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Sample records for east ural radioactive

  1. Assessing radiation exposure of herbaceous plant species at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimullina, Elina; Antonova, Elena; Pozolotina, Vera

    2013-01-01

    The East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) is a result of the Mayak Production Association accident that occurred in 1957 in Russia. Radiological assessment improves the interpretation of biological effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore a modeling approach was used to estimate dose rates on Leonurus quinquelobatus, Silene latifolia, Stellaria graminea and Bromus inermis. Soil-to-organism transfer parameter values are delivered from empirical data of 90 Sr and 137 Cs soil and vegetative plant mass activity concentrations. External and internal whole-body dose rates were calculated using deterministic (The ERICA Tool-Tier 2 and R and D 128/SP1a) and probabilistic (The ERICA Tool-Tier 3) methods. The total dose rate for herbs was under 100 μGy h −1 at the most polluted site. The total absorbed dose rates increased 43–110 times (Tier 3) for different herbaceous plant species along the pollution gradient. Based on these data, it can be concluded that herbaceous plant populations currently exist under low-level chronic exposure at the EURT area. -- Highlights: • A modeling approach (The ERICA Tool-Tier 2, Tier 3 and R and D 128/SP1a) was used to estimate dose rates for herbs growing in the wild at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace. • The highest levels of anthropogenic radiation exposure were determined for herbs at Impact EURT sites. • Total absorbed dose rates increased 43–110 times (Tier 3) for different herbaceous plant species along the pollution gradient. • Total dose rate per plant organism for herbs is under 100 μGy h −1 at the most polluted site. Currently herbaceous plant populations exist under low-level chronic exposure at the EURT area

  2. Public estimation of the program of the rehabilitation of the east Urals territory of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishutina, T.A.; Korobejnikova, T.A.; Pavlov, B.S.; Suslo, A.F.; Sharova, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    The state of public opinion at the East Urals territory of radioactive contamination of the moment of the adoption of a number of govement acts on rehabilitation may be considered as transitory from the state of actually complete neglect of the problem on the part of the government (1950-70) to that of publicity and taking first practical steps towards development and implementation of rehabilitation policies (1990 s). A primary goal for a program for such territories should be achieving their overall revival on the basis of modern requirements of the population

  3. Reconstruction of radionuclide intakes for the residents of East Urals Radioactive Trace (1957-2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstykh, Evgenia I.; Peremyslova, Lyudmila M.; Degteva, Marina O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Napier, Bruce A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) was formed after a chemical explosion in the radioactive waste-storage facility of the Mayak Production Association in 1957 (Southern Urals, Russia) and resulted in an activity dispersion of 7.4 x 10{sup 16} Bq into the atmosphere. Internal exposure due to ingestion of radionuclides with local foodstuffs was the main factor of public exposure at the EURT. The EURT cohort, combining residents of most contaminated settlements, was formed for epidemiological study at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Russia (URCRM). For the purpose of improvement of radionuclide intake estimates for cohort members, the following data sets collected in URCRM were used: (1) Total β-activity and radiochemical measurements of {sup 90}Sr in local foodstuffs over all of the period of interest (1958-2011; n = 2200), which were used for relative {sup 90}Sr intake estimations. (2) {sup 90}Sr measurements in human bones and whole body (n = 338); these data were used for average {sup 90}Sr intake derivations using an age- and gender-dependent Sr-biokinetic model. Non-strontium radionuclide intakes were evaluated on the basis of {sup 90}Sr intake data and the radionuclide composition of contaminated foodstuffs. Validation of radionuclide intakes during the first years after the accident was first carried out using measurements of the feces β-activity of EURT residents (n = 148). The comparison of experimental and reconstructed values of feces β-activity shows good agreement. {sup 90}Sr intakes for residents of settlements evacuated 7-14 days after the accident were also obtained from {sup 90}Sr measurements in human bone and whole body. The results of radionuclide intake reconstruction will be used to estimate the internal doses for the members of the EURT cohort. (orig.)

  4. Current Assessment of Integrated Content of Long-Lived Radionuclides in Soils of the Head Part of the East Ural Radioactive Trace - Current Assessment of Integrated Stocks of Long-Lived Radionuclides in Soils of the Head Part of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, Konstantin L. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620990 Kovalevskoy St., 20, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Molchanova, Inna V.; Mikhailovskaya, Lyudmila N.; Pozolotina, Vera N.; Antonova, Elena V. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, 8 Marta St., 202, 620144 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The East Ural Radioactive Trace is a result of the accident at the Production Association Mayak in 1957(the Kyshtym accident). The {sup 90}Sr was the main contaminant among long-lived radionuclides. Most of it was concentrated in the zone closest to the accident epicentre to the north-west (a narrow sector of about 15 deg., 35 km long). Later, in 1967, the EURT area was contaminated again with air-borne radioactive sediments from Lake Karachay, which had been used by the PA Mayak for storage of liquid radioactive waste. At this case the primary contaminant was {sup 137}Cs most of which was spread within 60 deg. sector oriented in the same direction (Aarkrog et al., 1997; Romanov et al., 1990). Our earlier radioecological studies included the assessment of integrated quantities of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 239,240}Pu within the central axis of the trace (Pozolotina et al., 2008; Molchanova et al., 2009). The aim of this investigation was the current assessment of integrated stocks of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 239,240}Pu in soils of the head part of the EURT along the central axis and the adjacent areas, to map the contamination data of the studied area using established geostatistical models by ArcGIS 9.3 (ESRI, USA). An inventory of the existing data (38 sampling locations) was performed earlier (Molchanova et al., 2009). Currently the database has information on 102 soil profile cuts. Taking into account the presence of global trends and anisotropy in the source data, ordinary kriging interpolation method was used. Geostatistical data analysis was performed for the determination of the basic parameters of spatial dependencies and the integral assessment of long-lived radionuclides in soils of the central, east peripheral, and west one parts of the trace. This analysis employed simplified geometric models (sector- and rectangle-shaped areas). The Monte Carlo technique was used for quantitatively assesses the uncertainty of the integrated stocks to

  5. Nuclear disaster in the Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.A.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is discussed in chapters, entitled: a big sensation begins; the sensation continues; the Urals disaster; radioactive contamination of lakes, water plants, and fish; mammals in the radioactive contaminated zone of the Urals; identification of the contaminated zone as the Chelyabinsk region and the time of the disaster as Fall-Winter 1957; birds in the radioactive biocenosis and the spread of radioactivity to other countries; soil animals in the Urals contaminated zone; trees in the Urals contaminated zone; field plants in the Urals radioactive zone and research in plant radiogenetics; population genetics research in the radioactive environment; the CIA documents on the Urals nuclear disaster; the causes of the Urals disaster - an attempted reconstruction of the 1957-1958 events. (U.K.)

  6. Current assessment of integrated content of long-lived radionuclides in soils of the head part of the East Ural Radioactive Trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchanova, I.; Mikhailovskaya, L.; Antonov, K.; Pozolotina, V.; Antonova, E.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the datasets obtained during investigations from 2003 to 2012, the spatial distributions of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239,240 Pu content in the soils of the head part of the East Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) were mapped using the geographic information system ArcGIS. Taking into account the presence of spatial autocorrelation and anisotropy in the source data, an ordinary kriging method was applied to interpolate values of radionuclide contamination density at unsampled places. Further geostatistical data analysis was performed to determine the basic parameters of spatial dependencies and to integrally assess the contamination by long-lived radionuclides in soils of the central, east peripheral, and west peripheral parts of the trace. This analysis was based on simplified geometric models (sector- and rectangle-shaped areas). The Monte Carlo method was used to quantitatively assess the uncertainty of the values for the integrated quantities resulting from the statistical errors of the source data approximation. - Highlights: • We investigated 102 soil samples in 2003–2012 at different distances from PA Mayak. • We mapped spatial distribution of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239,240 Pu at this area by ArcGIS. • Integrated content based on sector- and rectangle-shaped models are similar. • The studied area clearly split into central, west, and east parts. • Radionuclide content of the central part is higher two orders than of west and east. - Capsule abstract: The spatial distribution of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239,240 Pu at the EURT area by ArcGIS

  7. Some problems of risk assessment in cases of environmental radioactive and chemical contamination in regions of the Ural radioactive trail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Isaeva, L.N.; Sazykina, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology of risk assessment if being developed to permit the analysis of possible consequences of radioactive and chemical environment contamination on the territory of the Urals radioactive trail. The assessment of hazards from radioactive contamination of the Techa river (Muslyumovo) has been carried out. A comparison of radioactive and chemical risks for the population of Kasli has been made

  8. Analysis of internal doses to Mole voles inhabiting the East-Ural radioactive trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinovsky, G.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation); Chibiryak, M.; Vasil' ev, A. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Substantial task of development of approaches to radiation protection of non-human biota is investigation of relationships of exposure to dose, and dose to effects. Small mammals inhabiting territory of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) are affected to ionizing radiation for many generations after accident at Mayak plutonium production in 1957. According to results of numerous studies a number of effects of exposure are observed. It is remarkable that the revealed effects are both negative and adaptive. In particular, the analysis of the variability of morphological structures of the axial skull and lower jaw in the population of northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), the burrowing rodent inhabiting the EURT, is of great interest. At the same time there is no reliable assessment of the radiation doses to these animals. Earlier we developed the approach to assess internal doses to mouse-like rodents (mice and voles) caused by incorporated {sup 90}Sr, which is the main dose contributing radionuclide at the EURT. Dose assessments are based on the results of beta-radiometry of intact bone. Routine methods for measuring the activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skeleton require ashing of samples, however in morphometric studies the destruction of material should be avoided: the skulls of mole voles are stored in the environmental samples depository of IPAE. Coefficients linking results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skull of mouse was obtained basing on comparison of results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and bone ash. Obtained coefficients cannot be directly applied for calculating activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in mole vole skulls because they are significantly larger. Therefore the additional study is required to assess proper coefficient of conversion from beta-radiometry to activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr. Developed dose assessment procedure includes application of the published values of

  9. Radiation epidemiological analysis of late effects of population exposure at northern part of east ural radioactive trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Konshina, L.G.; Lezhnin, V.L.; Zhukovsky, M.V.; Pavlyuk, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Population residing in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk oblast and the south eastern part of the Sverdlovsk oblast of Russia affected to accidental exposure since 1957. The territory (East Ural Radioactive Trace - EURT) was contaminated after explosion of container with highly radioactive wastes at the Mayak Production Association. Studies of health effects of exposure in the southern, head part of EURT are conducted in the Ural Research and Practical Center of Radiation Medicine (U.R.P.R.M.). In the 1990's U.R.P.C.R.M. formed a cohort of EURT within Chelyabinsk oblast (14,500 cases and 19,400 external controls). The cohort was followed in 1957-1987 and the results of the study are discussed by Crestinina et al. First results of study on exposure late health effects among rural population in the northern part of the EURT are presented in this paper. Firstly, or the period 1958-2000 a statistically significant increase in cancer mortality associated with accidental exposure at EURT area was observed in the critical group of population of the Kamensky district, Sverdlovsk Region (65 cancer deaths among 691 cases, 90% CI 18-144). The finding is in agreement with the results of a radiation epidemiological study in the southern head part of EURT and model radiation risk assessments. E.R.R. normalized to colon dose is 1.3 Gy-1 (90 % CI 0.36-2.9 Gy-1). Secondly, analysis of the age and temporal factors influence on solid cancers radiation risk allows conclusion on decline of radiation risk in time. At present considerable number of additional radiation-induced cancer deaths are unlikely to appear. Radiation risk of solid cancers realizes at most during 30 post-accident years. Radiation risk declines with age at first exposure and not appeared in the age group >60. Derived age and time dependencies generally agree with results of other radiation epidemiological studies. Thirdly, continuation and development of radiation epidemiological study of the population residing

  10. Radiation epidemiological analysis of late effects of population exposure at northern part of east ural radioactive trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Konshina, L.G.; Lezhnin, V.L.; Zhukovsky, M.V.; Pavlyuk, A.V. [V.N. Chukanov Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Population residing in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk oblast and the south eastern part of the Sverdlovsk oblast of Russia affected to accidental exposure since 1957. The territory (East Ural Radioactive Trace - EURT) was contaminated after explosion of container with highly radioactive wastes at the Mayak Production Association. Studies of health effects of exposure in the southern, head part of EURT are conducted in the Ural Research and Practical Center of Radiation Medicine (U.R.P.R.M.). In the 1990's U.R.P.C.R.M. formed a cohort of EURT within Chelyabinsk oblast (14,500 cases and 19,400 external controls). The cohort was followed in 1957-1987 and the results of the study are discussed by Crestinina et al. First results of study on exposure late health effects among rural population in the northern part of the EURT are presented in this paper. Firstly, or the period 1958-2000 a statistically significant increase in cancer mortality associated with accidental exposure at EURT area was observed in the critical group of population of the Kamensky district, Sverdlovsk Region (65 cancer deaths among 691 cases, 90% CI 18-144). The finding is in agreement with the results of a radiation epidemiological study in the southern head part of EURT and model radiation risk assessments. E.R.R. normalized to colon dose is 1.3 Gy-1 (90 % CI 0.36-2.9 Gy-1). Secondly, analysis of the age and temporal factors influence on solid cancers radiation risk allows conclusion on decline of radiation risk in time. At present considerable number of additional radiation-induced cancer deaths are unlikely to appear. Radiation risk of solid cancers realizes at most during 30 post-accident years. Radiation risk declines with age at first exposure and not appeared in the age group >60. Derived age and time dependencies generally agree with results of other radiation epidemiological studies. Thirdly, continuation and development of radiation epidemiological study of the population

  11. South-east frontier of the Russian Empire and the processes on the division of the Ural River left bank area between Kirghiz-Kaysaks and Ural Cossacks in the second half of the XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Kortunov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the issue related to the peculiarities of formation of the south-east frontier of the Russian Empire and with the process on separation of the border areas of the Orenburg line (in particular of the Ural River left bank area between Kirghiz-Kaysaks and Ural Cossacks in the second half of XIX century. The author pays particular attention to the problem of the resolution of disputes between the Ural Cossacks and Kirghiz-Kaysaks by local and central authorities.

  12. 7. International symposium. Ural atomic, Ural industrial. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Books of abstracts of 7. International ecological symposium: Ural atomic, Ural industrial are presented in this collection. The reports are devoted to the real problems over the next directions: consequences of radiation accidents for environment and human population, problems of atomic industry and energetics, radiation monitoring, radiation protection on natural radioactivity. There are criteria for estimation of ecological and social systems state, factors formed human health, risks in this publication. The methods of systems analysis in ecology, medicine and social sphere, as well as methodology, ecological examination and reason of projects and objects are taken into account, complex analysis of condition or quality of territories, industrial centers and regions (ecology, health, economy, standard and quality of living) are made. The works of the Ural research institutes of Russian Academy of Sciences in decision of ecological problems are shown. Certain materials obtained during realization of contract: Estimation of priorities on prevention of environmental contamination on Middle Urals, financed by European Community (project ISTC-500-98) are exhibited in this publication [ru

  13. Efficiency of natural self-purification of ecosystems vs. countermeasures applied at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanova, I.; Pozolotina, V.; Mikhailovskaya, L.; Antonova, E.

    2012-04-01

    As a result of the radiation accident in 1957 at the Production Association "Mayak" (Russia, the Urals) a fast area (23000 km^2), later named the East-Ural radioactive trace, was contaminated. Accidental emission presented by the long-living radionuclides was found to be dominated by Sr-90. In 1967 the EURT area was subjected to a secondary contamination resulting from radioactive sediments transport by wind from "Mayak" technological reservoir, Karachay Lake. Currently, the stock of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 in the EURT's soil cover consist of 640•10^12 Bq. This study is aimed to compare an efficiency of the countermeasures adopted at the EURT and natural processes responsible for self-purification of contaminated ecosystems. With concern to the principle of ranging the contaminated areas two zones were established: impact and buffer ones. The impact zone is situated near the accident epicenter, i.e. within 2-30 km from of the Trace central axis. After accident this zone was removed from agricultural utilization. The buffer zone has permanent anthropogenic pressure. The native, undisturbed during the reclamation operations, flow adjacent of landscape sites were chosen within the impact and buffer zones. They included of a watershed area and bank area of the lakes. The impact zone demonstrated the lowest concentration of the radionuclides around the frequently flooded lake shore. Absence of anthropogenic pressure, the high density of the plant cover and deficit of the soil moisture in summer time are the main reasons for decreasing the intensity of the water runoff from watershed. As a result the self-purification processes are dominated around the shoreline soils. The buffer zone is characterized by an opposite regularity appeared in increasing of the Sr-90 content in the soils of the lake shore. In this case, the intensive agricultural utilization of the flat watersheds leads to increase of erosion and degradation processes and, as consequently, to the

  14. Temporal variability of the quality of Taraxacum officinale seed progeny from the East-Ural radioactive trace: is there an interaction between low level radiation and weather conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozolotina, Vera N; Antonova, Elena V

    2017-03-01

    The multiple stressors, in different combinations, may impact differently upon seed quality, and low-level doses of radiation may enhance synergistic or antagonistic effects. During 1991-2014 we investigated the quality of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) seed progeny growing under low-level radiation exposure at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) area (result of the Kyshtym accident, Russia), and in plants from areas exposed to background radiation. The viability of the dandelion seed progeny was assessed according to chronic radiation exposure, accounting for the variability of weather conditions among years. Environmental factors (temperature, precipitation, and their ratio in different months) can modify the radiobiological effects. We found a wide range of possible responses to multiple stressors: inhibition, stimulation, and indifferent effects in different seasons. The intraspecific variability of the quality of dandelion seed progeny was greatly increased under conditions of low doses of chronic irradiation. Temperature was the most significant factor for seed progeny formation in the EURT zone, whereas the sums of precipitation and ratios of precipitation to temperature dominantly affected organisms from the background population.

  15. Radioactive inventories from the Kyshtym and Karachay accidents: estimates based on soil samples collected in the South Urals (1990-1995)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The implementation of the nuclear programme in the Cheliabinsk region in the Ural, where plutonium for the first Soviet nuclear weapons was produced, involved radioactive contamination of the environment. The end of the cold war in the late 1980s initiated a fruitful co-operation between Russian...... and Western radioecologists. The present study is a joint Russian-Ukrainian-Danish effort to make an independent estimate of the inventories of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239,Pu-240 from two major contamination events in the South Urals, namely, the Kyshtym accident in 1957 and the Karachay wind dispersion in 1967....... The calculations are based upon deposition measurements of the radionuclides carried out on soil samples assuming that the depositions decreased exponentially with distance from the two sources. The inventory estimates are compared with the available Russian information on the two accidents. (C) 1997 Elsevier...

  16. Eco-logo-genetical characteristic of seed progeny of the Taraxacum officinale S.L. from the zone of east-ural radioactive trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozolotina, V.; Ulyanova, E.

    2004-01-01

    Levels of soil contamination with 90 Sr and 137 Cs radionuclides within the zone of Eastern-Ural radioactive trace, at the plots differently distant from the place of Kyshtym accident of 1957, exceed values of the global level 4-40 times. It was shown that the same coeno-population from EURT in the different years revealed the whole variety of previously described low-level irradiation effects. They are: stimulating one (vitality indexes in seed progeny exceed significantly those registered in the background samples); the depressing one, marked for high mortality level; and an indifferent effect showing neither significant differences from the background plants. Variation scope exceeding the normal one in regard to plants growth and development rates, as well as high frequencies of chromosome and morphological aberrations indicate to the plant genome non-stability caused by chronic low-level irradiation loads. Seed progeny also demonstrated the similar ambiguous response to additional irradiation, which is confirmed by allozyme analysis results. Standard electrophoretic methods are applicable to the dandelion studies. Some enzyme systems (Got, Dia) seem to be more suitable for seedlings, whereas the others provided satisfactory results being used for the seed material. In plant coeno-populations situated in radionuclides-polluted zone, genomic recombination processes show higher intensity. High enzymatic variability provides the material for natural selection and increase the adaptive potential of coeno-populations. (author)

  17. Effects of Environmental Radioactive Pollution on the Cardiovascular Systems of Ural Region Residents: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Konstantinova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this comparative study was to evaluate the effects of radioactive pollution in river water and confounding risk factors on the prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms in people living in the Ural region. Methods: We selected this region as a case territory for study because it is exposed to chronic ionizing radiation. The area is composed of coastal localities situated along the Techa River, into which liquid radioactive waste materials have been released. As a control, we selected settlements that were not subjected to ionizing radiation. Results: We found a statistically significant relationship between radioactive contamination of a territory and the prevalence of pathologies of the cardiovascular systems of people living in the Techa riverside villages (OR=2.31, p<0.001. The influence of covariates (gender, age, overweight status, and others on the development of cardiovascular pathologies was analyzed. Some of these factors have been recognized as confounding factors. After accounting for confounding factors, the odds ratio for the impact of radiation on the prevalence of pathologies of the cardiovascular system decreased to (OR=1.58, p=0.02. Conclusions: Statistically significant gender and age differences were observed in the prevalence of pathologies of the cardiovascular system in residents of radioactively contaminated areas compared to residents of control areas. These differences show a more pronounced reaction to contamination in older residents, residents with an overweight status and residents with meteotropic reactions.

  18. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D.

    1993-01-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs

  19. Great tit and pied flycatcher populations on the territory of radioactive trail in the eastern Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, N.V.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the prospects for using populations of the great tit (Parus major) and the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in ecological monitoring of territories contaminated with radionuclides. Studies were performed in the summer of 1992 in birch forests of the Southern Urals. Artificial nesting sites (log houses) located 1.5 m above the ground were distributed over territories of two test plots: 30 log houses on the contaminated plot and 60 on the control plot (contamination with Sr-90 1.5 and 2 · 10 -3 mCi/m 2 , respectively). The nesting success in the great tit was similar on both plots, whereas that in the pied flycatcher was significantly greater on the control plot (in a open-quotes cleanclose quotes forest). Pied flycatchers build their nests out of highly radioactive materials, whereas great tits use nonradioactive or weakly emitting materials. Hence, pied flycatcher's nestlings receive a significant radiation dose from components of the nest: From the moment of egg laying, this dose amounts to 0.5 rem. The pied flycatcher can be used as an indicator of radioactive contamination. This species is more sensitive than the great tit, which has been successfully used as an indicator for monitoring the industrial air pollution

  20. Radiation accident at the South Urals in 1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikipelov, B.V.; Romanov, G.N.; Buldakov, L.A.; Babaev, N.S.; Kholina, Yu.B.; Mikerin, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation accidents with release of radioactive substances into environment which took place in the South Ural in 1957 is evaluated. Scientific researches conducted since 1957 are described. Scientific data of unique fundamental and applied value were obtaibed. Recommendations for the organization and content of radiation sanctuary are developed. Scientific researches permitted to make reliable long-turm prediction of radiation situation developed owing to the Chernobyl NPP accident and to work out practical recommendations so as to reduce adverse aftereffects of the accident

  1. Nuclear disaster in the Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.A.

    1980-01-01

    Based on items of personal knowledge and on a critical examination of the open report literature, the author establishes the probable occurrence of a major radiation accident in late 1957 or early 1958 in the Chelyabinsk region of the Urals. The reports published deal with contamination of lakes, fish, soil, mammals, birds, insects and trees by cesium 137 and strontium 90. The levels of contamination and the numbers of animals sampled lead him to assume that the source of the accident was radioactive wastes from plutonium producing reactors which had been inadequately disposed of, and that the contaminated area was of the order of 100 sq.km. Relevant CIA documents released are reproduced. (JIW)

  2. Structural evolution of the Ural-Tian Shan junction: A view from Karatau ridge, South Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeiev, D.V.; Cook, H.E.; Buvtyshkin, V.M.; Golub, L.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The deformation history of the Late Palaeozoic Ural-Tian Shan junction is discussed for the example of the Karatau ridge in southern Kazakhstan. Three deformation events are recognized. The Late Carboniferous D1 event is characterized by Laramide-style thrust-and-fold structures on the southern margin of Kazakhstan with shortening in a NE-SW direction. The Latest Permian and Triassic D2 event is controlled by compression in an east-west direction, which reflects collisional deformation in the Urals. The main structures are submeridional folds and north-west-striking sinistral strike-slip faults. The Triassic D3 event with shortening in a north-south direction reflects collision of the Turan microcontinent against the southern margin of Kazakhstan. The main structures are north-west-striking dextral strike-slip faults. Our new data provides important clues for the reconstruction of pre-Cretaceous structures between the Urals and the Tian Shan. ?? 2008 Acad??mie des sciences.

  3. Agricultural aspects of the radiation situation in the areas contaminated by the southern Urals and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    Being different in nature, the accidents in the Southern Urals and at Chernobyl gave rise to radiation situations with own specific features, affecting, in particular, agricultural activities in the contaminated area. The main specific features of the Chernobyl accident were the vast scale of contamination, the large contamination gradients even at considerable distances from the accident site, the heterogeneity of radioactive fallout distribution at micro-level, the inconsistent nature of changes in soil contamination levels, and separation of the radionuclides from the fallout. In spite of the fundamental differences in the chemical character of the types of radioactive fallout, the radionuclides of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were in both cases readily available for assimilation by plant root systems. In both the Southern Urals and the Ukraine the coefficients of radionuclide build-up in soils with identical agrochemical properties fall within the observation accuracy limits. As a result of the Chernobyl accident, light soils of soddy-podzolic composition were subjected to the greatest contamination, their radionuclide build-up coefficients being 8-15 times higher than those of the chernozem soils in the Southern Urals. An abnormally high level of radiocaesium accumulation was observed in meadow grasses, which explains the leading role of milk contamination in the radiation situation on private holdings. (author)

  4. Population structure of larch forests in the Urals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putenikhin, V.P.; Farukshina, G.G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa (Russian Federation). Botanical Garden Inst.

    1995-12-31

    The variability and population structure of larch (Larix sukaczewii Dyl.) naturally growing in the Urals was studied on the basis of biometric analysis of generative organs. The obtained results point to the existence of 11 phenotypically different local populations of Larix sukaczewii in the Urals. Four populations are identified in the South Urals: Marginal, central, high-mountainous, south-uralian and Bashkircis-uralian. Middle-uralian, Perm cis-uralian, central north-uralian and high-mountainous north-uralian populations are determined in the Middle and the North Urals. Three populations of Larix sukaczewii are identified in the Sub-Polar and the Polar Urals: Subpolar-uralian, Pechora-Thiman cisuralian and polar-uralian. 8 refs, 2 tabs

  5. Population structure of larch forests in the Urals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putenikhin, V P; Farukshina, G G [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa (Russian Federation). Botanical Garden Inst.

    1996-12-31

    The variability and population structure of larch (Larix sukaczewii Dyl.) naturally growing in the Urals was studied on the basis of biometric analysis of generative organs. The obtained results point to the existence of 11 phenotypically different local populations of Larix sukaczewii in the Urals. Four populations are identified in the South Urals: Marginal, central, high-mountainous, south-uralian and Bashkircis-uralian. Middle-uralian, Perm cis-uralian, central north-uralian and high-mountainous north-uralian populations are determined in the Middle and the North Urals. Three populations of Larix sukaczewii are identified in the Sub-Polar and the Polar Urals: Subpolar-uralian, Pechora-Thiman cisuralian and polar-uralian. 8 refs, 2 tabs

  6. [Minor Uralic languages...] / Väino Klaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaus, Väino, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Arvustus: Minor Uralic languages and their contacts / University of Tartu ; editor A. Künnap. Tartu : University of Tartu, 1993 ; Minor Uralic languages: structure and development : [artikleid ja materjale / edited and preface by Ago Künnap]. Tartu : [Tartu University Press] ; Groningen : University of Groningen, 1994

  7. A survey of the environmental radioactivity in the east sea related to the Russian ocean dumping of the radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyehoon; Kim, Changkyu; Lee, Mosung

    1994-01-01

    From October 24 - December 30, 1993 a joint survey by the Office of Fisheries, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, and several other governmental institutes which was supervised by Ministry of Science and Technology was carried out to investigate present marine environmental radioactivity of the East Sea where former USSR and Russia had dumped radioactive waste since 1957. Exposure rate was measured and the radioactivity of seawater, both surface and deep water, bottom sediment, fish, and planktonic organisms from the areas around the dumping sites and the East Sae were analyzed. Results showed that the radioactivities of Cs-137 in the sea water from dumping sites were less than 0.0038 Bq/L, which was similar to the background level of the East Sea. The radioactivity level of fish and bottom sediment from dumping sites also did not increased. A detailed Ocean Environmental Monitoring Plan, however, should be established and the monitoring must be carried out continuously to protect people from potential radioactive hazards

  8. Joint US/Russian Studies of Population Exposures Resulting from Nuclear Production Activities in the Southern Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 1948, the Soviet Union initiated a program for production of nuclear materials for a weapons program. The first facility for production of plutonium was constructed in the central portion of the country east of the southern Ural Mountains, about halfway between the major industrial cities of Ekaterinburg and Chelyabinsk. The facility now known as the Mayak Production Association and its associated town, now known as Ozersk, were built to irradiate uranium in reactors, separate the resulting plutonium in reprocessing plants, and prepare plutonium metal. The rush to production, coupled with inexperience in handling radioactive materials, lead to large radiation exposures, not only to the workers in the facilities, but also to the surrounding public. Fuel processing started with no controls on releases, and fuel dissolution and accidents in reactors resulted in release of about 37 PBq (1015 Bq) of 131I between 1948 and 1967. Designed disposals of low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes, and accidental releases via cooling water from tank farms of high-level liquid radioactive wastes, into the small Techa River caused significant contamination and exposures to residents of numerous small riverside villages downstream of the site. Discovery of the magnitude of the aquatic contamination in late 1951 caused revisions to the waste handling regimes, but not before over 200 PBq of radionuclides (with large contributions of 90Sr and 137Cs) were released. Liquid wastes were diverted to tiny Lake Karachay (which today holds over 4 EBq); cooling water was stopped in the tank farms. In 1957, one of the tanks in the tank farm overheated and exploded; over 70 PBq, disproportionately 90Sr, was blown over a large area to the northeast of the site; a large area was contaminated and many villages evacuated. This area today is known as the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT). Each of these releases was significant; together they have created a group of cohorts

  9. Low-level radioactive waste management at Argonne National Laboratory-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, C.M.; Shearer, T.L.; Nelson, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the low-level radioactive waste management practices and treatment systems at Argonne National Laboratory - East (ANL-E). It addresses the systems, processes, types of waste treated, and the status and performance of the systems. ANL-E is a Department of Energy laboratory that is engaged in a variety of research projects, some of which generate radioactive waste, in addition a significant amount of radioactive waste remains from previous projects and decontamination and decommissioning of facilities where this work was performed

  10. Geological Structure and Gold Mineralization of Carbonaceous Deposits of the Tyotechnaya Mountain (South Urals)

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Snachev; E. P. Shchulkin

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers the geological structure of the northern part of the East-Urals Trough. Particular attention is paid to the Kosobrodskaya Formation, where the carbonaceous deposits are most abundant. It was found that the gold in the black shales of the Tyotechnaya Mountain is associated with the intensively dislocated, silicified and sulfidised rocks struck with the diorite porphyry of the Birgildin-Tomino Complex. Channel sampling on the number of wells showed the gold grades up to 1.5...

  11. Coefficient of soil decontamination from strontium-90 at the territory of east Ural radioactive trace (EURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhenov, A.V.; Volobuev, P.V.; Isymov, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The knowledge of coefficient of soil decontamination is necessary for predictions the dynamics in development of radioactive situation, for retrospective estimation and reconstruction of the initial radioactive contamination levels of territories. By effective coefficient of soil decontamination from radionuclides (CSD) we mean the multiple of a nuclide completely removed from the soil as a result of its physical decay, active removal of radionuclides from the ground into water ecosystems, as well as biogeochemical and wind migration beyond KURT borders. Its dimension can be expressed in the divisible relation (in how many times?), in percentage, as well as in periods of half-desintegration, if the process of desintegration is the exponent. The calculation is made on a complete nuclides supply in soil. The objective of the study is to calculate the effective coefficient of soil decontamination from 90 Sr on the basis of the analyzis of the experimental materials received at KURT territories in Sverdlovsk region. (author)

  12. Problems of Foreign Economic Relations Development of Ural Regions with BRICS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the basic vocabulary of BRICS countries, its regional tendencies of business development, and its share taken in the foreign-economic activity are analyzed. Contribution of different foreign trade fields of regions into economic development is revealed. Indicators of development levels of external economic links are reviewed. Alternative options of the foreign trade development, expenses and benefits from its reorientation, and the reason of low indicators of development of foreign trade activity of the Ural regions with BRICS countries are evaluated, and measures for their improvement and development are offered. The mechanism and tools of stimulation of foreign economic relations development of regions with BRICS countries are investigated. The internal and external motives and incentives of expansion of these relations are examined. The factors influencing the regional markets development and revealing multidirectional tendencies in activities of business, government, society for development of foreign economic relations of the Ural regions with BRICS countries, and first of all with Brazil, India, China and the Republic of South Africa are investigated. The export-import features of the foreign trade operations with these countries, and also possible ways and the directions of expansion of the prognostics of foreign economic relations in the conditions of toughening and restriction of similar operations and financial sources from the developed countries, first of all the USA and EU countries are represented. Author examines the reasons and scenario, problems and difficulties for the country and the Ural regions in refocusing of international economic relation from Western Europe to the South-East Asia countries. Real opportunities of participation of regions of the country in the import substitution and development of own resource and production base are analyzed. The research is focused on analysis of international economic

  13. Joint U.S./Russian studies of population exposures resulting from nuclear production activities in the southern Urals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Bruce A

    2014-02-01

    Beginning in 1948, the Soviet Union initiated a program for production of nuclear materials for a weapons program. The first facility for production of plutonium was constructed in the central portion of the country east of the southern Ural Mountains, about halfway between the major industrial cities of Ekaterinburg and Chelyabinsk. The facility, now known as the Mayak Production Association, and its associated town, now known as Ozersk, were built to irradiate uranium in reactors, separate the resulting plutonium in reprocessing plants, and prepare plutonium metal in the metallurgical plant. The rush to production, coupled with inexperience in handling radioactive materials, led to large radiation exposures, not only to the workers in the facilities, but also to the surrounding public. Fuel processing started with no controls on releases, and fuel dissolution and accidents in reactors resulted in release of ~37 PBq of I between 1948 and 1967. Designed disposals of low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes, and accidental releases via cooling water from tank farms of high-level liquid radioactive wastes into the small Techa River, caused significant contamination and exposures to residents of numerous small riverside villages downstream of the site. Discovery of the magnitude of the aquatic contamination in late 1951 caused revisions to the waste handling regimes, but not before over 200 PBq of radionuclides (with large contributions of Sr and Cs) were released. Liquid wastes were diverted to tiny Lake Karachay (which today holds over 4 EBq); cooling water was stopped in the tank farms. In 1957, one of the tanks in the tank farm overheated and exploded; over 70 PBq, disproportionately Sr, was blown over a large area to the northeast of the site. A large area was contaminated and many villages evacuated. This area today is known as the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT). Each of these releases was significant; together they have created a unique group

  14. Report on a radiological accident in the southern Urals on 29 September 1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikipelov, B.V.; Romanov, G.N.; Buldakov, L.A.; Babaev, N.S.; Kholina, Yu.B.; Mikerin, E.I.

    1989-07-01

    In response to concern expressed by the international community about the possible consequences of a radiological accident which occurred at a military installation in the southern Urals in 1957, Soviet specialists have prepared this report containing information on this event. Owing to a fault in the cooling system used for the concrete tanks containing highly active nitrate acetate wastes, a chemical explosion occurred in these materials on 29 September 1957 and radioactive fission products were released into the atmosphere and subsequently scattered and deposited in parts of the Chelyabinsk, Svendlovsk and Tyumensk provinces. 9 tabs

  15. Geological Structure and Gold Mineralization of Carbonaceous Deposits of the Tyotechnaya Mountain (South Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Snachev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the geological structure of the northern part of the East-Urals Trough. Particular attention is paid to the Kosobrodskaya Formation, where the carbonaceous deposits are most abundant. It was found that the gold in the black shales of the Tyotechnaya Mountain is associated with the intensively dislocated, silicified and sulfidised rocks struck with the diorite porphyry of the Birgildin-Tomino Complex. Channel sampling on the number of wells showed the gold grades up to 1.5 g/t that allows suggesting the setting up of new gold deposit.

  16. MAIN STAGES SCIENTIFIC AND PRODUCTION MASTERING THE TERRITORY AVERAGE URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Bochko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Questions of the shaping Average Ural, as industrial territory, on base her scientific study and production mastering are considered in the article. It is shown that studies of Ural resources and particularities of the vital activity of its population were concerned by Russian and foreign scientist in XVIII-XIX centuries. It is noted that in XX century there was a transition to systematic organizing-economic study of production power, society and natures of Average Ural. More attention addressed on new problems of region and on needs of their scientific solving.

  17. Genetic diversity of Siberian stone pine under introduction in the South Urals and Bashkir Cis-Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kh. Shigapov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme polymorphism of Siberian stone pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour has been studied in 14 artificial stands in the South Urals and Bashkir Cis-Urals on the base of 7 gene-enzyme system analysis. The following values of genetic diversity are determined: mean number of alleles per locus (A constitutes 1.69±0.08; portion of polymorphic loci (P95 – 50.0 %; the average expected heterozygosity (He – 0.121±0.015; the average observed heterozygosity (Ho – 0.127±0.017.The level of genetic variability in artificial stands of Siberian stone pine in the region is somewhat inferior to that in natural populations of the species. The highest genotype heterozygosity is determined in high-productive 110 year-old artificial stand in the South Urals (Beloretsky-2 site, and also in Ufimsky and Mishkinsky sites in Bashkir Cis-Urals. The lowest heterozygosity values are revealed in Birsky and Tuimazinsky sites characterized by the weakened vital state of individuals. In total we can speak about the maintenance of essential part of the species’ genetic polymorphism under introduction, especially in some stands. Genetic similarity of the studied stands is shown: inter-sample component of the total genetic diversity (FST constitutes 2.2 %, the average Nei’s genetic distance (D – 0.0033±0.00023, that is also typical of natural populations of Siberian stone pine in the species range. The obtained data about the genetic variability level of artificial stands in a complex with forestry characteristics give evidence of the successful species introduction in the region and the necessity of resumption of works on Siberian stone pine culture establishment in an industrial scale.

  18. Geochemistry of Thorium and Uranium in Soils of the Southern Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asylbaev, I. G.; Khabirov, I. K.; Gabbasova, I. M.; Rafikov, B. V.; Lukmanov, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Specific features of the horizontal and vertical distribution of uranium and thorium in soils and parent materials of the Southern Urals within the Bashkortostan Republic have been studied with the use of mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The dependence of distribution patterns of these elements on the local environmental conditions is shown. A scale for soil evaluation according to the concentrations of uranium and thorium (mg/kg) is suggested: the low level, up to 3; medium, up to 9; high, up to 15; and very high, above 15 mg/kg. On the basis of to this scale, the ecological state of the soils is evaluated, and the schematic geochemical map of the region is compiled. The territory of Bashkortostan is subdivided into two parts according to the contents of radioactive elements in soils: the western part with distinct accumulation of uranium and the eastern part with predominant thorium accumulation. This finding supports the charriage (thrust fault) nature of the fault zone of the Southern Urals. The vertical distribution patterns of uranium and thorium in soils of the region are of the same character. The dependence between the contents of these two elements and rare-earth elements has been established. The results of this study are applied for assessing the ecological state of soils in the region.

  19. Geochemical Indicators of the Carbonate Sedimentation Depositional Environments and Geodynamic Conditions in the East of the Middle Urals in the Kizelovian Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Dub

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical characteristics of the limestones of Kizelovskian substage of the Eastern Urals zone (Rezh River, Middle Urals, such as carbon and oxygen isotopic composition, concentration of minor and trace elements, and redox value indicators, were studied in details. Based on the results of data interpretation and analysis of lithological features, it was assumed that carbonate deposits formed in shallow oxygen-rich environment with high bioproductivity warm water ecosystem, and within the isolated carbonate platform with a steady sinking territory. Some signs indicate that sedimentation during the Kizelovian time occurred in the inner lagoon of a large atoll. The Maldivian archipelago could be a contemporary analogue of the Rezhevskaya carbonate platform.

  20. THE ANALYSIS OF THE GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC MINERAL RESOURCES IN THE RAIL ROAD CORRIDOR "URAL INDUSTRIAL – URAL POLAR"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Pakhomov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article brings forth the geological-economic analysis of the mineral resource in the area of the transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar". Given is the analysis of the potential finding of coal on the territory, chromate and other important excavations, the whereabouts of which are more easily approachable for the acquiring with the condition of building a railroad with the path of station Polunochnoye-Obskaya. Given are the possible masses of the delivery of the products accordingly. Distinguished is the size of the investments, that are needed for the mineral resources of the given territory.

  1. Tritium in water ecosystems of Ural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotina, M.Ya.; Nikolin, O.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides the data on tritium monitoring in water ecosystems of the Ural region. The study area comprises the Beloyarsk Atomic Power Plant (cooling reservoir and the Olkhovsk bog-river ecosystem), a territory around the 'Mayak' Enterprise, and control territory, for comparison, located in the North of Sverdlovsk region. It was found that a large area in the Ural region, particularly near the power plant and the 'Mayak,, was characterized by increased tritium content in water as compared with technogenic background is typical for control areas. It may be considered that nearly all the tritium within the study area including control ones are of anthropogenic origin taking into account the act that the global background level for the radionuclide is 1 Bq/l.(author)

  2. Interim oceanographic description of the North-East-Atlantic site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.R.; Gurbutt, P.A.; Kershaw, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The NEA Co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme (CRESP) related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was started in 1981 following a recommendation of the Group of experts convened every five years by NEA to review the continued suitability of the dumping site for radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic. The objective of CRESP is to increase the available scientific data base related to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dump site and elaborate a site specific model of the transfers of radionuclides to human populations. Volume one of the ''Interim Oceanographic Description of the North-East Atlantic Site for the Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste'' was published in early 1983. It was an attempt to identify remaining gaps in current knowledge of conditions at the site and relate these conditions to the physical environment of the North-East Atlantic Ocean as a whole. The amount of data obtained by the CRESP Programme is now sufficient to justify publication of this second volume. Scientists present results of research which is of direct relevance to a better assessment of the impact from dumping radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic, in particular an evaluation of the potential radiation doses to man. These two volumes represent part of the scientific contribution of the CRESP Programme to the 1985 Review of the Continued Suitability of the North-East Atlantic dump site

  3. Tracking Typological Traits of Uralic Languages in Distributed Language Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerva, Johannes; Augenstein, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    Although linguistic typology has a long history, computational approaches have only recently gained popularity. The use of distributed representations in computational linguistics has also become increasingly popular. A recent development is to learn distributed representations of language...... for model transfer between Uralic languages in deep neural networks. We then investigate which typological features are encoded in these representations by attempting to predict features in the World Atlas of Language Structures, at various stages of fine-tuning of the representations. We focus on Uralic...

  4. TROPHIC RELATIONS OF LADY BEETLES (COLEOPTERA, COCCINELLIDAE OF THE URALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Tyumaseva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the study of the trophic relations of the lady beetles living in the Urals. The study allocates three ecological groups depending on the peculiarities of the beetles and larvae nutrition: phytophages, micetophages, and entomophages-predators. We have revealed 66 species of lady birds-predators and two species-phytophages: Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Bulaea lichatschovii (Hummel, 1827. In the group of obligatory micetophages in the Urals we registered the representatives of the tribe Halyziini, it is Halyzia sedecimguttata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata (Linnaeus, 1758.

  5. Treeline advances along the Urals mountain range - driven by improved winter conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Frank; Shiyatov, Stepan G; Mazepa, Valeriy S; Devi, Nadezhda M; Grigor'ev, Andrey A; Bartysh, Alexandr A; Fomin, Valeriy V; Kapralov, Denis S; Terent'ev, Maxim; Bugman, Harald; Rigling, Andreas; Moiseev, Pavel A

    2014-11-01

    High-altitude treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, but little quantitative evidence exists about the impact of climate change on treelines in untouched areas of Russia. Here, we estimated how forest-tundra ecotones have changed during the last century along the Ural mountains. In the South, North, Sub-Polar, and Polar Urals, we compared 450 historical and recent photographs and determined the ages of 11,100 trees along 16 altitudinal gradients. In these four regions, boundaries of open and closed forests (crown covers above 20% and 40%) expanded upwards by 4 to 8 m in altitude per decade. Results strongly suggest that snow was an important driver for these forest advances: (i) Winter precipitation has increased substantially throughout the Urals (~7 mm decade(-1) ), which corresponds to almost a doubling in the Polar Urals, while summer temperatures have only changed slightly (~0.05°C decade(-1) ). (ii) There was a positive correlation between canopy cover, snow height and soil temperatures, suggesting that an increasing canopy cover promotes snow accumulation and, hence, a more favorable microclimate. (iii) Tree age analysis showed that forest expansion mainly began around the year 1900 on concave wind-sheltered slopes with thick snow covers, while it started in the 1950s and 1970s on slopes with shallower snow covers. (iv) During the 20th century, dominant growth forms of trees have changed from multistemmed trees, resulting from harsh winter conditions, to single-stemmed trees. While 87%, 31%, and 93% of stems appearing before 1950 were from multistemmed trees in the South, North and Polar Urals, more than 95% of the younger trees had a single stem. Currently, there is a high density of seedlings and saplings in the forest-tundra ecotone, indicating that forest expansion is ongoing and that alpine tundra vegetation will disappear from most mountains of the South and North Urals where treeline is already close to the highest peaks. © 2014

  6. N.V. Timofeev-Resovsky's ideas in present studies of radioactive contamination zones of the Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchanova, I.V.; Pozolotina, V.N.; Karavaeva, E.N.; Antonova, E.V.; Mikhaylovskaya, L.N.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of living substance and the Earth biosphere by the brilliant Russian scientist V.I. Vernadsky has produced a great world view effect. Basing on this theory another prominent Russian researcher N.V. Timofeev-Resovsky came up to formation of a new scientific discipline - radioecology. He identified two basic areas of research in radioecology (radiation biocenology): 1) studies of the radionuclide fate in natural ecosystems and 2) assessment of biological effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms, population, ecosystems. In our research activities conducted in the East Uralian Radioactive Trail (EURT) zone resulted from an accident at the Mayak concern in 1957, we attempted to advance some ideas of Timofeev-Resovsky (1957). The objectives of research were to assess recent levels and distribution of radio-nuclides between ecosystem components along the contamination gradient and 2) to study effects of low levels of chronic radiation exposure on populations of herbaceous plants (author)(tk)

  7. Estimation of food consumption from pellets cast by captive Ural Owls (Strix uralensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki Higuchi; Manabu T. Abe

    1997-01-01

    There is considerable data in the literature on the diet of the Ural Owl (Strix uralensis) based on pellet analysis. Though it is possible to identify prey items by this method, the volume of food consumption is still unknown. The population of Ural Owls in Japan is declining due to the reduction of old-growth forest and the concurrent loss of...

  8. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS STRAINS CIRCULATING IN THE URAL REGION, RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Umpeleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Overall 178 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates recovered in 2009–2011 from newly diagnosed epidemiologically unlinked to TB patients in the Ural region of Russia have been studied. The absolute concentration method was used for drug susceptibility testing. Mutations katG, inhA and rpoB associated with resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin were detected by microchip technology («TB-Biochip». The isolates were genotyped by real-time PCR for the detection of Beijing/non-Beijing genotypes and 15-locus MIRU-VNTR typing according to «MIRU-VNTRplus» (http://www.miru-vntrplus.org. More than half (55.1% of 178 isolates belonged to the Beijing family, 58.7% of them were multiple drug resistant (MDR mostly due to rpoBSer531→Leu and katGSer315→Thr1 substitutions. Fifty VNTR profiles were found in 98 Beijing isolates; 57 of them grouped into 9 clusters. The largest VNTR cluster included 23 (23.5% Beijing isolates and 21 of them were MDR. The 80 non-Beijing isolates showed 64 distinct VNTR patterns which belonged to 6 genetic families: LAM, Ural, Haarlem, etc. Among LAM and Ural isolates 30.4% and 28.6% were MDR, respectively. The 5 of 7 MDR LAM isolates had specific mutation profile:  rpoBAsp516→Val substitution and mutations katGSer315→Thr1 and inhA_T15. The MDR Ural isolates showed the heterogeneity of mutations in rpoB gene compared to other genotypes. Taken together, these findings suggest the emergence and spread of MDR-TB in the Ural region which is characterized by circulation of MDR strains of different genotypes with the Beijing family genotype to be predominant.

  9. The Neotectonic and its relation with radioactive manifestations in the east of the Sierra Maestra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geler Roffe, T.; Leal Ramirez, R.; Orbera Hernandez, L.; Alcaide Orpi, J.; Sanchez Rumayor, J.; Olivera Acosta, J.; Matos Martinez, F.L.

    1996-01-01

    The neotectonic structures of the east of the Sierra Maestra were studied. A tectonic-structural analysis of relief was made, were morphometric methods and the joint analysis of the geological, geophysical and geomorphological information were applied to know its influence in the control of the radioactive mineralization. The meso blocks and micro blocks were determined and characterized. The diagram of neotectonic blocks to scale 1:100 000 was made. The link between radioactive anomalies and disyuntive structures was demonstrated. A methodology of work for the study of the mountainous zones of the country was obtained

  10. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the `Mayak` region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, B F [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, A P [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  11. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the 'Mayak' region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedov, B.F.; Novikov, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  12. EPR dosimetry of radiation background in the Urals region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Degteva, M.O.; Shved, V.A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 48-A Vorovsky, Chelyabinsk 454076 (Russian Federation); Fattibene, P.; Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Italy); Wieser, A. [GSF, Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Ingolstaedter Landstr (Germany); Ivanov, D.V.; Bayankin, S.N. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Knyazev, V.A.; Vasilenko, E.I.; Gorelov, M. [ZAO, Closed Corporation ' Company GEOSPETSECOLOGIA' (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Method of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is extensively applied to individual retrospective dosimetry. The background dose is unavoidable component of cumulative absorbed dose in the tooth enamel accumulated during the lifetime of donor. Estimation of incidental radiation dose using tooth enamel needs in extraction of background dose. Moreover, the variation of background doses in the population is a limited factor for reliable detection of additional irradiation especially for low dose level. Therefore the accurate knowledge of the natural background radiation dose is a critical element of EPR studies of exposed populations. In the Urals region the method applies for such two large cohorts as the workers of Mayak (Ozersk citizens) and Techa River riverside inhabitants (rural population). Current study aimed to investigate the Urals radiation background detected by EPR spectrometry. For this aim two group of unexposed Urals residents were separated, viz: citizens of Ozersk and rural inhabitants of Chelyabinsk region. Comparison of two investigated territories has demonstrated that from the point of view of radiation background it is impossible to assume the Urals population as uniform. The reliable difference between the urban and rural residents has been found. The average background doses of Ozersk donors is in average 50 mGy higher than those detected for rural residents. The individual variability of background doses for Osersk has been higher than in the rural results. The difference in background dose levels between two population results in different limits of accidental dose detection and individualization. The doses for 'Mayak' workers (Ozyorsk citizens) can be classed as anthropogenic if the EPR measurements exceed 120 mGy for teeth younger than 40 years, and 240 mGy for teeth older than 70 years. The anthropogenic doses for Techa River residents (rural population) would be higher than 95 mGy for teeth younger than 50 years and 270 mGy for

  13. EPR dosimetry of radiation background in the Urals region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Degteva, M.O.; Shved, V.A.; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Wieser, A.; Ivanov, D.V.; Bayankin, S.N.; Knyazev, V.A.; Vasilenko, E.I.; Gorelov, M.

