recent flank eruptions (2002-2003, 2007 and 2014) affected the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) depression, created a "stacked" lava delta, which overlies a pre-existing scar produced by a submarine-subaerial tsunamigenic landslide that occurred on 30 December 2002. Space-borne X-band COSMO-SkyMED (CSK) and C-band SENTINEL-1A (SNT) SAR data collected between February 2010 and October 2016 were processed using the SqueeSAR algorithm. The obtained ground displacement maps revealed the differential ground motion of the lava delta in both CSK and SNT datasets, identifying a stable area (characterized by less than 2 mm/y in both datasets) within the northern sector of the SdF and an unstable area (characterized by velocity fields on the order of 30 mm/y and 160 mm/y in the CSK and SNT datasets, respectively) in the central sector of the SdF. The slope stability of the offshore part of the SdF, as reconstructed based on a recently performed multibeam bathymetric survey, was evaluated using a 3D Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM). In all the simulations, Factor of Safety (F) values between 0.9 and 1.1 always characterized the submarine slope between the coastline and -250 m a.s.l. The critical surfaces for all the search volumes corresponded to

  13. Initial isotopic geochemistry ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) of fluids from wells of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Geoquimica isotopica ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) inicial de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    Isotopic data ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) from fluids from production wells at the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field were analyzed to investigate the possible origin of these fluids and the dominant processes of the reservoir at its initial state. According to pre-exploitation data, it is suggested the Los Humeros reservoir fluids are made of a mixture of meteoric water of very light isotopic composition (paleo-fluids) and andesitic water. The relationship {delta} D vs {delta} 18 O from pre-exploitation data indicates the produced fluids are composed of a mixture of (at least) two fluids with distinct isotopic compositions. At the more enriched end of the mixing relationship are the isotopic compositions of the wells H-23 and H-18 (located in the southern area of the field), while the lighter fluids were found in well H-16 (originally) and then in well H-16 (repaired). It was found that the liquid phases of deep wells are more enriched in {delta} 18 O while the shallow wells present lower values, suggesting a convection process at the initial state. Based on this isotopic profile, it is considered that even the production depths of the wells H-1, H-12 and H-16 (repaired) are just about the same, but their respective isotopic compositions are quite different. The {delta} 18 O value for well H-16 (repaired) seems to be that of condensate steam, while the corresponding values for wells H-1 and H-12 fall within the value interval of the deep wells (H-23). This suggests wells H-1 and H-12 are collecting very deep fluids enriched in {delta} 18 O. These results could be useful in creating a conceptual model of the reservoir. [Spanish] Se analizaron datos isotopicos ({delta}18 O, {delta}D) de los fluidos de pozos productores del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., para investigar el posible origen de los fluidos asi como los procesos dominantes del yacimiento en su estado inicial. De acuerdo con datos previos a la explotacion, se plantea que los fluidos del yacimiento

  14. Stratigraphy and paleohydrology of delta channel deposits, Jezero crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, Timothy A.; Mohrig, David; Cardenas, Benjamin T.; Hughes, Cory M.; Fassett, Caleb I.

    2018-02-01

    The Jezero crater open-basin lake contains two well-exposed fluvial sedimentary deposits formed early in martian history. Here, we examine the geometry and architecture of the Jezero western delta fluvial stratigraphy using high-resolution orbital images and digital elevation models (DEMs). The goal of this analysis is to reconstruct the evolution of the delta and associated shoreline position. The delta outcrop contains three distinct classes of fluvial stratigraphy that we interpret, from oldest to youngest, as: (1) point bar strata deposited by repeated flood events in meandering channels; (2) inverted channel-filling deposits formed by avulsive distributary channels; and (3) a valley that incises the deposit. We use DEMs to quantify the geometry of the channel deposits and estimate flow depths of ∼7 m for the meandering channels and ∼2 m for the avulsive distributary channels. Using these estimates, we employ a novel approach for assessing paleohydrology of the formative channels in relative terms. This analysis indicates that the shift from meandering to avulsive distributary channels was associated with an approximately four-fold decrease in the water to sediment discharge ratio. We use observations of the fluvial stratigraphy and channel paleohydrology to propose a model for the evolution of the Jezero western delta. The delta stratigraphy records lake level rise and shoreline transgression associated with approximately continuous filling of the basin, followed by outlet breaching, and eventual erosion of the delta. Our results imply a martian surface environment during the period of delta formation that supplied sufficient surface runoff to fill the Jezero basin without major drops in lake level, but also with discrete flooding events at non-orbital (e.g., annual to decadal) timescales.

  15. Anadromous salmonids in the Delta: New science 2006–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Brandes, Patricia L.; Burau, Jon R.; Israel, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    As juvenile salmon enter the Sacramento–SanJoaquin River Delta (“the Delta”) they disperse among its complex channel network where they are subject to channel-specific processes that affect their rate of migration, vulnerability to predation, feeding success, growth rates, and ultimately, survival. In the decades before 2006, tools available to quantify growth, dispersal, and survival of juvenile salmon in this complex channel network were limited.Fortunately, thanks to technological advances such as acoustic telemetry and chemical and structural otolith analysis, much has been learned over the past decade about the role of the Delta in the life cycle of juvenile salmon. Here, we review new science between 2006and 2016 that sheds light on how different life stages and runs of juvenile salmon grow, move, and survive in the complex channel network of the Delta. One of the most important advances during the past decade has been the widespread adoption of acoustic telemetry techniques. Use of telemetry has shed light on how survival varies among alternative migration routes and the proportion of fish that use each migration route. Chemical and structural analysis of otoliths has provided insights about when juveniles left their natal river and provided evidence of extended rearing in the brackish or saltwater regions of the Delta. New advancements in genetics now allow individuals captured by trawls to be assigned to specific runs. Detailed information about movement and survival in the Delta has spurred development of agent-based models of juvenile salmon that are coupled to hydrodynamic models. Although much has been learned, knowledge gaps remain about how very small juvenile salmon (fry and parr) use the Delta. Understanding how all life stages of juvenile salmon grow, rear, and survive in the Delta is critical for devising management strategies that support a diversity of life history strategies.

  16. Clinical applications of gamma delta T cells with multivalent immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew C Deniger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma delta T cells hold promise for adoptive immunotherapy because of their reactivity to bacteria, viruses, and tumors. However, these cells represent a small fraction (1-5% of the peripheral T-cell pool and require activation and propagation to achieve clinical benefit. Aminobisphosphonates specifically expand the Vgamma9Vdelta2 subset of gamma delta T cells and have been used in clinical trials of cancer where objective responses were detected. The Vgamma9Vdelta2 TCR heterodimer binds multiple ligands and results in a multivalent attack by a monoclonal T cell population. Alternatively, populations of gamma delta T cells with oligoclonal or polyclonal TCR repertoire could be infused for broad-range specificity. However, this goal has been restricted by a lack of applicable expansion protocols for non-Vgamma9Vdelta2 cells. Recent advances using immobilized antigens, agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, tumor-derived artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC, or combinations of activating mAbs and aAPC have been successful in expanding gamma delta T cells with oligoclonal or polyclonal TCR repertoires. Immobilized MHC Class-I chain-related A was a stimulus for gamma delta T cells expressing TCRdelta1 isotypes, and plate-bound activating antibodies have expanded Vdelta1 and Vdelta2 cells ex vivo. Clinically-sufficient quantities of TCRdelta1, TCRdelta2, and TCRdelta1negTCRdelta2neg have been produced following co-culture on aAPC, and these subsets displayed differences in memory phenotype and reactivity to tumors in vitro and in vivo. Gamma delta T cells are also amenable to genetic modification as evidenced by introduction of alpha beta TCRs, chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, and drug-resistance genes. This represents a promising future for the clinical application of oligoclonal or polyclonal gamma delta T cells in autologous and allogeneic settings that builds on current trials testing the safety and efficacy of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells.

  17. Challenges and Approaches in Delta Planning and Management - Sharing experiences from SE Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta -Report on Regional Training Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.; Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.

    2014-01-01

    The training workshop consisted of a balanced mix of lectures on specific delta topics, work on group assignments, group and plenary discussions, and group presentations. Due to high professional level of the participants the discussions often reached the level of a policy dialogue among equals

  18. Doubly truncated FosB isoform (Delta2DeltaFosB) induces osteosclerosis in transgenic mice and modulates expression and phosphorylation of Smads in osteoblasts independent of intrinsic AP-1 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabatakos, George; Rowe, Glenn C; Kveiborg, Marie

    2008-01-01

    DeltaFosB and a further truncated isoform (Delta2DeltaFosB) that lacks known transactivation domains but, like DeltaFosB, induces increased expression of osteoblast marker genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test Delta2DeltaFosB's ability to induce bone formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice......6 expression. CONCLUSIONS: DeltaFosB's AP-1 transactivating function is not needed to induce increased bone formation, and Delta2DeltaFosB may act, at least in part, by increasing Smad1 expression, phosphorylation, and translocation to the nucleus....

  19. Preparing the Dutch delta for future droughts: model based support in the national Delta Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Maat, Judith; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; van der Vat, Marnix; Hunink, Joachim; Prinsen, Geert; Visser, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: uncertainty, policymaking, adaptive policies, fresh water management, droughts, Netherlands, Dutch Deltaprogramme, physically-based complex model, theory-motivated meta-model To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, is established to assess impacts of climate scenarios and socio-economic developments and to explore policy options. The results should contribute to a national adaptive plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions, if necessary. For this purpose, we followed a model-based step-wise approach, wherein both physically-based complex models and theory-motivated meta-models were used. First step (2010-2011) was to make a quantitative problem description. This involved a sensitivity analysis of the water system for drought situations under current and future conditions. The comprehensive Dutch national hydrological instrument was used for this purpose and further developed. Secondly (2011-2012) our main focus was on making an inventory of potential actions together with stakeholders. We assessed efficacy, sell-by date of actions, and reassessed vulnerabilities and opportunities for the future water supply system if actions were (not) taken. A rapid assessment meta-model was made based on the complex model. The effects of all potential measures were included in the tool. Thirdly (2012-2013), with support of the rapid assessment model, we assessed the efficacy of policy actions over time for an ensemble of possible futures including sea level rise and climate and land use change. Last step (2013-2014) involves the selection of preferred actions from a set of promising actions that meet the defined objectives. These actions are all modeled and evaluated using the complex model. The outcome of the process will be an adaptive management plan. The adaptive plan describes a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of policy actions - to achieve targets under

  20. Hydrology and morphology of two river mouth regions (temperate Vistula Delta and subtropical Red River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of two different river mouths from two different geographical zones (subtropical and temperate climatic regions. One is the multi-branch and multi-spit mouth of the Red River on the Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnam, the other is the smaller delta of the river Vistula on a bay of the Baltic Sea (Poland. The analysis focuses on the similarities and differences in the hydrodynamics between these estuaries and the adjacent coastal zones, the features of sediment transport, and the long-term morphodynamics of the river outlets. Salinity and water level are also discussed, the latter also in the context of the anticipated global effect of accelerated sea level rise. The analysis shows that the climatic and environmental conditions associated with geographical zones give rise to fundamental differences in the generation and dynamic evolution of the river mouths.

  1. Community structure of spiders in coastal habitats of a Mediterranean delta region (Nestos Delta, NE Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Buchholz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (pp 101-115Habitat zonation and ecology of spider assemblages have been poorly studied in Mediterranean ecosystems. A first analysis of spider assemblages in coastal habitats in the east Mediterranean area is presented. The study area is the 250 km² Nestos Delta, located in East Macedonia in the North-East of Greece. Spiders were caught in pitfall traps at 17 sites from the beginning of April to the end of June 2004. Nonparametric estimators were used to determine species richness and alpha diversity. Ordination analysis (redundancy analysis indicated four clearly separable spider species groups (salt meadows, dunes, mea-dows and floodplain forests, along a soil salinity and moisture gradient. Based on these results we discuss the habitat preferences of these spiders and include the first ecological data on several species.

  2. Geochronology of priority pollutants in sedimentation zones of the Volga and Danube delta in comparison with the Rhine delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkels, H.J.; Kroonenberg, S.B.; Lychagin, M.Y.; Marin, G.; Rusakov, G.V.; Kasimov, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    Six sediment cores were taken in sedimentation zones of the Volga river (located in the southern part of the Russian Federation) and, additionally, 6 sediment cores were taken in several lakes (sedimentation zones) in the central and western part of the Danube delta in Romania. Priority pollutants (8 metals, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls and 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were determined in all samples of all cores. Present-day and historical levels of pollutants since the late 1930s were established through the use of radionuclide time tracers ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs). For the persistent metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trends in the concentration profiles during the last 5 decades are described. Low and hardly changing concentrations of As, Cu, Zn and all studied PAHs were observed during the last five decades in the sediments of the Volga river. Recently deposited sediments show slightly increasing levels for the heavy metals Zn and Cr and As in the Volga delta. For the studied metals and PAHs, maximum concentrations were found around 1987 in the sediments of the Danube delta. Sediments deposited around 1940 and recently deposited sediments in the Danube delta showed lower pollutant levels. If the contents of heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments in the deltas of the rivers Rhine, Danube and Volga are compared, it is clear that the Volga delta is and was the cleanest delta during the last 5 decades. Nowadays the contents of heavy metals (except Cu and Ni), PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments of the river Rhine are still highest compared to the other two rivers. The recent load of heavy metals (except Cd and Zn) in the sediments of the river Danube is the highest compared to the other two rivers. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen atCCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  4. Delta Cafés (Portugal: Sustainable Business Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgierd Swiatkiewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the case study of Delta Cafés we discuss the sustainable development of the Portuguese company and brand over the 55 years of their existence. Delta Cafés has already been analyzed in terms of marketing activity, social responsibility, management control systems, etc. In this paper, we refer to these studies, and we reach the sources, i.e. the information provided by the Delta Cafés itself. Due to the nature of the coffee market and the use of case study methodology, we start the presentation of this case from a broader context, describing the coffee market in the world and characterizing the coffee market in Portugal as well. Then we present the history of the development of the company and the brand Delta Cafés. The paper ends with concluding remarks in which we discuss the issues of social and environmental responsibility in the light of the development of Delta Cafés business and brand strategies. 

