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Sample records for east river pipe

  1. Fracture assessment of Savannah River Reactor carbon steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, G.E.; Stoner, K.J.; Caskey, G.R.; Begley, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors have been in operation since the mid-1950's. One postulated failure mechanism for the reactor piping is brittle fracture of the original A285 and A53 carbon steel piping. Material testing of archival piping determined (1) the static and dynamic tensile properties; (2) Charpy impact toughness; and (3) the static and dynamic compact tension fracture toughness properties. The nil-ductility transition temperature (NDTT), determined by Charpy impact test, is above the minimum operating temperature for some of the piping materials. A fracture assessment was performed to demonstrate that potential flaws are stable under upset loading conditions and minimum operating temperatures. A review of potential degradation mechanisms and plant operating history identified weld defects as the most likely crack initiation site for brittle fracture. Piping weld defects, as characterized by radiographic and metallographic examination, and low fracture toughness material properties were postulated at high stress locations in the piping. Normal operating loads, upset loads, and residual stresses were assumed to act on the postulated flaws. Calculated allowable flaw lengths exceed the size of observed weld defects, indicating adequate margins of safety against brittle fracture. Thus, a detailed fracture assessment was able to demonstrate that the piping systems will not fail by brittle fracture, even though the NDTT for some of the piping is above the minimum system operating temperature

  2. River crossing: combining basic hydraulics with pipe protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnicero, Martin [TGN Transportadora de Gas del Norte, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Integrity Dept.], e-mail: Martin.Carnicero@tgn.com.ar

    2009-07-01

    As a complement to the paper presented in 2003 (IBP505-03 River crossings: a decision making scheme for the execution of protection works), this paper is about sharing the experience collected during the following 6 years, regarding the performance of remediation works. At that time, alternatives were presented for erosion control in river beds (free spanning, unburied and buried pipe), river banks (curves and meanders), flood plains, river diversions through the right of way, and rivers subject to debris flow. While developing a solution, basic hydraulic principles must be taken into consideration, keeping in mind that the primary objective is to protect a pipeline. For each of the typical solutions discussed in the 2003 paper, there will be an example with a brief theoretical explanation, a conceptual justification of the solution adopted, and recommendations for construction details which become critical for the success of the projects implemented. (author)

  3. 77 FR 43167 - Safety Zone; Electric Zoo Fireworks, East River, Randall's Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... establishes a temporary safety zone on the waters of the East River in the vicinity of Randall's Island, NY.... This temporary safety zone will restrict vessels from a portion of the East River around the location... area is a temporary safety zone: all navigable waters of the East River within a 164-yard radius of the...

  4. 78 FR 24677 - Safety Zone; XA The Experimental Agency Fireworks, Pier 34, East River, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Final Rule This rule establishes a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the East River, in... Fireworks, Pier 34, East River, NY. (a) Regulated Area. The following area is a temporary safety zone: all... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; XA The Experimental Agency Fireworks, Pier 34, East River, NY AGENCY: Coast...

  5. Magnetic properties of Surabaya river sediments, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariyanto, Bijaksana, Satria

    2017-07-01

    Surabaya river is one of urban rivers in East Java Province, Indonesia that is a part of Brantas river that flows in four urban and industrial cities of Mojokerto, Gresik, Sidoarjo, and Surabaya. The urban populations and industries along the river pose serious threat to the river mainly for their anthropogenic pollutants. This study aims to characterize the magnetic properties of sediments in various locations along Surabaya river and correlate these magnetic properties to the level of pollution along the river. Samples are taken and measured through a series of magnetic measurements. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility of sediments ranges from 259.4 to 1134.8 × 10-8 m3kg-1. The magnetic minerals are predominantly PSD to MD magnetite with the grain size range from 6 to 14 μm. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility tends to decreases downstream as accumulation of magnetic minerals in sediments is affected not only by the amount of household and industrial wastes but also by sediment dredging, construction of embankments, and extensive erosion arround the river. Sediments located in the industrial zone on the upstream area tend to have higher mass-specific magnetic susceptibility than in the non-industrial zones on the downstream area.

  6. Probabilistic evaluation of main coolant pipe break indirectly induced by earthquakes Savannah River Project L and P Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.A.; Wesley, D.A.; Awadalla, N.G.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    A probabilistic evaluation of seismically-induced indirect pipe break for the Savannah River Project (SRP) L- and P-Reactor main coolant (process water) piping has been conducted. Seismically-induced indirect pipe break can result primarily from: (1) failure of the anchorage of one or more of the components to which the pipe is anchored; or (2) failure of the pipe due to collapse of the structure. the potential for both types of seismically-induced indirect failures was identified during a seismic walkdown of the main coolant piping. This work involved: (1) identifying components or structures whose failure could result in pipe failure; (2) developing seismic capacities or fragilities of these components; (3) combining component fragilities to develop plant damage state fragilities; and (4) convolving the plant seismic fragilities with a probabilistic seismic hazard estimate for the site in order to obtain estimates of seismic risk in terms of annual probability of seismic-induced indirect pipe break

  7. Foraging ecology of least terns and piping plovers nesting on Central Platte River sandpits and sandbars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Stucker, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Federally listed least terns (Sternula antillarum) and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) nest on riverine sandbars on many major midcontinent river systems. On the Central Platte River, availability of sandbar habitat is limited, and both species nest on excavated sandpits in the river's floodplain. However, the extent to which sandpit-nesting birds use riverine habitats for foraging is unknown. We evaluated use of foraging habitats by least terns and piping plovers by collecting data on movements, behavior, foraging habitat, and productivity. We radiomarked 16 piping plovers and 23 least terns in 2009-2010 and monitored their movements using a network of fixed telemetry dataloggers. Piping plovers were detected primarily by the datalogger located in their nesting sandpit, whereas least terns were more frequently detected on dataloggers outside of the nesting sandpit. Telemetry data and behavioral observations showed that least terns tended to concentrate at the Kearney Canal Diversion Gates, where forage fish were apparently readily available. Fish sampling data suggested that forage fish were more abundant in riverine than in sandpit habitats, and behavioral observations showed that least terns foraged more frequently in riverine than in sandpit habitats. Piping plovers tended to forage in wet substrates along sandpit shorelines, but also used dry substrates and sandpit interior habitats. The greater mobility of least terns makes a wider range of potential foraging habitats available during brood rearing, making them able to exploit concentrations of fish outside the nesting colony. Thus, our data suggest that different spatial scales should be considered in managing nesting and foraging habitat complexes for piping plovers and least terns.

  8. Bacterial community radial-spatial distribution in biofilms along pipe wall in chlorinated drinking water distribution system of East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Ren, Hongxing; Ye, Xianbei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yan; Lou, Liping; Cheng, Dongqing; He, Xiaofang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Shangde; Fu, Liusong; Hu, Baolan

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms in the pipe wall may lead to water quality deterioration and biological instability in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). In this study, bacterial community radial-spatial distribution in biofilms along the pipe wall in a chlorinated DWDS of East China was investigated. Three pipes of large diameter (300, 600, and 600 mm) were sampled in this DWDS, including a ductile cast iron pipe (DCIP) with pipe age of 11 years and two gray cast iron pipes (GCIP) with pipe ages of 17 and 19 years, and biofilms in the upper, middle, and lower parts of each pipe wall were collected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and culture-based method were used to quantify bacteria. 454 pyrosequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that the biofilm density and total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) contents increased gradually from the top to the bottom along the pipe wall. Microorganisms were concentrated in the upper and lower parts of the pipe wall, together accounting for more than 80 % of the total biomass in the biofilms. The bacterial communities in biofilms were significantly different in different areas of the pipe wall and had no strong interaction. Compared with the upper and lower parts of the pipe wall, the bacterial community in the middle of the pipe wall was distributed evenly and had the highest diversity. The 16S rRNA genes of various possible pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica, were detected in the biofilms, and the abundances of these possible pathogens were highest in the middle of the pipe wall among three areas. The detachment of the biofilms is the main reason for the deterioration of the water quality in DWDSs. The results of this study suggest that the biofilms in the middle of the pipe wall have highly potential risk for drinking water safety, which provides new ideas for the study of the microbial ecology in

  9. Palaeoflood evidence on the River Nore, South East Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Ciara; Turner, Jonathan; Bourke, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Past geomorphic changes can be detected in sediment sinks, through the investigation of natural sediment archives. Since the advent of palaeoflood hydrology in the 1980s, numerous authors have demonstrated that such sediment deposits record valuable evidence of past flooding events. Many of these studies have focussed on fluvial systems in arid environments, with bedrock channels proving to be particularly successful field sites. In some districts, the collected datasets are now routinely employed to augment analyses of flood frequency and magnitude, which have traditionally relied on extrapolation of short hydrometric datasets. This study targets river reaches in a temperate humid environment, with a predominantly alluvial channel. The River Nore is one of the largest catchments draining South East Ireland. It is situated in a valley with an inherited glacial legacy and is principally a lowland river catchment. Specific morphological zones have been targeted which are optimal for flood deposit preservation, including palaeochannels, tributary junctions and floodplain overbank settings.There are a variety of anthropogenic pressures evident in this landscape. Among them are channelisation of select tributaries, a legacy of coal mining in the upland Carboniferous limestones, and the installation of man-made obstacles or modifications along the length of the river channel such as sluices and weirs. Regarding land-use, the majority of the catchment is dominated by agriculture, mainly pasture with some tillage. This study investigates palaeoflood evidence in the River Nore catchment and examines the development of the river floodplain using a variety of complementary field and desk-based methods. The sub-surface and micro-topography of river reaches are investigated using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology. Flood deposits have been characterised by examination of bank exposures and sediment cores. Installation of sediment traps

  10. 77 FR 10960 - Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...'' W (Port Morris Stacks), and all waters of the Bronx Kill southeast of the Bronx Kill Rail Road...-AA87 Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the East River and Bronx Kill, in the vicinity of Randalls and Wards Islands, New York. This...

  11. 33 CFR 110.70a - Northeast River, North East, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast River, North East, Md. 110.70a Section 110.70a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70a Northeast River, North East, Md. The water...

  12. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area...) in length, carrying persons for the purpose of viewing the fireworks, may take position in an area...

  13. NUMERICAL MODELING OF DNEPR RIVER WATER POLLUTION AFTER EMERGENCY LEAKAGE FROM THE AMMONIA PIPE "TOLYATTI – ODESSA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2D numerical model was developed and used to simulate river pollution after accident on the ammonia pipe over Dnipro River. The model is based on the numerical integration of the K-gradient transport model and potential flow. The results of numerical experiment are presented.

  14. Effectiveness of distributed temperature measurements for early detection of piping in river embankments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersan, Silvia; Koelewijn, André R.; Simonini, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Internal erosion is the cause of a significant percentage of failure and incidents involving both dams and river embankments in many countries. In the past 20 years the use of fibre-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) in dams has proved to be an effective tool for the detection of leakages and internal erosion. This work investigates the effectiveness of DTS for dike monitoring, focusing on the early detection of backward erosion piping, a mechanism that affects the foundation layer of structures resting on permeable, sandy soils. The paper presents data from a piping test performed on a large-scale experimental dike equipped with a DTS system together with a large number of accompanying sensors. The effect of seepage and piping on the temperature field is analysed, eventually identifying the processes that cause the onset of thermal anomalies around piping channels and thus enable their early detection. Making use of dimensional analysis, the factors that influence this thermal response of a dike foundation are identified. Finally some tools are provided that can be helpful for the design of monitoring systems and for the interpretation of temperature data.

  15. Accuracy of the Missouri River Least Tern and Piping Plover Monitoring Program: considerations for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Anteau, Michael J.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Roche, Erin A.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Buhl, Thomas K.; Dovichin, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    The upper Missouri River system provides nesting and foraging habitat for federally endangered least terns (Sternula antillarum; hereafter “terns”) and threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter “plovers”). These species are the subject of substantial management interest on the Missouri River for several reasons. First, ecosystem recovery is a goal for management agencies that seek to maintain or restore natural functions and native biological communities for the Missouri River system. Terns and plovers are recognized as important ecosystem components that are linked with the river’s ecological functions. Second, although both species breed beyond the Missouri River system, the Missouri River is one of the principal breeding areas in the Northern Great Plains; thus, the river system is a focal area for recovery actions targeted at regional population goals. Third, a Biological Opinion for Missouri River operations established annual productivity goals for terns and plovers, and the recovery plan for each species established annual population goals. Meeting these goals is a key motivation in management decision making and implementation with regard to both species. A myriad of conservation and management interests necessitate understanding numbers, distribution, and productivity of terns and plovers on the Missouri River system. To this end, a Tern and Plover Monitoring Program (TPMP) was implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (hereafter “Corps”) in 1986, and has since provided annual estimates of tern and plover numbers and productivity for five Missouri River reservoirs and four river reaches (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1993). The TPMP has served as the primary source of information about the status of terns and plovers on the Missouri River, and TPMP data have been used for a wide variety of purposes. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) was tasked by the Corps to

  16. 76 FR 62298 - Special Local Regulations; Line of Sail Marine Parade, East River and Brunswick River, Brunswick, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Line of Sail Marine Parade, East River and Brunswick River, Brunswick... during the Line of Sail Marine Parade on Saturday, October 8, 2011. The marine parade will consist of... did not receive notice of the Line of Sail Marine Parade with sufficient time to publish an NPRM or to...

  17. Archaeological Investigations on the East Fork of the Salmon River, Custer County, Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    coniferous environment in addition to pine marten (Martes americana), red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), porcupine (Erithizon dorsatum), mountain vole...can be seen in small herds throughout the East Fork valley from the Salmon River to Big Boulder Creek. Two bands of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep...utilize the Challis Planning Unit, one on the East Fork and the other in the Birch Creek area. The East Fork herd is comprised of approximately 50-70

  18. [Seasonal changes of optical absorption properties of river and lake in East Liaohe River basin, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan Yan; Su, Dong Hui; Shao, Tian Tian

    2017-06-18

    The absorption characteristics of optically active constituents (OACs) in water column are important optical properties and basic parameters of establishing the inverse analysis model. Comparative analyses about seasonal variability of the optical absorption characteristics (phytoplankton, non-algal particles and chromophoric dissolved organic matter absorption characteristics) and water quality status of East Liaohe River basin were conducted based on the water samples in Erlong-hu Reservoir collected in June, September and October of 2011 and samples in East Liaohe River in October of 2012. The results demonstrated that the eutrophication status of Erlonghu Reservoir was lower in June, eutrophic in September and moderately eutrophic in October. Some of the sampling points of the East Liaohe River belonged to the middle trophic level and the other part belonged to the eutrophic level. The absorption coefficient of each component of water increased with increasing nutrient level. Besides, the absorption spectra of total suspended particulate of Erlonghu Reservoir in June and October were similar to that of non-algal particles, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) contributed most to the total absorption of water. The absorption spectra of total suspended particulate matter in September were similar to that of phytoplankton and phytoplankton was the dominant contributor to the total absorption. For samples of Erlonghu Reservoir in June and September, a ph (440) and total phosphorus (TP) were correlated closely with each other. Significant correlation between a ph (440) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of Erlonghu Reservoir in June was observed, while a d (440) was only correlated with Chla. There were positive correlations between a ph (675) and Chla, Carlson index (TLI) in Erlonghu Reservoir (September) and East Liaohe River. Obvious differences of water optical properties were found between river and lake located in the East Liaohe River basin as

  19. Assessment of water quality of Obueyinomo River, Ovia North East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high WQI values in all the stations studied which exceeded the benchmark of 100 showed that the water from this river is unfit for drinking purposes and should be treated before consumption by inhabitants of the area. Keywords: Physicochemical parameters, River, Water quality index, Contamination ...

  20. Detection probability of least tern and piping plover chicks in a large river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Erin A.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Dovichin, Colin M.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the abundance and stability of populations of conservation concern is often complicated by an inability to perfectly detect all members of the population. Mark-recapture offers a flexible framework in which one may identify factors contributing to imperfect detection, while at the same time estimating demographic parameters such as abundance or survival. We individually color-marked, recaptured, and re-sighted 1,635 federally listed interior least tern (Sternula antillarum; endangered) chicks and 1,318 piping plover (Charadrius melodus; threatened) chicks from 2006 to 2009 at 4 study areas along the Missouri River and investigated effects of observer-, subject-, and site-level covariates suspected of influencing detection. Increasing the time spent searching and crew size increased the probability of detecting both species regardless of study area and detection methods were not associated with decreased survival. However, associations between detection probability and the investigated covariates were highly variable by study area and species combinations, indicating that a universal mark-recapture design may not be appropriate.

  1. Assessment of water quality of Ogbese River in Ovia North-East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pollution of Ogbese River in Ovia North-East L.G.A. of Edo State, Nigeria was studied. Parameters like pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, colour, odour, chlorides, nitrates, phosphates and heavy metal ions such as lead, chromium, zinc etc, were analyzed. Also various techniques such as titrimetric methods, atomic ...

  2. 75 FR 38411 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA, Event-Road Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA, Event--Road Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... is necessary to facilitate a public event, the Chelsea River Revel 5K Road Race. DATES: This... public event, the Chelsea River Revel 5K Road Race. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed...

  3. Flood-inundation maps for the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.4-mile reach of the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana, from where the Flatrock and Driftwood Rivers combine to make up East Fork White River to just upstream of the confluence of Clifty Creek with the East Fork White River, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03364000, East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana. Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv/?site_no=03364000&agency_cd=USGS&). The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs for the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana at their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system Website (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/), that may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at USGS streamgage 03364000, East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data), having a 0.37-ft vertical accuracy and a 1.02 ft

  4. Hydrodynamics and Connectivity of Channelized Floodplains: Insights from the Meandering East Fork White River, Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, J. A.; David, S. R.; Edmonds, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    High resolution topography reveals that meandering river floodplains in Indiana commonly have networks of channels. These floodplain channel networks are most prevalent in agricultural, low-gradient, wide floodplains. It appears that these networks are formed when floodplain channels connect oxbows to each other and the main river channel. Collectively, the channels in the floodplain create an interconnected network of pathways that convey water beginning at flows less than bankfull, and as stage increases, more of the floodplain becomes dissected by floodplain channels. In this work, we quantify the hydrodynamics and connectivity of the flow on the floodplain and in the main channel of the East Fork White River near Seymour, Indiana, USA. We constructed a two-dimensional numerical model using HECRAS of the river-floodplain system from LiDAR data and from main-channel river bathymetry to elucidate the behaviour of these floodplain channels across a range of flows. Model calibration and verification data included stage from a USGS gage, high-water marks at a high and medium flow, and an aerial photograph of inundation in the floodplain channels. The numerical model simulated flow depth and velocity, which was used to quantify connectivity of the floodplain channels, exchange between the main channel and floodplain channels, and residence time of water on the floodplain. Model simulations suggest that the floodplain channels convey roughly 50% of the total flow at what is typically considered "bankfull" flow. Overall, we present a process-based approach for analyzing complex floodplain-river systems where an individual floodplain-river system can be distilled down to a set of characteristic curves. Notably, we map the East Fork White River system to exchange-residence time space and argue that this characterization forms the basis for thinking about morphologic evolution (e.g., sediment deposition and erosion) and biogeochemistry (e.g., nitrate removal) in floodplain-river

  5. Taenia sp. in human burial from Kan River, East Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Vybornov, Anton Vasilevich; Alekseevich, Tsybankov Alexander; Sergeyevich, Slavinsky Vyacheslav; Lysenko, Danil Nikolaevich; Matveev, Vyacheslav Evgenievich

    2017-05-01

    We present an arhaeoparasitological analysis of a unique burial from the Neftprovod II burial ground in East Siberia, which dated from the Bronze Age. Analysis of a sediment sample from the sacral region of the pelvis revealed the presence of Taenia sp. eggs. Because uncooked animal tissue is the primary source of Taenia, this indicated that the individual was likely consuming raw or undercooked meat of roe deer, red deer, or elk infected with Taenia. This finding represents the oldest case of a human infected with Taenia sp. from Eastern Siberia and Russia.

  6. Total Suspended Load and Sediment Yield of Kayan River, Bulungan District, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprapto Dibyosaputro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out the the drainage system of Kayan river, Bulungan District, East Kalimantan. The purpose of the research were to study the physical conditions of the Kayan catchment area, calculate the suspended sediment load, and to define the total sediment yield of Kayan River. Observation method were used in this research both of direct field observation as well as laboratory observation. Data acquired in this study were include of climatic data, geology, geomorphology, soil and land cover data. Besides also rain-fall data, temperature, river discharge and suspended sediment load. The total sediment yield were calculated by mean of mathematical and statistical analysis especially of linier regression analysis. The result of the research show that total the sediment yield of Kayan River with drainage area of 6,329.452 km² is about 236,921.25 m³/km²/year. The interesting result of the statistical analysis was that the existing negative correlation between river discharge and suspended sediment load. It is the effect of the location of discharge and suspended measurement. This condition caused by sea tide effect on river discharge at the apex delta. During high tide water river trend rising up on discharge but not on suspended sediment load. Instead, also existing setting down processes takes places of the suspended sediment load into the river bottom upper stream and the apex.

  7. An evaluation of seasonal change in Benthic Macroinvertebrate community composition in the east branch of the Finniss River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    2002-01-01

    Rum Jungle is an abandoned uranium-copper mine responsible for acid rock drainage into the surface waters of the intermittent East Branch and the channel of the Finniss Rivers. Prior to large-scale remediation in the mid 1980s, the East Branch was biologically dead for 8.5 km downstream to the confluence with the Finniss River, and suffered substantial ecological impairment for a further 15 km downstream. Recent studies suggest some recovery in fish diversity and abundance in the Finniss River, but only minor recovery in the macroinvertebrate fauna of the East Branch

  8. Water resources protection today: end-of-pipe technology and cleaner production. Case study of the Czech Odra River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chour, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on integrated watershed-based protection and sustainable use of water resources to increase the effectiveness of water pollution abatement. The approach includes improvements in end-of-pipe waste-water treatment technologies and implementation of Cleaner Production (CP) principles and policies within the watershed. An example of the general effectiveness of this approach is illustrated by the Czech Odra River Cleaner Production Project where reductions in pollution were achieved with improved industrial production. The CP theme is worth considering as an important challenge for the IWA.

  9. Modeling to Support the Development of Habitat Targets for Piping Plovers on the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenau, Kate E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Report on modeling and analyses done in support of developing quantative sandbar habitat targets for piping plovers, including assessment of reference, historical, dams present but not operated, and habitat construction calibrated to meet population viability targets.

  10. Primary pipe rupture accident analysis for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, D.C.; Bari, R.A.

    1976-04-01

    In this report, the thermal transient response of the CRBR to a severe primary coolant flow perturbation, initiated by a rupture of the primary heat transport system piping, is analyzed. This hypothetical accident is studied under the further assumption that the plant protection system does function according to current design descriptions for the CRBR. Although a brief discussion of an unprotected (no scram) pipe rupture accident is presented, the major emphasis of the present report is on the protected accident.

  11. Primary pipe rupture accident analysis for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.C.; Bari, R.A.

    1976-04-01

    In this report, the thermal transient response of the CRBR to a severe primary coolant flow perturbation, initiated by a rupture of the primary heat transport system piping, is analyzed. This hypothetical accident is studied under the further assumption that the plant protection system does function according to current design descriptions for the CRBR. Although a brief discussion of an unprotected (no scram) pipe rupture accident is presented, the major emphasis of the present report is on the protected accident

  12. 77 FR 40518 - Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River, Upper New York...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... 1625-AA00 Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River, Upper New York Bay, Lower New York Bay; New York, NY ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing seven temporary safety zones for swim events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) New York Zone. These...

  13. Objectives, priorities, reliable knowledge, and science-based management of Missouri River interior least terns and piping plovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark; Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry; Sovada, Marsha; Stucker, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Supporting recovery of federally listed interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos; tern) and piping plover (Charadrius melodus; plover) populations is a desirable goal in management of the Missouri River ecosystem. Many tools are implemented in support of this goal, including habitat management, annual monitoring, directed research, and threat mitigation. Similarly, many types of data can be used to make management decisions, evaluate system responses, and prioritize research and monitoring. The ecological importance of Missouri River recovery and the conservation status of terns and plovers place a premium on efficient and effective resource use. Efficiency is improved when a single data source informs multiple high-priority decisions, whereas effectiveness is improved when decisions are informed by reliable knowledge. Seldom will a single study design be optimal for addressing all data needs, making prioritization of needs essential. Data collection motivated by well-articulated objectives and priorities has many advantages over studies in which questions and priorities are determined retrospectively. Research and monitoring for terns and plovers have generated a wealth of data that can be interpreted in a variety of ways. The validity and strength of conclusions from analyses of these data is dependent on compatibility between the study design and the question being asked. We consider issues related to collection and interpretation of biological data, and discuss their utility for enhancing the role of science in management of Missouri River terns and plovers. A team of USGS scientists at Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has been conducting tern and plover research on the Missouri River since 2005. The team has had many discussions about the importance of setting objectives, identifying priorities, and obtaining reliable information to answer pertinent questions about tern and plover management on this river system. The objectives of this

  14. Flood-inundation maps for the East Fork White River near Bedford, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 1.8-mile reach of the East Fork White River near Bedford, Indiana (Ind.) were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selectedwater levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03371500, East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind. Current conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv?site_no=03371500. In addition, information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages, including the East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. For this study, flood profiles were computed for the East Fork White River reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgage 03371500, East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind., and documented high-water marks from the flood of June 2008. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 20 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model (DEM, derived from

  15. Formation of Si-Al-Mg-Ca-rich zoned magnetite in an end-Permian phreatomagmatic pipe in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Else-Ragnhild; Svensen, Henrik H.; Polozov, Alexander G.; Hammer, Øyvind

    2017-12-01

    Magma-sediment interactions in the evaporite-rich Tunguska Basin resulted in the formation of numerous phreatomagmatic pipes during emplacement of the Siberian Traps. The pipes contain magnetite-apatite deposits with copper and celestine mineralization. We have performed a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of magnetite from long cores drilled through three pipe breccia structures near Bratsk, East Siberia. The magnetite samples are zoned and rich in Si (≤5.3 wt% SiO2), Ca, Al, and Mg. They exhibit four textural types: (1) massive ore in veins, (2) coating on breccia clasts, (3) replacement ore, and (4) reworked ore at the crater base. The textural types have different chemical characteristics. "Breccia coating" magnetite has relatively low Mg content relative to Si, as compared to the other groups, and appears to have formed at lower oxygen fugacity. Time series analyses of MgO variations in microprobe transects across Si-bearing magnetite in massive ore indicate that oscillatory zoning in the massive ore was controlled by an internal self-organized process. We suggest that hydrothermal Fe-rich brines were supplied from basalt-sediment interaction zones in the evaporite-rich sedimentary basin, leading to magnetite ore deposition in the pipes. Hydrothermal fluid composition appears to be controlled by proximity to dolerite fragments, temperature, and oxygen fugacity. Magnetite from the pipes has attributes of iron oxide-apatite deposits (e.g., textures, oscillatory zoning, association with apatite, and high Si content) but has higher Mg and Ca content and different mineral assemblages. These features are similar to magnetite found in skarn deposits. We conclude that the Siberian Traps-related pipe magnetite deposit gives insight into the metamorphic and hydrothermal effects following magma emplacement in a sedimentary basin.

  16. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  17. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2012-12-15

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Estuarine modification of dissolved and particulate trace metals in major rivers of East-Hainan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jun; Tang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jing; Balzer, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Dissolved and particulate cadmium, copper, iron, lead, cobalt and nickel were analyzed in surface waters of the Wanquan River estuary and the Wenchang/Wenjiao River estuary in East-Hainan Island during the dry season (December 2006) and two wet seasons (August 2007 and July/August 2008). A major difference to other Chinese rivers was the very low concentration of suspended particles in these tropical Hainan estuaries. In the dissolved phase, a positive deviation from the theoretical dilution line was observed for Cd during different expeditions. Dissolved Cu and Ni essentially behaved conservatively, while Fe, Pb and partly also Co correlated in their negative deviation from simple mixing. Strong seasonal variability was observed only for dissolved Fe, Pb and Cd: sorption by the much higher loading with suspended particles during the dry season lead to a strong lowering of dissolved Fe and Pb, while the opposite was observed for dissolved Cd. In both estuaries all six metals in particulate form showed almost constant values with a tendency for slight decreases along the salinity profile. The normalization to particulate Al revealed some specific particle properties during the different expeditions. The dynamics of Fe chemistry dominated the distribution of Pb in all forms. The distribution coefficients KD showed a general decrease in the order Fe>Pb>Co>Ni>Cu≈Cd. There was no "particle concentration effect"; rather the KD's of Fe and Pb exhibited slightly positive correlations with the suspended particle loadings. Elevated concentrations levels in the Wenchang/Wenjiao river estuary, especially during the wet season 2008, were ascribed to diffuse inputs from aquaculture ponds which girdle the upper estuary. In comparison to major Chinese rivers, the tropical Hainan estuaries (S>0) showed similar levels for Cd, Cu, Pb, Co and Ni in particles and solution, while Fe was enriched in both matrices. On a global scale, neither in the Wanquan river estuary nor in the

  19. Seasonal variations of nitrogen and phosphorus retention in an agricultural drainage river in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dingjiang; Lu, Jun; Wang, Hailong; Shen, Yena; Kimberley, Mark O

    2010-02-01

    Riverine retention decreases loads of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in running water. It is an important process in nutrient cycling in watersheds. However, temporal riverine nutrient retention capacity varies due to changes in hydrological, ecological, and nutrient inputs into the watershed. Quantitative information of seasonal riverine N and P retention is critical for developing strategies to combat diffuse source pollution and eutrophication in riverine and coastal systems. This study examined seasonal variation of riverine total N (TN) and total P (TP) retention in the ChangLe River, an agricultural drainage river in east China. Water quality, hydrological parameters, and hydrophyte coverage were monitored along the ChangLe River monthly during 2004-2006. Nutrient export loads (including chemical fertilizer, livestock, and domestic sources) entering the river from the catchment area were computed using an export coefficient model based on estimated nutrient sources. Riverine TN and TP retention loads (RNRL and RPRL) were estimated using mass balance calculations. Temporal variations in riverine nutrient retention were analyzed statistically. Estimated annual riverine retention loads ranged from 1,538 to 2,127 t year(-1) for RNRL and from 79.4 to 90.4 t year(-1) for RPRL. Monthly retention loads varied from 6.4 to 300.8 t month(-1) for RNRL and from 1.4 to 15.3 t month(-1) for RPRL. Both RNRL and RPRL increased with river flow, water temperature, hydrophyte coverage, monthly sunshine hours, and total TN and TP inputs. Dissolved oxygen concentration and the pH level of the river water decreased with RNRL and RPRL. Riverine nutrient retention ratios (retention as a percentage of total input) were only related to hydrophyte coverage and monthly sunshine hours. Monthly variations in RNRL and RPRL were functions of TN and TP loads. Riverine nutrient retention capacity varied with environmental conditions. Annual RNRL and RPRL accounted for 30.3-48.3% and 52

  20. Installation of a groundwater monitoring-well network on the east side of the Uncompahgre River in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2015-10-07

    The east side of the Uncompahgre River Basin has been a known contributor of dissolved selenium to recipient streams. Discharge of groundwater containing dissolved selenium contributes to surface-water selenium concentrations and loads; however, the groundwater system on the east side of the Uncompahgre River Basin is not well characterized. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board and the Bureau of Reclamation, has established a groundwater-monitoring network on the east side of the Uncompahgre River Basin. Thirty wells total were installed for this project: 10 in 2012 (DS 923, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds923), and 20 monitoring wells were installed during April and June 2014 which are presented in this report. This report presents location data, lithologic logs, well-construction diagrams, and well-development information. Understanding the groundwater system can provide managers with an additional metric for evaluating the effectiveness of salinity and selenium control projects.

  1. Hydroclimatic variability in East Asia: A case study in the Yangtze river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, K. P.; Fok, H. S.; Sapriza Azuri, G.; Klaus, J.; Mamet, S.

    2017-12-01

    New regional patterns of droughts and flooding are emerging at south and east Asia river basins, but the causal climatic mechanisms underlying these new hydrological extreme events are yet unknown. The Southern Oscillation, monsoons, and sea surface temperatures affect hydrological conditions in Asia at different spatiotemporal scales. During the negative phase of the Southern Oscillation, anticyclone systems occur more frequently and modulate precipitation patterns near the southeast coast of China. Monsoons related to the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) locations have been used to explain regional droughts and flooding. Moreover, sea surface temperatures affect wind anomalies and thermocline adjustments across the Pacific and Indian oceans. Here we propose using a major catchment in China, the Yangtze river basin, to understand regional modes of climate variability influencing local hydrological dynamics in Asia. By decomposing the variance of precipitation and hydrological time series, we are able to quantify the relative contributions of the Southern Oscillation, monsoons, and sea surface temperatures to the Yangtze river discharges. Our results suggest that the Southern Oscillation has a relatively weak effect on discharges, whereas the Indian and western North Pacific monsoons are important for the upstream and downstream Yangtze river, respectively. Furthermore, rising Pacific sea surface temperatures may be related to more intensive precipitation at the downstream basin. Based on the hydroclimatic relationships identified here, we discuss future scenarios of changing environmental conditions in the region.

  2. PBDD/Fs in surface sediments from the East River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Peng, P A; Chen, D Y; Chen, P; Zhou, L

    2009-09-01

    The contamination status of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) was preliminarily investigated in surface sediments from the East River. The concentrations of eight 2,3,7,8-substituted tetra- to hexa- PBDD/Fs were found to be in the range of 0.32-110 (mean 13) pg g(-1) and the corresponding TEQ concentrations were 0.087-18 (mean 2) pg I-TEQ g(-1). All sediments were characterized by the dominant PBDFs. 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF was the most important TEQ contributor, accounting for 47%-77% of the total I-TEQ of PBDD/Fs. PCDD/Fs contributed dominantly to the total TEQs of PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in most samples except of the sediment from the Shima River. The higher PBDD/F concentrations in the Shima River may be attributed to the use of BFRs in the electrical and electronics industries, which posed a potential risk of dioxins on ecological system.

  3. Estimate of throughput of bridge transitions and pipe passages built on minor rivers of piedmont areas of Krasnodar Territory-Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan Fedor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stability and accident-free operation of engineering road structures including bridge transitions and pipe passages built on mountain rivers mostly depends on a stream regime and lack of obstructions for water flow. Such structures pose a prominent potential hazard being built in piedmont areas of Caucasus Mountains characterized by flash floods and blockage of structures by floating debris, mudflow deposits and wastes of construction. This notwithstanding, the threats caused by these phenomena are poorly studied. The purpose of this study is in estimation of throughput of bridge transitions and pipe passages built on minor rivers of piedmont areas and analysis of hazards caused by floods and obstructions to water flow. The results of calculation of capacities of existing road structures are provided herein. A qualitative assessment of potential emergencies in case of severe flood is also given. A major hazard of possible blockage of waterways that can cause emergency even in regular flood conditions is noted.

  4. The East River, Colorado Community Watershed: Hydrobiogeochemical Studies Spanning Scales and Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. H.; Brown, W. S.; Carroll, R. W. H.; Dafflon, B.; Dong, W.; Hubbard, S. S.; Leger, E.; Li, L.; Maxwell, R. M.; Rowland, J. C.; Steltzer, H.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Wainwright, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and its collaborating institutions have recently established a "Community Watershed" in the headwaters of the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado (USA) designed to quantify processes impacting the ability of mountainous systems to retain and release water, nutrients, carbon, and metals. The East River Community Watershed spans a range of scales from hillslope to catena to catchment, with surface water and groundwater linking a diversity of geomorphic compartments. Research is highly multi-disciplinary involving hydrologists, plant ecologists, geochemists, geomorphologists, microbiologists, and climate scientists. Research is focused on both mechanistic and empirical studies designed to assess the impact of climate perturbations, such as early snowmelt, on coupled ecohydrological and biogeochemical processes as they relate to both water availability and water quality. Stakeholder participation provides feedback and support on environmental monitoring as well as a direct link to management planning decisions being conducted as part of the Colorado Water Plan. Data collection activities and monitoring infrastructure are emplaced within the catchment in such a way as to assess the aggregate impact of fine scale processes on catchment scale behavior. Monitoring occurs over diversity of time scales from minutes to months to years, with observational data being used to populate and constrain reactive transport models describing water and nutrient flows across the aforementioned scales of enquiry. Strong infrastructural investments in both data and monitoring networks include dispersed stream gaging and water sampling, meteorological station networks, elevation dependent fluxes of carbon, water, and plant phenological behavior, as well as remote sensing datasets designed to establish baseline data required to assess the impacts of both natural and simulated climate perturbations.