    2006-01-01

    Method of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is extensively applied to individual retrospective dosimetry. The background dose is unavoidable component of cumulative absorbed dose in the tooth enamel accumulated during the lifetime of donor. Estimation of incidental radiation dose using tooth enamel needs in extraction of background dose. Moreover, the variation of background doses in the population is a limited factor for reliable detection of additional irradiation especially for low dose level. Therefore the accurate knowledge of the natural background radiation dose is a critical element of EPR studies of exposed populations. In the Urals region the method applies for such two large cohorts as the workers of Mayak (Ozersk citizens) and Techa River riverside inhabitants (rural population). Current study aimed to investigate the Urals radiation background detected by EPR spectrometry. For this aim two group of unexposed Urals residents were separated, viz: citizens of Ozersk and rural inhabitants of Chelyabinsk region. Comparison of two investigated territories has demonstrated that from the point of view of radiation background it is impossible to assume the Urals population as uniform. The reliable difference between the urban and rural residents has been found. The average background doses of Ozersk donors is in average 50 mGy higher than those detected for rural residents. The individual variability of background doses for Osersk has been higher than in the rural results. The difference in background dose levels between two population results in different limits of accidental dose detection and individualization. The doses for 'Mayak' workers (Ozyorsk citizens) can be classed as anthropogenic if the EPR measurements exceed 120 mGy for teeth younger than 40 years, and 240 mGy for teeth older than 70 years. The anthropogenic doses for Techa River residents (rural population) would be higher than 95 mGy for teeth younger than 50 years and 270 mGy for teeth older

  14. Haplotype frequencies at the DRD2 locus in populations of the East European Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulich Alexey I

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was demonstrated previously that the three-locus RFLP haplotype, TaqI B-TaqI D-TaqI A (B-D-A, at the DRD2 locus constitutes a powerful genetic marker and probably reflects the most ancient dispersal of anatomically modern humans. Results We investigated TaqI B, BclI, MboI, TaqI D, and TaqI A RFLPs in 17 contemporary populations of the East European Plain and Siberia. Most of these populations belong to the Indo-European or Uralic language families. We identified three common haplotypes, which occurred in more than 90% of chromosomes investigated. The frequencies of the haplotypes differed according to linguistic and geographical affiliation. Conclusion Populations in the northwestern (Byelorussians from Mjadel', northern (Russians from Mezen' and Oshevensk, and eastern (Russians from Puchezh parts of the East European Plain had relatively high frequencies of haplotype B2-D2-A2, which may reflect admixture with Uralic-speaking populations that inhabited all of these regions in the Early Middle Ages.

  15. Preliminary Estimation of Radioactive Cesium Concentration due to Hypothetical Accident in East Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung-Il; Kim, Sora; Park, Kihyun; Suh, Kyung-suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The sea has no large islands, bays or capes. Its water balance is mostly determined by the inflow (Korea Strait) and outflow (Tsugaru Strait and Soya Strait) through the straits connecting it to the neighboring seas and Pacific Ocean. All of the Korean nuclear power plants are located in the coastal area, 3 sites in the east coast and 1 site in the west coast. So the Korean nuclear power plants there may be possibility that such dangerous substances spread out of the East Sea. The East Sea is a fertile fishing ground for surrounding counties. The environmental radionuclides concentration estimation is important for fish and sea plants may be contaminated by those radioactive materials. In order to simplify the problem, the experiment has been considered the many simplifying assumptions. The bed sediments are uniform over all the model domain, using the monthly mean ocean current data set and ignored effect of the facilities for damage preventions.

  16. Lichens as indicators of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biarzov, L.

    1993-01-01

    Samples of lichens were investigated, collected in 1987 in the Eastern Urals and in 1988 in the vicinity of Chernobyl. Data are given on the size of thalli of epiphytic lichens from trunks of pine in the Chernobyl area, and on the beta activity in epiphytic lichens in the birch forests of the Urals 30 years after the Kyshtym accident, as well as concentrations of 40 K, 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 144 Ce in lichen thalli and the bark of pine tree, taken at 5 locations in the vicinity of Chernobyl 1000 days after the accident. Also given are cross-ratios of radioactivity of 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 144 Ce in lichen thalli and in the bark of pine trees. The results indicate that the activity of radionuclides in lichen thalli make a fairly reliable indicator of relative differences between the investigated areas in terms of the level of surface contamination and qualitative composition of the involved radionuclides. (J.B.) 4 tabs., 15 refs

  17. Population exposure dose reconstruction for the Urals Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Vorobiova, M.I.; Burmistrov, D.S.; Khokhryakov, V.V.; Suslova, K.G.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.; Bouville, A.

    1996-06-01

    This presentation describes the first preliminary results of an ongoing joint Russian-US pilot feasibility study. Many people participated in workshops to determine what Russian and United States scientists could do together in the area of dose reconstruction in the Urals population. Most of the results presented here came from a joint work shop in St. Petersburg, Russia (11-13 July 1995). The Russians at the workshop represented the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), the Mayak Industrial Association, and Branch One of the Moscow Biophysics Institute. The US Collaborators were Dr. Anspaugh of LLNL, Dr. Nippier of PNL, and Dr. Bouville of the National Cancer Institute. The objective of the first year of collaboration was to look at the source term and levels of radiation contamination, the historical data available, and the results of previous work carried out by Russian scientists, and to determine a conceptual model for dose reconstruction

  18. Zircon's Archean of the Ural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnobaev, A.A.; Cherednichenko, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    The age of zircons from metamorphic rocks of the Taratashsky complex located on the Western slope of the South Urals was determined by the methods of U-Pb isotope dating. The age values obtained suggest a two-stage model of the complex evolution at early stages of its existence. The age of 2913±133 mln. years identifies the age of granulite metamorphism, while the age 2127±65 mln. years indicates the period of the most intensive transformations of the rocks within the complex, which were accompanied by occurrence of high-temperature diaphthorites [ru

  19. INFANT MORTALITY IN THE SOUTHERN URALS IN THE 1930 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravilya Rakhimyanovna Khisamutdinova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to study infant mortality in the southern Urals in the 1930 years and the establishment of its causes. The relevance of the researched problem is connected with difficulties of solving demographic problems in the country and the policy of the state to protect motherhood and childhood. Methodology. Basis of research is historical and comparative and historical and systematic methods and critical analysis. Results. Infant mortality is the most significant symptom of demographic decline among the population. This period has been one of the most difficult in the history of our nation, as it was accompanied by major economic, social and political processes that influenced the decline of natural increase among the population. Based on the analysis of Central and local archives, statistical information of mortality of the 1930 years in the region, the authors made the weather dynamics of the number of deaths among children under 1 year and came to the conclusion that the causes of high mortality in the early 1930 years were not only the political processes in society, and especially the famine of 1932–1933 years. The authors have proved that the population of the southern Urals in the 1930 years the mortality rate of children under 1 year was high, not only in relation to the population of the region but for the country as a whole. The number of child deaths in the region was the leader Chelyabinsk region, especially among the urban population. This was due to the high level of population, the predominance of urban population over the rural, the needs of industrialization, that is heavy physical labour of women, weak health care system. By the middle of the period under review, despite the measures taken by the state for the support of motherhood and childhood, the infant mortality rate in the southern Urals remains at a high level, increasing the number of illegal abortions, infectious diseases in the summer

  20. Modern Church Construction in Urals. Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surin, D. N.; Tereshina, O. B.

    2017-11-01

    The article analyzes the problems of the modern Orthodox church architecture in Russia, special attention is paid to the problems of the Ural region. It justifies the importance of addressing to this issue connected with the Orthodox traditions revival in Russia over the last decades and the need to compensate for tens of thousands of the churches destroyed in the Soviet period. The works on the theory and history of the Russian architecture and art, studies of the architectural heritage and the art of building of the Ural craftsmen are used as a scientific and methodological base for the church architecture development. The article discloses the historically formed architectural features of the Russian Orthodox churches the artistic image of which is designed to create a certain religious and aesthetic experience. It is stated that the restoration of the Russian church construction tradition is possible on the background of architectural heritage. It sets the tendencies and vital tasks in church construction and outlines a complex of measures to solve these tasks at the public and regional levels.

  1. BREED PREFERENCES AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mashenkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of beekeeping is defined by breed of bees and melliferous herbs. In the conditions of sharply continental climate of South Ural, duration of success of beekeeping is provided with breed of bees.

  2. Network Interaction of Universities in Higher Education System of Ural Macro-Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garold Efimovich Zborovsky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of the analysis are the characteristics and forms of cooperation between universities of Ural Federal District on the basis of their typology. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the necessity and possibility of network interaction between universities of the macro-region. We prove the importance and potential effectiveness of universities network interaction in the terms of socio-economic uncertainty of the development of Ural Federal District and its higher education. Networking interaction and multilateral cooperation are considered as a new type of inter-universities relations, which can be activated and intensified by strengthening the relations of universities with stakeholders. The authors examine certain concrete forms and formats of network interaction and cooperation between universities and discuss selected cases of new type of relations. In it, they see the real and potential innovation of higher school nonlinear development processes. The statements of the article allow to confirm the hypothesis about the reality of strengthening the network interaction in macro-region. It can transform higher education in the driver of socio-economic development of Ural Federal District; ensure the competitiveness of higher education of the macro-region in the Russian and global educational space; enhance its role in the society; become one of the most significant elements of nonlinear models of higher education development in the country. The authors’ research is based on the interdisciplinary methodology including the potential of theoretical sociology, sociology of higher education, economic sociology, management theory, regional economics. The results of the study can form the basis for the improvement of the Ural Federal District’s educational policy.

  3. Turkic Communities in South Trans-Urals in the 15th–17th centuries: National, Administrative, Territorial, Ethnosocial Transformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Maslyuzhenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives: The article reads on the settlement on and the economic use of the south Trans-Urals territories by Turkic communities. Research materials: Published and unpublished sources: books of official orders in the Russian state, chronicles, acts, diplomatic documents, archaeological data, etc. Results and novelty of the research: Traditionally, administrative divisions of Ural and Trans-Urals are considered to be a sort of a naturally emerged structure. Having analyzed the sources, we may conclude: the system of counties’ (uyezd division, as introduced by the Russian state, did not consider the allocation of the communities and their economic management mode. Cattle breeding practices of the local Turks determined the specifity of their economic activities. Many Turks’ volosts (ancestral territories were compound and consisted of two parts: the winter part and the summer one. These two parts could be quite long-distance, divided by the Urals and upon being included into the Russian state they were designated to different uyezds. For instance, one part of Tersyak volost was assigned to Verkhoturskiy uyezd and the second – to Tyumensky uyezd; the western part of the Myakotinskaya (Bakatin volost was located in Ufimsky uyezd and the eastern – in Tyumensky uyezd, which was in the lower reach of the Iset and Pyshma rivers. Consequently, by the moment of being merged into the Russian state, the territories indicated below were economically managed by the local Turks: South Trans-Urals and a part of Cis-Urals, including the territories in the upperstreams of the Ufa and Chusovaya rivers, along the Pyshma and Iset rivers, partially the Tura river, and Tobol between the outflows of the Miass and Tura. The given practice arose in the late Middle Ages and was intimately connected with Shibanids’ claims who ruled in Tyumen and Siberian Khanates. They claimed not only to the territories in the south of West Siberia, Aral Sea region

  4. Ankaramite: A New Type of High-Magnesium and High-Calcium Primitive Melt in the Magnitogorsk Island-Arc Zone (Southern Urals)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarev, E. V.; Ryazancev, A. V.; Gottman, I. A.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Kamenetsky, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    This work describes the geological position, mineral and chemical composition of high-Mg effusive ankaramites occurring as dykes and lava flows. They were found in the mélange zone of the western margin of the Magnitogorsk island arc zone in the Southern Urals. Data on the liquidus association of phenocrysts and on the composition of the matrix of effusives are given. According to the data obtained, the conclusion was drawn that the ankaramites studied can be attributed to the primary island arc melts, which were not subject to essential differentiation. This type of effusives has not been distinguished previously among island arc volcanogenic formations of the Urals. It is shown that ankaramites can be considered to be primary melts parental for dunite-clinopyroxenites-gabbro complexes of Ural-Alaskan type. The occurrence of ankaramites in the Paleozoic island arc formations of the Urals indicates the wehrlite composition of the mantle as the reason for the extremely wide development of wehrlites and clinopyroxenites in different mafic-ultramafic complexes of the Urals.

  5. The support for a purification of water contaminated with radioactivity, and problems of the radioactivity standard in an emergency situation at the stricken area 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake incurred severe situation, where lifeline was cut off due to the discharge of a large amount of radioactive substances. In particular, the supply of safe foods and drinking water in radiation-polluted areas is urgently required. The authors have been developing up to now Crystal Valley water purifier and CV-Rescue water purifier that can purify well-water unsuitable for drinking due to contamination with toxic substances and produce drinkable water with safety without anxiety. This paper introduces the processes, in which verification test was performed to confirm that the above purifiers can be used for the removal of radioactivity discharged from the Great East Japan Earthquake this time, the validity of these purifiers was clarified, and these purifiers have actually been used for supporting water supply. This paper especially points out that a problem exists in the various standards on radioactivity that were temporarily determined in face of emergency of radiation pollution due to the nuclear power station accident this time. In these standards, the temporary standard on radioactive iodine 131 in drinking water is too high compared with the standards of WHO and those of advanced countries like U.S.A. It also points out the problem that radioactive substances in drinking water have not been removed yet. (O.A.)

  6. A Fragment of Ophiolite Assemblage of Kasargi Lake Area: East-Urals Megazone, Northern Part of the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of rocks of ophiolite assemblage exposed on the east coast of Kasargi Lake are presented. The ophiolite assemblage is formed with the serpentinised ultramafic rocks of dunite-harzburgite association, which are residual and the shlirenbanded gabbros with a number of later dikes of diabases and porphiritic gabbros. The chemical content of mafic and ultramafic rocks of Kasargi massif shows that they are likely the equivalent rocks encountered within the backarc spreading ridges.

  7. Natural and anthropogenic influences on depositional architecture of the Ural Delta, Kazakhstan, northern Caspian Sea, during the past 70 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarelli, Frederico M.; Cantelli, Luigi; Barboza, Eduardo G.; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on the Ural Delta in the northern zone of the Caspian Sea, an area with particular characteristics, where intense influence from anthropogenic and natural factors exists, which acts on the fragile delta system. We built a database to integrate the data from the published sources, bathymetric survey, and recent images in the geographical information system (GIS) environment. The results were linked to the Caspian Sea level (CSL) curve, which had many variations, changing the Ural Delta system's dynamics and in its architecture. In addition, the anthropogenic changes contribute to shaping the actual Ural Delta architecture. Through the link between the results and CSL, we reconstructed an evolution model for the Ural Delta system for the last century and identified three different architectures for the Ural Delta, determined by the energy that acted on the system in the last century and by the anthropogenic changes. This work identifies six different delta phases, which are shaped by CSL changes during the last 70 years and by anthropogenic changes. The delta phases recognized are: i) a Lobate Delta phase, shaped during high CSL before 1935; ii) Natural Elongate Delta 1935-1950 formed during rapid CSL fall; iii) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1950-1966, formed during rapid CSL fall and after the Ural-Caspian Sea canal construction, which modified the sedimentary deposition on the delta; iv) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1966-1982 shaped during low CSL phase; v) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1982-1996 formed during a rapid CSL rise phase; and vi) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1996-2009 shaped during high CSL that represent the last phase and actual Ural Delta architecture.

  8. Assessment of Inhalation Risk to Public Health in the Southern Ural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrikh, D. V.; Ivanova, S. V.; Riabchikova, I. A.

    2017-11-01

    A large number of iron and steel companies in the Southern Ural cause severe air pollution in the towns of Karabash (Chelyabinsk region), Sibay (Republic of Bashkortostan), Gai (Orenburg region). The article aims to assess the inhalation effects of hazardous substances on the Southern Ural population. The analysis focused on cancer and non-cancer risks to public health that arise from the surface air pollution caused by the metallurgical industry emissions. The assessment was carried out on the basis of methodological guidelines R 2.1.10.1920-04 using modern sanitary and hygienic standards. We analysed the level of ambient air pollution in the impact area of the metallurgical industry of Karabash, Sibay and Gai over the past eleven years. We established that the ambient air of all the studied towns contain carcinogenic substances that cause unacceptable cancer risks. Formaldehyde has the main share in this risk. We calculated the hazard quotients HQ for the identified priority pollutants and the total hazard indices HI. It is shown that the non-cancer inhalation risk to the Southern Ural population exceeds the safe level manyfold. Sulfur dioxide has the main share in this risk. The conducted assessment showed that in 2006-2016, there was a continuous inhalation exposure of the population to hazardous substances. Sanitary and technological solutions that will allow a reduction of risk to acceptable values are required.

  9. Radiobiological and genetic effects of Bromus inermis seed progeny from populations of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (Russia, Kyshtym accident) - Radiobiological and genetic effects for Bromus inermis Leyss. Populations at the East-Ural radioactive trace (Russia, Kyshtym accident in 1957)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, Elena V.; Pozolotna, Vera N. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, 8 Marta str. 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Karimullina, Elina M. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, 8 Marta str. 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, 2011 Biological Sciences III, Irvine, CA 92697-2300 (United States); Roeder, Marion S. [Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Corrensstrasse 3, D-06466, Gatersleben (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    This investigation dedicates the problem of remote consequences of radiation impact on plant populations. This is a part of a complex research, which includes the classic triad of radioecology (Timofeev-Ressovsky 1963): 'accumulation and migration of radionuclides in different components of ecosystems - assessment of radiation dose - investigation of radiobiological effects'. We used the populations of smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) as a model system for the investigation of radiobiological and genetic effects. It is radiosensitive plant (Preobrazhenskaya 1971). These species may be used as objects for bio-indication at the radioactive contaminated areas, and as well as large-scale radioecological studies, because the adaptation processes are faster for radiosensitive species (Shevchenko et al., 1992; Pozolotina et al. 2005). We calculated external and internal whole-body dose rates by ERICA Tool (Karimullina et al., 2013). The total dose rate for brome was under 100 mGy h{sup -1} at the most polluted site but 43-110 times (Tier 3) exceeded the background along the pollution gradient. Therefore it can be concluded that herbaceous plant populations currently exist under low level chronic exposure at the EURT area. During seven years we have studied variability of viability, mutability and radioresistance of brome seed progeny. The combined effects of radiation exposure and weather conductions at the EURT area were absent. It may be connect with wide variability of inter-population test parameters. At the same time the weather conductions had an influence on the quality of seed progeny at the background area. We analyzed also correlation between original viability and radioresistance of seed progeny from the all plots. This dependence was positive. It was shown negative dependence between original viability of seed progeny and low weight molecular antioxidants content too. Ionizing radiation is a mutagenic factor and, accordingly, elevated mutation

  10. Concept of the Ural pharmaceutical cluster formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Petrovich Petrov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper substantiates the necessity of cluster organization of the pharmaceutical industry in the region. The estimation of the state and prospects of development of such structures in the domestic economy is given. Sverdlovsk region was chosen as the object of study on the possibility of forming a pharmaceutical cluster. Objective prerequisites for the organization of a cluster of pharmaceutical production in Sverdlovsk region are considered, among these were distinguished: capacious and fast-growing market for pharmaceutical products, availability of potential development of the pharmaceutical industry in the territory and the key success factors for enterprises - potential participants of the cluster. Indicated key success factors are: presence of a creative team and close interaction between business and government, high level of cooperation among the enterprises of the cluster and commercialization of products, implementation of research and development expenditures etc. Thus, it was substantiated that in there all references and resources for the formation of a pharmaceutical cluster. The concept of formation and development of the Ural pharmaceutical cluster was elaborated. Inside the concept, the goals, objectives, processing, product and organizational priorities for cluster formation are identified. Architecture of this structure with a justification of its members and certain forms of interaction between them is proposed. The stages of formation and development of the Ural pharmaceutical cluster on the basis of a ten-year settlement period for the full range of activities for this project are substantiated. At each stage, a set of key objectives and results of the cluster was defined. The choice of phases was carried out on the basis of investment programs of cluster's enterprises strategic position on the mastering of markets and infrastructure development. An assessment of socio-economic efficiency of the Ural pharmaceutical

  11. The Hirnantian δ13C Positive Excursion in the Nabiullino Section (South Urals)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakupov, R. R.; Mavrinskaya, T. M.; Smoleva, I. V.

    2018-02-01

    The upper Sandbian, Katian, and Hirnantian complexes of conodonts in the upper Ordovician section of the western slope of the Southern Urals near the village of Nabiullino were studied. The δ13C positive excursion with a maximum of 3.3‰ associated with the global Hirnantian isotopic event, HICE, was fixed for the first time. This excursion shows the beginning of the Hirnantian stage in the terrigenous-carbonate section of the upper Ordovician in the Southern Urals. It coincides with the first occurrence of the Hirnantian conodont species of Gamachignathus ensifer and the conodonts of shallow-water biophacies, Aphelognathus-Ozarkodina, reflecting the global glacio-eustatic event.

  12. Renewable Energy Sources in Formation of South Urals Modern Urban Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakov, A. Ju; Shabiev, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the vital problems of renewable energy sources using by the example of the South Urals as a part of a general energy system of the Russian Federation, makes a forecast and gives recommendations on the application of specific technologies: solar energy, wind energy, deep heat energy and geothermal energy. It also considers the influence of the climatology on selection of the development pattern for the alternative energy industry. The article contains an example of wind energy used as a driver of the Karabash company town development in the Chelyabinsk region. The development of the economic energy sector is extremely important for the Russian Federation, both from the point of view of strategic security and from the point of view of integration into a modern development on the principles of Sustainable Development. To provide a full understanding of the role of alternative energy in the energy sector of the country, the article presents the materials illustrating the regional potential in terms of alternative energy sources use. This article is a part of the global research on the settlement system evolution in the South Urals. The authors studied the historical, geographical, demographic, economic characteristics of the region. Finally, a forecast for development at the regional level was made. Some of the aforementioned results were obtained due to the testing research in the learning process of the students from the South Ural State University (national research university).

  13. Conseptual framework of ensuring food security in the Ural federal district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Samvelovich Beletskiy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the risks and threats to food security of the Ural Federal District which can significantly reduce its the level. The most significant risks are grouped according to the following classification: macroeconomic, technological, climatic, agro-ecological and foreign trade risks. The main directions of economic policy of the Ural Federal District in the area of food security are defined. Particular attention is paid to the improvement of economic and physical availability of food for all groups of population and to the problems of formation of the state material reserves and food safety. Strategic development priorities in the field of agricultural and fishery products, raw materials and food, sustainable development of rural areas in the field of foreign policy are formulated. Conceptual bases for the implementation mechanism of economic policies to ensure food security in the region are suggested.

  14. World ocean and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiknadze, O.E.; Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The radioecological situation that took shape in the Arctic, North Atlantic Ocean and Far East regions as a result of radioactive waste marine disposal was assessed. Accurate account of radionuclides formation and decay in submerged water-water reactors of nuclear submarines suggests that total activity of radioactive waste disposed near the Novaya Zemlya amounted to 107 kCi by the end of 1999. Activity of radioactive waste disposed in the North Atlantic currently is not in excess of 430 kCi. It is pointed out that the Far East region heads the list in terms of total activity disposed (529 kCi). Effective individual dose for critical groups of population in the Arctic, North Atlantic and Far East regions was determined. The conclusion was made that there is no detrimental effect of the radioactive waste disposed on radioecological situation in the relevant areas [ru

  15. Model testing of radioactive contamination by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu of water and bottom sediments in the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ecomod@obninsk.com; Boyer, P.; Monte, L.; Brittain, J.E.; Dzyuba, N.N.; Krylov, A.L.; Kryshev, A.I.; Nosov, A.V.; Sanina, K.D.; Zheleznyak, M.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents results of testing models for the radioactive contamination of river water and bottom sediments by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu. The scenario for the model testing was based on data from the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia), which was contaminated as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive waste into the river. The endpoints of the scenario were model predictions of the activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water and bottom sediments along the Techa River in 1996. Calculations for the Techa scenario were performed by six participant teams from France (model CASTEAUR), Italy (model MARTE), Russia (models TRANSFER-2, CASSANDRA, GIDRO-W) and Ukraine (model RIVTOX), all using different models. As a whole, the radionuclide predictions for {sup 90}Sr in water for all considered models, {sup 137}Cs for MARTE and TRANSFER-2, and {sup 239,240}Pu for TRANSFER-2 and CASSANDRA can be considered sufficiently reliable, whereas the prediction for sediments should be considered cautiously. At the same time the CASTEAUR and RIVTOX models estimate the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water more reliably than in bottom sediments. The models MARTE ({sup 239,240}Pu) and CASSANDRA ({sup 137}Cs) evaluated the activity concentrations of radionuclides in sediments with about the same agreement with observations as for water. For {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs the agreement between empirical data and model predictions was good, but not for all the observations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the river water-bottom sediment system. The modelling of {sup 239,240}Pu distribution proved difficult because, in contrast to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, most of models have not been previously tested or validated for plutonium.

  16. International Field School on Permafrost, Polar Urals, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V.; Ivanov, M.; Sheinkman, V.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Shmelev, D.

    2012-12-01

    The international field school on permafrost was held in the Polar Urals region from June, 30 to July 9, 2012 right after the Tenth International Conference on Permafrost which was held in Salekhard, Russia. The travel and accommodation support generously provided by government of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Region allowed participation of 150 permafrost young research scientists, out of which 35 students from seven countries participated in the field school. The field school was organized under umbrella of International Permafrost Association and Permafrost Young Research Network. The students represented diverse educational backgrounds including hydrologists, engineers, geologists, soil scientists, geocryologists, glaciologists and geomorphologists. The base school camp was located near the Harp settlement in the vicinity of Polar Urals foothills. This unique location presented an opportunity to study a diversity of cryogenic processes and permafrost conditions characteristic for mountain and plain regions as well as transition between glacial and periglacial environments. A series of excursions was organized according to the following topics: structural geology of the Polar Urals and West Siberian Plain (Chromite mine "Centralnaya" and Core Storage in Labitnangy city); quaternary geomorphology (investigation of moraine complexes and glacial conditions of Ronamantikov and Topographov glaciers); principles of construction and maintains of structures built on permafrost (Labitnangy city and Obskaya-Bovanenkovo Railroad); methods of temperature and active-layer monitoring in tundra and forest-tundra; cryosols and soil formation in diverse landscape condition; periglacial geomorphology; types of ground ice, etc. Every evening students and professors gave a series of presentations on climate, vegetation, hydrology, soil conditions, permafrost and cryogenic processes of the region as well as on history, economic development, endogenous population of the Siberia and the

  17. Sources to environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear activities in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polikarpov, G.G.; Aarkrog, A.

    1993-01-01

    There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Cheliabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent

  18. Reduction of Sulphur Content of Urals Crude Oil Prior to Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of sulphur in crude oil poses enormous challenges as regards its negative environmental and economic impacts. As such, the safety of the personnel and the equipment is at high risk during the processing of Urals crude oil in Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC) because of its sour nature.

  19. Kala-tau Hill as a Medieval Monument of Archaeology and Epigraphy in the Western Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdrafikov I.M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a description of Starokalmashevo hillfort and the Starokalmashevo gravestone with an Arabic epitaph found in the mid-20th century in close proximity to the site of ancient settlement. They are here described not only as monuments of the Middle Ages, but also as objects of historical heritage testifying to the continuous process of ethno-culturogenesis in the Western Cis-Urals up to modern times. Research materials: The author considers the issues of medieval history, ethno- and cultural genesis of the Western Cis-Urals in light of the example of the Starokalmashevo hillfort, located on the hill of Kala-tau (Chekmagushevsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as well as the Starokalmashevo gravestone. The author provides a complex description of these archaeological and cultural monuments and points out the importance of preserving these objects as an integral part of the local population and the entire Volga-Ural region’s collective historical memory. Research novelty: The author presents new materials, including the stories of community elders about the origin of the above-mentioned archaeological sites. He analyzes the inscriptions on the tombstone, including its new reading, and draws a conclusion about the continuity of the population of this territory for a sustained period.

  20. Rodent communities in the sub-polar Ural mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdyugin, K. I.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of the rodent communities in the Sub-polar Urals is analysed. This part of the range, between 64° and 66°N, includes the highest peaks, is very scarcely settled and has been rarely studied. However, the area is interesting for biogeography, being a border zone separating European and Siberian lowland faunas. Comparison of results with those from expeditions undertaken in 1927 and in 1972, allows to evaluate changing trends in the local rodent communities, and to relate these trends to changes in the environmental conditions. The results help to emphasize the barrier role played by Sub-polar Urals for the species of rodents inhabiting both sides of the range, and also show the shifting of southern rodent forms northwards, or the moving upwards of other lowland species. This could be seen as an additional evidence of current climate warming trends.

    [fr]
    On analyse la répartition des communautés de rongeurs dans les Durais Subpolaires, une section de la chaîne comprise entre les 64° et les 66° de latitude N. Cette partie est très peu peuplée, elle possède les pics les plus hauts de la chaîne et a été rarement étudiée. Il s'agit d'une région intéressante, car c'est la frontière entre les plaines européennes et les plaines orientales de la Sibérie. En comparant les observations effectuées en 1927 et en 1972 avec celles des dernières années, on peut voir les tendances de changement des groupements de rongeurs de la région, et les interpréter en fonction des changements dans l'environnement. Les résultats permettent de mieux comprendre le rôle de barrière qui jouent les Durais Subpolaires pour les espèces de rongeurs situées d'un coté et d'autre de la chaîne. Aussi, ils permettent de verifier le déplacement vers le nord deformes méridionales et l'élévation en altitude d'autres, ce qui pourrait être vu comme une preuve additionnelle de la tendance au réchauffement global.
    [es]
    Se

  1. Development of Forest Population Biology and Biogeocenology in the Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The priority directions, concepts, approaches, methods and results of half a century investigations of forest genetics, ecology, geography and biogeocenology in the Ural school of population biology of woody plants are briefly discussed. The results of quantitative genetic-ecologic-geographical studies of the forests based on population approaches as well as main theoretic generalizations are presented, to assist possible interpretation and development of future investigations.

  2. A comparison of the radioactivity levels in the coastal waters between the great wall and Zhongshan stations in Antarctica and the Pohai, Huanghai, east China and south China seas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jinxing

    1992-01-01

    A comparison of radioactivity levels in the coastal sediments and plants between the Great Wall and Zhongshan Stations in Antarctica and the four seas (i.e. the Pohai Sea, Huanghai Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea) in China shows that in general the radioactivity levels in the coastal sediments and plants in Antarctica are lower than those in the four seas in China. The contents of the total β in the sediments decrease from higher to lower in amount in the order of East China Sea, South China Sea, Pohai Sea, Huanghai Sea and the Great Wall Bay in Antarctica successively, but the contents of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K and the total β in marine plants decrease from higher to lower in amount in the order of Daya Bay in the South China Sea, Hanzhou Bay in the East China Sea and the Great Wall Bay in Antarctica successively. The results show that the contamination levels of radioactivity, especially the artificial radioactive contamination in the Antarctic coastal area are far lower than those in China Coastal area, with the remarkable exception of 137 Cs

  3. Quintinite-1 M from the Mariinsky Deposit, Ural Emerald Mines, Central Urals, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitova, E. S.; Popov, M. P.; Krivovichev, S. V.; Zaitsev, A. N.; Vlasenko, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes the first finding of quintinite [Mg4Al2(OH)12][(CO3)(H2O)3] at the Mariinsky deposit in the Central Urals, Russia. The mineral occurs as white tabular crystals in cavities within altered gabbro in association with prehnite, calcite, and a chlorite-group mineral. Quintinite is the probable result of late hydrothermal alteration of primary mafic and ultramafic rocks hosting emerald-bearing glimmerite. According to electron microprobe data, the Mg: Al ratio is 2: 1. IR spectroscopy has revealed hydroxyl and carbonate groups and H2O molecules in the mineral. According to single crystal XRD data, quintinite is monoclinic, space group C2/ m, a =5.233(1), b = 9.051(2), c = 7.711(2) Å, β = 103.09(3)°, V = 355.7(2) Å3. Based on structure refinement, the polytype of quintinite should be denoted as 1M. This is the third approved occurrence of quintinite-1M in the world after the Kovdor complex and Bazhenovsky chrysotile-asbestos deposit.

  4. Deviant subculture of student’s audience of the ural higher education institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sergeyevich Pavlov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, relevant problems of social and professional health of teachers of the Ural higher education institutions are analyzed. The author recognizes that the higher education is created as an interaction between participants of educational process, each of which at the same time acts both as the subject pursuing the valid aims, and as object of orientation for other individuals of the environment of the immediate environment. On the basis of statistical data, the author shows that in socio-economic behavior of the vast majority of students of the Ural higher education institutions are inherent as common features of deviant subculture of youth (addiction to alcohol and drugs, violence manifestations, prostitution etc., and special, connected with educational process (admissions of occupations, use of cribs, plagiarism when performing term papers, diplomas, roughness and tactlessness in relation to teachers, etc.. According to the author, the dominating deviant feautre of modern students — insufficiently developed diligence and unavailability to overcoming difficulties. Development of professional and personal qualities and competences of the expert assumes updating of motivation of students, their active adaptation to educational process, increase of their responsibility for assimilation of the training program and the social behavior accompanying it. The author assume that developen negative social well-being of professional group of teachers of the higher school is determined by low prestige of this profession in society, sharp differentiation of compensation on regions, an ambiguity of the purposes of reforming of the higher school, complication and ambiguity of their professional roles. Conclusions and offers of the article are based on results of a number of the complex sociological researche, which have been carried out in 2010-2013 in higher education institutions and comprehensive schools of Ural under the scientific management

  5. The Ecology of the Ural Owl at South-Western Border of Its Distribution (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Vrezec

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia the Ural Owl (Strix uralensis is on its south-western limit of distribution and belongs to the southern subspecies Strix uralensis macroura. Dark coloured owls are characteristic for this subspecies and represent between 5 to 15% of the population. Slovenian breeding population size is estimated at 400 to 700 pairs. The densities of territories ranges between 0.9 to 13.4 territories per 10 km2, and the highest are reached in mountain forests of southern Dinaric region. In the forests with dominant deciduous trees, e.g. Beech (Fagus sylvatica and Pedinculate Oak (Quercus robur, the breeding densities are significantly higher than in the forests with higher proportion of coniferous trees, e.g. Norway Spruce (Picea abies. The species does not select specific altitude and throughout Slovenia it occurs between 150 and 1600 m a.s.l.  The most of the nest found at natural nest-sites were in tree holes or semi-holes (56% and at the tree stumps (20%. Nest boxes were occupied less frequently in Slovenia with occupancy rate of 29%. At least in mountain regions breeding begins quite late, between 15 March to 21 June. Average clutch size is 3.3 ± 1.0 eggs per nest. About 80% of all nests are successful raising at least one young. The diet shifts significantly between breeding and non-breeding period due to the seasonality in prey availability. According to the biomass the most important prey in breeding period are mice (Muridae, voles (Arvicollidae and mole (Talpa europaea, but in the non-breeding period voles and dormice (Gliridae predominate. Large Fat Dormouse (Glis glis seems to have very important role in the post-breeding period, but not in the breeding period due to its dormancy. As a large forest-dwelling predator the Ural Owl shapes the raptor community in the forest by excluding mezopredator species, as Tawny Owl (Strix aluco, what allows smaller raptors, e.g. Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus to expend their ranges to lower elevations

  6. U-Pb (SHRIMP II) Age of zircons from ash tuffs of the upper vendian Chernyi Kamen formation (Sylvitsa group, Middle Urals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronkin, Yu.L.; Grazhdankin, D.V.; Maslov, A.V.; Mizens, G.A.; Matukov, D.I.; Krupenin, M.T.; Petrov, G.A.; Lepikhina, O.P.; Kornilova, A.Yu.

    2006-01-01

    To make more precise the model of correlation of the Middle Urals western slope upper vendian layers with the White Sea remote layers one carried out the SHRIMP-II procedure base U-Pb-dating of the volcanogenic zircons from the ash tuffs and of the volcanogenic zircon enclosing argillites of the Middle Urals Chernyi Kamen formation. The obtained age value of the studied zircons equal to 557+-13 million years is in line with the geological data [ru

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ON THE URALS INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Mochalova

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of analysis of introduction and development of environmental management systems on the Urals enterprises by mining and smelting industry which was conducted by questioning of their representatives. Object of the research were showing up of positive and negative features in construction of corporative environmental management systems according to recommendations of standards ISO 14000 and comparison of our and foreign experience.

  8. The age and emplacement of obducted oceanic crust in the Urals from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.L.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Urals contain a 2000 km belt of mafic-ultramafic bodies. The Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr systematics of two of these bodies, the Kempersai Massif in the South Ural Mountains and the Voykar-Syninsky Ophiolite Complex in the Polar Ural Mountains have been examined. These data confirm the hypothesis that these bodies represent fragments of pre-collision oceanic crust and establish constraints on the nature and timing of events in the Uralian Orogeny. Two Kempersai gabbros define Sm-Nd internal isochrons of 397 +- 20 My and 396 +- 33 My with epsilonsub(Nd)(T) = +8.7 -+ 0.6 and +8.4 -+ 1.3, respectively. Whole rock samples of pillow basalt, diabase, gabbros, troctolite, and a metasediment give Sm-Nd values which lie on this isochron indicating that these rocks are genetically related and have an igneous crystallization age of 397 My. Whole rock samples of Voykar-Syninsky diabase, gabbros, and clinopyroxenite give Sm-Nd values which lie on or within proportional 1 epsilon-unit of this isochron indicating an age and epsilonsub(Nd)(T) virtually identical to those of Kempersai. epsilonsub(Nd)(T) for the Kempersai and Voykar-Syninsky mafic samples range from +7.3 to +9.0 with an average value of +8.4. This indicates that the Urals ophiolites are derived from an ancient depleted mantle source and are most plausibly pieces of the oceanic crust and lithosphere. The fact that a metasediment has the same epsilonsub(Nd)(397 My) as the other samples indicates derivation from an oceanic source with negligible continental input. epsilonsub(Nd)(T) for the massifs is proportional 1.5 epsilon-units lower than the average for modern MORBs. (orig./HSI)

  9. An environmental assessment strategy for the identification of pollution prevention opportunities in the southern Urals Region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Ott, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The serious environmental problems of the South Urals Region of Russia have been broadly described in a report coauthored by Russian weapons scientists. The importance of taking the first steps to prevent further environmental damage and adverse public health effects has been recognized by the international scientific community. Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have initiated a project to assist the Russians in their pollution prevention efforts. The specific objectives of this project are to: (1) conduct a pragmatic survey of the industrial and governmental pollution sources in a limited geographic region of the South Urals and (2) identify the priorities for pollution prevention and for food and water supply improvements at distribution points. The emphasis is on preventing adverse impacts to human health and improving industrial productivity. This project focuses on immediate pollution problems resulting from current operations and their solutions, not on long-term research related to the large-scale cleanup of legacy wastes. The project emphasizes near-term cost effective solutions to prevent pollution while longer term research aimed at contamination from past practices is pursued by other scientists. The project is being conducted in collaboration with environmental and physical scientists from institutes associated with the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; government officials at the national, regional, and local levels; and non-governmental Russian environmental groups. A broad cross section of Russian technical, political, and environmental abilities and interests is mandatory. This cross section will ensure the technical quality, the political acceptability, and the popular credibility of the project results to the affected Russians in the South Urals. Progress on this project is presented in this paper

  10. Wind uplift of radioactive dust from the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhon'ko, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Near nuclear power plants the recontamination of the atmosphere near the ground becomes dangerous, if a radioactive zone has formed at the site. Wind can easily carry toxic dust from the polluted territory of neighboring industrial enterprises. Moreover, wind erosion of the soil during the summer or transport of radioactive snow by a snowstorm during the winter can displace the boundaries of the contaminated radioactive zone. In Russia the investigation of wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground began after a radiation accident occurred at a storage facility in the Southern Urals in 1957, as a result of which a contaminated zone formed in the area. Since the direct mechanism of detachment of dust particles from the ground is not important in studying the results of the raising of radioactive dust into the atmosphere by wind, the authors do not distinguish between wind pickup and wind erosion, and the entire process wind pickup of radioactivity from the ground. After the radiation accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant a new generation of investigators began to study wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground, and the process under consideration was sometimes referred to as wind uplift. The intensity of the process of wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground is characterized by the wind pickup coefficient α, which is the coefficient of proportionality between the upward flux Q of radioactivity from the ground and the density A of radioactive contamination of the ground: α = Q/A. Physically, the coefficient α is the upward flux of the impurity from the ground with unit contamination density, i.e., the intensity of dust contamination or the fraction of radioactivity picked up by the wind from the ground per unit time. The greatest difficulty in determining α experimentally under dusty conditions is measuring correctly the upward radioactivity flux Q. The author discusses three methods for determining this quantity

  11. Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Small Mammals the Background and Polluted Territories of the Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk L. A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd in hemopoietic-competent organs of ecologically contrast species of small mammals (Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus, Apodemus uralensis from natural populations of the Middle and South Urals were considered. The content of exogenous and essential trace elements in animal tissues (a liver, kidney, a spleen was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. It has been shown that bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of insectivores significantly differs from it of bank voles and wood mice. The smallest total content of heavy metals is shown in wood mice in technogenic territories of the Middle Urals. The submitted data demonstrate the competitive mechanism of the Cu, Zn, Cd. The increased concentrations of endogenous trace elements (copper, zinc in relation to a toxicant (cadmium, other things being equal, reduce cadmium accumulation level in the tissues Sorex araneus.

  12. Fetal organ dosimetry for the Techa River and Ozyorsk offspring cohorts. Pt. 1. A Urals-based series of fetal computational phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Bolch, Wesley E. [University of Florida, Advanced Laboratory for Radiation Dosimetry Studies (ALRADS), J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shagina, Natalia B.; Tolstykh, Evgenia I.; Degteva, Marina O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Fell, Tim P. [Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Health, Didcot, Chilton, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-15

    The European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) project aims to improve understanding of cancer risks associated with chronic in utero radiation exposure. A comprehensive series of hybrid computational fetal phantoms was previously developed at the University of Florida in order to provide the SOLO project with the capability of computationally simulating and quantifying radiation exposures to individual fetal bones and soft tissue organs. To improve harmonization between the SOLO fetal biokinetic models and the computational phantoms, a subset of those phantoms was systematically modified to create a novel series of phantoms matching anatomical data representing Russian fetal biometry in the Southern Urals. Using previously established modeling techniques, eight computational Urals-based phantoms aged 8, 12, 18, 22, 26, 30, 34, and 38 weeks post-conception were constructed to match appropriate age-dependent femur lengths, biparietal diameters, individual bone masses and whole-body masses. Bone and soft tissue organ mass differences between the common ages of the subset of UF phantom series and the Urals-based phantom series illustrated the need for improved understanding of fetal bone densities as a critical parameter of computational phantom development. In anticipation for SOLO radiation dosimetry studies involving the developing fetus and pregnant female, the completed phantom series was successfully converted to a cuboidal voxel format easily interpreted by radiation transport software. (orig.)

  13. The reconstruction of Lymantria dispar outbreaks by dendrochronological methods in the South Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergei Kucherov

    1991-01-01

    Interest in investigating the influence of extreme ecological factors on the radial growth of oak (Quercus robur L.) is bound up with oak dieback in the South Urals during the last decade. Factors contributing to this problem in the study area are hard winter frosts, late spring frosts, and Lymantria dispar L. outbreaks. To...

  14. Developing the mechatronics and robotics at Nizhny Tagil Technological Institute of Ural Federal University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goman, V. V.; Fedoreev, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    This report concerns the development trends of education in the field of the Mechatronics and Robotics at Nizhny Tagil Technological Institute (branch of Ural Federal University). The paper considers new teaching technologies, experience in upgrade of the laboratory facilities and some results of development Mechatronics and Robotics educational courses.

  15. Report on maternal anxiety 16 months after the great East Japan earthquake disaster: anxiety over radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Hatsumi; Saito, Hidemitsu; Kikuchi, Saya; Ueno, Takashi; Sato, Kineko

    2014-06-25

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. The tsunami caused extensive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, resulting in a level 7 nuclear accident. Among those affected by this combined disaster were many pregnant and parturient women. Sixteen months after the earthquake, we conducted a questionnaire survey on anxiety among 259 women who gave birth around the time of the earthquake in Miyagi Prefecture, one of the affected areas. Participants reported 12 categories of anxiety, including anxiety over radioactivity. This study aimed to determine anxiety over radioactivity among this specific population and to record measures for future study. Anxiety over radiation was classified into seven subcategories: food safety, outdoor safety, effects on the fetuses of pregnant women, effects on children, radiation exposure, economic problems, and distrust of information disclosed. This study confirmed that concrete types of anxiety over radiation were keenly felt by mothers who had experienced the disaster who were currently raising children. The findings suggest the need to provide accurate information to these mothers, who are otherwise inundated with miscellaneous confusing information.

  16. THE FAMINE OF 1932-1933. IN THE SOUTHERN URALS AS ONE OF THE FACTORS OF CHANGE IN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islamovna Azhigulova Albina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this article is to study the impact of the famine of 1932–1933 years in the population change of the Southern Urals. Methodology. Basis of research is historical and comparative, historical and systematic, methods of critical analysis, which examined a number of historical sources, statistical reports, memoranda, special certificates, which contain information about the events. Results. The famine of 1932–1933 years caused the mark on several generations of people, causing increased mortality among the population of the Southern Urals. The author has proved that the quality of records of births and deaths of that time contained a number of errors. This was due to the availability of land where there was no registrar, and the population is not accustomed to registering births, deaths or marriages in the new soviet form. Therefore, using turnover data on natural and mechanical growth during the 1930 years, it is important to take into account all the shortcomings. The author comes to the conclusion that the highest mortality is observed among children up to one year, then the more the age, the lower the risk of death. Dynamics of mortality by regions of the southern Urals are presented in detail in numerical and percentage terms. Among the population of the southern Urals in the 1930 years, the highest percentage of mortality observed among the villagers, due to the difficulties of rural lifestyle, dominated in this period, the agricultural sector over the industrial one. The study established the specificity of hunger in different areas. In some areas of the southern Urals time frame hunger went beyond generally accepted locally or episodically. The importance of studying the famine of 1932–1933 years caused by a attempt of modern Ukraine to present this tragedy as genocide. The author takes the point of view of a number of local historians about the universality of the tragedy of the famine of 1932–1933 years

  17. REGIONAL VENTURE FUND OF THE URAL FEDERAL DISTRICT: CREATION AND STRATEGY OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Victorov

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes both types of Russian venture funds and forms of the state participation in venture investment. Besides, the article mentions the scheme of regional venture fund creation in Ural district, principles of its participants` interaction and some management issues. Moreover, we can see here the fund's development which includes market, technological, integration and investment components.

  18. Patterns of radionuclide concentrations in life-cycle of birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, N.V.; Beloglazov, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    Breeding populations of Great Tit Parus major and Pied Flycatcher Ficedida hypoleuca was studied to determine radionuclide ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr) concentrations in bodies and foods (contents of gastrointestinal tracts) at different stages of the life-cycle and radiation effects upon the populations. The study was carried out in 1989--1992 near Chernobyl (in two areas with differed contamination levels: 90 Ci/km 2 , 5 Ci/km 2 ) and East-Ural radioactive trace (Russia) (1,500 Ci/km 2 , 2 Ci/km 2 ). Concentrations of 90 Sr in egg shells of Great Tit collected near Chernobyl were 65 times higher in the more radioactive area than in the less contaminated area and varied from 56.6 to 79.7 Bq/g. Concentration of 90 Sr in the contents of gastrointestinal tracts were from 0 to 10.8 Bq/g. Concentrations of radionuclides in the food increased in the sequence ''nestlings 90 Sr content in bodies of nestlings varied from 1 to 5 Bq/g at contaminated site and from 0.2 to 0.5 Bq/g at less polluted area, from 1 to 9 Bq/g and from 0.1 to 0.5 Bq/g in fledglings relatively in two areas. It was assumed that the ration of pairs numbers and breeding success of Pied Flycatcher (East-Ural) on the control site was significantly higher than that on contaminated site. The pathology in development of Pied Flycatcher's nestling was recorded. The radiation influenced on age-structure of bird populations decreasing the ratio of the young

  19. INSTITUTIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS TO ECONOMY OF THE URAL FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Mayer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Economy of the Ural federal district is characterized by appreciable institutional transformations. First of all, it concerns arrival on the market new and leaving from the market of the old enterprises and the organizations, that, alongside with other factors, defines growth of competitiveness of regions. The processes of development of small business, strengthening of market positions of the organizations with participation of the foreign capital, activisation of the market of merges and absorption of the companies operate also in the same direction. Noted tendencies are characteristic for economy of all Russia. However regional features, as between federal districts, and subjects of Federation are kept also.