  5. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis C Sabeti

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen at CCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  6. Community health promotion and medical provision for neonatal health-CHAMPION cluster randomised trial in Nagarkurnool district, Telangana (formerly Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Boone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-2000s, neonatal mortality accounted for almost 40% of deaths of children under 5 years worldwide, and constituted 65% of infant deaths in India. The neonatal mortality rate in Andhra Pradesh was 44 per 1,000 live births, and was higher in the rural areas and tribal regions, such as the Nagarkurnool division of Mahabubnagar district (which became Nagarkurnool district in Telangana in 2014. The aim of the CHAMPION trial was to investigate whether a package of interventions comprising community health promotion and provision of health services (including outreach and facility-based care could lead to a reduction of the order of 25% in neonatal mortality.The design was a trial in which villages (clusters in Nagarkurnool with a population < 2,500 were randomised to the CHAMPION package of health interventions or to the control arm (in which children aged 6-9 years were provided with educational interventions-the STRIPES trial. A woman was eligible for the CHAMPION package if she was married and <50 years old, neither she nor her husband had had a family planning operation, and she resided in a trial village at the time of a baseline survey before randomisation or married into the village after randomisation. The CHAMPION intervention package comprised community health promotion (including health education via village health worker-led participatory discussion groups and provision of health services (including outreach, with mobile teams providing antenatal check-ups, and facility-based care, with subsidised access to non-public health centres [NPHCs]. Villages were stratified by travel time to the nearest NPHC and tribal status, and randomised (1:1 within strata. The primary outcome was neonatal mortality. Secondary outcomes included maternal mortality, causes of death, health knowledge, health practices including health service usage, satisfaction with care, and costs. The baseline survey (enumeration was carried out between August and

  7. Oxygen Nonstoichiometry and Defect Chemistry Modeling of Ce0.8Pr0.2O2-delta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2010-01-01

    (DeltaHPrexc=aHdelta) and a completely random distribution of defects (referred to as “delta-linear”), or a “generalized delta-linear” solution model, where the excess Gibbs energy change in the reduction reaction of the dopant linearly varies with delta (DeltaGPrexc=aGdelta). A comparison of the partial...

  8. Flipped SU(5) predicts {delta}T/T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyae, Bumseok [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 207-43, Cheongnyangni-Dong, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: bkyae@kias.re.kr; Shafi, Qaisar [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: shafi@bartol.udel.edu

    2006-04-20

    We discuss hybrid inflation in supersymmetric flipped SU(5) model such that the cosmic microwave anisotropy {delta}T/T is essentially proportional to (M/M{sub P}){sup 2}, where M denotes the symmetry breaking scale and M{sub P} (=2.4x10{sup 18} GeV) is the reduced Planck mass. The magnitude of M determined from {delta}T/T measurements can be consistent with the value inferred from the evolution of SU(3) and SU(2) gauge couplings. In other words, one could state that flipped SU(5) predicts (more precisely 'postdicts') {delta}T/T. The scalar spectral index n{sub s}=0.993+/-0.007, the scalar to tensor ratio satisfies r-bar 10{sup -6}, while dn{sub s}/dlnk-bar 4x10{sup -4}.

  9. Fracture Analyses of Cracked Delta Eye Plates in Ship Towing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangbing; Huang, Xingling; Sun, Jizheng

    2018-01-01

    Based on fracture mechanics, a safety analysis approach is proposed for cracked delta eye plates in ship towing. The static analysis model is presented when the delta eye plate is in service, and the fracture criterion is introduced on basis of stress intensity factor, which is estimated with domain integral method. Subsequently, three-dimensional finite element analyses are carried out to obtain the effective stress intensity factors, and a case is studied to demonstrate the reasonability of the approach. The results show that the classical strength theory is not applicable to evaluate the cracked plate while fracture mechanics can solve the problem very well, and the load level, which a delta eye plate can carry on, decreases evidently when it is damaged.

  10. Cystic fibrosis Delta F508 heterozygotes, smoking, and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Wittrup, H H

    1998-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations. It remains a puzzle how this disease is maintained at such a remarkably high incidence, however, it could be due to a reproductive advantage in cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. We tested this hypot......Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations. It remains a puzzle how this disease is maintained at such a remarkably high incidence, however, it could be due to a reproductive advantage in cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. We tested.......001). In conclusion, overall these results do not support a reproductive advantage for cystic fibrosis DeltaF508 heterozygotes. However, the data cannot totally exclude the possibility that nonsmoking DeltaF508 heterozygotes experience a reproductive advantage while smoking DeltaF508 heterozygotes experience...... the opposite, a reproductive disadvantage. Accordingly, the data suggest a previously undocumented role of smoking on fecundity among cystic fibrosis heterozygotes....

  11. Implementation of an ESA delta-DOR capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Nick; Abello, Ricard; Lanucara, Marco; Mercolino, Mattia; Maddè, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes the implementation of delta-DOR (delta-differential one-way ranging) receivers within the ESA Deep Space ground station network. Delta-DOR provides very accurate plane-of-sky measurements of spacecraft position which complement existing line-of-sight ranging and Doppler measurements. We discuss how this technique has been adapted and implemented at the two ESA deep-space ground stations using existing equipment and infrastructure. These new capabilities were added by writing new software modules for the standard ESA digital receiver (the intermediate frequency modem system—IFMS). With these upgrades the receiver has the ability to record accurately timetagged signals from up to eight IF sub-channels. These sub-channels can have bandwidths of 50 kHz-2 MHz with a sample quantization of 1-16 bits per component. The IF samples are stored locally for subsequent retrieval over a WAN by the correlator facility at ESOC.

  12. Parametrization of the. delta. residue function. [Complex functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasan, S S [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-04-19

    The complex residues at the ..delta..(1236) and ..delta..(1950) poles in the relevant partial-wave amplitudes provide information on the behaviour of the ..delta.. Regge residue function in the resonance region u>0. Attempts to incorporate this information in parametrizations of the residue by functions that are real on the real u-axis result in residues which have unsatisfactory behaviour in the region u<1GeV/sup 2/. The choice of complex functions for the trajectory and residue removes this undesirable feature and provides a better representation of the residue in the resonance region, suggesting that complex parametrizations would be better suited to Regge analyses of near-backward scattering.

  13. Effects of external influences in subsonic delta wing vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Anthony E.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to examine inconsistencies in reported studies for the vortical flow over highly-swept delta wings. A 76-deg swept delta wing was tested in three facilities with open and closed test sections and different model-support systems. The results obtained include surface oil-flow patterns, off-body laser-light-sheet flow visualization, and aerodynamic load measurements. Parameters such as the wall boundaries and model-support systems can drastically alter the loads. The effect of a high level of free-stream turbulence on the delta-wing flowfield was also examined and found to be significant. The increase in free-stream turbulence caused boundary-layer transition, unsteadiness in the vortex core positions, and altered the loads and moments.

  14. [Transport characteristics of air pollutants over the Yangtze Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chai, Fa-He; Wang, Yong-Hong; Liu, Ming

    2008-05-01

    Meteorological field of January, April, July and October in 2004 was obtained by running MM5 with NCEP datasets. Then we used HYSPLIT 4.8 model to calculate the backward and forward trajectories of representative cities. Distributions of trajectories and the affected areas vary with seasons. Transport current affecting Yangtze River Delta is mainly from Mongolia, North China or Northeast region, via Yellow Sea area, Shandong, Jiangsu province or Shanghai. Another important transport path is current from southwest because of the Southwest monsoon. A movement of East Asia monsoon plays an important part in the mesoscale transport of pollutants in Yangtze Delta. Winter monsoon is a main mechanism which moves the air pollutants in Yangtze Delta to South China and West Pacific ocean. Another important transport system is the subtropical anticyclone over the western Pacific Ocean which controls the east coast of our country in spring and summer. This circulation system mainly affects the inland area of our country.

  15. Dendroclimatology of the Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S.; Buhay, W. M.; Blair, D.; Tardif, J.; Bailey, D.

    2004-05-01

    It is well documented that changing hydrological conditions impact delta ecosystems. Such changes can also affect local inhabitants who have historical connections to the area and its resources. During the summer of 2003 a multifaceted paleo-environmental project was initiated to reconstruct the frequencies of floods and droughts in the Slave River Delta (SRD), Northwest Territories, Canada. The project goal is to forecast future hydrological and ecological conditions in the SRD in light of anticipated climate change and increasing demand on water resources. With the intent of expanding the climate history of the SRD, this particular aspect of the project will employ white spruce tree-ring chronologies constructed from six sites visited within the delta. Work is currently in progress to build a master chronology estimated to span over 300 years. In addition, a climate model for the SRD is also being developed and will be highlighted.

  16. Dynamic controls on shallow clinoform geometry: Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidam, E. F.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Ogston, A. S.; DeMaster, D. J.; Liu, J. P.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nguyen, T. N.

    2017-09-01

    Compound deltas, composed of a subaerial delta plain and subaqueous clinoform, are common termini of large rivers. The transition between clinoform topset and foreset, or subaqueous rollover point, is located at 25-40-m water depth for many large tide-dominated deltas; this depth is controlled by removal of sediment from the topset by waves, currents, and gravity flows. However, the Mekong Delta, which has been classified as a mixed-energy system, has a relatively shallow subaqueous rollover at 4-6-m depth. This study evaluates dynamical measurements and seabed cores collected in Sep 2014 and Mar 2015 to understand processes of sediment transfer across the subaqueous delta, and evaluate possible linkages to geometry. During the southwest rainy monsoon (Sep 2014), high river discharge, landward return flow under the river plume, and regional circulation patterns facilitated limited sediment flux to the topset and foreset, and promoted alongshore flux to the northeast. Net observed sediment fluxes in Sep 2014 were landward, however, consistent with hypotheses about seasonal storage on the topset. During the northeast rainy monsoon, low river discharge and wind-driven currents facilitated intense landward and southwestward fluxes of sediment. In both seasons, bed shear velocities frequently exceeded the 0.01-0.02 m/s threshold of motion for sand, even in the absence of strong wave energy. Most sediment transport occurred at water depths 4 cm/yr at energy-limited, and thus rollover depths cannot be predicted solely by bed-stress distributions. In systems like the subaqueous Mekong Delta, direction of transport may have a key impact on morphology.

  17. Structure of the [delta]-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, Sébastien; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED)

    2012-07-11

    The opioid receptor family comprises three members, the {mu}-, {delta}- and {kappa}-opioid receptors, which respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as to endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. The {delta}-opioid receptor ({delta}-OR) has a role in analgesia, as well as in other neurological functions that remain poorly understood. The structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR have recently been solved. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse {delta}-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole. Together with the structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR, the {delta}-OR structure provides insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition while also revealing structural features associated with ligand-subtype selectivity. The binding pocket of opioid receptors can be divided into two distinct regions. Whereas the lower part of this pocket is highly conserved among opioid receptors, the upper part contains divergent residues that confer subtype selectivity. This provides a structural explanation and validation for the 'message-address' model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct 'message' (efficacy) and 'address' (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the address region of the {delta}-OR with other GPCRs reveals that this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well.

  18. Salinity Impacts on Agriculture and Groundwater in Delta Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D.; Salehin, M.; Jairuddin, M.; Saleh, A. F. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Parks, K. E.; Haque, M. A.; Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Delta regions are attractive for high intensity agriculture due to the availability of rich sedimentary soils and of fresh water. Many of the world's tropical deltas support high population densities which are reliant on irrigated agriculture. However environmental changes such as sea level rise, tidal inundation and reduced river flows have reduced the quantity and quality of water available for successful agriculture. Additionally, anthropogenic influences such as the over abstraction of ground water and the increased use of low quality water from river inlets has resulted in the accumulation of salts in the soils which diminishes crop productivity. Communities based in these regions are usually reliant on the same water for drinking and cooking because surface water is frequently contaminated by commercial and urban pollution. The expansion of shallow tube well systems for drinking water and agricultural use over the last few decades has resulted in mobilisation of salinity in the coastal and estuarine fringes. Sustainable development in delta regions is becoming constrained by water salinity. However salinity is often studied as an independent issue by specialists working in the fields of agriculture, community water supply and groundwater. The lack of interaction between these disciplines often results in corrective actions being applied to one sector without fully assessing the effects of these actions on other sectors. This paper describes a framework for indentifying the causes and impacts of salinity in delta regions based on the source-pathway-receptor framework. It uses examples and scenarios from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh together with field measurements and observations made in vulnerable coastal communities. The paper demonstrates the importance of creating an holistic understanding of the development and management of water resources to reduce the impact of salinity in fresh water in delta regions.