  5. Water Availability in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin and the Middle East from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lo, M.; de Linage, C.; Swenson, S. C.; Rodell, M.

    2010-12-01

    As water security becomes more tenuous, conflicts and disputes over the appropriate management and allocation of transboundary water resources are sure to arise. In particular, the Middle East faces extreme scarcity as a result of both natural climate variations and the impacts of water management decisions and policies. A recent drought, which began in 2007, caused regional hardships as precious water resources dwindled and collaboration between nations failed to accommodate shared needs. In this work, the area surrounding the Tigris and Euphrates River Basin was selected as a case study to evaluate trends in fresh water availability. Because few complete datasets exist for precipitation, streamflow, evapotranspiration, groundwater or surface water in the area, remote sensing techniques, including GRACE and altimetry, as well as land-surface models were utilized to develop an understanding of the regional hydrology. These observations and model results were used to estimate trends in total water storage and its individual components - soil moisture, snow water equivalent, surface water and groundwater. GRACE data show a clear decrease in total water storage in the Middle East from January 2003 to December 2009, and indicate that the selected region experienced a total volume loss of 143 km3 of water. Supporting datasets suggest that approximately two-thirds of this was a loss of groundwater. These results highlight the impacts of drought conditions on groundwater consumption and of agricultural expansion on available water resources in the region. Furthermore, they raise important political issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring and datasets for the core components of the water budget.

  6. Tectonics, topography, and river system transition in East Tibet: Insights from the sedimentary record in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Qing; Yan, Yi; Huang, Chi-Yue; Clift, Peter D.; Li, Xuejie; Chen, Wenhuang; Zhang, Xingchang; Yu, Mengming

    2014-09-01

    The Cenozoic in East Asia is marked by major changes in tectonics, landscapes, and river systems, although the timing and nature of such changes remains disputed. We investigate the geochemistry and neodymium isotope character of Cenozoic mudstones spanning the breakup unconformity in the Western Foothills of Taiwan in order to constrain erosion and drainage development in southern China during the opening of the South China Sea. The La/Lu, Eu/Eu*, Th/Sc, Th/La, Cr/Th, and ɛNd values in these rocks show an abrupt change between ˜31 and 25 Ma. Generally the higher ɛNd values in sediments deposited prior to 31 Ma indicate erosion from Phanerozoic granitic sources exposed in coastal South China, whereas the lower ɛNd values suggest that the main sources had evolved to inland southern China by ˜25 Ma. The SHRIMP U-Pb ages of zircons from a tuff, together with biostratigraphy data constrain the breakup unconformity to be between ˜39 and 33 Ma, suggesting that the seafloor spreading in the South China Sea commenced before ˜33 Ma. This is significantly older than most of the oceanic crust preserved in the deeper part of the basin. Diachronous westward younging of the breakup unconformities and provenance changes of basins are consistent with seafloor spreading propagating from east to west. Initial spreading of the South China Sea prior to ˜33 Ma corresponds to tectonic adjustment in East Asia, including extrusion of the Indochina block and the rotation and eastward retreat of the subducting Pacific Plate.

  7. Riverine Settlement Adaptation Characteristic in Mentaya River, East Kotawaringin Regency, Kalimantan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esariti, L.; Yuliastuti, N.; Ratih, N. K.

    2018-02-01

    The research looks for the importance of riverine settlement preservation as one of the efforts to carry out sustainable management of a traditional settlement. East Kalimantan, more specifically riverine settlement in Mentaya River is known as one of the traditional settlements that put river as the central of their livelihood activities. The theory of Rapopport [1] was used to investigate the importance of cultural aspect influence to the settlement process, and to seek for the behavioural and environment relationship in determining the pattern of adaptation process. Mix method approach was conducted by utilizing in depth interviews among 40 respondents within three districts, namely in Baamang, Mentaya Seberang and Mentawa Baru Ketapang subdistrict. The result shows that culture dominantly affect the process of settlement adaptation, especially the aspect of family structure, social network, and kinship. The adaptation pattern is influenced significantly by physical environment, type of physical condition of the houses, economic condition and the degree of heritage preservation motive. It sums up that adaptation process could be effective if the integration of culture, activities and government regulations is performed.

  8. Exploring Evidence of Land Surface Dynamics of River Basin Development in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluwa, C.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    Improving the productivity of agricultural lands in Africa in the face of climate variability and change is vital to achieving food security. A variety of possible approaches exist, many of which focus on the development and expansion of irrigation - at times associated with dam construction to provide co-benefits of hydropower and water supply. Optimal development of river basin infrastructure such as this has long been a topic of interest in water resources systems analysis. Recent advances have focused on addressing the uncertainty associated with climate change in the development of river basin plans. However, such studies rarely consider either the uncertainty from changing local surface-atmosphere interactions via basin development or the attendant effects on local ecosystems, precipitation, evapotranspiration and consequently the availability of water for the proposed projects. Some numerical experiments have described and reproduced the mechanisms via which river basin infrastructure influences local climatology in Sahelian Africa. However, no studies have explored available data for evidence of land-atmosphere interactions associated with actual development projects. This study explores the correlation of seasonal soil moisture and latent heat flux over currently dammed/irrigated areas on downwind precipitation in the East Africa region (bounded by 0N, -15N, 25E, 40E) at the mesoscale (30km - 100km) to unearth evidence of local climatological effects of river basin development (irrigation schemes). The adopted process is (1) use reanalysis data to derive mean wind directions at 800hPa for selected regions (2) use mean wind directions (and orthogonal directions) to locate high (and low) impact areas 30 -100km downwind (3) extract precipitation time series for downwind locations from three different gridded products (CRU, GCPC, PRINCETON) (4) compare precipitation time series across datasets in high/low impact areas and correlate with upwind latent heat flux

  9. Water Induced Hazard Mapping in Nepal: A Case Study of East Rapti River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, N.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents illustration on typical water induced hazard mapping of East Rapti River Basin under the DWIDP, GON. The basin covers an area of 2398 sq km. The methodology includes making of base map of water induced disaster in the basin. Landslide hazard maps were prepared by SINMAP approach. Debris flow hazard maps were prepared by considering geology, slope, and saturation. Flood hazard maps were prepared by using two approaches: HEC-RAS and Satellite Imagery Interpretation. The composite water-induced hazard maps were produced by compiling the hazards rendered by landslide, debris flow, and flood. The monsoon average rainfall in the basin is 1907 mm whereas maximum 24 hours precipitation is 456.8 mm. The peak discharge of the Rapati River in the year of 1993 at station was 1220 cu m/sec. This discharge nearly corresponds to the discharge of 100-year return period. The landslides, floods, and debris flows triggered by the heavy rain of July 1993 claimed 265 lives, affected 148516 people, and damaged 1500 houses in the basin. The field investigation and integrated GIS interpretation showed that the very high and high landslide hazard zones collectively cover 38.38% and debris flow hazard zone constitutes 6.58%. High flood hazard zone occupies 4.28% area of the watershed. Mitigation measures are recommendated according to Integrated Watershed Management Approach under which the non-structural and structural measures are proposed. The non-structural measures includes: disaster management training, formulation of evacuation system (arrangement of information plan about disaster), agriculture management practices, protection of water sources, slope protections and removal of excessive bed load from the river channel. Similarly, structural measures such as dike, spur, rehabilitation of existing preventive measures and river training at some locations are recommendated. The major factors that have contributed to induce high incidences of various types of mass

  10. Tracing river runoff and DOC over the East Siberian Shelf using in situ CDOM measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugach, Svetlana; Semiletov, Igor; Pipko, Irina

    2010-05-01

    The Great Siberian Rivers integrate meteorological and hydrological changes in their watersheds and play a significant role in the physical and biogeochemical regime of the Arctic Ocean through transport of fresh water (FW) and carbon into the sea. Since 1994, the Laboratory of Arctic Research POI in cooperation with the IARC UAF investigate the fresh water and carbon fluxes in the Siberian Arctic land-shelf system with the special emphasize in the East Siberian Arctic shelf (ESAS) which represents the widest and shallowest continental shelf in the World Ocean, yet it is still poorly explored. The East Siberian Sea is influenced by water exchange from the eastern Laptev Sea (where local shelf waters are diluted mostly by Lena River discharge) and by inflow of Pacific waters from the Chukchi Sea. This region is characterized by the highest rate of coastal erosion and significant volume of the riverine discharge and exhibits the largest gradients in all oceanographic parameters observed for the entire Arctic Ocean. Here we demonstrate a connection among Chromophoric (or Colored) Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) which represents the colored fraction of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), salinity, and pCO2. Our data have documented strong linear correlations between salinity and CDOM in the near shore zone strongly influenced by riverine runoff. Correlation coefficient between CDOM and salinity in surface waters was equal to -0.94, -0.94 and -0.95 for surface water stations in September of 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. Combined analysis of CDOM and DOC data demonstrated a high degree of correlation between these parameters (r=0.96). Such close connection between these characteristics of waters in this region makes it possible to restore the distribution of DOC according to our original CDOM data of the profiling systems, such as CTD-Seabird equipped by WETStar CDOM fluorimeter. It is shown that the CDOM can be used as a conservative tracer to follow the transport and

  11. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  12. Effects of the Changiang river discharge on the change in ocean and atmosphere over the East Asian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. H.; Lim, Y. J.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, B. J.; Cho, C.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of freshwater from the Changiang river basin over the East Asian region for summer season. To do this, we simulated global seasonal forecasting system (GloSea5) of KMA (Korea Meteorology Administration). GloSea5 consists of atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and land model. Also, it has river routing model (TRIP), which links between land and ocean using freshwater. It is very important component in long-term forecast because of be able to change the air-sea interaction. To improve more the freshwater performance over the East Asian region, we realistically modified the river mouth, direction and storage around Changiang river basin of TRIP in GloSea5. Here, the comparison study among the no freshwater forcing experiment to ocean model (TRIP-OFF), the operated original file based freshwater coupled experiment (TRIP-ON) and the improved one (TRIP-MODI) has been carried out and the results are evaluated against the reanalysis data. As a result, the amount of fresh water to the Yellow Sea increase in TRIP-ON experiment and it attributes to the improvement of bias and RMSE of local SST over the East Asia. The implementation of the realistic river related ancillary files (TRIP-MODI) improves the abnormal salinity distribution around the Changjiang river gate and its related SST reduces cold bias about 0.37˚C for July over the East Sea. Warm SST over this region is caused by barrier layer (BL). Freshwater flux and salinity changes can create a pronounced salinity-induced mixed layer (ML) above the top of the thermocline. The layer between the base of the ML and the top of the thermocline is called a barrier layer (BL), because it isolates the warm surface water from cold deep water. In addition, the improved fresh water forcing can lead to the change in the local volume transport from the Kuroshio to the Strait of Korea and Changed the transport and SST over the Straits of Korea have correlation 0.57 at 95% confidence level. For the

  13. In-Situ Measurements of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup Process Gas Piping at K-25 - Paper for Waste Management Symposia 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, B.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the final version of a paper submitted to the Waste Management Symposia, Phoenix, 2010, abstract BJC/OR-3280. The primary document from which this paper was condensed is In-Situ Measurement of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup in Process Gas Piping at K-25 Using NaI/HMS4 Gamma Detection Systems, BJC/OR-3355. This work explores the sufficiency and limitations of the Holdup Measurement System 4 (HJVIS4) software algorithms applied to measurements of low enriched uranium holdup in gaseous diffusion process gas piping. HMS4 has been used extensively during the decommissioning and demolition project of the K-25 building for U-235 holdup quantification. The HMS4 software is an integral part of one of the primary nondestructive assay (NDA) systems which was successfully tested and qualified for holdup deposit quantification in the process gas piping of the K-25 building. The initial qualification focused on the measurement of highly enriched UO 2 F 2 deposits. The purpose of this work was to determine if that qualification could be extended to include the quantification of holdup in UO 2 F 2 deposits of lower enrichment. Sample field data are presented to provide evidence in support of the theoretical foundation. The HMS4 algorithms were investigated in detail and found to sufficiently compensate for UO 2 F 2 source self-attenuation effects, over the range of expected enrichment (4-40%), in the North and East Wings of the K-25 building. The limitations of the HMS4 algorithms were explored for a described set of conditions with respect to area source measurements of low enriched UO 2 F 2 deposits when used in conjunction with a 1 inch by 1/2 inch sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detector. The theoretical limitations of HMS4, based on the expected conditions in the process gas system of the K-25 building, are related back to the required data quality objectives (DQO) for the NBA measurement system established for the K-25 demolition project. The combined

  14. Identifying Variations in Hydraulic Conductivity on the East River at Crested Butte, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, K. N.; Malenda, H. F.; Singha, K.

    2016-12-01

    Slug tests are a widely used method to measure saturated hydraulic conductivity, or how easily water flows through an aquifer, by perturbing the piezometric surface and measuring the time the local groundwater table takes to re-equilibrate. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is crucial to calculating the speed and direction of groundwater movement. Therefore, it is important to document data variance from in situ slug tests. This study addresses two potential sources of data variability: different users and different types of slug used. To test for user variability, two individuals slugged the same six wells with water multiple times at a stream meander on the East River near Crested Butte, CO. To test for variations in type of slug test, multiple water and metal slug tests were performed at a single well in the same meander. The distributions of hydraulic conductivities of each test were then tested for variance using both the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Brown-Forsythe test. When comparing the hydraulic conductivity distributions gathered by the two individuals, we found that they were statistically similar. However, we found that the two types of slug tests produced hydraulic conductivity distributions for the same well that are statistically dissimilar. In conclusion, multiple people should be able to conduct slug tests without creating any considerable variations in the resulting hydraulic conductivity values, but only a single type of slug should be used for those tests.

  15. Post remedial ecological recovery in the east branch of the Finniss River: fish and decapods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twining, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the recovery of fish and decapod fauna in the East Branch (EB) of the Finniss River following the remediation of the Rum Jungle mine site in the mid 1980s. These results show a substantial recovery in fish and decapod occurrence within the EB below the Rum Jungle mine site subsequent to remediation. Whereas only two species of fish, and no decapods, were observed alive prior to remediation, up to seven species of fish and two decapod species have now been seen living in the stream. The penetration towards the mine has also increased with M. nigrans now occurring to within 1 km downstream of the site. The mobility of many taxa in the wet/dry tropics has evolved to allow for rapid recruitment, particularly into ephemeral streams such as the EB. Hence, the recovery probably reflects both the reduced toxicity of the stream, as well as the ecological robustness of the fish and decapod fauna to the dramatic seasonal variation. Hence, the ecological risk presented by the currently reduced contaminant levels is still higher than would be accepted for an undisturbed system. Further reductions in contaminant loads are required to improve this situation

  16. Distribution, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huayun; Zhuo Shanshan; Xue Bin; Zhang Chunlong; Liu Weiping

    2012-01-01

    A large portion of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from e-waste released into the coastal areas may be the potential source of PCBs to the global oceans. The paper presents data of PCBs concentrations in fifty surface sediment samples and a dated sediment core in Yangtze River Delta (YRE) and adjacent East China Sea (ECS). The total PCBs levels varied from 5.08 to 19.64 ng/g dry weight, with the highest concentrations situate within the river-sea boundary zone which is so-called “marginal filter”. Concurrent with the operation of e-waste recycling over the last two decades, PCB fluxes started to rise again after 1980s and reached a maximum in this century. The full data set was used to estimate the burden of PCBs in YRE and adjacent ECS. A total sediment burdens were 192.8 tons, with the spatial density of 364 ng/cm 2 which accounts for 1.9% of all the PCBs in China. - Highlights: ► PCBs residues remained widespread in Yangtze River Delta and adjacent East China Sea. ► Highest PCBs concentrations situate within the river-sea boundary zone. ► Congener profiles and PCA highlight the influence of e-waste recycling. ► Temporal distributions indicated PCB fluxes reached a maximum in this century. ► Total sediment burdens accounts for 1.9 % of all the PCBs in China. - Spatial and temporal distributions of polychlorinated biphenyls have been delineated in sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent East China Sea.

  17. Ecotoxicological bioassays of sediment leachates in a river bed flanked by decommissioned pesticide plants in Nantong City, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Wang, Fenghe; Wan, Jinzhong; He, Jian; Li, Qun; Qiang Chen; Gao, Jay; Lin, Yusuo; Zhang, Shengtian

    2017-03-01

    Traditionally, the toxicity of river contaminants is analyzed chemically or physically through river bed sediments. The biotoxicity of polluted sediment leachates has not caught our attention. This study aims to overcome this deficiency through a battery of biotests which were conducted to monitor comprehensive toxicity of sediment leachates for the Yaogang River in East Jiangsu Province of China, which is in close proximity to former pesticide plants. The general physical and chemical parameters of major pollutants were analyzed from river bed sediments collected at five strategic locations. The ecotoxicity analyses undertaken include overall fish (adult zebrafish) acute toxicity, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay, and zebrafish embryo toxicity assay. Compared with the control group, sediment leachates increased the lethality, inhibited the embryos hatching and induced development abnormalities of zebrafish embryos, and inhibited the luminescence of V. fischeri. The results show that sediment leachates may assume various toxic effects, depending on the test organism. This diverse toxicity to aquatic organisms reflects their different sensitivity to sediment leachates. It is found clearly that V. fischeri was the organism which was characterized by the highest sensitivity to the sediment leachates. The complicated toxicity of leachates was not caused by one single factor but by multiple pollutants together. This indicates the need of estimations of sediment leachate not only taking into account chemical detection but also of applying the biotests to the problem. Thus, multigroup bioassays are necessary to realistically evaluate river ecological risks imposed by leachates.

  18. Digital geospatial presentation of geoelectrical and geotechnical data for the lower American River and flood plain, east Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Asch, Theodore H.

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may have differing scour potential, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, has performed several geoelectrical surveys of the lower American River channel and flood plain between Cal Expo and the Rio Americano High School in east Sacramento, California. Additional geotechnical data have been collected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and its contractors. Data resulting from these surveys have been compiled into similar database formats and converted to uniform geospatial datums and projections. These data have been visualized in a digital three-dimensional framework project that can be viewed using freely available software. These data facilitate a comprehensive analysis of the resistivity structure underlying the lower American River corridor and assist in levee system management.

  19. Influence of river discharge on abundance and dissemination of heterotrophic, indicator and pathogenic bacteria along the East Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V R; Srinivas, T N R; Sarma, V V S S

    2015-06-15

    In order to examine the influence of discharge from different rivers from peninsular India and urban sewage on intensity and dissemination of heterotrophic, indicator and pathogenic bacteria, a study was carried out during peak discharge period along coastal Bay of Bengal. The coastal Bay received freshwater inputs from the river Ganges while Godavari and Krishna contributed to the south. Contrasting difference in salinity, temperature, nutrients and organic matter was observed between north and south east coast of India. The highest heterotrophic, indicator and pathogenic bacterial abundance was observed in the central coastal Bay that received urban sewage from the major city. Intensity and dissemination of heterotrophic, indicator and pathogenic bacteria displayed linear relation with magnitude of discharge. The coliform load was observed up to 100km from the coast suggesting that marine waters were polluted during the monsoon season and its impact on the ecosystem needs further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulated effects of surface coal mining and agriculture on dissolved solids in the Redwater River, east-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.F.; Lambing, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved solids concentrations in five reaches of the Redwater River in east-central Montana were simulated to evaluate the effects of surface coal mining and agriculture. A mass-balance model of streamflow and dissolved solids load developed for the Tongue River in southeastern Montana was modified and applied to the Redwater River. Mined acreages, dissolved solids concentrations in mined spoils, and irrigated acreage can be varied in the model to study relative changes in the dissolved solids concentration in consecutive reaches of the river. Because of extreme variability and a limited amount of data, the model was not consecutively validated. Simulated mean and median monthly mean streamflows and consistently larger than those calculated from streamflow records. Simulated mean and median monthly mean dissolved solids loads also are consistently larger than regression-derived values. These discrepancies probably result from extremely variable streamflow, overestimates of streamflow from ungaged tributaries, and weak correlations between streamflow and dissolved solids concentrations. The largest increases in simulated dissolved solids concentrations from mining and agriculture occur from September through January because of smaller streamflows and dissolved solids loads. Different combinations of agriculture and mining under mean flow conditions resulted in cumulative percentage increases of dissolved solids concentrations of less than 5% for mining and less than 2% for agriculture. (USGS)

  1. Late Holocene (~ 2 ka) East Asian Monsoon variations inferred from river discharge and climate interrelationships in the Pearl River Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nan, Q.; Li, T.; Chen, J.; Nigam, R.

    A sediment core from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) was analyzed for grain size and organic geochemistry parameters (TOC and δ13Corg). The results showed that high mean grain-size value and increased sand content were correlated...

  2. Spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province, East China: Potential effect of the Yangtze River - Huaihe River Water Transfer Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhi-Guo; Li, Si; Zhao, Ya-E; Wang, Tian-Ping; Bergquist, Robert; Huang, Yin-Yin; Gao, Feng-Hua; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Zhi-Jie

    2018-05-09

    Anhui Province has been one of typical epidemic areas of schistosomiasis in East China as a wide range of large lake and marshland regions provide an ideal environment for growth and reproduction of the intermediate snail host. With the completion of the Yangtze River-Huaihe River Water Transfer Project (YHWTP), launched by the end of 2016, the epidemic areas are expected to expand and controlling schistosomiasis remains a challenge. Based on annual surveillance data at the county level in Anhui for the period 2006-2015, spatial and temporal cluster analyses were conducted to assess the pattern of risk through spatial (Local Moran's I and flexible scan statistic) and space-time scan statistic (Kulldorff). It was found that schistosomiasis sero-prevalence was dramatically reduced and maintained at a low level. Cluster results showed that spatial extent of schistosomiasis contracted, but snail distribution remained geographically stable across the study area. Clusters, both for schistosomiasis and snail presence, were common along the Yangtze River. Considering the effect of the ongoing YHWTP on the potential spread of schistosomiasis, Zongyang County and Anqing, which will be transected by the new water-transfer route, should be given a priority for strengthened surveillance and control. Attention should also be paid to Guichi since it is close to one of the planned inlets of the YHWTP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of agricultural practice on trace metals in soils and vegetation in the water conservation area along the East River (Dongjiang River), South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang, Renxiu [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2012-08-01

    Dongjiang (East River) is the key resource of potable water for the Pearl River Delta region, South China. Although industrial activities are limited in the water conservation area along this river, agriculture is very intensive. The present study evaluated trace metals in four soils under different cultivation. The total concentrations of trace metals decreased in the order orchard soil > vegetable soil > paddy soil > natural soil, reflecting decreasing inputs of agrochemicals to soils. Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio in the above-ground tissues of plant was significantly lower than their corresponding soils. In combination with the low transfer factor of Pb from soil to plant shoots, atmospheric deposition is probably a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves. Regular monitoring on the soil quality in this area is recommended for the safety of water resource and agricultural products. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil Cd exceeded the upper limit of Chinese standard for agricultural soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Agricultural soil had higher concentrations of metals and lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb in above-ground tissues of plant was more anthropogenic than soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atmospheric deposition may be a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves.

  4. Case history of the discovery of the Jabiluka uranium deposits, East Alligator River region, Northern Territory of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowntree, J.C.; Mosher, D.V.

    1976-01-01

    Pancontinental Mining Limited acquired exploration rights over an area in the East Alligator River Region, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1970. Subsequently, Getty Oil Development Company Limited acquired a substantial minority interest in the property. The Jabiluka deposits were discovered during the course of exploration and are currently the largest of the four major uranium deposits in the East Alligator River Region. This region at present contains 24% of the western world's reasonably assured resources of uranium. The exploration techniques employed during primary and secondary exploration on the property between 1971 and 1975 and during the delineation of the Jabiluka deposits are discussed in detail. The case history illustrates the exploration philosophy which was successfully employed on the Jabiluka property. The philosophy encompasses the following points: The need for an assessment on the limits of airborne radiometric surveys; the necessity for detection and evaluation of point source anomalies; the necessity for exploration along extensions of favourable lithologies; and the desirability of modification of exploration techniques on different types of anomalies. Some aspects of this philosophy may be useful in exploration for similar stratabound uranium deposits in other areas. (author)

  5. Pipe support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollono, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems is described. A section of the pipe to be suppported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe

  6. Habitat use by 0+ cyprinid fish in the River Great Ouse, East Anglia

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Paul

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the habitat use of several species of 0+ cyprinid in the regulated River Great Ouse and to determine the reasons for specific habitat use. In general, all fish species were found associated with the marginal zone, with little diel variation. Use of shallow habitats in the presence of macrophytes correlated well with the distribution of zooplankton in the river channel, the preferred food source of 0+ cyprinids. During the early to late larval phase, all spec...

  7. Linkages between the spatial toxicity of sediments and sediment dynamics in the Yangtze River Estuary and neighboring East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinjuan; Shi, Huahong; Dai, Zhijun; Mei, Xuefei; Zong, Haibo; Yang, Hongwei; Hu, Lingling; Li, Shushi

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic activities are driving an increase in sediment contamination in coastal areas. This poses significant challenges for the management of estuarine ecosystems and their adjacent seas worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted on how dynamic mechanisms affect the sediment toxicity in the estuarine environment. This study was designed to investigate the linkages between sediment toxicity and hydrodynamics in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) area. High sediment toxicity was found in the Yangtze River mouth (Region I), the depocenter of the Yangtze River Delta (Region II), and the southeastern area of the adjacent sea (Region III), while low sediment toxicity was found in the northeastern offshore region (Region IV). A spatial comparison analysis and regression model indicated that the distributed pattern of sediment toxicity was likely related to hydrodynamics and circumfluence in the East China Sea (ECS) shelf. Specifically, high sediment toxicity in Region I may be affected by the Yangtze River Pump (YRP) and the low hydrodynamics there, and high toxicity in Region II can be influenced by the low sediment dynamics and fine sediment in the depocenter. The high sediment toxicity in Region III might be related to the combination of the YRP and Taiwan Warm Current, while the low toxicity in Region IV may be influenced by the local coarse-grained relict sand with strong sediment dynamics there. The present research results further suggest that it is necessary to link hydrodynamics and the spatial behavior of sediment and sediment-derived pollutants when assessing the pollution status of estuarine environments, especially for those mega-estuaries and their neighboring ocean environments with complex waves, tides and ocean currents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Results of the radiological survey of the Saddle River's East Bank, from State Highway 46 to the River's confluence with Lodi Brook, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ083)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.

    1989-11-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, the Saddle River's East Bank, from State Highway 46 to the River's Confluence with Lodi Brook, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ083), was conducted during 1988. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Clay mineralogy and source-to-sink transport processes of Changjiang River sediments in the estuarine and inner shelf areas of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Wang, Chenglong; Li, Yali; Yao, Yulong; Zhao, Wancang; Xu, Min

    2018-02-01

    We examined the source-to-sink sediment transport processes from the Changjiang River to the estuarine coastal shelf area by analyzing the clay mineral assemblages in suspended sediment samples from the Changjiang River catchment and surface samples from the estuarine coastal shelf area following the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The results indicate that the clay mineral compositions throughout the study area are dominated by illite, with less abundant kaolinite and chlorite and scarce smectite. The clay minerals display distinct differences in the tributaries and exhibit obvious changes in the trunk stream compared with the periods before 2003, and the source of sediment has largely shifted to the mid- to lower reaches of the river after 2003. Spatially, the clay mineral assemblages in the estuarine area define two compositionally distinct provinces. Province I covers the mud area of the Changjiang River estuary and the Zhe-Min coastal region, where sediment is primarily supplied by the Changjiang River. Province II includes part of the Changjiang River estuary and the southeastern portion of the study area, where the sediment is composed of terrestrial material from the Changjiang River and re-suspended material from the Huanghe River carried by the Jiangsu coastal current. Moreover, the other smaller rivers in China (including the Oujiang and Minjiang rivers of mainland China and the rivers of West Taiwan) also contribut sediments to the estuarine and inner shelf areas. In general, the clay mineral assemblages in the Changjiang River estuarine area are have mainly been controlled by sediment supplied from upstream of the Changjiang River tributaries. However, since the completion of the TGD in 2003, the mid- to downstream tributaries have become the main source of sediments from the Changjiang catchment into the East China Sea. These analyses further demonstrate that the coastal currents and the decrease in the sediment load of the river

  10. Analysis of the geochemical gradient created by surface-groundwater interactions within riverbanks of the East River in Crested Butte, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunzer, J.; Williams, K. H.; Malenda, H. F.; Nararne-Sitchler, A.

    2016-12-01

    An improved understanding of the geochemical gradient created by the mixing of surface and groundwater of a river system will have considerable impact on our understanding of microorganisms, organic cycling and biogeochemical processes within these zones. In this study, the geochemical gradient in the hyporheic zone is described using a variety of geochemical properties. A system of shallow groundwater wells were installed in a series of transects along a stream bank. Each transect consists of several wells that progress away from the river bank in a perpendicular fashion. From these wells, temperature, conductivity and pH of water samples were obtained via hand pumping or bailing. These data show a clear geochemical gradient that displays a distinct zone in the subsurface where the geochemical conditions change from surface water dominated to groundwater dominated. For this study, the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado has been selected as the river of interest due the river being a relatively undisturbed floodplain. Additionally, the specific section chosen on the East River displays relatively high sinuosity meaning that these meandering sections will produce hyporheic zones that are more laterally expansive than what would be expected on a river of lower sinuosity. This increase in lateral extension of the hyporheic zone will make depicting the subtle changes in the geochemical gradient much easier than that of a river system in which the hyporheic zone is not as laterally extensive. Data has been and will be continued to be collected at different river discharges to evaluate the geochemical gradient at differing rates. Overall, this characterization of the geochemical gradient along stream banks will produce results that will aid in the further use of geochemical methods to classify and understand hyporheic exchange zones and the potential expansion of these techniques to river systems of differing geologic and geographic conditions.

  11. Population Aspects of Fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers, White Nile System in Ethiopia, East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simagegnew Melaku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the diversity, condition factor, length-weight relationship, and sex ratio of fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers located in Baro-Akobo Basin, White Nile system within Ethiopia. Fish samples were collected in one wet and one dry season. The length-weight relationships were fitted using power equation for the most abundant species. A total of 348 fish specimens were collected using gillnets and hooks. These were identified into eight species and one Garra sp. representing seven genera and four families. Family Cyprinidae was the most dominant with six species (66.7%. Labeobarbus intermedius, Labeobarbus nedgia, and Labeo cylindricus were the most abundant fish species, respectively, with 60.72%, 16.83%, and 14.66% index of relative importance (IRI. The diversity index was higher for Geba River (H′ = 1.50 than for Sor River (H′ = 1.10. All the three most abundant species had negative allometric growth. Seasonal variations in the mean Fulton condition factor (FCF were statistically significant for L. cylindricus (p<0.05. There was variation in the sex ratio with the females dominating in all the three most abundant species. Further investigation into the fish diversity, food, feeding, and reproductive behaviors of fish species especially in the tributaries of these rivers and their socioeconomic aspects is recommended.

  12. Flood-Inundation Maps for the North River in Colrain, Charlemont, and Shelburne, Massachusetts, From the Confluence of the East and West Branch North Rivers to the Deerfield River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Gardner C.; Lombard, Pamela J.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2015-10-27

    A series of 10 digital flood-inundation maps were developed for a 3.3-mile reach of the North River in Colrain, Charlemont, and Shelburne, Massachusetts, by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The coverage of the maps extends from the confluence of the East and West Branch North Rivers to the Deerfield River. Peak-flow estimates at the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities were computed for the reach from updated flood-frequency analyses. These peak flows were routed through a one-dimensional step-backwater hydraulic model to obtain the corresponding peak water-surface elevations and to place the tropical storm Irene flood of August 28, 2011, into historical context. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the current [2015] stage-discharge relation at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage North River at Shattuckville, MA (station number 01169000), and from documented high-water marks from the tropical storm Irene flood, which had a peak flow with approximately a 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability.

  13. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in thirty typical soil profiles in the Yangtze River Delta region, east China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, L.F.; Luo, Y.M.; Zhang, H.B.; Li, Q.B.; Wu, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified in 30 soil profiles from the Yangtze River Delta Region, in east China. Relative concentrations of PAH compounds with different benzene rings and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene and benz(a)anthracene to benz(a)anthracene plus chrysene were used to identify the possible sources of soil PAHs. Total concentrations of 15 PAHs in topsoils ranged from 8.6 to 3881 μg kg -1 with an average of 397 μg kg -1 . Half of the soil samples were considered to be contaminated with PAHs (>200 μg kg -1 ) and two sampling sites were heavily polluted by PAHs with concentrations >1000 μg kg -1 . Phenanthrene was found in soils below a depth of 100 cm in half of the sampling sites, but the detectable ratio of benzo(a)pyrene decreased sharply from 100% in topsoil to 0 in the 4th horizon. - The information was provided on levels, distributions, and possible sources of PAHs in the soils of Yangtze River Delta area

  14. Pipe damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Studies are being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine whether an increase in the damping values used in seismic structural analyses of nuclear piping systems is justified. Increasing the allowable damping would allow fewer piping supports which could lead to safer, more reliable, and less costly piping systems. Test data from availble literature were examined to determine the important parameters contributing to piping system damping, and each was investigated in separate-effects tests. From the combined results a world pipe damping data bank was established and multiple regression analyses performed to assess the relative contributions of the various parameters. The program is being extended to determine damping applicable to higher frequency (33 to 100 Hz) fluid-induced loadings. The goals of the program are to establish a methodology for predicting piping system damping and to recommend revised guidelines for the damping values to be included in analyses

  15. STATIONARITY OF ANNUAL MAXIMUM DAILY STREAMFLOW TIME SERIES IN SOUTH-EAST BRAZILIAN RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Machado Damázio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.12957/cadest.2014.18302The paper presents a statistical analysis of annual maxima daily streamflow between 1931 and 2013 in South-East Brazil focused in detecting and modelling non-stationarity aspects. Flood protection for the large valleys in South-East Brazil is provided by multiple purpose reservoir systems built during 20th century, which design and operation plans has been done assuming stationarity of historical flood time series. Land cover changes and rapidly-increasing level of atmosphere greenhouse gases of the last century may be affecting flood regimes in these valleys so that it can be that nonstationary modelling should be applied to re-asses dam safety and flood control operation rules at the existent reservoir system. Six annual maximum daily streamflow time series are analysed. The time series were plotted together with fitted smooth loess functions and non-parametric statistical tests are performed to check the significance of apparent trends shown by the plots. Non-stationarity is modelled by fitting univariate extreme value distribution functions which location varies linearly with time. Stationarity and non-stationarity modelling are compared with the likelihood ratio statistic. In four of the six analyzed time series non-stationarity modelling outperformed stationarity modelling.Keywords: Stationarity; Extreme Value Distributions; Flood Frequency Analysis; Maximum Likelihood Method.