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Composition of Diet of the Ural Owl, Strix Uralensi (Strigidae, Strigiformes, in the Central Part of European Russia (The Example of the Republic of Mordovia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreychev A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of the Ural Owl feeding spectrum are presented. In Russia the Ural owl eats over twenty species of mammals, thirty bird species and a number of animals of other classes. The research tasks included the identification of the species of the victims of a large owl in Mordovia, their quantitative data and the characteristics of osteological material from pellets. It was found out that mammals, in particular rodents, are the basis for the Ural owl food. The Ural Owl’s diet consists mainly of gray voles (47.7 %. On the second place there is a red vole (31.4 %. The share of mice is only 7.3 %. Th e predator hunts for the forest mouse most oft en. In pellets the mass fraction of bone remains varies in the range from 3.4 to 44.8 %. Th e average proportion of bone remains is, as a rule, up to 25 %, with the content of only one or two small rodents in pellets; the remains of three to six individuals - up to 45 % of the weight of dry pellet. Among all the bones of mammals, the lower jaws, femoral and tibia bones give the greatest information about the number and composition of victims of the Ural owl. In pellets the brachial and nameless bones of the victims are presented in smaller numbers.

  1. Radiological assessment of past, present and potential sources to environmental contamination in the Southern Urals and strategies for remedial measures (SUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarkrog, A. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Simmonds, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Christensen, G. [Institute of Energy Technology (Norway); Salbu, B. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway (Norway)

    2000-12-01

    This report summarises work done on the SUCON Project during 1996-1999 (European Commission Contract No. FI4C-CT95-0001). The project has focused on three major objectives: 1) An assessment of the radiological consequences of the contamination of the South Urals and the Ob river system from the production of plutonium at 'Mayak', 2) The development of models to calculate doses to individuals and populations in the South Urals using environmental data, and 3) The intercomparison, harmonisation and standardisation of techniques used in dose reconstruction and specification of good practice in particular with regard to remedial measures. (au)

  2. Radiological assessment of past, present and potential sources to environmental contamination in the Southern Urals and strategies for remedial measures (SUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Simmonds, J.; Strand, P.; Christensen, G.; Salbu, B.

    2000-12-01

    This report summarises work done on the SUCON Project during 1996-1999 (European Commission Contract No. FI4C-CT95-0001). The project has focused on three major objectives: 1) An assessment of the radiological consequences of the contamination of the South Urals and the Ob river system from the production of plutonium at 'Mayak', 2) The development of models to calculate doses to individuals and populations in the South Urals using environmental data, and 3) The intercomparison, harmonisation and standardisation of techniques used in dose reconstruction and specification of good practice in particular with regard to remedial measures. (au)

  3. Risk Diagnostics and Management for Welfare in Regions (in the Example of the Ural Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kuklin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Welfare is one of the indicators that characterizes the functioning of socio-economic system at any level, which is influenced by many factors. It increases the importance of necessity of choice, estimating risks that affect welfare, and managing their influence. The authors view welfare in the region from two viewpoints: an individual and a territory, which implies definition and estimation of risks for each of them. The goal of the study is to estimate the risks to welfare of an individual and a territory, which means solving the following tasks: 1 defining the category ‘risk to welfare of an individual and a territory’; 2 estimating integral risks for the Ural Federal District’s territories; 3 estimating the probability of integral risk reaching critical zone. The methods of study used by the authors: indicative analysis, integration of objective function through Monte Carlo statistical trials method. The object of the study is the regions of the Ural Federal District (subjects of the Russian Federation, timeframe – 2001–2016, information mass – official data of Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Based on the calculations, the authors conclude the following: all regions of the Ural Federal District are in the high-risk zone and have low probability of reaching critical risk zone. The results can be used in managing the risks through development of roadmaps on minimization of risk and probability of aggravation. The proposed measures allow decreasing the integral risk and increasing welfare level of an individual and a territory

  4. Management of radioactive wastes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1994-01-01

    The policy and principles on management of radioactive wastes are stipulated. Cement solidification and bituminization unit has come into trial run. Solid radioactive waste is stored in tentative storage vault built in each of nuclear facilities. Seventeen storages associated with applications of nuclear technology and radioisotopes have been built for provinces. Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes pursues the policy of 'regional disposal'. Four repositories have been planned to be built in northwest, southwest, south and east China respectively. A program for treatment and disposal of high level radioactive waste has been made

  5. Correlation of Early Devonian (Lochkovian-early Pragian) conodont faunas of the South Urals (Russia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mavrinskaya, T.; Slavík, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 3 (2013), s. 283-296 ISSN 1214-1119 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100131201 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : South Urals, West Zilair Zone, Lower Devonian, global conodont correlation, Lochkovian, Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2013

  6. Collapse above the world's largest potash mine (Ural, Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejchuk Vjacheslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the study of a huge collapse that occurred in June 1986 within the area of the 3rd Berezniki potash mine (the Verkhnekamsky potash deposit, Ural. Processes that took place between the first appearance of a water inflow through the mine roof and the eventual collapse are reconstructed in detail. The origin and development of a cavity that induced the collapse are revealed. Two factors played a major role in the formation of the collapse: the presence of a tectonic fold/rupture zone with in both the salt sequence and the overburden (the zone of crush and enhanced permeability, and the ductile pillars mining system.

  7. Relocation of radioactive residuals store: environment effects statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This Environment Effects Statement describes and assesses the likely environmental effects of the proposal to relocate the Health Commission's existing radioactive residuals store to a site within the established Dutson Downs waste disposal area, located 20 km south-east of Sale and 225 km east of Melbourne. The information presented demonstrates that the siting and construction of the proposed radioactive residuals store and the procedures to be adopted for the handling and storage of materials will not present an unacceptable risk to public health and safety, nor will it involve any significant adverse environmental effects

  8. Review of the continued suitability of the dumping site for radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    Under the terms of the Decision of the OECD Council establishing a Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste, NEA is requested to assess, in consultation with the Environment Committee, the suitability of dumping sites proposed by the national authorities of Participating countries and to keep under review those previously considered suitable. Since 1974 radioactive waste sea dumping operations have been carried out in a single site located in the North-East Atlantic region. To fulfil the objectives of the Council Decision, an international group of oceanographic and radiation protection experts was convened by NEA in November 1979 to undertake a review of the continued suitability of the dumping site, taking into account the relevant provisions of the London Dumping Convention and the IAEA Definition and Recommendations for the purposes of the Convention. The results of the review are contained in this Report. The Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy confirmed in April 1980 that, on the basis of the review, the existing site was suitable for continued dumping of radioactive waste for the next five years, under the conditions specified by the Group of Experts in their conclusions and recommendations. At the same time, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy agreed on the need for developing a co-ordinated site-specific scientific programme to increase current knowledge of the processes controlling the transfert of radionuclides in the marine environment, so that future assessments can be based on more accurate and comprehensive scientific data

  9. Interim oceanographic description of the North-East Atlantic site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbutt, P.A.; Dickson, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Within the terms of the Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Wastes, NEA is requested to assess the suitability of dumping sites proposed by Participating countries and to keep under review those previously thought suitable. The aim of this volume is to provide a further interim description of the North-East Atlantic dumpsite itself. Quantities of known wastes dumpings are summarized. A review of the available data on sediment distribution in the area is presented. The flow field at the site is described so that an experiment to determine the influence on the deep flow of large scale topographic features at the dumpsite. The tide gauge results are briefly presented. The state of knowledge of the hydrographic and chemical conditions prior to 1977 is reviewed; recent results are added. The results of the radioactivity determination in the surface layer (3cm thick) of box cored sediments and the vertical radioactivity profiles are presented in tables. Some results on adsorption and geochemical partitioning of long-lived radionuclides on dumpsite sediments are briefly reviewed. Biological studies have been undertaken: concentration of radionuclides in biological materials, radiation effects on the dumpsite fauna. A dose-limit (critical group) calculation model is presented. Collective dose commitment and mass transfer are briefly discussed. The concentration of radionuclides in sediments and some organisms of the Bay of Biscay has been evaluated. Some isopycnal data for the eastern Atlantic, windstress and stratification are briefly mentioned

  10. Individual-dose distribution for the population in different regions with radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.; Kleshchenko, E.D.; Kushnereva, K.K.

    1995-01-01

    The reconstruction of individual doses as a result of the Chernobyl accident often relied on the method of EPR measurement from the enamel from extracted teeth. This method was used reliably, with individual confirmations of its indications being obtained. In determining the relatively small irradiation dose to the population, doubts arise because of the fact that the measured dose is often greater than the dose calculated by an indirect method---from external radiation fields at the location and the contents of radionuclides in foods. It is necessary, therefore, to perform an independent check of the results. In this paper, we describe one method for checking the reliability---comparing the measurements of the dose from several teeth in the same individual---in determining the dose from tooth enamel for the population of the Kamensk-Ural region of Sverdlovsk province. This group lived in the zone of passage for the eastern Ural radioactive wake in 1957. The error of the dose determination for different samples was different, since it depends on the mass and quality of the enamel obtained. The results presented show that the method of EPR dosimetry using the enamel of extracted teeth makes it possible to determine quite reliably the individual dose of external radiation from the background up to several Gy of the measurements. Our method compares measurements

  11. MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘自强

    1994-01-01

    The policy and principles on management of radioactive wastes are stipulated.Cement solidification and bituminization unit has come into trial run.Solid radioactive waste is stored in tentative storage vault built in each of nuclear facilities.Seventeen storages associated with applications of nuclear technology and radioisotopes have been built for provinces.Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes pursues the policy of “regional disposal”.Four repositories have been planned to be built in northwest.southwest,south and east China respectively.A program for treatment and disposal of high level radioactive waste has been made.

  12. Radioactivity of fish II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Hiwatashi, Y; Tamari, T; Yoshitake, N; Tajima, D

    1955-01-01

    Various tissues of fish captured east of Formosa after the Bikini H-Bomb experiment had radioactivities (detected on May 27, 1954) in counts/min/ash from 5 g. fresh tissues: blood 2414, eyeball 49, heart muscle 111, white muscle 11, red muscle (chiai) 123, bone 46, skin 28, pancreas 131, liver 522, stomach muscle 106, stomach contents 52, spermatozoa 47, and spleen 504. High radioactivities in blood and blood synthesizing organs (liver and spleen) were emphasized. The radioactivity in the blood had a half-life of 34 to 35 days and the maximum energy of ..beta..-ray of approximate 0.4 m.e.v.

  13. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards

  14. Assessment of socioeconomic consequences of drug abuse in the Ural federal district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inessa Aleksandrovna Gurban

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers issues of the assessment of the socioeconomic consequences of drug abuse in today’s conditions, which have the following features — the approaching of drug-dealers to legalize the drug market, develop the illegal drug market and their analogs and derivatives by the introduction of modern production technologies and distribution of psychoactive agents. Key tendencies observed in the contemporary world in the field of dynamics of the drug market development, which are reflected in the regions of Russia including the Ural Federal District are revealed. The procedure of assessment of socioeconomic expenses of drug abuse including assessment of drug consumers’ expenses and their surrounding people; and also; maintenance costs of the state bodies supervising drug trafficking; expenses for health care and other social expenses connected to drug use; damage to individuals of drug abuse distribution; expenses of private institutions and establishments; socioeconomic impact of drug abuse distribution. The technique uses a tool allowing to carry out a calculation (a heroin equivalent, i.e. the drugs withdrawn by law enforcement agencies and the subsequent calculation of the corresponding number of consumers of each type of drug. This method is aimed at increasing the accuracy of estimates received. On the basis of results calculated according to offered technique, the shares of socioeconomic expenses of drug abuse concerning the income of the cumulative consolidated budget and a gross regional product of the Ural Federal District are defined.

  15. Artificial radioactivity in Carlingford Lough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.I.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Ryan, T.P.; Caulfield, J.J.; Larmour, R.A.; Ledgerwood, F.K.

    1992-09-01

    The principal objective of this study was to assess whether radioactivity concentrations in a wide range of environmental materials from the Lough were enhanced above general levels found elsewhere along the east and north-east coasts of Ireland. Other objectives included an examination of gamma dose rates in air over inter-tidal sediments throughout the Lough and an examination of coastal soils to determine the extent of sea-to-land transfer of plutonium and , by inference, americium

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia and Kazakhstan, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 1.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 2.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 85 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Volga-Ural Region Province, using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  17. Radioactivity of β / γ and the Content of Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg, Na on the Spring of Ponorogo East Java Lime Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutjipto

    2002-01-01

    Radioactivity of β / γ and the content of Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg, Na on the source of Ponorogo East-Java lime area has been studied. This research was carried out to know radioactivity of β / γ and the content of Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg, Na on the spring of different three places were Ngebel-lake source, Ngembak source and Gonggang source. Samples taken, preparation and analysis based on the procedures of environmental radioactivity analysis and water sampling guidelines. The instrument used for the analysis radioactivity were low level β counter modified P3TM-BATAN Yogyakarta with detector GM and spectrometer γ with detector Ge(Li). Radioactivity of β (gross) from the source of different three places (β ≤ 1 Bq/L) are lower than the value of PPRI No. 20/1990. Radioactivity of γ comes from the natural radionuclides of Tl-208 and K-40 are lower than 1 Bq/L for the different of three places, respectively. The metals concentration of Ngebel-lake source were Ca ≤ 14.34 ppm; Fe ≤ 0.04 ppm; Mn ≤ 0.02 ppm; Mg ≤ 6.75 ppm; Na ≤ 14.63 ppm, Ngembak source were Ca ≤ 11.6 ppm; Fe ≤ 0.04 ppm; Mn ≤ 0.02 ppm; Mg ≤ 11.13 ppm; Na ≤ 16.75 ppm and Gonggang source were Ca ≤ 13.78 ppm; Fe ≤ 0.26 ppm; Mn ≤ 0.02 ppm; Mg ≤ 6.13 ppm; Na ≤ 15.00 ppm. The water of Ngebel-lake source, Ngembak source and Gonggang source can be classified as B category water based on radioactivity and the content of the metals concentration in its. (author)

  18. Radiation exposure and doses resulting from natural radioactivity in the environment and radioactive isotopes in food chains. Part of a coordinated programme on environmental monitoring for radiological protection in Asia and the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rab Molla, M.A.

    1978-11-01

    A coordinated research programme on environmental radioactivity monitoring in Asia and Far East was undertaken. The following studies were carried out: Determination of fallout 137 Cs, 90 Sr and natural radionuclides of 208 Tl and of levels of K and Ca in vegetables and soils; study of the influence of K in the uptake of 137 Cs by vegetable crops from soil in contral fields and pot experiments; survey of background radiation levels in Bangladesh including the monazite-bearing areas of Cox's Bazar

  19. Neotectonic movement feature in preselection area for high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xianfang; Gao Yang; He Jianguo; Li Jianzhong; Gao Honglei; Xu Guoqing

    2010-01-01

    Neotectonic activity intensity is an important criteria for evaluating high level radioactive waste repository. The guiding ideology, methods and application of neotectonic study are elaborated in the paper. According to comparison research between the south and north part of east Tianshan area, the south part of east Tianshan is regarded as relative stable or relative weak in neotectonic movement in Neogene period and was selected as preselection area for high level radioactive waste repository. (authors)

  20. Ways of adaptation of the plant populations to chemical and radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozolotina, V.; Bezel', V.; Zhuykova, T.; Severu'Khina, O.; Ulyanova, E.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical agents (heavy metals, acids, etc.) and radiation render their influence upon biota being clearly distinct in primary mechanisms of action. However, lively organisms demonstrate one and the same set [arsenal] of response reactions, and thus it is important to reveal the ways of their realization caused by different types of techno-genic impacts. Our work was intended to examine the seed progeny of the dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, from radionuclides-contaminated coeno-populations (grown at the territories influenced by Eastern-Ural radioactive trace, in the Techa-river flood plain) and those situated in the nearest impact zone affected by a large metallurgical plant in the Urals. Plots, differently distanced from the enterprise, showed heavy metal contamination loads 8-33 times higher than the control site did. Radionuclides concentrations ( 90 Sr and 137 Cs) within the contaminated zone exceeded the background values 4-40 times. The study allowed estimation of the seed progeny vitality level for different coeno-populations, comparison of their adaptive potential in regard to heavy metals tolerance and gamma radiation resistance, estimation of abnormal seedlings [sprouts] frequency values. It was shown [found] that under techno-genic pollution the dandelion coeno-populations usually demonstrate wider variations of different characteristics (vitality, mutability, root and leaf growth rates) as compared to those in the background zone. As a general regularity one can regard the phenomenon, that negative effects were not marked to be increased by heavier pollution loads, irrespectively of the agents nature. (author)

  1. The Fifth International Ural seminar. Radiation damage physics of metals and alloys. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts of The Fifth International Ural seminar Damage physics of metals and alloys. General problems of radiation damage physics, radiation effect on change of microstucture and the properties of metals and alloys, as well as materials for nuclear and thermonuclear energetics are considered. The themes of reports are the following: correlation effects in cascades of atom-atomic collisions; radiation-induced strengthening critical current density in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductors; conditions of forming and hydrides growth in irradiated zirconium alloys [ru

  2. Occurrence modes of As, Sb, Te, Bi, Ag in sulfide assemblages of gold deposits of the Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikent'eva, O.; Vikentev, I.

    2016-04-01

    Review of occurrence modes of trace toxic elements ("potential pollutants") in ores from large gold deposits (the Urals) of different genetic types is presented. Mineral forms of these elements as well as their presence in main minerals from gold-bearing sulfide assemblages according to SEM, EPMA, INAA, ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS are demonstrated.

  3. Natural radioactivity measurements in beach sand along the South East coast of Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, B.S.; Vijayakumar, B.; Ravi, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of natural radioactivity in beach sand was carried out along the south east coast of Tamil Nadu, India, The activity concentrations of "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K in beach sand ranged from 2 to 2,762 Bqkg"-"1 with a mean value of 236 Bq.kg"-"1, 7 to 30,872 Bqkg"-"1 with a mean value of 2,300 Bqkg"-"1 and 6.0 to 890 Bqkg"-"1 with a mean value of 85 Bqkg"-"1, respectively. The Radium Equivalent Activity, the external hazard index, the absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose were assessed and compared with world average values. The results indicate that the absorbed dose rates range from 10 to 20506 nGyh"-"1 with mean value of 1545 nGy.h"-"1. The annual effective dose range between 0.01 and 25.15 mSvy"-"1, with the mean value of 1.90 mSvy"-"1. (author)

  4. The agricultural sector of the Pechora-Ural North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Aleksandrovich Ivanov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the rural sector’s role in food supply of the population of the Komi Republic arctic and subarctic territories (the Pechora-Ural North. It considers conditions, analyses resources, organizational-legal management forms in agricultural production. The study indicates the agriculture status in the pre-reform (1960–1980 and market upgrade periods (since 1992 and the reforms’ impact on socio-economic processes in the industry. The article investigates obstacles to the agricultural sector development. It proposes development directions of reindeer and cattle breeding. It recommends to accelerate the development and adoption of the law “On reindeer breeding in the Russian Federation”, a federal target program for the reindeer breeding development, and it also proposes to enhance interregional relations in the field of joint systems of pastures control. The research highlights the necessity to strengthen the material and technological base of the dual purpose cattle breeding, to increase financial support of traditional Northern branches

  5. Fifth Anniversary youth scientifically-practical conference Nuclear-industrial complex of Ural: problems and prospects. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Theses of reports of the Fifth Anniversary youth scientifically-practical conference Nuclear-industrial complex of Ural: problems and prospects (21-23 April 2009, Ozersk) are presented. The book contains abstracts of papers of fourth thematic sections: SNF reprocessing: science and industry; Radioecology and radiobiology; Advanced science-intensive technologies and materials; Education and training for NFC plants

  6. Complex utilization of the useful components of the andreye-yulyevskoe kyanite tecnogenic deposit (Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Alekseyevich Koroteyev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of sillimanite group’s minerals (kyanite, sillimanite, andalusite in high-aluminiferousrefractory industry with a purpose of following utilization in metallurgy to obtain silumine and aluminium by elctrothermic method is impossible without new resources. A one of them is the Andree-Yulyevskaya group of kyanite-bearing technogenic objects. Technogenic deposits formed as a result of alluvial gold deposits’ exploitation at the Southern Urals is an additional source of the complex mineral products. A concentration of minerals of the technogenic objects is higher than initial alluvial placers’ one in n10-n1000 times. During the valuation of industrial potential of the Andree-Yulyevskayakya tetechnogenic deposit, (Southern Urals a concentrate method of technogenicsands’ sampling has been used which permitsestimating a gold placers’ potential of thetechnogenic objects with poor gold and rutile as a useful additional mineral has been distinguished. As a result of researches a principal technological scheme of technogenic sands’ concentration permitting to obtain kyanite concentrates with content of Al2O3 of 55.5 (% to 60.2 (% — the main product and gold-bearing and rutile concentrates as additional products. Complex extraction of kyanite, gold, and rutile from technogenic objects has a commercial attraction of this type deposits’ exploitation.

  7. The Rapid Arctic Warming and Its Impact on East Asian Winter Weather in Recent Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. J.; Kim, B. M.; Kim, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is warming much more rapidly than the lower latitudes. In contrast to the rapid Arctic warming, in winters of the recent decade, the cold-air outbreaks over East Asia occur more frequently and stronger than in 1990s. By accompanying the snow over East Asia, the strong cold surges have led to a severe socio-economic impact. Such severe cold surges in recent decade over east Asia is consistent with the more dominant negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), that may be attributed by the Arctic amplification. In both observation-based reanalysis and numerical model experiments, the Arctic sea ice melting leads to the weakening of the AO polarity by reducing the meridional temperature gradient through a heat flux feedback. The Arctic warming and associated sea ice melting over the Kara-Barents area in late fall and early winter first release a lot of heat to the atmosphere from the ocean by a strong contrast in temperature and moisture and higher height anomaly is developed over the Kara/Barents and the Ural mountains The anomalous anticyclonic anomaly over the Arctic strengthen the Siberian High and at the same time the east Asian trough is developed over the western coast of the North Pacific. Through the passage between the margin of the Siberian High and east Asian tough, an extremely cold air is transported from east Siberia to east Asia for sometimes more than a week. Such a severe sold air brings about the moisture from nearby ocean, largely influencing the daily lives and economy in north East China, Korea, and Japan. The recent Arctic and associated sea ice melting is not only contributed to the local climate and weather, but also a severe weather in mid-latitudes through a modulation in polar vortex.

  8. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs.

  9. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs

  10. Atmospheric deposition of radioactive cesium (137Cs) associated with dust events in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the cessation of atmospheric nuclear testing in 1980, there has been no known serious atmospheric contamination by radioactive cesium (sup(137)Cs) apart from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in 1986. There now remain only small amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere that can be directly related to past testing. However, sup(137)Cs is still regularly found in atmospheric deposition samples in Japan. In this study, we analyzed sup(137)Cs monitoring data, meteorological data, and field survey results to investigate the recent transport and deposition of sup(137)Cs associated with dust phenomena. Monthly records of nationwide sup(137)Cs deposition in Japan during the 1990s show a consistent seasonal variation, with higher levels of deposition occurring in spring. In March 2002, an unexpectedly high amount of sup(137)Cs was deposited in the northwestern coastal area of Japan at the same time as an Asian dust event was observed. Analysis of land-based weather data showed that sandstorms and other dust-raising phenomena also occurred in March 2002 over areas of Mongolia and northeastern China where grassland and shrubs predominated. Furthermore, radioactivity measurements showed sup(137)Cs enrichment in the surface layer of grassland soils in the areas affected by these sandstorms. These results suggest that grasslands are potential sources of sup(137)Cs-bearing dust. Continued desertification of the East Asian continent in response to recent climate change can be expected to result in an increase in sup(137)Cs-bearing soil particles in the atmosphere, and their subsequent re-deposition in Japan. However, soil dust is also raised around Japanese monitoring sites by the strong winds that are common in Japan in spring, and this local dust might also contribute to sup(137)Cs deposition in Japan. To estimate the relative contributions of local and distant dust events to the total sup(137)Cs deposition, we monitored deposition of mineral particles

  11. The methods of conversion of radioactive waste: a look at the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezchikov, D.

    2000-01-01

    In 1948, the Government of the USSR made provisions to establish an industrial complex to produce Pu-239 in the Chelyabinsk region. PA 'MAYAK' was part of this complex. It is now addressing radioactive waste disposition in peacetime. Making Pu-239 in metal form led to the formation of large quantities of liquid radioactive waste. Since it was impossible to clean the water at that time, radioactive waste was put in the Techa River until 1951. The liquid waste contained a mixture of radioactive Sr, Cs, Nb, Ru and other elements. Sr-90 and Cs-137 accounted for about a quarte of the radioactivity. Many people lived near the Techa and received large doses of radiation. About 2.7 million Curies was put into the river before this practice stopped arid waste was then put into Lake Karachay. High-activity waste was placed in concrete and steel for protection. The volume was cooled with water. When cooling was stopped, the dry mixture heated to 300-350 degrees and exploded. According to official information, the reason for the incident was because the system's control temperature and level of the waste were exceeded. Repair was impossible because radiation fields were high. Contents of the volume were released in the plume and spread into the atmosphere. Around 90 percent of the radioactivity fell near the place of the burst. The rest of the 2 million curies was spread by wind and appeared as the West Ural Trace. It was very important to utilize solid waste (SW). Around 200 special places were made for storage of SW. High-activity SW was kept in reinforced-concrete containers. Middle-activity waste was put in a trench. The total activity of SW is approximately 2 million Curies. (authors)

  12. Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in Alaska, 1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzko, John J.; Bates, Robert G.

    1955-01-01

    During the summer of 1953 the areas investigated for radioactive deposits in Alaska were on Nikolai Creek near Tyonek and on Likes Creek near Seward in south-central Alaska where carnotite-type minerals had been reported; in the headwaters of the Peace River in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula and at Gold Bench on the South Fork of the Koyukuk River in east-central Alaska, where uranothorianite occurs in places associated with base metal sulfides and hematite; in the vicinity of Port Malmesbury in southeastern Alaska to check a reported occurrence of pitchblende; and, in the Miller House-Circle Hot Springs area of east-central Alaska where geochemical studies were made. No significant lode deposits of radioactive materials were found. However, the placer uranothorianite in the headwaters of the Peace River yet remains as an important lead to bedrock radioactive source materials in Alaska. Tundra cover prevents satisfactory radiometric reconnaissance of the area, and methods of geochemical prospecting such as soil and vegetation sampling may ultimately prove more fruitful in the search for the uranothorianite-sulfide lode source than geophysical methods.

  13. Features of phenacite mineralization from the Ural emerald mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Popov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problems of development of phenacite mineralization at the Ural Emerald Mines, which is rather well developed and described in the Mariinsky (Malyshevsky and Sretensky (Sverdlovsk emerald-beryllium deposits. Phenacite is widespread in many beryllium deposits, but crystals of jewelry quality, with such large sizes as at the Emerald Mines, form rarely. Despite the prescription of the discovery (1833, and because of the rare occurrence of jewelry quality of crystals, and the presence of more expensive and valuable stones – emeralds and alexandrites – in deposits of the Emerald mines, phenacite remains almost unknown in the precious stones market, and especially abroad. Phenacite mineralization mostly occurs in the micaceous veins represented by gray and greenish-gray phlogopite. Distribution of phenacite in the micaceous veins is extremely uneven. Mineralization is typically nesting. High content of phenacite appears in the micaceous veins, mineral composition of which is mostly phlogopite, veins and concretions of beryllium-containing margarite (B-margarite and chlorite. Content of phenacite is low in the micaceous veins that include phlogopite, plagioclase, beryl, fluorite, smoky quartz. At the Sretensky deposit is located a vein that refers to a new type of ore bodies of the chrysoberyl-phenacite composition lying in ultrabasic rocks. Unlike emerald-bearing micaceous veins that have a northwestern spread, the chrysoberyl-phenacite ore bodies are oriented in the near-latitudinal direction and have a northern incidence at an angle of 75°–80°. The most common form of phenacite crystals on the Emerald Mines is rhombohedral and short columned. Crystals have a large number of faces. The usual shapes are a hexagonal prism and rhombohedrons. Twin crystals are common, druses, columnar aggregates, and spherulites are characteristic. Phenacite can be colorless or slightly colored in wine yellow, sometimes pinkish, light

  14. Late Sarmatian Elite Military Burial From the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivosheev Mikhail Vasilyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial of a warrior of Late Sarmatian time from the Southern Urals. The complex from mound no. 4 of the burial mound Taksai I is distinguished by large size of barrow and grave. The reconstructed height of the mound was less than 2 meters. The depth of the burial pit was more than 3 meters. For Late Sarmatian culture such dimensions of sepulchral structures are unique. Under the mound the ritual platform from mainland soil was discovered. The found inventory of a warrior-rider included: horse bridle, a set of bladed weapons consisting of a long sword, dagger and knife, as well as a small bronze cauldron. Analysis of inventory allows us to date this burial to the second half of the 3rd century A.D. This burial belongs to an elite funerary complexes of Late Sarmatian culture and is a burial of professional warriors. This social stratum was formed in Late Sarmatian society at the end of the 2nd - first half of the 3rd century A.D. Most of these graves are dating back to the first half of the 3rd century A.D and were found in the Low Don and in the Volga region. The situation in these regions changed in that period due to the invasion of the tribes of the North-Caucasian origin. Their occurrence is associated with the destruction of the Tanais in the Lower Don region and the spread of graves in the T-shaped catacombs in the steppe monuments. The tradition of burying warriors-horsemen of high social status almost disappears in the Volga-Don steppes after the middle of 3rd century A.D. In the Southern Urals where these processes had an indirect influence, the existence of traditional hierarchies of Late Sarmatian society could continue until the end of the 3rd century A.D. Among the parts of a horse bridle the researchers discovered bronze B-shape buckle. These buckles are widely distributed in the 4th-5th centuries A.D. in the basin of the Kama river and the Danube river. The found buckle is the earliest currently known

  15. Phytomining Perspectives in Rehabilitation of Mining and Industrial Areas of South Ural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Ulrikh, D. V.; Timofeev, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    The ability of midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata (Poir)), common barberry (Berberis vulgaris), red elder (Sambucus racemosa), cinnamon rose (Rosa cinnamomea L.), couch grass (Elytrigia repens), crested wheat grass (Agropyron cristatum), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) and meadow grass (Poa pratensis) for phytoextraction of heavy metals from technogenic soil is proved in the article. The possibility of effective phytoextraction with the use of hawthorn and elder is shown. Maximum accumulation of zinc takes place in the surface mass of couch grass and meadow fescue. In regard to the conditions of South Ural, planting of elder and hawthorn with seeding of couch grass and meadow fescue is recommended for phytomining purposes.

  16. Mercury in Some Lakes of Gold Mining Area of the Southern Ural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsy Y. G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mercury content in bottom sediments of Kalkan Lake, of the Uchala district, the Southern Ural. It was assumed that high concentrations of mercury in fish due to pollution of bottom sediments as a result of amalgamation at developing of gold placers. Detailed study of distribution of different elements in sediments show close association Hg with the chalcophylic elements, whose anomalies do not have technogenic nature. Association of mercury with the elements-companions of gold placers is evidence of basic contribution of natural mercury to its anomalous accumulation in sediments and fish. This is result of steady long-term natural mercury pollution.

  17. EXPLORATORY PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR URAL OWLS (STRIX URALENSIS, PALLAS 1771) FROM THE AUSTRIAN REINTRODUCTION PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; Vobornik, Angela; Zink, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The Ural owl (Strix uralensis) is the biggest forest-living owl in Austria; however, it became extinct in Austria through poaching and habitat loss more than half a century ago. The birds examined in the present study were breeding pairs from the reintroduction project with the aim of determining exploratory plasma biochemistry reference intervals in Ural owls and evaluating the amount of biological variation between seasons, sexes, and ages. A total of 45 birds were sampled, including 13 adult males, 14 adult females, and 18 juvenile birds. Remarkably, almost all of the analytes showed significant differences between the subgroups, primarily between seasons, followed by age and sex. Only creatinkinase, glucose, lactatdehydrogenase, and triglycerides did not show any significant variations. Despite partitioning of reference values into subgroups according to biological variation diminishing the number of reference individuals in the respective groups, the resulting smaller reference intervals will improve medical assessment. The results of the present study once again demonstrate that significant seasonal fluctuations must be expected and considered in the interpretation. It can be assumed that these differences are probably even greater in free-range birds with considerable changes in food quantity and quality during and between years.

  18. Current contamination by 137Cs and 90Sr of the Techa River Basin in the South Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, O.S.; Shutov, V.N.; Travnikova, I.G.; Bruk, G.Ya.; Kravtsova, E.M.; Gavrilov, A.P.; Mubasarov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to conduct a preliminary assessment of the current radioactive contamination of soil, vegetation and foodstuffs in the two remaining villages closest to the Mayak site, Muslyumovo and Brodokalmak. Previous release of radioactivity from the Mayak Production Association plant in the South Urals have resulted in considerable radionuclide contamination of the Techa River, and consequent high radiation doses during the late 1940s and 1950s to residents of villages along the Techa river. The most contaminated villages close to the site were evacuated in the period 1954-1962. Nowadays the highest contamination levels in soil were found in the flood plain at 5.5 MBq m -2 for 1 37C s and 1.0 MBq m -2 for 9 0S r. The radionuclide contamination in soil of the two mentioned above villages was much lower, but exceeded that expected from global fallout. Data from 1207 measurements of 1 37C s in milk and 1180 for 9 0S r in milk for the period 1992-1999 were collated. There was no change with time in the 9 0S r or 1 37C s activity concentration in milk over the measured period. There were significantly higher 1 37C s activity concentrations in milk sampled during the stalled period in Muslyumovo compared with the grazing summer period, but no difference between that for Brodokalmak or for either settlement for 9 0S r. The highest measured activity concentrations in food products of 1 37C s and 9 0S r were found in river fish, waterfowl, poultry and milk. The measured activity concentration of 1 37C s and 9 0S r of some animal products were higher than that expected from that of soil and vegetation from fields and pasture in the villages (not including the flood plain) confirming that the highly contaminated flood plains are contributing to contamination of some animal products

  19. Radioactive sedimentary deposits concerning the coasts of the Camargue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    CRII-RAD has detected abnormal levels of radioactivity on some beaches situated near the Espiguette lighthouse in the south-east coast of France. This document presents the in-situ measurements performed by IPSN. These results confirm a relevant increase of gamma radiation in sedimentary deposits. Chemical analyses have shown that this radioactivity is due to potassium 40 and radionuclides from thorium and uranium series. There is no doubt about the natural origin of this radioactivity but thorough geo-chemical studies are necessary to see whether these radioactive sands are a consequence of nearby industrial activities concerning ore dressing. (A.C.)

  20. Comments to the plenary presentation "Reconstructing Pre-Proto-Uralic typology spanning the millennia of linguistic evolution" by Juha Janhunen / Lśzl̤ Keresztes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keresztes, Lśzl̤

    2001-01-01

    Kommentaar: Janhunen, Juha. "Reconstructing Pre-Proto-Uralic typology spanning the millennia of linguistic evolution", Congressus nonus internationalis fenno-ugristarum. Tartu, 2000, 1, lk. 59-76. Ettekanne konverentsilt - Congressus internationalis fenno-ugristarum (9 : 2000 : Tartu)

  1. Introducing a new Book on the Ural-Altaic Language Classification (Towards Eurasian Linguistic Isoglosses: the Case of Turkic and Hungarian)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, László Marácz introduces his own book on a new approach to the Ural-Altaic language classification. The book entitled ‘Towards Eurasian Linguistic Isoglosses: the Case of Hungarian and Turkic’ (henceforth ‘Towards Eurasian Linguistic Isoglosses…’ abbreviated as TELI) develops a

  2. Morphological and molecular observations on the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi from the Volga and South Ural regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2010-2012, a survey was conducted to determine the distribution and species diversity of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi within the Volga and South Ural regions of the Russian Federation. A total of 270 soil samples were collected. Seven populations of CCN were found in the rhiz...

  3. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Domanik-type formations of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2018-02-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.8 billion barrels of oil and 34 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Domanik-type formations of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia.

  4. The Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in the South Ural

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, L I; Staines, E; Lyapunov, S M; Cherdintsev, V D; Romanov, S A; Samosadnyi, V T

    2003-01-01

    Samples of the mosses Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and surface soil, collected in 1997-2001, were used to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and radionuclides in the South Ural Mountains characterized by intense anthropogenic impact from various industries. A total of 38 elements in soil and 33 elements in moss were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis. The elements Cu, Cd and Pb were determined in moss samples only by atomic absorption spectrometry. ^{90}Sr and ^{137}Cs activity was measured in surface soil samples also. VARIMAX rotated principal component analysis and GIS maps of factor scores were used to identify and characterise different pollution sources and to point out the most polluted areas.

  5. Uranium-Bearing Srilankite from High-Pressure Garnetites of the Southern Urals: First Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottman, I. A.; Pushkarev, E. V.; Khiller, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    This work presents the results of studying srilankite, a rare zirconium titanate (ZrTi2O6), associated with ilmenite, rutile, zircon, uraninite, and other minerals discovered in high-pressure garnetites of the lherzolite Mindyak massif (Southern Urals). Srilankite occurs as inclusions in ilmenite and rutile of up to several tens of microns in size. It was established for the first time that srilankite contains a significant UO2 admixture (up to 20%). The negative correlation between Zr and U is evidence of isomorphism in the srilankite-brannerite system. The association of srilankite with high-Zr rutile indicates that formation of these minerals occurred at T > 850°C.

  6. Transformation of institute of a family in Ural in the conditions of socio-economic destructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sergeyevich Pavlov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of social risks and deviations related to family group in Ural, manifestations of these risks for a family way of life, socio-economic development of the region. The author emphasizes that today the dialectics of creation and destructions, risks and reliability, optimism and pessimism is illustrated in the various parts of the institute of family in Russia as a whole and, in particular, in the Ural region. In our modern age, there is no risk-free behavior. «Risk — safety» dichotomy means that there is no absolute reliability or safety. Whereas «risk — danger» dichotomy means that it is impossible to avoid risk, making any decisions. The author shows the identity of socio-economic health of the adult population of various regions of the Russian Federation throughout almost the whole quarter of a century on the basis of a number of research assignments conducted by sociologists of Institute of Economics of the UB RAS, in a monitoring mode. Division of the population on rather identical (on particular weight in the total number of the population groups of the Russian society referred to the category of «rich», «medium people» and «poor people» is observed. At the same time, according to the author, the social inequality in principle has both positive, and negative consequences for functioning and society development. The author made an attempt of the problem analysis of «family — children», «fathers — children» from a perspective social risks. The special relevance of these processes in relation to family policy in Russia seeking to pass from depopulation tendencies to a favorable treatment of nation-expanded reproduction is emphasized. Altogether, the level of family wellbeing, first of all, is defined by the quality of the relations in the system of «parents — children». The intra-familial conflicts conduct to family trouble and so for children. In article, the author’s position

  7. Cryogenic Minerals in Caves of the Vizhay River (Northern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Bazarova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available New information on the cryogenic mineral formations at the two Vizhay River caves (Northern Urals is given.   Calcite with the insignificant gypsum admixture predominates in the cryogenic material composition from both caves. In addition, the metastable phases of calcite, such as monohydrocalcite and ikaite were found. In the Saksofon Cave, calcite forms both spherulites and complanate grains. In Lednikovaya Cave, the major part of cryomaterial is presented by spherulites, which may suggests the significant supersaturation of solution. In Lednikovaya Сave, the distinct concentric structure with the growth zones denotes the cryogenic material formation in a thin water film under the partial thawing of upper part of long-term ice mound in summer. In Saksofon Cave the growth zones in crystals are poorly developed that probably caused by the seasonal glaciation in the cave and cryogenic minerals are younger than those in the Lednikovaya Cave.

  8. Radioactive dust concentration around the Ranger uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasnicka, Jiri.

    1988-07-01

    Environmental dust sampling and wind direction/velocity monitory were carried out between July and November 1987 at five points around the Ranger Uranium Mines project near Jabiru, Northern Territory. The measured radioactive dust alpha activities in the air were used to calculate the radioactive dust source-term and develop a site-specific air dispersion model which takes the depletion of the dust plume into account. The above model was used to estimate the effective committed dose equivalent as 15 μSv/year to children in Jabiru East. This corresponds to an increase of 2.6 x 10 -4 Bq. m -3 in the annual average dust alpha activity above the natural background. The dose to the children in Jabiru is about 5 μSv/year, so that the critical group of the public is in Jabiru East. 12 refs., 11 tabs., 2 maps

  9. Using the CAE technologies of engineering analysis for designing steam turbines at ZAO Ural Turbine Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloshumova, V. N.; Kortenko, V. V.; Pokhoriler, V. L.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Ivanovskii, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    We describe the experience ZAO Ural Turbine Works specialists gained from mastering the series of CAD/CAE/CAM/PDM technologies, which are modern software tools of computer-aided engineering. We also present the results obtained from mathematical simulation of the process through which high-and intermediate-pressure rotors are heated for revealing the most thermally stressed zones, as well as the results from mathematical simulation of a new design of turbine cylinder shells for improving the maneuverability of these turbines.

  10. Radiological assessment of past, present and potential sources to environmental contamination in the Southern Urals and strategies for remedial measures (SUCON)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, A.; Simmonds, J.; Strand, P.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarises work done on the SUCON Project during 1996-1999 (European Commission Contract No. FI4C-CT95-0001). The project has focused on three major objectives: 1) An assessment of the radiological consequences of the contamination of theSouth Urals and the Ob river system from...

  11. Radiological assessment of the impact on human populations and the environment of the 1949 to 1982 dumping of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the deep North-East Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.; Menard, F.

    1990-12-01

    A thorough radiological assessment of the impact of the 1949 to 1982 dumping of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste in the deep North-East Atlantic is performed with the numerical compartmental REJMAR model. The calculations include the assessment of the dose equivalent to the individuals of a theoretical critical group through a large set of pathways, and the collective dose to mankind through the ingestion pathways. The complete dumping performed in the deep North-East Atlantic is taken into account. The assumptions of biological short-circuit through marin food chains are tested. The order of magnitude of the dose delivered to marine organisms living near the dumping site is assessed [fr

  12. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiba Shuntaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days, Cs-134 (2.1 years, Cs-137 (30 years, Sr-89 (51 days, and Sr-90 (29 years. We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  13. PALEOTECTONIC AND PALEOGEOGRAPHIC CONDITIONS FOR THE ACCUMULATION OF THE LOWER RIPHEAN AI FORMATION IN THE BASHKIR UPLIFT (SOUTHERN URALS: THE TERRANECHRONE® DETRITAL ZIRCON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Romanyuk

    2018-01-01

    (Chudin suite, the erosion products from the paleo-aquifers occupying vast areas began to be transported into the rift. The primary sources of clastics for the Chudin suite were both granitoids of the lower and normal silicic acidity. Besides, a specific “carbonatitic” complex containing juvenile zircons (about 2.05 Ga was eroded. However, by that time, significant areas of the Archaean basement of the Volga-Ural region might have become hidden underneath a proto-cover and thus not eroded, so the Archean detritus in the Chudin suite is poorly represented in comparison with the Navysh suite, considering both the amounts and ages of detrital zircons. As of today, the Precambrian carbonatite rocks within both the Taratash complex (composing the basement of the Navysh graben and the southeastern segment of the East-European Platform have not yet been described. The source of the “carbonatite” zircons remains unknown and can be discovered as more and more data on the basement rocks is accumulated.

  14. The natural radioactivity measurements in coastal sediment samples along the East Coast of Tamilnadu using gamma spectrometry technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramohan, J. [E.G.S Pillay Engineering College, Nagapattinam, 611002, Tamilnadu (India); Tholkappian, M. [Sri Vari College of Education, Then Arasampattu, Tiruvannamalai, 606611, Tamilnadu (India); Harikrishnan, N.; Ravisankar, R., E-mail: ravisankarphysics@gmail.com [Post Graduate and Research Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Tiruvannamalai 606603, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-08-28

    The natural radioactivity concentration in beach sediment samples collected from Pattipulam to Devanampattinam of East Coast of Tamilnadu have been determined by NaI (TI) gamma ray spectrometer. The specific activity concentrations range from ≤ 2.21 (BDL) to 37.02 Bq kg{sup −1} with a mean of 3.79 Bqkg{sup −1} for {sup 238}U, ≤ 2.11 (BDL) to 643.77 Bqkg{sup −1} with a mean of 49.60 Bqkg{sup −1} for {sup 232}Th and 300.34 Bqkg{sup −1} to 449.08 Bqkg{sup −1} with a mean of 360.23 Bqkg{sup −1} for {sup 40}K. The potential radiological hazards due to natural radionuclides content such as Radium Equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), Representative level index (RLI), External hazard index (H{sub ex}), absorbed gamma does rate (D{sub R}), and Annual effective dose rate (AEDR) are estimated to assess the radiation hazard associated with the sediments. The obtained data are compared with the recommended safety limits and international approved values. All the values are well below the recommended safety limits indicating that radiation levels do not poses any significant health hazard to the public in the area as a result of the natural radioactivity of beach sediments. This study may help the baseline data for more extensive works in the same subjects of future studies.

  15. Gold in Accessory Zircon (the Kozhim Massif, Subpolar Urals)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, Yuliya; Pystin, Aleksandr

    2017-12-01

    The crystals of zircon due to their resistance to external impact of various processes can reveal information about the environment of their formation and the inclusions observed of them. Zircon contains different mineral inclusions: biotite, plagioclase, quartz, apatite, etc. However, there is no information about gold inclusions in the zircons from granites of the Sudpolar Urals. The study results of the inclusions of gold in accessory zircon of the Kozhim granitic massif are presented in this paper. The studied mineral is a dark-brown translucent short-prismatic crystal containing the inclusion of gold and the allocations of quartz. According to studies, the inclusion of gold formed during the growth of zircon and it is the gold covered with a thin film of oxide gold. It was confirmed that the crystallization of the studied zircon occurred at a temperature of 800°C and above on the stage of formation of granites of Kozhim massif. The assumption is made about the additional temperature in the course of which was caused by decreasing of temperature up to 700° C and below during postmagmatic stage.

  16. Ocean abandonment of radioactive waste. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouyama, Hiroaki

    1994-01-01

    Now, the nuclear powered submarines armed with ballistic missiles have become the main strength of navy. In Russia, eight nuclear powered icebreakers are operated. Mainly PWRs are used for these nuclear ships. The fuel exchange for nuclear powered submarines is carried out after the use for nearly ten years, therefore, the degree of enrichment of U-235 in fuel seems considerably high. So far, the sinking accidents of five nuclear powered submarines were reported. Former USSR began the ocean abandonment of radioactive waste in 1959, and continued it up to recent date. The northern sea area where the abandonment was carried out and the abandoned amount of radioactivity are shown. Also those in Far East sea area are shown. The management system for radioactive waste in Russia, the course after the abandonment of liquid waste in Japan Sea by Russian navy, the response of Japan regarding the ocean abandonment of radioactive waste and so on are described. (K.I.)

  17. Modernization of the Ural Metallurgy during the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Zaparii

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes the Ural industry modernization in war footing, shows the significance of evacuation of enterprises from the Western areas of the country to the region, reveals their role in the formation of a new metallurgical center of modern metallurgy in terms of human resources and manufacture. Innovations in metallurgy, the role of human factor in solving industrial restructuring problem are examined. Forms and methods of science use for the industrial modernization are considered. Solving of human resources problem is shown. The author touches upon the problem of metallurgical sector management in wartime. The role of people’s heroism in this difficult period of Russian history is discussed.

  18. Lower Carboniferous Siderites: A Product of Bottom Seeps and Bacterial Metanogenesis (Subpolar Urals)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoshkina, A. I.; Ryabinkina, N. N.

    2018-02-01

    Complex modern micro- and spectroscopic methods for study of siderite concretions in the Lower Carboniferous terrigenous strata on the Kozhym River (Subpolar Urals) have shown that its formation was caused by destruction of clay minerals due to the activity of bacterial communities. The abundance of these bacteria was caused by gas-fluid seeps and bacterial methanogenesis processes in bottom deposits. In basins with normal marine fauna, this led to local desalination, hydrogen sulfide contamination, mass collapse of primary organisms, and the development of element-specific bacteria. The occurrence of these bacteria caused the formation of specific authigenic mineralization in the concretion of sideritic bacteriolites: the framboidal pyrite, sphalerite, galenite, barite, sulfoselenides, and tellurides.