  19. Stable isotope deltas: Tiny, yet robust signatures in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including 14C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. 13C, 2H, and 18O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as−25 per mil can be written as−25 mUr (or−2.5 cUr or−0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg ‘units’ are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  20. DNA repair synthesis in human fibroblasts requires DNA polymerase delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, C.; Reinhard, P.; Linn, S.

    1988-01-01

    When UV-irradiated cultured diploid human fibroblasts were permeabilized with Brij-58 then separated from soluble material by centrifugation, conservative DNA repair synthesis could be restored by a soluble factor obtained from the supernatant of similarly treated HeLa cells. Extensive purification of this factor yielded a 10.2 S, 220,000-dalton polypeptide with the DNA polymerase and 3'- to 5'-exonuclease activities reported for DNA polymerase delta II. Monoclonal antibody to KB cell DNA polymerase alpha, while binding to HeLa DNA polymerase alpha, did not bind to the HeLa DNA polymerase delta. Moreover, at micromolar concentrations N2-(p-n-butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (BuPdGTP) and 2-(p-n-butylanilino)-2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (BuAdATP) were potent inhibitors of DNA polymerase alpha, but did not inhibit the DNA polymerase delta. Neither purified DNA polymerase alpha nor beta could promote repair DNA synthesis in the permeabilized cells. Furthermore, under conditions which inhibited purified DNA polymerase alpha by greater than 90%, neither monoclonal antibodies to DNA polymerase alpha, BuPdGTP, nor BuAdATP was able to inhibit significantly the DNA repair synthesis mediated by the DNA polymerase delta. Thus, it appears that a major portion of DNA repair synthesis induced by UV irradiation might be catalyzed by DNA polymerase delta. When xeroderma pigmentosum human diploid fibroblasts were utilized, DNA repair synthesis dependent upon ultraviolet light could be restored by addition of both T4 endonuclease V and DNA polymerase delta, but not by addition of either one alone

  1. Nigeria. Petroleum, pollution and poverty in the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The oil industry has operated in the Niger Delta in Nigeria for more than half a century - bringing almost no benefit to the people living there. Instead, widespread and unchecked human rights violations have pushed many people deeper into poverty and deprivation, fuelled conflict and led to a pervasive sense of powerlessness and frustration. This multidimensional crisis is driven by many factors - abuses committed by the security forces and militant groups, extensive pollution of land and water, corruption, serious corporate bad practice and government neglect. Nigeria: Petroleum, pollution and poverty in the Niger Delta focuses on one dimension of the crisis: the impact of pollution and environmental damage caused by the oil industry on the human rights of those living in the Niger Delta. Many people in the oil-producing areas of the delta rely on fisheries, subsistence agriculture and associated processing industries for their livelihood. Decades of pollution and environmental damage have resulted in violations of the right to an adequate standard of living - including food and water - violations of the right to gain a living through work, and violations of the right to health. The report examines who is responsible for this situation in a context where multinational oil companies have been operating for decades. It highlights how companies take advantage of the weak regulatory systems that characterize many poor countries, and how the poorest people are often the most vulnerable to exploitation. The people of the Niger Delta have seen their human rights undermined by oil companies that their government can not - or will not - hold to account. They have been systematically denied access to information about how oil exploration and production will affect them, and are repeatedly denied access to justice. The Niger Delta provides a stark case study of the lack of accountability of a government to the people, and of multinational companies' almost total lack of

  2. Delta progradation in Greenland driven by increasing glacial mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Iversen, Lars Lonsmann; Bjork, Anders Anker

    2017-01-01

    imagery. We find that delta progradation was driven by high freshwater runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet coinciding with periods of open water. Progradation was controlled by the local initial environmental conditions (that is, accumulated air temperatures above 0 degrees C per year, freshwater runoff...... of erosion and accretion along the large deltas of the main rivers in the Arctic5-7. Our results improve the understanding of Arctic coastal evolution in a changing climate, and reveal the impacts on coastal areas of increasing ice mass loss and the associated freshwater runoff and lengthening of open-water...

  3. A divergent synthesis of the delta(13)-9-isofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F; Gu, Peiming; Li, Rui

    2009-08-07

    A stereodivergent total synthesis of the Delta(13)-9-isofurans has been developed. The four core substituted tetrahydrofurans were prepared by the Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation and Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation followed by cascade cyclization. The relative configuration at C-8 was inverted by oxidation followed by immediate L-Selectride reduction. The relative configuration of the C-15 diastereomers was assigned by (S)-Binol/LAH/EtOH reduction of the corresponding enone. This synthesis of the Delta(13)-9-isofurans will provide sufficient material for further investigation of their biological activity.

  4. Halotolerance of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H and Marburg.

    OpenAIRE

    Ciulla, R; Clougherty, C; Belay, N; Krishnan, S; Zhou, C; Byrd, D; Roberts, M F

    1994-01-01

    Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H and Marburg were adapted to grow in medium containing up to 0.65 M NaCl. From 0.01 to 0.5 M NaCl, there was a lag before cell growth which increased with increasing external NaCl. The effect of NaCl on methane production was not significant once the cells began to grow. Intracellular solutes were monitored by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as a function of osmotic stress. In the delta H strain, the major intracellular small organic s...

  5. Changing Course - the Baird Team Solution: a Delta for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    The Changing Course Design competition was initiated to evaluate options for re-positioning the mouth of the Mississippi River and modifying the management of the Lower Mississippi River to support the 2017 Master Plan for the Louisiana coast. This paper will present the findings of one of the selected competitors: the Baird Team and their "Delta for All" approach. A key to success in the future management of the lower Mississippi River is the development of an integrated, holistic approach to management that recognizes the need to harness the full land/wetland building and restorative potential of the river at the same time as improving flood protection and navigation. Fundamentally the Baird solution recognized the underlying geomorphic challenges of the Delta: it receives three to four times less sediment from the Mississippi River than it did historically and sea level is rising two to three times faster than it did historically and is predicted to rise much faster in the future. The result will be a smaller delta in the future. Our approach seeks to harness as close to 100% of the land building potential of the river to make the smaller future delta as large as possible. This compares to the 2012 State Master Plan which would harness approximately 50% of the land-building potential. Our approach also recognizes that the further inland new distributary mouths and associated sub-deltas are located, the greater the delta building potential. Our approach builds with the river by creating and managing new river distributaries that are opened and closed every 50 years or so to build new sub-deltas within a defined sustainable delta footprint. By placing the last outlet somewhere in the vicinity of English Turn the lower Mississippi River would become a tidal channel. These two simple concepts of harnessing 100% of the river and placing the last outlet near English Turn result in immediate and significant benefits for flood protection and navigation. Through the

  6. Mazda kiintotyövaiheiden perustaminen : Delta Auto Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Schreck, Ville

    2012-01-01

    Täyden palvelun autoliikeketju Delta Auto myy ja huoltaa Kia-, Mitsubishi- ja Mazda-merkkisiä autoja paikkakuntakohtaisesti kahdessakymmenessäviidessä toimipisteessä. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tehdä toimiva ratkaisu Mazdan työvaiheiden sekä työpakettien myyntiin Automaster-ohjelmistoon. Työvaiheet sekä ohjeajat tulevat käyttöön kaikkiin Delta Auton toimipisteisiin ympäri Suomea. Työn lähdemateriaalin sain Inchcape Motor Finland Oy:ltä, joka toimii Suomessa Mazdan maahantuojana. Tarve tä...

  7. CMOS sigma-delta converters practical design guide

    CERN Document Server

    De la Rosa, Jose M

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of Sigma-Delta Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) and a practical guide to their design in nano-scale CMOS for optimal performance. This book presents a systematic and comprehensive compilation of sigma-delta converter operating principles, the new advances in architectures and circuits, design methodologies and practical considerations - going from system-level specifications to silicon integration, packaging and measurements, with emphasis on nanometer CMOS implementation. The book emphasizes practical design issues - from high-level behavioural modelling i

  8. Measurement of $\\Delta^{++}$(1232) production in hadronic Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Anykeyev, V B; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Daum, A; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Królikowski, J; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Fernandez, A; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Rybin, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zhigunov, V P; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1995-01-01

    A measurement of the \\Delta^{++}(1232) inclusive production in hadronic decays of the Z at LEP is presented, based on 1.3 million hadronic events collected~ by the DELPHI~ detector in the 1994 LEP running~ period. The DELPHI ring imaging Cherenkov counters are used for identifying hadrons. The average \\Delta^{++}(1232) multiplicity per hadronic event is 0.079 \\pm 0.015 which is more than a factor of two below the JETSET, HERWIG and UCLA model predictions. It agrees with a recently proposed universal mass dependence of particle production rates in e^{+}e^- annihilations.

  9. Water and nitrogen conditions affect the relationships of Delta13C and Delta18O to gas exchange and growth in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Molero, Gemma; Nogués, Salvador; Araus, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    Whereas the effects of water and nitrogen (N) on plant Delta(13)C have been reported previously, these factors have scarcely been studied for Delta(18)O. Here the combined effect of different water and N regimes on Delta(13)C, Delta(18)O, gas exchange, water-use efficiency (WUE), and growth of four genotypes of durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] cultured in pots was studied. Water and N supply significantly increased plant growth. However, a reduction in water supply did not lead to a significant decrease in gas exchange parameters, and consequently Delta(13)C was only slightly modified by water input. Conversely, N fertilizer significantly decreased Delta(13)C. On the other hand, water supply decreased Delta(18)O values, whereas N did not affect this parameter. Delta(18)O variation was mainly determined by the amount of transpired water throughout plant growth (T(cum)), whereas Delta(13)C variation was explained in part by a combination of leaf N and stomatal conductance (g(s)). Even though the four genotypes showed significant differences in cumulative transpiration rates and biomass, this was not translated into significant differences in Delta(18)O(s). However, genotypic differences in Delta(13)C were observed. Moreover, approximately 80% of the variation in biomass across growing conditions and genotypes was explained by a combination of both isotopes, with Delta(18)O alone accounting for approximately 50%. This illustrates the usefulness of combining Delta(18)O and Delta(13)C in order to assess differences in plant growth and total transpiration, and also to provide a time-integrated record of the photosynthetic and evaporative performance of the plant during the course of crop growth.

  10. Stimulation of accumbal GABAA receptors inhibits delta2-, but not delta1-, opioid receptor-mediated dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yuri; Kiguchi, Yuri; Watanabe, Yuriko; Waddington, John L; Saigusa, Tadashi

    2017-11-15

    The nucleus accumbens contains delta-opioid receptors that may reduce inhibitory neurotransmission. Reduction in GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release due to delta-opioid receptor activation should be suppressed by stimulating accumbal GABA A receptors. As delta-opioid receptors are divided into delta2- and delta1-opioid receptors, we analysed the effects of the GABA A receptor agonist muscimol on delta2- and delta1-opioid receptor-mediated accumbal dopamine efflux in freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Drugs were administered intracerebrally through the dialysis probe. Doses of compounds indicate total amount administered (mol) during 25-50min infusions. The delta2-opioid receptor agonist deltorphin II (25.0nmol)- and delta1-opioid receptor agonist DPDPE (5.0nmol)-induced increases in dopamine efflux were inhibited by the delta2-opioid receptor antagonist naltriben (1.5nmol) and the delta1-opioid receptor antagonist BNTX (150.0pmol), respectively. Muscimol (250.0pmol) inhibited deltorphin II (25.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline (50.0pmol), which failed to affect deltorphin II (25.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux, counteracted the inhibitory effect of muscimol on deltorphin II-induced dopamine efflux. Neither muscimol (250.0pmol) nor bicuculline (50.0 and 500.0pmol) altered DPDPE (5.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The present results show that reduction in accumbal GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic activity is necessary to produce delta2-opioid receptor-induced increase in accumbal dopamine efflux. This study indicates that activation of delta2- but not delta1-opioid receptors on the cell bodies and/or terminals of accumbal GABAergic interneurons inhibits GABA release and, accordingly, decreases GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic terminals, resulting in enhanced accumbal dopamine efflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stable Isotope (delta OXYGEN-18, Delta Deuterium, Delta CARBON-13) Dendroclimatological Studies in the Waterloo Region of Southern Ontario, Canada, Between AD 1610 and 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhay, William Mark

    Oxygen (delta^{18} O), hydrogen (delta^2H) and carbon (delta^{13}C) isotopes were measured in wood cellulose from elm, white pine and maple trees that grew in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The measured oxygen and hydrogen isotopic data were used for model-based reconstructions of delta^{18}{O}_{meteoric water}, mean annual temperature (MAT) and relative humidity for a period, AD 1610 to 1880, that precedes instrumental records of climate. The carbon isotope measurements were compared with the Cellulose Model inferred climate data to reveal additional environmental information. Modifications made to the Cellulose Model focused on the dynamics of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic fractionation in plants during evapotranspiration and photosynthetic assimilation. For instance, kinetic fractionation of ^{18}O was found to be predictable from theoretical considerations of leaf energy balance and boundary layer dynamics. Kinetic fractionation during evapotranspiration is sensitive to the nature of the boundary layer, which is controlled by leaf size and morphology. Generally, plants with small segmented leaves have a lower component of turbidity in the leaf boundary layer, which results in higher kinetic fractionation values, than do plants having large simple leaves and more turbulent boundary layers. Kinetic ^2H enrichment in plant leaf water can also be rationalized in terms of leaf size and morphology when an apparent temperature-dependent isotope effect, acting in opposition to evaporative enrichment, is taken into account. Accounting for this temperature -dependent isotope effect helps to: (1) reconcile hydrogen kinetic fractionation inconsistencies for different leaves; (2) explain a temperature effect previously attributed to variable biochemical fractionation during cellulose synthesis, and; (3) verify hydrogen biochemical effects in plants. This improved characterization of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic effects in plants, using the modified Cellulose Model, helped

  12. Polarized antiquark flavor asymmetry DELTA anti u(x)-DELTA anti d(x) and the pion cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Fries, R J; Weiss, C

    2003-01-01

    The flavor asymmetry of the unpolarized antiquark distributions in the proton, anti u(x)- anti d(x)0. Using a simple chiral linear sigma model as an example, we demonstrate that in the meson cloud picture a large positive DELTA anti u(x)-DELTA anti d(x) can be obtained from pi-sigma interference contributions. This calls into question previous estimates based on rho-meson contributions alone, and indicates how the results of the meson cloud picture may be reconciled with those of quark-based models. (orig.)