  16. Pipe damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Arendts, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A program has been developed to assess the available piping damping data, to generate additional data and conduct seperate effects tests, and to establish a plan for reporting and storing future test results into a data bank. This effort is providing some of the basis for developing higher allowable damping values for piping seismic analyses, which will potentially permit removal of a considerable number of piping supports, particularly snubbers. This in turn will lead to more flexible piping systems which will be less susceptible to thermal cracking, will be easier to maintain and inspect, as well as less costly

  17. Heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.

    1986-01-01

    A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)

  18. Assessment of radiation background level of Shandong basin in east line of northward rerouting of southern river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Daping; Xu Jiaang; Zhu Jianguo; Chen Yingmin; Lu Feng; Song Gang; Cao Jingli

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the radiation background levels of Shandong basin in east line of northward rerouting of southern river. Methods: The activity concentrations of gross-alpha, gross-beta, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, 226 Ra and 90 Sr in the samples were measured by national standard methods respectively. The values of the dose conversion factor given by UNSCEAR 2000 were adopted for dose estimation. Results: The average activity concentrations of gross-alpha, gross-beta, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, 226 Ra and 90 Sr in the samples were pooled in order to analyze dose estimation. The committed effective doses of the 226 Ra, 238 U, 90 Sr, 232 Th and 137 Cs from lake water for residents are 1.46, 4.95 x 10 -1 , 1.24 x 10 -1 , 2.58 x 10 -2 and 7.93 x 10 -3 μSv per year respectively. The committed effective doses of the 226 Ra, 238 U and 90 Sr from cyprinoid fish are 5.49 x 10 -2 , 3.69 x 10 -2 and 1.77 x 10 -2 μSv per year respectively. Conclusions: The results show that the average activity concentrations of gross-alpha, gross-beta, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, 226 Ra and 90 Sr in the samples from Shandong basin of northward rerouting of southern river are within the background levels. And in the main lake basin, the estimated exposures of public caused by the radionuclide in water and cyprinoid fish are so low that they can be ignored unless there ate some radioactive contamination in the future. (authors)

  19. Pipe connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.E.; Pardini, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A safety test facility for testing sodium-cooled nuclear reactor components includes a reactor vessel and a heat exchanger submerged in sodium in the tank. The reactor vessel and heat exchanger are connected by an expansion/deflection pipe coupling comprising a pair of coaxially and slidably engaged tubular elements having radially enlarged opposed end portions of which at least a part is of spherical contour adapted to engage conical sockets in the ends of pipes leading out of the reactor vessel and in to the heat exchanger. A spring surrounding the pipe coupling urges the end portions apart and into engagement with the spherical sockets. Since the pipe coupling is submerged in liquid a limited amount of leakage of sodium from the pipe can be tolerated

  20. Hydrological information system based on on-line monitoring--from strategy to implementation in the Brantas River Basin, East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, G W; Wellguni, H

    2003-01-01

    The worsening environmental situation of the Brantas River, East Java, is addressed by a comprehensive basin management strategy which relies on accurate water quantity and quality data retrieved from a newly installed online monitoring network. Integrated into a Hydrological Information System, the continuously measured indicative parameters allow early warning, control and polluter identification. Additionally, long-term analyses have been initiated for improving modelling applications like flood forecasting, water resource management and pollutant propagation. Preliminary results illustrate the efficiency of the installed system.

  1. [Responses of functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in middle reach of Qiantang River, East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Bo; Liu, Dong-Xiao; Liu, Shuo-Ru; Zhang, Yong; Tong, Xiao-Li; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2013-10-01

    Based on the biological traits such as life history, resistance ability against environmental disturbance, and physiological characteristics of aquatic insects, and by using the fourth-corner statistical method, this paper studied the responses of the functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in the middle reach of Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province of East China. For the test aquatic insect community, some of its biological traits were sensitive to land use change, and altered along human disturbance gradients as expected. With the increasing intensity of human disturbance, the maximal insect body length decreased gradually, the dominant respiration pattern evolved from gill respiration to tegument respiration, and the abundance of burrowers increased significantly. At the same time, the functional diversity measured as Rao's quadratic entropy was significantly higher in reference sites than in disturbed sites (P aquatic community were mainly induced by the land use change caused by human activities, which resulted in the decline of stream water quality and habitat quality and the variations of aquatic insect community composition and biological traits. The aquatic insect biological traits and functional diversity could be the potentially effective indicators in the stream health assessment in the future.

  2. Uncovering the role of the East Asian jet stream and heterogeneities in atmospheric rivers affecting the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Villarini, Gabriele

    2018-01-30

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) exert major socioeconomic repercussions along the US West Coast by inducing heavy rainfall, flooding, strong winds, and storm surge. Despite the significant societal and economic repercussions of these storms, our understanding of the physical drivers responsible for their interannual variability is limited, with different climate modes identified as possible mechanisms. Here we show that the Pacific-Japan (PJ) teleconnections/patterns and the East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ) exhibit a strong linkage with the total frequency of ARs making landfall over the western United States, much stronger than the other potential climate modes previously considered. While our findings indicate that the PJ pattern and EASJ are the most relevant climate modes driving the overall AR activity, we also uncover heterogeneities in AR tracks. Specifically, we show that not all ARs making landfall along the West Coast come from a single population, but rather that it is possible to stratify these storms into three clusters. While the PJ pattern and EASJ are major drivers of AR activity for two clusters, the cluster that primarily affects the US Southwest is largely driven by other climate modes [El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic meridional mode (AMM), the Pacific-North America (PNA) teleconnection pattern, and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO)]. Therefore, important regional differences exist and this information can substantially enhance our ability to predict and prepare for these storms and their impacts.

  3. How East Asian westerly jet's meridional position affects the summer rainfall in Yangtze-Huaihe River Valley?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shixin; Zuo, Hongchao; Zhao, Shuman; Zhang, Jiankai; Lu, Sha

    2017-03-01

    Existing studies show that the change in the meridional position of East Asian westerly jet (EAWJ) is associated with rainfall anomalies in Yangtze-Huaihe River Valley (YHRV) in summer. However, the dynamic mechanism has not been resolved yet. The present study reveals underlying mechanisms for this impact for early summer and midsummer, separately. Mechanism1: associated with EAWJ's anomalously southward displacement, the 500-hPa westerly wind over YHRV is strengthened through midtropospheric horizontal circulation anomalies; the westerly anomalies are related to the formation of warm advection anomalies over YHRV, which cause increased rainfall through adiabatic ascent motion and convective activities; the major difference in these processes between early summer and midsummer is the midtropospheric circulation anomaly pattern. Mechanism 2: associated with EAWJ's anomalously southward displacement, the large day-to-day variability of midtropospheric temperature advection in midlatitudes is displaced southward by the jet's trapping transient eddies; this change enhances the day-to-day variability of temperature advection over YHRV, which in turn causes the increased rainfall in most part of YHRV through "lower-bound effect" (rainfall amount can not become negative); there is not much difference in these processes between early summer and midsummer.

  4. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  5. IPM Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submit A Report View Reports List [+] View Reports Map [+] CDM Alert System Sign Up For Alerts User Login Annual Epidemic Histories Annual Season Summaries Contact Us ipmPIPE User Login Web Administrator Login

  6. Pipe grabber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, I.G.; Mubashirov, S.G.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-05-15

    A pipe grabber is suggested which contains a housing, clamping elements and centering mechanism with drive installed on the lower end of the housing. In order to improve the reliable operation of the pipe grabber, the centering mechanism is made in the form of a reinforced ringed flexible shaft, while the drive is made in the form of elastic rotating discs. In this case the direction of rotation of the discs and the flexible shaft is the opposite.

  7. Soils and late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Cottonwood River basin, east-central Kansas: Implications for archaeological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, J.M.; Mandel, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of landscape evolution strongly influence the temporal and spatial patterns of the archaeological record in drainage systems. In this geoarchaeological investigation we took a basin-wide approach in assessing the soil stratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and geochronology of alluvial deposits and associated buried soils in the Cottonwood River basin of east-central Kansas. Patterns of landscape evolution emerge when stratigraphic sequences and radiocarbon chronologies are compared by stream size and landform type. In the valleys of high-order streams (???4th order) the Younger Dryas Chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr B.P.) was characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by pedogenesis, resulting in the development of organic-rich cumulic soils. Between ca. 10,000 and 4900 14C yr B.P., aggradation punctuated by soil formation was the dominant process in those valleys. Alluvial fans formed on the margins of high-order stream valleys during the early and middle Holocene (ca. 9000-5000 14C yr B.P.) and continued to develop slowly until ca. 3000-2000 14C yr B.P. The late-Holocene record of high-order streams is characterized by episodes of entrenchment, rapid aggradation, and slow aggradation punctuated by soil development. By contrast, the early and middle Holocene (ca. 10,000-5000 14C yr B.P.) was a period of net erosion in the valleys of low-order streams. However, during the late Holocene small valleys became zones of net sediment storage. Consideration of the effects of these patterns of landscape evolution on the archaeological record is crucial for accurately interpreting that record and searching for buried archaeological deposits dating to specific cultural periods. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

  8. A new index for identifying socioeconomic drought events under climate change over the East River basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H.; Chen, J.; Wang, K.; Niu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drought, which means severe water deficiencies, is a complex natural hazard that may have destructive damages on societal properties and lives. Generally, socioeconomic drought occurs when the water resources systems cannot meet the water demands due to a weather-related shortfall in water supply to societies. This paper aims to propose a new index (i.e., socioeconomic drought index (SEDI)) for identifying socioeconomic drought events on different levels (i.e., slight, moderate, severe and extreme) under climate change through considering the gap between water supply and demand. First, the minimum in-stream water requirement (MWR) is determined through comprehensively considering the requirements of water quality, ecology, navigation and water supply. Second, according to the monthly water deficit calculated as the monthly streamflow data minus the MWR, drought month can be identified. Third, according to the cumulative water deficit derived from the monthly water deficit, drought duration (i.e., the number of continuous drought months) can be detected. Fourth, the SEDI of each socioeconomic drought event can be calculated through integrating the impacts of the cumulative water deficit and drought duration. The study area is the East River basin in South China, and the impact of a multi-year reservoir (i.e., the Xinfengjiang Reservoir) on drought is also analyzed. For historical and future drought analysis, it is concluded that the proposed SEDI is feasible to identify socioeconomic drought events. The results show that a number of socioeconomic drought events (including some extreme ones) may occur during 2020-2099, and the appropriate reservoir operation can significantly ease such situation.

  9. Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  10. Concentration-Discharge Relationships, Nested Reaction Fronts, and the Balance of Oxidative and Acid-Base Weathering Fluxes in an Alpine Catchment, East River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, M.; Carroll, R. W. H.; Williams, K. H.; Maxwell, R. M.; Maher, K.

    2016-12-01

    Although important for solute production and transport, the varied interactions between biogeochemical processes and subsurface hydrology remain poorly characterized. We investigate these couplings in the headwaters of the East River, CO, a high-elevation shale-dominated catchment system in the Rocky Mountains, using concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships for major cations, anions, and organic carbon. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) displays a positive C-Q relationship with well-defined clockwise hysteresis, indicating the mobilization and depletion of DOC in the upper soil horizons and highlighting the importance of shallow flowpaths through the snowmelt period. Cation and anion concentrations demonstrate that carbonate weathering, which dominates solute fluxes, is promoted by both carbonic acid and sulfuric acid derived from oxidation of pyrite in the shale bedrock. Sulfuric acid weathering in the deep subsurface dominates during base flow conditions when waters have infiltrated below the hypothesized pyrite oxidation front, whereas carbonic acid weathering plays a dominant role during the snowmelt period as a result of shallow flowpaths. Differential C-Q relationships between solutes suggest that infiltrating waters approach calcite saturation before reaching the pyrite oxidation front, after which sulfuric acid reduces carbonate alkalinity. This increase in CO2(aq) at the expense of HCO3- results in outgassing of CO2 when waters equilibrate to surface conditions, and reduces the export of carbon and alkalinity from the East River by roughly 33% annually. Future changes in snowmelt dynamics that control the balance of carbonic and sulfuric acid weathering therefore have the capacity to substantially alter the cycling of carbon in the East River catchment. Ultimately, we demonstrate that differential C-Q relationships between major solutes can provide unique insights into the complex subsurface flow and biogeochemical dynamics that operate at catchment scales.

  11. Characterization of mineral coatings associated with a Pleistocene-Holocene rock art style: The Northern Running Figures of the East Alligator River region, western Arnhem Land, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Penelope L; Troitzsch, Ulrike; Jones, Tristen

    2017-02-01

    This data article contains mineralogic and chemical data from mineral coatings associated with rock art from the East Alligator River region. The coatings were collected adjacent to a rock art style known as the "Northern Running Figures" for the purposes of radiocarbon dating (doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.11.016; (T. Jones, V. Levchenko, P.L. King, U. Troitzsch, D. Wesley, 2017) [1]). This contribution includes raw and processed powder X-ray Diffraction data, Scanning Electron Microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy data, and Fourier Transform infrared spectral data.

  12. New or little-known species of Chaetocladius s. str. Kieffer, 1911 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae) from the Amur River basin (Russian Far East).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarchenko, Eugenyi A; Makarchenko, Marina A; Semenchenko, Alexander A

    2017-03-27

    Chironomids of the subgenus Chaetocladius s. str. from the Amur River basin are revised using both morphological characters and molecular data. Three new species, C. egorych sp. nov., C. lopatinskiy sp. nov. and C. yavorskayae sp. nov., are described and figured. The pupa of C. fedotkin is described for the first time. Adult males of C. ligni and C. piger, little-known in the Far East, are redescribed and annotated, and key to males of the Chaetocladius s. str. from the Amur River basin is provided. A reference 658 bp barcode sequence from a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI) was used as a tool for species delimitation. Comparisons with corresponding regions of COI between 5 species in the subgenus produced K2P genetic distances of 8.3-12.6%, values well associated with interspecific variation. Molecular data were also used for the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the subgenus Chaetocladius s. str.

  13. Atmospheric deposition and air-sea gas exchange fluxes of DDT and HCH in the Yangtze River Estuary, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongxia; Lin, Tian; Li, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Yuqing; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-07-01

    The Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) is strongly influenced by the Yangtze River and lies on the pathway of the East Asian Monsoon. This study examined atmospheric deposition and air-sea gas exchange fluxes of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) to determine whether the YRE is a sink or source of selected pesticides at the air-water interface under the influences of river input and atmospheric transport. The air-sea gas exchange of DDT was characterized by net volatilization with a marked difference in its fluxes between summer (140 ng/m2/d) and the other three seasons (12 ng/m2/d), possibly due to the high surface seawater temperatures and larger riverine input in summer. However, there was no obvious seasonal variation in the atmospheric HCH deposition, and the air-sea gas exchange reached equilibrium because of low HCH levels in the air and seawater after the long-term banning of HCH and the degradation. The gas exchange flux of HCH was comparable to the dry and wet deposition fluxes at the air-water interface. This suggests that the influences from the Yangtze River input and East Asian continental outflow on the fate of HCH in the YRE were limited. The gas exchange flux of DDT was about fivefold higher than the total dry and wet deposition fluxes. DDT residues in agricultural soil transported by enhanced riverine runoff were responsible for sustaining such a high net volatilization in summer. Moreover, our results indicated that there were fresh sources of DDT from the local environment to sustain net volatilization throughout the year.

  14. Soft sediment deformation associated with the East Patna Fault south of the Ganga River, northern India: Influence of the Himalayan tectonics on the southern Ganga plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aditya K.; Pati, Pitambar; Sharma, Vijay

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphic, tectonic and seismic aspects of the Ganga plain have been studied by several workers in the recent decades. However, the northern part of this tectonically active plain has been the prime focus in most of the studies. The region to the south of the Ganga River requires necessary attention, especially, regarding the seismic activities. The region lying immediately south of the Outer Himalayas (i.e. the Ganga plain) responds to the stress regime of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust Zone by movement along the existing basement faults (extending from the Indian Peninsula) and creating new surface faults within the sediment cover as well. As a result, several earthquakes have been recorded along these basement faults, such as the great earthquakes of 1934 and 1988 associated with the East Patna Fault. Large zones of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar (close to the Himalayan front), have been recorded associated with these earthquakes. The present study reports the soft sediment deformation structures from the south Bihar associated with the prehistoric earthquakes near the East Patna Fault for the first time. The seismites have been observed in the riverine sand bed of the Dardha River close to the East Patna Fault. Several types of liquefaction-induced deformation structures such as pillar and pocket structure, thixotropic wedge, liquefaction cusps and other water escape structures have been identified. The location of the observed seismites within the deformed zone of the East Patna Fault clearly indicates their formation due to activities along this fault. However, the distance of the liquefaction site from the recorded epicenters suggests its dissociation with the recorded earthquakes so far and hence possibly relates to any prehistoric seismic event. The occurrence of the earthquakes of a magnitude capable of forming liquefaction structure in the southern Ganga plain indicates the transfer of stress regime far from the Himalayan front into

  15. Surface water / groundwater interactions and their spatial variability, an example from the Avon River, South-East Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the interaction between river water and regional groundwater has significant importance for water management and resource allocation. The dynamics of groundwater/surface water interactions also have implications for ecosystems, pollutant transport, and the quality and quantity of water supply for domestic, agriculture and recreational purposes. After general assumptions and for management purposes rivers are classified in loosing or gaining rivers. However, many streams alternate between gaining and loosing conditions on a range of temporal and spatial scales due to factors including: 1) river water levels in relation to groundwater head; 2) the relative response of the groundwater and river system to rainfall; 3) heterogeneities in alluvial sediments that can lead to alternation of areas of exfiltration and infiltration along a river stretch; and 4) differences in near river reservoirs, such parafluvial flow and bank storage. Spatial variability of groundwater discharge to rivers is rarely accounted for as it is assumed that groundwater discharge is constant over river stretches and only changes with the seasonal river water levels. Riverbank storage and parafluvial flow are generally not taken in consideration. Bank storage has short-term cycles and can contribute significantly to the total discharge, especially after flood events. In this study we used hydrogeochemistry to constrain spatial and temporal differences in gaining and loosing conditions in rivers and investigate potential sources. Environmental tracers, such as major ion chemistry, stables isotopes and Radon are useful tools to characterise these sources. Surface water and ground water samples were taken in the Avon River in the Gippsland Basin, Southwest Australia. Increasing TDS along the flow path from 70 to 250 mg/l, show that the Avon is a net gaining stream. The radon concentration along the river is variable and does not show a general increase downstream, but isolated peaks in

  16. Annotated Directory of Threatened and Endangered Wildlife on Selected U.S. Army Installations East of the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    species was historically collected from the Illinois River, in waters around the installation. Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsi (SE): Historically...triquetra (SE): Found in the Mississippi River, this species may occur in waters around the installation. Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsi (FE, SE): Found in...tributaries of the Tennessee river, it may still be present in waters around the installation. 131 Cumberland monkeyface, Quadrula intermedia (FE, SE

  17. Impact of oil shale mining and mine closures on hydrological conditions of North-East Estonian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetsep, A.; Liblik, V.

    2004-01-01

    The attention is focused on the formation of hydrological and hydrogeological interconnections between the catchment areas of Purtse, Rannapungerja, Puhajoe and Vasavere rivers after closing (in 1997-2002) and flooding the Ahtme, Tammiku, Sompa and Kohtla oil shale underground mines. The multivariate relationship between the changes in mine water amounts directed into the rivers, annual runoff due to mine water inlets, groundwater underground flow, outflow module and other factors (as variables) were studied. A complex of linear regression formulas was derived to calculate the amounts of mine water outputs into the rivers and water distribution in order to regulate the hydrological regime of investigated rivers. (author)

  18. Experimental use of Line-X coated steel pipe piles, Clay Hill Bridge (#2157) replacement project over the Mousam River, Route 9/Western Avenue, Kennebunk, Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Steel pipe piles used by MaineDOT for bridge construction are typically coated with a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE). FBE is a powder-based coating with properties similar to traditional : epoxies. Its name is derived from the process by which it adheres ...

  19. Characterization, treatment and releases of PBDEs and PAHs in a typical municipal sewage treatment plant situated beside an urban river, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Xi, Beidou; Huo, Shouliang; Sun, Wenjun; Pan, Hongwei; Zhang, Jingtian; Ren, Yuqing; Liu, Hongliang

    2013-07-01

    Characterization, treatment and releases of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners and sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wastewater were evaluated along the treatment processes of a typical secondary treatment municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) (in Hefei City) situated the beside Nanfei River, East China. The findings showed that the average concentrations of the total PBDEs in raw wastewater and treated effluent were 188.578 and 36.884 ng/L respectively. Brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 209 congener, the predominant PBDE in the STP and Nanfei River, could be related to the discharge of car-industry-derived wastes. For PAHs, the average concentrations in raw wastewater and treated effluent were 5758.8 and 2240.4 ng/L respectively, with naphthalene, benzo[a]pyrene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene being detected at the highest concentrations. PAHs mainly originate from the combustion of biomass/coal and petroleum. The STP reduced about 80% of the PBDEs and 61% of the PAHs, which were eliminated mainly by sedimentation processes. The removal rates of PBDEs/PAHs increased with the increase of their solid-water partitioning coefficients. Accordingly, the STP's effluent, containing some PBDE congeners (e.g., BDE 47, 99 and 209, etc.) and low-molecular-weight PAHs, could be an important contributor of these contaminants' input to Nanfei River. It resulted in a significant increase of PBDE/PAH concentrations and PAH toxicological risk in the river water downstream. About 4.040 kg/yr of PBDEs and 245.324 kg/yr of PAHs could be released into the Nanfei River. The current conventional wastewater treatment processes should be improved to remove the relatively low-molecular-weight PBDEs/PAHs more effectively.

  20. Inundation and draining of the Trinity River floodplain associated with extreme precipitation from Hurricane Harvey, east Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenruck-Gudipati, H. J.; Goudge, T. A.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers swelled up beyond their historic high-water marks due to precipitation from Hurricane Harvey. We used Harvey-induced flooding to investigate the flow connectivity between the coastal Trinity River and its floodplain by measuring water depth and velocity, as well as sediment-transporting conditions on the natural levee that separates the two. River discharge within the study area peaked at a historic high of 3600 cubic meters per second on September 1, 2017. The levees on two river bends were investigated on September 3 and 4 in order to characterize the hydraulic connectivity between the channel and its floodplain during the early falling limb of this flood. On September 3, a river bend located approximately 28km upstream of the river mouth was visited. Water was overtopping the levee crest at this location, 30m away from the levee crest. This overland flow only experienced about a threefold reduction in average velocity to 0.16 m/s (in 2.2 m of water) 600m away from the levee crest. On September 4, a river bend approximately 59km upstream of the river mouth was investigated. Even though the river stage was at the National Weather Service major flood stage, the levee crest separating the river and floodplain was emergent. Regardless of this local disconnect between the river and its floodplain, substantial and variable drainage velocities were measured depending on drainage patterns controlled by local topography. Velocities measured in shallow water immediately adjacent to the emergent levee were low (< 0.05 m/s in 0.2 m of water). The highest drainage velocity ( 0.18 m/s in 1.7 m of water) associated with the upstream river-bend was measured at 750m from the channel and was similar in magnitude to those recorded for the distal inundating overland flow a day before on the downstream river-bend. Results from this work highlight the maintenance of high flow velocities across the distal floodplain even during its drainage phase. The transport of sediment

  1. Strategy of Water Pollution Control Base On Social Economic Activitiy, in Karang Mumus River, Samarinda East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramaningsih, Vita; Suprayogi, Slamet; Purnama, Setyawan

    2018-02-01

    Water Pollution in Karang Mumus River caused society behavior along the river. Daily activity such as bath, washing and defecate at the river. Garbage, sediment, domestic waste and flood are river problems should be solved. Purpose this research is make strategy of water pollution control in the Karang Mumus River. Method used observation in the field, interview to the society, industry, public activity along the river and government of environment department. Further create data using tool of Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP) to get the strategy to control water pollution in the river. Actors have contribute pollution control are government, industry and society. Criteria to pollution control are society participation, low, human resources and sustainable. Alternative of pollution control are unit garbage storage; license loyalty for industry and waste; communal waste water installation; monitoring of water quality. Result for actor priority are government (0.4); Industry (0.4); Society (0.2). Result for priority criteria are society participation (0.338), low (0.288), human resources (0.205) and sustainable (0.169). Result for priority alternative are unit garbage storage (0.433); license loyalty for industry and waste (0.238); communal waste water installation (0.169); monitoring of water quality (0.161).

  2. Strategy of Water Pollution Control Base On Social Economic Activitiy, in Karang Mumus River, Samarinda East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramaningsih Vita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water Pollution in Karang Mumus River caused society behavior along the river. Daily activity such as bath, washing and defecate at the river. Garbage, sediment, domestic waste and flood are river problems should be solved. Purpose this research is make strategy of water pollution control in the Karang Mumus River. Method used observation in the field, interview to the society, industry, public activity along the river and government of environment department. Further create data using tool of Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP to get the strategy to control water pollution in the river. Actors have contribute pollution control are government, industry and society. Criteria to pollution control are society participation, low, human resources and sustainable. Alternative of pollution control are unit garbage storage; license loyalty for industry and waste; communal waste water installation; monitoring of water quality. Result for actor priority are government (0.4; Industry (0.4; Society (0.2. Result for priority criteria are society participation (0.338, low (0.288, human resources (0.205 and sustainable (0.169. Result for priority alternative are unit garbage storage (0.433; license loyalty for industry and waste (0.238; communal waste water installation (0.169; monitoring of water quality (0.161.

  3. Spatial variation and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influenced by intensive land use in an urbanized river network of East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chunjuan; Wang, Xueping; Jia, Jinpu; Chen, Zhenlou

    2018-06-15

    The concentrations and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urbanized river networks are strongly influenced by intensive land use, industrial activities and population density. The spatial variations and their influencing factors of 16 priority PAHs were investigated in surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments among areas under different intensive land uses (industrial areas, agricultural areas, inner city, suburban towns and island areas) in the Shanghai river network, East China. Source apportionment was carried out using isomer ratios of PAHs and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 105.2 to 400.5 ng/L, 108.1 to 1058.8 ng/L and 104.4 to 19,480.0 ng/g in water, SPM and sediments, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs in SPM and sediments varied significantly among areas (p natural gas combustion in water and SPM, and vehicular emissions in sediments. Vehicular emissions were the strongest contributors in SPM and sediments of the inner city, indicating the strong influence of vehicular transportation to PAHs pollution in the urbanized river network. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in the Synechococcus Assemblage Composition at the Surface of the East China Sea Due to Flooding of the Changjiang River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chih-Ching; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Huang, Chin-Yi; Lin, Jer-Young; Lin, Yun-Chi

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how flooding of the Changjiang River affects the assemblage composition of phycoerythrin-rich (PE-rich) Synechococcus at the surface of the East China Sea (ECS). During non-flooding summers (e.g., 2009), PE-rich Synechococcus usually thrive at the outer edge of the Changjiang River diluted water coverage (CDW; salinity ≤31 PSU). In the summer of 2010, a severe flood occurred in the Changjiang River basin. The plentiful freshwater injection resulted in the expansion of the CDW over half of the ECS and caused PE-rich cells to show a uniform distribution pattern, with decreased abundance compared with the non-flooding summer. The phylogenetic diversity of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the flooding event also shifted the picoplankton community composition from being dominated by Synechococcus, mainly attributed to the clade II lineage, to various orders of heterotrophic bacteria, including Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria, α-Proteobacteria, and γ-Proteobacteria. As an increasing number of studies have proposed that global warming might result in more frequent floods, combining this perspective with the information obtained from our previous [1] and this studies yield a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between the composition of the marine Synechococcus assemblage and global environmental changes.

  5. Assessment of salinity intrusion in the James and Chickahominy Rivers as a result of simulated sea-level rise in Chesapeake Bay, East Coast, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C; Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian

    2012-11-30

    Global sea level is rising, and the relative rate in the Chesapeake Bay region of the East Coast of the United States is greater than the worldwide rate. Sea-level rise can cause saline water to migrate upstream in estuaries and rivers, threatening freshwater habitat and drinking-water supplies. The effects of future sea-level rise on two tributaries of Chesapeake Bay, the James and Chickahominy (CHK) Rivers, were evaluated in order to quantify the salinity change with respect to the magnitude of sea-level rise. Such changes are critical to: 1) local floral and faunal habitats that have limited tolerance ranges to salinity; and 2) a drinking-water supply for the City of Newport News, Virginia. By using the three-dimensional Hydrodynamic-Eutrophication Model (HEM-3D), sea-level rise scenarios of 30, 50, and 100 cm, based on the U.S. Climate Change Science Program for the mid-Atlantic region for the 21st century, were evaluated. The model results indicate that salinity increases in the entire river as sea level rises and that the salinity increase in a dry year is greater than that in a typical year. In the James River, the salinity increase in the middle-to-upper river (from 25 to 50 km upstream of the mouth) is larger than that in the lower and upper parts of the river. The maximum mean salinity increase would be 2 and 4 ppt for a sea-level rise of 50 and 100 cm, respectively. The upstream movement of the 10 ppt isohaline is much larger than the 5 and 20 ppt isohalines. The volume of water with salinity between 10 and 20 ppt would increase greatly if sea level rises 100 cm. In the CHK River, with a sea-level rise of 100 cm, the mean salinity at the drinking-water intake 34 km upstream of the mouth would be about 3 ppt in a typical year and greater than 5 ppt in a dry year, both far in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary standard for total dissolved solids for drinking water. At the drinking-water intake, the number of days of salinity

  6. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  7. Pipe crawlers: Versatile adaptations for real applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapstack, M.; Talarek, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A problem at the Savannah River Site requires the unique application of a pipe crawler. A number of stainless steel pipes buried in concrete require ultrasonic inspection of the heat affected zones of the welds for detection of flaws or cracks. The paper describes the utilization of an inch-worm motion pipe crawler which negotiates a 90 degree reducing elbow with significant changes in diameter and vertical sections before entering the area of concern. After a discussion of general considerations and problem description, special requirements to meet the objectives and the design approach regarding the tractor, control system, instrument carriage, and radiation protection are discussed. 2 refs., 11 figs. (MB)

  8. Tritium dating of underground water from the Jian River valley and Houjialiang loess platform in the basin side-band of the East-Mountain Region of Taiyuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Songsheng; Wu Qinghua

    1991-01-01

    The tritium content is measured in underground water from the basin side-band of the East-Mountain Region of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, and hence the age, i.e. resident time, of underground water is estimated. The region belongs to deep water-poor zone in a long loess ridge situated in a loess hill plateau. The level of underground water is 40-80 m deep hidden. In the runway and the scouring channel the aqueous bed is of river pebble and cobble, with a level of 2-10 m in depth. The age of underground water from different wells were determined to be 23a, 14a, 25a, 41a and 53a respectively

  9. Initial evaluations of the use of microbial measures to quantify impact of acid rock drainage on the Finniss River (east branch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, P.J.; Wilde, K.L.; Stone, D.J.; Ben-David, E.A.; Foster, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    Biological measures assessing the impact of pollution on aquatic ecosystems have been increasingly used over the last ten years to examine ecosystem health. The focus, however, has been on diversity and abundance of higher organisms, such as fish, frogs and macroinvertebrates, and it is desirable that such measures be made across all trophic levels of the ecosystem. In this study, phospholipid-fatty acid analysis and microbial carbon substrate utilisation assays (BIOLOG) of sediment and water samples were conducted to evaluate their usefulness as a measure of the effect of acid rock drainage (ARD) on the East Branch of the Finniss River. Both PLFA, and BIOLOG assays, generate data well suited to multivariate analysis and previous studies of the impact of ARD from the Brukunga mine (South Australia) have demonstrated the ability to distinguish between the effect of ARD, nutrients and dry-land salinity on microbial populations

  10. Mapping the low salinity Changjiang Diluted Water using satellite-retrieved colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the East China Sea during high river flow season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroaki; Siswanto, Eko; Nishiuchi, Kou; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Hasegawa, Toru; Ishizaka, Joji

    2008-02-01

    Absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) [a g(λ)] were measured and relationship with salinity was derived in the East China Sea (ECS) during summer when amount of the Changjiang River discharge is large. Low salinity Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) was observed widely in the shelf region and was considered to be the main origin of CDOM, resulting in a strong relationship between salinity and a g(λ). Error of satellite a g(λ) estimated by the present ocean color algorithm could be corrected by satellite-retrieved chlorophyll data. Satellite-retrieved salinity could be predicted with about +/-1.0 accuracy from satellite a g(λ) and the relation between salinity and a g(λ). Our study suggests that satellite-derived a g(λ) can be an indicator of the low salinity CDW during summer.

  11. Radionuclide content in the Upper Vistula River sediments in a coal mining region in Poland (east-central Europe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, M.; Mietelski, J.W.; Pociask-Karteczka, J.

    1998-01-01

    Hard coal mining activity is one of the Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation sources introduced more than a hundred years ago in the southern part of Poland. This study of radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226, Ra-228) in river sediments showed the principal factors determining the specific activity of radionuclides are distance from mines and sorption by clay particles in river sediments. The K-40 specific activity varies between 185 and 595 Bq/kg. The highest Ra-228 and Ra-226 specific activities, 280-610 and 205-415 Bq/kg, respectively, were detected in sediments of the Vistula in the vicinity of Silesia region. 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Joint atmospheric-terrestrial water balances for East Africa: a WRF-Hydro case study for the upper Tana River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerandi, Noah; Arnault, Joel; Laux, Patrick; Wagner, Sven; Kitheka, Johnson; Kunstmann, Harald

    2018-02-01

    For an improved understanding of the hydrometeorological conditions of the Tana River basin of Kenya, East Africa, its joint atmospheric-terrestrial water balances are investigated. This is achieved through the application of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and the fully coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system over the Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment (3279 km2) and its surroundings in the upper Tana River basin for 4 years (2011-2014). The model setup consists of an outer domain at 25 km (East Africa) and an inner one at 5-km (Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment) horizontal resolution. The WRF-Hydro inner domain is enhanced with hydrological routing at 500-m horizontal resolution. The results from the fully coupled modeling system are compared to those of the WRF-only model. The coupled WRF-Hydro slightly reduces precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the soil water storage but increases runoff. The total precipitation from March to May and October to December for WRF-only (974 mm/year) and coupled WRF-Hydro (940 mm/year) is closer to that derived from the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) data (989 mm/year) than from the TRMM (795 mm/year) precipitation product. The coupled WRF-Hydro-accumulated discharge (323 mm/year) is close to that observed (333 mm/year). However, the coupled WRF-Hydro underestimates the observed peak flows registering low but acceptable NSE (0.02) and RSR (0.99) at daily time step. The precipitation recycling and efficiency measures between WRF-only and coupled WRF-Hydro are very close and small. This suggests that most of precipitation in the region comes from moisture advection from the outside of the analysis domain, indicating a minor impact of potential land-precipitation feedback mechanisms in this case. The coupled WRF-Hydro nonetheless serves as a tool in quantifying the atmospheric-terrestrial water balance in this region.

  13. Performance of the WRF model to simulate the seasonal and interannual variability of hydrometeorological variables in East Africa: a case study for the Tana River basin in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerandi, Noah Misati; Laux, Patrick; Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the ability of the regional climate model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) in simulating the seasonal and interannual variability of hydrometeorological variables in the Tana River basin (TRB) in Kenya, East Africa. The impact of two different land use classifications, i.e., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) at two horizontal resolutions (50 and 25 km) is investigated. Simulated precipitation and temperature for the period 2011-2014 are compared with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Climate Research Unit (CRU), and station data. The ability of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Climate Research Unit (CRU) data in reproducing in situ observation in the TRB is analyzed. All considered WRF simulations capture well the annual as well as the interannual and spatial distribution of precipitation in the TRB according to station data and the TRMM estimates. Our results demonstrate that the increase of horizontal resolution from 50 to 25 km, together with the use of the MODIS land use classification, significantly improves the precipitation results. In the case of temperature, spatial patterns and seasonal cycle are well reproduced, although there is a systematic cold bias with respect to both station and CRU data. Our results contribute to the identification of suitable and regionally adapted regional climate models (RCMs) for East Africa.