  19. The radioecological consequences of the Kyshtym and Chernobyl radiation accidents for forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Shcheglov, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Following the Urals and Chernobyl accidents 60 to 90% of the radioactive fallout was retained by the above-ground part of forest stands. In the Urals the period for semi-removal of contamination from crowns ranged from 6 to 8 months, compared to around one month in the Chernobyl region - due to different seasonal conditions during the fallout period. The bulk of the dose burden in woody plants' critical organs built up over one to six months. The minimum lethal dose for pine tree needles in the Urals was around 50 Gy, and 25 Gy for the apical meristem; the corresponding figures for Chernobyl were 100 Gy and 25-30 Gy. At lower doses we observed morphological disturbances, reduced growth and suppressed reproductive capability in pines. The resistance to radioactive contamination of deciduous forest was 10-20 times greater than that of conifers. We studied the irradiation doses of the different groups of organisms living in the various forest storeys, and the effects of irradiation (changes in species composition, prevalence and productivity) in communities of herbaceous plants and soil invertebrates. Specific examples are given to highlight the secondary changes in these communities stemming from radiation damage in species sensitive to radioactive contamination. We studied the dynamics of dispersion and migration of the long-lived radionuclides 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the various components of the biogeocenoses and in the network of geochemically interconnected forest landscapes, and their content in forestry produce. Some six to ten years after the deposition of radioactive fallout in forest ecosystems the radionuclides were more or less evenly spread throughout the soil-woody plant system. Thus, overall 90 Sr content in the arboreal storey amounts to 1-2% in coniferous forests, and 5-10% in deciduous forests (Urals accident), while the corresponding figures for 137 Cs (Chernobyl accident) are 2 to 3 times higher. (author)

  20. Fourth youth scientifically-practical conference Nuclear-industrial complex of Ural: problems and prospects. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Theses of reports of the Fourth youth scientifically-practical conference Nuclear-industrial complex of Ural: problems and prospects (18-20 April 2007, Ozersk) are presented. The book contains theses of reports of the seventh subject sections: NFC: science and industry; Ecological problems in NFC development: radiation safety, radioecology and radiobiology; Nuclear power engineering: economics, safety, field experience; Atomic branch: history, today and future; New technologies in education. Education and training for NFC plants, public opinion; Information technologies and telecommunications; Long-term science intensive technologies and new materials [ru

  1. Formation of personnel corps of engineers in the Urals: sociological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sergeevich Pavlov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In terms of crisis economic development, one of priority goals for the technical institutes of higher education is to train engineers who are competitive on the regional labour markets. The main root of the problem of low prestige of the engineering profession in Russia, the slippage in the personnel training in technical universities lies in the depreciation of engineering work, and reduction of its social and economic attractiveness. The gap between science, education and industry leads to aging of engineering staff at the manufactures and to migration of the most talented engineers into other fields of activity. This paper analyzes current problems of engineers training organization in the Urals. The causes of sharp decline of the engineering profession social status in Russia, the fall of interest of secondary school graduates to continuation of their studies in technical institutes of higher education are reviewed. The authors show that the formation of engineering competence as a defining personal and vocational quality of a specialist involves actualization of the student's motivation, one's active and purposeful adaptation to the educational process, increasing one's responsibility for mastering the curriculum. Conclusions and suggestions of the authors are based on the results of a comprehensive sociological research conducted by them in 2011 in five high schools of the Urals (Yekaterinburg, Nizhnevartovsk and Chelyabinsk. The survey showed that during the stage of young specialists' preparation, cooperation in the «university - enterprise» system is actually shifted to the interaction, in fact, between institute of higher education and young professionals who act as the sellers of their labour. The authors believe that it makes sense to roll over (or rather - to stimulate the active engineering work of the most productive engineering professionals who have reached retirement age. Equally sharp and critical are the issues of

  2. The preferred orientation of the metallurgical enterprises of the Urals to the domestic market — one of the most important conditions for economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor' Il'ich Pichurin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It this paper, the author tries to show that the export orientation of the Ural metallurgy, perceived until recently as its dignity and therefore encouraged by the authorities, actually poses a threat to economic security of the region. Being the basis of the regional economy and of Sverdlovsk region in particular, metallurgical industry has suffered serious loss during the global crisis of 2008-2009, thereby causing considerable damage to the socio-economic development of the region. It is generally accepted, but considered as a temporary loss, which was compensated at the end of the crisis. The author puts some suggestions forward on reduction of the global demand for metals in the coming decade. The author tries to prove that without reorientation of the Ural metallurgy onto the domestic market, such losses are very likely also in the future after the crisis overcoming.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-RISE CONSTRUCTION IN THE CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 250 TO 500 THOUSAND INHABITANTS (on the example of the cities of the Ural Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mikhaylovna Shentsova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In article history of construction of high-rise buildings, features of perception of high-rise buildings in the urban environment what factors influence the choice of the site of high-rise buildings are considered. Such concepts as “skyscraper”, “a high-rise dominant” reveal. Also, the analysis of existence of high-rise buildings of the large cities with population from 250 to 500 thousand residents of the Ural Federal District is provided: Barrow, Nizhny Tagil, Nizhnevartovsk, Surgut and Magnitogorsk. And also the analysis of a town-planning situation of Magnitogorsk where the possible, most probable and offered places for an arrangement of high-rise buildings on crossing or end of axes of streets are revealed is given. Work purpose – the analysis of high-rise construction in the large cities of the Ural Federal District with population from 250 to 500 thousand inhabitants. Method or methodology of carrying out work: in article methods of the theoretical and visual analysis, observation, and also studying literary and the Internet of sources were used. Results: the systematized theoretical material in the field of architecture and town planning of the cities of the Ural Federal District is received. Scope of results: the received results can be applied in the field of architectural education and practical architectural activities.

  4. Radioactive waste management and disposal in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A national near-surface repository at a remote and arid location is proposed for the disposal of solid low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Australia. The repository will be designed to isolate the radioactive waste from the human environment under controlled conditions and for a period long enough for the radioactivity to decay to low levels. Compared to countries that have nuclear power programs, the amount of waste in Australia is relatively small. Nevertheless, the need for a national disposal facility for solid low-level radioactive and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes is widely recognised and the Federal Government is in the process of selecting a site for a national near-surface disposal facility for low and short-lived intermediate level wastes. Some near surface disposal facilities already exist in Australia, including tailings dams at uranium mines and the Mt Walton East Intractable Waste Disposal Facility in Western Australia which includes a near surface repository for low level wastes originating in Western Australia. 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary

  6. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.; JOCHEN; PREVETTE

    2007-01-01

    Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State are being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary

  7. Methods for Ensuring High Quality of Coding of Cause of Death. The Mortality Register to Follow Southern Urals Populations Exposed to Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startsev, N; Dimov, P; Grosche, B; Tretyakov, F; Schüz, J; Akleyev, A

    2015-01-01

    To follow up populations exposed to several radiation accidents in the Southern Urals, a cause-of-death registry was established at the Urals Center capturing deaths in the Chelyabinsk, Kurgan and Sverdlovsk region since 1950. When registering deaths over such a long time period, quality measures need to be in place to maintain quality and reduce the impact of individual coders as well as quality changes in death certificates. To ensure the uniformity of coding, a method for semi-automatic coding was developed, which is described here. Briefly, the method is based on a dynamic thesaurus, database-supported coding and parallel coding by two different individuals. A comparison of the proposed method for organizing the coding process with the common procedure of coding showed good agreement, with, at the end of the coding process, 70  - 90% agreement for the three-digit ICD -9 rubrics. The semi-automatic method ensures a sufficiently high quality of coding by at the same time providing an opportunity to reduce the labor intensity inherent in the creation of large-volume cause-of-death registries.

  8. Alteration of polymorphic systems of Centaurea scabiosa L. under chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, E.A.; Kal'chenko, V.A.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Lysenko, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Isoenzyme and morphological polymorphism alteration in populations of perennial grass Centaurea scabiosa L. (scaly cornflower) has been studied. These populations exist on the territory of East Urals Radioactive Trace more than 40 years and are chronically exposed to β-radiation. Directional shift of allele frequencies on the loci Per 1 , Pgi 2 , Sod 1 , Lap has been detected. Fact of accumulating genetic load by chronically irradiated populations has been demonstrated. Possible reasons of discovered alterations are discussed. Analysis of the obtained data shows that the irradiation populations have greater similarity with one another than with a control, but relation between genetic distances and accumulated doses has not been revealed. Hypothesis is that an extra factor - gene flow from a clean territory influences the genetic structure of irradiated populations [ru

  9. Main consistent patterns of Stromatoporoid Development in the Late Ordovician and Silurian in the North Urals Palaeobasin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antropova, E.

    2009-04-01

    In the history of the Earth there have been no basins with similar characteristics. The North Urals palaeobasin had its own unique features. The dominant benthic organisms of basin ecosystem during the Ordovician and Silurian were stromatoporoids, corals, and brachiopods. This fauna is vitally important for the aims of stratigraphy so long as conodonts are extremely rare in sections of the Northern Urals area. The most complete ordering of stromatoporoid complexes has been established and made it possible to estimate rates and measures of extinction at a level of the province. It was also found out that stromatoporoids were organisms responsive to subtle changes of environment and that they accommodated differently to those changing conditions. The evolution of stromatoporoids was accompanied by phylogenetic reorganization and formation of endemic communities in the Late Ordovician and Early Silurian. In the Late Silurian taxonomical diversity of stromatoporoids was mainly controlled by migration processes and cosmopolites with wide palaeogeographic links prevailed in the palaeobasin. Therefore palaeobasin at that time was open to stromatoporoid fauna migration which is confirmed by the occurrence of genera and species that disperse in coeval deposits of many areas, for example, Baltic States, Sweden, Ukraine (Podolia), Western Siberia, Arctic islands of Russia, Mongolia, Canada (islands). The evolution of stromatoporoid communities in the Ordovician-Silurian was intermitted by biotic crises. The analysis of stromatoporoid development helps to define crucial points of ecosystem's reorganizations coinciding with critical geological and biotic events in the history of the North Urals palaeobasin existence, as well as global events during the Ordovician and Silurian (Hirnantian Event, Ireviken Event, Lau Event). The analysis of crises indicates local dependence of stromatoporoid biodiversity on depositional environments. Large local biocenos reorganizations and biotic

  10. Response of the East Asian climate system to water and heat changes of global frozen soil using NCAR CAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Under the condition of land-atmosphere heat and water conservation, a set of sensitive numerical experiments are set up to investigate the response of the East Asian climate system to global frozen soil change. This is done by introducing the supercooled soil water process into the Community Land Model (CLM3.0), which has been coupled to the National Center of Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.1). Results show that: 1) The ratio between soil ice and soil water in CLM3.0 is clearly changed by the supercooled soil water process. Ground surface temperature and soil temperature are also affected. 2) The Eurasian (including East Asian) climate system is sensitive to changes of heat and water in frozen soil regions. In January, the Aleutian low sea level pressure circulation is strengthened, Ural blocking high at 500 hPa weakened, and East Asian trough weakened. In July, sea level pressure over the Aleutian Islands region is significantly reduced; there are negative anomalies of 500 hPa geopotential height over the East Asian mainland, and positive anomalies over the East Asian ocean. 3) In January, the southerly component of the 850 hPa wind field over East Asia increases, indicating a weakened winter monsoon. In July, cyclonic anomalies appear on the East Asian mainland while there are anticyclonic anomalies over the ocean, reflective of a strengthened east coast summer monsoon. 4) Summer rainfall in East Asia changed significantly, including substantial precipitation increase on the southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, central Yangtze River Basin, and northeast China. Summer rainfall significantly decreased in south China and Hainan Island, but slightly decreased in central and north China. Further analysis showed considerable upper air motion along 30°N latitude, with substantial descent of air at its north and south sides. Warm and humid air from the Northeast Pacific converged with cold air from northern land areas, representing the main cause of

  11. K-Ar and Rb-Sr dating results of the Malyshevsky leucogranite massif (eastern slope of the Middle Urals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.N.; Ivanov, K.S.; Ronkin, Yu.L.; Levin, V.Ya.; Bushlyakov, I.N.; Lepikhina, O.P.; Popova, O.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The age of leucogranites and minerals forming the Malyshevsky massif was identified by the methods of K-Ar- and Rb-Sr dating for refining the sequence of magmatic complexes formation on the eastern slope of the Middle Urals. The obtained isotope age values, i.e. 229-277 mln. years (K-Ar) and 277.1±1.1 mln. years (Rb-Sr), permit considering the age of 277 mln. years as the period of the leucogranites formation and of the associated molybdenum mineralization [ru

  12. Experience of development of porphyry copper type deposits in the Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И. А. Алтушкин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Russian copper company was the first in Russia to start developing porphyry copper deposits. In 2013 the Mikheevsky mining and processing plant with the annual production capacity of 18 mln t of ore was put into exploitation. The use of innovative approaches regarding choice of the technology, high-performance equipment and organization of construction allowed to bring the enterprise to a full capacity and to achieve expected results within three years. On the basis of the experience obtained during design, construction and exploitation of the Mikheevsky mining and processing plant in 2017 the company has started the construction of a new mining and processing plant in the Tominskoye deposit. The first stage anticipates the enterprise production capacity to be equal to 28 mln t with the possibility of its increase up to 56 mln t. The development of porphyry copper deposits in the Urals will allow to provide copper plants with the raw materials over the next 80-100 years.

  13. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnity, P.; Currivan, L.; Dowdall, A.; Fegan, M.; Hanley, O.; Kelleher, K.; McKittrick, L.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 2009. The RPII has routinely monitored levels of radioactivity in the environment since 1982 and this is the latest in the RPII's series of environmental monitoring reports. The RPII reviews and updates its environmental programme annually so as to ensure it remains relevant and continues to focus on the most important sources of radioactivity in the environment. The principal aims of the RPII's monitoring programme are; to assess the level of radioactivity to which the Irish population is exposed as a result of radioactivity in the environment; to study trends and establish the geographical distribution of contaminating radionuclides so as to better understand the long term behaviour of artificial radioactivity in the food chain and the environment; to ensure that any increase in radiation levels resulting from an accidental release of radioactivity to the environment is detected and assessed rapidly. During 2009 radioactivity was measured in a wide range of foods and environmental materials including: air, water, milk, seafood, foodstuffs and complete meals. The most significant source of artificial radioactivity in the Irish marine environment is the discharge of low level liquid radioactive waste from the Sellafield Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant on the north east coast of England. In order to assess the exposure arising from the source extensive sampling of fish and shellfish landed at ports along the north east coast of Ireland is undertaken. The most exposed group of individuals to discharges from Sellafield have been identified as commercial oyster and mussel farmers working along the north east coastline and their families. Manmade radioactivity is also present in the terrestrial environment due primarily to residual global fallout arising primarily from atmospheric testing of nuclear

  14. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, M.; Currivan, L.; Dowdall, A.; Hanley, O.; Hayden, E.; Kelleher, K.; Long, S.; McKittrick, L.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 2008. The RPII has routinely monitored levels of radioactivity in the environment since 1982 and this is the latest in the RPII's series of environmental monitoring reports. The RPII reviews and updates its environmental programme annually so as to ensure it remains relevant and continues to focus on the most important sources of radioactivity in the environment. The principal aims of the RPII's monitoring programme are; to assess the level of radioactivity to which the Irish population is exposed as a result of radioactivity in the environment; to study trends and establish the geographical distribution of contaminating radionuclides so as to better understand the long term behaviour of artificial radioactivity in the food chain and the environment; to ensure that any increase in radiation levels resulting from an accidental release of radioactivity to the environment is detected and assessed rapidly. During 2008 radioactivity was measured in a wide range of foods and environmental materials including: air, water, milk, seafood, foodstuffs and complete meals. The most significant source of artificial radioactivity in the Irish marine environment is the discharge of low level liquid radioactive waste from the Sellafield Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant on the north east coast of England. In order to assess the exposure arising from the source extensive sampling of fish and shellfish landed at ports along the north east coast of Ireland is undertaken. The most exposed group of individuals to discharges from Sellafield have been identified as commercial oyster and mussel farmers working along the north east coastline and their families. Manmade radioactivity is also present in the terrestrial environment due primarily to residual global fallout arising primarily from atmospheric testing of nuclear

  15. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the Urals electrochemical integrated plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) is the Russian Federation's largest uranium enrichment plant and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. UEIP is located approximately 70 km north of Yekaterinburg in the closed city of Novouralsk (formerly Sverdlovsk- 44). DOE's MPC ampersand A program first met with UEIP in June of 1996, however because of some contractual issues the work did not start until September of 1997. The six national laboratories participating in DOE's Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with UEIP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC ampersand A work at UEIP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001

  16. «Equal Salary for Equal Work…»: Financial Position of Teachers in 1940−1950s (on Materials of Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Рустам Закирович Алмаев

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of teachers' living standards in the Soviet Union and the Southern Urals in particular. The author analyzes the state policy and opportunities of the centralized government for solving social and everyday problems of school teachers. Archival sources help the author to study everyday life of Soviet teachers during the Great Patriotic War and the post-war decades.

  17. Dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two international agreements relate to the dumping of packaged radioactive waste into the oceans - the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter of 1972 (London Convention) and the Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste of 1977 under the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The International Atomic Energy Agency was given the responsibility to define high-level radioactive wastes which are unsuitable for dumping in the oceans and to make recommendations for the dumping of other radioactive wastes. A revised Definition and Recommendations was submitted and accepted by the London Convention. This paper reviews the technical basis for the Definition and describes how it has been applied to the radiological assessment of the only operational dumping site in the North East Atlantic

  18. Radioactivity of some alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides in surface marine sediments of different bays in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noureddine, A.; Baggoura, B.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of surface (0-15) cm marine sediments of different grain sizes, namely sand, muddy and fine sand, were collected in the western, central and east coast of Algeria, to measure concentrations of natural and artificial radioactivity. The aim of this study is to detect any radioactive contamination, its origin and also to determine the uptake of radioactivity by marine surface sediments

  19. New records and update on the geographic distribution of Clitocybula lignicola (Lj.N. Vassiljeva) E.F. Malysheva & O.V. Morozova (Basidiomycota: Agaricales) in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Shiryaeva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Clitocybula lignicola is predominantly distributed in the Asian part of Russia. In Europe it was found only in the Urals (Komi Republic, Russia). Two new localities are situated in the northwestern part of Vologda Region (Russia). These are the first records of this species from the East European Plain, as well as the most western ones known in Europe. New records extend the geographic distribution of C. lignicola 1,204 km west of the closest site in the Urals. An updated distribution map for...

  20. Inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment: Sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    Variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive waste have been disposed at more than 50 sites in the northern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The last known disposal operation was in 1982, at a site about 550 km off the European continental shelf in the Atlantic Ocean. Since 1957, the IAEA has provided specific guidance and recommendations for ensuring that disposal of radioactive wastes into the sea will not result in unacceptable hazards to human health and marine organisms, damage to amenities or interference with other legitimate uses of the sea. In 1972, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter designated the IAEA as the competent international authority in matters related to sea disposal of radioactive waste. The Contracting Parties requested the IAEA to develop an inventory of radioactive wastes entering the marine environment from all sources as an information base with which the impact of radioactive materials from disposal operations can be more adequately assessed. The continuous compilation of these data could ensure that the IAEA recommendations on the disposal rate in a single basin are not overstepped. The inventory shows that between 1946 to 1982 an estimated 46 PBq 1 (1.24 MCi) of radioactive waste coming from research, medicine, the nuclear industry and military activities were packaged, usually in metal drums lined with a concrete or bitumen matrix, and disposed of at sea. This inventory includes some unpackaged wastes and liquid wastes which were disposed of from 1950 to 1960. Beta-gamma emitters represent more than 98% of the total radioactivity of the waste and tritium alone represents one third of the total radioactivity disposed at the North East Atlantic sites. The other beta-gamma emitters radionuclides include 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 55 Fe, 58 Co, 60 Co, 125 I and 14 C. The wastes also contain low quantities of alpha-emitting nuclides with plutonium and americium isotopes representing

  1. Radioactive fallout from Chinese nuclear weapons test of March 15, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has measured the radionuclide concentration of short-lived debris from a radioactive cloud, produced by a nuclear weapons test conducted by the People's Republic of China on March 15, 1978. Analysis with a 40 cfm Sierra impactor showed that a large portion of the radioactivity was associated with relatively large particles. Surface air samples showed significant concentrations of 124 Sb. Samples of rain water from New York State showed that radioactivity arrived on the east coast at about the same time as peak debris levels were observed on the west coast. Highest concentrations of 131 I occurred along the Washington State--Canadian border

  2. Relation between local landform and radioactive geopollution. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kazuya; Nirei, Hisashi; Nakadai, Hiroki; Hiyama, Tomoyo; Yoshida, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    A lot of radioactive materials were emitted by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in March, 2011. Those of them; Cs-134 and Cs-137 have comparatively long half-life have cause the radioactivity geo pollution in the east Japan. In fact, it is not explained completely how to spread, move and absorb cesium. However, it seems that there is a certain law of nature. That is to say, we should measure radioactive materials according to the law of generation (decay), movement, deposition and take necessary actions under the Katori-Narita-Itako Declaration of IUGS GEM (IUGS-GEM, 2011). We followed this declaration and have continued measurement by use of RT-30 (made by GEORADIS). And it becomes clear that radioactivity geo pollution is strongly subject to the influence of land form, in the result carrying out diffusion and movement. In addition to the new data, this paper shows detail examples. (author)

  3. Radioactivity of neutron-irradiated cat's-eye chrysoberyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, S.M. E-mail: phytsm@leonis.nus.edu.sg; Tay, T.S

    1999-04-02

    The recent report of marketing of radioactive chrysoberyl cat's-eyes in South-East Asian markets has led us to use an indirect method to estimate the threat to health these color-enhanced gemstones may pose if worn close to skin. We determined the impurity content of several cat's-eye chrysoberyls from Indian States of Orissa and Kerala using PIXE, and calculated the radioactivity that would be generated from these impurities and the constitutional elements if a chrysoberyl was irradiated by neutrons in a nuclear reactor for color enhancement. Of all the radioactive nuclides that could be created by neutron irradiation, only four ({sup 46}Sc, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 59}Fe) would not have cooled down within a month after irradiation to the internationally accepted level of specific residual radioactivity of 2 nCi/g. The radioactivity of {sup 46}Sc, {sup 51}Cr and {sup 59}Fe would only fall to this safe limit after 15 months and that of {sup 54}Mn could remain above this limit for several years.

  4. Animal evolution and atmospheric pO2: is there a link between gradual animal adaptation to terrain elevation due to Ural orogeny and survival of subsequent hypoxic periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-10-22

    Considering evolution of terrestrial animals as something happening only on flat continental plains seems wrong. Many mountains have arisen and disappeared over the geologic time scale, so in all periods some areas of high altitude existed, with reduced oxygen pressure (pO2) and increased aridity. During orogeny, animal species of the raising terrain can slowly adapt to reduced oxygen levels.This review proposes that animal evolution was often driven by atmospheric oxygen availability. Transitions of insect ancestors and amphibians out of water are here interpreted as events forced by the lack of oxygen in shallow and warm water during Devonian. Hyperoxia during early Carboniferous allowed giant insects to be predators of lowlands, forcing small amphibians to move to higher terrains, unsuitable to large insects due to reduced pO2. In arid mountainous habitats, ascended animals evolved in early reptiles with more efficient lungs and improved circulation. Animals with alveolar lungs became the mammalian ancestors, while those with respiratory duct lungs developed in archosaurs. In this interpretation, limb precursors of wings and pneumatised bones might have been adaptations for moving on steep slopes.Ural mountains have risen to an estimated height of 3000 m between 318 and 251 Mya. The earliest archosaurs have been found on the European Ural side, estimated 275 Myr old. It is proposed that Ural orogeny slowly elevated several highland habitats within the modern Ural region to heights above 2500 m. Since this process took near 60 Myr, animals in these habitats fully to adapted to hypoxia.The protracted P-Tr hypoxic extinction event killed many aquatic and terrestrial animals. Devastated lowland areas were repopulated by mammaliaformes that came down from mountainous areas. Archosaurs were better adapted to very low pO2, so they were forced to descend to the sea level later when the lack of oxygen became severe. During the Triassic period, when the relative content

  5. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURES IN OLDER RESIDENTS FROM THE MIDDLE URALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Gladkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiological characteristics of osteoporotic fractures in Russia have been inadequately studied.Objective: to estimate the incidence rate of osteoporotic fractures in the old age groups of an urban population in the Middle Urals.Subjects and methods. The survey was performed in Pervouralsk, a typical industrial town in the Middle Urals, with a total of 160,860 people, including 54,189 dwellers over 50 years of age (20,746 men and 33,443 women, which amounted to 33.7% of the general population of the town. The survey covered its residents aged 50 years and over who had fractures of the proximal hip (FPH, distal forearm (FDF, distal shin, ribs, or surgical neck of the humerusbetween 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2009. Statistical analysis was made applying the programs Biostatistics, Microsoft Excell 2007, and MedCalc (demo-version. The findings were processed using parametric and nonparametric statistical methods.Results. During two years, 1371 fractures, including FPH, FDF, fractures of the humerus, distal shin, and ribs, were registered in the examined sample of persons aged 50 years and over from Pervouralsk. 383 (27.9% of these fractures occurred in men and 988 (72.1% in women. The incidence rate of all fractures was 1265.0 per 100,000 inhabitants aged 50 years and over (1,477.1 for women and 923.1 for men. FDF were more common in women, the incidence was 787.9 cases per 100,000 population; costal fractures – in men (386.7 per 100,000. The investigation has shown that certain types of fractures are predominant in the oldest age groups. Thus, the incidence rate of FDF and fractures of the distal shin decreases while that of FPH and fractures of the humerus increaseswith age, which is likely to be due to several causes: an age-related decline in bone mass; an increase in the frequency of falls with age; muscle weakness and movement discoordination, which alter the mechanism of fall and increase the risk of femoral and

  6. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, M.; Dowdall, A.; Hanley, O.; Hayden, E.; Kelleher, K.; Long, S.; Smith, V.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2008-10-01

    detect the presence of the gas krypton-85. This gas is released into the environment primarity as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. During 2007, levels of radionuclides in airborne radioactivity were low and consistent with measurements in previous years. External gamma dose rates were monitored continuously at fifteen stations. No abnormal levels were observed. A major upgrade of the aerosol sampling equipment began in 2007 when three on-line low volume systems and seven upgraded off-line low volume systems were installed and commissioned. Two additional on-line sites will be added in 2008. In accordance with the RPII's drinking water monitoring protocol, a number of major water supplies from Cork, Dublin, Galway and Limerick were tested and found to be within the requirements for radioactivity set out in the relevant national standards. In addition, groundwater supplies were tested in nine countries as a pilot for a national survey of ground water scheduled for 2008 to 2010. The RPII sampled and measured levels of radioactivity in mixed diet, milk and various other foodstuffs including milk products, baby foods, beef, lamb and poultry. These measurements show that the levels of artificual radioactivity in the Irish diet continue to be low. One hundred and ninety samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were analysed for a range of radionuclides. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed were in the north-east. The main pathway contributing to the exposure of the Irish public to artificial radioactivity from the marine environment is the consumption of seafood. Caesium-137 continues to be the dominant radionuclide, accounting for approximately 84% of the total dose. The dose to the Irish population from consumption of seafood landed at north-east ports has declined significantly over the last two decades corresponding to the reduction in discharges from Sellafield. The annual doses incurred by the Irish public

  7. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1995. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document. This annual report provides a summary of the radioactive solid waste received in the both the 200-East and 200-West Areas during the calendar year 1995

  8. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1996-06-06

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1995. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document. This annual report provides a summary of the radioactive solid waste received in the both the 200-East and 200-West Areas during the calendar year 1995.

  9. Estimating Forest Carbon Stock in Alpine and Arctic Ecotones of the Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Usoltsev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on measured carbon stocks in the forests of two tree line ecotones of the Ural region where climate change might improve growing conditions. The first is an alpine ecotone that is represented by an altitudinal gradient of the spruce-dominated forests on the Western slope of the Tylaiskii Kamen Mountain (Western part of the Konzhakovskii-Tylaiskii-Serebryanskii Mountain system, 59°30′N, 59°00′E, at the alpine timber line that has risen from 864 to 960 m above sea level in the course of the last 100 years. The second is an arctic ecotone in larch-dominated forests at the lower course of the Pur river (67°N, 78°E, at the transition zone between closed floodplain forests and open or island-like communities of upland forests on tundra permafrost. According to our results, there are large differences in the carbon of the aboveground biomass of both ecotones across environmental gradients. In the alpine tree line ecotone, a 19-fold drop of the carbon stocks was detected between the lower and higher altitudinal levels. In the arctic ecotone the aboveground biomass carbon stock of forests of similar densities (1300 to 1700 trees per ha was 7 times as much in the river flood bed, and 5 times as much in mature, dense forests as the low density forests at higher elevations. Twelve regression equations describing dependencies of the aboveground tree biomass (stems, branches, foliage, total aboveground part upon stem diameter of the tree are proposed, which can be used to estimating the biological productivity (carbon of spruce and larch forests on Tylaiskii Kamen Mountain and the lower Pur river and on surrounding areas on the base of traditional forest mensuration have been proposed. In order to reduce the labor intensity of a coming determination of forest biomass the average values of density and dry matter content in the biomass fractions are given that were obtained by taking our sample trees.The results can be useful in

  10. Managing the risks of legacy radioactive sources from a security perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Mark; Murray, Allan

    2008-01-01

    The safety and security risk posed by highly radioactive, long-lived sources at the end of their normal use has not been consistently well-managed in previous decades. The Brazilian Cs-137 accident in 1986 and the Thailand Co-60 accident in 2000 are prime examples of the consequences that ensue from the loss of control of highly dangerous sources after their normal use. With the new international emphasis on security of radioactive sources throughout their life cycle, there is now further incentive to address the management of risks posed by legacy, highly dangerous radioactive sources. The ANSTO South-East Asia Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) Project has identified, and is addressing, a number of legacy situations that have arisen as a result of inadequate management practices in the past. Specific examples are provided of these legacy situations and the lessons learned for managing the consequent safety and security risk, and for future complete life-cycle management of highly radioactive sources. (author)

  11. The establishment of a radioactive waste disposal facility in Western Australia for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.; Wall, B.; Munslow-Davies, L.; Toussaint, L.F.; Hirschberg, K-J.; Terry, K.W.; Shepherd, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiation Health Section of the Health Department of Western Australia has been a repository for unwanted radioactive sources for many years. They have been placed in the radioactive store located on the Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre Campus. After a collection period of more than 20 years the storage facilities of the Radiation Health Section were nearing capacity. A decision was made to relocate these sources into a permanent near surface burial facility. Following extensive community consultation and site investigations, waste originating in Western Australia was disposed of at Mt Walton (East), 80 km North East of Koolyanobbing Western Australia in November 1992. The site selection process, the radiation monitoring program and the legislative requirements are briefly outlined. 6 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  12. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation characteristic of the new high background radiation area of lambwe east southern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achola, S.O.; Patel, J.P.; Angeyo, H.K.; Mustapha, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Rocks and soils from a number of areas underlined by carbonatite rocks in Kenya have been associated with high levels of natural background radioactivity. People in such high background radiation areas (HBRA), are exposed to abnormally high annual absorbed dose (that have health implications) than the global normal 1 mSvyr-1. In this paper, results of field background radiation measurements, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in (mainly carbonatite rock and soil) matrices, and estimated annual external effective dose rates are presented for South and North Ruri hills in Lambwe East location of Suba District, which lies roughly between latitudes 0°30'S and 1°00'S, bounded on the east by longitude 34°30'E and on the west by the shores of Lake Victoria 16 and Winnam Gulf. Altitudes in the region range from about 1000 m on the shores of Lake Victoria to above 1800 m on top of the Ruri hills. The main geological features are carbonatite formations. Twenty one samples were analyzed using high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer. The activity concentrations ranged 14.18 - 6559.99 Bqkg-1 (average: 1396.85 Bqkg-1) for Th-232; 2.73 - 499.24 Bqkg-1 (average: 178.69 Bqkg-1) for U-238; and 56.67 - 1454.73 Bqkg-1 (average: 508.67 Bqkg-1) for K-40. The variability in Th distribution could be due to another contributing factor apart from carbonatite: Homa hills geothermal field fluids might be responsible for delivery of Th to surface rocks; some hot spots have travertine deposits. Measured absorbed dose rates in air outdoors range 700 - 6000.00 nGyh-1 (mean: 2325.84 nGy h-1); assuming 0.4 occupancy factor, these values correspond to individual annual effective dose rates of 1.717 - 14.717 mSvyr-1 (mean: 5.705 mSv yr-1). Measured absorbed dose rates are higher than calculated values since they include the contribution of cosmic rays. The natural radioactivity is fractionated with higher levels in the soils than carbonatite rocks

  13. Experience of Assessment of Current Radiation Doses to the Population from the Contamination of the Techa River (The Urals, Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshakov, V. N.; Pozolotina, V. N.; Cabianca, T.; Simmonds, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Significant quantities (about 108 PBq) of liquid radioactive waste were discharged to the Techa River in the Urals region of Russia in the early years of operation of the MAYK Production Association (1948-1951). The compositions of the releases consisted mainly of medium and long-lived beta emitting radionuclides: 103,106 Ru (28 PBq), 95 Zr/Nb (14 PBq), 137 Cs (13 PBq), 90 Sr (12 PBq). More than 120,000 people received high levels of radiation as a result of this contamination of the Techa River. The objective of this study is preliminary assessment of current and future radiation doses received by the population living in the affected area (Brodokalmak village). The assessment made use of local habit data and measurements of radionuclides concentrations in food and water, supplemented by model predictions whenever measurements in environmental materials were not available. Exposure pathways included in the calculations were ingestion of foods and external exposure to gamma radiation from radionuclides deposited on the banks of the river. Doses were calculated for three age groups (adults, children, infants) and two types of individuals: average consumers and users of the river banks, and individuals most likely to receive the highest dose. Two scenarios were considered in the calculations. In the first scenario is was assumed that access to the river banks, for both people and cattle, was restricted. For the second scenario, doses were calculated assuming that restrictions were lifted and people had free access to all areas in the village. With restrictions the highest dose estimated was 0.56 mSv/y for the most exposed adults and without restrictions this increased to 3.4 mSv/y. (author)

  14. Disposal of radioactive waste in the marine environment: a review from a national perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.I.

    1983-01-01

    The marine disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the peaceful uses of atomic energy is examined as it relates to Ireland. International agreements covering the dumping of radioactive materials at sea are discussed and the functions of the responsible international organizations are outlined. The legal aspects, licensing procedures and government policies in relation to the dumping of low-level radioactive wastes in the North-East Atlantic and the discharges into the Irish Sea from the nuclear reprocessing plant at Windscale are discussed. Exposure pathways, population exposure and monitoring programs resulting from these practises are also examined

  15. A Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition Study in the South Ural Mountains

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V; Steinnes, E; Lyapunov, S M; Cherchintsev, V D

    2002-01-01

    Samples of the mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, collected in the summer of 1998, were used to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other toxic elements in the Chelyabinsk Region situated in the South Ural, one of the most heavily polluted industrial areas of the Russian Federation. Samples of natural soils were collected simultaneously with moss at the same 30 sites in order to investigate surface accumulation of heavy metals and to examine the correlation of elements in moss and soil samples in order to separate contributions from atmospheric deposition and from soil minerals. A total of 38 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in soil and 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in mosses were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis. The elem...

  16. The role of dietary habits in human internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.G.; Balonov, M.I.; Bruck, G.J.; Shutov, V.N.

    2002-01-01

    The diversity of the dietary habits of the inhabitants living in the areas contaminated with long-lived radionuclides is an important factor for finding out the ways and specific features of internal dose formation of the population. The diet and structure of food consumption of different contingents of the population in several regions subjected to the radioactive accidents were studied. Using the specially developed questionnaire, we surveyed in Russia over 3000 inhabitants of the Bryansk region, and found out their food rations before the Chernobyl accident and during different time periods after it. In the Urals, we surveyed 102 inhabitants of the village Muslyumovo located on the bank of the Techa river that was contaminated as a result of releases of products of processing nuclear fuel and also more than 136 people residing in the area of the East Ural Radioactive Trace. In the North of the European part of Russia we investigated 310 local inhabitants including 114 reindeer herders. In Kazakhstan, we polled over 114 residents of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area, including 23 herdsmen and members of their families. The dietary habits of all investigated groups of the population strongly differ both due to climatic conditions and national and confessional traditions. Besides that, they are strongly influenced by the sources of the contamination of local food products that also differ both by radionuclide composition and by the time period elapsed since contamination of the considered areas. On the basis of the obtained results, we calculated the internal doses for the population of mentioned regions, which are in good coincidence with the data of direct measurements of radionuclides content in human body. We have determined, which products have the leading role in internal dose formation during different time periods after depositions

  17. Climatic changes in the Urals over the past millennium – an analysis of geothermal and meteorological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Demezhko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is based on a study of two paleoclimatic curves obtained in the Urals (51–59° N, 58–61° E: i a ground surface temperature history (GSTH reconstruction since 800 A.D. and ii meteorological data for the last 170 years. Temperature anomalies measured in 49 boreholes were used for the GSTH reconstruction. It is shown that a traditional averaging of the histories leads to the lowest estimates of amplitude of past temperature fluctuations. The interval estimates method, accounting separately for the rock's thermal diffusivity variations and the influence of a number of non-climatic causes, was used to obtain the average GSTH. Joint analysis of GSTH and meteorological data bring us to the following conclusions. First, ground surface temperatures in the Medieval maximum during 1100–1200 were 0.4 K higher than the 20th century mean temperature (1900–1960. The Little Ice Age cooling was culminated in 1720 when surface mean temperature was 1.6 K below the 20th century mean temperature. Secondly, contemporary warming began approximately one century prior to the first instrumental measurements in the Urals. The rate of warming was +0.25 K/100 years in the 18th century, +1.15 K/100 years in the 19th and +0.75 K/100 years in the first 80 years of the 20th century. Finally, the mean rate of warming increased in the final decades of 20th century. An analysis of linear regression coefficients in running intervals of 21 and 31 years, shows that there were periods of warming with almost the same rates in the past, including the 19th century.

  18. Regional Resilience of the Ural Federal District in Economic Shocks and Crises: Medico-Demographic and Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alengordovich Korobitsyn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Health, demographic and environmental consequences of 1998 and 2008 economic crises for the Ural Federal District are considered in the paper. Regional resilience is defined as the ability of a regional socio-economic system to withstand, absorb or overcome an internal or external economic shock. The quantitative analysis of regional resilience of the subject entities of the Ural Federal District is based on two interrelated dimensions: resistance, those are the vulnerability or sensitivity of a regional socio-economic system to disturbances and disruptions; and the speed and extend of recovery from such a disruption. Because resilience as a concept captures resistance to the shock and recovery from it, resistance indexes and recovery indexes are used for assessing the impact of regions to recessionary shocks. Three sets of resilience indicators were used: economic, environmental and medico-demographic ones. The main criteria for selecting resilience indicators were their robustness as a measure of the territorial impact of the economic crisis and availability of long time series. Special attention is paid to the question identification of the qualitative and quantitative factors, which form the territorial characteristics enabling some regions to resist, or move out of, economic downturn more effectively than others. Unfortunately, a valid answer to the question why some regions are more able to withstand an economic downturn than others, or are able to recover faster, cannot be given at present. Resilience to an economic shock does not necessarily imply that the economy is otherwise strong and performing well over the longer-term. Regions that experience strong economic growth prior to a shock may appear to be less resilient. Such components of the regional socio-economic system as reserves of natural resources, sectoral structure of regional economy, skills of population, diversified economy and quality of governance do not define uniquely

  19. Equipment of high sensitivity to detect smuggled radioactive materials transported across the ''east-west'' border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonovski, A.; Kagan, L.; Stavrov, A.

    1998-01-01

    An equipment specially developed for the customs radiation control is described. Its sensitivity is higher than requirements of western countries. The equipment ensures an alarm when a radioactive source (both shielded or not) is found in the controlled area, localizes and identifies the source detected, and provides the radiation protection of customs personnel. Most of devices have a non-volatile memory where the radiation situation history is stored and then transferred to PC. The equipment may be used by personnel of special services for secret detection of radioactive materials. Some Belarussian and Russian documents specifying measures to prevent an unauthorized transportation of radioactive materials are discussed. (author)

  20. Argonne National Laboratory, east hazardous waste shipment data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, C.; Graden, C.; Coveleskie, A.

    1995-09-01

    At the request of EM-331, the Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program (TSP) is conducting an evaluation of data regarding past hazardous waste shipments from DOE sites to commercial TSDFs. The intent of the evaluation is to find out if, from 1984 to 1991, DOE sites could have shipped hazardous waste contaminated with DOE-added radioactivity to commercial TSDFs not licensed to receive radioactive material. A team visited Argonne National Laboratory, East (ANL-E) to find out if any data existed that would help to make such a determination at ANL-E. The team was unable to find any relevant data. The team interviewed personnel who worked in waste management at the time. All stated that ANL-E did not sample and analyze hazardous waste shipments for radioactivity. Waste generators at ANL-E relied on process knowledge to decide that their waste was not radioactive. Also, any item leaving a building where radioisotopes were used was surveyed using hand-held instrumentation. If radioactivity above the criteria in DOE Order 5400.5 was found, the item was considered radioactive. The only documentation still available is the paperwork filled out by the waste generator and initialed by a health physics technician to show no contamination was found. The team concludes that, since all waste shipped offsite was subjected at least once to health physics instrumentation scans, the waste shipped from ANL-E from 1984 to 1991 may be considered clean

  1. New Data on Conodonts of the Upper Devonian of the Polar Urals (Ostantsovy Section, Malaya Usa River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Soboleva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main features of the Upper Devonian sediments on the right side of the Ostantsovy Creek (the left tributary of the Malaya Usa River in the eastern part of the Bielsko-Eletskaya structural formational belt on the western slope of the Polar Urals have been considered. The late Frasnian age of these sediments has been determined on the basis of conodonts (the linguiformis zone of the standard conodont scale. The transition from clastic and organic limestones with massive stromatoporoid forms to limestones with fused (reservoir stromatoporoid forms and Palmatolepis biofacies is indicative of the transgressive shift of the linguiformis phase. This transgressive level is an indirect expression of the Upper Kellwasser global event.

  2. 232-Th and 238-U radioactive contaminations of sediments along the South China Sea of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadijeh Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee; Elias Saion; Naghavi, K.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 232 Th and 238 U were determined in 30 sediment samples, collected from the South China Sea bed of the east coast peninsular Malaysia. The samples were dried in an oven for 10 days at 65 C and stored in polyethylene bottles for future analysis. INAA used to analyse surficial sediments. The 232 Th and 238 U activities in surficial sediments determined. These activities increased from 14.02 to 30.17 Bq Kg -1 and from 47.49 to 113.69 Bq Kg -1 for 232 Th and 238 U , respectively. Results show diffuse distribution of 232 Th and 238 U actinides in studied area. The Th/Sc and U/Sc ratios of the suricial sediments have same distribution and the highest their values are in station EC12. The radioactive contamination of the investigated sector is compared with the results obtained of other coastal sediments of Malaysia. Results show activity contamination in coastal sediments of the South China Sea is lower than the Straits of Malacca and is the same with the Straits of Johor. (Author)

  3. Pedagogical experiment of the first rector of the Ural state mining institute P.P. Von Weymarn as an effort to reform the higher education institution in 1917-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Г. Валиев

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on sources recently discovered and included in the database of scientific publications, the article analyzes the pedagogical activity of the scientist-chemist, the first rector and founder of the Ural Mining Institute in Ekaterinburg Petr Petrovich von Weymarn, whose name is now almost forgotten. The article shows that this activity can be evaluated as a pedagogical experiment on reformation of the higher education institution system, which could have been adopted in Russia if Bolsheviks lost the Civil War. Pedagogical activity of von Weymarn has a theoretical basis that he developed under the influence of Wilhelm Ostwald, the Nobel Prize winner in chemistry and the idealist philosopher, as well as the example of the Petrograd (Petersburg Mining Institute, which for von Weymarn was not only an alma mater but an example of a reformist attitudes toward the scientific and pedagogical process in higher education.The article gives a detailed analysis of the currently available philosophical and pedagogical essays of P.P. von Weymarn, known as «Essays on the Energy of Culture», as well as the practical application of these theoretical works on the basis of the Ural Mining Institute in Ekaterinburg and in Vladivostok.With the advent of Soviet power, von Weymarn's pedagogical experiment was forcibly interrupted, and he became «persona non-grata» in the Soviet Union, but now his name is being restored. Unfortunately, he is known either as a chemist or as the founder and first rector of the current Ural State Mining University, but not as a teacher who offered his view of reforming the higher school system. This article fills this gap, revealing not only the work of von Weymarn, but also describing the difficult period of changing the old scientific school system, which could have taken a completely different development path.

  4. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.; Nilsson, K.; Holm, E.

    1982-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1981 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1981. Further results of the 239 , 240 Pu and 241 Am measurements on samples from the expedition to Thule in August 1979 are prsented. Brown algae collected in East Greenland in 1969 were analysed for Pu and Am. (author)

  5. Heavy metal atmospheric deposition study in the South Ural Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontasyeva, M.V.; Smirnov, L.I.; Lyapunov, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of the mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, collected in the summer of 1998, were used to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other toxic elements in the Chelyabinsk Region situated in the South Urals, one of the most heavily polluted industrial areas of the Russian Federation. Samples of natural soils were collected simultaneously with moss at the same 30 sites in order to investigate surface accumulation of heavy metals and to examine the correlation of elements in moss and soil samples in order to separate contributions from atmospheric deposition and from soil minerals. A total of 38 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in soil and 33 elements Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis. The elements Cu, Cd and Pb (in moss samples only) were obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry. VARIMAX rotated principal component analysis was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources and to point out the most polluted areas. (author)

  6. Radon and Lung Cancer Case-Control Study in Middle Ural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirdin, I.A.; Lezhnin, V.L.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Ekidin, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The pilot phase of radon and lung cancer case-control study has been performed in Karpinsk and Pervouralsk towns of Middle Ural region of Russia. The case group consists of 341 persons with lung cancer and living in that towns at least five previous years. The lung cancer diagnoses were carefully verified by instrumental techniques and 70% of its were morphologically validated. The persons for the control group (448) were chosen from the population living in that towns at least five years taking into account the age and sex. The special epidemiological questionnaire was developed which includes the items by the groups of factors as follow: clinical data, social factors, chronic lung diseases, life habit, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, diet preference etc. The epidemiological questionnaires were fulfilled for each member of case and control groups. Radon gas concentration and thoron equilibrium equivalent concentration measurements had been performed using nuclear track detectors and grab sampling accordingly in the dwellings of case and control groups members. By preliminary estimation the odds ratios are 1, 0.91, 1.2, 1.1 in the ranges of radon and thoron equilibrium equivalent concentration 0-6, 3-13, 13-36 and 36-370 Bq/m 3 respectively. The deeper and more rigorous analysis as well as different independent approaches will be discussed in the paper.(author)

  7. The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate Impact and Relation to Rossby Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its impacts on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate impact extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby wave propagation. Wave activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary waves. Furthermore, a stationary wave model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like wave patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.

  8. Dose assessment and radioecological consequences to aquatic organisms in the areas of Russia exposed to radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the radioecological state of aquatic ecosystems in the territory of Russia was performed. The following water bodies were considered: lakes and rivers in the Ural and Chernobyl contaminated areas, the Yenisei River, cooling ponds of nuclear power plants, and the Arctic Seas. It was demonstrated that in all cases under consideration, doses to aquatic organisms were markedly higher than those to humans. Especially high exposure levels to fish and molluscs much in excess of the natural background were observed in a number of water bodies in the Ural and Chernobyl contaminated areas

  9. Natural and artificial radioactivity in some protected areas of south east Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džoljić Jovana A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this research is the investigation of natural and artificial radioactivity in protected areas of Kopaonik, Vlasina, and Rila Mountains. Soil samples (including lake sediment, drinkable spring water and conifers at mentioned locations of Southeast Europe, are chosen as study objects due to their importance for people and the environment in global. Specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 238U, 235U, 137Cs, 210Pb, and 7Be are determined using gamma spectrometry and the obtained values compared with literature and mean world values. Risk assessment parameters and the soil-plant transfer factor were determined for 226Ra, 40K, 137Cs, and 210Pb. This is the first radioactivity study of high mountain areas of Vlasina and Kopaonik in Serbia and Rila in Bulgaria and as such a baseline measurement and foundation for future research. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III43009

  10. Undiscovered porphyry copper resources in the Urals—A probabilistic mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Phillips, Jeffrey; Berger, Byron R.; Denning, Paul; Dicken, Connie; Mars, John; Zientek, Michael L.; Herrington, Richard J.; Seltmann, Reimar

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of metal resources in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of the Ural Mountains in Russia and Kazakhstan was done using a quantitative form of mineral resource assessment. Permissive tracts were delineated on the basis of mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks assigned to tectonic zones that include magmatic arcs where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the Earth's surface are possible. These permissive tracts outline four north-south trending volcano-plutonic belts in major structural zones of the Urals. From west to east, these include permissive lithologies for porphyry copper deposits associated with Paleozoic subduction-related island-arc complexes preserved in the Tagil and Magnitogorsk arcs, Paleozoic island-arc fragments and associated tonalite-granodiorite intrusions in the East Uralian zone, and Carboniferous continental-margin arcs developed on the Kazakh craton in the Transuralian zone. The tracts range from about 50,000 to 130,000 km2 in area. The Urals host 8 known porphyry copper deposits with total identified resources of about 6.4 million metric tons of copper, at least 20 additional porphyry copper prospect areas, and numerous copper-bearing skarns and copper occurrences.Probabilistic estimates predict a mean of 22 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the four permissive tracts delineated in the Urals. Combining estimates with established grade and tonnage models predicts a mean of 82 million metric tons of undiscovered copper. Application of an economic filter suggests that about half of that amount could be economically recoverable based on assumed depth distributions, availability of infrastructure, recovery rates, current metals prices, and investment environment.

  11. The NEA research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugger, B.; Templeton, W. L.; Gurbutt, P.

    1983-05-01

    Sea dumping operations of certain types of packaged low and medium level radioactive wastes have been carried out since 1967 in the North-East Atlantic under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. On the occasion of the 1980 review of the continued suitability of the North-East Atlantic site used for the disposal of radioactive waste, it was recommended that an effort should be made to increase the scientific data base relating to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dumping area. In particular, it was suggested that a site specific model of the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment be developed, which would permit a better assessment of the potential radiation doses to man from the dumping of radioactive waste. To fulfill these objectives a research and environmental surveillance program related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was set up in 1981 with the participation of thirteen Member countries and the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity of the IAEA in Monaco. The research program is focused on five research areas which are directly relevant to the preparation of more site specific assessments in the future. They are: model development; physical oceanography; geochemistry; biology; and radiological surveillance. Promising results have already been obtained and more are anticipated in the not too distant future. An interim description of the NEA dumping site has been prepared which provides an excellent data base for this area.

  12. Harmonization of dosimetric information obtained by different EPR methods: Experience of the Techa river study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchkova, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 68A, Vorovsky Str., 454076 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Shishkina, E.A., E-mail: ElenaA.Shishkina@gmail.com [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 68A, Vorovsky Str., 454076 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 18, S. Kovalevskoy Str., 620041 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Timofeev, Yu. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 68A, Vorovsky Str., 454076 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Fattibene, P.; Della Monaca, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Wieser, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 68A, Vorovsky Str., 454076 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    Between 1949 and 1956 the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) was contaminated as a result of releases of radioactive waste by the Mayak Production Association. EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel has been used to estimate the external exposure of Techa riverside residents over the last 17 years. The database 'Tooth' of the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM) has accumulated about 1000 EPR measurements of tooth enamel from the rural population of the Urals region. The teeth were investigated by laboratories of Russia, USA, Germany and Italy. Most of the enamel samples were measured several times in different laboratories. Each laboratory used different equipment and its own methods for sample preparation and EPR spectra analysis. Even measurements performed at the same laboratory over 10-15 years may not be assumed as uniform: methods change with time, and equipment is subject to aging. These two factors influenced EPR performance. The purpose of this study is, therefore, the harmonization of EPR data accumulated during long-term dosimetric investigations in the Southern Urals for further pooled analysis. The results will be used for external dose evaluation in the Techa River region.

  13. Geochemistry of radioactive elements in bituminous sands and sandstones of Permian bitumen deposits of Tatarstan (east of the Russian plate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullakaev, A. I.; Khasanov, R. R.; Badrutdinov, O. R.; Kamaletdinov, I. R.