  13. 77 FR 61592 - Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation; Mississippi Delta Energy Agency; Clarksdale Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-110-000] Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation; Mississippi Delta Energy Agency; Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission.... 825(h), Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation, Mississippi Delta Energy Agency, and its two...

  14. Profitability and constraints in the marketing of poultry birds in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability and constraints in the marketing of poultry birds in Delta central agricultural zone, Delta state, Nigeria. ... Randomly selected 54 poultry bird marketers were surveyed in 5 major markets. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. Crude Oil, a Blessing and Impediment in Niger Delta Polity: Tanure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Special Edition 2011 > ... Oil has constituted a physical problem to Delta State and Nigeria as a whole. ... impediment in Delta of Nigeria; Economic growth constraints, socio-political problems and Neo-colonialism; and finally,

  16. Application in Down-hole Milling Operations In Niger Delta.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGINEERS

    export terminals, 275 flow stations, 10 gas plants, 3 refineries and a massive natural ..... clear of the Niger Delta', adding that, 'The Chinese government by investing in stolen .... Development Agency (SMEDAN); to help boost the growth of both countries' ..... “The Rule of Oil: Petro-Politics and the Anatomy of an Insurgency”.

  17. Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State, Nigeria: Passive Case Detection (Pcd) At The Baptist Medical Centre (BMC) Eku 1999 – 2004. ... The highest prevalence of infection was among patients aged between 26-35 years with 35.6% infection rate, 23.3 percent was recorded among those aged ...

  18. year Review of Patients on DOTS in Delta State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    1Department of Community Medicine, Delta State University Teaching ... Therapy Short-course (DOTS), DOTS plus, and the Stop TB Strategy. ... Methods: In this descriptive records review of years 2011-2015, existing data ... Treatment success rate improved from 68.3% in ..... exploration and social interventions to curb it.

  19. Delta-gamma-theta Hedging of Crude Oil Asian Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Hruška

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Black-Scholes formula was derived, many methods have been suggested for vanilla as well as exotic options pricing. More of investing and hedging strategies have been developed based on these pricing models. Goal of this paper is to derive delta-gamma-theta hedging strategy for Asian options and compere its efficiency with gamma-delta-theta hedging combined with predictive model. Fixed strike Asian options are type of exotic options, whose special feature is that payoff is calculated from the difference of average market price and strike price for call options and vice versa for the put options. Methods of stochastic analysis are used to determine deltas, gammas and thetas of Asian options. Asian options are cheaper than vanilla options and therefore they are more suitable for precise portfolio creation. On the other hand their deltas are also smaller as well as profits. That means that they are also less risky and more suitable for hedging. Results, conducted on chosen commodity, confirm better feasibility of Asian options compering with vanilla options in sense of gamma hedging.

  20. Assessing School Facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated school facilitates in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to find out the state of the facilities, the types of maintenance carried out on the facilities by school administrators, the factors encouraging school facilities depreciation and the roles of school ...

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of the stability of delta-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landa, A.; Soderlind, P.; Ruban, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    The transition temperature (T-c) for delta-Pu has been calculated for the first time. A Monte Carlo method is employed for this purpose and the effective cluster interactions are obtained from first-principles calculations incorporated with the Connolly-Williams and generalized perturbation methods...

  2. Evolution of the Niger Delta, present dynamics and the future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evolution of the Niger Delta is closely linked to the geodynamics related to the separation of the African and South American continents and the tectonics of the formation of the Benue Trough. Tectonic activities, climate and eustasy are the major factors responsible for transgression and regression through the entrant point ...

  3. Validity and reliability of the Delta Healthy Eating Attitudes Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of an instrument developed to measure psychosocial factors related to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans for a nutrition intervention in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Social Cognitive Theory constructs social support (SS), s...

  4. 75 FR 56094 - Delta-Mendota Canal Intertie Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Record of Decision and... maintain a new 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line and fiber optic cable for delivery of project use power...) Delta-Mendota Canal (DMC)/California Aqueduct Intertie (Intertie) project. The Intertie, including the...

  5. Eating Habits of the Elderly in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study was undertaken to describe the eating habits of literate elderly in Asaba, urban city in Delta State of Nigeria. Methods: A total of 176 elderly male (62.5%) and female (37.5%) aged 50years and above who attended Medical Lectures of the Ebreme foundation for the elderly were enrolled in this study.

  6. Morphodynamics of the Manyema Tidal Delta at Kunduchi, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Morphodynamics, Kunduchi, Manyema, shoreline change, tidal creek, tidal delta. Abstract—The prevailing northward longshore drift of beach sand on the northern part of Msasani Bay, north of Dar es Salaam, is interrupted at Kunduchi by the tidal flushing of ... Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. Vol. 11, No. 2, pp.

  7. Ibani (Niger Delta) Traditional Religion and Social Morality | Jaja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ibani is of the Ijo extraction in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The belief in a Supreme Being called Tamuno but also on multitude of deities because of the environment in which they live. They believe that these deities perform social functions that stabilize society. Ibani cosmology revolve round the tripod – God, deities and ...

  8. Interacting boson model with surface delta interaction between nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, C.; Moszkowski, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The surface delta interaction is used as an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction to investigate the structure and interaction of the bosons in the interacting boson model. The authors have obtained analytical expressions for the coefficients of a multipole expansion of the neutron-boson proton-boson interaction for the case of degenerate orbits

  9. Dynamic Balancing of Clavel’s Delta Robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Herder, Justus Laurens; Kecskemethy, Andres; Müller, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The Delta robot has shown to be a useful device in many applications. Due to large accelerations however, vibrations can decrease the accuracy and performance considerably. Instead of common techniques to reduce vibrations such as damping or including waiting times in the motion cycle, this article

  10. Ethnic Minority Problems in the Niger Delta | Quaker-Dokubo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a conceptual background typical types of minorities and typical sources of minority conflict are outlined. A historical overview is given of the problems Niger Delta minorities have been experiencing. Their grievances and demands are highlighted, and the responses of different Nigerian governments are discussed.

  11. Perceptions, Attitudes and Practices on Schistosomiasis in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of the study reported here was to assess the knowledge, attitude/perception and practices of the people in Oshimili South and Ndokwa Northeast Local Government Areas of Delta State in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of 400 randomly selected persons aged ≥15 years was undertaken using a uniform ...

  12. Final Narrative Report on Nursing Ethics at Delta College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Raymond S.

    This four-part report describes a project undertaken by Delta College to implement two required bioethics courses for nursing students: an introductory course in ethical theories and an advanced course in applications of these theories in nursing. After Part I relates how funding for the project was secured and used, Part II delineates the…

  13. The Localizing Value Of Focal Delta Slowing In Temporal Lobe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slow wave EEG had a higher marginal probability than neuropsychological assessment of predicting the focus, and was equally effective as other investigative methods. Conclusion These results suggest that focal temporal delta slowing is useful in the localization of epileptogenic foci. There was no discordance with the ...

  14. Practical Design of Delta-Sigma Multiple Description Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leegaard, Jack Højholt; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    It was recently shown that delta-sigma quantization (DSQ) can be used for optimal multiple description (MD) coding of Gaussian sources. The DSQ scheme combined oversampling, prediction, and noise-shaping in order to trade off side distortion for central distortion in MD coding. It was shown that ...

  15. Evaluation Of Delta State E-Government Website | Chete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluates Delta state government website by adopting the method used since 2001 in evaluating national government websites. The questionnaire and web survey techniques were adopted for this study. The data from the questionnaire was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and the ...

  16. training needs of school inspectors for quality instruction in delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.globaljournalseries.com; Info@globaljournalseries.com ... 29. Jude Ekuevugbe Omorigho, Post Primary Education Board, Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria. ... Effective communication training for school .... Decision. Inspectors. 3.12. 0.25. Important. Headmasters. 2.96. 0.11. Table 3, shows that the individual means.

  17. Atlantic humpback dolphins Sousa teuszii in the Saloum Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During October and November 2015, the first systematic survey of Sousa teuszii was carried out in the Saloum Delta (Senegal, West Africa), comprising 1 617.5 km of boat-based survey coverage. Thirty sightings were recorded in the Saloum and Diomboss rivers, and along the southern coastline. Dolphins were also ...

  18. Environmental Degradation in Oil Producing Areas of Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to oil exploration and other human activities in the Niger Delta region, there is evidence of environmental degradation all over the area (Oronto, 1998). Environmental degradation is occasioned by consistent flow of industrial waste, oil spills, gas flares, fire disaster, acid rain, flooding erosion, etc., which has led to the ...

  19. Acid Rain in Niger Delta Region: Implication on Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research focused on the effect of acid rain on the water quality of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three hundred water samples were collected: 100 water samples from rain, 100 from open wells and 100 from rivers. The water samples were analysed using the paired t-test and multiple correlation analysis to ascertain ...

  20. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been an increasing awareness of the need to pay special focus on the adolescent and their sexual and reproductive health. This article reviews the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in the Niger Delta region (NDR) of Nigeria. The objective is to bring to focus these important issues in the region.

  1. Isospin-breaking nuclear forces with delta degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epelbaum, E.

    2008-01-01

    The leading contributions to the isospin-violating (IV) two- and three-nucleon forces in effective field theory with explicit delta degrees of freedom are discussed. Presented at the 20th Few-Body Conference, Pisa, Italy, 10-14 September 2007. (author)

  2. Experience on tangent delta norms adopted for repaired generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, N.N.; Sood, D.K.

    2005-01-01

    The repair techniques of the generators are very crucial for avoiding prolonged forced outages. The crucial decisions based on sound knowledge and judgement becomes essential in many cases. The unit under discussions had failed on account of flash over in the Exciter end overhang windings. The failure resulted in damaged to the stator bars as well as generator core. The damaged end packets of the stator core were replaced at site. The total winding bars were removed from stator core and damaged bars were replaced with new bars. The rest of the bars were tested for tangent delta tests for reuse. Acceptance norms of 0.6% tip up from 0.2pu to 0.6pu of rated stator voltage were adopted. Some of the bars outside the acceptable limits of tangent delta were shifted close to neutral so that the standard norms of tan delta are met. This was felt necessary because lead-time for procurement of new bars was more than six months. The above-adopted norms for tangent delta will be of much use for the operating utilities. The unit under discussions was of 67.5 MW operating at 50 Hz, 0.85 pf lag and had logged 66160.46 operating hours before failure. (author)

  3. Use of Cybercafe's Services by Households in Delta State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyber cafés' provide important public services. They provide access to wide range of information through the internet via the computer. The study is centered on the use of cyber cafés by households in Delta State. Services provided by the cyber café's were identified. The study revealed that Household with children under ...

  4. Dermal absorption of the insecticide lindane (1 delta, 2 delta, 3 beta, 4 delta, 5 delta, 6 beta-hexachlorocyclohexane) in rats and rhesus monkeys: Effect of anatomical site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, R.P.; Ritter, L.