  14. Distribution of meiobenthos and macrobenthos at the mouth of some rivers of the East coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Chatterji, A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Distribution of meio- and macrobenthos of muddy bottom deposits at the mouth of Krishna, Godavari, Mahanadi and Hooghly rivers was studied from replicate sampling Total meiofauna ranged from 226 animals/4.5 cm super(2) to 967 animals/4.5 cm super(2...

  15. Evaluating the coefficients of autocorrelation in a series of annual run-off of the Far East rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakharyuk, A V

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the coefficients of autocorrelation in series of annual river run-off based on group analysis using data on the distribution law of sampling correlation coefficients of temporal series subordinate to the III type Pearson's distribution.

  16. Exploring spatiotemporal changes of the Yangtze River (Changjiang) nitrogen and phosphorus sources, retention and export to the East China Sea and Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaochen; Beusen, Arthur H W; Van Beek, Ludovicus P H; Mogollón, José M; Ran, Xiangbin; Bouwman, Alexander F

    2018-06-04

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows from land to sea in the Yangtze River basin were simulated for the period 1900-2010, by combining models for hydrology, nutrient input to surface water, and an in-stream retention. This study reveals that the basin-wide nutrient budget, delivery to surface water, and in-stream retention increased during this period. Since 2004, the Three Gorges Reservoir has contributed 5% and 7% of N and P basin-wide retention, respectively. With the dramatic rise in nutrient delivery, even this additional retention was insufficient to prevent an increase of riverine export from 337 Gg N yr -1 and 58 Gg P yr -1 (N:P molar ratio = 13) to 5896 Gg N yr -1 and 381 Gg P yr -1 (N:P molar ratio = 35) to the East China Sea and Yellow Sea (ECSYS). The midstream and upstream subbasins dominate the N and P exports to the ECSYS, respectively, due to various human activities along the river. Our spatially explicit nutrient source allocation can aid in the strategic targeting of nutrient reduction policies. We posit that these should focus on improving the agricultural fertilizer and manure use efficiency in the upstream and midstream and better urban wastewater management in the downstream subbasin. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  18. Seasonal atmospheric deposition and air-sea gaseous exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons over the Yangtze River Estuary, East China Sea: Implication for the source-sink processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Guo, Z.

    2017-12-01

    As the home of the largest port in the world, the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) in the East China Sea (ECS) is adjacent to the largest economic zone in China with more than 10% of Chinese population and provides one-fifth of national GDP. The YRE is under the path of contaminated East Asian continental outflow. These make the YRE unique for the pollutant biogeochemical cycling in the world. In this work, 94 pairs of air samples and 20 surface seawater samples covering four seasons were collected from a remote receptor site in the YRE from March 2014 to January 2015, in order to explore the seasonal fluxes of air-sea gaseous exchange and atmospheric dry and wet deposition of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their source-sink processes at the air-sea interface. The average dry and wet deposition fluxes of 15 PAHs were estimated as 879 ± 1393 ng m-2 d-1 and 755 ± 545 ng m-2 d-1, respectively. The gaseous PAHs were released from seawater to atmosphere during the whole year with an average of 3039 ± 2030 ng m-2 d-1. The gaseous exchange of PAHs was referred as the dominant process at the air-sea interface in the YRE as the magnitude of volatilization flux of PAHs exceeded that of the total dry and wet deposition. The gaseous PAH exchange flux was dominated by 3-ring PAHs, with the highest value in summer while lowest in winter, depicting a strong seasonal variation due to temperature, wind speed and air-sea concentration gradient difference among seasons. Based on the simplified mass balance estimation, net 9.6 tons/y of PAHs was volatilized from seawater to atmosphere with an area of approximately 20000 km2 in the YRE. Apart from Yangtze River input and ocean ship emissions in the entire year, the selective release of low molecular weight PAHs from sediments in winter due to re-suspension triggered by the East Asian winter monsoon could be another possible source for dissolved PAHs. This work suggests that the source-sink processes of PAHs at air

  19. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  20. Characterizing and modelling river channel migration rates at a regional scale: Case study of south-east France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé

    2017-11-01

    An increased awareness by river managers of the importance of river channel migration to sediment dynamics, habitat complexity and other ecosystem functions has led to an advance in the science and practice of identifying, protecting or restoring specific erodible corridors across which rivers are free to migrate. One current challenge is the application of these watershed-specific goals at the regional planning scales (e.g., the European Water Framework Directive). This study provides a GIS-based spatial analysis of the channel migration rates at the regional-scale. As a case study, 99 reaches were sampled in the French part of the Rhône Basin and nearby tributaries of the Mediterranean Sea (111,300 km 2 ). We explored the spatial correlation between the channel migration rate and a set of simple variables (e.g., watershed area, channel slope, stream power, active channel width). We found that the spatial variability of the channel migration rates was primary explained by the gross stream power (R 2  = 0.48) and more surprisingly by the active channel width scaled by the watershed area. The relationship between the absolute migration rate and the gross stream power is generally consistent with the published empirical models for freely meandering rivers, whereas it is less significant for the multi-thread reaches. The discussion focused on methodological constraints for a regional-scale modelling of the migration rates, and the interpretation of the empirical models. We hypothesize that the active channel width scaled by the watershed area is a surrogate for the sediment supply which may be a more critical factor than the bank resistance for explaining the regional-scale variability of the migration rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Audit Technical of Kori Rubber Dam in the River of Keyang District of Ponorogo East Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnianto, E.; Suprapto, M.; Ikhsan, C.

    2018-03-01

    The development of science and technology for the utilization and protection of rivers has embodied various types of river infrastructure. Without proper maintenance, rapid river sediments undergo physical degradation and function. Problems that occur in Kori Rubber Dam, among others, the damage to the body of the rubber dam that is made of rubber, so that the function of flower deflection is not optimal. This happens because of limited operational and maintenance activities (OM). A technical audit is a process of identifying problems, analyzing, and evaluating ones conducted independently, objectively and professionally on the basis of examination, to assess the truth, accuracy, credibility, and reliability of information about a job. In this case an assessment of the Kori Rubber Dam, which is basically a benchmarking activity. Assessment of rubber dam components includes the physical conditions and functions that affect the weir. This research is expected to know the performance of Kori rubber Dam as a recommendation material in the implementation of OM Rubber Dam activities.

  2. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. 5 refs

  3. Effects of the Upper Taum Sauk Reservoir Embankment Breach on the Surface-Water Quality and Sediments of the East Fork Black River and the Black River, Southeastern Missouri - 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment of the Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric powerplant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, suddenly failed. This catastrophic event sent approximately 1.5 billion gallons of water into the Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the East Fork Black River, and deposited enormous quantities of rock, soil, and vegetation in the flooded areas. Water-quality data were collected within and below the impacted area to study and document the changes to the riverene system. Data collection included routine, event-based, and continuous surface-water quality monitoring as well as suspended- and streambed-sediment sampling. Surface water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of physical and chemical constituents including: turbidity; nutrients; major ions such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium; total suspended solids; total dissolved solids; trace metals such as aluminum, iron, and lead; and suspended-sediment concentrations. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to calculate daily sediment discharge. A peculiar blue-green coloration on the water surface of the East Fork Black River and Black River was evident downstream from the lower reservoir during the first year of the study. It is possible that this phenomenon was the result of 'rock flour' occurring when the upper reservoir embankment was breached, scouring the mountainside and producing extremely fine sediment particles, or from the alum-based flocculent used to reduce turbidity in the lower reservoir. It also was determined that no long-term effects of the reservoir embankment breach are expected as the turbidity and concentrations of trace metals such as total recoverable aluminum, dissolved aluminum, dissolved iron, and suspended-sediment concentration graphically decreased over time. Larger concentrations of these constituents during the beginning of the study also could be a direct result of the alum

  4. Fluvial incision by the Qingyijiang River on the northern fringe of Mt. Huangshan, eastern China: Responses to weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunsheng; Liu, Shaochen; Hu, Chenqi; Xu, Guanglai; Zhou, Yingqiu

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on climatic and tectonic controls to determine their relative importance to the Quaternary fluvial incision by the Qingyijiang River, eastern China. The Qingyijiang, which is one of longest tributaries of the lower Yangtze River, drains the northern piedmont of Mt. Huangshan. A field survey focused on three natural sections of the Qingyijiang in the Jingxian basin, where a well-preserved sequence of one alluvial platform (P) and three fluvial terraces (T3, T2, and T1) is presented. The heights of the platform and the terraces above river level are 65, 40, 20, and 7 m respectively. In this study, electron spin resonance (ESR), optical stimulated luminescence (OSL), and palaeomagnetic dating were applied to reconstruct the fluvial incision history of the Qingyijiang and evaluate the possible influence of tectonic uplift and/or climate change on the fluvial incision. The main results show that (1) the ages of P, T3, T2, and T1 were determined to be ∼ 1300, ∼ 900, ∼ 600, and ∼ 1.5 ka respectively, corresponding to four incision events in the Qingyijiang; (2) the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) experienced four significant weakening events at 1300, 900, 600, and ∼ 1.5 ka, according to previous research. Correspondingly, we propose that four significant increased periods of regional precipitation occurred at 1300, 900, 600, and ∼ 1.5 ka in the study area because of the negative correlation between the intensity of the EASM and regional precipitation from 1960 to 2012; and (3) fluvial incision by the Qingyijiang arose as a result of the weakening of the EASM in combination with tectonic uplift, determined by matching fluvial incision history of the Qingyijiang with tectonic movement and EASM change. In addition, the weakening of the EASM climatically triggered fluvial incision by the Qingyijiang. This study supports the conclusion that major fluvial incision has been climatically triggered; however, it also suggests that the mechanism of

  5. Summary of Bed-Sediment Measurements Along the Platte River, Nebraska, 1931-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, P.J.; Runge, J.T.

    2010-01-01

    Rivers are conduits for water and sediment supplied from upstream sources. The sizes of the sediments that a river bed consists of typically decrease in a downstream direction because of natural sorting. However, other factors can affect the caliber of bed sediment including changes in upstream water-resource development, land use, and climate that alter the watershed yield of water or sediment. Bed sediments provide both a geologic and stratigraphic record of past fluvial processes and quantification of current sediment transport relations. The objective of this fact sheet is to describe and compare longitudinal measurements of bed-sediment sizes made along the Platte River, Nebraska from 1931 to 2009. The Platte River begins at the junction of the North Platte and South Platte Rivers near North Platte, Nebr. and flows east for approximately 500 kilometers before joining the Missouri River at Plattsmouth, Nebr. The confluence of the Loup River with the Platte River serves to divide the middle (or central) Platte River (the Platte River upstream from the confluence with the Loup River) and lower Platte River (the Platte River downstream from the confluence with Loup River). The Platte River provides water for a variety of needs including: irrigation, infiltration to public water-supply wells, power generation, recreation, and wildlife habitat. The Platte River Basin includes habitat for four federally listed species including the whooping crane (Grus americana), interior least tern (Sterna antillarum), piping plover (Charadrius melodus), and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). A habitat recovery program for the federally listed species in the Platte River was initiated in 2007. One strategy identified by the recovery program to manage and enhance habitat is the manipulation of streamflow. Understanding the longitudinal and temporal changes in the size gradation of the bed sediment will help to explain the effects of past flow regimes and anticipated

  6. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized

  7. Calibration of the sodium base cation dominance index of weathering for the River Dee catchment in north-east Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutter, M. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science; Smart, R.; Cresser, M. [York Univ. (United Kingdom). Environmental Dept.

    2002-07-01

    Previously the dominance of base cations by Na{sup +} in river water in upland catchments with low weathering rates and influenced by marine-derived aerosols has been suggested as a quantitative index of weathering rate upstream of the sampling point. Using data for 59 sites from a study of the River Dee catchment in NE Scotland, the index has been fully calibrated against catchment weathering rates and net alkalinity production, derived through input output budget methods, for both upland and agricultural catchments and over a wide range of parent materials. It is shown that the relationship between Na{sup +} dominance and weathering rate is logarithmic, rather than linear as initially suggested. The excellent correlations highlight the potential use of this Na{sup +} dominance index for the direct quantification of catchment susceptibility to acidification at fine spatial resolution, using a few simple and inexpensive measurements. Stronger correlations were observed between the % Na{sup +} dominance and net annual flux of alkalinity than between % Na{sup +} dominance and weathering rate derived from summation of base cation fluxes. This demonstrates the importance of mechanisms controlling the transport of base cations out of catchments, namely in association with organic matter and with anthropogenically derived SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. These processes are shown to reduce the residual alkalinity derived through weathering. The partial neutralization of organic acidity by internally generated alkalinity has implications in the context of using the mass balance approach for setting critical loads for catchments. (Author)

  8. HPFRCC - Extruded Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Pedersen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the research onHigh Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composite -- HPFRCC --pipes recently carried out at Department of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The project combines material development, processing technique development......-w$ relationship is presented. Structural development involved definition of a new type of semi-flexiblecement based pipe, i.e. a cement based pipe characterized by the fact that the soil-pipe interaction related to pipe deformation is an importantcontribution to the in-situ load carrying capacity of the pipe...

  9. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher

    2000-01-01

    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe

  10. Hyporheic Exchange Flows and Biogeochemical Patterns near a Meandering Stream: East Fork of the Jemez River, Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H.; Wooten, J. P.; Swanson, E.; Senison, J. J.; Myers, K. D.; Befus, K. M.; Warden, J.; Zamora, P. B.; Gomez, J. D.; Wilson, J. L.; Groffman, A.; Rearick, M. S.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    A study by the 2012 Hydrogeology Field Methods class of the University of Texas at Austin implemented multiple approaches to evaluate and characterize local hyporheic zone flow and biogeochemical trends in a highly meandering reach of the of the East Fork of the Jemez River, a fourth order stream in northwestern New Mexico. This section of the Jemez River is strongly meandering and exhibits distinct riffle-pool morphology. The high stream sinuosity creates inter-meander hyporheic flow that is also largely influenced by local groundwater gradients. In this study, dozens of piezometers were used to map the water table and flow vectors were then calculated. Surface water and ground water samples were collected and preserved for later geochemical analysis by ICPMS and HPLC, and unstable parameters and alkalinity were measured on-site. Additionally, information was collected from thermal monitoring of the streambed, stream gauging, and from a series of electrical resistivity surveys forming a network across the site. Hyporheic flow paths are suggested by alternating gaining and losing sections of the stream as determined by stream gauging at multiple locations along the reach. Water table maps and calculated fluxes across the sediment-water interface also indicate hyporheic flow paths. We find variability in the distribution of biogeochemical constituents (oxidation-reduction potential, nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate) along interpreted flow paths which is partly consistent with hyporheic exchange. The variability and heterogeneity of reducing and oxidizing conditions is interpreted to be a result of groundwater-surface water interaction. Two-dimensional mapping of biogeochemical parameters show redox transitions along interpreted flow paths. Further analysis of various measured unstable chemical parameters results in observable trends strongly delineated along these preferential flow paths that are consistent with the direction of groundwater flow and the assumed

  11. Model Watershed Plan; Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, and East Fork of the Salmon River Management Plan, 1995 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Ralph

    1995-11-01

    Idaho`s Model Watershed Project was established as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s plan for salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin. The Council`s charge was simply stated and came without strings. The tasks were to identify actions within the watershed that are planned or needed for salmon habitat, and establish a procedure for implementing habitat-improvement measures. The Council gave the responsibility of developing this project to the Idaho Soil Conservation Commission. This Model Watershed Plan is intended to be a dynamic plan that helps address these two tasks. It is not intended to be the final say on either. It is also not meant to establish laws, policies, or regulations for the agencies, groups, or individuals who participated in the plan development.

  12. New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari, Hydrachnidia) with descriptions of two new species from Nanshih River system in Taiwan and redescription of Torrenticola ussuriensis (Sokolow, 1940) from the Russian Far East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešić, Vladimir; Semenchenko, Ksenia A.; Chatterjee, Tapas; Yam, Rita S.W.; Chan, Benny K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract New records of torrenticolid water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Torrenticolidae) from Nanshih River, Taiwan, are presented. Two new species are described: Torrenticola nanshihensis and Torrenticola taiwanicus; the latter species is compared with Torrenticola ussuriensis (Sokolow, 1940), a poorly known species which is re-described based on a new material from the Russian Far East; Monatractides cf. circuloides (Halík, 1930)is reported for the first time for Taiwan. PMID:21998497

  13. Evaluation of the influence of seismic restraint characteristics on breeder reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, R.M.; Pollono, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    For the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) heat transport system piping within the reactor containment building, dynamic analyses of the piping loops have been performed to study the effect of restraint stiffness on the dynamic behavior of the piping. In addition, analysis and testing of typical CRBRP restraint system components have been performed for the purpose of quantifying and verifying the basic characteristics of the restraints used in the piping system dynamic analysis

  14. Relations between continuous real-time turbidity data and discrete suspended-sediment concentration samples in the Neosho and Cottonwood Rivers, east-central Kansas, 2009-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.

    2014-01-01

    The Neosho River and its primary tributary, the Cottonwood River, are the primary sources of inflow to the John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. Sedimentation rate in the John Redmond Reservoir was estimated as 743 acre-feet per year for 1964–2006. This estimated sedimentation rate is more than 80 percent larger than the projected design sedimentation rate of 404 acre-feet per year, and resulted in a loss of 40 percent of the conservation pool since its construction in 1964. To reduce sediment input into the reservoir, the Kansas Water Office implemented stream bank stabilization techniques along an 8.3 mile reach of the Neosho River during 2010 through 2011. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office and funded in part through the Kansas State Water Plan Fund, operated continuous real-time water-quality monitors upstream and downstream from stream bank stabilization efforts before, during, and after construction. Continuously measured water-quality properties include streamflow, specific conductance, water temperature, and turbidity. Discrete sediment samples were collected from June 2009 through September 2012 and analyzed for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), percentage of sediments less than 63 micrometers (sand-fine break), and loss of material on ignition (analogous to amount of organic matter). Regression models were developed to establish relations between discretely measured SSC samples, and turbidity or streamflow to estimate continuously SSC. Continuous water-quality monitors represented between 96 and 99 percent of the cross-sectional variability for turbidity, and had slopes between 0.91 and 0.98. Because consistent bias was not observed, values from continuous water-quality monitors were considered representative of stream conditions. On average, turbidity-based SSC models explained 96 percent of the variance in SSC. Streamflow-based regressions explained 53 to 60 percent of the variance. Mean squared

  15. Pipe-to-pipe impact program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Bampton, M.C.C.; Friley, J.R.; Simonen, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report documents the tests and analyses performed as part of the Pipe-to-Pipe Impact (PTPI) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This work was performed to assist the NRC in making licensing decisions regarding pipe-to-pipe impact events following postulated breaks in high energy fluid system piping. The report scope encompasses work conducted from the program's start through the completion of the initial hot oil tests. The test equipment, procedures, and results are described, as are analytic studies of failure potential and data correlation. Because the PTPI Program is only partially completed, the total significance of the current test results cannot yet be accurately assessed. Therefore, although trends in the data are discussed, final conclusions and recommendations will be possible only after the completion of the program, which is scheduled to end in FY 1984

  16. Pipe Explorer{trademark} surveying system. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Chicago Operations Office and the DOE`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} system was developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), Albuquerque, NM as a deployment method for transporting a variety of survey tools into pipes and ducts. Tools available for use with the system include alpha, beta and gamma radiation detectors; video cameras; and pipe locator beacons. Different versions of this technology have been demonstrated at three other sites; results of these demonstrations are provided in an earlier Innovative Technology Summary Report. As part of a D and D project, characterization radiological contamination inside piping systems is necessary before pipes can be recycled, remediated or disposed. This is usually done manually by surveying over the outside of the piping only, with limited effectiveness and risk of worker exposure. The pipe must be accessible to workers, and embedded pipes in concrete or in the ground would have to be excavated at high cost and risk of exposure to workers. The advantage of the Pipe Explorer is its ability to perform in-situ characterization of pipe internals.

  17. Pipe Explorer surveying system. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Chicago Operations Office and the DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. The Pipe Explorer trademark system was developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), Albuquerque, NM as a deployment method for transporting a variety of survey tools into pipes and ducts. Tools available for use with the system include alpha, beta and gamma radiation detectors; video cameras; and pipe locator beacons. Different versions of this technology have been demonstrated at three other sites; results of these demonstrations are provided in an earlier Innovative Technology Summary Report. As part of a D and D project, characterization radiological contamination inside piping systems is necessary before pipes can be recycled, remediated or disposed. This is usually done manually by surveying over the outside of the piping only, with limited effectiveness and risk of worker exposure. The pipe must be accessible to workers, and embedded pipes in concrete or in the ground would have to be excavated at high cost and risk of exposure to workers. The advantage of the Pipe Explorer is its ability to perform in-situ characterization of pipe internals

  18. Solar heating pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson-Rider, G.

    1977-10-04

    A fluid carrying pipe is described having an integral transparent portion formed into a longitudinally extending cylindrical lens that focuses solar heat rays to a focal axis within the volume of the pipe. The pipe on the side opposite the lens has a heat ray absorbent coating for absorbing heat from light rays that pass through the focal axis.

  19. Surveys of embedded piping for Shoreham license termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.E. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In planning the decommissioning of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station (SNPS) in Wading River, N.Y., it was determined that the cost of removing contaminated floor drain piping was prohibitive. The piping is typically embedded approximately four feet deep in reinforced concrete, often below structural I-beams. A decision was made to develop remote survey devices ('pipe crawlers') that would allow SNPS to decontaminate and survey embedded piping within NRC free release limits. Pipe crawlers currently in use at SNPS are able to traverse multiple 45 and 90 degree bends while maintaining all detectors in the required geometry (less than 1 cm detector to surface distance). The following aspects of this project will be presented: 1) System classification and cost-benefit analysis 2) Overview of system decontamination 3) Pipe crawler mechanical and electrical development 4) Detector backgrounds and MDA's 5) Additional devices and techniques 6) NRC position on crawler use. 7) SNPS results to date. (author)

  20. Pipe dream? Envisioning a grassroots Python ecosystem of open, common software tools and data access in support of river and coastal biogeochemical research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, E.

    2013-12-01

    Practical, problem oriented software developed by scientists and graduate students in domains lacking a strong software development tradition is often balkanized into the scripting environments provided by dominant, typically proprietary tools. In environmental fields, these tools include ArcGIS, Matlab, SAS, Excel and others, and are often constrained to specific operating systems. While this situation is the outcome of rational choices, it limits the dissemination of useful tools and their integration into loosely coupled frameworks that can meet wider needs and be developed organically by groups addressing their own needs. Open-source dynamic languages offer the advantages of an accessible programming syntax, a wealth of pre-existing libraries, multi-platform access, linkage to community libraries developed in lower level languages such as C or FORTRAN, and access to web service infrastructure. Python in particular has seen a large and increasing uptake in scientific communities, as evidenced by the continued growth of the annual SciPy conference. Ecosystems with distinctive physical structures and organization, and mechanistic processes that are well characterized, are both factors that have often led to the grass-roots development of useful code meeting the needs of a range of communities. In aquatic applications, examples include river and watershed analysis tools (River Tools, Taudem, etc), and geochemical modules such as CO2SYS, PHREEQ and LOADEST. I will review the state of affairs and explore the potential offered by a Python tool ecosystem in supporting aquatic biogeochemistry and water quality research. This potential is multi-faceted and broadly involves accessibility to lone grad students, access to a wide community of programmers and problem solvers via online resources such as StackExchange, and opportunities to leverage broader cyberinfrastructure efforts and tools, including those from widely different domains. Collaborative development of such

  1. Occurrence and fractionation of Cr along the Loushan River affected by a chromium slag heap in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youyuan; Dong, Bingbing; Xin, Jia

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the chromium (Cr) occurrence and distribution along the Loushan River adjacent to a chromium slag heap. The speciation and chemical fractionation of Cr in different environmental media were determined. The potential ecological risks for the surrounding environment were assessed on the basis of both potential ecological risk index (RI) and risk assessment code (RAC). The results show that the surface soil experienced severe Cr contamination with Cr(T) and Cr(VI) values of 3220 ± 6266 and 64 ± 94 mg/kg, respectively, even though the chromium slag heap had already been removed. The chromium slag enhanced the Cr concentration level in the surface soil, water, and sediment samples more than the background level to different extents, which indicates that Cr released from the chromium slag actually affects the surrounding environment. The spatial distribution variety of Cr implies that their transport might have been affected by soil leaking, atmospheric transport, and fluvial hydraulics. The chemical fractionation results demonstrate that the residual fraction was the dominant form, accounting for 54.6 and 66.1% Cr(T) in surface soil and sediment samples, respectively. The content of bioavailable exchangeable Cr fraction correlated with the organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), and pH value. The ecological risk assessment suggests no considerable ecological risk toward the biota despite a relatively high Cr(T) level. Nevertheless, attention should be paid to the potential long-term risks owing to the slow release of oxidizable and residual fractions.

  2. Seasonal atmospheric deposition and air-sea gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons over the Yangtze River Estuary, East China Sea: Implications for source-sink processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuqing; Lin, Tian; Wu, Zilan; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhongxia; Guo, Zhigang; Yao, Xiaohong

    2018-04-01

    In this work, air samples and surface seawater samples covering four seasons from March 2014 to January 2015 were collected from a background receptor site in the YRE to explore the seasonal fluxes of air-sea gas exchange and dry and wet deposition of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their source-sink processes at the air-sea interface. The average dry and wet deposition fluxes of 15 PAHs were estimated as 879 ± 1393 ng m-2 d-1 and 755 ± 545 ng m-2 d-1, respectively. Gaseous PAH release from seawater to the atmosphere averaged 3114 ± 1999 ng m-2 d-1 in a year round. The air-sea gas exchange of PAHs was the dominant process at the air-sea interface in the YRE as the magnitude of volatilization flux of PAHs exceeded that of total dry and wet deposition. The gas PAH exchange flux was dominated by three-ring PAHs, with the highest value in summer and lowest in winter, indicating a marked seasonal variation owing to differences in Henry's law constants associated with temperature, as well as wind speed and gaseous-dissolved gradient among seasons. Based on the simplified mass balance estimation, a net 11 tons y-1 of PAHs (mainly three-ring PAHs) were volatilized from seawater to the atmosphere in a ∼20,000 km2 area in the YRE. Other than the year-round Yangtze River input and ocean ship emissions, the selective release of low-molecular-weight PAHs from bottom sediments in winter due to resuspension triggered by the East Asian winter monsoon is another potential source of PAHs. This work suggests that the source-sink processes of PAHs at the air-sea interface in the YRE play a crucial role in regional cycling of PAHs.

  3. Drill pipe bridge plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, D.W.; Brisco, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of stopping flow of fluid up through a pipe bore of a pipe string in a well. It comprises: lowering a bridge plug apparatus on a work string into the pipe string to a position where the pipe bore is to be closed; communicating the pipe bore below a packer of the bridge plug apparatus through the bridge plug apparatus with a low pressure zone above the packer to permit the fluid to flow up through the bridge plug apparatus; engaging the bridge plug apparatus with an internal upset of the pipe string; while the fluid is flowing up through the bridge plug apparatus, pulling upward on the work string and the bridge plug apparatus and thereby sealing the packer against the pipe bore; isolating the pipe bore below the packer from the low pressure zone above the packer and thereby stopping flow of the fluid up through the pipe bore; disconnecting the work string from the bridge plug apparatus; and maintaining the bridge plug apparatus in engagement with the internal upset and sealed against the pipe bore due to an upward pressure differential applied to the bridge plug apparatus by the fluid contained therebelow

  4. Miniature Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  5. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  6. Riser pipe elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, W.; Jimenez, A.F.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a method for storing and retrieving a riser pipe, comprising the steps of: providing an upright annular magazine comprised of an inside annular wall and an outside annular wall, the magazine having an open top; storing the riser pipe in a substantially vertically oriented position within the annular magazine; and moving the riser pipe upwardly through the open top of the annular magazine at an angle to the vertical along at least a portion of the length of the riser pipe.

  7. Piping engineering and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The conference 'Piping Engineering and Operation' was organized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in November/December 1993 to follow on from similar successful events of 1985 and 1989, which were attended by representatives from all sectors of the piping industry. Development of engineering and operation of piping systems in all aspects, including non-metallic materials, are highlighted. The range of issues covered represents a balance between current practices and implementation of future international standards. Twenty papers are printed. Two, which are concerned with pressurized pipes or steam lines in the nuclear industry, are indexed separately. (Author)

  8. Piping equipment; Materiel petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This 'blue bible' of the perfect piping-man appeals to end-users of industrial facilities of the petroleum and chemical industries (purchase services, standardization, new works, maintenance) but also to pipe-makers and hollow-ware makers. It describes the characteristics of materials (carbon steels, stainless steels, alloyed steels, special alloys) and the dimensions of pipe elements: pipes, welding fittings, flanges, sealing products, forged steel fittings, forged steel valves, cast steel valves, ASTM standards, industrial valves. (J.S.)

  9. South-east frontier of the Russian Empire and the processes on the division of the Ural River left bank area between Kirghiz-Kaysaks and Ural Cossacks in the second half of the XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Kortunov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the issue related to the peculiarities of formation of the south-east frontier of the Russian Empire and with the process on separation of the border areas of the Orenburg line (in particular of the Ural River left bank area between Kirghiz-Kaysaks and Ural Cossacks in the second half of XIX century. The author pays particular attention to the problem of the resolution of disputes between the Ural Cossacks and Kirghiz-Kaysaks by local and central authorities.

  10. Transients in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesin, D.; Paes-Leme, P.J.S.; Sampaio, R.

    1981-01-01

    The motion of a fluid in a pipe is commonly modeled utilizing the one space dimension conservation laws of mass and momentum. The development of shocks and spikes utilizing the uniform sampling method is studied. The effects of temperature variations and friction are compared for gas pipes. (Author) [pt

  11. These Pipes Are "Happening"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is blessed with having the water pipes for the school system in her office. In this article, the author describes how the breaking of the pipes had led to a very worthwhile art experience for her students. They practiced contour and shaded drawing techniques, reviewed patterns and color theory, and used their reasoning skills--all while…

  12. Piping research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This document presents the piping research program plan for the Structural and Seismic Engineering Branch and the Materials Engineering Branch of the Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The plan describes the research to be performed in the areas of piping design criteria, environmentally assisted cracking, pipe fracture, and leak detection and leak rate estimation. The piping research program addresses the regulatory issues regarding piping design and piping integrity facing the NRC today and in the foreseeable future. The plan discusses the regulatory issues and needs for the research, the objectives, key aspects, and schedule for each research project, or group of projects focussing of a specific topic, and, finally, the integration of the research areas into the regulatory process is described. The plan presents a snap-shot of the piping research program as it exists today. However, the program plan will change as the regulatory issues and needs change. Consequently, this document will be revised on a bi-annual basis to reflect the changes in the piping research program. (author)

  13. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  14. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A

    2011-01-01

    Pipe Drafting and Design, Third Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers, drafters, and students through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings. It includes instructions for the proper drawing of symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. More than 350 illustrations and photographs provide examples and visual instructions. A unique feature is the systematic arrangement of drawings that begins with the layout of the structural foundations of a facility and continues through to the development of a 3-D model. Advanced chapters

  15. Characterization of hydrodynamic and sediment conditions in the lower Yampa River at Deerlodge Park, east entrance to Dinosaur National Monument, northwest Colorado, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yampa River in northwestern Colorado is the largest, relatively unregulated river system in the upper Colorado River Basin. Water from the Yampa River Basin continues to be sought for a number of municipal, industrial, and energy uses. It is anticipated that future water development within the Yampa River Basin above the amount of water development identified under the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Implementation Program and the Programmatic Biological Opinion may require additional analysis in order to understand the effects on habitat and river function. Water development in the Yampa River Basin could alter the streamflow regime and, consequently, could lead to changes in the transport and storage of sediment in the Yampa River at Deerlodge Park. These changes could affect the physical form of the reach and may impact aquatic and riparian habitat in and downstream from Deerlodge Park. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, began a study in 2011 to characterize the current hydrodynamic and sediment-transport conditions for a 2-kilometer reach of the Yampa River in Deerlodge Park. Characterization of channel conditions in the Deerlodge Park reach was completed through topographic surveying, grain-size analysis of streambed sediment, and characterization of streamflow properties. This characterization provides (1) a basis for comparisons of current stream functions (channel geometry, sediment transport, and stream hydraulics) to future conditions and (2) a dataset that can be used to assess channel response to streamflow alteration scenarios indicated from computer modeling of streamflow and sediment-transport conditions.

  16. Heat pipe development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienart, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate analytically and experimentally the performance of heat pipes with composite wicks--specifically, those having pedestal arteries and screwthread circumferential grooves. An analytical model was developed to describe the effects of screwthreads and screen secondary wicks on the transport capability of the artery. The model describes the hydrodynamics of the circumferential flow in triangular grooves with azimuthally varying capillary menisci and liquid cross-sections. Normalized results were obtained which give the influence of evaporator heat flux on the axial heat transport capability of the arterial wick. In order to evaluate the priming behavior of composite wicks under actual load conditions, an 'inverted' glass heat pipe was designed and constructed. The results obtained from the analysis and from the tests with the glass heat pipe were applied to the OAO-C Level 5 heat pipe, and an improved correlation between predicted and measured evaporator and transport performance were obtained.

  17. Simplified pipe gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, H.; Nordskov, A.; Sass, B.; Visler, T.

    1987-01-01

    A simplified version of a deuterium pellet gun based on the pipe gun principle is described. The pipe gun is made from a continuous tube of stainless steel and gas is fed in from the muzzle end only. It is indicated that the pellet length is determined by the temperature gradient along the barrel right outside the freezing cell. Velocities of around 1000 m/s with a scatter of +- 2% are obtained with a propellant gas pressure of 40 bar

  18. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed

    2016-03-10

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  19. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed; Alsolami, Fawaz; Chikalov, Igor; Algharbi, Salem; Aboudi, Faisal; Khudiri, Musab

    2016-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  20. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  1. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  2. Replaceable liquid nitrogen piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasujima, Yasuo; Sato, Kiyoshi; Sato, Masataka; Hongo, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    This liquid nitrogen piping with total length of about 50 m was made and installed to supply the liquid nitrogen for heat insulating shield to three superconducting magnets for deflection and large super-conducting magnet for detection in the π-meson beam line used for high energy physics experiment in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The points considered in the design and manufacture stages are reported. In order to minimize the consumption of liquid nitrogen during transport, vacuum heat insulation method was adopted. The construction period and cost were reduced by the standardization of the components, the improvement of welding works and the elimination of ineffective works. For simplifying the maintenance, spare parts are always prepared. The construction and the procedure of assembling of the liquid nitrogen piping are described. The piping is of double-walled construction, and its low temperature part was made of SUS 316L. The super-insulation by aluminum vacuum evaporation and active carbon were attached on the external surface of the internal pipe. The final leak test and the heating degassing were performed. The tests on evacuation, transport capacity and heat entry are reported. By making the internal pipe into smaller size, the piping may be more efficient. (Kako, I.)

  3. [Phytoplankton's community structure and its relationships with environmental factors in the rivers of Tongling City, Anhui Province of East China in winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ping; Li, Yang; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2013-01-01

    Tongling is one of the main non-ferrous metal mining areas in China, and the biodiversity in the river ecosystem of this area is seriously affected by heavy metals as a result of mining activities. In the winter in 2010, an investigation was conducted on the community structure of phytoplankton and its relationships with environmental factors in the main sections of the rivers in Tongling. A total of 203 phytoplankton species were identified, belonging to 96 genera and 8 phyla. The community structure of the phytoplankton differed obviously in different river sections, but the communities were all dominated by Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta. The phytoplankton abundance ranged from 9.1 x 10(3) to 6.5 x 10(7) cells x L(-1), and the quantity of the phytoplankton in the river sections directly carried with mining waste water was significantly low. The Shannon index of the phytoplankton community at different sampling sites ranged from 0 to 3.45, with a significant discrepancy in different river sections. There existed significant correlations between the density and group number of phytoplankton and the COD(Cr) and cadmium, copper and zinc concentrations in the rivers, and the concentrations of river total nitrogen, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, and copper, COD(Cr) and pH were the main environmental variables affecting the phytoplankton' s community structure and its spatial distribution. Although the nutritional status of the river waters had greater effects on the community structure of phytoplankton, the effects of the heavy metals there from mining enterprises could not be neglected.