    2018-05-01

    The article investigates geochemical features of Permian (Cisuralian, Ufimian Stage and Biarmian, Kazanian Stage of the General Stratigraphic Scale of Russia) bituminous sands and sandstones located on the territory of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province (Republic of Tatarstan). Natural bitumens are extracted using thermal methods as deposits of high-viscosity oils. In the samples studied, the specific activity of natural radionuclides from the 238U (226Ra), 232Th, and 40K series was measured using gamma spectrometry. As a result of the precipitation of uranium and thorium and their subsequent decay, the accumulation of radium (226Ra and 228Ra) has been shown to occur in the bituminous substance. In the process of exploitation of bitumen-bearing rock deposits (as an oil fields) radium in the composition of a water-oil mixture can be extracted to the surface or deposited on sulfate barriers, while being concentrated on the walls of pipes and other equipment. This process requires increased attention to monitoring and inspection the environmental safety of the exploitation procedure.

  14. Distribution of radioactive jackrabbit pellets in the vicinity of the B-C CRIBS, 200 East Area, U.S.A.E.C. Hanford Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Farrell, Thomas P.; Fitzner, Richard E.; Gilbert, Richard O.

    1973-09-01

    During 1972 and 1973 a study was conducted in the B-C Cribs, 200 East Area, to learn the extent to which jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) and their predators had dispersed buried radioactive wastes in their fecal pellets and scats. The specific objective was to gather sufficient data on the pattern of dispersal so that statistically valid sampling strategies could be developed in future programs, depending upon management planning objectives for the area. A secondary objective was to relate these data with parameters, such as topography, wind direction, vegetation types, animal behavior, that might help explain the pattern of dispersal. In 1972, 2625 circular sampling sites were surveyed along 30 transects radiating out 2.4 to 3.2 km from the B-C Cribs. Radioactive contaminated feces, urine, soil and vegetation were distributed in all directions from the cribs, but the area to the south and southwest was more densely and uniformly contaminated. Of the ultimate sampling units surveyed, 278 or 10.6% had activity in excess of 10,000 counts per minute (cprn) measured with a Geiger-Mueller counter. Of these 278 circular areas, 179 or 64% were found within 0.5 km of the cribs, 23.4% were between 0.5 and 1.0 km, and the remaining 12.2% were further than 1 km from the central point. Although most droppings with a count rate greater than 20,000 cpm were found within 400 meters of the crib, pellets registering in excess of 100,000 cprn were found up to 1.6 km from the cribs. The pellets appeared to be distributed into the prevailing wind directions and contrary to the immediate contours: the only correlation seemed to be with increased vegetation density to the south and southwest, vegetation that is prime jackrabbit habitat. In May-June, 1973, 48 additional transects were run: 7 were parallel to lines established in the B-C Crib Area during 1972; 18 radiated from an abandoned gun battery site 3.2 km east of the cribs; and 23 were run from power lines 5 km south to southwest

  15. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in the North East Beach Sands of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamora, T.H.; Razafindramiandra, H.A.; Raoelina Andraimbololona; Ravelomanantsoa, S.D.; Ralaivelo, M.A.L.; Rasolonirina, M.; Zafimanjato, J. L. R.; Randriantseheno, H.F.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration and exploitation of radioactive ores (ilmenite, zircon and monazite) are considered as the main source of exposure to ionizing radiation of the population living in the coast of Analanjorofo Region (Fenerive-Est Districts, Rural municipality Ampasimbe Manantsatrana). Radioactivity measurements have been performed in this region. The distribution of natural radionuclide gamma-emitters ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) and their respective annual effective dose rates have been determined for sand(s), water and air. The samples have been collected along and around the coast of the region. The radiation emitted from the natural radionuclide containing in the environmental samples has been determined by gamma spectrometry system and Radon meter (SARAD). Exposure dose rates at 1 m above the ground have been measured along the coast and in the villages around the exploitation sites. Dose rate measurements have been performed by Dosimeter Graetz X5DE, equipped of Geiger Muller Counter. Results have been compared with the reference values provided by IAEA (BSS 115) and UNSCEAR 2000.

  16. Investigation of electro-kinetic methods for soil decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanova, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The choices of effective methods for ecological system decontamination, their perfection and introduction into practical use have been actual tasks for the Ural region. The objective of this work has been to study the potentials of electrical kinetics method of ISOTRON Corporation (US) for decontamination of the Urals soils. Results obtained have shown the method proposed to be usable for decontaminating some types of soils from strontium and plutonium; it is low effective for decontamination in the area of South-Urals radioactive plume. Thus, a low effectiveness can be expected in podsolic and leached laterite characterized by a high content of loamy sand and sandy soils, as well as for sobby-podsolic ones. The method can be promising for decontamination of soils and wastes from chemical contaminants, such as Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Hg, and others. Important advantages of this method compared to others have been its simplicity, small amount of wastes, and feasibility of decontamination in areas difficult to access. (authors)

  17. Transport processes associated with the initial elevated concentrations of Chernobyl radioactivity in surface air in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.J.; Haagenson, P.L.; Reiss, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident were encountered in the surface air over the United States along the east coast and in the north-west on 9 and 10 May 1986. The nearly simultaneous arrival of radioactive debris at widely separated locations resulted from different paths being taken by the debris released at different times during the course of the accident. Debris released during the explosion at the Chernobyl reactor was transported across the Arctic, within the lower troposphere, and zonally across Asia and the North Pacific Ocean, within the mid-troposphere. This debris descended into the planetary boundary layer along the east coast of the US. The descent was associated with a quasi-stationary cyclone located over the western North Atlantic Ocean. Debris that had a different composition of radioactivity was released from the damaged reactor during the week immediately following the initial explosion. This debris was then transported zonally across Asia and the North Pacific Ocean within the planetary boundary layer and lower troposphere and was swept into the north-western US. (author)

  18. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1993 to 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.; Long, S.; Hayden, E.; Smith, V.; Ryan, T.P.; Dowdall, A.; McGarry, A.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland during the period 1993 to 1995. The principal objective of this programme is to assess the exposure to the Irish population arising from radioactive contamination in the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to human health arising from such exposure. In addition, the programme aims to assess the distribution of the significant contaminating radionuclides in the marine environment and to identify tends with a view to assessing possible future effects. The results show that by 1995 the mean concentration of caesium-137 in fish landed at north-east ports had fallen to 1.6 Bq/kg, from a figure of 68 Bq/kg in 1979-82 and 3.0 Bq/kg in 1993. A similar decline is evident for seawater, sediment and seaweed. In addition, the Irish Sea data show the progressive dilution of artificial radioactivity with increasing distance from Sellafield

  19. PALEOMAGNETISM OF SILURIAN AND DEVONIAN VOLCANICS FROM THE CHINGIZ ISLAND ARC, KAZAKHSTAN, AND ITS BEARING ON TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE URAL-MONGOL BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Levashova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tectonic and paleogeographic evolution of the Ural-Mongol belt between the cratons of Baltica, Siberia, and Tarim is the key to the formation of the Eurasian supercontinent during Paleozoic time, but the views on this complicated process remain very disparate and sometimes controversial. Three volcanic formations of the Middle Silurian, LowertoMiddle Devonian and Middle Devonian age from the southwestern boundary of the Chingiz Range (NE Kazakhstan yields what are interpreted as primary paleomagnetic directions that help clarify the evolution of the belt. A singlepolarity characteristic component in midSilurian andesites yields a positive intraformational conglomerate test, whereas dualpolarity prefolding components are isolated from the two Devonian collections. These new data were evaluated together with previously published paleomagnetic results from Paleozoic rocks in the Chingiz Range, and allow us to establish with confidence the hemisphere in which the area was located at a given time. We conclude that NE Kazakhstan was steadily moving northward crossing the equator in Silurian time. These new paleomagnetic data from the Chingiz range also agree with and reinforce the hypothesis that the strongly curved volcanic belts of Kazakhstan underwent oroclinal bending between Middle Devonian and Late Carboniferous time. A comparison of the Chingiz paleolatitudes with those of Siberia shows similarities between the northward motion and rotational history of the Chingiz unit and those of Siberia, which imposes important constraints on the evolving paleogeography of the Ural-Mongol belt.

  20. Monitoring of radioactive ferrous scarp and products, current practices and regulatory problems in North-Eastern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbina, V.; Bianco, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive scrap metal is a major source of concern among the steel industries of northeastern Italy, since most of the scrap supply comes from east-European countries and may originate from dismantled nuclear installations or dismissed radioactive devices. In this respect reliable monitoring procedures and consistent regulations are essential to face the many economic, legal and safety problems involved in the control and management of radioactive scrap and products. The authors describe the monitoring methods developed in more than two years practice at the steel works Ferriere Nord, Osoppo UD, Italy, as a realistic compromise between reliability, radiation protection and cost. They also discuss the drawbacks sometimes due to the lack of coherent monitoring protocols and exemption levels in Italian regulations, which leave some ways out for the uncontrolled recycling of radioactive metal scrap. (author)

  1. Radioactive waste handling and disposal at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj, Abdalla N; Lobriguito, Aida M; Al Anazi, Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (KFSHRC) is the largest specialized medical center in Saudi Arabia. It performs highly specialized diagnostic imaging procedures with the use of various radionuclides required by sophisticated dual imaging systems. As a leading institution in cancer research, KFSHRC uses both long-lived and short-lived radionuclides. KFSHRC established the first cyclotron facility in the Middle East, which solved the in-house high demand for radionuclides and the difficulty in importing them. As both user and producer of high standard radiopharmaceuticals, KFSHRC generates large volumes of low and high level radioactive wastes. An old and small radioactive facility that was used for storage of radioactive waste was replaced with a bigger warehouse provided with facilities that will reduce radiation exposure of the staff, members of the public, and of the environment in the framework of "as low as reasonably achievable." The experiences and the effectiveness of the radiation protection program on handling and storage of radioactive wastes are presented.

  2. Analysis of activation and shutdown contact dose rate for EAST neutral beam port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuqing; Wang, Ji; Zhong, Guoqiang; Li, Jun; Wang, Jinfang; Xie, Yahong; Wu, Bin; Hu, Chundong

    2017-12-01

    For the safe operation and maintenance of neutral beam injector (NBI), specific activity and shutdown contact dose rate of the sample material SS316 are estimated around the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) neutral beam port. Firstly, the neutron emission intensity is calculated by TRANSP code while the neutral beam is co-injected to EAST. Secondly, the neutron activation and shutdown contact dose rates for the neutral beam sample materials SS316 are derived by the Monte Carlo code MCNP and the inventory code FISPACT-2007. The simulations indicate that the primary radioactive nuclides of SS316 are 58Co and 54Mn. The peak contact dose rate is 8.52 × 10-6 Sv/h after EAST shutdown one second. That is under the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design values 1 × 10-5 Sv/h.

  3. Treeline advances and associated shifts in the ground vegetation alter fine root dynamics and mycelia production in the South and Polar Urals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily F; Djukic, Ika; Moiseev, Pavel A; Andreyashkina, Nelly I; Devi, Nadezhda M; Göransson, Hans; Mazepa, Valeriy S; Shiyatov, Stepan G; Trubina, Marina R; Schweingruber, Fritz H; Wilmking, Martin; Hagedorn, Frank

    2017-02-01

    Climate warming is shifting the elevational boundary between forests and tundra upwards, but the related belowground responses are poorly understood. In the pristine South and Polar Urals with shifts of the treeline ecotone documented by historical photographs, we investigated fine root dynamics and production of extramatrical mycorrhizal mycelia (EMM) along four elevational transects reaching from the closed forest to the treeless tundra. In addition, we analysed elevational differences in climate and vegetation structure, and excavated trees to estimate related changes in the partitioning between below- and aboveground biomass. Fine root biomass of trees (<2 mm) increased by 13-79% with elevation, paralleled by a 35-72% increase in ground vegetation fine roots from the closed forest to the tundra. During the first year of decomposition, mass loss of fine root litter from different vegetation types was greater at lower elevations in the forest-tundra ecotone. The ratio between fine roots of trees and stem biomass largely increased with elevation in both regions, but these increases were not accompanied by a distinct production of EMM. Production of EMM, however, increased with the presence of ectomycorrhizal trees at the transition from the tundra to the forest. Our results imply that the recorded upward expansion of forest into former tundra in the Ural Mountains by 4-8 m per decade is decreasing the partitioning of plant biomass to fine roots. They further suggest that climate-driven forest advances will alter EMM production rates with potential feedbacks on soil carbon and nutrient cycling in these ecosystems.

  4. Infant mortality among offspring of individuals living in the radioactively contaminated Techa River Area, Southern Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, E.; Akleyev, A.; Hall, P.

    2005-01-01

    Massive discharge of liquid radioactive wastes into the Techa River in 1949-1956 by the industrial complex Mayak for production of plutonium for weapon resulted in protracted internal and external radiation exposure of the population living along the river. The Techa River Offspring Cohort comprises individuals born after December 31, 1949, whose one or both parents were exposed in the Techa riverside villages. The study group includes 7,897 individuals. About 40% of the Techa River Offspring Cohort members born in 1950-1956 could be exposed in utero and after birth. The mean dose estimates based on the Techa River Dosimetry System 2000 were: 0.07 Gy for parental gonads, 0.01 Gy for fetus and 0.02 Gy for postnatal exposure of bone marrow. Over 46 years of follow-up from 1950-1995, 916 subjects died and the cause of death was known in 93% of them. Out of 916 subjects dead, 456 (53%) died under 1 year of age, mainly due to respiratory tract diseases (38% of all infant deaths), infections (27%) and perinatal disorders (13%). It has been shown that the baseline infant mortality rate depends on gender, ethnicity and birth year. Radiation risk analysis was based on a simple parametric linear excess relative risk model with adjustment for gender, ethnicity and birth year. There was no evidence of increasing infant mortality risk with parental gonadal dose. The infant mortality rate significantly depended on fetal dose and dose to bone marrow received during the first year of life with a 3% increase in risk per 1 cGy of intrauterine and postnatal doses. (author)

  5. Malfunctions in radioactivity sensors' networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalipova, Veronika; Damart, Guillaume; Beauzamy, Bernard; Bruna, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    The capacity to promptly and efficiently detect any source of contamination of the environment (a radioactive cloud) at a local and a country scale is mandatory to a safe and secure exploitation of civil nuclear energy. It must rely upon a robust network of measurement devices, to be optimized vs. several parameters, including the overall reliability, the investment, the operation and maintenance costs. We show that a network can be arranged in different ways, but many of them are inadequate. Through simulations, we test the efficiency of several configurations of sensors, in the same domain. The denser arrangement turns out to be the more efficient, but the efficiency is increased when sensors are non-uniformly distributed over the country, with accumulation at the borders. In the case of France, as radioactive threats are most likely to come from the East, the best solution is densifying the sensors close to the eastern border. Our approach differs from previous work because it is "failure oriented": we determine the laws of probability for all types of failures and deduce in this respect the best organization of the network.

  6. Malfunctions in radioactivity sensors' networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalipova Veronika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to promptly and efficiently detect any source of contamination of the environment (a radioactive cloud at a local and a country scale is mandatory to a safe and secure exploitation of civil nuclear energy. It must rely upon a robust network of measurement devices, to be optimized vs. several parameters, including the overall reliability, the investment, the operation and maintenance costs. We show that a network can be arranged in different ways, but many of them are inadequate. Through simulations, we test the efficiency of several configurations of sensors, in the same domain. The denser arrangement turns out to be the more efficient, but the efficiency is increased when sensors are non-uniformly distributed over the country, with accumulation at the borders. In the case of France, as radioactive threats are most likely to come from the East, the best solution is densifying the sensors close to the eastern border. Our approach differs from previous work because it is "failure oriented": we determine the laws of probability for all types of failures and deduce in this respect the best organization of the network.

  7. Environmental radioactivity in northern parts of Iran and Teheran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khademi, B.; Hanjani, M.A.

    1974-01-01

    This article deals with the measurement of the amount of 226Ra by ''radium emanation method'' in water and food products of the North, North-West and North-East of Iran. A total of 126 water samples, 249 food-stuffs and 22 air samples have been examined. The concentration of 226Ra in water was about 0.01 to 1x10 4 pci/1, and in food products was about 0.01 to 20.00 pci/gr. The measured radioactivity in the air for the city of Tehran and Tehran University reactor's environment has been about 0.003 to 0.227 pci/m 3 . The results of these measurements for Iran's atmosphere are given in various tables which indicated that in some part of Iran the rate of the radioactivity is higher than the normal rate

  8. Atmospheric beta radioactivity in Holguin and Its relation with meteorological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Tamayo, L.; Mendez Fernandez, G.

    1996-01-01

    Were processed 487 values of air beta activity measurements performed in the period of Sep. 91-Apr. 95 in Holguin, at the Cuban east. The averaged value of effective semidesintegration period results in the 30-45 minute interval, which confirms that beta emission of radon-222 daughters is predominant. The atmospheric beta activity resulst highest in the winter months and where continental air masses predominates. For the oceanic air masses are typical lower values. Was determined high dependence with the rose wind: very low values for east wind and associated turns (0.3 - 0.5 Bq/m 3 ) and higher values for the North, North East and South East winds (>0.6 Bq/m 3 ) The predominance of air masses of oceanic origin with low atmospheric beta activities determine the low average value obtained in the present work (0.5 Bq/m 3 ) which coincides with the lower value reported in the literature . It is apparent that influence of local radon exhalation rate is not important in the behaviour of the radioactivity gas in air, However any asseveration about this question requests subsequent investigation

  9. History of decontamination after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Takashi; Onodera, Hideaki; Morishita, Satoru; Kato, Sei

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude 9.0 earthquake (the Great East Japan Earthquake) hit Japan on March 11, 2011 brought tsunami hazard as well as a nuclear accident in addition to the seismic hazard. A wide area of the eastern Japan was contaminated by radioactive materials released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. In response to the unprecedented situation of the radioactive pollution after the accident, the Act on Special Measures Concerning the Handling of Radioactive Pollution was enacted in August 2011. The Ministry of the Environment (MOE) has formulated a set of guidelines by the end of 2011 to provide information on how to store and manage contaminated waste. In addition, the MOE established 'The Policies for the Decontamination of Specific Areas (Decontamination Roadmap)' in January 2012. As a result, the radiation dose rate has decreased by approximately 46% in the residential area of Naraha town. The MOE will have been promoting decontamination and construction of interim storage facilities which are able to store and manage the removed soils and incineration ashes generated from decontamination works. (author)

  10. NEA Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme related to sea disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruegger, B.; Templeton, W.L.; Gurbutt, P.

    1983-05-01

    Sea dumping operations of certain types of packaged low and medium-level radioactive wastes have been carried out since 1967 in the North-East Atlantic under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. On the occasion of the 1980 review of the continued suitability of the North-East Atlantic site used for the disposal of radioactive waste, it was recommended that an effort should be made to increase the scientific data base relating to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dumping area. In particular, it was suggested that a site specific model of the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment be developed, which would permit a better assessment of the potential radiation doses to man from the dumping of radioactive waste. To fulfill these objectives a research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was set up in 1981 with the participation of thirteen Member countries and the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity of the IAEA in Monaco. The research program is focused on five research areas which are directly relevant to the preparation of more site-specific assessments in the future. They are: model development; physical oceanography; geochemistry; biology; and radiological surveillance. Promising results have already been obtained and more are anticipated in the not too distant future. An interim description of the NEA dumping site has been prepared which provides an excellent data base for this area (NEA 1983).It includes data in bathymetry, isopycnal topography, local and larger scale currents, sediment distribution and sedimentary processes, hydrochemistry, deep ocean biology and results of radiochemical analyses of sea water, sediments and biological materials. The modelling work is also well advanced allowing comparison of results obtained from different codes. After integration of the models, sensitivity analyses will provide indications for future research needs

  11. Prediction of Radioactive Material Proliferation in Abukuma Basin using USLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the nuclear-power plant accident after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, the residents who had resided within 20 km from the Daiichi Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant had forced to leave their hometown. The impacts by the radioactive contamination extended to numerous social elements, such as food, economy, civil engineering, community rebuilding, etc. Japanese government agencies have measured the level of radioactive contamination in urban, agricultural area, forest, riverine and ocean. The research found that the concentration level of cesium-137 (137Cs) is higher in the forest than an open area such as paddy field or rural town. Litter layers and surface layers, especially, are found to be significantly contaminated. The study calculated the estimation of contaminated soil erosion using the USLE which the idea is based on scenario that addresses a question, what if 137Cs would carry out from the forest after intensive rainfall. Predicting radioactively contaminated areas after intense rainfall is a critical matter for the future watershed risk management.

  12. Spatial-ecological divergence of the common frog (Rana temporaria L. and the moor frog (Rana arvalis Nilss. within their geographic ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutenkov Anatoly

    2017-03-01

    It is only where there is the interpenetration of «core» landscapes of each species (large areas of the northern and western parts of the East European Plain, and a part of the West Siberian Plain contiguous to the Urals, one can observe the examples of real sympatry of R. arvalis and R. temporaria.

  13. A heavy metal atmospheric deposition study in the South Ural mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontas'eva, M.V.; Smirnov, L.I.; Steinnes, E.; Lyapunov, S.M.; Cherchintsev, V.D.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of the mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, collected in the summer of 1998, were used to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other toxic elements in the Chelyabinsk Region situated in the South Ural, one of the most heavily poluted industrial areas of the Russian Federation. Samples of natural soils were collected simultaneously with moss at the same 30 sites in order to investigate surface accumulation of heavy metals and to examine the correlation of elements in moss and soil samples in order to separate contributions from atmospheric deposition and from soil minerals. A total of 38 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Tf, W, Au, Th, U) in soil and 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in mosses were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis, The elements Cu, Cd and Pb (in moss samples only) were obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry. The element concentrations were compared to those for copper basins in Poland and Serbia as well as to baseline concentrations in Norway. VARIMAX rotated principal component analysis was used to identify and characterise different pollution sources and to point out the most polluted areas

  14. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called "mammoth fauna" with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a "mixed" type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called "mammoth savannas".

  15. [Syntaxonomic analysis of restorative successions after cutting down light coniferous forests of South Ural Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, V B; Shirokhikh, P S; Mirkin, B M; Naumova, L G

    2014-01-01

    Discussed are the possibilities of using syntaxa from floristic classification for the analysis of secondary restorative successions after forest cutting in South Ural Region. Peculiarities of secondary forest communities classification that may be viewed as subjects of indigenous vegetation syntaxa forming, sub-associations or could be systematized according to 'deductive' classification introduced by K. Kopecky and S. Heiny are considered. An example is presented of an analysis of communities succession system formed after cutting down hemiboreal pine and birch-pine herbaceous forests of Bupleuro-Pinetum association. Within this system the processes of divergence and convergence of succession series take place. Divergence occur as a result of lifting of the influence caused by dominants edificating role and manifestation of differences in soil humidification, also as a consequence of soil enrichment by mineral elements after burning down the felling debris. The reason behind convergence is grading influence of renewed forest stand. Trends in species richness changes during restorative successions may differ depending on ecotope features. In course of a succession, models of tolerance and inhibition become apparent.

  16. /sup 60/Co accumulation by freshwater plants under natural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapeznikov, A V; Trapeznikova, V N [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1979-03-01

    In search for effective bioindicators of radioactive contamination of cooler-reservoirs in atomic power plants the accumulation of /sup 60/Co by four species of higher aquatic plants most widely distributed in the Urals was studied, namely by Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Lemna minor and Potamogeton pectinatus. It is shown that such plants as Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea canadensis having the accumulation coefficients of /sup 60/Co 33,500 and 21,500, respectively, can be recommended as bioindicators of this radionuclide in reservoirs contaminated with radioactive cobalt.

  17. On 60Co accumulation by freshwater plants under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapeznikov, A.V.; Trapeznikova, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    In search for effective bioindicators of radioactive contamination of cooler-reservoirs in atomic power plants the accumulation of 60 Co by four species of higher aquatic plants most widely distributed in the Urals was studied, namely by Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Lemna minor and Potamogeton pectinatus. It is shown that such plants as Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea canadensis having the accumulation coefficients of 60 Co 33,500 and 21,500, respectively, can be recommended as bioindicators of this radionuclide in reservoirs contaminated with radioactive cobalt

  18. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.; Dowdall, A; Fegan, M.; Hayden, E.; Kelleher, K.; Long, S.; McEvoy, I.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2007-10-01

    reprocessing of nuclear fuel. During 2006, levels of radionuclides in airborne radioactivity were low and consistent with measurements in previous years. External gamma dose rates were monitored continuously at fifteen stations. No abnormal levels were observed. In accordance with the RPII's drinking water monitoring protocol, a number of water supplies from Cork, Dublin, Galway and Limerick were tested and found to be within the requirements for radioactivity set out in the relevant national standards. The RPII sampled and measured levels of radioactivity in mixed diet, milk and various other foodstuffs including milk products, baby foods, beef, lamb, poultry and vegetables. These measurements show that levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish diet continue to be low. In the region of 170 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were analysed for a range of radionuclides. Along the Irish coastline the highest radioactivity concentrations observed were in the north-east. The main pathway contributing to the exposure of the Irish public to artificial radioactivity from the marine environment is the consumption of seafood. Caesium-137 continues to be the dominant radionuclide, accounting for approximately 70% of the total dose. The dose to the Irish population due to caesium-137 has declined significantly over the last two decades corresponding to the reduction in discharges of this radionuclide from Sellafield. The annual doses incurred by the Irish public as a result of artificial radioactivity in the environment do not constitute a significant health risk and are small compared with the dose received as a result of natural radiation

  19. Supplementary radiological measurements at the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site, 1976--1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.L.; Montgomery, D.M.; Kolde, H.E.; Gels, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    Evaporator effluents were investigated further to better define quantities of radionuclides discharged to the atmosphere and improve decontamination factors assigned to the principal radionuclides observed in the evaporator feed: 3 H, 14 C, 60 Co, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, and 239 Pu. On-site measurements included soil sample profiles taken to a maximum depth of 3.5 m from the trench area and from within the main washes east and south of the site. These measurements provided additional information on the near-surface lateral movement of radioactivity. Radiochemical analysis of a test-well sample showed that all measurable radioactivity was associated with the sediment in the well and the highest specific radioactivity was associated with the smaller particles (< 5 μm). Milk and vegetables were again sampled from a number of nearby farms. As previously reported, tritium was the only radionuclide measured in these foods above ambient levels, although concentrations were less than in similar samples collected during the earlier study. 4 figures, 17 tables

  20. Non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination. I. Non-radioactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, M.J.; Rankin, W.N.; Postles, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Candidate non-radioactive materials for use as a stand-in for radioactive contamination during application of a high-pressure, hot water decontamination were identified and evaluated. A stand-in for radioactive contamination is needed to evaluate the decontaminability of replacement canyon cranes at the manufacturers location where actual radioactive contamination cannot be used. This evaluation was conducted using high-pressure, hot-water at 420 psi, 190 0 F, and 20 gal/min through a 1/8-in.-diam nozzle, the decontamination technique preferred by SRP Separations Department for this application. A non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination was desired that would be removed by direct blast stream contact but would remain intact on surfaces where direct contact does not occur. This memorandum describes identification of candidate non-radioactive stand-in materials and evaluation of these materials in screening tests and tests with high-pressure, hot-water blasting. The following non-radioactive materials were tested: carpenter's line chalk; typing correction fluid; dye penetrant developer; latex paint with attapulyite added; unaltered latex paint; gold enamel; layout fluid; and black enamel. Results show that blue layout fluid and gold enamel have similar adherence that is within the range expected for actual radioactive contamination. White latex paint has less adherence than expected for actual radioactive contamination. The film was removed at a rate of 2 . Black enamel has more adherence than expected from actual radioactive contamination. In these tests ASTM No. 2B surfaces were harder to clean than either ASTM No. 1 or electropolished surfaces which had similar cleaning properties. A 90 0 blast angle was more effective than a 45 0 blast angle. In these tests there was no discernible effect of blast distance between 1 and 3 ft

  1. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the “mammoth fauna” in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Zinovyev

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called “mammoth fauna” with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a “mixed” type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called “mammoth savannas”.

  2. Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, A.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the “dose rate – effects” relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d −1 for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d −1 for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d −1 for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale “dose rate – effects” and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. - Highlights: ► Comparative analysis of dose rates to biota in different water bodies was performed. ► A numerical scale on the dose rates – effects relationships for fish was formulated. ► Results of assessment of exposure to biota were compared with the dose rates – effects scale. ► In the most contaminated water bodies the doses were high enough to cause radiobiological effects in fish. ► Current dose rates to biota in all considered water bodies are below the safety level of 1 mGy/day.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF THE FUKUSIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES BY THE POPULATION IN THE FAR EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Arkhangelskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the attitude of the population in the five regions of the Far East to the consequences of the accident at the Fukushimai nuclear power plant, as well as the issues of informing about the accident. The analysis of public opinion is based on the data obtained by anonymous questionnaire survey performed in November 2011. In spite of the rather active informing and objective information on the absence of the contamination, most of the population of the Russian Far East believes that radioactive contamination is presented in the areas of their residence, and the main cause of this contamination is the nuclear accident in Japan.

  4. Innovative Approaches to the Solution of Searching Hydrocarbons in Deep Horizons of the Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Trofimov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article draws attention to the problem of hydrocarbon exploration in deep horizons, which is especially important for the old oil and gas bearing provinces, in particular, for the Volga-Ural province. The example of Riphean-Vendian deposits shows that the solution of this problem is possible if we use not only data of the structural plans of the studied horizons, but also the presence in the immediate vicinity of the identified structures of the oil feeding channels (faults allocated by the high-depth CDP seismic survey. Based on a comparative analysis of the structure of the White Tiger field (Vietnam and Zhigulev arch, it was concluded that they are very similar and that it is expedient to set up, within the last tectonic element, purposeful studies to explore the prospects of oil and gas potential of the Precambrian basement.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible

  6. Cultural and climatic changes shape the evolutionary history of the Uralic languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkola, T; Vesakoski, O; Korhonen, K; Lehtinen, J; Syrjänen, K; Wahlberg, N

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative phylogenetic methods have been used to study the evolutionary relationships and divergence times of biological species, and recently, these have also been applied to linguistic data to elucidate the evolutionary history of language families. In biology, the factors driving macroevolutionary processes are assumed to be either mainly biotic (the Red Queen model) or mainly abiotic (the Court Jester model) or a combination of both. The applicability of these models is assumed to depend on the temporal and spatial scale observed as biotic factors act on species divergence faster and in smaller spatial scale than the abiotic factors. Here, we used the Uralic language family to investigate whether both 'biotic' interactions (i.e. cultural interactions) and abiotic changes (i.e. climatic fluctuations) are also connected to language diversification. We estimated the times of divergence using Bayesian phylogenetics with a relaxed-clock method and related our results to climatic, historical and archaeological information. Our timing results paralleled the previous linguistic studies but suggested a later divergence of Finno-Ugric, Finnic and Saami languages. Some of the divergences co-occurred with climatic fluctuation and some with cultural interaction and migrations of populations. Thus, we suggest that both 'biotic' and abiotic factors contribute either directly or indirectly to the diversification of languages and that both models can be applied when studying language evolution. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Comprehensive comparison of preselected regions for a high level radioactive waste repository: a subjective quantitative evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Zong Zihua; Jin Yuanxin; Zhu Pengfei; Su Rui; Chen Weiming

    2012-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive features of the 6 preselected regions (Northwest China, Southwest China East China, South China, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang regions) for China's high level radioactive waste repository, this paper uses the subjective quantitative method to evaluate the weight of each site selection criterion and provides the scores of each region. The results shows that the future natural changes and the hydrogeological conditions are considered as the most important natural siting criteria, while the social impact and human activities are the most important social siting criteria. According to the scores, the priority order of the regions are Northwest China, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, South China, East China, Southwest China. On the whole, the scores of' the regions in western China (Northwest China, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia) are higher than those in eastern China (South China, East China Southwest China), which obviously shows that the participated experts considers that the disposal of high level waste in west China is more favorable than in east China. (authors)

  8. Registration for the Hanford Site: Sources of radioactive emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvia, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    This Registration Application serves to renew the registration for all Hanford Site sources of radioactive air emissions routinely reported to the State of Washington Department of Health (DOH). The current registration expires on August 15, 1993. The Application is submitted pursuant to the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246--247, and is consistent with guidance provided by DOH for renewal. The Application subdivides the Hanford Site into six major production, processing or research areas. Those six areas are in the 100 Area, 200 East Area, 200 West Area, 300 Area, 400 Area, and 600 Area. Each major group of point sources within the six areas listed above is represented by a Source Registration for Radioactive Air Emissions form. Annual emissions. for the sources are listed in the ''Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site,'' published annually. It is a requirement that the following Statement of Compliance be provided: ''The radioactive air emissions from the above sources do meet the emissions standards contained in Chapter 173-480-040 WAC, Ambient Air Quality Standards and Emissions Limits for Radionuclides. As the Statement of Compliance pertains to this submittal, the phrase ''above sources'' is to be understood as meaning the combined air emissions from all sources registered by this submittal

  9. About features of differentiated use of Semipalatinsk Test Site territories in sphere of agroindustrial manufactures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipbekov, O.A.; Eleshev, R.E.; Saparov, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The liquidation experience of pollution consequences in the East-Ural and Chernobyl traces of radioactive falls have shown that recommendations developed with the regard for levels of radioactivity pollution, but without taking into account the features of economy, structure are practically unrealizable. Practical unacceptability of such recommendations lies not in requirements for restriction of lands' use but these requirements could be carried out only by certain economy in size and structure in the given concrete conditions. While drawing up these recommendations two concepts have been wrongly identified; 'specialization of grounds' and 'specialization of economy'. The recommendations were determining a specialization of grounds depending on the level of their radioactive pollution quite validly from the radiating point of view, at the same time they did not take into account the features of land tenure and economy of existing managing structures at all. The detailed analysis of conditions on radioactive traces of experts have convinced that for successful realization on differentiated use of the polluted territory each concrete economy should meet the following specific requirements: - to have enough pure lands to receive foodstuffs of good quality for realization onto a foreign market and internal consumption; - to have such numbers of polluted lands which would give an opportunity to realize production received on them inside the given economy completely; the number of economy and their organizational and administrative structure should be convenient for realization of the precautionary radiation hygienic control. Observance of the above-stated principles of the structural organization of the lands, probably, will allow carrying out the principle of differentiated use of polluted lands practically in the territory of Semipalatinsk test area as well

  10. Assessment of the Grouted IXC Monolith in Support of K East Basin Hazard Categorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Steven M.; Dodson, Michael G.; Alzheimer, James M.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2007-10-12

    Addendum to original report updating the structural analysis of the I-beam accident to reflect a smaller I-beam than originally assumed (addendum is 2 pages). The K East Basin currently contains six ion exchange columns (IXCs) that were removed from service over 10 years ago. Fluor Hanford plans to immobilize the six ion exchange columns (IXCs) in place in a concrete monolith. PNNL performed a structural assessment of the concrete monolith to determine its capability to absorb the forces imposed by postulated accidents and protect the IXCs from damage and thus prevent a release of radioactive material. From this assessment, design specifications for the concrete monolith were identified that would prevent a release of radioactive material for any of the postulated hazardous conditions.

  11. Measures to detect and control radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap at border checkpoints in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap has never received a high priority in Poland and in the international community. Since the dissolution of the former Soviet Union a higher attention has been given to the problem. Poland which is located between the West and East Europe has the obligation to develop and implement an effective prevention and detection system. The reasons to increase national control and detection system at the border checkpoints in Poland are to avoid the following risks: post Chernobyl contamination transports of commodities; transport of contaminated metal scrap; transfer of radioactive waste for their disposal or utilization; high risk of becoming a transit country of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources. In order to avoid the above-mentioned risks, Poland initiated in 1990, a deployment of the portable radiation devices at the border checkpoints and, as of 1998, the number of installed instruments exceeded a hundred. This paper presents Poland's activities to detect contaminated scrap at its border checkpoints. (author)

  12. Assessment of natural radioactivity and heavy metals in water and soil around seismically active area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktay Baykara; Mahmut Dogru; Firat University, Elazig

    2010-01-01

    The natural radioactivity concentration and some heavy metals in various water and soil samples collected from seismically active area have been determined. Gross-alpha and beta concentrations of different 33 water samples and some heavy metal (Fe, Pb, Cu, K, Mn, Cr and Zn) concentration in 72 soil samples collected from two major fault systems (North and East Anatolian Active Fault Systems) in Turkey have been studied. This survey regarding gross-alpha and beta radioactivity and some heavy metals concentrations was carried out by means of Krieger method using a gross-alpha and beta-counting system and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), respectively. Also, gross annual effective dose from the average gross-alpha activity in waters were calculated. (author)

  13. The Cigeo project: an industrial storage site for radioactive wastes in deep underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieguer, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    In 2006, France has decided to store its high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes, mostly issued from the nuclear industry, in a deep geological underground disposal site. This document presents the Cigeo project, a deep underground disposal site (located in the East of France) for such radioactive wastes, which construction is to be started in 2021 (subject to authorization in 2018). After a brief historical review of the project, started 20 years ago, the document presents the radioactive waste disposal context, the ethical choice of underground storage (in France and elsewhere) for these types of radioactive wastes, the disposal site safety and financing aspects, the progressive development of the underground facilities and, of most importance, its reversibility. In a second part, the various works around the site are presented (transport, buildings, water and power supply, etc.) together with a description of the various radioactive wastes (high and intermediate level and long-lived wastes and their packaging) that will be disposed in the site. The different steps of the project are then reviewed (the initial design and initial construction phases, the pilot industrial phase (expected in 2030), the operating phase, and the ultimate phases that will consist in the definitive closure of the site and its monitoring), followed by an extensive description of the various installations of surface and underground facilities, their architecture and their equipment

  14. Effects of air and soil pollution by industrial waste on the fructification of Scotch pine in the Urals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamaev, S A; Shkarlet, O D

    1972-01-01

    The pollution of aerial environment with smoke gases gives rise to heavy weakening of the forest stands and to reduction of their increment. This was demonstrated convincingly enough, especially in the works of numerous German, Czech, Polish, and Soviet foresters and physiologists. There is far less information on the change of the forest species reproductive capacity in the conditions of heavy pollution. The authors do not have enough observations, showing the effects of smoke gases on characteristics of the forest tree fructification. Therefore, in essence, it is not known until now, how great is the degree of these effects. It is obscure, too, what are the characteristics of quality changes of the seeds of trees suffering from smoke gases. In the present paper are given the results of the investigations carried out in the pine forests growing near industrial centers in the Urals. The main task of the investigations was the establishing of smoke gas effects on the seeding intensity and quality.

  15. Survey and decontamination trial of boat wastes contaminated with radioactive cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigami, Hidetaka; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Go; Takeuchi, Yukio; Tanosaki, Takao; Takata, Mitsuyasu; Okubo, Takuro

    2013-01-01

    Field survey was conducted to investigate radioactive cesium contamination status of the fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) boats which were damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting tsunami, and further affected by nuclear fallout from the accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant. Radiation dose rate was measured targeted at some selected boats and the surrounding environment by using radiation survey meters (i.e., NaI (Tl) scintillation counter and GM counter) and a radiation-sensing camera in order to visualize a dose rate distribution within the area. In addition, FRP parts, sediment deposits and stagnant waters in the boats were sampled and their "1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs radioactivity were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using NaI (Tl) scintillation or Ge detector. From the monitoring results, materials or sediments in the boats enhanced the radiation levels, however, which can be significantly reduced by decontamination operations such as removal and wash-out of the materials or sediments (i.e., countermeasures for surface-deposited radioactivity). Consequently, the conducted survey and decontamination approaches became a good model and promoted a prompt dismantlement, removal and further disposal/recycle by the local authorities concerned. (author)

  16. Co-ordinated research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sea disposal operations of packaged low-level radioactive waste are carried out under the provisions of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, also referred to as the London Dumping Convention. The environmental impact of this disposal method is continuously kept under review, in particular within the IAEA which has provided the ''Definition of High-Level Radioactive Waste or Other High-Level Radioactive Matter Unsuitable for Dumping at Sea'' for the purpose of the Convention and within the OECD-NEA in the framework of its Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. The NEA Co-Ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme (CRESP) is focussed on the actual North-East Atlantic dump site. Its objective is to increase the available scientific data base related to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dump site and elaborate a site specific model of the transfers of radionuclides to human populations. Future site suitability reviews, as periodically requested under the terms of the Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism, will therefore be based on a more accurate and comprehensive scientific basis

  17. Radioactivity in north European waters: report of Working Group 2 of CEC project MARINA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.; Aarkrog, A.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of Working Group 2 of Project MARINA was to consider recent measurements of environmental radioactivity in north European waters and to use this, and other information, to report likely magnitude of doses to the critical group from marine pathways. The monitoring data were supplemented, where appropriate, with predictions from simple models. The major sources of radioactivity studied were as follows: (i) liquid wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, (Sellafield, Dounreay, Cap de la Hague); (ii) liquid wastes from nuclear power plants and other major nuclear industry sites, (including Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, GDR, FDR, Netherlands, Sweden, UK, USSR); (iii) solid waste disposal in the deep north-east Atlantic; (iv) fallout from Chernobyl; and (v) naturally-occurring radionuclides. (author)

  18. Modeling prices of wholesale market of electric energy and power by the example of the UPS of the Ural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhov V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article oversees forecasting model for deviations of the balancing market index and day-ahead market index according to the maximum similarity sample for different levels of approximation in the context of positive and negative time-series value. The model was being tested on the factual data of the Integrated Power system of the Ural, Wholesale market for electricity and power of Russian Federation. Describes the price formation on the day-ahead market and the balancing market index. The necessity to use accurate forecasting methods consumption and prices of electrical energy and power to reduce penalties when the electric power industry entities on the energy exchange. The testing of mathematical models to predict the balancing market index deviations and day-ahead market based on a sample of maximum similarity with certain approximation equations for positive and negative values gave the prediction error of 3.3%.

  19. Production-scale LLW and RMW solidification system operational testing at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wescott, J.; Wagh, A.; Singh, D.; Nelson, R.; No, H.

    1997-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) has begun production-scale testing of a low-level waste and radioactive mixed waste solidification system. This system will be used to treat low-level and mixed radioactive waste to meet land burial requirements. The system can use any of several types of solidification media, including a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic developed by ANL-E scientists. The final waste product will consist of a solidified mass in a standard 208-liter drum. The system uses commercial equipment and incorporates several unique process control features to ensure proper treatment. This paper will discuss the waste types requiring treatment, the system configuration, and operation results for these waste streams

  20. Ecological effects and animal risk assessment of radiation pollution in Russia and former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivolutsky, D.

    1995-01-01

    The ecological after-effects of long-term radiation pollution, animal biodiversity changes and life-cycle assessment of model species of soil invertebrates mammals, birds, reptiles have been studied in 1968-1994 in the former USSR (Russia, Ukraine, Kazachstan). There has been observed an initial reduction of animal biodiversity community structure in Kyshtym (south Ural) and Chernobyl polluted areas and a low return to the former ecosystems. The secondary changes and side-effects for the active migrants (insects, birds, mammals) have been registered. The most valid bioindicators and biomarkers of radioactive pollution may be stable populations of reptiles, birds, earthworms, centipede, microarthropods. The radioactive soil pollution exerts the greatest impact on the permanent soil dwelling animals. As direct effects it has been seen the appreciable reduction of population density disturbance of the breeding process, degradation of species diversity community structure. In fact a soil with high level 90 Sr and a radiation 1--3 R/day containing 10-fold reduction of population soil inhabit millipedes earthworms, insect larvae, Enchytraeidae aranea. The accumulation of radionuclides by terrestrial and soil animals effects of trophic levels, zoogenical radionuclides migration have been studied in polluted ecosystems of South Ural and Chernobyl

  1. Decontamination and decommissioning of 61 plutonium gloveboxes in D-Wing, Building 212 Argonne National Laboratory-East: Final project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheever, C.L.; Rose, R.W.

    1996-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is a government-owned, contractor operated, multipurpose research facility located 25 miles southwest of downtown Chicago on 689 hectares (1,700 acres) in DuPage County, Illinois, as shown in Figure 1.1. Building 212 is located in the central area of ANL-E, as shown in Figure 1.2. The purpose of this project was to eliminate the risk of radioactive material release from the contaminated glovebox systems and to make the laboratories available for unrestricted use. The following work objectives were established: (1) Identify and remove radioactive materials for return to ANL-E Special Materials control. (2) Remove and package the radioactively contaminated materials and equipment from the gloveboxes. (3) Decontaminate the gloveboxes to nontransuranic (non-TRU) levels. (4) Size-reduce and package the gloveboxes and support systems. (5) Document and dispose of the radioactive and mixed waste. (6) Decontaminate, survey, and release the nine laboratories and corridor areas for unrestricted use

  2. Modelling of the mechanical behaviour and damage of clay-stones: application to the East argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aublive-Conil, N.

    2003-03-01

    The storage in deep geological formation is one of the solutions retained by France for the management of highly long life radioactive waste. The retained host rock is a clay-stone named East argillite located in the departments of Meuse and Haute-Marne. A thermodynamic formulation is used to propose a rheological model, which reproduces the mechanical behavior of clay-stones. Initially, an anisotropic damage plastic model was formulated in order to describe material degradations. Then, the damage plastic model is reformulated in order to taken into account the damage influence on the hydraulic behavior of porous material. The numerical simulations correctly reproduce the mechanical behavior of East Argillites but also the anisotropy of the hydraulic behavior introduced by the damage effect. (author)

  3. Road surface washing system for decontaminating radioactive substances. Experiment of radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Mitsuru; Endo, Mai; Kakizaki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011 resulted in the explosion of the TEPCO Fukushima 1st Nuclear Power Plant and the global dispersion of a large quantity of radioactive substances. A high radiation dose was particularly recorded in Fukushima prefecture several weeks after the accident, although the level is presently sufficiently low. However, considering that the adverse effects of low but extended exposure to radiation are yet to be negated, there is the urgent need for further decontamination. In our study, we focused on the efficient decontamination of radioactive substances in residential areas, for which we propose a high-pressure water jet system for washing road surfaces. The system differs from conventional systems of its type that were initially designed for use in the immediate environment of the nuclear reactors of the TEPCO Fukushima 1st Nuclear Power Plant. The proposed system consists of multiple washing, transporter, and server robots. The washing robots decontaminate the road surface using high-pressure water jets and are transported between washed and unwashed areas by the transporter robots. The server robots supply the water used for washing and absorb the polluted water together with ground dust. In this paper, we describe the concept of the system and present the results of decontamination experiments. Particular attention is given to the washing robot and its mechanism and control method. The results of the integration of the washing robot in an experimental system confirmed the feasibility of the proposed system. (author)

  4. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Tubiana, M.; Bimbot, R.

    1997-01-01

    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  5. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last few years, significant progress has been made towards siting national, purpose-built facilities for Australian radioactive waste. In 2001, after an eight year search, a preferred site and two alternatives were identified in central-north South Australia for a near-surface repository for Australian low level (low level and short-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste. Site 52a at Everts Field West on the Woomera Prohibited Area was selected as the preferred site as it performs best against the selection criteria, particularly with respect to geology, ground water, transport and security. Two alternative sites, Site 45a and Site 40a, east of the Woomera-Roxby Downs Road, were also found to be highly suitable for the siting of the national repository. A project has commenced to site a national store for intermediate (long-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste on Commonwealth land for waste produced by Commonwealth agencies. Public input has been sought on relevant selection criteria

  6. Geographical-radioecological aspects of nuclear energy exploitation and environment contamination by man-made radionuclides in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurucova, S.; Blazik, T.; Kuruc, J.

    2005-01-01

    territories is one of the most serious social consequences of Chernobyl accident. Probability of radiologically induced tumors in critical groups of population in observed region was calculated by authors. Socio-economic impacts of Chernobyl accident are combined with socio-economic changes that are taking place in Russian Federation since Soviet Union break-up. The radioactive contamination of agricultural lands in observed region is one of significant consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In spite of protective and rehabilitation measures, Bryansk Region and Kaluga Region still produce agricultural products with amount of radionuclide content higher than the permissible levels. In observed region systems of economic exploitation of contaminated territories are determined, where exploitation of nature and various economic activities are limited or forbidden according to intensity of contamination. The radiation situation has stabilized in 12 subjects of the Russian Federation except Bryansk Region and Kaluga Region, which still require a complex of protective and rehabilitation measures. Northern part of Chelyabinsk Region and neighbouring parts of Kurgan Region and Sverdlovsk Region are contaminated for several decades by radiation accidents in Mayak PA. Geographical and radioecological aspects of consequences of three radiation accidents were analysed by authors. East Ural Radioactive Trace and Techa River with its inundation area are the most contaminated zones in Asian part of Russian Federation. Concentrations of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a lower part of atmosphere, water basins, soils and forest ecosystems in the region are in some localities (mainly in northern part of Chelyabinsk Region) much higher than the background levels. Health situation of population living on Techa River banks is one of the most serious impacts of radioactive contamination in this region. Higher disease rate and higher mortality index is observed among this population (notably because

  7. Effects of natural radioactivity on food radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennyu, Atsuhito

    2012-01-01

    Since the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Company, groups and individuals including local governments, food manufacturers, distribution circles, retail circles, and citizens are eager to measure the radioactivity of food, in order to confirm the safety of food from the concerns about radioactive contamination. The measurement of radioactivity of food is done by quantitatively determining gamma rays due to radioactive cesium that was incorporated into the biosphere cycle after having been released into the environment. As for the radioactivity measurement of food using gamma-ray spectrometry with a potassium iodide scintillation detector, which is very commonly used, this paper describes the handling method of obtained data, the principle of erroneous detection of radioactive cesium and iodine interrupted by natural radionuclides, and countermeasures for it. Major natural radioactivity sources are uranium series and thorium series. This paper explains gamma rays, which are characteristic in the decay process of uranium series and often affect the measurement of radioactive cesium in food and water. (O.A.)