    1989-01-01

    Dermal absorption of the insecticide lindane (1 delta, 2 delta, 3 beta, 4 delta, 5 delta, 6 beta-hexachlorocyclohexane) was determined in rats and rhesus monkeys. Lindane is in widespread use as a 1% cream or lotion scabicide formulation and as a 1% miticide shampoo for body lice control in humans. Results obtained following our in vivo dermal absorption procedure demonstrated that 18 +/- 4.1%, 34 +/- 5.2%, and 54 +/- 26.3% of the applied dose was absorbed following topical applications at a rate of 1.5 micrograms/cm2 (6.2 micrograms/100 microliters of acetone) of the 14C-labeled pesticide to 4.2-cm2 regions of the forearm (n = 8), forehead (n = 7), and palm (n = 4) of rhesus monkeys, respectively. Dose sites were washed with soapy water 24 h posttreatment. Comparative studies in rats (n = 5) dosed middorsally demonstrated 31 +/- 9.5% absorption. Statistical analysis of the 14C excretion kinetics demonstrated slower clearance of lindane from rats than monkey forearm, forehead, or palm. Intramuscular (im) injections of 14C-lindane gave 52 +/- 7.1% recovery in monkey (n = 8) and 64 +/- 5.9% in rats (n = 5), suggesting body storage of this lipophilic chemical

  5. Characterization of middle Eocene tide-influenced delta: a study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    42

    Running Title: Eocene tide-influenced delta in South Cambay Basin. Manuscript. Click here to view linked References. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 .... systematic documentation of the facies types to establish the depositional environment of the .... Hazad Member consists of a number of sandstone units separated by intervening ...

  6. Schrodinger operators with delta-interactions supported on conical surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Behrndt, J.; Exner, Pavel; Lotoreichik, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 35 (2014), s. 355202 ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S; GA MŠk 7AMB13AT010 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Schrödinger operator * delta potential * infinite discrete spectrum Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.583, year: 2014

  7. Amnesty in the Niger Delta: vertical movement towards self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... promises of infrastructure development in the region and direct payments of oil revenues to host-communities. This paper seeks to examine the recent developments vis-à-vis the government's amnesty initiative to determine if this policy has bridged the gap in the longstanding selfdetermination demands of the Niger Delta ...

  8. Childhood nutrition in the Mississippi Delta: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Virginia B; Byrd, Sylvia H; Fountain, Brent J; Rader, Nicole E; Frugé, Andrew D

    2016-12-01

    Childhood obesity in the USA has more than tripled in the last three decades, and the prevalence is higher in the Mississippi Delta. Insight into the social, cultural and environmental factors that influence inequity can inform efforts to mediate health disparities. Focus groups (n = 12) among parents/guardians of elementary school children (n = 44) and teachers (n = 59) in the Mississippi Delta were used to investigate barriers and facilitators of healthy eating. Transcriptions were analyzed for themes. A strong preference for junk food among children and the pervasiveness of junk foods in schools and communities were cited as barriers to healthy eating. Potential facilitators of healthy eating included desire to avoid chronic disease, effort to limit junk food consumption and school support. Despite support for efforts to improve nutrition in the Delta, participants voiced a sense of inevitability related to children's consumption of unhealthy foods. This study suggests that parents and teachers express concern related to eating habits of children, yet they experience barriers to healthy eating which contribute to a sense of disempowerment. Improving health in the Mississippi Delta requires comprehensive strategies that offer its citizens a sense of agency. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Drones on the delta | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-25

    Nov 25, 2016 ... Ghana's Volta River delta is an area vulnerable to climate change, with rising seas and increasingly powerful storms driving flooding and erosion, leaving authorities there questioning whether the best response involves solutions such as sea walls or migration. A group of researchers is using drones to ...

  10. aranthus cruentus L) in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Experiments were conducted in 1987 and 1988 to study the response of Amaranthus cruentus L. to flooded soils at Ekpoma, situated in-the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of flooding on yield of A. Céiieiìtus. The study revealed that the negative response of the ...

  11. The Economic Dimensions of the Niger Delta Ethnic Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the remote and immediate causes of the armed ethnic conflicts in the Niger Delta in Nigeria and attempts to proffer a strategic approach rather than the use of brute force in managing the conflicts. The study revealed that the underlying cause of the conflict is the prolonged ...

  12. A Signal-Interleaving Complex Bandpass Sigma-Delta Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Paul Emmanuel

    1997-01-01

    Complex or quadrature Sigma-Delta converters operate on complex signals, i.e. signals consisting of a real and an imaginary component, whereas conventional converters operate only on real signals. The advantage of complex signal processing in the discrete-time domain is that the entire sampling...

  13. Towards an Ethics of the Environment in the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    and the responsibility for both human and non-human components of nature are indeed wholly ... intend to do in this work therefore is to evolve an ethics of the Niger Delta environment which ... African Research Review Vol. 4(3a) July, 2010.

  14. Fundraising processes in Nigerian Academic Libraries: The Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines fundraising processes in academic libraries in Delta State. The aim is to find out the extent to which fund raising processes can help in solving funding problems in academic libraries. The descriptive research method was employed. Eleven academic libraries in Delt a State were used in this study, that ...

  15. 2009-2010 USACE Vicksburg District Lidar: Mississippi River Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR collected at 1.0 points per square meter (1.0m GSD) for the entire portion of the Mississippi River Delta in the Vicksburg District. This area was flown during...

  16. Hepatitis delta in HIV-infected individuals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano, Vincent; Grint, Daniel; Monforte, Antonellad'arminio

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection results in the most aggressive form of chronic viral hepatitis. There is scarce information about the prevalence, epidemiology, virological profile and natural historyof hepatitis delta in HIV patients. METHODS:: From 16,597 HIV patients enrolled......-RNA was quantified using a real-time PCR method. RESULTS:: A total of 61/422 HBsAg+ carriers were anti-HDV+ (prevalence: 14.5%). Hepatitis delta predominated in intravenous drug users and for this reason in South and/or East Europe. Serum HDV-RNA was detectable in 87% of tested anti-HDV+ patients, with a median...... titer of 1.76x10¿copies/ml. Overall, delta hepatitis patients showed lower serum HBV-DNA than the rest of HBsAg+ carriers, although the inhibitory effect of HDV on HBV replication was not recognized in HBV genotype D patients.Whereas HDV was not associated with progression to AIDS, it significantly...

  17. Comparative Noise Pollution Study Of Some Major Towns In Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative noise pollution studies have been carried out in some major towns in Delta State, Nigeria using a PIONneer 65 noise dosimeter. The noise measurements were taken at ten points within each of the towns at an interval of 30 minutes during the peak period of the day and at the cool of the night. The results ...

  18. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  19. The Problem with the Delta Cost Project Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquette, Ozan; Parra, Edna

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Postsecondary Education System (IPEDS) collects data on Title IV institutions. The Delta Cost Project (DCP) integrated data from multiple IPEDS survey components into a public-use longitudinal dataset. The DCP Database was the basis for dozens of journal articles and a series of influential policy reports. Unfortunately, a flaw in…

  20. Nonlinearities in SC Delta-Sigma A/D Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    The effects of using nonlinear low-gain opamps in switched-capacitor delta-sigma modulators are analyzed. Using unconventional topologies, the state variables are made essentially uncorrelated with the input signal, hence opamp nonlinearity will cause very little harmonic distortion. Nonlinearity...

  1. Prevalence of Neonatal Jaundice on Central Hospital, Warri, Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: 272 babies (aged 1 – 30 days) the Neonatal Clinic of the Department of Child Health, Central Hospital, Warri, Delta State between June 2009 and June 2010 were examined daily for evidence of jaundice. Those with serum bilirubin ³15mg/100ml were subjected to additional clinical and laboratory investigations to ...

  2. Mantle electrical conductivity profile of Niger delta region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mantle electrical conductivity-depth profile of the Niger delta region in Nigeria has been determined using solar quiet day ionospheric current (Sq).The magnetometer data obtained in 2010 from geomagnetic stations installed in Lagos by magnetic dataset (MAGDAS) in 2008 and data from magnetometers installed in ...

  3. The Niger Delta: State Repression and Violence Nexus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    crosdel emuedo

    2005-02-19

    Feb 19, 2005 ... This explains its concern only with unimpeded access to crude oil at very cheap ... The people of the Niger Delta on the other hand, places premium on the concept of human ... going amnesty, over 123 hostages were taken.

  4. delta-Opioid-induced pharmacologic myocardial hibernation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangshao; Tang, Wanchun; Sun, Shijie; Weil, Max Harry

    2006-12-01

    Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an event of global myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, which is associated with severe postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction and fatal outcome. Evidence has demonstrated that mammalian hibernation is triggered by cyclic variation of a delta-opiate-like compound in endogenous serum, during which the myocardial metabolism is dramatically reduced and the myocardium tolerates the stress of ischemia and reperfusion without overt ischemic and reperfusion injury. Previous investigations also proved that the delta-opioid agonist elicited the cardioprotection in a model of regional ischemic intact heart or myocyte. Accordingly, we were prompted to search for an alternative intervention of pharmacologically induced myocardial hibernation that would result in rapid reductions of myocardial metabolism and therefore minimize the myocardial ischemic and reperfusion injury during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Prospective, controlled laboratory study. University-affiliated research laboratory. In the series of studies performed in the established rat and pig model of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the delta-opioid receptor agonist, pentazocine, was administered during ventricular fibrillation. : The myocardial metabolism reflected by the concentration of lactate, or myocardial tissue PCO2 and PO2, is dramatically reduced during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. These are associated with less severe postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction and longer duration of postresuscitation survival. delta-Opioid-induced pharmacologic myocardial hibernation is an option to minimize the myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  5. On approximation and energy estimates for delta 6-convex functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muhammad Shoaib; Pečarić, Josip; Rehman, Nasir; Khan, Muhammad Wahab; Zahoor, Muhammad Sajid

    2018-01-01

    The smooth approximation and weighted energy estimates for delta 6-convex functions are derived in this research. Moreover, we conclude that if 6-convex functions are closed in uniform norm, then their third derivatives are closed in weighted [Formula: see text]-norm.

  6. On approximation and energy estimates for delta 6-convex functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib Saleem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The smooth approximation and weighted energy estimates for delta 6-convex functions are derived in this research. Moreover, we conclude that if 6-convex functions are closed in uniform norm, then their third derivatives are closed in weighted L2 $L^{2}$-norm.

  7. Questioning triple rice intensification on the Vietnamese mekong delta floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Dung Duc; Halsema, van Gerardo; Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Ludwig, Fulco; Wyatt, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Large areas of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta floodplains (VMDF) are protected by high dikes to facilitate three rice crops per year. While this has increased rice production, there is evidence that triple rice systems have negative long-term effects, both environmental and economic. Double rice

  8. The search for environmental justice in the Niger Delta and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Right from the beginning Man has been given the privilege by his Creator to tender the earth and take dominion over his environment. But for the impoverished people of the Niger Delta region, the mainstay of Nigeria's oil wealth, the situation is ironically abysmal. The region has been the scene of protest, sometimes ...

  9. What are pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To date, studies have sought cause and effect and have neglected the opinion of the people about what they perceive to be problematic and what they believe constitutes satisfactory maternity service provision. An exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's ...

  10. Production and decay properties of the delta (970) meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, J.B.; Chaloupka, V.; Gavillet, Ph.; Hemingway, R.J.; Marzano, F.; Montanet, L.; Blokzijl, R.; Jongejans, B.; Massaro, G.G.G.; Heinen, P.M.; Metzger, W.J.; Timmermans, J.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Using an 80 events per microbarn sample of K - p interactions at 4.2 GeV/c the production and decay properties of the delta(970) have been investigated in the following reactions: K - p→Σ + (1385)etaπ - and K - p→Σ + (1385)K 0 K - . (Auth.)

  11. Obesity and Health Risk of Children in the Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Abigail; Waddell, Dwight; Ford, M. Allison; Bentley, John P.; Woodyard, Catherine D.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mississippi (MS) Delta adults and youth report obesity rates far exceeding those of the state and nation. State law requires in-school physical activity and nutrition practices to address childhood obesity but does not require evaluation of outcomes, specifically the impact on weight-related outcomes. This paper offers 3 things: (1)…

  12. Leena delta rännujutud / Riho Västrik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Västrik, Riho, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Reisikiri Leena jõest filmi tegeva filmimeeskonna matkast Leena jõe delta tundras, kus satuti ka 1879. aastal purjelaeval "Jeannette" põhjapoolust vallutama tulnud ameerika polaaruurija DeLongi matmispaiga ja mälestusmärgi juurde

  13. Enhancing stakeholder participation in the Niger Delta region: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's indigenous people, found in the Niger Delta area, have for many years experienced developmental challenges associated with oil exploration. The region has been perennially engulfed in various forms of agitation pertaining to self-government and resource control. Over the years, attempts to solve these ...

  14. Changes in the areal extents of the Athabasca River, Birch River, and Cree Creek Deltas, 1950-2014, Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, Kevin; Lee, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Deltas form where riverborne sediment accumulates at the interface of river mouths and their receiving water bodies. Their areal extent is determined by the net effect of processes that increase their extent, such as sediment accumulation, and processes that decrease their extent, such as erosion and subsidence. Through sequential mapping and construction of river discharge and sediment histories, this study examined changes in the subaerial extents of the Cree Creek and Athabasca River Deltas (both on the Athabasca River system) and the Birch River Delta in northern Canada over the period 1950-2014. The purpose of the study was to determine how, when, and why the deltas changed in areal extent. Temporal growth patterns were similar across the Athabasca and Birch River systems indicative of a climatic signal. Little or no areal growth occurred from 1950 to 1968; moderate growth occurred between 1968 and the early to mid-1980s; and rapid growth occurred between 1992 and 2012. Factors that affected delta progradation included dredging, sediment supply, isostatic drowning, delta front bathymetry, sediment capture efficiency, and storms. In relation to sediment delivered, areal growth rates were lowest in the Athabasca Delta, intermediate in the Birch Delta, and highest in the Cree Creek Delta. Annual sediment delivery is increasing in the Cree Creek Delta; there were no significant trends in annual sediment delivery in the Birch and Athabasca Deltas. There was a lag of up to several years between sediment delivery events and progradation. Periods of delta progradation were associated with low water levels of the receiving basins. Predicted climate-change driven declines in river discharge and lake levels may accelerate delta progradation in the region. In the changing ecosystems of northeastern Alberta, inadequate monitoring of vegetation, landforms, and sediment regimes hampers the elucidation of the nature, rate, and causality of ecosystem changes.