  4. Design considerations for CRBRP heat transport system piping operating at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollono, L.P.; Mello, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The heat transport system sodium piping for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) within the reactor containment building must withstand high temperatures for long periods of time. Each phase of the mechanical design process of the piping system is influenced by elevated temperature considerations which include material thermal creep effects, ratchetting caused by rapid temperature transients and stress relaxation, and material degradation effects. The structural design philosophy taken to design the CRBRP piping operating in a high temperature environment is described. The resulting design of the heat transport system piping is presented along with a discussion of special features that resulted from the elevated temperature considerations

  5. Hydrography, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Hydrography layer is an area geometry depicting the various water features that include the rivers, streams, creeks, lakes, etc of East Baton Rouge Parish.

  6. EAST OJAI HYDROLOGY, VENTURA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The basis of the hydrologic data for East Ojai FIS is the HSPF study for Ventura River watershed documented in a report entitled...

  7. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  8. Pipe whip: a summary of the damage observed in BNL pipe-on-pipe impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes examples of the damage resulting from the impact of a whipping pipe on a nearby pressurised pipe. The work is a by-product of a study of the motion of a whipping pipe. The tests were conducted with small-diameter pipes mounted in rigid supports and hence the results are not directly applicable to large-scale plant applications where flexible support mountings are employed. The results illustrate the influence of whipping pipe energy, impact position and support type on the damage sustained by the target pipe. (author)

  9. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  10. PE 100 pipe systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brömstrup, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    English translation of the 3rd edition ""Rohrsysteme aus PE 100"". Because of the considerably increased performance, pipe and pipe systems made from 100 enlarge the range of applications in the sectors of gas and water supply, sewage disposal, industrial pipeline construction and in the reconstruction and redevelopment of defective pipelines (relining). This book applies in particular to engineers, technicians and foremen working in the fields of supply, disposal and industry. Subject matters of the book are all practice-relevant questions regarding the construction, operation and maintenance

  11. Pipe-to-pipe impact tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bampton, M C.C.; Alzheimer, J M; Friley, J R; Simonen, F A

    1985-11-01

    Existing licensing criteria express what damage shall be assumed for various pipe sizes as a consequence of a postulated break in a high energy system. The criteria are contained in Section 3.6.2 of the Standard Review Plan, and the purpose of the program described with this paper is to evaluate the impact criteria by means of a combined experimental and analytical approach. A series of tests has been completed. Evaluation of the test showed a deficiency in the range of test parameters. These deficiencies are being remedied by a second series of tests and a more powerful impact machine. A parallel analysis capability has been developed. This capability has been used to predict the damage for the first test series. The quality of predictions has been improved by tests that establish post-crush and bending relationships. Two outputs are expected from this project: data that may, or may not, necessitate changes to the criteria after appropriate value impact evaluations and an analytic capability for rapidly evaluating the potential for pipe whip damage after a postulated break. These outputs are to be contained in a value-impact document and a program final report. (orig.).

  12. Performance of buried pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters : characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under : roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts instal...

  13. 1956 : the year of the pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In 1956, Westcoast Transmission Company Limited announced that it would build a 650-mile export pipeline through British Columbia. However, the project faced several delays due to extremely high costs. It was the efforts of Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Limited to recruit supply contracts that laid the foundation for the system that would eventually deliver nearly 800 million cubic feet of gas per day to consumers in eastern Canada and the United States. Trans-Canada's favoured plan was to build east to Winnipeg, then south into the United States, allowing western Canadian gas to serve U.S. markets, while gas imported from the U.S. would serve markets in eastern Canada. However, the federal transport minister insisted on an all-Canadian route which forced Trans-Canada to build across the Canadian Shield, significantly increasing construction costs. Since American investors did not want any part of the new plan, a compromise was reached whereby Trans-Canada would build the Alberta-Winnipeg segment with financial aid from the federal government. The segment east from Winnipeg would also be financed from the federal government to serve markets in Ontario and Montreal, but the section would be leased back to Trans-Canada. Other key events in 1956 included construction of the gathering system by Alberta Gas Trunk Line Limited; plans for Interprovincial Pipe Line Limited to build an extension from Sarnia to Toronto; and, the beginning of development drilling by Imperial Oil at Norman Wells. 1 tab., 1 fig

  14. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...

  15. East Carnduff Unit: corrosion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, C D

    1966-07-01

    Waterflooding of the East Carnduff Unit began in late 1962. The first injection line leak was discovered April 29, 1965. The first 6 leaks in the East Carnduff Unit occurred within a period of less than one month--a very startling and serious warning of pending problems. Analysis of the pipe removed showed a deep pit covered by a severe scale in the piping fitting. Several remedial actions were tried in order to develop the present inhibition program. First, the lines were cleaned as well as possible utilizing rubber pig spheres with normal injection pressure. This proved very effective and 2 passes wiped out most of the scale in the lines. Only one line required acid. After the lines had been cleaned, a water treating rate of an organic amine corrosion inhibitor, 10 ppm of the scale inhibitor, and bactericide at the rate of 40 ppm slugs 2 days per month was initiated. The above treating program is in use at the present time and is maintaining a very low leak frequency. This experience has demonstrated 2 important points in waterflood operations: (1) a bare piping system in warm brine service requires constant attention to insure that it is being kept clean; and (2) reliance cannot be placed on any one method of checking corrosion rates.

  16. Detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation along the north and east margins of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, using measured sections and drill hole information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents two detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, constructed from eight detailed measured sections, fourteen core holes, and two rotary holes. The Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin contains the world’s largest known oil shale deposit with more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. It was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that once covered much of the Piceance Basin and the Uinta Basin to the west. The cross sections extend across the northern and eastern margins of the Piceance Basin and are intended to aid in correlating between surface sections and the subsurface in the basin.

  17. Heat pipe applications workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranken, W.A.

    1978-04-01

    The proceedings of the Heat Pipe Applications Workshop, held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory October 20-21, 1977, are reported. This workshop, which brought together representatives of the Department of Energy and of a dozen industrial organizations actively engaged in the development and marketing of heat pipe equipment, was convened for the purpose of defining ways of accelerating the development and application of heat pipe technology. Recommendations from the three study groups formed by the participants are presented. These deal with such subjects as: (1) the problem encountered in obtaining support for the development of broadly applicable technologies, (2) the need for applications studies, (3) the establishment of a heat pipe technology center of excellence, (4) the role the Department of Energy might take with regard to heat pipe development and application, and (5) coordination of heat pipe industry efforts to raise the general level of understanding and acceptance of heat pipe solutions to heat control and transfer problems

  18. East Bay Marina Olympia, Thurston County, Washington. Final Detailed Project Report, Section 107, 1960 River and Harbor Act and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    the Pacific Coast. Thus, transplanting of plants from the Nisqually marshes or other locations nearby in southern Puget Sound would appear to be the...However, transplants bring quicker establishment and are more tolerant of stressful conditions, more vigorous, and tend to give more permanent results. 19...SHEET 7 of 101 G-22 I \\i \\ LLA PAR-L ;,ki ! 4 L ~fl~i~\\\\ - L \\ ; I0 L \\;x M’ PSEN-PL-NC-79-I UL (EAST BAY-OCYMPIA) i% 4V4 OSEO DREOGING

  19. Optical properties and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter along a flow-path continuum from soil pore waters to the Kolyma River mainstem, East Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Karen E.; Sobczak, William V.; Mann, Paul J.; Holmes, Robert M.

    2016-04-01

    The Kolyma River in northeast Siberia is among the six largest Arctic rivers and drains a region underlain by vast deposits of Holocene-aged peat and Pleistocene-aged loess known as yedoma, most of which is currently stored in ice-rich permafrost throughout the region. These peat and yedoma deposits are important sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to inland waters that in turn play a significant role in the transport and ultimate remineralization of organic carbon to CO2 and CH4 along the terrestrial flow-path continuum. The turnover and fate of terrigenous DOM during offshore transport largely depends upon the composition and amount of carbon released to inland and coastal waters. Here, we measured the ultraviolet-visible optical properties of chromophoric DOM (CDOM) from a geographically extensive collection of waters spanning soil pore waters, streams, rivers, and the Kolyma River mainstem throughout a ˜ 250 km transect of the northern Kolyma River basin. During the period of study, CDOM absorption coefficients were found to be robust proxies for the concentration of DOM, whereas additional CDOM parameters such as spectral slopes (S) were found to be useful indicators of DOM quality along the flow path. In particular, the spectral slope ratio (SR) of CDOM demonstrated statistically significant differences between all four water types and tracked changes in the concentration of bioavailable DOC, suggesting that this parameter may be suitable for clearly discriminating shifts in organic matter characteristics among water types along the full flow-path continuum across this landscape. However, despite our observations of downstream shifts in DOM composition, we found a relatively constant proportion of DOC that was bioavailable ( ˜ 3-6 % of total DOC) regardless of relative water residence time along the flow path. This may be a consequence of two potential scenarios allowing for continual processing of organic material within the system, namely (a

  20. Nuclear piping and pipe support design and operability relating to loadings and small bore piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.H.; Tubbs, J.M.; Callaway, W.O.; Tang, H.T.; Van Duyne, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The present nuclear piping system design practices for loadings, multiple support design and small bore piping evaluation are overly conservative. The paper discusses the results developed for realistic definitions of loadings and loading combinations with methodology for combining loads under various conditions for supports and multiple support design. The paper also discusses a simplified method developed for performing deadweight and thermal evaluations of small bore piping systems. Although the simplified method is oriented towards the qualification of piping in older plants, this approach is applicable to plants designed to any edition of the ASME Section III or B31.1 piping codes

  1. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  2. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  3. Isolation of dissolved organic matter from permafrost soil and freshwater environments of the Kolyma River basin, east Siberia, for high resolution structural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinenkov, I. V.; Perminova, I. V.; Bulygina, E. B.; Holmes, R. M.; Davydov, S.; Mann, P. J.; Vonk, J.; Zimov, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems are known to be the most vulnerable with respect to climate change. Hence, research on carbon cycling in the Arctic region is very important for understanding the current climatic trends and their consequences. The Kolyma River watershed is one of the Arctic Ocean’s largest. It is dominated by continuous permafrost which is underlain with rich organic soils susceptible to increased fluvial transport. The thaw of permafrost enhanced due to global warming might provide additional large source of organic carbon to the Kolyma River and to the Arctic Ocean as a whole. For estimating the contribution of this source to the total pool of organic carbon, specific structural features of permafrost dissolved organic matter (DOM) as opposed to the waterborne DOM of the Kolyma River should be identified and monitored. The objective of this work was to isolate a representive set of the DOM samples from permafrost soil and freshwater environments of the Kolyma River basin suitable for further structural analysis using high resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectroscopy (FTICR-MS) and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The isolation protocol of DOM used in this study has been developed by Dittmar et al, 2008 for sampling marine DOM for NMR studies. It is based on the solid phase extraction of DOM from seawater using PPL Varian Bond Elute cartridges Those cartridges were shown to possess the highest efficiency in DOM isolation from marine water. Prior to discharge through the cartridge, a water sample was filtered through 0.45 μm filter for separation of particulate matter and acidified to pH 2 using HCl. About 50mg of DOM could be sequestered from aqueous phase using one cartridge. Sorption extent was monitored by measurements of DOC concentration and UV-vis spectra at the inlet and outlet of the cartridge. It was determined that from 60 to 65% of the total DOC could be extracted from the tested samples of freshwater. As a result

  4. Waste pipe calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid method is presented for calculating transport in a network of one-dimensional flow paths or ''pipes''. The method defines a Green's function for each flow path and prescribes a method of combining these Green's functions to produce an overall Green's function for the flow path network. A unique feature of the method is the use of the Laplace transform of these Green's functions to carry out most of the calculations

  5. Morphological redescription and DNA barcoding of Linevitshia prima Makarchenko, 1987 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Diamesinae) from Amur River basin (Russian Far East), with notes on systematics of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarchenko, Eugenyi A; Semenchenko, Alexander A

    2014-10-10

    Additions and corrections to the diagnosis of the genus Linevitshia for male adult, pupa and larva are given, and systematic position of the genus is discussed. Illustrated redescription of adult male and first description of 4th instar larva of L. prima Makarchenko from Amur River basin are provided. Comparison of data based on a new material with those of L. yezoensis Endo showed that the latter name is a junior synonym of L. prima. The species-specificity of L. prima COI sequences is analyzed and the sequences are presented as diagnostic characters-molecular markers of L. prima.

  6. Pipe damping studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is conducting a research program to assist the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in determining best-estimate damping values for use in the dynamic analysis of nuclear power plant piping systems. This paper describes four tasks in the program that were undertaken in FY-86. In the first task, tests were conducted on a 5-in. INEL laboratory piping system and data were analyzed from a 6-in. laboratory system at the ANCO Engineers facility to investigate the parameters influencing damping in the seismic frequency range. Further tests were conducted on 3- and 5-in. INEL laboratory piping systems as the second task to determine damping values representative of vibrations in the 33 to 100 Hz range, typical of hydrodynamic transients. In the third task a statistical evaluation of the available damping data was conduted to determine probability distributions suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), and the final task evaluated damping data at high strain levels

  7. Pipe clamp effects on thin-walled pipe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Clamp induced stresses in FFTF piping are sufficiently large to require structural assessment. The basic principles and procedures used in analyzing FFTF piping at clamp support locations for compliance with ASME Code rules are given. Typical results from a three-dimensional shell finite element pipe model with clamp loads applied over the clamp/pipe contact area are shown. Analyses performed to categorize clamp induced piping loads as primary or secondary in nature are described. The ELCLAMP Computer Code, which performs analyses at clamp locations combining clamp induced stresses with stresses from overall piping system loads, is discussed. Grouping and enveloping methods to reduce the number of individual clamp locations requiring analysis are described

  8. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  9. Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers for heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Grakovich, L P; Kiselev, V G; Kurustalev, D K; Matveev, Yu

    1984-01-01

    Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers are of great importance in power engineering as a means of recovering waste heat of industrial enterprises, solar energy, geothermal waters and deep soil. Heat pipes are highly effective heat transfer units for transferring thermal energy over large distance (tens of meters) with low temperature drops. Their heat transfer characteristics and reliable working for more than 10-15 yr permit the design of new systems with higher heat engineering parameters.

  10. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  11. Pipe support program at Pickering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahazizian, L.A.; Jazic, Z.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the pipe support program at Pickering. The program addresses the highest priority in operating nuclear generating stations, safety. We present the need: safety, the process: managed and strategic, and the result: assurance of critical piping integrity. In the past, surveillance programs periodically inspected some systems, equipment, and individual components. This comprehensive program is based on a managed process that assesses risk to identify critical piping systems and supports and to develop a strategy for surveillance and maintenance. The strategy addresses all critical piping supports. Successful implementation of the program has provided assurance of critical piping and support integrity and has contributed to decreasing probability of pipe failure, reducing risk to worker and public safety, improving configuration management, and reducing probability of production losses. (author)

  12. Damping in LMFBR pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Barta, D.A.; Lindquist, M.R.; Renkey, E.J.; Ryan, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    LMFBR pipe systems typically utilize a thicker insulation package than that used on water plant pipe systems. They are supported with special insulated pipe clamps. Mechanical snubbers are employed to resist seismic loads. Recent laboratory testing has indicated that these features provide significantly more damping than presently allowed by Regulatory Guide 1.61 for water plant pipe systems. This paper presents results of additional in-situ vibration tests conducted on FFTF pipe systems. Pipe damping values obtained at various excitation levels are presented. Effects of filtering data to provide damping values at discrete frequencies and the alternate use of a single equivalent modal damping value are discussed. These tests further confirm that damping in typical LMFBR pipe systems is larger than presently used in pipe design. Although some increase in damping occurred with increased excitation amplitude, the effect was not significant. Recommendations are made to use an increased damping value for both the OBE and DBE seismic events in design of LMFBR pipe systems

  13. Dynamic experiments on cracked pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, M.; Brunet, G.; Buland, P.

    1991-01-01

    In order to apply the leak before break concept to piping systems, the behavior of cracked pipes under dynamic, and especially seismic loading must be studied. In a first phase, an experimental program on cracked stainless steel pipes under quasi-static monotonic loading has been conducted. In this paper, the dynamic tests on the same pipe geometry are described. These tests have been performed on a shaking table with a mono frequency input signal. The main parameter of the tests is the frequency of excitation versus the frequency of the system

  14. Water hammer in elastic pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.

    2002-01-01

    One dimensional two-fluid six-equation model of two-phase flow, that can be found in computer codes like RELAP5, TRAC, and CATHARE, was upgraded with additional terms, which enable modelling of the pressure waves in elastic pipes. It is known that pipe elasticity reduces the propagation velocity of the shock and other pressure waves in the piping systems. Equations that include the pipe elasticty terms are used in WAHA code, which is being developed within the WAHALoads project of 5't'h EU research program.(author)

  15. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  16. Plastics pipe couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, J.B.

    1980-07-01

    A method is described of making a pipe coupling of the type comprising a plastics socket and a resilient annular sealing member secured in the mouth thereof, in which the material of at least one component of the coupling is subjected to irradiation with high energy radiation whereby the material is caused to undergo cross-linking. As examples, the coupling may comprise a polyethylene or plasticised PVC socket the material of which is subjected to irradiation, and the sealing member may be moulded from a thermoplastic elastomer which is subjected to irradiation. (U.K.)

  17. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system

  18. Heat pipe and method of production of a heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The heat pipe consists of a copper pipe in which a capillary network or wick of heat-conducting material is arranged in direct contact with the pipe along its whole length. Furthermore, the interior space of the tube contains an evaporable liquid for pipe transfer. If water is used, the capillary network consists of, e.g., a phosphorus band network. To avoid contamination of the interior of the heat pipe during sealing, its ends are closed by mechanical deformation so that an arched or plane surface is obtained which is in direct contact with the network. After evacuation of the interior space, the remaining opening is closed with a tapered pin. The ratio wall thickness/tube diameter is between 0.01 and 0.6. (TK/AK) [de

  19. Impact analyses after pipe rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, R.C.; Chuang, T.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Two of the French pipe whip experiments are reproduced with the computer code WIPS. The WIPS results are in good agreement with the experimental data and the French computer code TEDEL. This justifies the use of its pipe element in conjunction with its U-bar element in a simplified method of impact analyses

  20. Mechanical Behaviour of Lined Pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Installing lined pipe by means of the reeling installation method seems to be an attractive combination, because it provides the opportunity of eliminating the demanding welds from the critical time offshore and instead preparing them onshore. However, reeling of lined pipe is not yet proven

  1. Pulsed TIG welding of pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killing, U.

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigates into the effects of impulse welding parameters on weld geometry in the joint welding of thin-walled sheets and pipes (d=2.5 mm), and it uses random samples of thick-walled sheets and pipes (d=10 mm), in fixed positions. (orig./MM) [de

  2. Functional capability of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, D.; Rodabaugh, E.C.

    1992-11-01

    General Design Criterion I of Appendix A to Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations requires, in part, that structures, systems, and components important to safety be designed to withstand the effects of earthquakes without a loss of capability to perform their safety function. ne function of a piping system is to convey fluids from one location to another. The functional capability of a piping system might be lost if, for example, the cross-sectional flow area of the pipe were deformed to such an extent that the required flow through the pipe would be restricted. The objective of this report is to examine the present rules in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, and potential changes to these rules, to determine if they are adequate for ensuring the functional capability of safety-related piping systems in nuclear power plants

  3. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  4. Waste pipe calculus extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The waste pipe calculus provides a rapid method, using Laplace transforms, to calculate the transport of a pollutant such as nuclear waste, by a network of one-dimensional flow paths. The present note extends previous work as follows: (1) It provides an alternate approximation to the time-domain function (inverse Laplace transform) for the resulting transport. This algebraic approximation may be viewed as a simpler and more approximate model of the transport process. (2) It identifies two scalar quantities which may be used as summary consequence measures of the waste transport (or inversely, waste retention) system, and provides algebraic expressions for them. (3) It includes the effects of radioactive decay on the scalar quantity results, and further provides simplifying approximations for the cases of medium and long half-lives. This algebraic method can be used for quick approximate analyses of expected results, uncertainty and sensitivity, in evaluating selection and design choices for nuclear waste disposal systems

  5. Solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-08-01

    The performance of a solar chemical heat pipe was studied using CO 2 reforming of methane as a vehicle for storage and transport of solar energy. The endothermic reforming reaction was carried out in an Inconel reactor, packed with a Rh catalyst. The reactor was suspended in an insulated box receiver which was placed in the focal plane of the Schaeffer Solar Furnace of the Weizman Institute of Science. The exothermic methanation reaction was run in a 6-stage adiabatic reactor filled with the same Rh catalyst. Conversions of over 80% were achieved for both reactions. In the closed loop mode the products from the reformer and from the metanator were compressed into separate storage tanks. The two reactions were run either separately or 'on-line'. The complete process was repeated for over 60 cycles. The overall performance of the closed loop was quite satisfactory and scale-up work is in progress in the Solar Tower. (authors). 35 refs., 2 figs

  6. Subsea pipe dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcombe, Mark

    1988-09-22

    The Gulf of Mexico is famous today mainly for the ferocity of its hurricanes. But for anyone in the oil industry, it is also known for the vast array of oil pipelines that criss-cross its stormy waters, and for the large number of pipeline-laying barges which install them. Soon many of these vessels could be steaming to British waters - not to escape the weather, but to cash in on a bonanza of pipe-laying activity which could soon take place offshore northern Europe. The construction of new pipelines off the UK, Norway and Netherlands will, however, present a new range of challenges for pipeline designers and builders. First and foremost is the Piper Alpha platform disaster, which could saddle the UK offshore industry with a Pound 500 million-plus bill for the installation of emergency shutdown valves (ESVs) on existing lines.

  7. Superconducting pipes and levitating magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Yan; Rizzato, Felipe B

    2006-12-01

    Motivated by a beautiful demonstration of the Faraday and the Lenz laws in which a small neodymium magnet falls slowly through a conducting nonferromagnetic tube, we consider the dynamics of a magnet falling coaxially through a superconducting pipe. Unlike the case of normal conducting pipes, in which the magnet quickly reaches the terminal velocity, inside a superconducting tube the magnet falls freely. On the other hand, to enter the pipe the magnet must overcome a large electromagnetic energy barrier. For sufficiently strong magnets, the barrier is so large that the magnet will not be able to penetrate it and will be levitated over the mouth of the pipe. We calculate the work that must done to force the magnet to enter a superconducting tube. The calculations show that superconducting pipes are very efficient at screening magnetic fields. For example, the magnetic field of a dipole at the center of a short pipe of radius a and length L approximately > a decays, in the axial direction, with a characteristic length xi approximately 0.26a. The efficient screening of the magnetic field might be useful for shielding highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference devices. Finally, the motion of the magnet through a superconducting pipe is compared and contrasted to the flow of ions through a trans-membrane channel.

  8. Effect of active cigarettes smoking, water-pipe smoking and snuff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of active cigarettes smoking, water-pipe smoking and snuff (naffa) inhalation on BMI, lipid profile, and plasma glucose. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... Methods: The study was conducted on 200 healthy male subjects, including, 50 non-smokers aged 40.98±8.07, 50 cigarette smokers aged 41.32±7.39, ...

  9. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2016-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.

  10. Leachate storage transport tanker loadout piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report shows the modifications to the W-025 Trench No. 31 leachate loadout discharge piping, and also the steps involved in installing the discharge piping, including dimensions and welding information. The installation of the discharge pipe should be done in accordance to current pipe installation standards. Trench No. 31 is a radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility

  11. Determination of the pipe stemming load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowin, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    A mechanical model for the emplacement pipe system is developed. The model is then employed to determine the force applied to the surface collar of the emplacement pipe, the pipe-stemming load, and the stress along the emplacement pipe as a function of stemming height. These results are presented as integrals and a method for their numerical integration is given

  12. Determination of Secondary Encasement Pipe Design Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-10-26

    This document published results of iterative calculations for maximum tank farm transfer secondary pipe (encasement) pressure upon failure of the primary pipe. The maximum pressure was calculated from a primary pipe guillotine break. Results show encasement pipeline design or testing pressures can be significantly lower than primary pipe pressure criteria.

  13. Effects of urbanization on river morphology of the Talar River, Mazandarn Province, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefi, Saleh; Moradi, Hamid Reza; Keesstra, Saskia; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Navratil, Oldrich; Hooke, Janet

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the effects of urbanization growth on river morphology in the downstream part of Talar River, east of Mazandaran Province, Iran. Morphological and morphometric parameters in 10 equal sub-reaches were defined along a 11.5 km reach of the Talar River after land

  14. Nitrogen heat pipe for cryocooler thermal shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenger F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    A nitrogen heat pipe was designed, built and tested for the purpose of providing a thermal shunt between the two stages of a Gifford-McMahan (GM) cryocooler during cooldown. The nitrogen heat pipe has an operating temperature range between 63 and 123 K. While the heat pipe is in this temperature range during the system cooldown, it acts as a thermal shunt between the first and second stage of the cryocooler. The heat pipe increases the heat transfer to the first stage of the cryocooler, thereby reducing the cooldown time of the system. When the heat pipe temperature drops below the triple point, the nitrogen working fluid freezes, effectively stopping the heat pipe operation. A small heat leak between cryocooler stages remains because of axial conduction along the heat pipe wall. As long as the heat pipe remains below 63 K, the heat pipe remains inactive. Heat pipe performance limits were measured and the optimum fluid charge was determined

  15. Pipe restraints for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keever, R.E.; Broman, R.; Shevekov, S.

    1976-01-01

    A pipe restraint for nuclear power plants in which a support member is anchored on supporting surface is described. Formed in the support member is a semicylindrical wall. Seated on the semicylindrical wall is a ring-shaped pipe restrainer that has an inner cylindrical wall. The inner cylindrical wall of the pipe restrainer encircles the pressurized pipe. In a modification of the pipe restraint, an arched-shaped pipe restrainer is disposed to overlie a pressurized pipe. The ends of the arch-shaped pipe restrainer are fixed to support members, which are anchored in concrete or to a supporting surface. A strap depends from the arch-shaped pipe restrainer. The pressurized pipe is supported by the depending strap

  16. Formation of phreatomagmatic pipes in the Tunguska Basin (Siberia, Russia) during the end-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polozov, Alexander; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

    2010-05-01

    We recently proposed that numerous pipes piercing sedimentary rocks of Tunguska Basin triggered the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Svensen et al., 2009). Large amounts of greenhouse and poisonous gases were released through the pipes and into P-Tr atmosphere, partly formed by heating of petroleum-bearing evaporites. The sub-volcanic part of the Siberian Traps was emplaced in the Tunguska Basin sedimentary sequences, which includes Pre-Cambrian source rocks, Early Cambrian evaporites, and Paleozoic terrigenous and coal-bearing rocks. Spectacular breccia pipes are numerous in the evaporate-parts of the basin, and are filled with volcaniclastic rocks and commercial magnetite mineralization. Although these pipes have been intensively studied in order to understand the iron ore formation, the origin and formation of the pipes is poorly understood. Many researchers emphasize that magma-sediments interaction as a key reason of pipe formation, whereas phreatomagmatic hypothesis are also proposed. In order to improve the understanding of pipe formation and ore-deposition, we have studied a basalt-rich breccia pipe piercing Cambrian evaporates at the Nepa locality in East Siberia. Textural features of the volcanic fragments in the breccias include lapilli, Pele's hear, glassy basalt and dolerite clasts, blocks of tuffs in addition to sedimentary rocks. Calcite and halite are the most common types of cement. We have studied minerals from the breccia cement and from reaction rims around clasts in order to understand the hydrothermal system that developed after the pipe formed. Calcite and dolomite are the dominating carbonates, and two types of anhydrite is present. Biotite, Cl-Fe-bearing amphibole (hastingsite), and Cl-F-apatite are amongst early hydrothermal minerals covering magmatic clast and lapillies. Our new data confirm (i) the phreatomagmatic nature of breccia filling in the Tunguska Basin pipes and (ii) the key role of sedimentary brine and petroleum involved in

  17. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace

  18. Flow induced vibrations of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fluid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors. This paper presents a method to take into account these effects, by solving a coupled mechanical-acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A /D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. By this way the mechanical-acoustical coupled eigenmodes of any piping system can be obtained. These eigenmodes are used to determine the response of the system to various sources. Equations have been written in the hypohesis that acoustical wave lengths remain large compared to the diameter of the pipe. The method has been checked by an experiment performed on the GASCOGNE loop at D.E.M.T. The piping system under test consists of a tube with four elbows. The circuit is ended at each extremity by a large vessel which performs acoustical isolation by generating modes for the pressure. Excitation of the circuit is caused by a valve located near the downstream vessel. This provides an efficient localised broad band acoustical source. The comparison between the test results and the calculations has shown that the low frequency resonant characteristics of the pipe and the vibrational amplitude at various flow-rates can be correctly predicted

  19. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  20. Reliability analysis of stiff versus flexible piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a technical basis for flexible piping designs which will improve piping reliability and minimize the use of pipe supports, snubbers, and pipe whip restraints. The current study was conducted to establish the necessary groundwork based on the piping reliability analysis. A confirmatory piping reliability assessment indicated that removing rigid supports and snubbers tends to either improve or affect very little the piping reliability. The authors then investigated a couple of changes to be implemented in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.61 and RG 1.122 aimed at more flexible piping design. They concluded that these changes substantially reduce calculated piping responses and allow piping redesigns with significant reduction in number of supports and snubbers without violating ASME code requirements. Furthermore, the more flexible piping redesigns are capable of exhibiting reliability levels equal to or higher than the original stiffer design. An investigation of the malfunction of pipe whip restraints confirmed that the malfunction introduced higher thermal stresses and tended to reduce the overall piping reliability. Finally, support and component reliabilities were evaluated based on available fragility data. Results indicated that the support reliability usually exhibits a moderate decrease as the piping flexibility increases. Most on-line pumps and valves showed an insignificant reduction in reliability for a more flexible piping design

  1. Piping inspection round robin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R.

    1996-04-01

    The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths

  2. Automated ultrasonic pipe weld inspection. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl Deutsch, W.A.; Schulte, P.; Joswig, M.; Kattwinkel, R.

    2006-01-01

    This article contains a brief overview on automated ultrasonic welded inspection for various pipe types. Some inspection steps might by carried out with portable test equipment (e.g. pipe and test), but the weld inspection in all internationally relevant specification must be automated. The pipe geometry, the production process, and the pipe usage determine the number of required probes. Recent updates for some test specifications enforce a large number of ultrasonic probes, e.g. the Shell standard. Since seamless pipes are sometimes replaced by ERW pipes and LSAW pipes (in both cases to save production cost), the inspection methods change gradually between the various pipe types. Each testing system is unique and shows its specialties which have to be discussed by supplier, testing system user and final customer of the pipe. (author)

  3. Evaluation of Bamboo Porous Pipe as Line Source Emitter in Trickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to evaluate the use of bamboo as porous pipe (line source) emitter in trickle irrigation at the Cross River University of Technology Teaching and Research Farm Obubra. Two sets of bamboo laterals: opened and plugged ends were used for the trial. The experiment was conducted using four different ...

  4. evaluation of bamboo porous pipe as line source emitter in trickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHRISTY

    This paper attempts to evaluate the use of bamboo as porous pipe (line source) emitter in trickle irrigation at the Cross River University of Technology Teaching and Research Farm Obubra. Two sets of bamboo laterals: opened and plugged ends were used for the trial. The experiment was conducted using four different ...

  5. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery. This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem that supports the first phase of waste feed delivery. This subsystem transfers waste between transfer-associated structures (pits) and to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor Facility where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  6. River water pollution condition in upper part of Brantas River and Bengawan Solo River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosmini, D.; Septiono, M. A.; Putri, N. E.; Shabrina, H. M.; Salami, I. R. S.; Ariesyady, H. D.

    2018-01-01

    Wastewater and solid waste from both domestic and industry have been known to give burden on river water quality. Most of river water quality problem in Indonesia has start in the upper part of river due to anthropogenic activities, due to inappropriate land use management including the poor wastewater infrastructure. Base on Upper Citarum River Water pollution problem, it is interesting to study the other main river in Java Island. Bengawan Solo River and Brantas River were chosen as the sample in this study. Parameters assessed in this study are as follows: TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and hexavalent chromium. The status of river water quality are assess using STORET method. Based on (five) parameters, STORET value showed that in Brantas River, Pagerluyung monitoring point had the worst quality relatively compared to other monitoring point in Brantas River with exceeding copper, lead and tin compared to the stream standard in East Java Provincial Regulation No. 2 in 2008. Brantas River was categorized as lightly polluted river based on monitoring period 2011-2015 in 5 monitoring points, namely Pendem, Sengguruh, Kademangan, Meritjan and Kertosono.

  7. Pipe line construction for reactor containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masataka; Yoshinaga, Toshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the missile phenomenon caused by broken fragments due to pipe whip phenomenon in a portion of pipe lines connected to a reactor containment from prevailing to other portions. Constitution: Various pipe lines connected to the pressure vessel are disposed at the outside of the containments and they are surrounded with a plurality of protection partition walls respectively independent from each other. This can eliminate the effect of missile phenomena upon pipe rupture from prevailing to the pipe lines and instruments. Furthermore this can afford sufficient spaces for the pipe lines, as well as for earthquake-proof supports. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Development of new damping devices for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroe

    1991-01-01

    An increase of the damping ratio is known to be very effective for the seismic design of a piping system. Increasing the damping ratio and reducing the seismic response of the piping system, the following three types of damping devices for piping systems are introduced: (1) visco-elastic damper, (2) elasto-plastic damper and (3) compact dynamic damper. The dynamic characteristics of these damping devices were investigated by the component test and the applicability of them to the piping system was confirmed by the vibration test using a three dimensional piping model. These damping devices are more effective than mechanical snubbers to reduce the vibration of the piping system. (author)

  9. Flow induced vibrations of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fuid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors.- Inertial effects from the fluid are not correctly evaluated especially in the case of bended or of non-uniform section pipes. Fluid boundary conditions are simply ignored. - In many practical problems fluid compressibility cannot be negelcted, even in the low frequencies domain which corresponds to efficient excitation by turbulent sources of the flow. This paper presents a method to take into account these efects, by solving a coupled mechanical acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A./D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. (Auth.)