  8. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The feasibility of safe ocean disposal options for heat-generating radioactive waste relies on the existence of suitable disposal sites. This review considers the status of the development of site selection criteria and the results of the study area investigations carried out under various national and international research programmes. In particular, the usefulness of the results obtained is related to the data needed for environmental and emplacement modelling. Preliminary investigations have identified fifteen potential deep ocean study areas in the North Atlantic. From these Great Meteor East (GME), Southern Nares Abyssal Plan (SNAP) and Kings Trough Flank (KTF) were selected for further investigation. The review includes appraisals of regional geology, geophysical studies, sedimentology, geotechnical studies, geochemical studies and oceanography. (author)

  9. Haplotype Diversity and Reconstruction of Ancestral Haplotype Associated with the c.35delG Mutation in the GJB2 (Cx26) Gene among the Volgo-Ural Populations of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhemileva, L U; Posukh, O L; Barashkov, N A; Fedorova, S A; Teryutin, F M; Akhmetova, V L; Khidiyatova, I M; Khusainova, R I; Lobov, S L; Khusnutdinova, E K

    2011-07-01

    The mutations in theGJB2(Сх26) gene make the biggest contribution to hereditary hearing loss. The spectrum and prevalence of theGJB2gene mutations are specific to populations of different ethnic origins. For severalGJB2 mutations, their origin from appropriate ancestral founder chromosome was shown, approximate estimations of "age" obtained, and presumable regions of their origin outlined. This work presents the results of the carrier frequencies' analysis of the major (for European countries) mutation c.35delG (GJB2gene) among 2,308 healthy individuals from 18 Eurasian populations of different ethnic origins: Bashkirs, Tatars, Chuvashs, Udmurts, Komi-Permyaks, Mordvins, and Russians (the Volga-Ural region of Russia); Byelorussians, Ukrainians (Eastern Europe); Abkhazians, Avars, Cherkessians, and Ingushes (Caucasus); Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Uighurs (Central Asia); and Yakuts, and Altaians (Siberia). The prevalence of the c.35delG mutation in the studied ethnic groups may act as additional evidence for a prospective role of the founder effect in the origin and distribution of this mutation in various populations worldwide. The haplotype analysis of chromosomes with the c.35delG mutation in patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss (N=112) and in population samples (N =358) permitted the reconstruction of an ancestral haplotype with this mutation, established the common origin of the majority of the studied mutant chromosomes, and provided the estimated time of the c.35delG mutation carriers expansion (11,800 years) on the territory of the Volga-Ural region.

  10. Radiological assessment report for the Lansdowne property, 105-107 East Stratford Avenue, Lansdowne, Pennsylvania, October-December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Flynn, K.F.

    1985-09-01

    Areas with elevated levels of radioactivity were found throughout both residences, as well as on the surrounding property. Contamination was also found in the garage behind the 105 East structure. The 105 East residence had substantially more contamination than the 107 East residence, as was expected. The chimneys, particularly the rear chimney, from the 105 East residence had extensive contamination, indicating that contaminated materials may have been burned at the site. The high background radiation emanating from this residence made it difficult to establish the relatively lower levels of contamination in the 107 East residence. The property surrounding the 105 East residence was found to have substantial contamination scattered throughout, with the highest level occurring in the backyard. The soil surface contamination seemed to drop markedly (but not entirely) at the property lines. The property surrounding 107 East was found to be less contaminated, although the background radiation emanating from the adjoining area made it difficult to establish the degree of surface or near-surface contamination from surface surveys. Subsurface investigation of the soil surrounding the structure indicated that radium contamination was widespread and extended to a depth of eight feet at some locations. There was evidence that some of this contamination extended onto adjoining properties and may have been transported off the site via subsurface migration. Additionally, analysis of samples from access points in the residence sewer system effluent established that the system was contaminated. 3 refs., 26 figs., 13 tabs

  11. Radiological assessment report for the Lansdowne property, 105-107 East Stratford Avenue, Lansdowne, Pennsylvania, October-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Flynn, K.F.

    1985-09-01

    Areas with elevated levels of radioactivity were found throughout both residences, as well as on the surrounding property. Contamination was also found in the garage behind the 105 East structure. The 105 East residence had substantially more contamination than the 107 East residence, as was expected. The chimneys, particularly the rear chimney, from the 105 East residence had extensive contamination, indicating that contaminated materials may have been burned at the site. The high background radiation emanating from this residence made it difficult to establish the relatively lower levels of contamination in the 107 East residence. The property surrounding the 105 East residence was found to have substantial contamination scattered throughout, with the highest level occurring in the backyard. The soil surface contamination seemed to drop markedly (but not entirely) at the property lines. The property surrounding 107 East was found to be less contaminated, although the background radiation emanating from the adjoining area made it difficult to establish the degree of surface or near-surface contamination from surface surveys. Subsurface investigation of the soil surrounding the structure indicated that radium contamination was widespread and extended to a depth of eight feet at some locations. There was evidence that some of this contamination extended onto adjoining properties and may have been transported off the site via subsurface migration. Additionally, analysis of samples from access points in the residence sewer system effluent established that the system was contaminated. 3 refs., 26 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Natural Radioactivity of Soil in Sabah and Sarawak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Sulaiman; Muhamat Omar; Mohd Suhaimi Elias

    2015-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from 40 locations throughout Sabah and Sarawak and were analysed for natural radionuclides concentration. The mean soil concentrations of "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th, "2"2"6Ra and "4"0K in Sabah were 22, 18, 24 and 216 Bq kg"-"1 respectively while corresponding values in Sarawak were 25, 25, 38 and 305 Bq kg"-"1 respectively. This study showed that the concentration of natural radionuclides (except "4"0K) in soil in Sabah and Sarawak were about one third of the respective values in Peninsular Malaysia. The results of the study can be used as baseline data of natural radioactivity for East Malaysia. (Author)

  13. (238)U and total radioactivity in drinking waters in Van province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk Zorer, Özlem; Dağ, Beşir

    2014-06-01

    As part of the national survey to evaluate natural radioactivity in the environment, concentration levels of total radioactivity and natural uranium have been analysed in drinking water samples. A survey to study natural radioactivity in drinking waters was carried out in the Van province, East Turkey. Twenty-three samples of drinking water were collected in the Van province and analysed for total α, total β and (238)U activity. The total α and total β activities were counted by using the α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604), and the (238)U concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Thermo Scientific Element 2). The samples were categorised according to origin: tap, spring or mineral supply. The activity concentrations for total α were found to range from 0.002 to 0.030 Bq L(-1) and for total β from 0.023 to 1.351 Bq L(-1). Uranium concentrations ranging from 0.562 to 14.710 μg L(-1) were observed in drinking waters. Following the World Health Organisation rules, all investigated waters can be used as drinking water.

  14. The action and problem of the decontamination work of the radioactive contamination soil starting in earnest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Tomomi

    2011-01-01

    At the stage of just eight months after the time when a large amount of radioactivity was discharged by the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake, countermeasures for pollution due to radioactive substances have become the biggest challenge. The government made a cabinet decision on basic policy based on 'The Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Environmental Pollution by Radioactive Materials Discharged by the Nuclear Power Station Accident Associated with the Tohoku District - Off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake that Occurred on March 11, 2011 (The Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Radioactive Pollution).' By this, fiscal measures, regulatory measures, and role-sharing required for promoting the treatment of radioactivity-contaminated disaster waste and the decontamination measures of soil were clarified. At the same time as the enactment of the bill, 'Basic Policy for Emergency Response on Decontamination Work' and 'Guidelines for Municipal Decontamination Work' were issued, which helped a step toward full-scale decontamination activities with the backup of budgetary measures. This paper explains the following efforts of the government in implementing these actions. Installation of temporary storage sites for decontaminated soil, implementation of interim storage facilities, development of final disposal sites, and budgetary support. (O.A.)

  15. Radioactivity in the sea. Scientific publications of the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (1991-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document provides list of scientific publications of the IAEA Marine Environmental Laboratory (IAEA-MEL). The studies cover a broad spectrum of environmental issues of behaviour of radioactive substances as well as fate of non-nuclear pollutants in the marine environment. Studies of the Gulf war aftermath, the carbon cycle and the Greenhouse Effect, Chernobyl radioactivity in the oceans, the consequences of nuclear testing on the South Pacific and of nuclear dumping in the Arctic Seas and in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) and of pesticide tun-off and toxicity to coastal fisheries are just a few areas in which the IAEA-MEL has recently been active. Increasingly, the emphasis is placed on the use of nuclear and isotopic techniques to improve understanding of the marine environment and of pollutant behaviour

  16. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  17. Latest movements associated with radioactive contamination and disaster waste management (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Tomomi

    2012-01-01

    As for the radioactive contamination countermeasures and disaster waste countermeasures taken for the accidents of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, this paper introduces in the digest version the following movements from mid-April to May 15, 2012. (1) Radioactive substance countermeasures such as decontamination. (a) Decontamination operations under direct control of the Ministry of the Environment, (b) Establishment of compensation benchmarks by the Ministry of the Environment for the garden plants and land use in Special Decontamination Area, (c) Publication of technical guidelines by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, on the removal and diffusion suppression of radioactive substances in forests, (d) Announcement of research center development / promotion idea by the government in the policy making for Fukushima reconstruction, (e) Request of the government for the interim storage facility site in the opinion exchange meetings in Futaba district towns and villages in Fukushima Prefecture, (f) Announcement of radioactive substance forecast map in Fukushima City for the first time by the government, and (g) Action plan development at the Health Anxiety Countermeasure Coordination Council for nuclear victims. (2) Disaster waste countermeasures. (a) Introduction of challenges in each of Miyagi Prefecture and Iwate Prefecture on the acceleration of the secondary temporary storage field development for disaster waste treatment, and (b) Introduction of progress in new interim incinerator construction plan for disaster waste treatment in Fukushima Prefecture. (O.A.)

  18. Using radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The leaflet discusses the following: radioactivity; radioisotopes; uses of ionising radiations; radioactivity from (a) naturally occurring radioactive elements, and (b) artificially produced radioisotopes; uses of radioactivity in medicine, (a) clinical diagnostic, (b) therapeutic (c) sterilization of medical equipment and materials; environmental uses as tracers; industrial applications, e.g. tracers and radiography; ensuring safety. (U.K.)

  19. Fall 1998 200 East area biological vector contamination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the investigation into the cause of the spread of radioactive contamination in September and October 1998 at the Hanford Site's 200 East Area and its subsequent spread to the City of Richland Landfill; identify the source of the contamination; and present corrective actions. The focus and thrust of managing the incident was based on the need to accomplish the following, listed in order of importance: (1) protect the health and safety of the Site workers and the public; (2) contain and control the spread of contamination; (3) identify the source of contamination and the pathways for its spread; and (4) identify the causal factors enabling the contamination

  20. Fall 1998 200 East area biological vector contamination report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    The purpose of this report is to document the investigation into the cause of the spread of radioactive contamination in September and October 1998 at the Hanford Site's 200 East Area and its subsequent spread to the City of Richland Landfill; identify the source of the contamination; and present corrective actions. The focus and thrust of managing the incident was based on the need to accomplish the following, listed in order of importance: (1) protect the health and safety of the Site workers and the public; (2) contain and control the spread of contamination; (3) identify the source of contamination and the pathways for its spread; and (4) identify the causal factors enabling the contamination.

  1. Radioactive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive battery is described that is comprised of a container housing an electrolyte, two electrodes immersed in the electrolyte and insoluble radioactive material disposed adjacent one electrode. Insoluble radioactive material of different intensity of radioactivity may be disposed adjacent the second electrode. If hydrobromic acid is used as the electrolyte, Br 2 will be generated by the radioactivity and is reduced at the cathode: Br 2 + 2e = 2 Br - . At the anode Br - is oxidized: 2Br - = Br 2 + 2e. (U.S.)

  2. Recent Progresses in Impacts of Indo-Western Pacific Ocean on East Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Some progresses in impacts of Western Pacific Ocean (WPO) on East Asian monsoon and stratosphere climate are reviewed from the following aspects. (1) Impact of the IPOD (a cross-basin dipole pattern of SSTA variability between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean) on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM).The IPOD exhibits a considerable correlation with the EASM. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (2) TheIndo-Western Pacific convection oscillation (IPCO),which is an out-of-phase fluctuation in convection anomalies between the north Indian Ocean and the western North Pacific region,is closely related to the EASM.Negative IPCO phases, which exhibit an enhanced convection over the north Indian Ocean and a suppressed convection over the western North Pacific, favor a weakened EASM and an increase of summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley with the joint actions of the stronger than normal Ural and Okhotsk blocking highs and the subtropical western Pacific high, and vice versa.(3) Asymmetric influence of the two types of ENSO on summer rainfall in China. The two types of ENSO have asymmetric impacts on summer rainfall over the Yangtze River Valley. The relation between summer rainfall over this valley and the cold tongue (CT) El Niño is significantly positive, while the relation with the CT La Niña is not significant. The negative phase of the warm pool (WP) ENSO has a significant positive influence, whereas no significant relation with the positive phase. They indicated that this asymmetric response of the EASM is likely to be linked to the different spatial patterns of the two types of ENSO.(4) Linkage between recent winter precipitation increase in the middle-lower Yangtze River valley (MLY) since the late 1970s andwarming in the

  3. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2003-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, R.W.; Dowdall, A; Fegan, M.F.; Hayden, E.; Kelleher, K.; Long, S.; McEvoy, I.; McKittrick, L.; McMahon, C.A.; Murray, M.; Smith, K.; Sequeira, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2007-05-01

    fuel. During the reporting period, levels of radionuclides in airborne radioactivity were low and consistent with measurements in previous years. External gamma dose rates were monitored continuously at twelve stations. No abnormal levels were observed during the period. In accordance with the RPII's drinking water monitoring protocol, major public water supplies from each county are sampled at least every four years while supplies to certain major population centres are sampled annually. During the period 2003 to 2005, water supplies from fourteen counties were sampled and all of the waters tested were found to be within the parametric values for radioactivity set out in the relevant national standards. The RPII sampled and measured levels of radioactivity in mixed diet, milk and miscellaneous other foodstuffs including milk products, baby foods, beef, lamb, poultry and vegetables. These measurements show that levels of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Irish diet continue to be low. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in each of the years covered by this report. The samples were analysed for a range of radionuclides. The main pathway contributing to the exposure of the Irish public to anthropogenic radioactivity from the marine environment was found to be the consumption of seafood. Between 2003 and 2005, the mean annual committed effective dose to a heavy consumer of seafood from the Irish Sea was 0.85 ?Sv. Caesium-137 was the dominant radionuclide, accounting for approximately 60-70% of the total dose. The dose to the Irish population due to this radionuclide has declined significantly over the last two decades corresponding to the reduction in discharges of this radionuclide from Sellafield. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. The doses incurred by the Irish public as a result of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment do not constitute a

  4. THE STRATEGY FOR CREATION OF THE MODERN CONCEPT OF INTEGRATIVE-HOLISTIC EDUCATION (A CASE STUDY OF MINING SCHOOLS OF THE URALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Chapaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The relevance of the problem under study is caused by the contradiction between the necessity of fundamentalization of education, raising it to the level of the requirements of integral human development and the deepening disintegration of all sides of his life, including vocational education.The aim of the present publication is philosophical and pedagogical reflection and development of mechanisms for mainstreaming integrative-holistic approach when building a hypothetical model of professional education, aimed at provision of strategic turn towards more balanced (dialectical approach to the traditional values of education. In particular, it concerns the experience of mining schools of the Urals.Methodology and research methods. A leading approach to the study of this problem is an integrative-holistic approach (PPI that can identify the holistic nature of the pedagogical system in which: a inter-transformation of cooperated parts occurs not at the expense of each other, but on behalf of each other part; b the existence of common points of contact between the cooperated components is complemented by the coexistence of the opposite, sometimes mutually exclusive sides of life; c the idea of the priority of the whole is in harmony with the idea of polycentrism.Results and scientific novelty. The study shows the failure of the monopoly of the prevailing doctrine of competence-based education as a means for the successful resolution of global problems of reintegration of human existence and therefore postulated the necessity of antinomization (diversification of education. The authors make the original hypothesis of the construction of the concept of vocational education on the basis of the reconstruction of experience of the mining schools of the Urals and prove the prospectivity of integrative-holistic strategy of reconstruction of educational experience in modern conditions. The system of technological and methodological support of

  5. Radioactive Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  6. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from utilization of radioisotopes and each step of the nuclear fuel cycle and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. On the safe management of radioactive waste management, international safety standards are established such as ''The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management (IAEA)'' and T he Joint Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management . Basic steps of radioactive waste management consist of treatment, conditioning and disposal. Disposal is the final step of radioactive waste management and its safety is confirmed by safety assessment in the licensing process. Safety assessment means evaluation of radiation dose rate caused by radioactive materials contained in disposed radioactive waste. The results of the safety assessment are compared with dose limits. The key issues of radioactive waste disposal are establishment of long term national strategies and regulations for safe management of radioactive waste, siting of repository, continuity of management activities and financial bases for long term, and security of human resources. (Author)

  7. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  8. Radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabkina, L.E.; Mazurek, V.; Myascedov, D.N.; Prokhorov, P.; Kachalov, V.A.; Ziv, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A radioactive layer in a radioactive source is sealed by the application of a sealing layer on the radioactive layer. The sealing layer can consist of a film of oxide of titanium, tin, zirconium, aluminum, or chromium. Preferably, the sealing layer is pure titanium dioxide. The radioactive layer is embedded in a finish enamel which, in turn, is on a priming enamel which surrounds a substrate

  9. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  10. Estimates of interhemispheric transport of radioactive debris by the east African low-level jet stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, C.; Eapen, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The movement of air masses across the equator by way of the east African low-level jet stream has been studied using fission products from the French nuclear tests of the South Pacific as tracers. The studies show that the transit time of air masses from Malagasy to India is 3--6 days and about 75% of the air mass on the west coast of India is from the southern hemisphere

  11. International aspects of the management of low-level dumping of radioactive wastes in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: international regulations governing radioactive waste disposal; radiological principles as applied to disposal to the environment; historical dumping practices; assessment of the North East Atlantic dump site; IAEA generic studies; and national and international implications. A recent analysis of international issues associated with ocean disposal of low-level radioactive wastes indicated a number of points which impact on US needs and policies and need resolution. The first is that the development of adequate international criteria and standards will assist the US in evaluating the option of using the oceans for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Secondly, it is essential that international cooperation in research and radiological surveillance be expanded. Thirdly, the delays in the agreements on international mechanisms, criteria and standards, sometimes as a direct result of a lack of coordinated US policies makes the implementation of the intent of the London Dumping Convention and the NEA mechanism more difficult. Last of all in the unresolved question of how the US should apply the London Convention to the 200 mile exclusive economic zone

  12. Quality assurance for the measurements and monitoring of radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, Maria; Aldave de las Heras, Laura

    2004-01-01

    During the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) of the European Commission--according to an institutional programme in support to the policy of the European Commission for the implementation of Art. 35 and 36 of the Euratom Treaty as well as in the framework of the OSPAR Convention for the protection of marine environment of the north-east Atlantic--at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU-General Directorate Joint Research Centre-European Commission), a reference laboratory for the measurement of radioactivity in the environment (MaRE laboratory) has been set up. In this paper, the principles and philosophy in order to improve the quality and reliability of analytical data for the measurement and monitoring of radioactivity in the environment under a quality assurance (QA) programme are presented. Examples of how a QA programme at the MaRE laboratory is developed and applied are given. Internal and external quality control (QC) programmes are also discussed

  13. RUSSIAN SOURCES OF THE XVIII–XIX CENTURIES ABOUT THE CONFLICTS IN THE KAZAKH STEPPE AND THE INVOLVEMENT AND PARTICIPATION OF THE URAL COSSACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maratovich Dubovikov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this article is to show the complexity and ambiguity of relations between Kazakhs and Russian military (primarily Cossacks during the advance of Russia in the Kazakh steppe and Central Asia, as well as a reflection of this problem in different sources. Methodology. In the course of the work, we have used diverse sources that shed light on this issue. Among them, documents of XVIII–XIX centuries, mainly from the State archive of Orenburg region (GAOO, as well as from the military historical archive (RGVIA. Used the documents collected by the Lieutenant of the General staff, A.D. Ryabinin, the importance of which is associated with the fact that the archive of the Ural Cossack troops lost during the civil war. Not less important are two major works of officers, military historians and theorists M.I. Iva­nin and M.A. Terentyev directly involved in the campaigns through the Kazakh steppe and the annexation of Central Asia. To a lesser extent the materials used other “sources” of the XIX century the Ural Cossack officers I.I. Zheleznov, N.G. Makushin, and also serving at the Orenburg military Governor V. I. Dahl. An important source is and “Uralskiye voiskoviye vedomostie” – the only newspaper published in the Ural Cossack army in the last third of the XIX century. Results. All these sources allow us to draw some important conclusions. They clearly indicate that the South-Eastern outskirts of Russia was long subjected to raids “nomads”, and it has developed most of the border of the Cossack population sustained hostility to the nomadic neighbors. The hostility persisted for a long time, but during the nineteenth century it was gradually decreasing due to the socio-political and economic changes in parallel decreased and the number of conflicts. The Russian military sometimes showed excessive cruelty, and their commanders, carrying out orders from above, was not always true in the Kazakh population. But it was

  14. On the Succession of Sarmatian Population in the East-European Steppes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balabanova Mariya A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As V.P. Alekseev wrote, the succession of population has been peculiar for individual territories for centuries. Despite the fact that the Eastern European steppe in ancient times and the Middle Ages was characterized by frequent changes of the population due to its high dependence on the environmental conditions, the Sarmatian culture preservation was observed over a period of ceremonial standards and elements of material culture. In this paper an attempt is made to show the presence of a partial succession of the three chronological periods of Sarmatian population. To do this, the author conducted a comparative characteristic of physical types of nomads of Sarmatian steppes of the Eastern Europe. The results of the study of mass craniological material combined in the cultural and chronological groups, showed that on the whole range of time and space over the steppe habitat Sarmatian cultures fixed partial similarity in physical type. In this connection, it is assumed that the partial continuity of anthropological types of different cultural, historical and local groups is linked to: 1 partial preservation of substrate Early Sarmatian population over the 4th- 3rd centuries BC – first half of 2nd-4th centuries AD; 2 the direction and character of penetration of nomadic groups who migrated from the East into steppe space; 3 design of a single system of seasonal migrations which involves the presence of winter and summer camps, and the presence of burial mounds; 4 the inclusion of a horde of nomadic pastoral population groups moved all over the steppes, from between Volga and Ural to the Lower Don; 5 the fact that male migrants married local women.

  15. Trace Element Compositions and Defect Structures of High-Purity Quartz from the Southern Ural Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Götze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quartz samples of different origin from 10 localities in the Southern Ural region, Russia have been investigated to characterize their trace element compositions and defect structures. The analytical combination of cathodoluminescence (CL microscopy and spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy, and trace-element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS revealed that almost all investigated quartz samples showed very low concentrations of trace elements (cumulative concentrations of <50 ppm with <30 ppm Al and <10 ppm Ti and low abundances of paramagnetic defects, defining them economically as “high-purity” quartz (HPQ suitable for high-tech applications. EPR and CL data confirmed the low abundances of substitutional Ti and Fe, and showed Al to be the only significant trace element structurally bound in the investigated quartz samples. CL microscopy revealed a heterogeneous distribution of luminescence centres (i.e., luminescence active trace elements such as Al as well as features of deformation and recrystallization. It is suggested that healing of defects due to deformation-related recrystallization and reorganization processes of the quartz lattice during retrograde metamorphism resulted in low concentrations of CL activator and other trace elements or vacancies, and thus are the main driving processes for the formation of HPQ deposits in the investigated area.

  16. Uranium mineralization in the Lower Mahadek Sandstones of Laitduh Area, East Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahendra Kumar, K.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Ranganath, N.

    2008-01-01

    Significant uranium mineralization hosted in feldspathic sandstone of Upper Cretaceous Lower Mahadek Formation has been located at Laitduh, East Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya. Two mineralized horizons have been identified within Lower Mahadek Formation with vertical separation of 30 m. Samples from upper horizon have assayed upto 0.17% U 3 O 8 , whereas samples from lower mineralized horizon have assayed upto 0.50% U 3 O 8 . The radioactive minerals identified are coffinite and pitchblende occurring in association with carbonaceous matter. (author)

  17. Oil and natural gas in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, J.P. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the political and economic situation in the Russian Federation, now that the Communist system no longer rules Russia. To address the political risk associated with doing business in Russia, the US provides insurance coverage through the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). This is a federally chartered program that insures new investments, if approved by the Russian government, and benefit the socio-economic development of the country. The paper then describes petroleum production and resource development in the Volga-Urals province, West Siberia, Komi province, East Siberia, and the Far East province. Joint ventures and the current status of production are described for major regions of each province

  18. Genesis and continuity of quaternary sand and gravel in glacigenic sediment at a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in east-central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troost, K.G.; Curry, B. Brandon

    1991-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety has characterized the Martinsville Alternative Site (MAS) for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The MAS is located in east-central Illinois approximately 1.6 km (1 mi) north of the city of Martinsville. Geologic investigation of the 5.5-km2 (1380-acre) site revealed a sequence of chiefly Illinoian glacigenic sediments from 6 to 60 m (20-200 ft) thick overlying two major bedrock valleys carved in Pennsylvanian strata. Relatively permeable buried units include basal, preglacial alluvium; a complex of intraglacial and subglacial sediment; englacial deposits; and supraglacial fluvial deposits. Postglacial alluvium underlies stream valleys on and adjacent to the site. In most areas, the buried sand units are confined by low-permeability till, lacustrine sediment, colluvium, and loess. The distribution and thickness of the most extensive and continuous buried sand units have been modified considerably by subglacial erosion, and their distributions have been influenced by the buried bedrock valleys. The most continuous of the various sand units were deposited as preglacial and postglacial alluvium and are the uppermost and lowermost stratigraphic units at the alternative site. Sand units that were deposited in englacial or ice-marginal environments are less continuous. Aquifer pumping tests, potentiometric head data, and groundwater geochemistry analyses indicate minimal interaction of groundwater across localized interconnections of the permeable units. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  19. Preliminary assessment of current radiation doses to the population of Brodokalmak from contamination of the Techa River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabianca, T.; Bexon, A.P.; Pozolotina, V.; Trapeznikov, A.; Simmonds, J.

    2000-01-01

    Significant quantities of liquid radioactive waste were discharged to the Techa River in the southern Urals region of Russia in the early years of operation of the Mayak PA plant (1948-1951). A collaborative project is underway under contract to the European Commission to consider the radiological impact of radioactive contamination in the Southern Urals. Part of this project involves the calculation of radiation doses currently received by the population of Brodokalmak on the Techa river. The assessment made use of local data on the habits of the population and measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations in food and water. Exposure pathways included in the assessment were ingestion of foods and external exposure to gamma radiation from radionuclides deposited on the banks of the river. A range of doses was calculated for different age groups, firstly, assuming that the restrictions in place are retained and, secondly, assuming that there are no restrictions. These restrictions include bans on drinking river water, fishing and bathing in the river and the prohibition of use of the river and surrounding flood plains by humans and cattle. With restrictions the highest dose estimated was 0.56 mSv y -1 for the most exposed adults and without restrictions this increased to 3.4 mSv y -1

  20. Radioecological monitoring of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulebakina, L.G.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    A monitoring programme was drawn up to study the radioecological situation of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident, with studies being carried out from May 1986 onwards to determine the levels of radioactive contamination in various parts of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Aegean Sea, including the estuaries of major rivers (Dnieper, Danube, Dniester and Don) and shelf areas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The work focused on long-lived radionuclides ( 90 Sr and 137 Cs), with the migration dynamics of these radionuclides in the aquatic environment, bed sediments and aquatic biota (including plants, molluscs, crustacea and fish) being studied. We compared the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic environment of the Dnieper reservoirs following the Chernobyl accident (our data) with the behaviour of radionuclides in lakes in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident (published data). As in the case of the lakes in the Urals, the Dnieper waters contain substantial concentrations of 90 Sr as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and 90 Sr therefore enters the Black Sea with the Dnieper waters. The paper compares the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to radioactive contamination of the Black Sea with that of global fallout. (author)

  1. Sm-Nd age of ultrabasite-basite massifs of east part of Baikal-Mujya ophiolite belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izokh, A.Eh.; Gibsher, A.S.; Zhuravlev, D.Z.; Balykin, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Two stratified ultrabasite-basite massifs of the Urals mountains were selected for isotope-geochemical studies. The intrusives, related to plutonic members of the island-arc associations, were used for dating. The Sm-Nd method indicated that one more belt, namely the Vend belt, is taking shape in the Baikal-Mujya tectonic collage alongside with the later Riphean (pre-Baikal) episubconduction belt of stratified intrusives [ru

  2. Radioactivity metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of the radioactivity metrology are reviewed. Radioactivity primary references; absolute methods of radioactivity measurements used in the Laboratoire de Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants; relative measurement methods; traceability through international comparisons and interlaboratory tests; production and distribution of secondary standards [fr

  3. The psychological impact of a dual-disaster caused by earthquakes and radioactive contamination in Ichinoseki after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Tomihisa; Takaoka, Kota; Uemura, Saho; Kono, Akiko; Saito, Akihiko; Kawakami, Norito; Nakazato, Michiko; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-05-20

    The psychological impact of dual-disasters (earthquakes and a nuclear accident), on affected communities is unknown. This study investigated the impact of a dual-disaster (earthquakes and radioactive contamination) on the prevalence of psychological distress in a landlocked city within the Tohoku area, Japan. A cross-sectional mail-in survey with a random sample of inhabitants from Ichinoseki city was conducted eleven months after the disasters, and data from 902 respondents were analyzed by logistic regression models, with multiple imputation methodology. The K6 was used to determine psychological distress. The estimated prevalence of psychological distress was 48.0 percent. House damage due to earthquakes and anxiety about radioactive contamination were significantly associated with psychological distress (p earthquake and radioactive contamination appeared additive.

  4. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  5. Import/Export Service of Radioactive Material and Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export Service of radioactive material (http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ - e-mail : service-rp-shipping@cern.ch) and the Radioactive Sources Service (http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources - e-mail : service-radioactive-sources@cern.ch) at bldg. 24/E-024 will be closed on FRIDAY 10 SEPTEMBER 2004. Tel. 73171

  6. Mathematical modeling of pollutant and radionuclide transformation in aquatic ecosystems results of elaboration and verification for the chain of industrial reservoirs on the Techa River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.B.; Mokrov, Y.G.; Glagolenko, Y.V.; Drozhko, E.G.; Khodakovsky, I.L.; Leonov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The modern radioecological situation around the oldest radiochemical plant, Mayak, in South Ural (Russia) is indicated by the storage of 300 million to tons of low level radioactive waste in the Techa's reservoir chain (TRC). Future approaches for TRC restoration may be evaluated using corresponding mathematical models. The mathematical modeling complex, KASKAD, was developed at Mayak and is intended for reservoir radioecological state forecasting and alternative remediation approaches evaluation. The paper describes this model

  7. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelet, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The beginning of this book explains the why and how of the radioactivity, with a presentation of the different modes of disintegration. Are tackled the reports between radioactivity and time before explaining how the mass-energy equivalence appears during disintegrations. Two chapters treat natural radioisotopes and artificial ones. This book makes an important part to the use of radioisotopes in medicine (scintigraphy, radiotherapy), in archaeology and earth sciences (dating) before giving an inventory of radioactive products that form in the nuclear power plants. (N.C.)

  8. Indoor air quality, air exchange rates, and radioactivity in new built temporary houses following the Great East Japan Earthquake in Minamisoma, Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, N; Tokumura, M; Kazama, M; Yoshino, H; Ochiai, S; Mizukoshi, A

    2013-08-01

    This study measured air exchange rates, indoor concentrations of aldehydes and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and radioactivity levels at 19 temporary houses in different temporary housing estate constructed in Minamisoma City following the Great East Japan Earthquake. The 19 surveyed houses represented all of the companies assigned to construct temporary houses in that Minamisoma City. Data were collected shortly after construction and before occupation, from August 2011 to January 2012. Mean air exchange rates in the temporary houses were 0.28/h, with no variation according to housing types and construction date. Mean indoor concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, p-dichlorobenzene, tetradecane, and total VOCs (TVOCs) were 29.2, 72.7, 14.6, 6.35, 3.05, 1.81, 7.29, 14.3, 8.32, and 901 μg/m(3), respectively. The levels of acetaldehyde and TVOCs exceeded the indoor guideline (48 μg/m(3)) and interim target (400 μg/m(3)) in more than half of the 31 rooms tested. In addition to guideline chemicals, terpenes (α-pinene and d-limonene) and acetic esters (butyl acetate and ethyl acetate) were often detected in these houses. The indoor radiation levels measured by a Geiger-Müller tube (Mean: 0.22 μSv/h) were lower than those recorded outdoors (Mean: 0.42 μSv/h), although the shielding effect of the houses was less than for other types of buildings. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Natural Radioactivity in Soil and Water from Likuyu Village in the Neighborhood of Mkuju Uranium Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat K. Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of high concentration uranium deposit at Mkuju, southern part of Tanzania, has brought concern about the levels of natural radioactivity at villages in the neighborhood of the deposit. This study determined the radioactivity levels of 30 soil samples and 20 water samples from Likuyu village which is 54 km east of the uranium deposit. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th, and 40K were determined using low level gamma spectrometry of the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC Laboratory in Arusha. The average radioactivity concentrations obtained in soil samples for 238U (51.7 Bq/kg, 232Th (36.4 Bq/kg, and 40K (564.3 Bq/kg were higher than the worldwide average concentrations value of these radionuclides reported by UNSCEAR, 2000. The average activity concentration value of 238U (2.35 Bq/L and 232Th (1.85 Bq/L in water samples was similar and comparable to their mean concentrations in the control sample collected from Nduluma River in Arusha.

  10. Radioactivity Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, R.B.; Browne, E.

    1985-01-01

    The Radioactivity Handbook will be published in 1985. This handbook is intended primarily for applied users of nuclear data. It will contain recommended radiation data for all radioactive isotopes. Pages from the Radioactivity Handbook for A = 221 are shown as examples. These have been produced from the LBL Isotopes Project extended ENDSF data-base. The skeleton schemes have been manually updated from the Table of Isotopes and the tabular data are prepared using UNIX with a phototypesetter. Some of the features of the Radioactivity Handbook are discussed here

  11. Radioactive fallout nuclides in a peat-bog ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, G.; Hofmann, W.; Steger, F.; Tuerk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Province of Salzburg belongs to the regions with the highest contamination from the Chernobyl-fallout outside the former USSR. The peat-bog investigated in this study is situated in Koppl, east of Salzburg. A peat-bog is a special example of an ecosystem, which is generally not disturbed by human activities because it is under strict nature-conservation and whose soil structure is not affected by animal activities from moles and earthworms. Peat-bogs are characterized by acidic soils which are high in organic material and low in clay mineral content. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that especially in peat-bogs and especially in the Koppl-peat-bog very high amounts of radioactive fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident and from the bomb-testings could be found

  12. A survey of radioactive caesium in British soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Baker, S.J.

    1990-08-01

    The accumulation of radioactive caesium-137 in soils under permanent grassland was measured by Harwell Laboratory in 1977. The objective was to provide at selected locations in Great Britain a reference of background radioactivity in soil resulting from depositions of nuclear weapons fallout over some thirty years. Following the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986, the Department of the Environment requested further measurements at the reference sites in 1987 to record changes and regional differences in the amounts present in soil caused by radioactive fallout. Results from the 1987 survey generally showed the highest accumulations of Cs-137 derived from both nuclear weapons and Chernobyl fallout in western and northern regions of Great Britain, owing to the effectiveness of rainfall on scavenging of radioactivity from the atmosphere. Thus the reference sites in south-west and central Scotland had the maximum accumulation of 26kBq Cs-137/m 2 to 30cm soil depth, at Burrow Head and Rannoch; at these locations the soil concentrations attained 256Bq/kg whereas at all sites in England levels were 2 . To 30cm depth, an average soil concentration in Scotland of ∼ 100Bq/kg was derived, which is 11% of the generalised derived limit (GDL). Comparison of 1987 results with decay-corrected 1977 data showed that nine locations in England receiving negligible Chernobyl fallout had a net loss of Cs-137 by soil erosion and/or leaching over the ten-years interval. At other locations in England a minimum of 6-40% of Cs-137 to 30cm depth was Chernobyl-derived, but this increased to 50-95% in Scotland where substantial accumulations of Cs-134 were also recorded. At the two peat sites in north-east Scotland the accumulated deposition of Cs-137 in 1987 was two and five-fold greater than in 1977. In peatland vegetation the concentrations of Cs-137 followed the order sphagnum mosses > heather > g

  13. Natural atmospheric radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1986-01-01

    After having summed up the different old or new units, used in radioactivity and radioprotection, the origins of atmospheric radioactivity are reported. Next the authors deal with the air content in radon, thoron and their radioactive descendants, insisting on the variations of the radon air content and on the radioactive balance between radon and its descendants. Then a few notions concerning the natural radioactive aerosol are developed: electric charge state, granulometric distribution. The possible effects of natural atmospheric radioactivity on man are studied with a distinction between inner irradiation and outer irradiation, an average assessment is shown. Finally the important problem of radon in inhabitations is approached [fr

  14. Dose reconstruction for the Urals population. Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research, Project 1.1 -- Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degteva, M.O.; Drozhko, E.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.; Bouville, A.C.; Miller, C.W.

    1996-02-01

    This work is being carried out as a feasibility study to determine if a long-term course of work can be implemented to assess the long-term risks of radiation exposure delivered at low to moderate dose rates to the populations living in the vicinity of the Mayak Industrial Association (MIA). This work was authorized and conducted under the auspices of the US-Russian Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) and its Executive Committee (EC). The MIA was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. This plant began operation in 1948, and during its early days there were technological failures that resulted in the release of large amounts of waste into the rather small Techa River. There were also gaseous releases of radioiodines and other radionuclides during the early days of operation. In addition, there was an accidental explosion in a waste storage tank in 1957 that resulted in a significant release. The Techa River Cohort has been studied for several years by scientists from the Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and an increase in both leukemia and solid tumors has been noted

  15. Dose reconstruction for the Urals population. Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research, Project 1.1 -- Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Drozhko, E. [Branch 1 of Moscow Biophysics Inst., Ozersk (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Napier, B.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bouville, A.C. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Miller, C.W. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    This work is being carried out as a feasibility study to determine if a long-term course of work can be implemented to assess the long-term risks of radiation exposure delivered at low to moderate dose rates to the populations living in the vicinity of the Mayak Industrial Association (MIA). This work was authorized and conducted under the auspices of the US-Russian Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) and its Executive Committee (EC). The MIA was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. This plant began operation in 1948, and during its early days there were technological failures that resulted in the release of large amounts of waste into the rather small Techa River. There were also gaseous releases of radioiodines and other radionuclides during the early days of operation. In addition, there was an accidental explosion in a waste storage tank in 1957 that resulted in a significant release. The Techa River Cohort has been studied for several years by scientists from the Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and an increase in both leukemia and solid tumors has been noted.

  16. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr

  17. Status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination due to the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), March 2011, caused serious radioactive contamination over wide area in east Japan. Therefore, it is important to know the effect of the accident and the status of NPP. This paper provides a review on the status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination caused by the accident on the basis of publicized information. Monitoring of radiation dose and exposure dose of residents has been conducted extensively by the governments and various organizations. The effective dose of general residents due to the accident proved to be less than a mSv both for external and internal dose. The equivalent committed dose of thyroid was evaluated to be a few mSv in mean value and less than 50 mSv even for children. Monitoring of radioactivity concentration has been carried out on food ingredients, milk and tap water, and actual meal. These studies indicated the percentage of foods above the regulation standard was over 10% in 2011 but decreasing steadily with time. The internal dose due to foods proved to be tens of μSv and much less than that due to natural 40 K even in the Fukushima area and decreasing steadily, although high level concentration is still observed in wild plants, wild mushrooms, animals and some kind of fishes. According to extensive studies, not only the effect of the accident but also the pathway and countermeasures against radioactive contamination have been revealed, and they are applied very effectively for restoration of environment and reconstruction of the area

  18. Status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination due to the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univeristy, Sendai (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), March 2011, caused serious radioactive contamination over wide area in east Japan. Therefore, it is important to know the effect of the accident and the status of NPP. This paper provides a review on the status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination caused by the accident on the basis of publicized information. Monitoring of radiation dose and exposure dose of residents has been conducted extensively by the governments and various organizations. The effective dose of general residents due to the accident proved to be less than a mSv both for external and internal dose. The equivalent committed dose of thyroid was evaluated to be a few mSv in mean value and less than 50 mSv even for children. Monitoring of radioactivity concentration has been carried out on food ingredients, milk and tap water, and actual meal. These studies indicated the percentage of foods above the regulation standard was over 10% in 2011 but decreasing steadily with time. The internal dose due to foods proved to be tens of μSv and much less than that due to natural {sup 40}K even in the Fukushima area and decreasing steadily, although high level concentration is still observed in wild plants, wild mushrooms, animals and some kind of fishes. According to extensive studies, not only the effect of the accident but also the pathway and countermeasures against radioactive contamination have been revealed, and they are applied very effectively for restoration of environment and reconstruction of the area.

  19. Invisible and microscopic gold in pyrite: Methods and new data for massive sulfide ores of the Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikentyev, I. V.

    2015-07-01

    Au speciation in sulfides (including "invisible" Au), which mostly controls the loss of Au during ore dressing, is discussed. Modern methods of analysis of Au speciation, with discussion of limitations by locality and sensitivity, are reviewed. The results of sulfide investigation by the methods of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, mass spectrometric analysis with laser ablation (LA-ICP-MS), the thermochemical method (study of ionic Au speciation), and automated "quantitative mineralogy," are demonstrated for weakly metamorphosed VHMS deposits of the Urals (Galkinsk and Uchaly). Significant content of Au is scattered in sulfides, such as pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite, with quantitative predomination of pyrite. The portion of such "invisible" gold ranges from flakes) with a monocrystal diffraction pattern of some particles and a ring diffraction pattern of other particles was registered in the ores of these deposits by the methods of transmission electron microscopy. The low degree (or absence) of metamorphic recrystallization results in (1) predomination of thin intergrowths of sulfides, which is the main reason for the bad concentration of ores (especially for the Galkinsk deposit) and (2) the high portion of "invisible" gold in the massive sulfide ores, which explains the low yield of Au in copper and zinc concentrates, since it is lost in tailings with predominating pyrite.

  20. Recovery from the radioactive pollution due to Fukushima first nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fujishiro, F.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Arai, H.; Sugai, K.; Nagakubo, K.; Sakurada, T. [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The great East Japan earthquake happened at 14:46 11{sup th} March 2011. After the earthquake, the huge tsunamis of above 16m height hit the east coast of Northeastern Japan. About 20,000 peoples died or went missing and many houses were lost. The tsunamis caused the nuclear accident of Fukushima first nuclear power plant. Three nuclear reactors hydrogen-exploded 12{sup th}, 14{sup th} and 15{sup th} March, one after another, and scattered the huge amount of radioisotopes of {sup 131}I and {sup 134,137}Cs on the prefectures in the eastern region of Japan. Especially, Fukushima prefecture where the nuclear plant is located was contaminated very much. This radiation catastrophe worried about the internal exposure by taking contaminated foods and the external exposure by surrounding radioactivity. The radiation exposure was mainly caused by {sup 131}I the earlier stage of the accident and then by {sup 134,137}Cs. Now, the radiation doses on the asphalt or concrete places and some areas are gradually decreasing and become around a half value of the earlier one. This is well known as the weathering effect. We found that the density of cesium radioisotopes decreases with a function of depth from the ground surface, and almost of all cesium radioisotopes were distributed in the thickness of 1 cm. We washed the contaminated soil 3 times. The radioactivity of soil reduced one twenty fifth of original one. Almost all cesium radioisotopes were contained in remains liquid. Depositing muddy water, we separated clay from water. It was confirmed that the water was no radioactive. This resulted cesium radioisotopes were not ionic in soil and water, and adhered mainly to clay on the ground. Therefore, cesium radioisotopes have not been detected in river water and city water from the early stages of the accident. The volume of clay was about one tenth of the contaminated soil. We applied this idea to decontaminate the school yards (about 7000m{sup 2}) of elementary

  1. Recovery from the radioactive pollution due to Fukushima first nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fujishiro, F.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Arai, H.; Sugai, K.; Nagakubo, K.; Sakurada, T.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The great East Japan earthquake happened at 14:46 11 th March 2011. After the earthquake, the huge tsunamis of above 16m height hit the east coast of Northeastern Japan. About 20,000 peoples died or went missing and many houses were lost. The tsunamis caused the nuclear accident of Fukushima first nuclear power plant. Three nuclear reactors hydrogen-exploded 12 th , 14 th and 15 th March, one after another, and scattered the huge amount of radioisotopes of 131 I and 134,137 Cs on the prefectures in the eastern region of Japan. Especially, Fukushima prefecture where the nuclear plant is located was contaminated very much. This radiation catastrophe worried about the internal exposure by taking contaminated foods and the external exposure by surrounding radioactivity. The radiation exposure was mainly caused by 131 I the earlier stage of the accident and then by 134,137 Cs. Now, the radiation doses on the asphalt or concrete places and some areas are gradually decreasing and become around a half value of the earlier one. This is well known as the weathering effect. We found that the density of cesium radioisotopes decreases with a function of depth from the ground surface, and almost of all cesium radioisotopes were distributed in the thickness of 1 cm. We washed the contaminated soil 3 times. The radioactivity of soil reduced one twenty fifth of original one. Almost all cesium radioisotopes were contained in remains liquid. Depositing muddy water, we separated clay from water. It was confirmed that the water was no radioactive. This resulted cesium radioisotopes were not ionic in soil and water, and adhered mainly to clay on the ground. Therefore, cesium radioisotopes have not been detected in river water and city water from the early stages of the accident. The volume of clay was about one tenth of the contaminated soil. We applied this idea to decontaminate the school yards (about 7000m 2 ) of elementary schools of Marumori town adjacent to Fukushima

  2. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  3. Environmental radioactivity. Measurement and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The contribution on environmental radioactivity covers the following issues: natural and artificial radioactivity; continuous monitoring of radioactivity; monitoring authorities and measurement; radioactivity in the living environment; radioactivity in food and feeding stuff; radioactivity of game meat and wild-growing mushrooms; radioactivity in mines; radioactivity in the research center Rossendorf.

  4. Chemical and boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from the Mariinsky emerald deposit, Central Urals, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksheev, Ivan A.; Trumbull, Robert B.; Popov, Mikhail P.; Erokhin, Yuri V.; Kudryavtseva, Olesya E.; Yapaskurt, Vasily O.; Khiller, Vera V.; Vovna, Galina M.; Kiselev, Vladimir I.

    2018-04-01

    Tourmaline is abundant at the Mariinsky schist-hosted emerald deposit in the Central Urals, Russia, both in emerald-bearing phlogopite veins (type 1) and later, emerald-free pockets, lenses, and veinlets cutting the phlogopite veins (type 2). The Ca content in tourmaline is influenced by the host rocks (ultramafic and mafic rocks), associated minerals, and minerals crystallized before tourmaline (amphibole, fluorite, margarite). The Na concentration in tourmaline depends on the presence or absence of paragonite, and the association with micas also strongly influences the contents of Li, Zn, Ni, and Co in tourmaline. Type 1 tourmalines associated with phlogopite are relatively depleted in these elements, whereas type 2 tourmalines associated with margarite or paragonite are enriched. Some differences in isomorphic substitutions along with the trace element composition (Zn, V, Sr, Co, REE) may have value in exploration of emerald-bearing and emerald-free veins in schist-hosted emerald deposits. The δ11B values in tourmaline of all types fall in a narrow total range from -11.3 to -8.4‰. These values, combined with a mineralization temperature of 420-360 °C, yield an estimated δ11B fluid composition of -7.4 to -6.8‰ suggesting a mixed source of boron, likely dominated from the granitic rocks surrounding the emerald belt. The narrow range of B-isotope compositions in tourmaline from throughout the Mariinsky deposit suggests a well-mixed hydrothermal system.

  5. Mayak. Source of information on radiation risks; Mayak. Bron van informatie over stralingsrisico`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passchier, W.F. [ed.

    1998-05-01

    Mayak is a nuclear weapon factory in the south-east of the Ural in the Russian Federation where many people (workers and population) have been exposed to ionizing radiation. The data on the consequences of that exposure now can give insight into the effects of low radiation doses. Although the study on the effects has started, for financial reasons it is not sure if the study can be completed. 7 refs. study can be completed. 7 refs.

  6. Inventories of Natural and Anthropogenic Radioactivities within Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii, Mei-Wo; Zal-U'yun, W.M.; Zaharudin, A.; Hidayah, S.; Nurrul-Assyikeen, M.J.; Ahmad-Sanadi, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Studies in the EEZ found that the activities of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were ranged between 15.9 - 46.5 and 27.7 - 87.1 Bq/kg dry weight in sediment, and 0.80 - 2.13 and 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu were ranged between 3.40 - 5.89 Bq/m 3 and 2.33 - 7.95 mBq/m 3 in seawater, 239+240 Pu to 137 Cs confirm that these artificial radioactivities are mainly due to atmospheric nuclear-testing fallout. (author)

  7. THE STRATEGY FOR CREATION OF THE MODERN CONCEPT OF INTEGRATIVE-HOLISTIC EDUCATION (A CASE STUDY OF MINING SCHOOLS OF THE URALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Chapaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The relevance of the problem under study is caused by the contradiction between the necessity of fundamentalization of education, raising it to the level of the requirements of integral human development and the deepening disintegration of all sides of his life, including vocational education.The aim of the present publication is philosophical and pedagogical reflection and development of mechanisms for mainstreaming integrative-holistic approach when building a hypothetical model of professional education, aimed at provision of strategic turn towards more balanced (dialectical approach to the traditional values of education. In particular, it concerns the experience of mining schools of the Urals.Methods. A leading approach to the study of this problem is an integrativeholistic approach (PPI that can identify the holistic nature of the pedagogical system in which: a inter-transformation of cooperated parts occurs not at the expense of each other, but on behalf of each other part; b the existence of common points of contact between the cooperated components is complemented by the coexistence of the opposite, sometimes mutually exclusive sides of life; c the idea of the priority of the whole is in harmony with the idea of polycentrism.Results and scientific novelty. The study shows the failure of the monopoly of the prevailing doctrine of competence-based education as a means for the successful resolution of global problems of reintegration of human existence and therefore postulated the necessity of antinomization (diversification of education. The authors make the original hypothesis of the construction of the concept of vocational education on the basis of the reconstruction of experience of the mining schools of the Urals and prove the prospectivity of integrative-holistic strategy of reconstruction of educational experience in modern conditions. The system of technological and methodological support of the

  8. Radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Yoshio; Shimizu, Makoto.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of radioactivity in the ocean with marine life are various. Activities in this field, especially the measurements of the radioactivity in sea water and marine life are described. The works first started in Japan concerning nuclear weapon tests. Then the port call to Japan by U.S. nuclear-powered naval ships began. On the other hand, nuclear power generation is advancing with its discharge of warm water. The radioactive pollution of sea water, and hence the contamination of marine life are now major problems. Surveys of the sea areas concerned and study of the radioactivity intake by fishes and others are carried out extensively in Japan. (Mori, K.)