  15. delta 6 Hexadecenoic acid is synthesized by the activity of a soluble delta 6 palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase in Thunbergia alata endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, E B; Cranmer, A M; Shanklin, J; Ohlrogge, J B

    1994-11-04

    delta 6 Hexadecenoic acid (16:1 delta 6) composes more than 80% of the seed oil of Thunbergia alata. Studies were conducted to determine the biosynthetic origin of the double bond of this unusual fatty acid. Assays of fractions of developing T. alata seed endosperm with [1-14C]palmitoyl (16:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) revealed the presence of a soluble delta 6 desaturase activity. This activity was greatest when 16:0-ACP was provided as a substrate, whereas no desaturation of the coenzyme A ester of this fatty acid was detected. In addition, delta 6 16:0-ACP desaturase activity in T. alata endosperm extracts was dependent on the presence of ferredoxin and molecular oxygen and was stimulated by catalase. To further characterize this enzyme, a cDNA encoding a diverged acyl-ACP desaturase was isolated from a T. alata endosperm cDNA library using polymerase chain reaction with degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to conserved amino acid sequences in delta 9 stearoyl (18:0)- and delta 4 16:0-ACP desaturases. The primary structure of the mature peptide encoded by this cDNA shares 66% identity with the mature castor delta 9 18:0-ACP desaturase and 57% identity with the mature coriander delta 4 16:0-ACP desaturase. Extracts of Escherichia coli that express the T. alata cDNA catalyzed the delta 6 desaturation of 16:0-ACP. These results demonstrate that 16:1 delta 6 in T. alata endosperm is formed by the activity of a soluble delta 6 16:0-ACP desaturase that is structurally related to the delta 9 18:0- and delta 4 16:0-ACP desaturases. Implications of this work to an understanding of active site structures of acyl-ACP desaturases are discussed.

  16. RATING OF SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING COMPETENCIES POSSESSED BY ENTREPRENEURS IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ezenwafor, J. I.; Onokpaunu, Michel O.; Nna-Emmanuel, Sarah W.

    2017-01-01

    The need for wide utilization of social media marketing for entrepreneurial development in Delta State necessitated this study which sought to determine how competent practicing entrepreneurs are for their use in Delta State. One research question guided the study. A survey research design was adopted. The population consisted of 200 entrepreneurs in Delta North Senatorial District of Delta State. A validated 22 item on a 5-point rating scale questionnaire was used for data collection. Mean a...

  17. Differential entrainment of neuroelectric delta oscillations in developmental dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fruzsina Soltész

    Full Text Available Oscillatory entrainment to the speech signal is important for language processing, but has not yet been studied in developmental disorders of language. Developmental dyslexia, a difficulty in acquiring efficient reading skills linked to difficulties with phonology (the sound structure of language, has been associated with behavioural entrainment deficits. It has been proposed that the phonological 'deficit' that characterises dyslexia across languages is related to impaired auditory entrainment to speech at lower frequencies via neuroelectric oscillations (<10 Hz, 'temporal sampling theory'. Impaired entrainment to temporal modulations at lower frequencies would affect the recovery of the prosodic and syllabic structure of speech. Here we investigated event-related oscillatory EEG activity and contingent negative variation (CNV to auditory rhythmic tone streams delivered at frequencies within the delta band (2 Hz, 1.5 Hz, relevant to sampling stressed syllables in speech. Given prior behavioural entrainment findings at these rates, we predicted functionally atypical entrainment of delta oscillations in dyslexia. Participants performed a rhythmic expectancy task, detecting occasional white noise targets interspersed with tones occurring regularly at rates of 2 Hz or 1.5 Hz. Both groups showed significant entrainment of delta oscillations to the rhythmic stimulus stream, however the strength of inter-trial delta phase coherence (ITC, 'phase locking' and the CNV were both significantly weaker in dyslexics, suggestive of weaker entrainment and less preparatory brain activity. Both ITC strength and CNV amplitude were significantly related to individual differences in language processing and reading. Additionally, the instantaneous phase of prestimulus delta oscillation predicted behavioural responding (response time for control participants only.

  18. Oil and Security in Nigeria: The Niger Delta Crisis | Owolabi | Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines oil and security in Nigeria, with special reference to the crisis-ravaged Niger Delta. Its focus on the Niger Delta and its festering crisis stems from that region's critical importance to Nigeria. As the nation's treasure base, the Niger Delta provides over 80 percent of government revenues, 95 percent of ...

  19. The coastal system of the Volta delta, Ghana : Strategies and opportunities for development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Lambertus W.M.

    2018-01-01

    The Volta delta is a very dynamic environment, forming the interface between the Volta river and the Atlantic ocean. The delta is a home for many communities, settled both at the shorelines and more inland. Furthermore the delta provides great natural values and a habitat for many species.
    The

  20. Contrasting morphodynamics in alluvial fans and fan deltas: effect of the downstream boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M. van; Kleinhans, M.G.; Postma, G.; Kraal, E.

    2012-01-01

    Alluvial fans and fan deltas can, in principle, have exactly the same upstream conditions, but fan deltas by definition have ponding water at their downstream boundary. This ponding creates effects on the autogenic behaviour of fan deltas, such as backwater adaptation, mouth bars and backward

  1. Challenges and Approaches in River Delta Planning - report on training workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2012-01-01

    River delta’s, like the Mekong Delta (Vietnam), Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh), Irrawady (Myanmar) and Ciliwung Delta (Indonesia) are developing rapidly and characterized by large-scale urbanization and industrialization processes. They are facing serious planning challenges related to issues

  2. T-cell receptor gamma delta bearing cells in normal human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. D.; Teunissen, M. B.; Cairo, I.; Krieg, S. R.; Kapsenberg, M. L.; Das, P. K.; Borst, J.

    1990-01-01

    T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) are divided into common alpha beta and less common gamma delta types. In the murine skin, TCR gamma delta+ cells have been reported to form the great majority of epidermal T lymphocytes. We have examined the relative contribution of TCR alpha beta+ and TCR gamma delta+

  3. A new identification method for energetic ion {delta}E-E telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Cesar [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts, Universitaet zu Kiel, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Bronchalo, Enrique [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica y Arquitectura de Computadores, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avda. Universidad s/n, 03202 Elche, Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: ebronchalo@umh.es; Medina, Jose [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-11-21

    A new ion identification method for {delta}E-E telescopes is presented. The method works by counting data points under {delta}E(E) curves on {delta}E-E diagrams. These curves are obtained by simulating the telescope response to a flux of energetic ions. The method is checked against three published methods applied to several experimental data sets.

  4. Remote Sensing Monitoring Methods for Detecting Invasive Weed Coverage in Delta Waterways and Bay Marshlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    This presentation is part of the Independent Science Board of the State of California Delta Stewardship Council brown bag seminar series on the "How the Delta is Monitored", followed with a panel discussion. Various remote sensing approaches for aquatic vegetation will be reviewed. Key research and application issues with remote sensing monitoring in the Delta will be addressed.

  5. Effect of delta wing on the particle flow in a novel gas supersonic separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Chuang; Yang, Yan; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    The present work presents numerical simulations of the complex particle motion in a supersonic separator with a delta wing located in the supersonic flow. The effect of the delta wing on the strong swirling flow is analysed using the Discrete Particle Method. The results show that the delta wings...

  6. Grain-size sorting in grainflows at the lee side of deltas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    The sorting of sediment mixtures at the lee slope of deltas (at the angle of repose) is studied with experiments in a narrow, deep flume with subaqueous Gilbert-type deltas using varied flow conditions and different sediment mixtures. Sediment deposition and sorting on the lee slope of the delta

  7. Plant delta 15N correlates with the transpiration efficiency of nitrogen acquisition in tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Turner, Benjamin L

    2009-11-01

    Based upon considerations of a theoretical model of (15)N/(14)N fractionation during steady-state nitrate uptake from soil, we hypothesized that, for plants grown in a common soil environment, whole-plant delta(15)N (deltaP) should vary as a function of the transpiration efficiency of nitrogen acquisition (F(N)/v) and the difference between deltaP and root delta(15)N (deltaP - deltaR). We tested these hypotheses with measurements of several tropical tree and liana species. Consistent with theoretical expectations, both F(N)/v and deltaP - deltaR were significant sources of variation in deltaP, and the relationship between deltaP and F(N)/v differed between non-N(2)-fixing and N(2)-fixing species. We interpret the correlation between deltaP and F(N)/v as resulting from variation in mineral nitrogen efflux-to-influx ratios across plasma membranes of root cells. These results provide a simple explanation of variation in delta(15)N of terrestrial plants and have implications for understanding nitrogen cycling in ecosystems.

  8. Implications for future survival of delta smelt from four climate change scenarios for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry R.; Bennett, William A.; Wagner, R. Wayne; Morgan-King, Tara; Knowles, Noah; Feyrer, Frederick; Schoellhamer, David H.; Stacey, Mark T.; Dettinger, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the position of the low salinity zone, a habitat suitability index, turbidity, and water temperature modeled from four 100-year scenarios of climate change were evaluated for possible effects on delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, which is endemic to the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. The persistence of delta smelt in much of its current habitat into the next century appears uncertain. By mid-century, the position of the low salinity zone in the fall and the habitat suitability index converged on values only observed during the worst droughts of the baseline period (1969–2000). Projected higher water temperatures would render waters historically inhabited by delta smelt near the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers largely uninhabitable. However, the scenarios of climate change are based on assumptions that require caution in the interpretation of the results. Projections like these provide managers with a useful tool for anticipating long-term challenges to managing fish populations and possibly adapting water management to ameliorate those challenges.

  9. 78 FR 22911 - Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Seatac, WA; Delta Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-82,197; TA-W-82,197A] Delta Air... requested administrative reconsideration of the negative determination regarding workers' eligibility to... threatened with total or partial separation from employment on the date of certification through two years...

  10. Unexpected {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H Variability of Groundwater in the Eastern Paris Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourcy, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E. [BRGM Service EAU, Orleans (France)

    2013-07-15

    The Paris Basin covers about one-third of the total surface area of France. In 2009, two campaigns sampling 25 boreholes tapping Tertiary aquifers were carried out in the Basin. These aquifers are recharged at a similar altitude and the groundwater age is too young to have registered climate change. In the past, regional studies included the use of isotopes to understand groundwater origin and dynamics. Both {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H as well as ages (CFC/SF{sub 6)} and chemical components were determined in all collected samples. A noticeable stable isotope 'anomaly' appears in the south-western part of the Basin, where the average {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H values are more depleted and do not fit the pattern given by the continental effect in this area. A regional particularity of the spatial distribution of such isotopes in precipitation may be possible, but should be confirmed by additional work. (author)

  11. Trophic gradients in a large-river delta: Ecological structure determined by connectivity gradients in the Danube Delta (Romania)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coops, H.; Buijse-Bogdan, L.L.; Buijse, A.D.; Constantinescu, A.; Covaliov, S.; Hanganu, J.; Ibelings, B.W.; Menting, G.; Navodaru, I.; Oosterberg, W.; Staras, M.; Torok, L.

    2008-01-01

    There are over 300 lakes interconnected by riverbranches and man-made canals in the Danube Delta (Romania). A multidisciplinary survey of these riverine lakes situated in large Wetland complexes was made comprising hydrological modelling, remote sensing and monitoring of water quality, plankton,

  12. Cohesive Sedimentary Processes on River-Dominated Deltas: New Perspectives from the Mississippi River Delta Front, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, S. J.; Keller, G. P.; Obelcz, J.; Maloney, J. M.; Xu, K.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Miner, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    On river deltas dominated by proximal sediment accumulation (Mississippi, Huang He, others), the delta front region is commonly dominated by rapid accumulation of cohesive fluvial sediments, and mass-wasting processes that remobilize recently deposited sediments. Mass transport is preconditioned in sediments by high water content, biogenic gas production, over steepening, and is commonly triggered by strong wave loading and other processes. This understanding is based on extensive field studies in the 1970's and 80's. Recent studies of the Mississippi River Delta Front are yielding new perspectives on these processes, in a time of anthropogenically reduced sediment loads, rising sea level, and catastrophic deltaic land loss. We have synthesized many industry data sets collected since ca. 1980, and conducted new pilot field and modeling studies of sedimentary and morphodynamic processes. These efforts have yielded several key findings that diverge from historical understanding of this dynamic setting. First, delta distributary mouths have ceased seaward progradation, ending patterns that have been documented since the 18th century. Second, despite reduced sediment supply, offshore mass transport continues, yielding vertical displacements at rates of 1 m/y. This displacement is apparently forced by wave loading from storm events of near-annual return period, rather than major hurricanes that have been the focus of most previous studies. Third, core analysis indicates that this vertical displacement is occurring along failure planes >3 m in the seabed, rather than in more recently deposited sediments closer to the sediment-water interface. These seabed morphodynamics have the potential to destabilize both nearshore navigation infrastructure, and seabed hydrocarbon infrastructure offshore. As well, these findings raise more questions regarding the future seabed evolution offshore of major river deltas, in response to anthropogenic and climatic forcing.