  10. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs

  11. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  12. Microcomputer generated pipe support calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, R.F.; Czarnowski, P.; Roemer, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost and complexity of pipe support design has been a continuing challenge to the construction and modification of commercial nuclear facilities. Typically, pipe support design or qualification projects have required large numbers of engineers centrally located with access to mainframe computer facilities. Much engineering time has been spent repetitively performing a sequence of tasks to address complex design criteria and consolidating the results of calculations into documentation packages in accordance with strict quality requirements. The continuing challenges of cost and quality, the need for support engineering services at operating plant sites, and the substantial recent advances in microcomputer systems suggested that a stand-alone microcomputer pipe support calculation generator was feasible and had become a necessity for providing cost-effective and high quality pipe support engineering services to the industry. This paper outlines the preparation for, and the development of, an integrated pipe support design/evaluation software system which maintains all computer programs in the same environment, minimizes manual performance of standard or repetitive tasks, and generates a high quality calculation which is consistent and easily followed

  13. Reactor process water (PW) piping inspections, 1984--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhart, W.S.; Elder, J.B.; Sprayberry, R.E.; Vande Kamp, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    In July 1983, the NRC ordered the shutdown of five boiling water reactors (BWR's) because of concerns about reliability of ultrasonic examination for detecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These concerns arose because of leaking piping at Niagara Mohawk's Nine Mile Point which was attributed to IGSCC. The leaks were detected shortly after completion of ultrasonic examinations of the piping. At that time, the Dupont plant manager at Savannah River (SR) directed that investigations be performed to determine if similar problems could exist in SR reactors. Investigation determined that all conditions believed necessary for the initiation and propagation of IGSCC in austenitic stainless steel exist in SR reactor process water (PW) systems. Sensitized, high carbon, austenitic stainless steel, a high purity water system with high levels of dissolved oxygen, and the residual stresses associated with welding during construction combine to provide the necessary conditions. A periodic UT inspection program is now in place to monitor the condition of the reactor PW piping systems. The program is patterned after NRC NUREG 0313, i.e., welds are placed in categories based on their history. Welds in upgraded or replacement piping are examined on a standard schedule (at least every five years) while welds with evidence of IGSCC, evaluated as acceptable for service, are inspected at every extended outage (15 to 18 months). This includes all welds in PW systems three inches in diameter and above. Welds are replaced when MSCC exceeds the replacement criteria of more than twenty percent of pipe circumference of fifty percent of through-wall depth. In the future, we intend to perform flow sizing with automated UT techniques in addition to manual sizing to provide more information for comparison with future examinations

  14. Middle East natural gas - getting it to markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, R.

    1996-01-01

    Middle East gas reserves, production, and consumption were presented graphically, along with the demand for 'piped' or liquefied natural gas in the Middle East itself, in Asia and in Europe. The European gas market outlook was examined, taking into account economic growth, EEC restructuring, crude oil prices and their effects on net-backs, deregulation and competitive grid-based energy, upstream and midstream investments under conditions of price uncertainty, and environmental and social influences. Middle East pipeline proposals (17 projects) for a total of 34,943 kilometres of pipeline, were reviewed. The general conclusion was that (1) the Middle East has lots of gas, (2) both Asia and Europe will be substantial markets for Middle East LNG despite the 'tyranny of distance', and (3) pipelines to these markets will be built in the longer-term. tabs., figs

  15. Flexibility of trunnion piping elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.D.; Chao, Y.J.

    1987-01-01

    Flexibility factors and stress indices for piping component such as straight pipe, elbows, butt-welding tees, branch connections, and butt-welding reducers are contained in the code, but many of the less common piping components, like the trunnion elbow, do not have flexibility factors or stress indices defined. The purpose of this paper is to identify the in-plane and out-of-plane flexibility factors in accordance with code procedures for welded trunnions attached to the tangent centerlines of long radius elbows. This work utilized the finite element method as applicable to plates and shells for calculating the relative rotations of the trunnion elbow-ends for in-plane and out-of-plane elbow moment loadings. These rotations are used to derive the corresponding in-plane and out-of-plane flexibility factors. (orig./GL)

  16. Pipe Lines – External Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Babor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two areas of corrosion occur in pipe lines: corrosion from the medium carried inside the pipes; corrosion attack upon the outside of the pipes (underground corrosion. Electrolytic processes are also involved in underground corrosion. Here the moisture content of the soil acts as an electrolyte, and the ions required to conduct the current are supplied by water-soluble salts (chlorides, sulfates, etc. present in the soil. The nature and amount of these soluble materials can vary within a wide range, which is seen from the varying electrical conductivity and pH (varies between 3 and 10. Therefore the characteristics of a soil will be an important factor in under-ground corrosion.

  17. Enhanced seismic criteria for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, F. . E-mail francoise.touboul@cea.fr; Blay, N.; Sollogoub, P.; Chapuliot, S.

    2006-01-01

    In situ or laboratory experiments have shown that piping systems exhibit satisfactory seismic behavior. Seismic motion is not severe enough to significantly damage piping systems unless large differential motions of anchorage are imposed. Nevertheless, present design criteria for piping are very severe and require a large number of supports, which creates overly rigid piping systems. CEA, in collaboration with EDF, FRAMATOME and IRSN, has launched a large R and D program on enhanced design methods which will be less severe, but still conservative, and compatible with defect justification during operation. This paper presents the background of the R and D work on this matter, and CEA proposed equations. Our approach is based on the difference between the real behavior (or the best estimated computed one) with the one supposed by codified methods. Codified criteria are applied on an elastically calculated behavior that can be significantly different from the real one: the effect of plasticity may be very meaningful, even with low incursion in the plastic domain. Moreover, and particularly in piping systems, the elastic follow-up effect affects stress distribution for both seismic and thermal loads. For seismic load, we have proposed to modify the elastic moment limitation, based on the interpretation of experimental results on piping systems. The methods have been validated on more industrial cases, and some of the consequences of the changes have been studied: modification of the drawings and of the number of supports, global displacements, forces in the supports, stability of potential defects, etc. The basic aim of the studies undertaken is to make a decision on the stress classification problem, one that is not limited to seismic induced stresses, and to propose simplified methods for its solution

  18. Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.

  19. Seismic design of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglaret, G.; Beguin, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with the method used in France for the PWR nuclear plants to derive locations and types of supports of auxiliary and secondary piping systems taking earthquake in account. The successive steps of design are described, then the seismic computation method and its particular conditions of applications for piping are presented. The different types of support (and especially seismic ones) are described and also their conditions of installation. The method used to compare functional tests results and computation results in order to control models is mentioned. Some experiments realised on site or in laboratory, in order to validate models and methods, are presented [fr

  20. Energy absorbers as pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlafallah, M.Z.; Lee, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    With the exception of springs, pipe supports currently in use are designed with the intent of maintaining their rigidity under load. Energy dissipation mechanisms in these pipe supports result in system damping on the order presented by Code Case N-411 of ASME Section III code. Examples of these energy dissipation mechanisms are fluids and gaps in snubbers, gaps in frame supports, and friction in springs and frame supports. If energy absorbing supports designed in accordance with Code Case N-420 are used, higher additional damping will result

  1. Research program plan: piping. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagins, M.; Strosnider, J.

    1985-07-01

    Regulatory issues related to piping can be divided into the three areas of pipe cracking, postulated design basis pipe breaks, and design of piping for seismic and other dynamic loads. The first two of these issues are in the domain of the Materials Engineering Branch (MEBR), while the last of the three issues is the responsibility of the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch. This volume of the MEBR Research Plan defines the critical aspects of the pipe cracking and postulated design basis pipe break issues and identifies those research efforts and results necessary for their resolution. In general, the objectives of the MERB Piping Research Program are to provide experimentally validated analytic techniques and appropriate material properties characterization methods and data to support regulatory activities related to evaluating and ensuring piping integrity

  2. Performance evaluation of buried pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts installed ...

  3. Review of nuclear piping seismic design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagis, G.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    Modern-day nuclear plant piping systems are designed with a large number of seismic supports and snubbers that may be detrimental to plant reliability. Experimental tests have demonstrated the inherent ruggedness of ductile steel piping for seismic loading. Present methods to predict seismic loads on piping are based on linear-elastic analysis methods with low damping. These methods overpredict the seismic response of ductile steel pipe. Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code stresses limits for piping systems that are based on considerations of static loads and hence are overly conservative. Appropriate stress limits for seismic loads on piping should be incorporated into the code to allow more flexible piping designs. The existing requirements and methods for seismic design of piping systems, including inherent conservations, are explained to provide a technical foundation for modifications to those requirements. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Failure Analysis Of Industrial Boiler Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsir, Muhammad; Soedardjo, B.; Arhatari, Dewi; Andryansyah; Haryanto, Mudi; Triyadi, Ari

    2000-01-01

    Failure analysis of industrial boiler pipe has been done. The tested pipe material is carbon steel SA 178 Grade A refer to specification data which taken from Fertilizer Company. Steps in analysis were ; collection of background operation and material specification, visual inspection, dye penetrant test, radiography test, chemical composition test, hardness test, metallography test. From the test and analysis result, it is shown that the pipe failure caused by erosion and welding was shown porosity and incomplete penetration. The main cause of failure pipe is erosion due to cavitation, which decreases the pipe thickness. Break in pipe thickness can be done due to decreasing in pipe thickness. To anticipate this problem, the ppe will be replaced with new pipe

  5. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe : [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  6. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  7. Laboratory exercises on oscillation modes of pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, Willy

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes an improved lab setup to study the vibrations of air columns in pipes. Features of the setup include transparent pipes which reveal the position of a movable microphone inside the pipe; excitation of pipe modes with a miniature microphone placed to allow access to the microphone stem for open, closed, or conical pipes; and sound insulation to avoid interference between different setups in a student lab. The suggested experiments on the modes of open, closed, and conical pipes, the transient response of a pipe, and the effect of pipe diameter are suitable for introductory physics laboratories, including laboratories for nonscience majors and music students, and for more advanced undergraduate laboratories. For honors students or for advanced laboratory exercises, the quantitative relation between the resonance width and damping time constant is of interest.

  8. Analysis of Municipal Pipe Network Franchise Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Sun; Haichuan, Tian; Feng, Xu; Huixia, Zhou

    Franchise institution of municipal pipe network has some particularity due to the characteristic of itself. According to the exposition of Chinese municipal pipe network industry franchise institution, the article investigates the necessity of implementing municipal pipe network franchise institution in China, the role of government in the process and so on. And this offers support for the successful implementation of municipal pipe network franchise institution in China.

  9. Apparatus for measuring total flow in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, H.

    1986-01-01

    To obtain a sample representative of the total flow in a pipe over a given period a Pitot tube is located in the pipe and connected to a collector outside the pipe. The collector is pressurised to a pressure substantially equal to the static head of the flow in the pipe via a line. Liquid is discharged from a collector to a container which is vented to atmosphere. (author)

  10. Review: heat pipe heat exchangers at IROST

    OpenAIRE

    E. Azad

    2012-01-01

    The use of the heat pipe as a component in a heat recovery device has gained worldwide acceptance. Heat pipes are passive, highly reliable and offer high heat transfer rates. This study summarizes the investigation of different types of heat pipe heat recovery systems (HPHRSs). The studies are classified on the basis of the type of the HPHRS. This research is based on 30 years of experience on heat pipe and heat recovery systems that are presented in this study. Copyright , Oxford University ...

  11. Radiation transmission pipe thickness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Fuji Electric Systems can be measured from the outer insulation of the transmission Characteristics and radiation detection equipment had been developed that can measure pipe wall thinning in plant and running, the recruitment of another three-beam calculation method by pipe thickness measurement system was developed to measure the thickness of the pipe side. This equipment has been possible to measure the thickness of the circumferential profile of the pipe attachment by adopting automatic rotation. (author)

  12. Seismic analysis of nuclear piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, S.K.; Pillai, K.R.V.; Nandakumar, S.

    1975-01-01

    To illustrate seismic analysis of nuclear power plant piping, a simple piping system running between two floors of the reactor building is assumed. Reactor building floor response is derived from time-history method. El Centre earthquake (1940) accelerogram is used for time-history analysis. The piping system is analysed as multimass lumped system. Behaviour of the pipe during the said earthquake is discussed. (author)

  13. PIPE STRESS and VERPIP codes for stress analysis and verifications of PEC reactor piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, F.; Ferranti, P.; Gasparrini, M.; Labanti, L.

    1975-01-01

    To design LMFBR piping systems following ASME Sct. III requirements unusual flexibility computer codes are to be adopted to consider piping and its guard-tube. For this purpose PIPE STRESS code previously prepared by Southern-Service, has been modified. Some subroutine for detailed stress analysis and principal stress calculations on all the sections of piping have been written and fitted in the code. Plotter can also be used. VERPIP code for automatic verifications of piping as class 1 Sct. III prescriptions has been also prepared. The results of PIPE STRESS and VERPIP codes application to PEC piping are in section III of this report

  14. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main boiler...

  15. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe welding. 154.660 Section 154.660 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt welds...

  16. 49 CFR 195.424 - Pipe movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe movement. 195.424 Section 195.424... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.424 Pipe movement. (a) No operator may move any line pipe, unless... in the line section involved are joined by welding unless— (1) Movement when the pipeline does not...

  17. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A pipe running from the engineman's brake valve through the train, used for the transmission of air under... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation...

  18. Smoking water pipe is injurious to lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Ringbæk, Thomas; Lange, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the pulmonary consequences of water pipe smoking. Smoking water pipe affects the lung function negatively, is significantly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and increases the risk of lung infections. Case reports suggest that regular smokers of water pipe...

  19. Leachate storage transport tanker loadout piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains schematic drawings for the pipe fittings for the Hanford waste tanks. Included are the modifications to the W-025 trench number-sign 31 leachate loadout piping, and also the modifications to the tanker trailers. The piping was modified to prevent spillage to the environment. The tankers were modified for loading and unloading purposes

  20. Nuclear class 1 piping stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.C.R.; Maneschy, J.E.; Mariano, L.A.; Tamura, M.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear class 1 piping stress analysis, according to the ASME code, is presented. The TRHEAT computer code has been used to determine the piping wall thermal gradient. The Nupipe computer code was employed for the piping stress analysis. Computer results were compared with the allowable criteria from the ASME code. (Author) [pt

  1. Climate influences on Vaal River flow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... enriched NW-cloud bands over the Vaal River catchment, during the flood case study of January 2010. Comparison of. (Pacific) Southern Oscillation and east Atlantic influence on Vaal River discharge reveals the former drives evaporative losses while the latter provides an advance warning of flow ...

  2. 76 FR 75543 - Missisquoi River Technologies; Missisquoi River Hydro LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ..., Missisquoi River Technologies informed the Commission that its exemption from licensing for the North Troy..., located at 453 East Hill Rd., Middlesex, VT 05602, is now the exemptee of the North Troy Hydroelectric...

  3. PPOOLEX experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through either one or two vertical transparent blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. Five experiments with one pipe and six with two parallel pipes were carried out. The main purpose of the experiments was to study loads caused by chugging (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. In the experiments the initial temperature of the condensation pool water varied from 12 deg. C to 55 deg. C, the steam flow rate from 40 g/s to 1 300 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 120 deg. C to 185 deg. C. In the experiments with only one transparent blowdown pipe chugging phenomenon didn't occur as intensified as in the preceding experiments carried out with a DN200 stainless steel pipe. With the steel blowdown pipe even 10 times higher pressure pulses were registered inside the pipe. Meanwhile, loads registered in the pool didn't indicate significant differences between the steel and polycarbonate pipe experiments. In the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes, the steamwater interface moved almost synchronously up and down inside both pipes. Chugging was stronger than in the one pipe experiments and even two times higher loads were measured inside the pipes. The loads at the blowdown pipe outlet were approximately the same as in the one pipe cases. Other registered loads around the pool were about 50-100 % higher than with one pipe. The experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes gave contradictory results compared to the earlier studies dealing with chugging loads in case of multiple pipes. Contributing

  4. Spinning pipe gas lens revisited

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The graded index (GRIN-like) medium generated by gas inside a heated steel pipe when rotated about its longitudinal axis has the ability to focus a laser beam. While the effective focal length of such a system has previously been studied...

  5. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  6. Automatic welding machine for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Takaichi; Iizuka, Tomio; Ito, Yoshitoshi; Takami, Katsumi.

    1978-01-01

    A remotely controlled automatic special welding machine for piping was developed. This machine is utilized for long distance pipe lines, chemical plants, thermal power generating plants and nuclear power plants effectively from the viewpoint of good quality control, reduction of labor and good controllability. The function of this welding machine is to inspect the shape and dimensions of edge preparation before welding work by the sense of touch, to detect the temperature of melt pool, inspect the bead form by the sense of touch, and check the welding state by ITV during welding work, and to grind the bead surface and inspect the weld metal by ultrasonic test automatically after welding work. The construction of this welding system, the main specification of the apparatus, the welding procedure in detail, the electrical source of this welding machine, the cooling system, the structure and handling of guide ring, the central control system and the operating characteristics are explained. The working procedure and the effect by using this welding machine, and the application to nuclear power plants and the other industrial field are outlined. The HIDIC 08 is used as the controlling computer. This welding machine is useful for welding SUS piping as well as carbon steel piping. (Nakai, Y.)

  7. Heat pipe heat storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A; Pasquetti, R [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (FR). Inst. Universitaire des Systemes; Grakovich, L P; Vasiliev, L L [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst. of the BSSR, Academy of Sciences, Minsk (BY)

    1989-01-01

    Heat storage offers essential thermal energy saving for heating. A ground heat store equipped with heat pipes connecting it with a heat source and to the user is considered in this paper. It has been shown that such a heat exchanging system along with a batch energy source meets, to a considerable extent, house heating requirements. (author).

  8. Integrated piping structural analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoi, Toshio; Yamadera, Masao; Horino, Satoshi; Idehata, Takamasa

    1979-01-01

    Structural analysis of the piping system for nuclear power plants has become larger in scale and in quantity. In addition, higher quality analysis is regarded as of major importance nowadays from the point of view of nuclear plant safety. In order to fulfill to the above requirements, an integrated piping structural analysis system (ISAP-II) has been developed. Basic philosophy of this system is as follows: 1. To apply the date base system. All information is concentrated. 2. To minimize the manual process in analysis, evaluation and documentation. Especially to apply the graphic system as much as possible. On the basis of the above philosophy four subsystems were made. 1. Data control subsystem. 2. Analysis subsystem. 3. Plotting subsystem. 4. Report subsystem. Function of the data control subsystem is to control all information of the data base. Piping structural analysis can be performed by using the analysis subsystem. Isometric piping drawing and mode shape, etc. can be plotted by using the plotting subsystem. Total analysis report can be made without the manual process through the reporting subsystem. (author)

  9. Pipe Leak Detection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that one of the nation’s biggest infrastructural needs is the replacement or rehabilitation of the water distribution and transmission systems. The institution of more effective pipe leak detection technology will im...

  10. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  11. local government headquarters and spatial interaction within rivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    headquarters and rural hinterland settlements in Rivers South East ... of Rivers State is responsible for over seventy percent (70%) of the total employment in the ... even proportion and balanced development for all could not completely ... Rivers West ... agricultural under development, unemployment, poor quality of life due.

  12. Reactor Materials Program probability of indirectly--induced failure of L and P reactor process water piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The design basis accident for the Savannah River Production Reactors is the abrupt double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of a large process water pipe. This accident is not considered credible in light of the low applied stresses and the inherent ductility of the piping material. The Reactor Materials Program was initiated to provide the technical basis for an alternate credible design basis accident. One aspect of this work is to determine the probability of the DEGB; to show that in addition to being incredible, it is also highly improbable. The probability of a DEGB is broken into two parts: failure by direct means, and indirectly-induced failure. Failure of the piping by direct means can only be postulated to occur if an undetected crack grows to the point of instability, causing a large pipe break. While this accident is not as severe as a DEGB, it provides a conservative upper bound on the probability of a direct DEGB of the piping. The second part of this evaluation calculates the probability of piping failure by indirect causes. Indirect failure of the piping can be triggered by an earthquake which causes other reactor components or the reactor building to fall on the piping or pull it from its supports. Since indirectly-induced failure of the piping will not always produce consequences as severe as a DEGB, this gives a conservative estimate of the probability of an indirectly- induced DEGB. This second part, indirectly-induced pipe failure, is the subject of this report. Failure by seismic loads in the piping itself will be covered in a separate report on failure by direct causes. This report provides a detailed evaluation of L reactor. A walkdown of P reactor and an analysis of the P reactor building provide the basis for extending the L reactor results to P reactor

  13. Oceanographic data collected from SATURN River Station 05 by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2009-06-23 to 2016-12-06 (NCEI Accession 0162430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162430 contains biological, chemical, navigational and physical data collected at SATURN River Station 05, a fixed station in the Columbia River...

  14. Piping engineering for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curto, N.; Schmidt, H.; Muller, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to develop piping engineering, an adequate dimensioning and correct selection of materials must be secured. A correct selection of materials together with calculations and stress analysis must be carried out with a view to minimizing or avoiding possible failures or damages in piping assembling, which could be caused by internal pressure, weight, temperature, oscillation, etc. The piping project for a nuclear power plant is divided into the following three phases. Phase I: Basic piping design. Phase II: Final piping design. Phase III: Detail engineering. (Author)

  15. System and Method for Traversing Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Jodi (Inventor); Pettinger, Ross (Inventor); Azimi, Shaun (Inventor); Magruder, Darby (Inventor); Ridley, Justin (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A system and method is provided for traversing inside one or more pipes. In an embodiment, a fluid is injected into the one or more pipes thereby promoting a fluid flow. An inspection device is deployed into the one or more pipes at least partially filled with a flowing fluid. The inspection device comprises a housing wherein the housing is designed to exploit the hydrokinetic effects associated with a fluid flow in one or more pipes as well as maneuver past a variety of pipe configurations. The inspection device may contain one or more sensors capable of performing a variety of inspection tasks.

  16. Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    An introduction to the Alligator Rivers Region is presented. It contains general information regarding the physiography, climate, hydrology and mining of the region. The Alligator Rivers Region is within an ancient basin, the Pine Creek Geosyncline, which has an area of approximately 66000 km 2 . The Geosyncline has a history of mineral exploitation dating back to 1865, during which time 16 metals have been extracted (silver, arsenic, gold, bismuth, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, lead, tin, tantalum, uranium, tungsten, zinc). Uranium exploration in the Pine Creek Geosyncline was stimulated by the discovery in 1949 of secondary uranium mineralisation near Rum June, 70 km south-east of Darwin. This was followed by a decade of intense exploration activity resulting in the discoveries of economic uranium ore bodies at Rum Jungle and in the upper reaches of the South Alligator River Valley. All the known major uranium deposits of the East Alligator River uranium field have been discovered since 1969. The present known resources of the Geosyncline are approximately 360 000 tonnes of contained U 3 O 8 . 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific (μCi/cm 2 ) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed

  18. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J. [PECO Energy Co., Delta, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  19. 78 FR 5170 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... International Trade Co., Ltd., Weifang East Steel Pipe Co., Ltd., WISCO & CRM Wuhan Material & Trade., Wuxi... relevant entries during this review period. Failure to comply with this requirement could result in the.... Failure to comply with the regulations and terms of an APO is a violation which is subject to sanction...

  20. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  1. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1994-01-04

    An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

  2. Development of LBB Piping Evaluation Diagram for APR 1000 Main Steam Line Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J. S.; Jeong, I. L.; Park, C. Y.; Bai, S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the piping evaluation diagram (PED) to assess the applicability of Leak-Before- Break(LBB) for APR 1000 main steam line piping. LBB-PED of APR 1000 main steam line piping is independent of its piping geometry and has a function of the loads applied in piping system. Also, in order to evaluate LBB applicability during construction process with only the comparative evaluation of material properties between actually used and expected, the expected changes of material properties are considered in the LBB-PED. The LBB-PED, therefore, can be used for quick LBB evaluation of APR 1000 main steam line piping of both design and construction

  3. Methods for Analyzing Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1989-01-01

    to formulate the flow equations in terms of pipe discharges than in terms of energy heads. The behavior of some iterative methods is compared in the initial phase with large errors. It is explained why the linear theory method oscillates when the iteration gets close to the solution, and it is further...... demonstrated that this method offers good starting values for a Newton-Raphson iteration....

  4. Experiments in turbulent pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torbergsen, Lars Even

    1998-12-31

    This thesis reports experimental results for the mean velocity and turbulence statistics in two straight pipe sections for bulk Reynolds numbers in the range 22000 to 75000. The flow was found consistent with a fully developed state. Detailed turbulence spectra were obtained for low and moderate turbulent Reynolds number. For the pipe centre line location at R{sub {lambda}} = 112, a narrow range in the streamwise power spectrum applied to the -5/3 inertial subrange. However this range was influenced both by turbulence production and viscous dissipation, and therefore did not reflect a true inertial range. The result indicates how the intermediate range between the production and dissipative scales can be misinterpreted as an inertial range for low and moderate R{sub {lambda}}. To examine the universal behaviour of the inertial range, the inertial scaling of the streamwise power spectrum is compared to the inertial scaling of the second order longitudinal velocity structure function, which relate directly by a Fourier transform. Increasing agreement between the Kolmogorov constant C{sub K} and the second order structure function scaling constant C{sub 2} was observed with increasing R{sub {lambda}}. The result indicates that a true inertial range requires several decades of separation between the energy containing and dissipative scales. A method for examining spectral anisotropy is reported and applied to turbulence spectra in fully developed pipe flow. It is found that the spectral redistribution from the streamwise to the two lateral spectra goes primarily to the circumferential component. Experimental results are reported for an axisymmetric contraction of a fully developed pipe flow. 67 refs., 75 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP)

  6. Device for storing drilling pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolasinski, A; Wedrychowicz, J

    1981-02-16

    The patented device contains a profiled arch 14 (see figure) installed in the upper part of the drilling rig 15. On base 16 of the drilling unit, there is bin 1 which is installed on frame 2 to which it is hinge connected with the help of pin 3. On the other side, the bin rests on rollers 4 which are attached to lever 5 of lifting mechanism 6. Bin 1 is a series of parallel-arranged guides rigidly connected by transverse beams. Frame 2 contains the collapsible support 10. During operation of the device, the hydraulic lifter 6 with the help of frame 5 and rollers 4 lifts bin 1 with drilling pipes installed on it, giving it an angle of 4/sup 0/ in relation to the plane of frame 2. The collapsible support 10 is installed in a vertical position and holds bin 1. This position of bin 1 is the most suitable for movement of the vertically installed drilling pipes on the guides. The distinguishing feature of the patented device is the possibility of convenient arrangement of the drilling pipes on the guides of bin 1. Because of this, the time spent on lifting and lowering the drill apparatus is considerably reduced.

  7. Pipe and hose decontamination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    A pipe and hose decontamination apparatus is disclosed using freshly filtered high pressure Freon solvent in an integrated closed loop to remove radioactive particles or other contaminants from items having a long cylindrical geometry such as hoses, pipes, cables and the like. The pipe and hose decontamination apparatus comprises a chamber capable of accomodating a long cylindrical work piece to be decontaminated. The chamber has a downward sloped bottom draining to a solvent holding tank. An entrance zone, a cleaning zone and an exit drying zone are defined within the chamber by removable partitions having slotted rubber gaskets in their centers. The entrance and exit drying zones contain a horizontally mounted cylindrical housing which supports in combination a plurality of slotted rubber gaskets and circular brushes to initiate mechanical decontamination. Solvent is delivered at high pressure to a spray ring located in the cleaning zone having a plurality of nozzles surrounding the work piece. The solvent drains into a solvent holding tank located below the nozzles and means are provided for circulating the solvent to and from a solvent cleaning, distilling and filter unit

  8. Innovative technology summary report: Pipe Explorertrademark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pipe Explorertrademark system, developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been used to transport various characterizing sensors into piping systems that have been radiologically contaminated. DOE's nuclear facility decommissioning program must characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand-held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Various measuring difficulties, and in some cases, the inability to measure threshold surface contamination values and worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of traditional survey approaches. The Pipe Explorertrademark system provides a viable alternative. The heart of the system is an air-tight membrane, which is initially spooled inside a canister. The end of the membrane protrudes out of the canister and attaches to the pipe being inspected. The other end of the tubular membrane is attached to the tether and characterization tools. When the canister is pressurized, the membrane inverts and deploys inside the pipe. The characterization detector and its cabling is attached to the tethered end of the membrane. As the membrane is deployed into the pipe, the detector and its cabling is towed into the pipe inside the protective membrane; measurements are taken from within the protective membrane. Once the survey measurements are completed, the process is reversed to retrieve the characterization tools

  9. Analytical studies of blowdown thrust force and dynamic response of pipe at pipe rupture accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki

    1985-01-01

    The motion of a pipe due to blowdown thrust when the pipe broke is called pipe whip. In LWR power plants, by installing restraints, the motion of a pipe when it broke is suppressed, so that the damage does not spread to neighboring equipment by pipe whip. When the pipe whip of a piping system in a LWR power plant is analyzed, blowdown thrust and the dynamic response of a pipe-restraint system are calculated with a computer. The blowdown thrust can be calculated by using such physical quantities as the pressure, flow velocity, density and so on in the system at the time of blowdown, obtained by the thermal-fluid analysis code at LOCA. The dynamic response of a piping-restraint system can be determined by the stress analysis code using finite element method taking the blowdown thrust as an external force acting on the piping. In this study, the validity of the analysis techniques was verified by comparing with the experimental results of the measurement of blowdown thrust and the pipe whip of a piping-restraint system, carried out in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Also the simplified analysis method to give the maximum strain on a pipe surface is presented. (Kako, I.)

  10. Fabrication of a multi-walled metal pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamune, Koji; Toda, Saburo; Ishida, Ryuichi; Hatanaka, Tatsuo.

    1969-01-01

    In concentrically arranged metal pipes for simulated fuel elements in the form of a multi-walled pipe, their one end lengthens gradually in the axial direction from inner and outer pipes toward a central pipe for easy adjustment of deformation which occurs when the pipes are drawn. A plastic electrical insulator is disposed between adjacent pipes. Each end of the pipes is equipped with an annular flexible stopper which is allowed to travel in the axial direction so as to prevent the insulator from falling during drawing work. At the other end, all pipes are constricted and joined to each other to thereby form the desired multi-walled pipe. (Mikami, T.)

  11. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  12. Resolution of concerns in auxiliary feedwater piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.A.; Testa, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Auxiliary feedwater piping systems at pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants have experienced unanticipated operating conditions during plant operation. These unanticipated conditions have included plant events involving backleakage through check valves, temperatures in portions of the auxiliary feedwater piping system that exceed design conditions, and the occurrence of unanticipated severe fluid transients. The impact of these events has had an adverse effect at some nuclear stations on plant operation, installed plant components and hardware, and design basis calculations. Beaver Valley Unit 2, a three loop pressurized water reactor nuclear plant, has observed anomalies with the auxiliary feedwater system since the unit went operational in 1987. The consequences of these anomalies and plant events have been addressed and resolved for Beaver Valley Unit 2 by performing engineering and construction activities. These activities included pipe stress, pipe support and pipe rupture analysis, the monitoring of auxiliary feedwater system temperature and pressure, and the modification to plant piping, supports, valves, structures and operating procedures

  13. Pipe support optimization in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, A.B.; Kalyanam, N.

    1984-01-01

    A typical 1000 MWe nuclear power plant consists of 80,000 to 100,000 feet of piping which must be designed to withstand earthquake shock. For the required ground motion, seismic response spectra are developed for safety-related structures. These curves are used in the dynamic analysis of piping systems with pipe-stress analysis computer codes. To satisfy applicable Code requirements, the piping systems also require analysis for weight, thermal and possibly other lasting conditions. Bechtel Power Corporation has developed a design program called SLAM (Support Location Algorithm) for optimizing pipe support locations and types (rigid, spring, snubber, axial, lateral, etc.) while satisfying userspecified parameters such as locations, load combinations, stress and load allowables, pipe displacement and cost. This paper describes SLAM, its features, applications and benefits

  14. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all... an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections. The piping must be...

  15. Alkali Metal Heat Pipe Life Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    One approach to fission power system design uses alkali metal heat pipes for the core primary heat-transfer system. Heat pipes may also be used as radiator elements or auxiliary thermal control elements. This synopsis characterizes long-life core heat pipes. References are included where information that is more detailed can be found. Specifics shown here are for demonstration purposes and do not necessarily reflect current Nasa Project Prometheus point designs. (author)

  16. Leak before break piping evaluation diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabi, R.J.; Peck, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally Leak Before Break (LBB) has been applied to the evaluation of piping in existing nuclear plants. This paper presents a simple method for evaluating piping systems for LBB during the design process. This method produces a piping evaluation diagram (PED) which defines the LBB requirements to the piping designer for use during the design process. Several sets of LBB analyses are performed for each different pipe size and material considered in the LBB application. The results of this method are independent of the actual pipe routing. Two complete LBB evaluations are performed to determine the maximum allowable stability load, one evaluation for a low normal operating load, and the other evaluation for a high normal operating load. These normal operating loads span the typical loads for the particular system being evaluated. In developing the allowable loads, the appropriate LBB margins are included in the PED preparation. The resulting LBB solutions are plotted as a set of allowable curves for the maximum design basis load, such is the seismic load versus the normal operating load. Since the required margins are already accounted for in the LBB PED, the piping designer can use the diagram directly with the results of the piping analysis and determine immediately if the current piping arrangement passes LBB. Since the LBB PED is independent of pipe routing, changes to the piping system can be evaluated using the existing PED. For a particular application, all that remains is to confirm that the actual materials and pipe sizes assumed in creating the particular design are built into the plant

  17. Experimental analytical study on heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, K.A.R.; Liu, C.Y.; Murcia, N.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for optimizing the thickness distribution of the porous material in heat pipes. The method was used to calculate, design and construct heat pipes with internal geometrical changes. Ordinary pipes are also constructed and tested together with the modified ones. The results showed that modified tubes are superior in performance and that the analytical model can predict their performance to within 1.5% precision. (Author) [pt

  18. Ice plugging of pipes using liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    This report presents a study on the ice plugging of pipe using liquid nitrogen, and is based on a literature review and on discussions with individuals who use the technique. Emphasis is placed on ferritic alloys, primarily carbon steels, in pipe sized up to 60 cm in diameter and on austenitic stainless steels in pipe sizes up to 30 cm in diameter. This technique is frequently used for leak testing in nuclear facilities

  19. Piping reliability improvement through passive seismic supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltus, R.; Rubbers, A.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear plants designed in the 1970's were equipped with large quantities of snubbers in auxiliary piping systems. The experience revealed a poor performance of snubbers during periodic inspection, while non-nuclear facility piping survived through strong earthquakes. Consequently, seismic design rules evolved towards more realistic criteria and passive dynamic supports were developed to reduce snubber quantities. These solutions improve the pipe reliability during normal operation while reducing the radiation exposure in a sample line is presented with the impact on pipe stresses compared to the results obtained with passive supports named Limit Stops. (author)

  20. Earthquake free design of pipe lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Chizuko; Sakurai, Akio

    1974-01-01

    Long structures such as cooling sea water pipe lines of nuclear power plants have a wide range of extent along the ground surface, and are incurred by not only the inertia forces but also forces due to ground deformations or the seismic wave propagation during earthquakes. Since previous reports indicated the earthquake free design of underground pipe lines, it is discussed in this report on behaviors of pipe lines on the ground during earthquakes and is proposed the aseismic design of pipe lines considering the effects of both inertia forces and ground deformations. (author)

  1. Internal ultrasonic inspection of flexible pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzersen, O. (IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway) Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics); Waag, T.I. (IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway))

    1993-10-01

    Methods for internal ultrasonic inspection of flexible pipe have been investigated through experiments with a short sample of Coflexip pipe. Ultrasonic backscatter methods using normal and non-normal incidence have been used for qualitative high contrast ultrasonic imaging of the inner surface of the pipe. Analysis of the internal cross-section has been performed based on the use of a non-contact ultrasonic caliper, and processing procedures which enable calculation of, and compensation for, eccentricity of the tool in the pipe. The methods developed can be used to quantitatively estimate the thickness of the internal carcass, and perform high resolution topographic mapping of the inner surface. (Author)

  2. Gas lensing in a heated spinning pipe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available ; and (II) the aberrations introduced to the laser are a function of the distance from the edge of the pipe, as well as the speed of the pipe spin- ning. This is because of the turbulence near the pipe wall. The speed of the pipe will be used...- merically. This work forms the basis for an extended study of the dynamics of beam propa- gation through turbulent systems, and in particular, the following aspects will be explored in future work: (I) Using the recent advances in lasers beam propagation...