  9. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  10. Chernobyl'-90. Reports of the 1. International conference on biological and radioecological aspects of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects. V. 1, part 1. Radioecology of plants. Radioecology of terrestrial animals. Radioecology of hydrobionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of works done in 1988-1990 within the ecology part of the complex program dealing with elimination of the Chernobyl NPP accident effects in regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Rissua, as well as the data of foreign specialists on the Chernobyl radioactive fallout effects in many countries are analyzed. Comparative analysis of the methods, means and results of activities dealing with accident effect eliminations on South Urals and at the Chernobyl NPP is given

  11. Chernobyl'-90. Reports of the 1. International conference on biological and radioecological aspects of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects. V. 2, part 2. Radiation sanitary. Radiobiology. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of works done in 1988-1990 within the ecology part of the complex program dealing with elimination of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect in regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, as well as the data of foreign specialists on the Chernobyl' radioactive fallout effects in many countries are analyzed. Comparative analysis of the methods, means and results of acitivities dealing with accident effect eliminations on South Urals and at the Chernobyl' NPP is given

  12. Chernobyl'-90. Reports of the 1. International conference on biological and radioecological aspects of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects. V. 2, part 1. Radiation sanitary. Radiobiology. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of works done in 1988-1990 within the ecology part of the complex program dealing with elimination of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects in regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, as well as the data of foreign specialists on the Chernobyl' radioactive fallout effects in many countries are analyzed. Comparative analysis of the methods, means and results of activities dealing with accident effect eliminations on South Urals and at the Chernobyl' NPP is given

  13. Chernobyl'-90. Reports of the 1. International conference on biological and radioecological aspects of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects. V. 1, part 2. Radioecology of plants. Radioecology of terrestrial animals. Radioecology of hydrobionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of works done in 1988-1990 within the ecology part of the complex program dealing with elimination of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects in regions of Urkaine, Belarus and Russia, as well as the data of foreign specialists on the Chernobyl' radioactive fallout effects in many countries are analyzed. Comparative analysis of the methods, means and results of activities dealing with accident effect eliminations on South Urals and at the Chernobyl' NPP is given

  14. Treating radioactive effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of radioactive effluent it is known to produce a floc being a suspension of precipitates carrying radioactive species in a mother liquor containing dissolved non-radioactive salts. It is also known and accepted practice to encapsulate the floc in a solid matrix by treatment with bitumen, cement and the like. In the present invention the floc is washed with water prior to encapsulation in the solid matrix whereby to displace the mother liquor containing the dissolved non-radioactive salts. This serves to reduce the final amount of solidified radioactive waste with consequent advantages in the storage and disposal thereof. (author)

  15. A kinematic model to estimate effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Yamada, T.

    2013-05-01

    The great earthquake occurred in the north-east area in Japan in March 11, 2011. Facility system to control Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was completely destroyed by the following giant tsunami. From the damaged reactor containment vessels, an amount of radioactive substances had leaked and diffused in the vicinity of this station. Radiological internal exposure became a serious social issue both in Japan and all over the world. The present study provides an easily understandable, kinematic-based model to estimate the effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body by simplifying the complicated mechanism of metabolism. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed a sophisticated model, which is well-known as a standard method to calculate the effective dose for radiological protection. However, owing to that ICRP method is fine, it is rather difficult for non-professional people of radiology to gasp the whole images of the movement and the influences of radioactive substances in a human body. Therefore, in the present paper we propose a newly-derived and easily-understandable model to estimate the effective dose. The present method is very similar with the traditional and conventional tank model in hydrology. Ingestion flux of radioactive substances corresponds to rain intensity and the storage of radioactive substances to the water storage in a basin in runoff analysis. The key of the present method is to estimate the energy radiated in the radioactive nuclear disintegration of an atom by using classical theory of β decay and special relativity for various kinds of radioactive atoms. The parameters used in this model are only physical half-time and biological half-time, and there are no operational parameters or coefficients to adjust our theoretical runoff to ICRP. Figure shows the time-varying effective dose with ingestion duration, and we can confirm the validity of our model. The time-varying effective dose with

  16. On accumulation of 90Sr and 137Cs by some lower plants in the vicinity of the Beloyarsky atomic power station in the Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifontova, M.G.; Kulikov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    The data are given on the content of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in thalluses of the foliose epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L) and in a number of the most widely distributed in nature edxble fungi that grow in the forests of the sanitary-protective zone of the Beloyarsk nuclear power station in the Middle Urals: russula-Russula cyaxantha (Schw)Fr; brown cap boletus-Leccinum scabrum (Fe)S.F.Gray, milk-agaric-Lactarius resimus Fr., russula-Russula foetens (Fr.)Fr. It has been ascertained that the concentration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in epiphytic lichens and edible agaric fungi in the vicinity of the Beloyarsk nuclear power station does not exceed the background content of these radionuclides characteristic of analogous plants in other locations outside the range of a possible effect of the nuclear power station [ru

  17. Dossier: transport of radioactive materials; Dossier: le transport des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible; Niel, J.Ch. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Canton, H. [CEA Cesta, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Brachet, Y. [Transnucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Mauny, G. [CIS bio international, France (France); Robine, F.; Plantet, F. [Prefecture de la Moselle (France); Pestel Lefevre, O. [Ministere de l`Equipement, des transports et du logement, (France); Hennenhofer, G. [BMU, Ministere de l`environnement, de la protection de la nature et de la surete des reacteurs (Germany); Bonnemains, J. [Association Robin des Bois (France)

    1997-12-01

    This dossier is entirely devoted to the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials of civil use. It comprises 9 papers dealing with: the organization of the control of the radioactive materials transport safety (safety and security aspects, safety regulations, safety analysis and inspection, emergency plans, public information), the technical aspects of the regulation concerning the transport of radioactive materials (elaboration of regulations and IAEA recommendations, risk assessments, defense in depth philosophy and containers, future IAEA recommendations, expertise-research interaction), the qualification of containers (regulations, test facilities), the Transnucleaire company (presentation, activity, containers for spent fuels), the packages of radioactive sources for medical use (flux, qualification, safety and transport), an example of accident during radioactive materials transportation: the Apach train derailment (February 4, 1997), the sea transport of radioactive materials (international maritime organization (OMI), international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code, irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) safety rules), the transport of radioactive materials in Germany, and the point of view from an external observer. (J.S.)

  18. Focus on radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, M

    1989-01-01

    Written for children, this book looks at the nature of radioactive materials, how they were discovered, what they are used for and how they affect the environment around us. The emphasis is on the benefits of radioactive materials, particularly in nuclear power stations, in medical diagnostics and radiotherapy, in industry and in agriculture. Nuclear fission and fusion are explained, how radioactive materials are handled and naturally occurring radioactivity are included. (UK).

  19. Artificial radioactivity on the coasts of Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.; McKay, W.A.; Burton, P.J.; Cambray, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    In Northern Ireland, measurements of artificial radioactivity have been made in inshore seawater, beach sand and mud, sea spray, the air and material deposited from the air, and in coastal soil. The objective was to determine the levels in the coastal environment and also to assess the magnitude of transport of radioactivity from sea to land in sea spray. The results would provide a basis for the development of a model describing sea to land transfer, and allowing the resulting population exposure to be assessed. The results showed the presence of plutonium isotopes, 241 Am and 137 Cs in some samples of each of the media measured, but concentrations were low in all cases. Large variation in the concentrations in seawater and beach sediment were attributed to variations in dispersion and in the characteristics of the sediment. Sea to land transfer of actinides was detected in samples of sea spray and in air and deposition measurements. Only at some sites on the east coast could the resulting accumulation in soil close to the beach be distinguished from fallout. Following May 1986 137 Cs from Chernobyl could be detected in air and in atmospheric deposition. A preliminary assessment of the exposure of the population to the actinides and 137 Cs in all the media showed that the resulting dose is a small fraction of the recognised limit. (author)

  20. South Ural State University Campus: Architectural Development Concept in Accordance with International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabiev, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the vital problem of the implementation of the Program to enhance the competitiveness of the South Ural State University (SUSU) among other scientific and educational centers, which defines the main objective - to form a world-class university. According to the set objective, the most important task is to build a landscaped campus, which can be efficiently solved by the architectural means. The solution of this task is based on the scientific methods of the territorial and architectural improvement of the main university building complex development in the northern academic area and the architectural and aesthetic improvement of the space structural arrangement of the buildings. The author analyzes the global practice of modern campuses in Russia and abroad based on the Internet resources. The author carried out some additional on-site surveys of foreign campuses in Australia, Canada and China. The essence of the architectural concept of the first university campus development stage lies in the science-based achievement of a harmonious architectural and space unity of solid and plane elements of the site development, landscape arrangement of the main building’s courtyard and the adjacent territories with an efficient use of the relief, water areas and planting, allotment of additional spaces for landscaped areas due to a split-level arrangement, including a landscaped platform, increase of the underground space utilization share with the arrangement of an underground car parking and an underground walkway considering the environmental requirements. Further, it is planned to use the author’s methodological approach for the southern academic and the northern residential university areas, which will allow to create a duly completed landscaped SUSU campus with a developed infrastructure according to the international standards.

  1. Radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making

  2. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.

    1994-01-01

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  3. Chromitites of the Akkarginskiy massif (the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the geological features of ultramafic rock and chrome ore deposits. It is shown that all studied deposits are podiform in morphology that is typical for the ophiolite ultramafic rocks. Morphological and chemical features of the accessory and oreforming spinels are described. Accessory chrome spinels from ultramafic rocks are middle-Cr and high-Cr in chemistry (>42% Cr2O3. All studied ore-forming chrome spinels from deposits in the Main Ore Zone are high-Cr (54–63% Cr2O3. Some middle-Cr oreforming spinels were found in deposit of the East Ore Zone (48% Cr2O3. We adduce a proof of the tectonic origin of present-day structure of the Akkarginskiy massif and its chrome ore deposits.

  4. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1981-01-01

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  5. Radioactivity in the Arctic Seas. Report for the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This report provides comprehensive information on environmental conditions in the Arctic Seas as required for the study of possible radiological consequences from dumped high level radioactive wastes in the Kara Sea. The report describes the oceanography of the regions, with emphasis on the Kara and Barents Seas, including the East Novaya Zemlya Fjords. The ecological description concentrates on biological production, marine food-weds and fisheries in the Arctic Seas. The report presents data on radionuclide concentrations in the Kara and Barents Seas and uses these data to estimate the inventories of radionuclides currently in the marine environment of the Kara and Barents Seas

  6. Radioactivity and food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references

  7. Low-level Radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)

  8. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the sources and health effects of radioactive wastes. It reveals the techniques to concentrate and immobilize radioactivity and examines the merits of various disposal ideas. The book, which is designed for the lay reader, explains the basic science of atoms,nuclear particles,radioactivity, radiation and health effects

  9. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  10. Radioactivity handbook. Volume 2: radioactive disintegrations, radiations-matter interactions, applications of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.; Bonfand, E.; Rimbert, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This volume is the second one of a group of three. The first one exposed nuclides, with neutrons and protons in a stable building: atomic nucleus. Here is the second one with unstable, radioactive nucleus. After the description of different kinds of disintegrations, it is justified to follow radiations in matter and modifications attached to them; different uses of radioactivity are developed in medicine, age determination, industrial utilization and biology

  11. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomek, D.

    1980-01-01

    The prospects of nuclear power development in the USA up to 2000 and the problems of the fuel cycle high-level radioactive waste processing and storage are considered. The problems of liquid and solidified radioactive waste transportation and their disposal in salt deposits and other geologic formations are discussed. It is pointed out that the main part of the high-level radioactive wastes are produced at spent fuel reprocessing plants in the form of complex aqueous mixtures. These mixtures contain the decay products of about 35 isotopes which are the nuclear fuel fission products, about 18 actinides and their daughter products as well as corrosion products of fuel cans and structural materials and chemical reagents added in the process of fuel reprocessing. The high-level radioactive waste management includes the liquid waste cooling which is necessary for the short and middle living isotope decay, separation of some most dangerous components from the waste mixture, waste solidification, their storage and disposal. The conclusion is drawn that the seccessful solution of the high-level radioactive waste management problem will permit to solve the problem of the fuel cycle radioactive waste management as a whole. The salt deposits, shales and clays are the most suitable for radioactive waste disposal [ru

  12. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  13. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Australian Government is committed to establishing two purpose-built facilities for the management of Australia's radioactive waste; the national repository for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level ('low level') waste, and the national store for storage of long-lived intermediate level ('intermediate level') waste. It is strongly in the interests of public security and safety to secure radioactive waste by disposal or storage in facilities specially designed for this purpose. The current arrangements where waste is stored under ad hoc arrangements at hundreds of sites around Australia does not represent international best practice in radioactive waste management. Environmental approval has been obtained for the national repository to be located at Site 40a, 20 km east of Woomera in South Australia, and licences are currently being sought from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to site, construct and operate the facility. The national repository may be operating in 2004 subject to obtaining the required licences. The national store will be located on Australian Government land and house intermediate level waste produced by Australian Government departments and agencies. The national store will not be located in South Australia. Short-listing of potentially suitable sites is expected to be completed soon

  14. Mapping of Vegetation with the Geoinformation System and Determining of Carrying Capacity of the Pre-Urals Steppe area for a Newly Establishing Population of the Przewalski Horse Equus ferus przewalskii at the Orenburg State Nature Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, N. I.; Mikhailenko, O. I.; Zharkikh, T. L.; Bakirova, R. T.

    2018-01-01

    Mapping of the vegetation (1:25000) of the Pre-Urals Steppe area at the Orenburg State Nature Reserve was completed in 2016. A map created with the geoinformation system contains 1931 simple and complex polygons for 25 types of vegetation. In a drought year, the average stock of palatable vegetation of the whole area is estimated at 8380 tons dry weight. The estimation is based on the size of areas covered by different types of vegetation, their grass production, the correction coefficients for decreasing of pasture forage stocks in winter and decreasing of production of grass communities in dry years. Based on pasture forage stocks the area could tolerate the maximum population size of 1769 individuals of the Przewalski horse, their average density could be 0.11 horse per ha. Yet, as watering places for animals are limited in Pre-Urals Steppe, grazing pressures on the vegetation next to the water sources may increase in dry years. That is why the above-mentioned calculated maximum population size and density must be reduced at least by half until some additional watering places are established and monitoring of the grazing effect on the vegetation next to the places is carried out regularly. Thus, the maximum size of the population is estimated at 800 to 900 individuals, which is almost 1.5 times more than necessary to establish a self-sustained population of the Przewalski horse.

  15. The Fort Smith radioactive belt, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Fort Smith Belt is an elongate zone, about 200 km x 50 km, extending from the East Arm of Great Slave Lake southerly into northeastern Alberta. The major feature of the belt is that it is one of the most radioactive regions so far recognized in the Canadian Shield. Potassium, uranium, and thorium are all enriched but the greatest increase is in thorium. The dominant rock type underlying the area is a foliated porphyritic granite. This rock contains an average of about 80 ppm thorium (with areas of tens of square kilometres containing up to 200 ppm) and approximately 11 ppm uranium. In places, dark elongate zones rich in biotite, apatite, and opaque minerals within the porphyritic granite may contain an order of magnitude more uranium and thorium than the porphyry. Radioactive minerals within both the porphyry and the dark zones are principally monazite (containing up to 16% ThO 2 ) and isolated grains of uraninite. This foliated porphyritic granite is interpreted as being pre- or syntectonic with respect to the Hudsonian event because its foliation parallels that of the surrounding rocks. There has been subsequent deformation. The second characteristic feature of the Fort Smith Belt is the development of a peripheral zone where eU is enriched relative to eTh correlating mainly with granitoid rocks which surround the thorium-rich area and wherein ratios of eU/eTh exceed 1:2 (compared to the crustal average of 1:4). Uranium may have moved laterally into this marginal area from the thorium-rich porphyry, possibly in a vapour phase. There is a possibility that concentrations of uranium as well as other metals such as Cu, Mo, Zn, Sn, and W could exist in the porphyry and its margin in appropriate chemical and/or structural traps. The radioactive granite rocks of the Fort Smith Belt are adjacent to uranium-thorium occurrences in the nearby Proterozoic Nonacho sediments but whether or not a genetic relationship exists between the two situations is uncertain. (auth)

  16. Predicted radionuclide release from reactor-related unenclosed solid objects dumped in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, M.E.; Lynn, N.M.; Warden, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Between 1978 and 1991 reactor-related solid radioactive waste was dumped by the former Soviet Union as unenclosed objects in the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and the Sea of Japan. This paper presented estimates for the current (1994) inventory of activation and corrosion products contained in the reactor-related unenclosed solid objects. In addition, simple models derived for prediction of radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea are applied to certain of the dumped objects to provide estimates of radionuclide release to the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and Sea of Japan environments. For the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, total release rates start below 0.01 GBq yr -1 and over 1,000 years, fall to 100 Bq yr -1 . In the Sea of Japan, the total release rate starts just above 1 GBq yr - 1 , dropping off to a level less than 0.1 GBq yr -1 , extending past the year 4,000

  17. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  18. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilbeck, G. [Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  19. Environmental radioactivity 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Environmental Radioactivity in New Zealand and Rarotonga : annual report 1996 was published in May this year. The 1996 environmental radioactivity monitoring programme included, as usual, measurements in New Zealand and the Cook Islands of atmospheric, deposited and dairy product radioactivity. The environment in the New Zealand and Cook Island regions has now virtually returned to the situation in the 'pre-nuclear' era. The contination of monitoring, although at a reduced level of intensity, is basically to ensure that any change from the present state, due to any source of radioactivity does not go undetected or unquestioned. (author)

  20. Development of radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Nobuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    A radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement is developed to integrate the established codes and the code system for decommissioning of sodium cooled fast reactor (FBR). The former are the codes for estimation of radioactivity movement in sodium coolant of fast reactor which are named SAFFIRE, PSYCHE and TTT. The latter code system is to estimate neutron irradiation activity (COSMARD-RRADO). It is paid special attention to keep the consistency of input data used among these codes and also the simplification of their interface. A new function is added to the estimation system, to estimate minor FP inventory caused by the fission of impurities contained in the coolant and slight fuel material attached on the fuel cladding. To check the evaluation system, the system is applied with radioactivity data of the preceding FBR such as BN-350, JOYO and Monju. Agreement between the analysis results and the measurement is well satisfactory. The uncertainty of the code system is within several tens per cent for the activation of primary coolant (Na-22) and factor of 2-4 for the estimation of radioactivity inventory in sodium coolant. (author)

  1. Estimation of global inventories of radioactive waste and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    A variety of nuclear activities have been carried out in the second part of the twentieth century for different purposes. Initially the emphasis was on military applications, but with the passage of time the main focus of nuclear activities has shifted to peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to the use of radioactive material in industry, medicine and research. Regardless of the objectives, the nuclear activities generate radioactive waste. It was considered worthwhile to produce a set of worldwide data that could be assessed to evaluate the legacy of the nuclear activities performed up to the transition between the twentieth and the twenty first century. The assessment tries to cover the inventory of all the human produced radioactive material that can be considered to result from both military and civilian applications. This has caused remarkable difficulties since much of the data, particularly relating to military programmes, are not readily available. Consequently the data on the inventory of radioactive material should be considered as order-of-magnitude approximations. This report as a whole should be considered as a first iteration in a continuing process of updating and upgrading. The accumulations of radioactive materials can be considered a burden for human society, both at present and in the future, since they require continuing monitoring and control. Knowing the amounts and types of such radioactive inventories can help in the assessment of the relative burdens. Knowledge of the national or regional radioactive waste inventory is necessary for planning management operations, including the sizing and design of conditioning, storage and disposal facilities. A global inventory, either of radioactive waste or of other environmental accumulations of radioactive material, could be used to provide a perspective on the requirements and burdens associated with their management, by means of comparisons with the burdens caused by other types of waste or other

  2. Measurement of liquid radioactive materials for monitoring radioactive emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    This draft regulation applies to measuring equipment for liquid radioactive materials for the monitoring of the radioactive discharges from stationary nuclear power plants with LWR and HTR reactors. Demands made on the measuring procedure, methods of concentration determination, balancing, indication of limiting values, and inspections are layed down. The draft regulation deals with: 1) Monitoring liquid radioactive discharges: Water and similar systems; radionuclides and their detection limits, radioactively contaminated water (waste water); secondary cooling water; power house cooling water; primary cooling water; flooding water; 2) Layout of the measuring and sampling equipment and demands made on continuous and discontinuous measuring equipment; demands made on discontinuous α and β measuring equipment; 3) Maintenance and repair work; inspections; repair of defects; 4) Demands made on documentation; reports to authorities; 5) Supplement: List of general and reference regulations. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Preparing for radiological assessments in the event of a tornado strike at Argonne National Lab.-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodkind, M.E.; Klimczak, C.A.; Munyon, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned, contractor-operated national laboratory located 22 miles southwest of downtown Chicago on a wooded, 1700-acre site. The principal nuclear facilities at ANL include a large fast neutron source (Intense Pulse Neutron Source) in which high-energy protons strike a uranium target to produce neutrons for research studies; 60 Co irradiation sources; chemical and metallurgical plutonium laboratories, some of which are currently being decommissioned; several large hot cell facilities designed for work with multicurie quantities of actinide elements and irradiated reactor fuel materials; a few small research reactors currently in different phases of being decommissioned; and a variety of research laboratories handling many different sources in various chemical and physical forms. The hazards analysis for the ANL site shows that tornado strikes are a serious threat. The site has been struck twice in the past 20 yr, receiving only minor building damage and no release of radioactivity to the environment. Although radioactive materials in general are handled in areas that provide good tornado protection, ANL is prepared to address the problems that would occur should there be a loss of control of radioactive materials due to severe building damage

  4. Problems related to final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkin, Vasily I.

    1999-01-01

    According to this presentation, the radioactivity of the total amount of radioactive waste accumulated in Russia to date is 1.5*10 9 Ci and of spent fuel 4.5*10 9 Ci. A table is given that shows the source, type, volume activity and storage type under the responsibility of the different departments and enterprises. 99.9% of the wastes are accumulated at the enterprises of Minatom of the Russian Federation. Some companies inject their liquid wastes from ionisation sources and intermediate liquid waste from the nuclear power industry into deep-seated reliably isolated aquifers. The Mayak plant has released liquid low-level and intermediate wastes into artificial reservoirs and Lake Karachay. Liquid high-level wastes are always stored in special tanks at interim storage facilities. A large number of nuclear submarines are laid up in North-Western Russia and East Russia, with spent fuel still in place as the interim storages in these regions are filled up and there are no conditioning plants. Underground disposal is considered the best way of isolating radioactive waste for as long as it is hazardous to the environment. Two new technologies are discussed. One involves including long-lived isotopes in high-stable mineral matrices, the other uses selective separation from the bulk of wastes. The matrices should be disposed of deep in the Earth's crust, at least 2-3 km down. Liquid waste of caesium-strontium fraction must be transformed into glass-like form and stored underground at a depth of a few hundred metres. Short-lived low level and intermediate level wastes should be conditioned and then deposited in subsurface ferroconcrete repositories constructed in clays. Finally, the presentation discusses the selection of sites and conditions for radioactive waste disposal. Two sites are discussed, the Mayak plant and a possible site at Mining Chemical Combine in Krasnoyarsk-26

  5. Radioactivity of natural medicinal preparations contained extracts from peat mud available in retail trade used externally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska, Maria; Kapała, Jacek; Raciborska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Milewska, Anna; Mnich, Stanisław

    2017-08-01

    In this work were identified and measured the activity of radioactive isotopes present in medicinal preparations from peat mud and estimated the doses obtained from them during therapy. Radioactivity of 22 preparations from peat mud and 20 water samples from water of the North-East region of Poland was studied. The median of the total activity was 24.8 Bq kg -1 . Total maximal isotope activity was observed in the Iwonicka Cube 146 Bq kg -1 while considerable amounts of isotopes were found in the Kolobrzeska Peat Mud Paste 112 Bq kg -1 . The doses obtained during therapy were within the range of 11 nSv-13 μSv depending on extracts of medicinal preparations from peat mud. The probability that such a small dose would stimulate biological effects is low. However, some clinicians believe that one of the possible therapeutic mechanisms in the treatment of rheumatoid disorders is the induction of immune response by ionising radiation.

  6. Analysis of the alleged Kyshtym disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soran, D.M.; Stillman, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    The alleged Kyshtym disaster has been an intriguing intelligence puzzle for almost 25 years. Zhores Medvedev, a Soviet dissident, has written numerous journal articles as well as two books on the subject. He has argued that a vast contaminated area exists east of the city of Kyshtym in the southern Ural Mountains. Further, he has alleged that a nuclear waste disposal accident in 1957 to 1958 caused the contamination. The authors of this report are in partial disagreement with Medvedev's first allegation and in complete disagreement with his second. A contaminated area does exist east of Kyshtym, but Soviet carelessness coupled with general disregard for the citizenry and the environment are the prime causative factors, not a nuclear waste accident

  7. Analysis of the alleged Kyshtym disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soran, D.M.; Stillman, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    The alleged Kyshtym disaster has been an intriguing intelligence puzzle for almost 25 years. Zhores Medvedev, a Soviet dissident, has written numerous journal articles as well as two books on the subject. He has argued that a vast contaminated area exists east of the city of Kyshtym in the southern Ural Mountains. Further, he has alleged that a nuclear waste disposal accident in 1957 to 1958 caused the contamination. The authors of this report are in partial disagreement with Medvedev's first allegation and in complete disagreement with his second. A contaminated area does exist east of Kyshtym, but Soviet carelessness coupled with general disregard for the citizenry and the environment are the prime causative factors, not a nuclear waste accident.

  8. Mental Models of Radioactivity and Attitudes towards Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.

    2010-01-01

    Siting of a radioactive waste repository presents a great problem in almost every country that produces such waste. The main problem is not a technical one, but socio-psychological, namely the acceptability of this kind of repository. Previous research on people's perception of the LILW repository construction, their attitudes towards radioactive waste, their willingness to accept it, indicated significant differences in answers of experts and lay persons, mainly regarding evaluation of the consequences of repository construction. Based on the findings of pilot investigations a mental model approach to the radioactivity, radioactive waste and repository was used as a method for development better risk communication strategies with local communities. The mental models were obtained by adjustment of the method developed by Morgan and co-workers where expert model of radioactivity is compared with mental model of lay people obtained through individual opened interviews. Additional information on trust, risk perception, role of main actors in the site selection process and their credibility was gained with the overall questionnaire on the representative sample of Slovenian population. Results of the survey confirm some already known findings, in addition we gained new cognitions and with analyses obtained the relationships and ratios between different factors, which are characteristics both for the general public and for the public, which is involved in the site selection process for a longer period and has been living beside a nuclear power plant for one generation. People have in general negative associations regarding the repository, the perceived risk for nuclear facilities is high, and trust in representatives of governmental institutions is low. Mental models of radioactivity, radioactive waste and the LILW repository are mostly irregular and differ from the experts' models. This is particularly valid for the models of radioactivity and the influences of

  9. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshio; Hiratake, Susumu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the radiation doses externally irradiated from treated radioactive waste and also reduce the separation of radioactive nuclide due to external environmental factors such as air, water or the like. Method: Radioactive waste adhered with radioactive nuclide to solid material is molten to mix and submerge the radioactive nuclide adhered to the surface of the solid material into molten material. Then, the radioactive nuclide thus mixed is solidified to store the waste in solidified state. (Aizawa, K.)

  10. Radioactivity in north European waters: report of Working Group 2 of CEC project MARINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camplin, W C [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (UK). Directorate of Fisheries Research; Aarkrog, A [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of Working Group 2 of Project MARINA was to consider recent measurements of environmental radioactivity in north European waters and to use this, and other information, to report the likely magnitude of doses to the critical group from marine pathways. The monitoring data were supplemented, where appropriate, with predictions from simple models. The major sources of radioactivity studied were as follows: (i) liquid wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; (ii) liquid wastes from nuclear power plants and other major nuclear industry sites; (iii) solid waste disposal in the deep north-east Atlantic; (iv) fallout from Chernobyl; and (v) naturally-occurring radionuclides. Some of the largest doses from marine pathways are predicted for naturally-occurring radionuclides. In this case, the dominant radionuclide is polonium-210 and the dominant pathway is via consumption of molluscan species. The highest doses from the nuclear industry were due to the operation of the reprocessing plant at Sellafield. Discharges from this site have been decreasing substantially in recent years and, as a consequence, doses have also been reducing. (author).

  11. Controlling radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtinger, W.

    1992-01-01

    The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.) [de

  12. Temperature-induced recruitment pulses of Arctic dwarf shrub communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, Ulf; Hellmann, L.; Tegel, W.; Normand, S.; Myers-Smith, I.; Kirdyanov, A. V.; Nievergelt, D.; Schweingruber, F. H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 2 (2015), s. 489-501 ISSN 0022-0477 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : recent climate-change * tree-line * environmental-change * forest limit * northern siberia * pinus-sylvestris * kola-peninsula * carbon-cycle * picea-abies * polar urals * Arctic tundra * cambial activity * climate change * dendroecology * dwarf shrubs * East Greenland * plant longevity * plant population and community dynamics * vegetation dynamics * wood anatomy Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 6.180, year: 2015

  13. Fauna Europaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles

    2015-01-01

    density, and the more fertile habitats are extensively cultivated. This has undoubtedly increased the extinction risk for numerous species of brachyceran flies, yet with the recent re-discovery of Thyreophoracynophila (Panzer), there are no known cases of extinction at a European level. However, few......Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding...

  14. Aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The origin and types of radioactive waste, the objective and the fundamental principles of radioactive waste management and the classification of radioactive waste are presented. Problems of the radioactive waste management are analyzed. (authors)

  15. International dimension of illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, L.; Bunn, G.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material is primarily associated with Russia and other former Soviet republics. Indeed, with the collapse of the former Soviet Union (FSU) in 1991, hundreds of tons of weapons-usable nuclear material and thousands of radiation sources were left without adequate control and protection, thus posing a risk for sabotage, theft and diversion. Out of 700 illicit trafficking incidents recorded in the Stanford's database on nuclear smuggling, theft and orphan radiation sources (DSTO), over 450 either took place in the former Soviet Union or involved material that had reportedly originated from the FSU. In the period 1992-1994, Western and Eastern Europe were heavily affected by the inflow of nuclear material smuggled from the FSU. Since then, various measures were taken by the European countries and former Soviet republics to prevent the trafficking of radioactive substances ranging from the improvement of physical security at nuclear facilities to the installation of detection equipment at international borders. However, although the number of illicit trafficking incidents in Western Europe has decreased dramatically since 1994 and the overall annual number of such cases has been lower than in 1994, evidence suggests that diverted nuclear material is still being smuggled out of the FSU. An increased number of interceptions of nuclear and other radioactive material in the Caucasus, Turkey and Central Asia, well-known for their drugs and arms smuggling routes, over the past three years demonstrates that the material may now be moving south rather than west. This is particularly alarming considering the proximity of three countries to the potential end-users of nuclear and other radioactive material, such as AI Qaida terrorist network and aspiring nuclear weapon states in the Middle East. Although the FSU remains the major potential source of nuclear and other radioactive material, it is not the only one. Thefts

  16. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  17. Inventory of uranium resources potency at Kawat area, upper Mahakam, East Kalimantan detailed prospecting stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; I Gde Sukadana; Adi Gunawan Muhammad; Suripto

    2011-01-01

    Result of the general prospecting in East Kalimantan has found several radioactivity outcrop anomalies at upper Mahakam in the acid volcanic rock area which is approximately 25 km 2 in wide. The objective of the research is to know detailed geological information and characteristic of uranium mineralization. Method of this research are detailed geological, radiometric and geochemical mapping 1:10.000 on scale. The lithology of Kawat area is composed of seven units of rock. They are black clay unit, feldspatic sandstone unit, Nyaan rhyolite unit, lower andesite unit, Kawat rhyolite unit, upper andesite unit and tuffaceous sandstone unit. Evolving fault is dextral fault and normal fault. The trending of dextral fault is west-east and southwest-northeast, meanwhile the trending of normal faults is west-east and southwest northeast. There are two period of uranium mineralization occurrences in the area, the first is connected with the eruption of Nyaan rhyolite magma and the second is connected with the eruption of Kawat rhyolite magma. Uranium mineralization occurred in the stage of hydrothermal process and including in the pneumatogenic class of volcanogenic uranium deposits. This investigation has yielded two sites of potential uranium sector are the Nyaan sector with an area of about 6 km 2 and Kawat sector with an area of about 10 km 2 . (author)

  18. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; Long, S.; Dowdall, A.; Hayden, E.; Smith, V.; Fegan, M.; Sequeira, S.; Pollard, D.; Cunningham, J.D.

    2000-09-01

    The safety of the food chain and the protection of the environment are prime concerns of the Irish public. This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 1998 and 1999. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilisation from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 1998 and again in 1999. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of contaminating radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites between 1994 and 1999. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser

  19. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.; Long, S.; Dowdall, A.

    2000-09-01

    The safety of the food chain and the protection of the environment are prime concerns of the Irish public. This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 1998 and 1999. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilization from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 1998 and again in 1999. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of contaminating radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites between 1994 and 1999. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser

  20. Management of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchokosa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Radioactive Wastes is to protect workers and the public from the radiological risk associated with radioactive waste for the present and future. It application of the principles to the management of waste generated in a radioisotope uses in the industry. Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than ‘exempt quantities’ established by the competent regulatory authorities and for which no further use is foreseen or intended. Origin of the Radioactive Waste includes Uranium and Thorium mining and milling, nuclear fuel cycle operations, Operation of Nuclear power station, Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and Institutional uses of isotopes. There are types of radioactive waste: Low-level Waste (LLW) and High-level Waste. The Management Options for Radioactive Waste Depends on Form, Activity, Concentration and half-lives of the radioactive waste, Storage and disposal methods will vary according to the following; the radionuclides present, and their concentration, and radio toxicity. The contamination results basically from: Contact between radioactive materials and any surface especially during handling. And it may occur in the solid, liquid or gas state. Decontamination is any process that will either reduce or completely remove the amount of radionuclides from a contaminated surface

  1. Interpretation and modeling of a subsurface injection test, 200 East Area, Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoot, J.L.; Lu, A.H.

    1994-11-01

    A tracer experiment was conducted in 1980 and 1981 in the unsaturated zone in the southeast portion of the Hanford 200 East Area near the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility. The field design consisted of a central injection well with 32 monitoring wells within an 8-m radius. Water containing radioactive and other tracers was injected weekly during the experiment. The unique features of the experiment were the documented control of the inputs, the experiment's three-dimensional nature, the in-situ measurement of radioactive tracers, and the use of multiple injections. The spacing of the test wells provided reasonable lag distribution for spatial correlation analysis. Preliminary analyses indicated spatial correlation on the order of 400 to 500 cm in the vertical direction. Previous researchers found that two-dimensional axisymmetric modeling of moisture content generally underpredicts lateral spreading and overpredicts vertical movement of the injected water. Incorporation of anisotropic hydraulic properties resulted in the best model predictions. Three-dimensional modeling incorporated the geologic heterogeneity of discontinuous layers and lenses of sediment apparent in the site geology. Model results were compared statistically with measured experimental data and indicate reasonably good agreement with vertical and lateral field moisture distributions

  2. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes is perhaps the most controversial and least understood aspect of the use of nuclear materials in generating electrical power, the investigation of biochemical processes through tracer kinetics, and the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In the siting of nuclear power facilities, the disposal of radioactive wastes is invariably posed as the ultimate unanswerable question. In the fall of 1979, biochemical and physiologic research employing radioactive tracers was threatened with a slowdown resulting from temporary closure of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Radioactive pharmaceuticals used extensively for diagnosis and treatment of human disease have increased dramatically in price, partly as a result of the escalating cost of disposing of radioactive wastes created during production of the labeled pharmaceuticals. These problems have resulted in identification of the disposal of LLW as the most pressing issue in the entire scheme of management of hazardous wastes. How this issue as well as the separate issue of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) are being addressed at both national and state levels is the subject of this chapter

  3. Radioactivity and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, V.H.; Horrill, A.D.; Livens, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    The official assumption is that if levels of radioactivity are safe for humans, they are safe for wildlife too. NCC sponsored a research project by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology to find out what was known in this field. It appears that the assumption is justified to a certain extent in that mammals are identified as the organisms most vulnerable to the damaging effects of radioactivity. Other general principles are put forward: where there are radioactive discharges to the marine environment, coastal muds and saltmarshes can be particularly contaminated; upland habitats, with low nutrient status and subject to high rainfall, are likely to accumulate radioactivity from atmospheric discharges (e.g. Chernobyl, the wildlife effects of which are reported here). The document concludes that no deleterious effects of radioactivity on wild plants and animals have been detected in the UK, but acknowledges that there are still many gaps in our knowledge of the behaviour of radioisotopes in the natural environment. (UK)

  4. Radioactive wastes. Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)

  5. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  6. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book highlights the main issues of public concern related to radioactive waste management and puts them into perspective. It provides an overview of radioactive waste management covering, among other themes, policies, implementation and public communication based on national experiences. Its purpose is to assists in increasing the understanding of radioactive waste management issues by public and national authorities, organizations involved in radioactive waste management and the nuclear industry; it may also serve as a source book for those who communicate with the public. Even in the unlikely event that nuclear power does not further develop around the world, the necessity for dealing with nuclear waste from past usages, from uranium mining and milling, decontamination and decommissioning of existing nuclear facilities and from the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research would still exist. In many countries, radioactive waste management planning involves making effective institutional arrangements in which responsibilities and liabilities are well established for the technical operation and long term surveillance of disposal systems. Financing mechanisms are part of the arrangements. Continuous quality assurance and quality control, at all levels of radioactive waste management, are essential to ensure the required integrity of the system. As with any other human activity, improvements in technology and economics may be possible and secondary problems avoided. Improvements and confirmation of the efficiency of processes and reduction of uncertainties can only be achieved by continued active research, development and demonstration, which are the goals of many national programmes. International co-operation, also in the form of reviews, can contribute to increasing confidence in the ongoing work. The problem of radioactive wastes is not a unique one; it may be compared with other problems of toxic wastes resulting from many other

  7. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  8. Radioactivity and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, R N [Fertilizer Association of India, New Delhi

    1977-12-01

    Power generation from radioisotopes is one of the major applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and is in practice in over twenty countries including India. Other well-known applications of radioactive substances are in medicine, industry, scientific and industrial research programs, and nuclear weapons. The only serious disadvantage with the radioisotopes and their waste products is the constant release of radiation energy which contaminates the environment and endangers the life. An attempt has been made to identify the major sources of radioactivity in the environment and assess its potential impact on the environment. Recent developments in safety measures for prevention of contamination and control of radioactivity and in radioactive wastes management are also discussed.

  9. Transporting radioactive rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, G.

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for exempting geological specimens from the IAEA Regulations for Safer Transport of Radioactive Materials. It is pointed out that many mineral collectors in Devon and Cornwall may be unwittingly infringing these regulations by taking naturally radioactive rocks and specimens containing uranium ores. Even if these collectors are aware that these rocks are radioactive, and many are not, few have the necessary equipment to monitor the activity levels. If the transport regulations were to be enforced alarm could be generated and the regulations devalued in case of an accident. The danger from a spill of rock specimens is negligible compared with an accident involving industrial or medical radioactive substances yet would require similar special treatment. (UK)

  10. The East Midlands in 2006: the demography of the East Midlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lawton, C

    2006-01-01

    The East Midlands in 2006 is the evidence base that was produced to underpin the devleopment of the regional economic strategy, A Flourishing Region. This document presents detailed analysis of the demography of the East Midlands.

  11. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations I. Studies on the Radioactive dust due to nuclear detonation in Bikini on March 1, 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nuclear Reactor Laboratoroy, Kinki University, Fuse City, Osaka Precture (Japan)

    1961-11-25

    A study has been made, from the health physics standpoint, of the radioactivity emitted from the dust collected from No. 5 Fukuryu Maru, which was showered by the strong radioactive ash at about 0-90 miles east of Bikini on March 1, 1954. The probable dose of external gamma radiation the crew might have received during their two weeks voyage may be estimated roughly about 500-800 rad. However,, judging from the strong radioactive contamination of the boat, it may be inferred that the crew might have received a considerable-degree of internal irradiation besides the external whole body gamma irradiation and the local beta irradiation on the skin where the radioactive dust directly contacted, The specific activity of the dust when it fell on the boat a few hours after the nuclear detonation may be estimated to be roughly about one curie per gram. From the radiochemical analysis and the beta-ray analysis, the major part of the radioactivity included in-the dust was found to be due to a mixture of various fission products, while the main chemical component of the dust (Bikini ash) itself consisted of a calcium compound. The alpha-ray was also detected by the use of an ionization chamber in that portion where transuranium elements, if present, were collected. The tuna fish and the shark fins which were brought back to Japan by No.5 Fukuryu Maru in the middle of March, 1954 were most strongly contaminated on the skin, but the fish caught later in the South Pacific were found to be contaminated more strongly in the internal organs rather than on the skin. The area in the Pacific where the radioactive contaminated fish were caught seemed to expand gradually with time. In the latter half of 1954, besides the ordinary fission products, the radioactive Zn{sup 65} which was not found in appreciable amount in the original Bikini ash has been detected from the internal organs of the contaminated fish. A possible production of Zn{sup 65} by the neutron activation of some metallic

  12. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations I. Studies on the Radioactive dust due to nuclear detonation in Bikini on March 1, 1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    A study has been made, from the health physics standpoint, of the radioactivity emitted from the dust collected from No. 5 Fukuryu Maru, which was showered by the strong radioactive ash at about 0-90 miles east of Bikini on March 1, 1954. The probable dose of external gamma radiation the crew might have received during their two weeks voyage may be estimated roughly about 500-800 rad. However,, judging from the strong radioactive contamination of the boat, it may be inferred that the crew might have received a considerable-degree of internal irradiation besides the external whole body gamma irradiation and the local beta irradiation on the skin where the radioactive dust directly contacted, The specific activity of the dust when it fell on the boat a few hours after the nuclear detonation may be estimated to be roughly about one curie per gram. From the radiochemical analysis and the beta-ray analysis, the major part of the radioactivity included in-the dust was found to be due to a mixture of various fission products, while the main chemical component of the dust (Bikini ash) itself consisted of a calcium compound. The alpha-ray was also detected by the use of an ionization chamber in that portion where transuranium elements, if present, were collected. The tuna fish and the shark fins which were brought back to Japan by No.5 Fukuryu Maru in the middle of March, 1954 were most strongly contaminated on the skin, but the fish caught later in the South Pacific were found to be contaminated more strongly in the internal organs rather than on the skin. The area in the Pacific where the radioactive contaminated fish were caught seemed to expand gradually with time. In the latter half of 1954, besides the ordinary fission products, the radioactive Zn 65 which was not found in appreciable amount in the original Bikini ash has been detected from the internal organs of the contaminated fish. A possible production of Zn 65 by the neutron activation of some metallic part of

  13. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  14. Calibration method based on direct radioactivity measurement for radioactive gas monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Ohi, Yoshihiro; Chida, Tohru; Wu, Youyang.

    1993-01-01

    A calibration method for radioactive gas monitoring instruments was studied. In the method, gaseous radioactivity standards were provided on the basis of the direct radioactivity measurement by the diffusion-in long proportional counter method (DLPC method). The radioactivity concentration of the gas mixture through a monitoring instrument was determined by sampling the known volume of the gas mixture into the proportional counter used for the DLPC method. Since oxygen in the gas mixture decreased the counting efficiency in a proportional counter, the influence on calibration was experimentally estimated. It was not serious and able to be easily corrected. By the present method, the relation between radioactivity concentration and ionization current was determined for a gas-flow ionization chamber with 1.5 l effective volume. It showed good agreement with the results in other works. (author)

  15. Methodology of reducing rock bump hazard during room and rillar mining of North Ural deep bauxite deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. В. Сидоров

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes practical experience of using room and pillar mining (RAPM under conditions of deep horizons and dynamic overburden pressure. It was identified that methods of rock pressure control efficient at high horizons do not meet safety requirements when working at existing depths, that is explained by changes in geodynamic processes during mining. With deeper depth, the geodynamic processes become more intensive and number of pillar and roof failures increase. When working at 800 m the breakage of mine structures became massive and unpredictable, which paused a question of development and implementation of tools for compliance assessment of used elements of RAPM and mining, geological, technical and geodynamic conditions of North Ural bauxite deposits and further development of guidelines for safe mining under conditions of deep horizons and dynamic rock pressure.It describes reasons of mine structure failures in workings depending on natural and man-caused factors, determines possible hazards and objects of geomechanic support. It also includes compliance assessment of tools used for calculations of RAPM structures, forecast and measures for rock tectonic bursts at mines of OAO “Sevuralboksitruda” (SUBR. It describes modernization and development of new geomechanic support of RAPM considering natural and technogenic hazards. The article presents results of experimental testing of new parameters of RAPM construction elements of SUBR mines. It has data on industrial implementation of developed regulatory and guideline documents at these mines for identification of valid parameters of RAPM elements at deep depths.

  16. Paleohydrology of the Polar Urals from the Last Glacial Maximum Through the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, O.; Thomas, E.; Svendsen, J. I.; Haflidason, H.

    2017-12-01

    Paleohydrologic records provide important information concerning the past response of local hydrology to abrupt temperature changes. Arctic hydrology is particularly sensitive to temperature due to feedbacks involving sea ice and ice sheets. The most recent deglacial interval contains multiple abrupt temperature changes, which provide opportunities to study the relationship between temperature, ice sheets, and hydrology. We present a lacustrine δ2Hwax record from Bolshoye Schuchye, in the Polar Ural Mountains, spanning 24.5- 1.3 ka, and interpret hydroclimate conditions at a multi-centennial scale from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) through the Holocene. Bolshoye Schuchye's position beyond the reach of local glaciers during the LGM makes it a unique site, since lacustrine paleoclimate records from the Arctic rarely span this entire interval, so Bolshoye Schuchye helps to cover a gap in understanding of paleoclimate. Compound specific analysis of leaf wax hydrogen isotopes (δ2Hwax) is a hydroclimate proxy that can be used to infer moisture source area, transport history, and local aridity. Inferences based on δ2Hwax rely on mechanistic understanding of the process by which hydrogen from meteoric water is incorporated into waxes, and subsequently deposited in lake sediments. The δ2Hwax value of a sample reflects the isotopic composition of precipitation, while also incorporating fractionation that occurs between precipitation and uptake by plants, and biosynthetic fractionation during wax synthesis. Comparisons between different chain length waxes can be used to infer the isotopic composition of terrestrial and aquatic waxes, as terrestrial plants tend to produce longer chain lengths than aquatic macrophytes. The offset between terrestrial and aquatic δ2Hwax, expressed as ɛt-a, indicates differences between the precipitation used by terrestrial plants, and the lake water used by aquatic plants. Significant changes in ɛt-a can represent shifts in local aridity

  17. Dynamics of radioactive waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela; Virtopeanu, Cornelia; Ivan, Alexandrina

    2008-01-01

    In Romania there are in operation three facilities licensed for collection, treatment and storage of radioactive waste resulted from industry, research, medicine, and agriculture, named institutional radioactive waste. The repository, which is of near surface type, is designed for disposing institutional radioactive waste. The institutional radioactive wastes generated are allowed to be disposed into repository according to the waste acceptance criteria, defined for the disposal facility. The radioactive wastes which are not allowed for disposal are stored on the site of each facility which is special authorised for this. The paper describes the dynamics of generation of institutional waste in Romania, both for radioactive waste which are allowed to be disposed into repository and for radioactive waste which are not allowed to be disposed of. (authors)

  18. Method to determine the radioactivity of radioactive waste packages. Basic procedure of the method used to determine the radioactivity of low-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This document describes the procedures adopted in order to determine the radioactivity of low-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants in Japan. The standards applied have been approved by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan after deliberations by the Subcommittee on the Radioactivity Verification Method for Waste Packages, the Nuclear Cycle Technical Committee, and the Standards Committee. The method for determining the radioactivity of the low-level radioactive waste packages was based on procedures approved by the Nuclear Safety Commission in 1992. The scaling factor method and other methods of determining radioactivity were then developed on the basis of various investigations conducted, drawing on extensive accumulated knowledge. Moreover, the international standards applied as common guidelines for the scaling factor method were developed by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear Energy, Subcommittee SC 5, Nuclear Fuel Technology. Since the application of accumulated knowledge to future radioactive waste disposal is considered to be rational and justified, such body of knowledge has been documented in a standardized form. The background to this standardization effort, the reasoning behind the determination method as applied to the measurement of radioactivity, as well as other related information, are given in the Annexes hereto. This document includes the following Annexes. Annex 1: (reference) Recorded items related to the determination of the scaling factor. Annex 2 (reference): Principles applied to the determining the radioactivity of waste packages. (author)

  19. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Illustrated by drawings, this publication briefly describes radioactive exposure modalities (external or internal irradiation), the ways they are measured and assessed (doses, units), the different natural radioactivity origins, the different radioactivity origins related to human activity, the share of each origin in population exposures

  20. Management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.; Volckaert, G.; Wacquier, W.

    1998-09-01

    The document gives an overview of of different aspects of radioactive waste management in Belgium. The document discusses the radioactive waste inventory in Belgium, the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste as well as activities related to the characterisation of different waste forms. A separate chapter is dedicated to research and development regarding deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. In the Belgian waste management programme, particular emphasis is on studies for disposal in clay. Main results of these studies are highlighted and discussed

  1. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  2. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, H.; Closs, K.D.; Kuhn, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solutions to the technical problem of the disposal of radioactive waste are limited by a) the state of knowledge of reprocessing possibilites, b) public acceptance of the use of those techniques which are known, c) legislative procedures linking licensing of new nuclear power plants to the solution of waste problems, and d) other political constraints. Wastes are generated in the mining and enriching of radioactive elements, and in the operation of nuclear power plants as well as in all fields where radioactive substances may be used. Waste management will depend on the stability and concentration of radioactive materials which must be stored, and a resolution of the tension between numerous small storage sites and a few large ones, which again face problems of public acceptability

  3. Development of compact Compton camera for 3D image reconstruction of radioactive contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y.; Terasaka, Y.; Ozawa, S.; Nakamura Miyamura, H.; Kaburagi, M.; Tanifuji, Y.; Kawabata, K.; Torii, T.