  13. Alopecia in a viable phospholipase C delta 1 and phospholipase C delta 3 double mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Runkel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inositol 1,4,5trisphosphate (IP(3 and diacylglycerol (DAG are important intracellular signalling molecules in various tissues. They are generated by the phospholipase C family of enzymes, of which phospholipase C delta (PLCD forms one class. Studies with functional inactivation of Plcd isozyme encoding genes in mice have revealed that loss of both Plcd1 and Plcd3 causes early embryonic death. Inactivation of Plcd1 alone causes loss of hair (alopecia, whereas inactivation of Plcd3 alone has no apparent phenotypic effect. To investigate a possible synergy of Plcd1 and Plcd3 in postnatal mice, novel mutations of these genes compatible with life after birth need to be found. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterise a novel mouse mutant with a spontaneously arisen mutation in Plcd3 (Plcd3(mNab that resulted from the insertion of an intracisternal A particle (IAP into intron 2 of the Plcd3 gene. This mutation leads to the predominant expression of a truncated PLCD3 protein lacking the N-terminal PH domain. C3H mice that carry one or two mutant Plcd3(mNab alleles are phenotypically normal. However, the presence of one Plcd3(mNab allele exacerbates the alopecia caused by the loss of functional Plcd1 in Del(9olt1Pas mutant mice with respect to the number of hair follicles affected and the body region involved. Mice double homozygous for both the Del(9olt1Pas and the Plcd3(mNab mutations survive for several weeks and exhibit total alopecia associated with fragile hair shafts showing altered expression of some structural genes and shortened phases of proliferation in hair follicle matrix cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Plcd3(mNab mutation is a novel hypomorphic mutation of Plcd3. Our investigations suggest that Plcd1 and Plcd3 have synergistic effects on the murine hair follicle in specific regions of the body surface.

  14. Erosion of the Mekong delta: the role of human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, E.; Dussouillez, P.; Goichot, M.; Brunier, G.; Dolique, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loisel, H.; Mangin, A.; Vantrepotte, V.

    2013-12-01

    River deltas are threatened by dams, dykes, flow channelling, and aggregate extraction. These activities outweigh climate change and sea-level rise in causing delta vulnerability1, and will aggravate the impacts to be expected from these effects2. We show here from analysis of: (1) delta channel morphology and sediment budgets, and (2) satellite imagery, that the Mekong delta, considered as the world's third largest, and hitherto strongly prograding, is now in a phase of large-scale erosion. We discuss the mechanistic links involved in erosion and the way these are related to human activities. High-resolution (2.5 m) SPOT 5 images for the years 2003, 2007, 2011/12 covering 405 km of the delta shoreline show an overall retreat rate of over 8 m a year. 75% of the analysed shoreline, i.e., the muddy western sector, is now retreating at rates exceeding 50 m a year in places. The sandy river-mouth sector maintains a semblance of stability, but with strong variations. We attribute erosion to a cascade of morphosedimentary changes linked to sediment mining from the deltaic channels and upstream dam interception. We estimated from Meris satellite imagery an annual 5% decrease in surface suspended concentrations exiting at the mouths of the Mekong over the period 2003-2011 that may reflect increased trapping of mud behind dams in China. We also infer modification of river-mouth and coastal mud storage patterns resulting from a loss of ca. 200 million m3 of delta channel sediments between 1998 and 2008 from aggregate extraction. Dykes have been shown to result in increased channel flow velocities during the high-discharge monsoon season, favouring further channel deepening3. Stronger river-mouth outflow velocities during this season may be leading to export of a greater proportion of mud far offshore of the coastal longshore transport corridor that ensured mud supply to, and past progradation of, the muddy western coast. In contrast, greater seawater penetration in the

  15. Within-canopy and ozone fumigation effects on delta13C and Delta18O in adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees: relation to meteorological and gas exchange parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Arthur; Löw, Markus; Heerdt, Christian; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Schumacher, Johannes; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bahnweg, Günther; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Werner, Herbert; Matyssek, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz; Haberer, Kristine

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the effects of different light intensities either in direct sunlight or in the shade crown of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees on delta13C and Delta18O were determined under ambient (1 x O3) and twice-ambient (2 x O3) atmospheric ozone concentrations during two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). We analysed the isotopic composition in leaf bulk, leaf cellulose, phloem and xylem material and related the results to (a) meteorological data (air temperature, T and relative humidity, RH), (b) leaf gas exchange measurements (stomatal conductance, g(s); transpiration rate, E; and maximum photosynthetic activity, A(max)) and (c) the outcome of a steady-state evaporative enrichment model. Delta13C was significantly lower in the shade than in the sun crown in all plant materials, whilst Delta18O was increased significantly in the shade than in the sun crown in bulk material and cellulose. Elevated ozone had no effect on delta13C, although Delta18O was influenced by ozone to varied degrees during single months. We observed significant seasonal changes for both parameters, especially in 2004, and also significant differences between the study years. Relating the findings to meteorological data and gas exchange parameters, we conclude that the differences in Delta18O between the sun and the shade crown were predominantly caused by the Péclet effect. This assumption was supported by the modelled Delta18O values for leaf cellulose. It was demonstrated that independent of RH, light-dependent reduction of stomatal conductance (and thus transpiration) and of A(max) can drive the pattern of Delta18O increase with the concomitant decrease of delta13C in the shade crown. The effect of doubling ozone levels on time-integrated stomatal conductance and transpiration as indicated by the combined analysis of Delta18O and delta13C was much lower than the influence caused by the light exposure.

  16. Displacement waves in La2CuO(4-delta) and La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajitani, Tsuyoshi; Onozuka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yasuo; Hirabayashi, Makoto; Syono, Yasuhiko

    1987-11-01

    Structural investigation of orthorhombic La2CuO(4-delta) and La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta) was carried out by means of X-ray and neutron diffraction on the basis of the space group Cmmm. The periodic expansion/contraction type distortion of CuO6 octahedra was found in both orthorhombic compounds. The distortion is nearly one-dimensional in La2CuO(4-delta) but is two-dimensional in La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta). The existence of a charge-density wave is highly possible in the structures.

  17. Mapping Soil Carbon in the Yukon Kuskokwim River Delta Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, S.; Fiske, G.; Schade, J. D.; Mann, P. J.; Holmes, R. M.; Ludwig, S.; Melton, S.; Sae-lim, N.; Jardine, L. E.; Navarro-Perez, E.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic river deltas are hotspots for carbon storage, occupying 10% of carbon stored in arctic permafrost. The Yukon Kuskokwim (YK) Delta, Alaska is located in the lower latitudinal range of the northern permafrost region in an area of relatively warm permafrost that is particularly vulnerable to warming climate. Active layer depths range from 50 cm on peat plateaus to >100 cm in wetland and aquatic ecosystems. The size of the soil organic carbon pool and vulnerability of the carbon in the YK Delta is a major unknown and is critically important as climate warming and increasing fire frequency may make this carbon vulnerable to transport to aquatic and marine systems and the atmosphere. To characterize the size and distribution of soil carbon pools in the YK Delta, we mapped the land cover of a 1910 km2 watershed located in a region of the YK Delta that was impacted by fire in 2015. The map product was the result of an unsupervised classification using the Weka K Means clustering algorithm implemented in Google's Earth Engine. Inputs to the classification were Worldview2 resolution optical imagery (1m), Arctic DEM (5m), and Sentinel 2 level 1C multispectral imagery, including NDVI, (10 m). We collected 100 soil cores (0-30 cm) from sites of different land cover and landscape position, including moist and dry peat plateaus, high and low intensity burned plateaus, fens, and drained lakes; 13 lake sediment cores (0-50 cm); and 20 surface permafrost cores (to 100 cm) from burned and unburned peat plateaus. Active layer and permafrost soils were analyzed for organic matter content, soil moisture content, and carbon and nitrogen pools (30 and 100 cm). Soil carbon content varied across the landscape; average carbon content values for lake sediments were 12% (5- 17% range), fens 26% (9-44%), unburned peat plateaus 41% (34-44%), burned peat plateaus 19% (7-34%). These values will be used to estimate soil carbon pools, which will be applied to the spatial extent of each

  18. Effect of environmental change on the morphology of tidally influenced deltas over multi-decadal timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angamuthu, Balaji; Darby, Stephen; Nicholls, Robert

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of the geomorphological processes affecting deltas is essential to improve our understanding of the risks that deltas face, especially as human impacts are likely to intensify in the future. Unfortunately, there is limited reliable data on river deltas, meaning that the task of demonstrating the links between morphodynamic and environmental change is challenging. This presentation aims to answer the questions of how delta morphology evolves over multi-decadal timescales under multiple drivers, focussing on tidally-influenced deltas, as some of these, such as the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta are heavily populated. A series of idealised model simulations over 102 years were used to explore the influence of three key drivers on delta morphodynamics, both individually and together: (i) varying combinations of water and sediment discharges from the upstream catchment, (ii) varying rates of relative sea-level rise (RSLR), and (iii) selected human interventions within the delta, such as polders, cross-dams and changing land cover. Model simulations revealed that delta progradation rates are more sensitive to variations in water discharge than variations in fluvial sediment supply. Unlike mere aggradation during RSLR, the delta front experienced aggradational progradation due to tides. As expected, the area of the simulated sub-aerial delta increases with increasing sediment discharge, but decreases with increasing water discharge. But, human modifications are important. For example, the sub-aerial delta shrinks with increasing RSLR, but it does not when the sub-aerial delta is polderised, provided the polders are restricted from erosion. However, the polders are vulnerable to flooding as they lose relative elevation and can make the delta building process unsustainable. Cross-dams built to steer zones of land accretion within the delta accomplish their local goal, but may not result in net land gain at the scale of the delta. Applying these

  19. Modern Geophysical Techniques for Constructing a 3D Geological Model on the Nile Delta, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Barakat, Moataz Khairy Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The Nile Delta can be considered the earliest known delta in the world. It was described by Herodotus in the 5th Century AC. The Nile Delta (Ta-Mehet) in Hieroglyphic language means the land of the estuary water. It is one of the oldest intensely cultivated areas on the earth. The Nile Delta is illustrated to be an arcuate delta (arcshaped), as it resembles a triangle or lotus flower when seen from above. The name has been derived from the letter Thelta of the Greek alphabet. In comparison to...

  20. Investigations of (Delta)14C, (delta)13C, and (delta)15N in vertebrae of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, L A; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Coale, K H

    2006-06-08

    The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) has a complex life history that is characterized by large scale movements and a highly variable diet. Estimates of age and growth for the white shark from the eastern North Pacific Ocean indicate they have a slow growth rate and a relatively high longevity. Age, growth, and longevity estimates useful for stock assessment and fishery models, however, require some form of validation. By counting vertebral growth band pairs, ages can be estimated, but because not all sharks deposit annual growth bands and many are not easily discernable, it is necessary to validate growth band periodicity with an independent method. Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) age validation uses the discrete {sup 14}C signal produced from thermonuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s that is retained in skeletal structures as a time-specific marker. Growth band pairs in vertebrae, estimated as annual and spanning the 1930s to 1990s, were analyzed for {Delta}{sup 14}C and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of {sup 14}C age validation for a wide-ranging species with a complex life history and to use stable isotope measurements in vertebrae as a means of resolving complexity introduced into the {sup 14}C chronology by ontogenetic shifts in diet and habitat. Stable isotopes provided useful trophic position information; however, validation of age estimates was confounded by what may have been some combination of the dietary source of carbon to the vertebrae, large-scale movement patterns, and steep {sup 14}C gradients with depth in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.

  1. Casscf/ci Calculations for First Row Transition Metal Hydrides - the TIH(4-PHI), VH(5-DELTA), CRH(6-SIGMA-PLUS), MNH(7-SIGMA-PLUS), FEH(4,6-DELTA) and NIH(2-DELTA) States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, S. P.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1983-04-01

    Calculations are performed for the predicted ground states of TiH(4-phi), VH(5-delta), CrH(6-sigma-plus), MnH(7-sigma-plus), Fett(4,6-delta) and NiH(2-delta). For FeH both the 6-delta and 4-delta states are studied, since both are likely candidates for the ground state. The ground state symmetries are predicted based on a combination of atomic coupling arguments and coupling of 4s(2)3d(n) and 4s(1)3d(n+1) terms in the molecular system. Electron correlation is included by a CASSCF/CI (SD) treatment. The CASSCF includes near-degeneracy effects, while correlation of the 3d electrons in included at the CI level.