  3. Heat pipes in modern heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are very flexible systems with regard to effective thermal control. They can easily be implemented as heat exchangers inside sorption and vapour-compression heat pumps, refrigerators and other types of heat transfer devices. Their heat transfer coefficient in the evaporator and condenser zones is 10 3 -10 5 W/m 2 K, heat pipe thermal resistance is 0.01-0.03 K/W, therefore leading to smaller area and mass of heat exchangers. Miniature and micro heat pipes are welcomed for electronic components cooling and space two-phase thermal control systems. Loop heat pipes, pulsating heat pipes and sorption heat pipes are the novelty for modern heat exchangers. Heat pipe air preheaters are used in thermal power plants to preheat the secondary-primary air required for combustion of fuel in the boiler using the energy available in exhaust gases. Heat pipe solar collectors are promising for domestic use. This paper reviews mainly heat pipe developments in the Former Soviet Union Countries. Some new results obtained in USA and Europe are also included

  4. Development of bore tools for pipe inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Taguchi, Kou; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER), replacement and maintenance on in-vessel components requires that all cooling pipes connected be cut and removed, that a new component be installed, and that all cooling pipes be rewelded. After welding is completed, welded area must be inspected for soundness. These tasks require a new work concept for securing shielded area and access from narrow ports. Tools had to be developed for nondestructive inspection and leak testing to evaluate pipe welding soundness by accessing areas from inside pipes using autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools. A system was proposed for nondestructive inspection of branch pipes and the main pipe after passing through pipe curves, the same as for welding and cutting tool development. Nondestructive inspection and leak testing sensors were developed and the basic parameters were obtained. In addition, the inspection systems which can move inside pipes and conduct the nondestructive inspection and the leak testing were developed. In this paper, an introduction will be given to the current situation concerning the development of nondestructive inspection and leak testing machines for the branch pipes. (author)

  5. Piping vibrations measured during FFTF startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.

    1981-03-01

    An extensive vibration survey was conducted on the Fast Flux Test Facility piping during the plant acceptance test program. The purpose was to verify that both mechanical and flow induced vibration amplitudes were of sufficiently low level so that pipe and pipe support integrity would not be compromised over the plant design lifetime. Excitation sources included main heat transport sodium pumps, reciprocating auxiliary system pumps, EM pumps, and flow oscillations. Pipe sizes varied from one-inch to twenty-eight-inches in diameter. This paper describes the test plan; the instrumentation and procedures utilized; and the test results

  6. Asymptotic scalings of developing curved pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Jesse; Chen, Kevin; Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    Asymptotic velocity and pressure scalings are identified for the developing curved pipe flow problem in the limit of small pipe curvature and high Reynolds numbers. The continuity and Navier-Stokes equations in toroidal coordinates are linearized about Dean's analytical curved pipe flow solution (Dean 1927). Applying appropriate scaling arguments to the perturbation pressure and velocity components and taking the limits of small curvature and large Reynolds number yields a set of governing equations and boundary conditions for the perturbations, independent of any Reynolds number and pipe curvature dependence. Direct numerical simulations are used to confirm these scaling arguments. Fully developed straight pipe flow is simulated entering a curved pipe section for a range of Reynolds numbers and pipe-to-curvature radius ratios. The maximum values of the axial and secondary velocity perturbation components along with the maximum value of the pressure perturbation are plotted along the curved pipe section. The results collapse when the scaling arguments are applied. The numerically solved decay of the velocity perturbation is also used to determine the entrance/development lengths for the curved pipe flows, which are shown to scale linearly with the Reynolds number.

  7. Stress analysis of piping systems and piping supports. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusitschka, Erwin

    1999-01-01

    The presentation is focused on the Computer Aided Tools and Methods used by Siemens/KWU in the engineering activities for Nuclear Power Plant Design and Service. In the multi-disciplinary environment, KWU has developed specific tools to support As-Built Documentation as well as Service Activities. A special application based on Close Range Photogrammetry (PHOCAS) has been developed to support revamp planning even in a high level radiation environment. It comprises three completely inter-compatible expansion modules - Photo Catalog, Photo Database and 3D-Model - to generate objects which offer progressively more utilization and analysis options. To support the outage planning of NPP/CAD-based tools have been developed. The presentation gives also an overview of the broad range of skills and references in: Plant Layout and Design using 3D-CAD-Tools; evaluation of Earthquake Safety (Seismic Screening); Revamps in Existing Plants; Inter-disciplinary coordination of project engineering and execution fields; Consulting and Assistance; Conceptual Studies; Stress Analysis of Piping Systems and Piping Supports; Documentation; Training and Supports in CAD-Design, etc. All activities are performed to the greatest extent possible using proven data-processing tools. (author)

  8. This is not a Pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm

    2016-01-01

    or unwilling to listen to, let alone engage with, emotionally guided bottom-up participation. Using an illustrative case of a Danish public debate over an alleged ban on liquorice pipes, this article argues that the disconnect between invitation and participation may be explained by the fact...... that representatives of (national and European) political institutions tend to rely on a simplified version of deliberative democracy. This implies privileging rational truth claims at the expense of emotional truthfulness. Connecting invitation and participation, it is argued, requires a reconciliation of rationality...

  9. Heat Pipe with Axial Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Jay H. (Inventor); Holmes, Rolland (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A heat pipe has an evaporator portion, a condenser portion, and at least one flexible portion that is sealingly coupled between the evaporator portion and the condenser portion. The flexible portion has a flexible tube and a flexible separator plate held in place within the flexible tube so as to divide the flexible tube into a gas-phase passage and a liquid-phase artery. The separator plate and flexible tube are configured such that the flexible portion is flexible in a plane that is perpendicular to the separator plate.

  10. Literature review and experimental investigation of heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsch, W. O.; Schoenhals, R. J.; Viskanta, R.; Winter, E. R. F.

    1971-01-01

    Tests on heat pipes determine operational limits, external boundary conditions, noncondensable gas effects, startup behavior, and geometric configurations. Experiment consists of design, construction, and testing of an apparatus for measuring wick properties, conventional heat pipes and coplanar heat pipes.

  11. Best practices for quality management of stormwater pipe construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Stormwater pipe systems are integral features of transportation construction projects. Pipe culverts : direct stormwater away from roadway structures and towards designated discharge areas. The improper : installation of a pipe culvert can result in ...

  12. CONTECH(R) A-2000 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Determine the effectiveness and long-term durability of the Contech A-2000 PVC pipe : in an irrigation application. This type of pipe may prove to be a viable alternative to : reinforced concrete pipe (RCP).

  13. Development of Pipe Holding Mechanism for Pipe Inspection Robot Using Flexible Pneumatic Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Kyujun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pipe inspection robot is useful to reduce the inspection cost. In the previous study, a novel pipe inspection robot using a flexible pneumatic cylinder that can move forward along to the pipe by changing the robot’s body naturally was proposed and tested. In this paper, to improve its mobility for a corner of a pipe, the thin pipe holding mechanism using pneumatic bellows was proposed and tested. As a result of its driving test, the holding performance of the mechanism was confirmed.

  14. Piping reliability model development, validation and its applications to light water reactor piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    A brief description is provided of a three-year effort undertaken by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the piping reliability project. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide guidance for nuclear piping design so that high-reliability piping systems can be built. Based on the results studied so far, it is concluded that the reliability approach can undoubtedly help in understanding not only how to assess and improve the safety of the piping systems but also how to design more reliable piping systems

  15. Navigation Study, Colorado Locks, Colorado River, Matagorda, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCollum, Randy

    2000-01-01

    A 1:70 physical navigation model was built to replicate the Matagorda Locks, approximately one mile of the GIWW east of the locks, approximately one-half mile of the Colorado River north of the GIWW...

  16. Flat flexible polymer heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshman, Christopher; Li, Qian; Liew, Li-Anne; Yang, Ronggui; Bright, Victor M; Lee, Y C

    2013-01-01

    Flat, flexible, lightweight, polymer heat pipes (FPHP) were fabricated. The overall geometry of the heat pipe was 130 mm × 70 mm × 1.31 mm. A commercially available low-cost film composed of laminated sheets of low-density polyethylene terephthalate, aluminum and polyethylene layers was used as the casing. A triple-layer sintered copper woven mesh served as a liquid wicking structure, and water was the working fluid. A coarse nylon woven mesh provided space for vapor transport and mechanical rigidity. Thermal power ranging from 5 to 30 W was supplied to the evaporator while the device was flexed at 0°, 45° and 90°. The thermal resistance of the FPHP ranged from 1.2 to 3.0 K W −1 depending on the operating conditions while the thermal resistance for a similar-sized solid copper reference was a constant at 4.6 K W −1 . With 25 W power input, the thermal resistance of the liquid–vapor core of the FPHP was 23% of a copper reference sample with identical laminated polymer material. This work shows a promising combination of technologies that has the potential to usher in a new generation of highly flexible, lightweight, low-cost, high-performance thermal management solutions. (paper)

  17. Heat-pipe thermionic reactor concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm Pedersen, E.

    1967-01-01

    Main components are reactor core, heat pipe, thermionic converter, secondary cooling system, and waste heat radiator; thermal power generated in reactor core is transported by heat pipes to thermionic converters located outside reactor core behind radiation shield; thermionic emitters are in direct...

  18. Failure analysis on a chemical waste pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambler, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    A failure analysis of a chemical waste pipe illustrates how nuclear technology can spin off metallurgical consultant services. The pipe, made of zirconium alloy (Zr-2.5 wt percent Nb, UNS 60705), had cracked in several places, all at butt welds. A combination of fractography and metallography indicated delayed hydride cracking

  19. Advanced industrial ceramic heat pipe recuperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strumpf, H.J.; Stillwagon, T.L.; Kotchick, D.M.; Coombs, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an investigation involving the use of ceramic heat pipe recuperators for high-temperature heat recovery from industrial furnaces. The function of the recuperator is to preheat combustion air with furnace exhaust gas. The heat pipe recuperator comprises a bundle of individual ceramic heat pipes acting in concert, with a partition separating the air and exhaust gas flow streams. Because each heat pipe is essentially an independent heat exchanger, the failure of a single tube does not compromise recuperator integrity, has only a minimal effect on overall heat exchanger performance and enables easier replacement of individual heat pipes. In addition, the heat pipe acts as an essentially isothermal heat transfer device, leading to a high thermodynamic efficiency. Cost estimates developed for heat pipe recuperator systems indicate favorable payback periods. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating the required ceramic tubes, coating the inside of the tubes with CVD tungsten, and sealing the heat pipe with an electron-beam-welded or vacuum-brazed end cap.

  20. 75 FR 877 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... Pipe From China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping and... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drill pipe, provided for in subheadings... Government of China. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to sections...

  1. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe...

  2. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is...

  3. 46 CFR 182.455 - Fuel piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... system is of nickel-copper or copper-nickel. When making tube connections, the tubing must be cut square...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.455 Fuel piping. (a) Materials and workmanship. The materials and construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply with the...

  4. Detecting pipe bursts by monitoring water demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Van der Roer, M.; Sperber, V.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm which compares measured and predicted water demands to detect pipe bursts was developed and tested on three data sets of water demand and reported pipe bursts of three years. The algorithm proved to be able to detect bursts where the water loss exceeds 30% of the average water demand in

  5. Pipe failure probability - the Thomas paper revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydell, B.O.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Almost twenty years ago, in Volume 2 of Reliability Engineering (the predecessor of Reliability Engineering and System Safety), a paper by H. M. Thomas of Rolls Royce and Associates Ltd. presented a generalized approach to the estimation of piping and vessel failure probability. The 'Thomas-approach' used insights from actual failure statistics to calculate the probability of leakage and conditional probability of rupture given leakage. It was intended for practitioners without access to data on the service experience with piping and piping system components. This article revisits the Thomas paper by drawing on insights from development of a new database on piping failures in commercial nuclear power plants worldwide (SKI-PIPE). Partially sponsored by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI), the R and D leading up to this note was performed during 1994-1999. Motivated by data requirements of reliability analysis and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), the new database supports statistical analysis of piping failure data. Against the background of this database development program, the article reviews the applicability of the 'Thomas approach' in applied risk and reliability analysis. It addresses the question whether a new and expanded database on the service experience with piping systems would alter the original piping reliability correlation as suggested by H. M. Thomas

  6. Laser-GMA Hybrid Pipe Welding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Investigation of varying laser power. The welded pipe is shown, with close -ups of the rootside reinforcement and macro sections...68 Figure 44. Investigation of varying laser stand-off. The welded pipe is shown, along with close -ups of backside...conventional beveled joints. With appropriate joint configuration and preparation, deep keyhole penetration provided by the laser and additional filler

  7. Heat Pipes Reduce Engine-Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Increased fuel vaporization raises engine efficiency. Heat-pipe technology increased efficiency of heat transfer beyond that obtained by metallic conduction. Resulted in both improved engine operation and reduction in fuel consumption. Raw material conservation through reduced dependence on strategic materials also benefit from this type of heat-pipe technology. Applications result in improved engine performance and cleaner environment.

  8. Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

  9. Mechanized ultrasonic inspection of austenitic pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, K.; Luecking, J.; Medenbach, S.

    1999-01-01

    The contribution explains the system of standard testing methods elaborated by ABB ZAQ GmbH for inspection of austenitic plant components. The inspection tasks explained in greater detail are basic materials testing (straight pipes, bends, and pipe specials), and inspection of welds and dissimilar welds. The techniques discussed in detail are those for detection and sizing of defects. (orig./CB) [de

  10. Backward erosion piping : Initiation and progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beek, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Backward erosion piping is an internal erosion mechanism during which shallow pipes are formed in the direction opposite to the flow underneath water-retaining structures as a result of the gradual removal of sandy material by the action of water. It is an important failure mechanism in both dikes

  11. CAPD Software Development for Automatic Piping System Design: Checking Piping Pocket, Checking Valve Level and Flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari Satmoko; Edi Karyanta; Dedy Haryanto; Abdul Hafid; Sudarno; Kussigit Santosa; Pinitoyo, A.; Demon Handoyo

    2003-01-01

    One of several steps in industrial plant construction is preparing piping layout drawing. In this drawing, pipe and all other pieces such as instrumentation, equipment, structure should be modeled A software called CAPD was developed to replace and to behave as piping drafter or designer. CAPD was successfully developed by adding both subprogram CHKUPIPE and CHKMANV. The first subprogram can check and gives warning if there is piping pocket in the piping system. The second can identify valve position and then check whether valve can be handled by operator hand The main program CAPD was also successfully modified in order to be capable in limiting the maximum length of straight pipe. By limiting the length, piping flexibility can be increased. (author)

  12. Secondary pipe rupture at Mihama unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajime Ito; Takehiko Sera

    2005-01-01

    The secondary system pipe rupture occurred on August 9, 2004, while Mihama unit 3 was operating at the rated thermal power. The rupture took place on the condensate line-A piping between the No.4 LP heater and the deaerator, downstream of an orifice used for measuring the condensate flux. The pipe is made of carbon steel, and normally has 558.8 mm diameter and 10 mm thickness. The pipe wall had thinned to 0.4 mm at the point of minimum thickness. It is estimated that the disturbed flow of water downstream of the orifice caused erosion/corrosion and developed wall thinning, leading to a rupture at the thinnest section under internal pressure, about 1MPa. Observation of the pipe internal surface revealed a scale-like pattern typical in this kind of phenomenon. Eleven workers who were preparing for an annual outage that was to start from August 14 suffered burn injuries, of who five died. Since around 1975, we, Kansai Electric, have been checking pipe wall thickness while focusing on the thinning of carbon steel piping in the secondary system. Summarizing the results from such investigation and reviewing the latest technical knowledge including operating experience from overseas utilities, we compiled the pipe thickness management guideline for PWR secondary pipes, 1990. The pipe section that ruptured at the Mihama unit 3 should have been included within the inspection scopes according to the guideline but was not registered on the inspection list. It had not been corrected for almost thirty years. As the result, this pipe section had not been inspected even once since the beginning of the plant operation, 1976. It seems that the quality assurance and maintenance management had not functioned well regarding the secondary system piping management, although we were responsible for the safety of nuclear power plants as licensee. We will review the secondary system inspection procedure and also improve the pipe thickness management guideline. And also, we would replace

  13. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  14. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  15. Heat pipe nuclear reactor for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koening, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-pipe-cooled nuclear reactor has been designed to provide 3.2 MWth to an out-of-core thermionic conversion system. The reactor is a fast reactor designed to operate at a nominal heat-pipe temperature of 1675 K. Each reactor fuel element consists of a hexagonal molybdenum block which is bonded along its axis to one end of a molybdenum/lithium-vapor heat pipe. The block is perforated with an array of longitudinal holes which are loaded with UO2 pellets. The heat pipe transfers heat directly to a string of six thermionic converters which are bonded along the other end of the heat pipe. An assembly of 90 such fuel elements forms a hexagonal core. The core is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield, a thin thermal neutron absorber, and a BeO reflector containing boron-loaded control drums.

  16. IPIRG programs - advances in pipe fracture technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkowski, G.; Olson, R.; Scott, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advances made in fracture control technology as a result of the research performed in the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The findings from numerous experiments and supporting analyses conducted to investigate the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping and pipe systems subjected to high-rate loading typical of seismic events are summarized. Topics to be discussed include; (1) Seismic loading effects on material properties, (2) Piping system behavior under seismic loads, (3) Advances in elbow fracture evaluations, and (4) open-quotes Realclose quotes piping system response. The presentation for each topic will be illustrated with data and analytical results. In each case, the state-of-the-art in fracture mechanics prior to the first IPIRG program will be contrasted with the state-of-the-art at the completion of the IPIRG-2 program

  17. Ultrasonic guided waves in eccentric annular pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanayak, Roson Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of using ultrasonic guided waves to rapidly inspect tubes and pipes for possible eccentricity. While guided waves are well established in the long range inspection of structures such as pipes and plates, studies for more complex cross sections are limited and analytical solutions are often difficult to obtain. Recent developments have made the Semi Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method widely accessible for researchers to study guided wave properties in complex structures. Here the SAFE method is used to study the effect of eccentricity on the modal structures and velocities of lower order guided wave modes in thin pipes of diameters typically of interest to the industry. Results are validated using experiments. The paper demonstrates that even a small eccentricity in the pipe can strongly affect guided wave mode structures and velocities and hence shows potential for pipe eccentricity inspection

  18. IPIRG programs - advances in pipe fracture technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Olson, R.; Scott, P. [Batelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advances made in fracture control technology as a result of the research performed in the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The findings from numerous experiments and supporting analyses conducted to investigate the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping and pipe systems subjected to high-rate loading typical of seismic events are summarized. Topics to be discussed include; (1) Seismic loading effects on material properties, (2) Piping system behavior under seismic loads, (3) Advances in elbow fracture evaluations, and (4) {open_quotes}Real{close_quotes} piping system response. The presentation for each topic will be illustrated with data and analytical results. In each case, the state-of-the-art in fracture mechanics prior to the first IPIRG program will be contrasted with the state-of-the-art at the completion of the IPIRG-2 program.

  19. Pipe supports and anchors - LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    Pipe design and support design can not be treated as separate disciplines. A coordinated design approach is required if LMFBR pipe system adequacy is to be achieved at a reasonable cost. It is particularly important that system designers understand and consider those factors which influence support train flexibility and thus the pipe system dynamic stress levels. The system approach must not stop with the design phase but should continue thru the erection and acceptance test procedures. The factors that should be considered in the design of LMFBR pipe supports and anchors are described. The various pipe support train elements are described together with guidance on analysis, design and application aspects. Post erection acceptance and verification test procedures are then discussed

  20. Solar heat-pipe wick modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    Stirling-cycle engines have been identified as a promising technology for the conversion of concentrated solar energy into usable electrical power. In previous experimental work, the author has demonstrated that a heat pipe receiver can significantly improve system performance over a directly-illuminated heater head. The design and operating conditions of a heat pipe receiver differ significantly from typical laboratory heat pipes. New wick structures have been developed to exploit the characteristics of the solar generation system. Typically, these wick structures allow vapor generation within the wick. Conventional heat pipe models do not handle this enhancement, yet it can more than double the performance of the wick. In this study, the author developed a steady-state model of a boiling-enhanced wick for a solar heat pipe receiver. The model is used for design-point calculations and is written in FORTRAN90. Some limited comparisons have been made with actual test data.

  1. Nuclear piping system damping data studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Arendts, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    A programm has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to study structural damping data for nuclear piping systems and to evaluate if changes in allowable damping values for structural seismic analyses are justified. The existing pipe damping data base was examined, from which a conclusion was made that there were several sets of data to support higher allowable values. The parameters which most influence pipe damping were identified and an analytical investigation demonstrated that increased damping would reduce the required number of seismic supports. A series of tests on several laboratory piping systems was used to determine the effect of various parameters such as types of supports, amplitude of vibration, frequency, insulation, and pressure on damping. A multiple regression analysis was used to statistically assess the influence of the various parameters on damping, and an international pipe damping data bank has been formed. (orig.)

  2. Chemical laser exhaust pipe design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunqiang; Huang, Zhilong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ren, Zebin; Guo, Longde

    2016-10-01

    In order to weaken the chemical laser exhaust gas influence of the optical transmission, a vent pipe is advised to emissions gas to the outside of the optical transmission area. Based on a variety of exhaust pipe design, a flow field characteristic of the pipe is carried out by numerical simulation and analysis in detail. The research results show that for uniform deflating exhaust pipe, although the pipeline structure is cyclical and convenient for engineering implementation, but there is a phenomenon of air reflows at the pipeline entrance slit which can be deduced from the numerical simulation results. So, this type of pipeline structure does not guarantee seal. For the design scheme of putting the pipeline contract part at the end of the exhaust pipe, or using the method of local area or tail contraction, numerical simulation results show that backflow phenomenon still exists at the pipeline entrance slit. Preliminary analysis indicates that the contraction of pipe would result in higher static pressure near the wall for the low speed flow field, so as to produce counter pressure gradient at the entrance slit. In order to eliminate backflow phenomenon at the pipe entrance slit, concerned with the pipeline type of radial size increase gradually along the flow, flow field property in the pipe is analyzed in detail by numerical simulation methods. Numerical simulation results indicate that there is not reflow phenomenon at entrance slit of the dilated duct. However the cold air inhaled in the slit which makes the temperature of the channel wall is lower than the center temperature. Therefore, this kind of pipeline structure can not only prevent the leak of the gas, but also reduce the wall temperature. In addition, compared with the straight pipe connection way, dilated pipe structure also has periodic structure, which can facilitate system integration installation.

  3. Pipes's distribution by helicopter in Amazonian forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Gilberto R.; Machado, Otto L.M.; Gomes, Antonio E. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The innumerable logistical problems encountered during the implementation of the gas pipeline Urucu - Coari - Manaus, located in the Amazon forest, connecting the Base Operations Geologist Pedro de Moura in Urucu to the refinery Isaac Sabba - Reman, in the city of Manaus, contributed considerably for PETROBRAS to seek non conventional solutions in the construction and assembly of pipelines in our country. Among these solutions, there is the technique of distributing pipes through cargo helicopters. The need for the usage of this technique, innovative in Brazil, comes from the lack and/or insufficiency of land access from Solimoes River to the gas pipeline main route, and the large quantities of flooded areas and/or flood plain, and also the type of soil, that together with the high index of rainfall in the region, makes the soil fully inappropriate to the traffic of heavy equipment. (author)

  4. Heat pipes for temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groll, M.

    1978-01-01

    Heat pipes have known for years as effective constructional elements for temperature control. With the aid of special techniques (gas, liquid, steam, and voltage control), special operating characteristics can be obtained, e.g. variable heat conduction or diode behaviour. Their main field of application is in spacecraft technology and in nuclear technology in the isothermalisation of irradiation capsules. The different control techniques are presented and critically evaluated on the basis of characteristic properties like heat transfer capacity, volume and mass requirements, complexity of structure and production, reliability, and temperature control characteristics. Advantages and shortcomings of the different concepts are derived and compared. The state of the art of these control techniques is established on the basis of four development levels. Finally, the necessity and direction of further R + D activities are discussed, and suggestions are made for further work. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Destabilizing turbulence in pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnen, Jakob; Song, Baofang; Scarselli, Davide; Budanur, Nazmi Burak; Riedl, Michael; Willis, Ashley P.; Avila, Marc; Hof, Björn

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence is the major cause of friction losses in transport processes and it is responsible for a drastic drag increase in flows over bounding surfaces. While much effort is invested into developing ways to control and reduce turbulence intensities1-3, so far no methods exist to altogether eliminate turbulence if velocities are sufficiently large. We demonstrate for pipe flow that appropriate distortions to the velocity profile lead to a complete collapse of turbulence and subsequently friction losses are reduced by as much as 90%. Counterintuitively, the return to laminar motion is accomplished by initially increasing turbulence intensities or by transiently amplifying wall shear. Since neither the Reynolds number nor the shear stresses decrease (the latter often increase), these measures are not indicative of turbulence collapse. Instead, an amplification mechanism4,5 measuring the interaction between eddies and the mean shear is found to set a threshold below which turbulence is suppressed beyond recovery.

  6. Pipe rupture test results: 4-inch pipe whip tests under PWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Ueda, Shuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Kato, Rokuro; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Yano, Toshikazu; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of 4-inch pipe whip tests (RUN No. 5506, 5507, 5508 and 5604) under the PWR LOCA conditions. The dynamic behaviors of the test pipe and restraints were studied in the tests. In the tests, the gap between the test pipe and the restraints was kept at the constant value of 8.85 mm and the overhang length was varied from 250 mm to 650 mm. The dynamic behaviors of the test pipe and the restraint were made clear by the outputs of strain gages and the measurements of residual deformations. The data of water hammer in subcooled water were also obtained by the pressure transducers mounted on the test pipe. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are as follows. (1) The whipping of pipe can be prevented more effectively as the overhang length becomes shorter. (2) The load acting on the restraint-support structure becomes larger as the overhang length becomes shorter. (3) The restraint farther from the break location does not limit the pipe movement except for the first impact when the overhang length is long. (4) The ultimate moment M sub(u) of the pipe at the restraint location can be used to predict the plastic collapse of the whipping pipe. (5) The restraints slide along the pipe axis and are subjected to bending moment, when the overhang length is long. (author)

  7. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  8. Casing free district heating pipes; Mantelfria fjaerrvaermeroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saellberg, Sven-Erik; Nilsson, Stefan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyurethane insulation (PUR foam) on district heating pipes acts as protection against water if it is of good quality, i.e. free from cracks, cavities and other defects. On the other hand water vapour easily diffuses through PUR foam. However this is not a problem as long as the steel pipe is warmer than the surface layer, since the high temperature will prevent the vapour from condensating. What will happen with the insulation of a casing free district heating pipe where the ground water level occasionally reaches above the pipe has not been studied in detail. The current project has studied to what extent moisture enters the PUR foam insulation of two approximately one meter long district heating pipes without casing which have been in the ground for four years. Occasionally, the ground-water has entirely covered the pipes. In addition, the foam has been studied with respect to damage from the surrounding backfill material. Test specimens were taken out of the casing free pipes and were analysed with respect to moisture content. Additional measurements were done with a moisture indicator, and the electric resistance between the steel pipes and the four surveillance wires in each pipe was measured. The results from the various measurement techniques were the compared. The results show that the PUR foam remains dry as long as the service pipe is hot if no defects, such as crack and cavities, are present. Close to the service pipe, the foam actually dries out over time. The moisture content of the middle layer remains more or less constant. Only the colder parts on the outside exhibit an increase in moisture content. It was also seen that defects may lead to water ingress with subsequent humidification of the foam. However, the damaged foam area is limited. This is not the case for a regular pipe with a vapour tight casing, where experience show that moisture tend to spread along the pipe. The pipes were buried in sand and no

  9. New portable pipe wall thickness measuring technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascente, Joseph E.

    1998-03-01

    One of the biggest inspection challenges facing many of the process industries; namely the petrochemical, refining, fossil power, and pulp and paper industries is: How to effectively examine their insulated piping? While there are a number of failure mechanisms involved in various process piping systems, piping degradation through corrosion and erosion are by far the most prevalent. This degradation can be in the form of external corrosion under insulation, internal corrosion through a variety of mechanisms, and internal erosion caused by the flow of the product through the pipe. Refineries, chemical plants and electrical power plants have MANY thousands of miles of pipe that are insulated to prevent heat loss or heat absorption. This insulation is often made up of several materials, with calcium based material being the most dense. The insulating material is usually wrapped with an aluminum or stainless steel outer wrap. Verification of wall thickness of these pipes can be accomplished by removing the insulation and doing an ultrasound inspection or by taking x- rays at a tangent to the edge of the pipe through the insulation. Both of these processes are slow and expensive. The time required to obtain data is measured in hours per meter. The ultrasound method requires that the insulation be plugged after the inspection. The surface needs to be cleaned or the resulting data will not be accurate. The tangent x-ray only shows two thicknesses and requires that the area be roped off because of radiation safety.

  10. Modelling of fiberglass pipe destruction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Николаев

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with important current issue of oil and gas industry of using tubes made of high-strength composite corrosion resistant materials. In order to improve operational safety of industrial pipes it is feasible to use composite fiberglass tubes. More than half of the accidents at oil and gas sites happen at oil gathering systems due to high corrosiveness of pumped fluid. To reduce number of accidents and improve environmental protection we need to solve the issue of industrial pipes durability. This problem could be solved by using composite materials from fiberglass, which have required physical and mechanical properties for oil pipes. The durability and strength can be monitored by a fiberglass winding method, number of layers in composite material and high corrosion-resistance properties of fiberglass. Usage of high-strength composite materials in oil production is economically feasible; fiberglass pipes production is cheaper than steel pipes. Fiberglass has small volume weight, which simplifies pipe transportation and installation. In order to identify the efficiency of using high-strength composite materials at oil production sites we conducted a research of their physical-mechanical properties and modelled fiber pipe destruction process.

  11. Heat pipes to reduce engine exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A fuel combustor is presented that consists of an elongated casing with an air inlet conduit portion at one end, and having an opposite exit end. An elongated heat pipe is mounted longitudinally in the casing and is offset from and extends alongside the combustion space. The heat pipe is in heat transmitting relationship with the air intake conduit for heating incoming air. A guide conduit structure is provided for conveying the heated air from the intake conduit into the combustion space. A fuel discharge nozzle is provided to inject fuel into the combustion space. A fuel conduit from a fuel supply source has a portion engaged in heat transfer relationship of the heat pipe for preheating the fuel. The downstream end of the heat pipe is in heat transfer relationship with the casing and is located adjacent to the downstream end of the combustion space. The offset position of the heat pipe relative to the combustion space minimizes the quenching effect of the heat pipe on the gaseous products of combustion, as well as reducing coking of the fuel on the heat pipe, thereby improving the efficiency of the combustor.

  12. Piping system damping data at higher frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Research has been performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to determine best-estimate damping values for dynamic analyses of nuclear piping systems excited in the 20 to 100 Hz frequency range. Vibrations in this frequency range are typical of fluid-induced transients, for which no formal pipe damping guidelines exist. The available data found in the open literature and the USNRC/INEL nuclear piping damping data bank were reviewed, and a series of tests on a straight 3-in. (76-mm) piping system and a 5-in. (127-mm) system with several bends and elbows were conducted as part of this research program. These two systems were supported with typical nuclear piping supports that could be changed from test to test during the series. The resulting damping values were ≥ those of the Pressure Vessel Research Committee (PVRC) proposal for unisulated piping. Extending the PVRC damping curve from 20 to 100 Hz at 3% of critical damping would give a satisfactory representation of the test data. This position has been endorsed by the PVRC Technical Committee on Piping Systems. 14 refs

  13. Turbulent Heat Transfer in Curved Pipe Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo

    2013-11-01

    In the present investigation, turbulent heat transfer in fully-developed curved pipe flow with axially uniform wall heat flux has been numerically studied. The Reynolds numbers under consideration are Reτ = 210 (DNS) and 1,000 (LES) based on the mean friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the Prandtl number (Pr) is 0.71. For Reτ = 210 , the pipe curvature (κ) was fixed as 1/18.2, whereas three cases of κ (0.01, 0.05, 0.1) were computed in the case of Reτ = 1,000. The mean velocity, turbulent intensities and heat transfer rates obtained from the present calculations are in good agreement with the previous numerical and experimental results. To elucidate the secondary flow structures due to the pipe curvature, the mean quantities and rms fluctuations of the flow and temperature fields are presented on the pipe cross-sections, and compared with those of the straight pipe flow. To study turbulence structures and their influence on turbulent heat transfer, turbulence statistics including but not limited to skewness and flatness of velocity fluctuations, cross-correlation coefficients, an Octant analysis, and turbulence budgets are presented and discussed. Based on our results, we attempt to clarify the effects of Reynolds number and the pipe curvature on turbulent heat transfer. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0008457).

  14. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  15. Structural integrity assessment of piping components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, H.S.; Chattopadhyay, J.

    2008-01-01

    Integrity assessment of piping components is very essential for safe and reliable operation of power plants. Over the last several decades, considerable work has been done throughout the world to develop a methodology for integrity assessment of pipes and elbows, appropriate for the material involved. However, there is scope of further development/improvement of issues, particularly for pipe bends, that are important for accurate integrity assessment of piping. Considering this aspect, a comprehensive Component Integrity Test Program was initiated in 1998 at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India. In this program, both theoretical and experimental investigations were undertaken to address various issues related to the integrity assessment of pipes and elbows. Under the experimental investigations, fracture mechanics tests have been conducted on pipes and elbows of 200-400 mm nominal bore (NB) diameter with various crack configurations and sizes under different loading conditions. Tests on small tensile and three point bend specimens, machined from the tested pipes, have also been done to evaluate the actual stress-strain and fracture resistance properties of pipe/elbow material. The load-deflection curve and crack initiation loads predicted by non-linear finite element analysis matched well with the experimental results. The theoretical collapse moments of throughwall circumferentially cracked elbows, predicted by the recently developed equations, are found to be closer to the test data compared to the other existing equations. The role of stress triaxialities ahead of crack tip is also shown in the transferability of J-Resistance curve from specimen to component. The cyclic loading and system compliance effect on the load carrying capacity of piping components are investigated and new recommendations are made. (author)

  16. Response of buried pipes to missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardanega, C.; Cremonini, M.G.; Mirone, M.; Luciani, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of the analyses carried out to determine an effective layout and the dynamic response of safety related cooling water pipes, buried in backfill, for the Alto Lazio Nuclear Power Plant in Italy, subjected to missile impact loading at the backfill surface. The pipes are composed of a steel plate encased in two layers of high-quality reinforced concrete. The methodology comprises three steps. The first step is the definition of the 'free-field' dynamic response of the backfill soil, not considering the presence of the pipes, through a dynamic finite element direct integration analysis utilizing an axisymmetric model. The second step is the pipe-soil interaction analysis, which is conducted by utilizing the soil displacement and stress time-histories obtained in the previous steps. Soil stress time-histories, combined with the geostatic and other operational stresses (such as those due to temperature and pressure), are used to obtain the actions in the pipe walls due to ring type deformation. For the third step, the analysis of the beam type response, a lumped parameter model is developed which accounts for the soil stiffness, the pipe characteristics and the position of the pipe with respect to the impact area. In addition, the effect of the presence of large concrete structures, such as tunnels, between the ground surface and the pipe is evaluated. The results of the structural analyses lead to defining the required steel thickness and also allow the choice of appropriate embedment depth and layout of redundant lines. The final results of the analysis is not only the strength verification of the pipe section, but also the definition of an effective layout of the lines in terms of position, depth, steel thickness and joint design. (orig.)

  17. JPRS Report, East Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: East Europe, Party Activities, Socialist Party, Freedom Fighters, Education, Youth Training, Historian, Death Penalty, Peace Making Duties, Socialism, Communism, Economics, Restructuring...