    2017-11-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc., went into meltdown after the large tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011. Very large amounts of radionuclides were released from the damaged plant. Radiation distribution measurements inside FDNPS buildings are indispensable to execute decommissioning tasks in the reactor buildings. We have developed a compact Compton camera to measure the distribution of radioactive contamination inside the FDNPS buildings three-dimensionally (3D). The total weight of the Compton camera is lower than 1.0 kg. The gamma-ray sensor of the Compton camera employs Ce-doped GAGG (Gd3Al2Ga3O12) scintillators coupled with a multi-pixel photon counter. Angular correction of the detection efficiency of the Compton camera was conducted. Moreover, we developed a 3D back-projection method using the multi-angle data measured with the Compton camera. We successfully observed 3D radiation images resulting from the two 137Cs radioactive sources, and the image of the 9.2 MBq source appeared stronger than that of the 2.7 MBq source.

  4. Atmospheric concentration of 210Pb in East Asia and its contribution to Japanese islands by long-range transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Taeko; Sato, Shin; Sato, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric 210 Pb is a long-lived progeny of 222 Rn generated from the earth's crust and exists as adsorbed onto the surface of aerosol particles. The distribution of atmospheric 210 Pb in East Asia reflects (1) the concentration levels in continental and maritime air masses and (2) the spatial extent of the continental air mass. This paper reviews the previously observed results on seasonal variation of 210 Pb concentration at several sites of Japan, Korea and China to evaluate the contribution of continental to Japanese atmosphere, and the specific activity of 210 Pb in the main components of aerosol samples and discusses from the view point of the Japanese islands. The authors conclude that aerosols from continental East Asia in winter contain more soil particles with low specific radioactivity of 210 Pb than the aerosols in Japan and that the natural radionuclide is extremely useful tracer for researches on meteorological phenomena and global transfer of environmental pollution. (S. Ohno)

  5. Decontaminating method for radioactive contaminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    After decontamination of radioactive contaminates with d-limonene, a radioactive material separating agent not compatible with liquid wastes caused by decontamination is added to the liquid wastes. Then after stirring, they are stood still to be separated into two phases, and the radioactive materials in the liquid waste phase caused by decontamination are transferred to the phase of the radioactive material separating agent. With such procedures, they can satisfactorily be separated into two phases of d-limonene and the radioactive material separating agent. Further, d-limonene remaining after the separation can be used again as a decontaminating agent for radioactive contaminates. Therefore, the amount of d-limonene to be used can be reduced, to lower the cost for cleaning, thereby enabling to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes formed. (T.M.)

  6. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.; Lester, R.K.; Greenberg, S.C.; Mitchell, H.C.; Walker, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose of this book is to assist in developing public policy and institutions for the safe management of radioactive waste, currently and long term. Both high-level waste and low-level waste containing transuranium elements are covered. The following conclusions are drawn: the safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; the basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged. The following recommendations are made: a national Radioactive Waste Authority should be established as a federally chartered public corporation; with NRC as the primary agency, a comprehensive regulatory framework should be established to assure the safety of all radioactive waste management operations under U.S. jurisdiction or control; ERDA should continue to have primary government responsibility for R and D and demonstration of radioactive waste technology; and the U.S. government should propose that an international Radioactive Waste Commission be established under the IAEA

  7. Centralized interim storage facility for radioactive wastes at Wuerenlingen (ZWILAG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.R.; Schnetzler, U.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste management in Switzerland is the responsibility of the waste producers; in this respect, the law requires permanent, safe management of the wastes by means of final disposal. Nagra is responsible for the research and development work associated with final disposal. Processing of the wastes into a form suitable for disposal, as well as interim storage, remain the responsibility of the waste producers. In order to supplement the existing conditioning and storage facilities at the nuclear power plants and to replace the outdated waste treatment plant at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) at Wuerenlingen, the operators of the Swiss nuclear power plants are planning a joint treatment and storage facility at the PSI-East site. The organisation ''Zwischenlager Wuerenlingen AG'', which was set up at the beginning of 1990, has been entrusted with this task. (author) 4 figs

  8. Top Soils Geochemical and Radioactivity Survey of Naples (Italy) Metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, R.; De Vivo, B.; Cicchella, D.

    2001-05-01

    The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities is an emblematic area affected by various environmental pollution of soils and waters in addition to hydrogeological volcanic, seismic and bradyseismic hazards. The geology of the area is prevailing represented by volcanics erupted, from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. The morphology of the metropolitan area of Naples city can be subdivided in flat areas, constituted by reworked pyroclastic terrains, and by hills originated by the overlapping of different welded pyroclastic flows (i.e.: Campanian Ignimbrite and Neapoletan Yellow Tuff) intercalated with pyroclastic deposits of different origins (i.e.: Campi Flegrei, Mt. Somma-Vesuvius, Ischia) and ages. In order to compile a multi-element baseline geochemical and radioactivity mapping of the metropolitan area of the Napoli we have sampled for this study, in situ top soil and imported filling material (mainly soil, volcanic ash, pumice and scoriae). The sampling and radioactivity survey has been carried out on about 200 sampling sites covering an area of about 150 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the urbanised downtown and 1 km x 1 km in the sub urban areas. In each site has been determined a radioactivity by a Scintrex GRS-500 at different emission spectra as total radioactivity (> 0.08 MeV and > 0.40 MeV), 238U (at 1.76 MeV mostly from 214Bi), 232Th (at 2.6 MeV mostly from 208Tl) and 40K (at 1.46 MeV mostly for 40K). The range of values of in situ soils are as follow for the in situ soils (Total radioactivity: 1327- 360 and 114- 47; 238U: 2.6- 1.3; 40K: 8.1- 3.1; 232U: 0.5- 0.1). Analyses of major, metallic elements and pH of each soil sample are in progress, while Pb isotopes compositions, for a selected number of samples, will be determined to discriminate the natural (geogenic) from the anthropogenic components in the soils by versus the anthropogenetic origin. The data

  9. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)

  10. Radioactivity; La radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  11. The Influence of Edaphic and Orographic Factors on Algal Diversity in Biological Soil Crusts on Bare Spots in the Polar and Subpolar Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patova, E. N.; Novakovskaya, I. V.; Deneva, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The influence of edaphic and orographic factors on the formation of algal diversity in biological soil crusts was studied in mountain tundras of the Polar and Subpolar Urals. Bare spots developed in the soils on different parent materials and overgrown to different extents were investigated. Overall, 221 algal species from six divisions were identified. Among them, eighty-eight taxa were new for the region studied. The Stigonema minutum, S. ocellatum, Nostoc commune, Gloeocapsopsis magma, Scytonema hofmannii, Leptolyngbya foveolarum, Pseudococcomyxa simplex, Sporotetras polydermatica species and species of the Cylindrocystis, Elliptochloris, Fischerella, Leptosira, Leptolyngbya, Myrmecia, Mesotaenium, Phormidium, Schizothrix genera were permanent components of biological soil crusts. The basis of the algal cenoses in soil crusts was composed of cosmopolitan cyanoprokaryotes, multicellular green algae with thickened covers and abundant mucus. The share of nitrogen fixers was high. The physicochemical properties of primary soils forming under the crusts of spots are described. The more important factors affecting the species composition of algae in the crusts are the elevation gradient, temperature, soil moisture, and the contents of Ca, Mg, mobile phosphorus, and total nitrogen.

  12. DESIGN OF A SYSTEM TO RETRIEVE SLUDGE FROM THE K EAST SPENT FUEL BASIN AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, A.L.; MacLean, G.T.; Ho, Q.T.; Fort, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Sludge Retrieval System (SRS), which was designed to safely remove radioactive sludge from the K East spent fuel basin at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. Basin water and sludge have the potential to leak to the environment due to the age and condition of the basins. Since the 100 K Area spent fuel basins are located next to the Columbia River, the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project mission includes the safe removal, containment, and transportation of sludge from the basins to a secure storage location. The scope of the SRS includes: A system capable of retrieving sludge from the K East basin floor, pits, and fuel canisters; Separation of debris from sludge, where debris is defined as any material greater than 0.64 cm (0.25 in.) in diameter; Collection of sludge particles in a container that can be transported away from the basin; Modifications to the K East basin to allow installation of the SRS. The SRS was designed by Fluor Federal Services. Changes to the designed system were made by Fluor Hanford as a result of full-scale testing performed after design. This paper discusses this testing, as well as operation and control of the system. Construction and startup testing was initially scheduled to be complete by the end of December 2002. Startup of the system is now expected in April 2003

  13. Mechanisms and models of 137Cs migration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The most wide-spread mechanisms and models of the 137 Cs isotope migration in soil are considered because of urgency of this problem conditioned by global fallout during nuclear weapon tests and contamination of territories due to accidents on nuclear objects (including the East Urals and ChNPP accident). It is shown that the 137 Cs migration models with an account of the sorption-desorption kinetics have from the practical adequacy certain advantage in comparison with other models, though they are mathematically more complex and require complex calculations [ru

  14. Radioactivity of tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashawati, A.; Al-Dalal, Z.; Al-Akel, B.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2002-04-01

    This report shows the results of studies related to radioactivity in tobacco and its pathways to human being. Tobacco contains high concentrations of natural radioactive materials especially polonium 210 and lead 210, which may reach a value of 27 mBq/g. The amount of polonium 210 in tobacco is related to the concentration of radon (the main source of polonium 210 in the agricultural areas) in addition to the over use of phosphate fertilizers for tobacco plantation. Radioactive materials present in tobacco enter the human body through smoking where 210 Po concentrates in the Alveolar lung; this may cause health risks including lung cancer. In addition, radiation doses due to smoking have been reported and some results of the studies carried out for radioactivity in tobacco at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  15. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  16. Immersed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This document presents a brief overview of immersed radioactive wastes worldwide: historical aspects, geographical localization, type of wastes (liquid, solid), radiological activity of immersed radioactive wastes in the NE Atlantic Ocean, immersion sites and monitoring

  17. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented

  18. Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. Contents: - Foreword; - Key Points for Policy Makers; - Executive Summary; - Introduction; - Theme 1 - Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in Perspective; - Theme 2 - The Outlook for Wastes Arising from Coal and from Nuclear Power Generation; - Risk, Perceived Risk and Public Attitudes; - Concluding Discussion and Lessons Learnt; - Strategic Issues for Radioactive Waste; - Strategic Issues for Hazardous Waste; - Case Studies - The Management of Coal Ash, CO 2 and Mercury as Wastes; - Risk and Perceived Risk; - List of Participants; - List of Abbreviations. (authors)

  19. Becquerel and natural origin radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the Becquerel as radioactivity measurement unit, this document briefly explains the origin of natural radioactivity (Earth formation and cosmic rays), gives and comments the evolution of radioactivity of some radionuclides (U 238 and descendants, Th 232 and descendants, K 40 ) between 4.5 billions yeas ago and nowadays. It also gives assessments of natural radioactivity due to radon in the atmosphere and in the soil, of natural radioactivity in building materials, coals, ashes, seawater and food. Some remarkable figures are then given

  20. Radioactivity measurement of tsunami sediments due to the Great East Japan Earthquake in Miyagi prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Chihiro; Joe, Seongjin

    2014-01-01

    The tsunami sediments and their directly under soils from 25 tsunami flooded areas in Miyagi prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake were analyzed quantitatively for radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) concentrations. It was found that the radiocesium released in the reactor accidents of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant stayed for at least 6 months in the tsunami sediments layer of a few centimeter thickness. On the other hand, from the results of the radiocesium extraction test using the tsunami sediments and 3 kinds of inorganic solvents, it was also found that the radiocesium in the tsunami sediments passed ca. 6 months after fall was hardly eluted with rain water (pH 5.6 ∼ 7.0) and combined strongly with clay minerals in the tsunami sediments. (K. Kato)

  1. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  2. Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration - SURAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)

  3. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 87 East 5th South Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00074)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Smuin, M.W.

    1989-10-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1984, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 87 East 5th South Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described

  4. Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniura, Wataru; Otani, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants caused a nuclear hazard. Given the fact, Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami. And then the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) ordered the licensees to put into practice the voluntarily compiled urgent safety measures, in order to ensure the effectiveness of the means for recovering cooling functions along with avoiding the release of radioactive substances to the possible minimum, even if a huge tsunami following a severe earthquake hits nuclear power plants. The following describes the state and the effect of the urgent safety measures implemented for 44 reactors (under operation) and 1 reactor (under construction) in Japan and also describes the measures to be implemented by the licensees of reactor operation in the future.

  5. Perspectives concerning radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a general overview of the principles of radioactive waste management as established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Subsequently, research and development related to radioactive waste management at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK·CEN is discussed. Different topical areas are treated including radioactive waste characterisation, decontamination and the long-term management of radioactive waste. The decommissioning of the BR3 reactor and the construction and the exploitation of the underground research laboratory HADES are cited as examples of the pioneering role that SCK·CEN has played in radioactive waste management.

  6. Radioactivity and geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.

    1992-01-01

    The paper recalls a few steps of the introduction of radioactivity in geophysics and astrophysics: contribution of radioelements to energy balance of the Earth, age of the Earth based on radioactive disintegration and the discovery of cosmic radiations

  7. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  8. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  9. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  10. Radioactive waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, J.-C.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of confining the radioactive wastes produced from the nuclear industry, after the ore concentration stage, is envisaged. These residues being not released into the environment are to be stored. The management policy consists in classifying them in view of adapting to each type of treatment, the suitable conditioning and storage. This classification is made with taking account of the following data: radioactivity (weak, medium or high) nature and lifetime of this radioactivity (transuranians) physical nature and volume. The principles retained are those of volume reduction and shaping into insoluble solids (vitrification) [fr

  11. Management of radioactive waste: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Paulo Sant'ana; Taynara Cristina Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from co...

  12. Approaches of the state committee on the environment protection to development of ecological requirements for radioactive wastes management generated in the decommissioning of nuclear submarines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechkurov, A. V.; Shusharina, N.M

    1999-07-01

    According to this presentation, handling of radioactive waste from the Russian nuclear submarines (NS) is complex because of a lack of sufficient infrastructure for the management of such wastes. The considerable part of decommissioned NSs is located at the main bases of the North and Pacific Navies and at the territories of the enterprises dealing with building and maintenance of NSs. Existing stationary and floating facilities for radioactive wastes are practically filled up completely and there is no adequate reserve facilities. Norway and the USA render their assistance in increasing the existing capacity of the liquid radioactive waste reprocessing facility of Atomflot, and Japan assists in the creation of a floating facility at Zvezda in the far east. The coastal infrastructure created in the 1960s for radioactive waste processing and long-term storage at the Fleet was not commissioned. The present storage facilities, particularly of trench and open type, are dangerous contamination sources for the environment. Realisation of the full-scaled and complex disposal scheme for reactor compartments of disposed NSs requires the solution of a large number of problems and the fundamental requirements on this work are outlined.

  13. Approaches of the state committee on the environment protection to development of ecological requirements for radioactive wastes management generated in the decommissioning of nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechkurov, A. V.; Shusharina, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    According to this presentation, handling of radioactive waste from the Russian nuclear submarines (NS) is complex because of a lack of sufficient infrastructure for the management of such wastes. The considerable part of decommissioned NSs is located at the main bases of the North and Pacific Navies and at the territories of the enterprises dealing with building and maintenance of NSs. Existing stationary and floating facilities for radioactive wastes are practically filled up completely and there is no adequate reserve facilities. Norway and the USA render their assistance in increasing the existing capacity of the liquid radioactive waste reprocessing facility of Atomflot, and Japan assists in the creation of a floating facility at Zvezda in the far east. The coastal infrastructure created in the 1960s for radioactive waste processing and long-term storage at the Fleet was not commissioned. The present storage facilities, particularly of trench and open type, are dangerous contamination sources for the environment. Realisation of the full-scaled and complex disposal scheme for reactor compartments of disposed NSs requires the solution of a large number of problems and the fundamental requirements on this work are outlined

  14. Liquid discharges from the Ringhals and Barsebaeck nuclear power plants. Report to the OSPAR commission in accordance with PARCOM recommendation 91/4 on radioactive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    With regard to the general objectives of the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention), the contracting parties have agreed, as stated in PARCOM Recommendation 91/4 on Radioactive Discharges, to apply best available technique (BAT) to reduce radioactive releases from the nuclear industry. Progress in implementing BAT shall be reported to the OSPAR Commission every four years. This report contains the Swedish submission for the third round of implementation reporting according to PARCOM Recommendation 91/4. The data provided are relevant to the Ringhals NPP which discharge into Convention waters, and the Barsebaeck NPP which discharge into waters close to the Convention area. The report was submitted to the Commission in December 1999

  15. Liquid discharges from the Ringhals and Barsebaeck nuclear power plants. Report to the OSPAR commission in accordance with PARCOM recommendation 91/4 on radioactive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    With regard to the general objectives of the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention), the contracting parties have agreed, as stated in PARCOM Recommendation 91/4 on Radioactive Discharges, to apply best available technique (BAT) to reduce radioactive releases from the nuclear industry. Progress in implementing BAT shall be reported to the OSPAR Commission every four years. This report contains the Swedish submission for the third round of implementation reporting according to PARCOM Recommendation 91/4. The data provided are relevant to the Ringhals NPP which discharge into Convention waters, and the Barsebaeck NPP which discharge into waters close to the Convention area. The report was submitted to the Commission in December 1999.

  16. Dossier: transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignon, H.; Brachet, Y.; Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Mauny, G.; Robine, F.; Plantet, F.; Pestel Lefevre, O.; Hennenhofer, G.; Bonnemains, J.

    1997-01-01

    This dossier is entirely devoted to the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials of civil use. It comprises 9 papers dealing with: the organization of the control of the radioactive materials transport safety (safety and security aspects, safety regulations, safety analysis and inspection, emergency plans, public information), the technical aspects of the regulation concerning the transport of radioactive materials (elaboration of regulations and IAEA recommendations, risk assessments, defense in depth philosophy and containers, future IAEA recommendations, expertise-research interaction), the qualification of containers (regulations, test facilities), the Transnucleaire company (presentation, activity, containers for spent fuels), the packages of radioactive sources for medical use (flux, qualification, safety and transport), an example of accident during radioactive materials transportation: the Apach train derailment (February 4, 1997), the sea transport of radioactive materials (international maritime organization (OMI), international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code, irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) safety rules), the transport of radioactive materials in Germany, and the point of view from an external observer. (J.S.)

  17. Geochemical Aspects of Formation of Large Oil Deposits in the Volga-Ural Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I.; Nosova, F.; Pronin, N.; Nosova, J.; Budkevich, T.

    2012-04-01

    The study of the rocks domanikoid type in the territory of the Ural-Volga region has an almost century-long history, beginning with the first studies of A.D. Archangelsky in the late 20's of last century. But nevertheless the question of the source of oil that formed the industrial deposits of Volga-Ural oil and gas province (OGP), where Romashkinskoye oil field occupies a special place, remains unresolved and topical. According to the sedimentary-migration theory of origin of oil and gas, it is supposed that the primary source of hydrocarbons in this area are the deposits of domanikoid type that contain a large ammount of sapropel organic matter (OM). Semiluki (domanik) horizon of srednefranski substage of the Upper Devonian is considered to be a typical domanikoid stratum. Investigation of the OM of the rocks and oils of the sedimentary cover on the basis of chromato-mass spectrometry method allows us to study the correlations between rock and oil and to assess the location (or absence) of the sources of hydrocarbons in the Paleozoic sedimentary cover. The results of geochemical study of dispersed organic matter (DOM) of rocks from Semiluksky horizon of the Upper Devonian and of the oil from Pashiysky horizon of the Middle Devonian form the basis of this paper. The objectives of this study were the following: to determine the original organic matter of the rocks, which would indicate the conditions of sedimentation of the supposed rock-oil sources; the study of chemofossils (biomarkers) in oil from Pashiyskiy horizon; and the identification of genetic association of DOM rocks from Semiluksky horizon with this oil on the basis of the oil-DOM correlation. The study of biomarkers was carried out with the help of chromato-mass spectrometry in the Laboratory of Geochemistry of Fossil Fuels (Kazan Federal University). In this study we used several informative parameters characterizing the depositional environment, the type of source OM and its maturity: STER / PENT, h

  18. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 87 East 500 South Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00153)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.J.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1991-07-01

    In 1980 the iste of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1987 and 1988, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 87 East 500 South Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Disposal of radioactive wastes. Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skitt, J.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of the history and present position of legislation in the United Kingdom on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The sections are headed: introduction and definitions; history; the Radioactive Substances Act 1960; disposal of solid radioactive wastes through Local Authority services; function of Local Authorities; exemptions; national radioactive waste disposal service; incidents involving radioactivity. (U.K.)

  20. Effects of non-radioactive material around radioactive material on PET image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshimitsu, Shinya; Yamane, Azusa; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Kangai, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous fat is a non-radioactive material surrounding the radioactive material. We developed a phantom, and examined the effect of subcutaneous fat on PET image quality. We created a cylindrical non-radioactive mimic of subcutaneous fat, placed it around a cylindrical phantom in up to three layers with each layer having a thickness of 20 mm to reproduce the obesity caused by subcutaneous fat. In the cylindrical phantom, hot spheres and cold spheres were arranged. The radioactivity concentration ratio between the hot spheres and B.G. was 4:1. The radioactivity concentration of B.G. was changed as follows : 1.33, 2.65, 4.00, and 5.30 kBq/mL. 3D-PET image were collected during 10 minutes. When the thickness of the mimicked subcutaneous fat increased from 0 mm to 60 mm, noise equivalent count decreased by 58.9-60.9% at each radioactivity concentration. On the other hand, the percentage of background variability increased 2.2-5.2 times. Mimic subcutaneous fat did not decrease the percentage contrast of the hot spheres, and did not affect the cold spheres. Subcutaneous fat decreases the noise equivalent count and increases the percentage of background variability, which degrades PET image quality. (author)

  1. The transport of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Poulter, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Regulations have been developed to ensure the safe transport of all radioactive materials by all modes (road, rail, sea and air). There are no features of radioactive waste which set it aside from other radioactive materials for transport, and the same regulations control all radioactive material transport. These regulations and their underlying basis are described in this paper, and their application to waste transport is outlined. (author)

  2. An interim report of the Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Countermeasures: measures for radioactive waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Countermeasures has studied on the measures for land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and ultra-low-level radioactive wastes and the measures for treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and transuranium wastes. The results of studies so far are presented as an interim report. In disposal of low-level radioactive wastes, the land disposal is being required increasingly. The measures according to the levels of radioactivity are necessary. For the ultra-low-level radioactive wastes, their occurrence in large quantities is expected along with reactor decommissioning. In disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes, the present status is a transition toward the practical stages. Transuranium wastes should increase in their arising in the future. (Mori, K.)

  3. Investigation of radioactive contamination at non-radioactive drains of the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Hiroaki; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Ebisawa, Toru; Kawano, Shinji; Kobayashi, Keiji.

    1982-05-01

    In April, 1981, it was disclosed that a drainage area at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station was so much contaminated with radioactivites. Although Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) officially provided an explanation of a process that resulted in the contamination, many problems remain unsolved on account of insufficient and limited investigations. The authors collected mud samples from contaminated manholes and examined radioactivities in them through the measurement of #betta#- and #betta#-spectra. Chemical separation of the samples was carried out in order to obtain precise concentration of radioactive cesium. Results are as follows: i) the concentration of radioactivities does not show monotonous decrease along the stream line but an anomalous peak at downstream manholes, ii) at the manhole specified No. 6 located rather downstream, 137 Cs concentration is significantly high and the composition of radioactive nuclides is quite different from that in the other manholes, and iii) additional radioactive contamination was observed in other manholes of non-radioactive drains which would not be influenced by the accident explained by MITI. Our present work has provided much more data than by MITI and made it clear that the overall data cnnot be consistent with the simple MITI explanation; a single radioactive release accident caused the disclosed contamination. It is concluded that non-radioactive water drains at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station had been under continual contamination. (author)

  4. International trends of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    1989-01-01

    The new trends of radioactive waste management in the world such as focusing on decreasing the amount of radioactive wastes, developing decontamination and decommissioning technology, conscientious solution for radiactive waste disposal, carrying out social services of waste treatment and quality assurance are reviewed. Besides, comments and suggestions are presented. Key words Radioactive waste management, Radioactive waste treatment, Radioactive waste disposal

  5. Climatic variability of east Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camerlengo, A.L.; Saadon, M.N.; Awang, M.; Somchit, H.; Rang, L.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to learn the variability of atmospheric pressure, relative humidity and insolation in East Malaysia. The main results of our study are: (1) a gentle pressure gradient is observed at the east coast in the boreal winter, (2) smaller atmospheric pressure values are noted during the first inter-monsoon period all across East Malaysia, (3) lesser insolation values are observed in Sarawak and at the east coast during the boreal winter as compared to the boreal summer, and (4) a poleward increase of insolation is registered. (author)

  6. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)

  7. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  8. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu ... prepare for RAI or surgery. How does radioactive iodine treatment work? Iodine is important for making thyroid ...

  9. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1976-12-01

    The following conclusions are reached: (1) safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; (2) basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; (3) the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and (4) the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged

  10. Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapelushnik, I.; Sheinfeld, M.; Avida, R.; Kadmon, Y.; Ellenbogen, M.; Tirosh, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne Radiation Monitoring System (ARMS) monitors air or ground radioactive contamination. The contamination source can be a radioactive plume or an area contaminated with radionuclides. The system is based on two major parts, an airborne unit carried by a helicopter and a ground station carried by a truck. The system enables real time measurement and analysis of radioactive plumes as well as post flight processing. The Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator purpose is to create a virtual space where the trained operators experience full radiation field conditions, without real radiation hazard. The ARMS is based on a flying platform and hence the simulator allows a significant reduction of flight time costs

  11. What to do with radioactive wastes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This power point presentation (82 slides) gives information on what is a radioactive waste, radioactivity and historical review of radioactivity, radioactive period, natural radioactivity (with examples of data), the three main radiation types (α, β, γ), the origin of radioactive wastes (nuclear power, research, defense, other), the proportion of radioactive wastes in the total of industrial wastes in France, the classification of nuclear wastes according to their activity and period, the quantities and their storage means, the 1991 december 30 law (France) related to the radioactive waste management, the situation in other countries (Germany, Belgium, Canada, USA, Finland, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland), volume figures and previsions for the various waste types in 2004, 2010 and 2020, the storage perspectives, the French national debate on radioactive waste management and the objective of perpetuated solutions, the enhancement of the public information, the 15 June 2006 law on a sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes with three main axis (deep separation and transmutation, deep storage, waste conditioning and long term surface storage), and the development of a nuclear safety and waste culture that could be extended to other types of industry

  12. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  13. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  14. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  15. Radioactivity in waters in SR Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobal, I.; Mihailovic, M.; Shkofljanec, M.; Zhlebnik, L.; Drobne, F.

    1977-12-01

    The radioactivity of samples of rivers Brebovscica and Sava with its contributaries was monitored. The Brebovscica was found to have an enchanced radioactivity due to the geological and mining excavations in the uranium mine Zirovski vrh. This radioactivity is lowered by a dillution in the Poljanska Sora where the radioactive contamination has been hardly detected. The radioactivity in the Sava is relatively low though a few places with enchanced values were found may be due to radioactive pollutants from conventional industries. But this ought to be confirmed in the future

  16. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1978-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the present situation, from a Belgian standpoint, in the field of the radioactive wastes processing. It estimates the annual quantity of various radioactive waste produced per 1000 MW(e) PWR installed from the ore mining till reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The methods of treatment concentration, fixation, final storable forms for liquid and solid waste of low activity and for high level activity waste. The storage of radioactive waste and the plutonium-bearing waste treatement are also considered. The estimated quantity of wastes produced for 5450 MW(e) in Belgium and their destination are presented. (A.F.)

  17. Contamination of foods by radioactive rains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Nakae, Y; Higasayama, S

    1955-01-01

    The radioactivities of various vegetable foods contaminated by radioactive rains in May, 1954, in the Kagoshima Area were detected. Tea showed especially high radioactivities which could be extracted with hot water. Radioactive Nb, Zr, Hf, Ce, Y, Pr, and La were detected in the hot water extractions of tea by ion-exchange chromatography. The partial contribution of /sup 40/K in these radioactive vegetables was critically examined.

  18. A summary of prospecting for radioactive minerals in Brazil 1952/1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.G.; Pierson, C.

    1974-01-01

    Descriptions of the geologic setting of localities where anomalous radioactivity was detected are presented. The four principal areas where possibly significant uranium deposits were discovered are: the sedimentary rocks of the Tucano Basin in the east-central portion of the State of Bahia; the zirconium ores in the alkaline rocks of Pocos de Caldas Plateau in the State of Minas Gerais; the gold-bearing conglomerates of the Serra de Jacobina in the central part of the state of Bahia and in the coal of southern Brazil, particularly in the Cambui-Figueira area of the Rio do Peixe coal field in northern Parana State. The two principal localities where thorium and associated rare earths were discovered are Morro do Ferro in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau and near the junction of the Ribeira and Itapirapua Rivers on the Sao Paulo-Parana border

  19. Historical records of radioactive contamination in biota at the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.R.; Markes, B.M.; Schmidt, J.W.; Shah, A.N.; Weiss, S.G.; Wilson, K.J.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes and reports a literature search of 85 environmental monitoring records of wildlife and vegetation (biota) at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site since 1965. These records were published annually and provided the majority of the data in this report. Additional sources of data have included records of specific facilities, such as site characterization documents and preoperational environmental surveys. These documents have been released for public use. Records before 1965 were still being researched and therefore not included in this document. The intent of compiling these data into a single source was to identify past and current concentrations of radionuclides in biota at specific facilities and waste sites within each operable unit that may be used to help guide cleanup activities in the 200 Areas to be completed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). The 200 East Area and 200 West Area were the locations of the Hanford Site separation and process facilities and waste management units. For the purposes of this document, a sample was of interest if a Geiger-Mueller counter equipped with a pancake probe-indicated beta/gamma emitting radioactivity above 200 counts per minute (cpm), or if laboratory radioanalyses indicated a radionuclide concentration equaled or exceeded 10 picocuries per gram (pCi/g). About 4,500 individual cases of monitoring for radionuclide uptake or transport in biota in the 200 Areas environs were included in the documents reviewed. About 1,900 (i.e., 42%) of these biota had radionuclide concentrations in excess of 10 pCi/g. These radionuclide transport or uptake cases were distributed among 45 species of wildlife (primarily small mammals and feces) and 30 species of vegetation. The wildlife species most commonly associated with radioactive contamination were the house mouse and the deer mouse and of vegetation species, the Russian thistle

  20. Geological and radioactive study served for uranium exploration in the Palaeogene-Neogene sediments, Syrian Steppe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, Y.; Kattaa, B.; Najjar, H.

    1988-01-01

    Paleo-Neogene terranes were geologically and radioactively surveyed over an area extends from T2-pump station to the east of As-Sukhneh, using 1/200000 satellite images and 1/25000 aerial photos. Five geological sheets and six major geological cross sections were performed. Rock facies were microscopically identified and the paleogeographical evolution of the immersed platform was extrapolated, which and due to the Palmyrdean Orogengy was undulated forming short and narrow depressions, some of them developed into isolated or semi-isolated basins by the Oligocene onset. Through out the Oligocene, two sedimentation regimes were dominant. The first, is marine-shallow platform one to the east becoming much shallower towards north-west with short swell in Wadi Slubi; the second, is subtidal-shoreline-deltaic westwards which turned lacustrine one in Rijm Al Qun by the end of Miocene persisting during the Palaeocene and Quaternary time. This facies differentiation is resulted by weak effect of Al-Rutbah - Al-Hamad uplift, which was once much stronger in the Senonian and Eocene, controlling phosphorite precipitation. Two very weak radioactive anomalies were registered. The first, was twice the intensity of normal field at the Upper Eocene chalky limestone. The second, was as much as four times the intensity of normal field. Some minor disperssed U-mineralizations were reported. The most favourable facies for hosting leached-U from the Eocene phosphorite in the south, which mobiled through lineaments-controlled drainage set, are the deltaic and shore line ones taking place in the isolated basins in north-west. The study of lateral and vertical facies changes, and the biophysiochemical conditions are very important to find out possible U-traps. The contribution of aerial and satellite images in surveying was too limited due to quality, scale and date of exposing. 6 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  1. Radioactive action code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    A new coding system, 'Hazrad', for buildings and transportation containers for alerting emergency services personnel to the presence of radioactive materials has been developed in the United Kingdom. The hazards of materials in the buildings or transport container, together with the recommended emergency action, are represented by a number of codes which are marked on the building or container and interpreted from a chart carried as a pocket-size guide. Buildings would be marked with the familiar yellow 'radioactive' trefoil, the written information 'Radioactive materials' and a list of isotopes. Under this the 'Hazrad' code would be written - three symbols to denote the relative radioactive risk (low, medium or high), the biological risk (also low, medium or high) and the third showing the type of radiation emitted, alpha, beta or gamma. The response cards indicate appropriate measures to take, eg for a high biological risk, Bio3, the wearing of a gas-tight protection suit is advised. The code and its uses are explained. (U.K.)

  2. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods

  3. EPA's Radioactive Source Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsick, D.

    2004-01-01

    The US EPA is the lead Federal agency for emergency responses to unknown radiological materials, not licensed, owned or operated by a Federal agency or an Agreement state (Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, 1996). The purpose of EPA's clean materials programme is to keep unwanted and unregulated radioactive material out of the public domain. This is achieved by finding and securing lost sources, maintaining control of existing sources and preventing future losses. The focus is on both, domestic and international fronts. The domestic program concentrates on securing lost sources, preventing future losses, alternative technologies like tagging of radioactive sources in commerce, pilot radioactive source roundup, training programs, scrap metal and metal processing facilities, the demolition industry, product stewardship and alternatives to radioactive devices (fewer radioactive source devices means fewer orphan sources). The international program consists of securing lost sources, preventing future losses, radiation monitoring of scrap metal at ports and the international scrap metal monitoring protocol

  4. Prerequisites and opportunities for repositioning of the Urals metallurgy within the Industry 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Romanova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the modern trends in the development of metallurgy, and classify the technological structure of metallurgical industry. The article contains specific features of the development of metallurgy in the conditions of industry formation. A special role in this process plays the pace of digitalization and robotization of the industry, the development of additive technologies, Internet of things. The authors substantiate the possibility of developing the metallurgy of the Middle Urals as a science-intensive, high-tech complex that meets the requirements of Industry 4.0. This possibility interrelates with its repositioning, one of the main tasks of which is the formation of new sales markets focused on high-tech consumer industries, as well as the preservation of traditional consumption sectors under conditions of increasing competition in the construction materials market. The authors underline the importance of international cooperation in the field of environmentally safe industrial development, with applying the best available technologies and innovative development in general. The authors propose a methodological approach for assessing the repositioning of the regional metallurgical complex. This approach is the consecutive implementation of the following stages: assessment of dynamics and the forecast of development of consumer steel products sector and its structure based on identified priority areas of technological development of metallurgy in the region; construction of a factor model describing the changes in parameters of the RMC repositioning process, and approximation of the characteristics of their nonlinear elements; building a mathematical model on the basis of neural network algorithms for assessing the process of repositioning the RMC, taking into account projected values of the RMK parameters in the process of repositioning and changing the structure of consumer markets for metal products; formation of a variable

  5. Iron marketing and modernisation in the Urals in XIX century: evident and implicit links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Leonidivich Bersenyov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernization theory, interpreted as a civilizational shift from traditional agrarian to a modern industrial society, allows considering innovations as the conditions necessary and sufficient for this transformation. Russia of the XIX century was characterized by similar processes. The transition to the new industrial technology foundation began decades before the abolition of serfdom. This paper tells about the experience of modernization of metallurgical production at Nizhny Tagil plants of Demidovs in 1840-1850. It is noted that export orientation of iron and steel in Western Europe played a powerful incentive to improve the technical and technological base of the mountain plants of the Middle Urals. Also important is the fact that the Demidovs administration has sought means to minimize the number of intermediaries in the sale of their products. The administration has sought ways to help commissioners get responses back from direct consumers of iron produced in Nizhny Tagil plants. Demidovs were interested, as they assessed the quality of the metal, which "internal properties" they would like to see in their iron in order to successfully use it in the production process. In turn, the domestic market was practicing somewhat different approach to trading metals - a network of regional sales offices in most major economic centers was functioning to better know the requirements for the quality of the metal and the volume of its production plan in line with the real needs of specific types of iron and copper. At the same time, the contradictory nature of the modernization process itself, in particular, the reluctance of the management of enterprises pass on the use of coal as a primary fuel source is highlighted. In fact, the use of coal Nizhny Tagil plants began to implement only in 1880, which did not stop Demidovs during the post-reform period to increase volumes of metal smelting on the old industrial-energy base.

  6. Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Northwest Quandrant of the Hanford 200 East Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Pickett, W.W.

    1994-06-01

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Northeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East area. This report summaries historical information such at waste history, temperature, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance, along with the components of the data management effort, such as waste status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layering Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates to generate these tank content estimates are also given in this report.

  7. Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Northwest Quandrant of the Hanford 200 East Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Pickett, W.W.

    1994-06-01

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Northeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East area. This report summaries historical information such at waste history, temperature, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance, along with the components of the data management effort, such as waste status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layering Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates to generate these tank content estimates are also given in this report

  8. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  9. Temporal and spatial variation in radioactivity deposition in Japan-influence of the Asian dust-Kosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi; Shinoda, Yoshihiro

    2007-01-01

    The possible effect of Asian dust-Kosa in radioactivity deposition, recorded during the recent years, is addressed. The Kosa events were remarkable during 2000 to 2002 in the Far East region, however no significant change was admitted in the MRI radioactivity deposition time series for 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Therefore, we looked at the nationwide distribution and seasonal trends in 90 Sr and 137 Cs depositions by using the data from the Environmental Radioactivity and Radiation Database available on the web. It was found that 137 Cs deposition was larger in northern Japan along the Japan Sea side during spring. The 137 Cs/ 90 Sr activity ratio as well as the 137 Cs specific activity tended to be larger at the high 137 Cs deposition sites. The influence of the Kosa during 2000 to 2002 had larger in northern Japan/Sea of Japan side and the source of the Kosa may be different from the conventional type of the Kosa. The high 137 Cs/ 90 Sr activity ratio and the high 137 Cs specific activity suggest the source area had higher precipitation rate (higher fallout), where the fractionation between the 137 Cs and 90 Sr proceeded. Such area may become new source area for the aeolian dust due possibly to the recent global climate change. This accords with the literature on the source statistics of the Asian dust during the 1990s and the early 2000s. (author)

  10. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  11. Radioactivity in cigaratte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Tanker, E.; Aksu, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Cigaratte is known to be hazardous to health due to nicotine and tar it contains.This is indicated on cigaratte packets by health warnings.However there is less known hazard of smoking due to intake of radioactive compounds by inhalation. This study dwells upon the radioactive hazard of smoking

  12. Disposal method of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetake, Naoto; Fukazawa, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of underground disposal of radioactive wastes for a long period of time by surrounding the periphery of the radioactive wastes with materials that can inhibit the migration of radioactive nuclides and are physically and chemically stable. Method: Hardening products prepared from a water-hardenable calcium silicate compound and an aqueous solution of alkali silicate have compression strength as comparable with that of concretes, high water tightness and adsorbing property to radioactive isotopes such as cobalt similar to that of concretes and they also show adsorption to cesium which is not adsorbed to concretes. Further, the kneaded slurry thereof is excellent in the workability and can be poured even into narrow gaps. Accordingly, by alternately charging granular radioactive wastes and this slurry before hardening into the ground, the radioactive wastes can be put to underground disposal stably with simple procedures. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 273 East 1st South Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00092)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Smuin, M.W.

    1989-12-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1984 and 1985, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 273 East 1st South Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 280 South 3rd East Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00099)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Wilson, M.J.

    1990-02-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1985 and 1986, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 280 South 3rd East Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 397 East 3rd South Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00168)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.J.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1991-07-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1987 and 1988, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 397 East 3rd South Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 464 South 1st East Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00071)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.J.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1991-07-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1986 and 1987, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 464 South 1st East Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 98 East 5th South Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00076)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Smuin, M.W.

    1989-10-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management program with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1984, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 98 East 5th South Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 381 East 3rd South Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00140)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Smuin, M.W.

    1989-10-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1986, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity at 381 East 3rd South Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 281 East 3rd South Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00138)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Wilson, M.J.

    1990-02-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1985, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 281 East 3rd South Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 384 South 2nd East Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00084)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Smuin, M.W.

    1989-10-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1984, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 384 South 2nd East Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 396 South 2nd East Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00085)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Smuin, M.W.

    1989-12-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1985, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 396 South 2nd East Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 34 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 225 South 2nd East Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00114)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Smuin, M.W.

    1989-12-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1985 and 1986, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 225 South 2nd East Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 196 South 2nd East Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00135)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Smuin, M.W.

    1989-12-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1986, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 196 South 2nd East Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 148 East 4th South Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00087)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Smuin, M.W.

    1989-12-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1984, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 148 East 4th South Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 217 South 2nd East Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00097)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Wilson, M.J.

    1990-02-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1985 and 1986, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 217 South 2nd East Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 196 East 3rd South Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00083)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Smuin, M.W.

    1989-10-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Surplus Facilities Management program with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1984 and 1985, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 196 East 3rd South Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 433 South 2nd East Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00103)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Wilson, M.J.

    1990-02-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity)properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1984 and 1985, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 433 South 2nd East Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 2 tabs., 3 refs

  8. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1996 and 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.; Pollard, D.; Hayden, E.; Smith, V.; Fegan, M.; Ryan, T.P.; Dowdall, A.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out be the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 1996 and 1997. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure to the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield continue to be the principal source of this contamination. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected each year. The samples were analysed for a range of contaminating radionuclides at the Institute's radioanalytical laboratory. The results show that the radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentration of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites during the reporting period. The main pathway contributing to the exposure of the Irish public is the consumption of seafood. The committed effective dose to heavy consumers of seafood due to artificial radionuclides in 1996 was 1.6 μSv and in 1997 was 1.4 μSv. in 1996 was 1.6 μSv and in 1997 was 1.4 μSv

  9. Low-level radioactive biomedical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.

    A summary of the management and hazards of low-level radioactive biomedical wastes is presented. The volume, disposal methods, current problems, regulatory agencies, and possible solutions to disposal problems are discussed. The benefits derived from using radioactivity in medicine are briefly described. Potential health risks are discussed. The radioactivity in most of the radioactive biomedical waste is a small fraction of that contained naturally in the human body or in the natural environment. Benefit-risk-cost considerations are presented. The cost of managing these wastes is getting so high that a new perspective for comparison of radioactivity (facts, risks, costs, benefits and trade-offs) and alternate approaches to minimize the risk and cost and maximize the benefits is suggested

  10. Trans-cult-ural fandom: Desire, technology and the transformation of fan subjectivities in the Japanese female fandom of Hong Kong stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Hitchcock Morimoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the ways in which affective desire and new media technologies were mobilized by Japanese female fans of Hong Kong films and stars to produce a fan subjectivity that was at once cult and transcultural. The origins of this fandom, which flourished from around 1985 through the 1990s, lay in structural affinities of the Japanese and Hong Kong entertainment industries of the 1980s, as well as the ways in which popular stars of both places were expected to perform their stardom. In particular, a shared valuing of stars' relatability and approachability translated, for Japanese fans, into a seemingly paradoxical sense of intimacy with the stars of another culture, an intimacy that was fostered and heightened by women's pursuit of Hong Kong media outside the official distribution channels of the Japanese media industry. I examine the knowledges required by women to seek out favorite stars' films on VHS and VCD, as well as the sites of such consumption, which combined in the production of what I tentatively term a trans-cult-ural fan subjectivity that was at once cultish in its intensity and desire for ownership, as well as transcultural in its performance by fans.

  11. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Medical Journal is intended for publication of papers on ... research on problems relevant to East Africa and other African countries will receive special ... Analysis of survival patterns of TB‐HIV co‐infected patients in relation to ...

  12. Handling of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza Mir, Azucena

    1998-01-01

    Based on characteristics and quantities of different types of radioactive waste produced in the country, achievements in infrastructure and the way to solve problems related with radioactive waste handling and management, are presented in this paper. Objectives of maintaining facilities and capacities for controlling, processing and storing radioactive waste in a conditioned form, are attained, within a great range of legal framework, so defined to contribute with safety to people and environment (au)

  13. Learning more about radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This digest brochure explains what radioactivity is, where it comes from, how it is measured, what are its effects on the body and the way to protect it against these effects, the uses of radioactivity (In the medical field, In industry, In the food industry, and In the cultural world). It ends with some examples of irradiation levels, of natural radioactivity and with the distribution in France of various sources of exposure. (J.S.)

  14. Development of radioactive seawater monitors, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Masanori

    1989-01-01

    Applicability of some adsorptive materials to monitoring of radioactive seawater is generalized. Studied techniques that allow utilization of adsorptive materials in monitoring radioactive seawater are the substitute methods using sampled seawater or indicator plants such as gulfweed and the method using adsorptive materials for continuous monitoring of underwater radioactivity, the method using them for field measurement of under water radioactivity from a boat, and the method using an adsorptive material moored underwater for integration monitoring of underwater radioactivity. Selected adsorptive materials that were judged suitable for monitoring radioactive seawater is the one composed of some kind of adsorptive compound (manganese dioxide or ferrocyan cobalt potassium) fixed to crylic cellulose. This adsorptive material permits selective scavenging radioactive Cs, Mn, Co, Zn, Ce, Fe, Ru, Ra Th, Pu and Am from seawater. (aurhor)

  15. Radioactive Substances Act 1960. Keeping and use of radioactive materials; list of registrations in England and Wales issued under the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 for the keeping and use of radioactive materials and mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    Through the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 (RSA 60), Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (Radioactive Substances) (HMIP) exercises control, on behalf of the Secretary of State for the Environment, over the keeping and use of radioactive material and the accumulation and disposal of radioactive waste in England. HMIP also provides technical advice to the Secretary of State for Wales in connection with the enforcement of RSA 60 in Wales. Registrations under RSA 60 for the keeping and use of radioactive materials in England and Wales are issued respectively by the Secretaries of State for the Environment and Wales, following careful assessment of the radiological consequences for members of the public. Registrations impose strict limits and conditions and premises and apparatus are subject to scrutiny by HMIP Inspectors to ensure compliance. A list contains names and addresses of those registered in England and Wales for the keeping and use of radioactive materials and mobile apparatus

  16. Radioactive contamination in imported foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Kimiko; Maki, Toshio; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawai, Yuka; Kobayashi, Maki; Shioda, Hiroko; Nishima, Taichiro

    1990-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, explosion occurred in Chernobyl nuclear power station in USSR, and radioactivity contamination was brought about in almost all countries in the world. In European countries, crops were contaminated directly with radioactive fallout to high concentration. Also in Japan, after one week the radioactivity higher than usual was detected in environment, and also in vegetables, milk, tea leaves and others. Thereafter, in order to cope with the import of contaminated foods, inspection and watch system was strengthened by deciding the interim limit of radioactive concentration. However the cases of exceeding the interim limit were often reported. In order to remove the harmful foods due to radioactive contamination and to meet the fear of consumers, the authors measured the radioactive concentration in foods distributed in Tokyo and investigated the actual state of contamination. The samples were 920 imported foods. The experimental method, the preparation of samples, the method of analysis and the results are reported. The samples in which the radioactive concentration exceeding 50 Bq/kg was detected were 25 cases. The food having the high frequency of detection was flavors. (K.I.)

  17. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, many individual values for radioactivity in the air, in foodstuffs and in the soil were measured and published. Prof. Dr. Rolf Steiner, Wiesbaden, the author of this paper, evaluated the host of data - mostly official pollution data -, drew conclusions regarding the radioactivity actually released at Chernobyl, and used the data to test the calculation model adotped by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./RB) [de

  18. The preparation of radioactive sources with radioactivities of less than 110 kilobecquerels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1989-03-01

    A description is given of the various radioactive sources prepared in the ANSTO Radioisotope Standards Laboratory and the procedures associated with their preparation. ANSTO is authorised by CSIRO to maintain the Commonwealth standard of activity of radionuclides. Counting sources are required for the standardisation of solutions of radionuclides. Calibration sources are required for equipment used to detect radioactivity, such as gamma-ray spectrometers, and can be supplied to clients in other organisations. The maximum radioactivity supplied is 110 kBq. 7 refs., 65 figs

  19. Structural Change of Gross Regional Product in the Subjects of Ural Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Vladimirovich Gamukin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The important factor of the stability of the national economy is the adaptive capability of regional economies to damping of external and internal factors of risk. It occurs thanks to the variety of the developed industry structures of the economy in regions as well as to the constant process of their transformation that finds reflection in the structure of the gross regional product (GRP. It is possible to consider three main strategies of the development of the structure of regional economy: 1 the reduction of the economies of regions to the balanced condition; 2 the emphasis on the individualization of the structure of regional economy; 3 the combined strategy, when regions with various structure of economy are integrated into macro-regions in which there is a compilation of structure. In the latter case, this can result in both the leveling of the GRP structure of the territorial subjects of the Russian Federation included in the region and its convergence to macro-region indicators, in general (for example, to the federal district’s indicators. For the confirmation of this hypothesis, the analysis of GRP of the subjects included in the Ural Federal District for the period of 2005–2014 is carried out. As a result, a number of conclusions are formulated. Thus, the measurements with the use of the Ryabtsev Index and Szalai Index have shown that the GRP structure of autonomous areas is most close to the GRP structure of the federal district. At the same time, during the analyzed period, there was a reducing in a share of mining operations along with the increase in a share of GRP types referred to the auxiliary and social component of economic activity. In the federal district, there is a slow movement to a more balanced participation of regions of the district in the generation of GRP total amount. When using the author’s index of the structure determined by the double calculation of the sum of squared deviations, the tendency towards

  20. Design of a System to Retrieve Sludge from the K East Spent Fuel Basin at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TWITCHELL, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Sludge Retrieval System (SRS), which was designed to safely remove radioactive sludge from the K East spent fuel basin at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. Basin water and sludge have the potential to leak to the environment due to the age and condition of the basins. Since the 100 K Area spent fuel basins are located next to the Columbia River, the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project mission includes the safe removal, containment, and transportation of sludge from the basins to a secure storage location. The scope of the SRS includes: (1) a system capable of retrieving sludge from the K East basin floor, pits, and fuel canisters; (2) separation of debris from sludge, where debris is defined as any material greater than 0.64 cm (0.25 in.) in diameter; (3) collection of sludge particles in a container that can be transported away from the basin; and (4) modifications to the K East basin to allow installation of the SRS. The SRS was designed by Fluor Federal Services. Changes to the designed system were made by Fluor Hanford as a result of full-scale testing performed after design. This paper discusses this testing, as well as operation and control of the system. Construction and startup testing was initially scheduled to be complete by the end of December 2002. Startup of the system is now expected in April 2003