  2. On new physics in $\\Delta \\Gamma_d$

    CERN Document Server

    Bobeth, Christoph; Lenz, Alexander; Pecjak, Ben; Tetlalmatzi-Xolocotzi, Gilberto

    2014-06-09

    Motivated by the recent measurement of the dimuon asymmetry by the D{\\O} collaboration, which could be interpreted as an enhanced decay rate difference in the neutral $B_d$-meson system, we investigate the possible size of new-physics contributions to $\\Delta \\Gamma_d$. In particular, we perform model-independent studies of non-standard effects associated to the dimension-six current-current operators $(\\bar{d} p)(\\bar p^{\\hspace{0.25mm}\\prime} b)$ with $p,p^\\prime= u,c$ as well as $(\\bar{d}b) (\\bar\\tau\\tau)$. In both cases we find that for certain flavour or Lorentz structures of the operators sizable deviations of $\\Delta \\Gamma_d$ away from the Standard Model expectation cannot be excluded in a model-independent fashion.

  3. HDVDB: a data warehouse for hepatitis delta virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarita; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Nischal, Anuradha; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar; Seth, Prahlad Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) is an RNA virus and causes delta hepatitis in humans. Although a lot of data is available for HDV, but retrieval of information is a complicated task. Current web database 'HDVDB' provides a comprehensive web-resource for HDV. The database is basically concerned with basic information about HDV and disease caused by this virus, genome structure, pathogenesis, epidemiology, symptoms and prevention, etc. Database also supplies sequence data and bibliographic information about HDV. A tool 'siHDV Predict' to design the effective siRNA molecule to control the activity of HDV, is also integrated in database. It is a user friendly information system available at public domain and provides annotated information about HDV for research scholars, scientists, pharma industry people for further study.

  4. Methods for deconvolving sparse positive delta function series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trussell, H.J.; Schwalbe, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Sparse delta function series occur as data in many chemical analyses and seismic methods. These original data are often sufficiently degraded by the recording instrument response that the individual delta function peaks are difficult to distinguish and measure. A method, which has been used to measure these peaks, is to fit a parameterized model by a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm. The deconvolution approaches described have the advantage of not requiring a parameterized point spread function, nor do they expect a fixed number of peaks. Two new methods are presented. The maximum power technique is reviewed. A maximum a posteriori technique is introduced. Results on both simulated and real data by the two methods are presented. The characteristics of the data can determine which method gives superior results. 5 figures

  5. Flood mitigation strategies for the Red River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, K.; Ekenberg, L.

    2002-01-01

    The increase of natural disasters and especially floods are escalating economical losses. Governments of both developed and developing countries are therefore concerned with increasing post-disaster liabilities in aiding recovery, repairing infrastructure damage and compensation of victims. In particular, governments of developing countries are ill prepared to cover the financial losses of disasters. Moreover, they often experience difficulties in raising funds for the recovery process. In this article, we identify possible policy strategies for coping with complex environmental and social decisions with flood risk involved; using The Red River Delta in Vietnam as a case for investigating various strategies. The paper is concluded with an outline of a model used for policy scenario simulations as well as some very preliminary results from evaluation of three possible policy strategies for The Red River Delta. (author)

  6. Measuring $CP$ violation with $\\Delta A_{CP}$ at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The control of systematic uncertainties is a key component of many analyses performed at the Large Hadron Collider, and will only become more important as more data are taken during Run II. Many of the CP measurements performed using the LHCb detector have statistical precisions below the per cent level, and so particular care must be taken in this area. One technique for dealing with the various production and detection asymmetries which can mask the physics asymmetry of interest, and increase the measurement’s systematic uncertainty, is $\\Delta A_{CP}$ . The application of $\\Delta A_{CP}$ in three separate LHCb analyses of $D^{0}$ and $\\Lambda_{b}^{0}$ decays will be discussed, along with prospects for applying the technique to $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$ decays.

  7. The Legal Status of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Brasoveanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the world has become aware that natural resources are not inexhaustible, that manyspecies are threatened with extinction and that is is necessary to strive for judicious use of natural resources tofulfill the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs(principle of sustainable development. To conserve species and habitats protected areas have beenestablished worldwide. The protected area is a geographically defined area, with rare natural elements and / orendangered species, regulated and managed in order to achieve specific conservation objectives. Althoughranked Europe's second in size (after the Volga River and the 20th in the world, because of the rich landscapeand wildlife, with the birds ranked most important, the Danube Delta has a very special interest scientificallyas it is a natural laboratory of forming delta, tourism and economic ecosystems, through its renewable naturalresources of which the most important resources are living aquatic resources.

  8. D2 Delta Robot Structural Design and Kinematics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xudong; wang, Song; Dong, Yu; Yang, Hai

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new type of Delta robot with only two degrees of freedom is proposed on the basis of multi - degree - of - freedom delta robot. In order to meet our application requirements, we have carried out structural design and analysis of the robot. Through SolidWorks modeling, combined with 3D printing technology to determine the final robot structure. In order to achieve the precise control of the robot, the kinematics analysis of the robot was carried out. The SimMechanics toolbox of MATLAB is used to establish the mechanism model, and the kinematics mathematical model is used to simulate the robot motion control in Matlab environment. Finally, according to the design mechanism, the working space of the robot is drawn by the graphic method, which lays the foundation for the motion control of the subsequent robot.

  9. The delta18O composition of Antarctic coastal current waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frew, R.; Heywood, K.; Dennis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The varying proportions of 18 O to 16 O in sea water provide an oceanographic trace like salinity, but with an extra degree of freedom: salt is a tracer for the oceanic fluid, whereas the isotopic composition is a tracer specifically for the water component of that fluid. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes are the variables most intimately related to the water component in the sea, therefore thay furnish a direct link to the water in the atmosphere and on continents and to the precipitation cycle which caused the salinity changes. The ratio of 18 O to 16 O (delta 18 O) ot waters is a powerful tracer in polar regions where sea and glacial ice processes decouple delta 18 O from salinity. Here we present observations from a significant but relatively unexplored component of the Southern Ocean current system, the Antarctic Coastal Current, and its associated Antarctic Slope Front. (author)

  10. A pilot project: Antioch Delta Cove, Antioch, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minder, M.

    1994-01-01

    The project involves the restoration of the Hickmott cannery site, comprising approximately 15 acres (three five acre parcels) located on the Delta in inter-city Antioch. Hickmott Foods, Inc., operated a fruit and vegetable cannery between 1905 and the early 1970's, during which time tomato skins, peach and apricot pits, and asparagus butts were discharged on the site. The decaying fruit pits have caused cyanide contamination. Additionally, the site contains some petroleum hydrocarbon contamination as well as gypsum board contamination, apparently from nearby manufacturing operations. The Antioch Delta Cove Pilot shows how interested parties can work together to clean up contaminated sites and use the clean up process to stimulate technology transfer. The Antioch project is a blueprint that can be replicated at other sites across California

  11. Development of sunflower germplasm with high delta-tocopherol content

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco L.; Pérez-Vich B.; Fernández-Martínez J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Tocopherols are the main compounds with antioxidant activity in oilseeds Sunflower seeds contain predominantly alpha-tocopherol, which accounts for more than 90% of the total tocopherols in the seeds. This tocopherol derivative possesses a maximum vitamin E or in vivo antioxidant activity, but it exerts a minimum in vitro protective action in oils and food containing them. Other tocopherol derivatives such as beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol are more powerful antioxidants than alpha-tocoph...

  12. Empirical P-L-C relations for delta Scuti stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.

    1978-01-01

    Separate P-L-C relations have been empirically derived by sampling the delta Scuti stars according to their pulsation modes. The results based on these relations have been compared with those estimated from the model based P-L-C relations and the other existing empirical P-L-C relations. It is found that a separate P-L-C relation for each pulsation mode provides a better correspondence with observations. (Auth.)

  13. Smilansky-Solomyak model with a delta '-interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Lipovský, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 382, č. 18 (2018), s. 1207-1213 ISSN 0375-9601 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Smilansky-Solomyak model * delta '-interaction * spectral theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.772, year: 2016

  14. Process connectivity in a naturally prograding river delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendrowski, Alicia; Passalacqua, Paola

    2017-03-01

    River deltas are lowland systems that can display high hydrological connectivity. This connectivity can be structural (morphological connections), functional (control of fluxes), and process connectivity (information flow from system drivers to sinks). In this work, we quantify hydrological process connectivity in Wax Lake Delta, coastal Louisiana, by analyzing couplings among external drivers (discharge, tides, and wind) and water levels recorded at five islands and one channel over summer 2014. We quantify process connections with information theory, a branch of mathematics concerned with the communication of information. We represent process connections as a network; variables serve as network nodes and couplings as network links describing the strength, direction, and time scale of information flow. Comparing process connections at long (105 days) and short (10 days) time scales, we show that tides exhibit daily synchronization with water level, with decreasing strength from downstream to upstream, and that tides transfer information as tides transition from spring to neap. Discharge synchronizes with water level and the time scale of its information transfer compares well to physical travel times through the system, computed with a hydrodynamic model. Information transfer and physical transport show similar spatial patterns, although information transfer time scales are larger than physical travel times. Wind events associated with water level setup lead to increased process connectivity with highly variable information transfer time scales. We discuss the information theory results in the context of the hydrologic behavior of the delta, the role of vegetation as a connector/disconnector on islands, and the applicability of process networks as tools for delta modeling results.

  15. Reactive Flow Control of Delta Wing Vortex (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    wing aircraft. A substantial amount of research has been dedicated to the control of aerodynamic flows using both passive and active control mechanisms...Passive vortex control devices such as vortex generators and winglets attach to the wing and require no energy input. Passive vortex control...leading edges is also effective for changing the aerodynamic characteristics of delta wings [2] [3]. Gutmark and Guillot [5] proposed controlling

  16. Des drones survolant le delta | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 nov. 2016 ... Photo prise par un drone survolant la ville de Fuvemeh. Appeaning-Addo et al. 2015. Les vagues balayant le rivage de Fuvemeh, une ville ghanéenne qui est située près du delta du fleuve Volta et que menacent les inondations et l'érosion des côtes. Par Brian Owens, Canadian Geographic. La région du ...

  17. Delta Learning Rule for the Active Sites Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lingashetty, Krishna Chaithanya

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results on methods of comparing the memory retrieval capacity of the Hebbian neural network which implements the B-Matrix approach, by using the Widrow-Hoff rule of learning. We then, extend the recently proposed Active Sites model by developing a delta rule to increase memory capacity. Also, this paper extends the binary neural network to a multi-level (non-binary) neural network.

  18. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions

  19. Sevoflurane Induces Coherent Slow-Delta Oscillations in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Guidera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although general anesthetics are routinely administered to surgical patients to induce loss of consciousness, the mechanisms underlying anesthetic-induced unconsciousness are not fully understood. In rats, we characterized changes in the extradural EEG and intracranial local field potentials (LFPs within the prefrontal cortex (PFC, parietal cortex (PC, and central thalamus (CT in response to progressively higher doses of the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane. During induction with a low dose of sevoflurane, beta/low gamma (12–40 Hz power increased in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs, and PFC–CT and PFC–PFC LFP beta/low gamma coherence increased. Loss of movement (LOM coincided with an abrupt decrease in beta/low gamma PFC–CT LFP coherence. Following LOM, cortically coherent slow-delta (0.1–4 Hz oscillations were observed in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs. At higher doses of sevoflurane sufficient to induce loss of the righting reflex, coherent slow-delta oscillations were dominant in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs. Dynamics similar to those observed during induction were observed as animals emerged from sevoflurane anesthesia. We conclude that the rat is a useful animal model for sevoflurane-induced EEG oscillations in humans, and that coherent slow-delta oscillations are a correlate of sevoflurane-induced behavioral arrest and loss of righting in rats.

  20. Nitrous oxide-induced slow and delta oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Kara J; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Sampson, Aaron L; Ling, Kelly; Purdon, Patrick L; Brown, Emery N

    2016-01-01

    Switching from maintenance of general anesthesia with an ether anesthetic to maintenance with high-dose (concentration >50% and total gas flow rate >4 liters per minute) nitrous oxide is a common practice used to facilitate emergence from general anesthesia. The transition from the ether anesthetic to nitrous oxide is associated with a switch in the putative mechanisms and sites of anesthetic action. We investigated whether there is an electroencephalogram (EEG) marker of this transition. We retrospectively studied the ether anesthetic to nitrous oxide transition in 19 patients with EEG monitoring receiving general anesthesia using the ether anesthetic sevoflurane combined with oxygen and air. Following the transition to nitrous oxide, the alpha (8-12 Hz) oscillations associated with sevoflurane dissipated within 3-12 min (median 6 min) and were replaced by highly coherent large-amplitude slow-delta (0.1-4 Hz) oscillations that persisted for 2-12 min (median 3 min). Administration of high-dose nitrous oxide is associated with transient, large amplitude slow-delta oscillations. We postulate that these slow-delta oscillations may result from nitrous oxide-induced blockade of major excitatory inputs (NMDA glutamate projections) from the brainstem (parabrachial nucleus and medial pontine reticular formation) to the thalamus and cortex. This EEG signature of high-dose nitrous oxide may offer new insights into brain states during general anesthesia. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.