  18. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  19. Heat pipes theory, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reay, David; Kew, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pipes, 6th Edition, takes a highly practical approach to the design and selection of heat pipes, making it an essential guide for practicing engineers and an ideal text for postgraduate students. This new edition has been revised to include new information on the underlying theory of heat pipes and heat transfer, and features fully updated applications, new data sections, and updated chapters on design and electronics cooling. The book is a useful reference for those with experience and an accessible introduction for those approaching the topic for the first time. Contains all informat

  20. Forensic characterization of HDPE pipes by DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajwan, Madhuri; Aggarwal, Saroj; Singh, R B

    2008-03-05

    The melting behavior of 28 high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe samples manufactured and supplied by 13 different manufacturers in India was examined by 'differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)' to find out if this parameter could be used in differentiating between these HDPE pipe samples which are chemically the same and being manufactured by different manufacturer. The results indicate that the melting temperature may serve as the useful criteria for differentiating HDPE (i) pipe samples from different sources and (ii) samples of different diameter from the same source.

  1. Vacuum pipe for e+e- interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoard, C.T.

    1982-10-01

    The design, fabrication and testing of the beryllium vacuum chamber within the Mark II detector at SLAC is described. The Be chamber encloses one interaction point of the PEP circulating ring and is a part of its beam pipe. The Be chamber is captured within the Secondary Vertex Detector (SVD), a drift chamber, which is in turn centered in the Mark II drift chamber. Both ends of the beryllium pipe are brazed to aluminum/stainless transitions for connection to stainless steel bellows. A concentric radiation-screen liner of titanium foil runs the full length of the beryllium pipe

  2. Pipe whip analysis using the TEDEL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, D.; Hoffmann, A.

    1985-02-01

    In view of their abundance, piping systems are one of the main components in power industries and in particular in nuclear power plants. They must be designed for normal as well as faulted conditions, for safety requirements. The prediction of the dynamic behaviour of the free pipe requires accounting for several nonlinearities. For this purpose, a beam type finite element program (TEDEL) has been used. The aim of this paper is to enlight the main features of this program, when applied to pipe whip analysis. An example of application to a real case will also be presented

  3. Subprogram Calculating The Distance Between Pipe And Plane For Automatic Piping System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satmoko, Ari

    2001-01-01

    DISTLNPL subprogram was created using Auto LISP software. This subprogram is planned to complete CAPD (Computer Aided Piping Design) software being developed. The CAPD works under the following method: suggesting piping system line and evaluating whether any obstacle allows the proposed line to be constructed. DISTLNPL is able to compute the distance between pipe and any equipment having plane dimension such as wall, platform, floors, and so on. The pipe is modeled by using a line representing its axis, and the equipment is modeled using a plane limited by some lines. The obtained distance between line and plane gives information whether the pipe crosses the equipment. In the case of crashing, the subprogram will suggest an alternative point to be passed by piping system. So far, DISTLNPL has not been able to be accessed by CAPD yet. However, this subprogram promises good prospect in modeling wall, platform, and floors

  4. Reliability of piping system components. Volume 4: The pipe failure event database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, R; Erixon, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Tomic, B [ENCONET Consulting GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Lydell, B [RSA Technologies, Visat, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Available public and proprietary databases on piping system failures were searched for relevant information. Using a relational database to identify groupings of piping failure modes and failure mechanisms, together with insights from published PSAs, the project team determined why, how and where piping systems fail. This report represents a compendium of technical issues important to the analysis of pipe failure events, and statistical estimation of failure rates. Inadequacies of traditional PSA methodology are addressed, with directions for PSA methodology enhancements. A `data driven and systems oriented` analysis approach is proposed to enable assignment of unique identities to risk-significant piping system component failure. Sufficient operating experience does exist to generate quality data on piping failures. Passive component failures should be addressed by today`s PSAs to allow for aging analysis and effective, on-line risk management. 42 refs, 25 figs.

  5. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{sup trademark} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Difficulty, or inability of measuring threshold surface contamination values, worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of this approach. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane.

  6. Ultrasonic testing with the phased array method at the pipe connection inner edges in pipings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekow, G.; Wuestenberg, H.; Hesselmann, H.; Rathgeb, W.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing with the phased array method at the pipe connection inner edges in pipings. The pipe connection inner corner tests in feedwater lines to the main coolant pipe were carried out by Preussen-Elektra in cooperation with Siemens KWU and the BAM with the ultrasonic phased array method. The testing plan was developed by means of a computed model. For a trial of the testing plan, numerous ultrasonic measurements with the phased array method were carried out using a pipe test piece with TH-type inner edges, which was a 1:1 model of the reactor component to be tested. The data measured at several test notches in the pipe connection inner edge area covered by a plating of 6 mm were analyzed. (orig./MM) [de

  7. Reliability of piping system components. Volume 4: The pipe failure event database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, R.; Erixon, S.; Tomic, B.; Lydell, B.

    1996-07-01

    Available public and proprietary databases on piping system failures were searched for relevant information. Using a relational database to identify groupings of piping failure modes and failure mechanisms, together with insights from published PSAs, the project team determined why, how and where piping systems fail. This report represents a compendium of technical issues important to the analysis of pipe failure events, and statistical estimation of failure rates. Inadequacies of traditional PSA methodology are addressed, with directions for PSA methodology enhancements. A 'data driven and systems oriented' analysis approach is proposed to enable assignment of unique identities to risk-significant piping system component failure. Sufficient operating experience does exist to generate quality data on piping failures. Passive component failures should be addressed by today's PSAs to allow for aging analysis and effective, on-line risk management. 42 refs, 25 figs

  8. Study on pressure pulsation and piping vibration of complex piping of reciprocating compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bin; Feng Quanke; Yu Xiaoling

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary research on the piping vibration and pressure pulsation of reciprocating compressor piping system. On the basis of plane wave theory, the calculation of gas column natural frequency and pressure pulsation in complex pipelines is done by using the transfer matrix method and stiffness matrix method, respectively. With the discretization method of FEM, a mathematical model for calculating the piping vibration and stress of reciprocating compressor piping system is established, and proper boundary conditions are proposed. Then the structural modal and stress of the piping system are calculated with CAESAR II. The comparison of measured and calculated values found that the one dimensional wave equation can accurately calculate the natural frequency and pressure pulsation in gas column of piping system for reciprocating compressor. (authors)

  9. 46 CFR 153.280 - Piping system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping system design. 153.280 Section 153.280 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.280 Piping system design. (a) Each cargo piping system must meet...

  10. 49 CFR 192.321 - Installation of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of plastic pipe. 192.321 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.321 Installation of plastic pipe. (a) Plastic pipe must be installed below ground level except as provided by paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section. (b) Plastic pipe that is...

  11. 49 CFR 192.121 - Design of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of plastic pipe. 192.121 Section 192.121... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.121 Design of plastic pipe. Subject to the limitations of § 192.123, the design pressure for plastic pipe is determined by either of the...

  12. 49 CFR 192.277 - Ductile iron pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ductile iron pipe. 192.277 Section 192.277 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Ductile iron pipe. (a) Ductile iron pipe may not be joined by threaded joints. (b) Ductile iron pipe may...

  13. 49 CFR 192.125 - Design of copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of copper pipe. 192.125 Section 192.125... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.125 Design of copper pipe. (a) Copper... hard drawn. (b) Copper pipe used in service lines must have wall thickness not less than that indicated...

  14. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 182.430 Section 182... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.430 Engine exhaust pipe... equipment might come in contact with an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any...

  15. Dissolved Carbon Dioxide in Tropical East Atlantic Surface Waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.C.E.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Jong, E. de

    1999-01-01

    Variability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) is discussed for tropical East Atlantic surface waters in October–November 1993 and May–June 1994. High precipitation associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, river input and equatorial upwelling

  16. Age and sex distribution of blindness in Ahoada East Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Differences exist in the impact of blindness by age and sex; the overall risk of death being higher for blind males than females. Aim: To describe the age and sex differences among the blind in Ahoada-East Local Government Area (LGA) of Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods: Age and sex data were analyzed for 24 ...

  17. Investigation on vibrational evaluation criteria for small-bore pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Takashi; Maekawa, Akira; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Kato, Minoru; Torigoe, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    The well-known organization such as API and SwRI in USA developed criteria for piping vibrational evaluation. These criteria are targeted for main pipes, but not branch pipes with small bore. In this study, applicability of criteria of API and SwRI to branch pipes was investigated. Vibration test using piping system with small bore branch pipe was conducted and amplitudes of vibrational stress and displacement were measured for various exciting force. In comparison of the measurements with the two criteria, though the criteria of API and SwRI were applicable to small bore branch pipe, they made too conservative evaluation. (author)

  18. Technical considerations for flexible piping design in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.; Chou, C.K.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a technical basis for flexible piping designs which will improve piping reliability and minimize the use of pipe supports, snubbers, and pipe whip restraints. The current study was conducted to establish the necessary groundwork based on the piping reliability analysis. A confirmatory piping reliability assessment indicated that removing rigid supports and snubbers tends to either improve or affect very little the piping reliability. A couple of changes to be implemented in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.61 and RG 1.122 aimed at more flexible piping design were investigated. It was concluded that these changes substantially reduce calculated piping responses and allows piping redesigns with significant reduction in number of supports and snubbers without violating ASME code requirements

  19. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  20. Evaluation of clamp effects on LMFBR piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Loop-type liquid metal breeder reactor plants utilize thin-wall piping to mitigate through-wall thermal gradients due to rapid thermal transients. These piping loops require a support system to carry the combined weight of the pipe, coolant and insulation and to provide attachments for seismic restraints. The support system examined here utilizes an insulated pipe clamp designed to minimize the stresses induced in the piping. To determine the effect of these clamps on the pipe wall a non-linear, two-dimensional, finite element model of the clamp, insulation and pipe wall was used to determine the clamp/pipe interface load distributions which were then applied to a three-dimensional, finite element model of the pipe. The two-dimensional interaction model was also utilized to estimate the combined clamp/pipe stiffness

  1. Effect of pipe rupture loads inside containment in the break exclusionary piping outside containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, G.

    1987-01-01

    The plant design for protection against piping failures outside containment should make sure that fluid system piping in containment penetration areas are designed to meet the break exclusionary provisions contained in the BTP MEB 3-1. According to these provisions, following a piping failure (main steam line) inside containment, the part of the flued head connected to the piping outside containment, should not exceed the ASME Code stress limits for the appropriate load combinations. A finite element analysis has been performed to evaluate the stress level in this area. (orig./HP)

  2. The insitu lining of cooling water piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, W.K.; Oxner, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    The internal corrosion of cooling water piping as well as other industrial piping is becoming an increasing problem to system reliability. There are various alternatives being offered as solutions to the problem including water treatment, coatings, and piping replacement. The in-place lining of these pipes is becoming increasingly popular as a cost-effective method to control corrosion. A cured-in-place plastic composite system can be installed with minimal dismantling or excavation. This paper will examine case histories of the installations of this lining system in power plants at three (3) locations in the United States and one in France. It will also summarize testing that has been performed on the lining system and tests that are currently being performed

  3. Mesoproterozoic diamondiferous ultramafic pipes at Majhgawan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tial melt depletion prior to subsequent metaso- matic enrichment ... diferous ultramafic pipes (considered in this paper to belong to ...... at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of .... Int. Kimberlite Conference, Victoria, British Columbia,.

  4. On the shakedown analysis of welded pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianbai; Chen Haofeng; Chen Weihang; Ure, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the shakedown analysis of welded pipes subjected to a constant internal pressure and a varying thermal load. The Linear Matching Method (LMM) is applied to investigate the upper and lower bound shakedown limits of the pipes. Individual effects of i) geometry of weld metal, ii) ratio of inner radius to wall thickness and iii) all material properties of Weld Metal (WM), Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Parent Material (PM) on shakedown limits are investigated. The ranges of these variables are chosen to cover the majority of common pipe configurations. Corresponding individual influence functions on the shakedown limits are generated. These are then combined to allow the creation of a safety shakedown envelope, which can be used for the design of any welded pipes within the specified ranges. The effect of temperature-dependent yield stress (in PM, HAZ and WM) on these shakedown limits is also investigated.

  5. Degradation mechanisms of small scale piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartonicek, J.; Koenig, G.; Blind, D.

    1996-01-01

    Operational experience shows that many degradation mechanisms can have an effect on small-scale piping systems. We can see from the analyses carried out that the degradation which has occurred is primarily linked with the fact that these piping systems were classified as being of low safety relevance. This is mainly due to such components being classified into low safety relevance category at the design stage, as well as to the low level of operational monitoring. Since in spite of the variety of designs and operational modes the degradation mechanisms detected may be attributed to the piping systems, we can make decisive statements on how to avoid such degradation mechanisms. Even small-scale piping systems may achieve guaranteed integrity in such cases by taking the appropriate action. (orig.) [de

  6. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  7. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  8. Laser-GMA Hybrid Pipe Welding System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reutzel, Edward W; Kern, Ludwig; Sullivan, Michael J; Tressler, Jay F; Avalos, Juan

    2007-01-01

    The combination of laser welding with conventional gas metal arc welding technology offers substantial increases in production rate of joining pipe through single-pass joining compared to multi-pass...

  9. Closed loop solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-01-01

    The system used for the closed loop operation of the solar chemical heat pipe comprises a reformer, heated by the solar furnace, a methanator and a storage assembly containing a compressor and storage cylinders. (authors). 7 figs

  10. Evaluation of pipe weld NDE indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasse, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of non-destructive examination (NDE) indications in pipe welds. The evaluation procedure is described in a practical engineer's view and examples are also given. (author)

  11. 78 FR 62614 - Guttman Energy, Inc., PBF Holding Company LLC v. Buckeye Pipe Line Company, L.P., Laurel Pipe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. OR14-4-000] Guttman Energy, Inc., PBF Holding Company LLC v. Buckeye Pipe Line Company, L.P., Laurel Pipe Line Company, L.P... complaint against Buckeye Pipe Line Company L.P. and Laurel Pipe Line Company L.P. (Respondents) challenging...

  12. Proterozoic kimberlites and lamproites and a preliminary age for the Argyle lamproite pipe, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, E.M.W.; Bristow, J.W.; Smith, C.B.; Scott Smith, B.H.; Dawson, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    The Argyle pipe occurring in the East Kimberley Province of Western Australia is a unique, highly-diamondiferous lamproite. Although it resembles other lamproites located in the West Kimberley Province with respect to its setting, structure, petrography and geochemistry, it is probably Proterozoic in age and hence substantially older than Tertiary occurrences of the West Kimberley Province. Rb-Sr measurements on whole rock and phlogopite samples from magmatic olivine-phlogopite lamproite, reveals a two point model age of 1126 +- 9 Ma for the Argyle pipe. This age is consistent with ages of other, similar volcanic igneous rocks occurring in several localities worldwide. The widespread occurrence of Proterozoic kimberlites and lamproites suggests that this was an important period of worldwide alkalic intrusive activity

  13. BWR pipe crack remedies evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.; Kuzay, T.; Rybicki, E.F.; Stonesifer, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Piping in light-water-reactor power systems has been affected by several types of environmental degradation. This paper presents results from studies of (1) stress corrosion crack growth in fracture mechanics specimens of modified Type 347 SS and Type 304/308L SS weld overlay material, (2) heat-to-heat variations in stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Types 316NG and 347 SS, (3) SCC of sensitized Type 304 SS in water with cupric ion or organic acid impurities, (4) electrochemical potential (ECP) measurements under gamma irradiation, (5) SCC of ferritic steels, (6) strain-controlled fatigue of Type 316NG SS in air at ambient temperature, and (7) through-wall residual stress measurements and finite-element calculation of residual stresses in weldments treated by a mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). Fracture-mechanics crack-growth-rate tests on Type 316NG SS have shown that transgranular cracking can occur even in high purity environments, whereas no crack growth was observed in Type 347 SS even in impurity environments. In tests on weld overlay specimens, no cracks penetrated into the overlay even in impurity environments. Instead, the cracks branched when they approached the overlay, and then grew parallel to interface. In SCC tests on sensitized Type 304 SS, cupric ions at concentrations greater than ∼1 ppm were found to be deleterious, whereas organic acids at this concentration were not detrimental. Tests on several ferritic steels indicate a strong correlation between the sulfur content of the steels and susceptibility to SCC. External gamma radiation fields produced a large positive shift in the ECP of Type 304 SS at low dissolved-oxygen concentrations (<5 ppb), whereas in the absence of an external gamma field there was no difference in the ECP values of irradiated and nonirradiated material. Fatigue data for Type 316NG SS are consistent with the ASME code mean curve at high strains, but fall below the curve at low strains. Calculations of the

  14. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Medical Journal is intended for publication of papers on ... research on problems relevant to East Africa and other African countries will receive special ... Analysis of survival patterns of TB‐HIV co‐infected patients in relation to ...

  15. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  16. Middle East - future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lior, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Facts concerning the basic features of Tlatelolco Treaty are discussed in comparison with the Middle East situation which is described as a special case. Countries in the Middle East should attain political, social and ideological maturity necessary for the adoption of negotiating strategies suitable for this particular region

  17. Ringshaped grid for supporting of pipes of a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This heat exchanger furnishes a ring-shaped grid in which pipes can be ordered in a circular formation, as opposed to the conventional triangular ordering. In this structure the pipes are arranged in concentric circles. This means that each new row of pipes has an equal number of more pipes than the row directly inside, meaning that all the pipes in each row are equidistant from the center and form an equal surface for better heat exchange

  18. UOE Pipe Manufacturing Process Simulation: Equipment Designing and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistoian, Dmitri; Chirchor, Mihael

    2017-12-01

    UOE pipe manufacturing process influence directly on pipeline resilience and operation capacity. At present most spreaded pipe manufacturing method is UOE. This method is based on cold forming. After each technological step appears a certain stress and strain level. For pipe stress strain study is designed and constructed special equipment that simulate entire technological process.UOE pipe equipment is dedicated for manufacturing of longitudinally submerged arc welded DN 400 (16 inch) steel pipe.

  19. Analysis of Fracture Behaviour of Multilayer Pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nezbedová, E.; Knésl, Zdeněk; Vlach, B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 5 (2007), s. 207-212 ISSN 1465-8011. [Plastic Pipes /13./. Washington, D. C., 02.10.2006-05.10.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1284 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : multi-layer pipes Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.431, year: 2007

  20. Feedback regarding leaks in pipe work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerville, C.; Boudouin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Contaminated effluent from nuclear medicine departments is stored in decay tanks before being discharged via the sewage system. Generally speaking, these tanks are located outside hospital wards, within the hospital's maintenance rooms. Pipes leading from the evacuation points (e.g. toilets in isolation wards) to the tanks may nonetheless pass through various other parts of the hospital premises (wards, corridors, offices, etc.). Should a leak occur in any of these pipes, this may impact on the public, workers or the environment. (author)

  1. Seismic analysis of piping with nonlinear supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barta, D.A.; Huang, S.N.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    The modeling and results of nonlinear time-history seismic analyses for three sizes of pipelines restrained by mechanical snubbes are presented. Numerous parametric analyses were conducted to obtain sensitivity information which identifies relative importance of the model and analysis ingredients. Special considerations for modeling the pipe clamps and the mechanical snubbers based on experimental characterization data are discussed. Comparisions are also given of seismic responses, loads and pipe stresses predicted by standard response spectra methods and the nonlinear time-history methods

  2. Development of a simplified piping support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.; Anderson, P.H.; Tang, Y.K.; Kassawara, R.P.; Tang, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies for developing a simplified piping support system (SPSS) for nuclear power piping in place of snubbers. The basic concept of the SPSS is a passive seismic support system consisting of limit stops. Large gaps are provided to allow for free thermal expansion during normal plant operation while preventing excessive displacement during a seismic event. The results are part of a research and development program sponsored by EPRI. (orig./HP)

  3. Development of a simplified piping support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.; Anderson, P.H.; Tang, Y.K.; Kassawara, R.P.; Tang, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies for developing a simplified piping support system (SPSS) for nuclear power piping in place of snubbers. The basic concept of the SPSS is a passive seismic support system consisting of limit stops. Large gaps are provided to allow for free thermal expansion during normal plant operation while preventing excessive displacement during a seismic event. The results are part of a research and development program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute

  4. Depressurized pipes decontamination by using circulation foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerval, Frederique; Belz, Jacques; Renouf, Marjorie; Janneau, Patrice

    2012-09-01

    Decontamination of pipes remains a necessity in order to reduce the radiation level during maintenance or dismantling operations but it is not so easy to do it, especially in case of a long pipe network. To achieve this operation, the use of chemistry is one of the more relevant methods; moreover, the liquid waste production still remains an issue that it can be avoided by the use of decontamination foams. (authors)

  5. Cooling Acoustic Transcucer with Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-19

    circuits to a heat sink. [0009] In Kan et al (United States Patent No. 6,528,909), a spindle motor assembly is disclosed which has a shaft with an...integral heat pipe. The shaft with the integral heat pipe improves the thermal conductively of the shaft and the spindle motor assembly. The shaft ...2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known in the art that transducers, designed to project acoustic power, are often limited by the

  6. Cooling Acoustic Transducer with Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-29

    a heat sink. [0009] In Kan et al (United States Patent No. 6,528,909), a spindle motor assembly is disclosed which has a shaft with an integral...heat pipe. The shaft with the integral heat pipe improves the thermal conductively of the shaft and the spindle motor assembly. The shaft includes...Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known in the art that transducers, designed to project acoustic power, are often limited by the build

  7. Pressure piping systems examination. 2. ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This Code is Part 13 of the IP Model Code of Safe Practice in the Petroleum Industry. Its purpose is to provide a guide to safe practices in the in-service examination and test of piping systems used in the petroleum and chemical industries. The Code gives general requirements regarding the provision and maintenance of adequate documentation, in-service examination, the control of modifications and repairs, examination frequency, protective devices and testing of piping systems. (author)

  8. Piping dynamic analysis by the synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; Curreri, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Since piping systems are a frequent source of noise and vibrations, their efficient dynamic analysis is imperative. As an alternate to more conventional analyses methods, an application of the synthesis method to piping vibrations analyses is demonstrated. Specifically, the technique is illustrated by determining the normal modes and natural frequencies of a composite bend from the normal mode and natural frequency data of two component parts. A comparison of the results to those derived for the composite bend by other techniques is made

  9. Vortex induced vibrations in gapped restrainted pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, P. de A.A.; Loula, A.F.D.

    1984-01-01

    The vortex induced vibration problem of gapped restrained piping is solved numerically. The model proposed by Skop-Griffin is used to describe the pipe-fluid interaction. The variational formulation is obtained modeling the gapped restraints as non-linear elastic springs. The regularized problem is solved using a finite element discretization for the spatial domain. In the time domain a finite difference discretization is used for the lift coefficient equatin and a Newmark discretization for the equation of motion. (Author) [pt

  10. Diffusion pipes at PNP switching transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachelarie, D.; Postolache, C.; Gaiseanu, F.

    1976-01-01

    The appearance of the ''diffusion pipes'' greatly affects the fabrication of the PNP high-frequency/very-fast-switching transistors. A brief review of the principal problems connected to the presence of these ''pipes'' is made. A research program is presented which permitted the fabrication of the PNP switching transistors at ICCE-Bucharest, with transition frequency fsub(T) = 1.2 GHz and storage time tsub(s) = 4.5 ns. (author)

  11. Elastic-plastic dynamic behavior of guard pipes due to sudden opening of longitudinal cracks in the inner pipe and crash to the guard pipe wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theuer, E.; Heller, M.

    1979-01-01

    Integrity of guard pipes is an important parameter in the design of nuclear steam supply systems. A guard pipe shall withstand all kinds of postulated inner pipe breaks without failure. Sudden opening of a crack in the inner pipe and crash of crack borders to the guard pipe wall represent a shock problem where complex phenomena of dynamic plastification as well as dynamic behavior of the entire system have to be taken in consideration. The problem was analyzed by means of Finite Element computation using the general purpose program MARC. Equation of motion was resolved by direct integration using the Newmark β-operator. Analysis shows that after 1,2 m sec crack borders touch the guard pipe wall for the first time. At this moment a considerable amount of local plastification appears in the inner pipe wall, while the guard pipe is nearly unstressed. After initial touching, the crack borders begin to slip along the guard pipe wall. Subsequently, a short withdrawal of the crack borders and a new crash occur, while the inner pipe rolls along the guard pipe wall. The analysis procedure described is suitable for designing numerous guard pipe geometries as well as U-Bolt restraint systems which have to withstand high-energy pipe rupture impact. (orig.)

  12. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Otto; Oxley, Jimmie; Smith, James; Platek, Michael; Ghonem, Hamouda; Bernier, Evan; Downey, Markus; Cumminskey, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  13. Analysis of a piping system for requalification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, B.J.; Tang, Yu.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the global stress analysis required for the seismic/structural requalification of a reactor secondary piping system in which minor defects (flaws) were discovered during a detailed inspection. The flaws in question consisted of weld imperfections. Specifically, it was necessary to establish that the stresses at the flawed sections did not exceed the allowables and that the fatigue life remained within acceptable limits. At the same time the piping system had to be qualified for higher earthquake loads than those used in the original design. To accomplish these objectives the nominal stress distributions in the piping system under the various loads (dead load, thermal load, wind load and seismic load) were determined. First a best estimate finite element model was developed and calculations were performed using the piping analysis modules of the ANSYS Computer Code. Parameter studies were then performed to assess the effect of physically reasonable variations in material, structural, and boundary condition characteristics. The nominal stresses and forces so determined, provided input for more detailed analyses of the flawed sections. Based on the reevaluation, the piping flaws were judged to be benign, i.e., the piping safety margins were acceptable inspite of the increased seismic demand. 13 refs

  14. Computer simulation of LMFBR piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A-Moneim, M.T.; Chang, Y.W.; Fistedis, S.H.

    1977-01-01

    Integrity of piping systems is one of the main concerns of the safety issues of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). Hypothetical core disruptive accidents (HCDA) and water-sodium interaction are two examples of sources of high pressure pulses that endanger the integrity of the heat transport piping systems of LMFBRs. Although plastic wall deformation attenuates pressure peaks so that only pressures slightly higher than the pipe yield pressure propagate along the system, the interaction of these pulses with the different components of the system, such as elbows, valves, heat exchangers, etc.; and with one another produce a complex system of pressure pulses that cause more plastic deformation and perhaps damage to components. A generalized piping component and a tee branching model are described. An optional tube bundle and interior rigid wall simulation model makes such a generalized component model suited for modelling of valves, reducers, expansions, and heat exchangers. The generalized component and the tee branching junction models are combined with the pipe-elbow loop model so that a more general piping system can be analyzed both hydrodynamically and structurally under the effect of simultaneous pressure pulses

  15. Flexible heat pipes with integrated bioinspired design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the facile fabrication and performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes that have integrated bioinspired wick structures and flexible polyurethane polymer connector design between the copper condenser and evaporator. Inside the heat pipe, a bioinspired superhydrophilic strong-base-oxidized copper mesh with multi-scale micro/nano-structures was used as the wicking material and deionized water was selected as working fluid. Thermal resistances of the fabricated flexible heat pipes charged with different filling ratios were measured under thermal power inputs ranging from 2 W to 12 W while the device was bent at different angles. The fabricated heat pipes with a 30% filling ratio demonstrated a low thermal resistance less than 0.01 K/W. Compared with the vertically oriented straight heat pipes, bending from 30° up to 120° has negligible influence on the heat-transfer performance. Furthermore, repeated heating tests indicated that the fabricated flexible heat pipes have consistent and reliable heat-transfer performance, thus would have important applications for advanced thermal management in three dimensional and flexible electronic devices.

  16. Flow conditions of fresh mortar and concrete in different pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Haugan, Lars; Hammer, Tor Arne; Kalogiannidis, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    The variation in fresh concrete flow rate over the pipe cross section was investigated on differently coloured and highly flowable concrete mixes flowing through pipes of different materials (rubber, steel, acryl). First, uncoloured (gray) concrete was poured through the pipe and the pipe blocked. Similar but coloured (black) concrete was then poured into the pipe filled with gray concrete, flowing after the gray concrete for a while before being blocked and hardened. The advance of the colouring along the pipe wall (showing boundary flow rate) was observed on the moulded concrete surface appearing after removing the pipe from the hardened concrete. The shapes of the interfaces between uncoloured and coloured concrete (showing variation of flow rate over the pipe cross section) were observed on sawn surfaces of concrete half cylinders cut along the length axes of the concrete-filled pipe. Flow profiles over the pipe cross section were clearly seen with maximum flow rates near the centre of the pipe and low flow rate at the pipe wall (typically rubber pipe with reference concrete without silica fume and/or stabilizers). More plug-shaped profiles, with long slip layers and less variation of flow rate over the cross section, were also seen (typically in smooth acrylic pipes). Flow rate, amount of concrete sticking to the wall after flow and SEM-images of pipe surface roughness were observed, illustrating the problem of testing full scale pumping.

  17. Inspection indications, stress corrosion cracks and repair of process piping in nuclear materials production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.; West, S.L.; Nelson, D.Z.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of Schedule 40 Type 304 stainless steel piping in the process water system of the Savannah River Site reactors has provided indications of discontinuities in less than 10% of the weld heat affected zones. Pipe sections containing significant indications are replaced with Type 304L components. Post removal metallurgical evaluation showed that the indications resulted from stress corrosion cracking in weld heat-affected zones and that the overall weld quality was excellent. The evaluation also revealed weld fusion zone discontinuities such as incomplete penetration, incomplete fusion, inclusions, underfill at weld roots and hot cracks. Service induced extension of these discontinuities was generally not significant although stress corrosion cracking in one weld fusion zone was noted. One set of UT indications was caused by metallurgical discontinuities at the fusion boundary of an extra weld. This extra weld, not apparent on the outer pipe surface, was slightly overlapping and approximately parallel to the weld being inspected. This extra weld was made during a pipe repair, probably associated with initial construction processes. The two nearly parallel welds made accurate assessment of the UT signal difficult. The implications of these observations to the inspection and repair of process water systems of nuclear reactors is discussed

  18. Transit time measurement of Juqueri river waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata Bedmar, E.; Garcia A, E.; Albuquerque, A.M. de; Sanchez, W.

    1975-01-01

    The time of travel of the Juqueri River water through the east branch of the Pirapora Reservoir was measured using radioactive tracers (6 Ci 131 I in Kl Solution). The changes in Juqueri River flow rate were also measured during the run. The center of mass of the radioactive cloud was used for the time of travel calculations. Six measurements of the Juqueri River flow rate were perfomed in different days, using the total count method. Fifty, millicuries of 131 I were used in each run. The results of time travel obtained under non-steady conditions, and their correction for steady state are also discussed

  19. Development of pipe layout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Tokumasu, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Besho, Hiromi; Sakano, Tatuo.

    1986-01-01

    In the plant design carried out so far, the process up to final drawings has been the repetition of the correction of drawings. This is because the space as the object of design is finite, and it is difficult to lay many pipes efficiently. Especially in nuclear power plants, the quantity of materials required for ensuring the safety and quality control is enormous, and only the skilled engineers having rich experience have become unable to deal with it. The model engineering using plastic models has been adopted, but still there are problems. In order to solve this problem, the development of the system for unitarily managing the various design information of plants with a computer, checking up various design with this information, automatically outputting design drawings and management data, and heightening the quality of design, synchronizing the progress, increasing the speed and saving the labor of design was carried out. This system is versatile and can be used for all plants. The emphasis in the development was placed on compact data structure, rapid picture processing and easy operation. The present status of design and the automation, the basic design of the system, the function of the system, the internal expression of models, the method of picture processing, and the results of application are reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. Cesium heat-pipe thermostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, F.; Song, D.; Sheng, K.; Wu, J. [Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement, 100095, Beijing (China); Yi, X. [China National South Aviation industry CO., LTD., 412002, Hunan (China); Yu, Z. [Dalian Jinzhou Institute of Measurement and Testing, 116100, Liaoning (China)

    2013-09-11

    In this paper the authors report a newly developed Cesium Heat-Pipe Thermostat (Cs HPT) with the operation range of 400 °C to 800 °C. The working medium is cesium (Cs) of 99.98% purity and contains no radioisotope. A Cs filing device is developed which can prevent Cs being in contact with air. The structural material is stainless steel. A 5000 h test has been made to confirm the compatibility between cesium and stainless steel. The Cs HPT has several thermometer wells of 220mm depth with different diameters for different sizes of thermometers. The temperature uniformity of the Cs HPT is 0.06 °C to 0.20 °C. A precise temperature controller is used to ensure the temperature fluctuation within ±0.03 °C. The size of Cs HPT is 380mm×320mm×280mm with foot wheels for easy moving. The thermostat has been successfully used for the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers and thermocouples.

  1. East Europe Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-13

    demand. They relate mainly to building in water pipes, the provision of water heaters, indoor toilets, showers, baths and central heating systems...related to illegal marijuana fields have been handled by the police in Eastern Europe, {Ex- cerpt] [Paris LE MONDE in French 14 Jan 87 pi] /9274 CSO? 2900/7 END 91

  2. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Least tern and piping plover nesting at sand pits in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, John G.; Kirsch, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Endangered Least Terns (Sterna antillarum) and threatened Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) nest at commercial sand and gravel mining operations (sand pits) along the Platte River system in Nebraska. Sandbar habitat has been disappearing since the early 1900's along the Platte River system, but numbers of sand pits have increased. We hypothesized that birds would more fully utilize sand pits where suitable sandbar habitat was limited. We inventoried sand pits and censused terns and plovers on both habitats along the Loup River, part of the North Loup River, and most of the Platte River during 1988-1991. Using aircraft, we also quantified features of suitable sand pits present on the central Platte in 1988 and lower Platte in 1990, and related features to abundance and presence of birds. We found 225 sand pits of which 78 were suitable and 187 were unsuitable for nesting. Along the central Platte, where sandbar habitat is severely degraded, birds nested at 81% of the suitable sand pits (N = 32) at least once during 1988-1991, and most birds (61-94%) nested on sand pits. Along the lower Platte, where both sandbar and sand pit habitat are plentiful, birds nested at 60% of the suitable sand pits (N = 35) at least once during 1988-1991, and most birds (60-86%) nested on sandbars. Numbers of terns and plovers were more weakly correlated with features of sand pits on the central Platte than on the lower Platte. Least Terns and Piping Plovers seem to use more of the suitable sand pit habitat on the central Platte than on the lower Platte. Sand pits probably have influenced the birds' distribution by providing alternative nesting habitat along rivers where suitable sandbars are rare or absent.

  4. Variações temporais na passagem de peixes pelo elevador da Usina Hidrelétrica de Santa Clara, rio Mucuri, leste brasileiro Temporal patterns of fish passage in Santa Clara Power Plant's fish lift, Mucuri River, east Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo dos S. Pompeu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar padrões temporais na passagem de peixes pelo elevador da Usina Hidrelétrica de Santa, localizado no rio Mucuri. Durante quatro meses, de novembro de 2003 a março de 2004, foram realizados ciclos de transposição a cada duas horas, quando todos os indivíduos foram contados e identificados. Durante este período foram transpostos 67.838 indivíduos de 31 espécies. A abundância de Characiformes migradores no elevador foi maior no período diurno, enquanto Siluriformes foram observados em maior quantidade à noite. A abundância de peixes no elevador foi relacionada significativamente com as vazões no rio Mucuri. O padrão encontrado torna possível a melhor utilização do elevador, priorizando sua operação durante o dia e em períodos de maior vazão.The current study had the objective of determining temporal patterns of fish passage in Santa Clara Power Plant's fish lift, Mucuri River. During four months, from November 2003 to March 2004, transposition cycles were performed each two hours, when the specimens were counted and identified. During this migration period 67,838 individuals of 31 species passed through the lift. Migratory Characiformes abundance was larger during the day, whereas the Siluriformes were registered mainly at night. Fish abundance in the lift was significantly related to the Mucuri river flow. The temporal pattern found makes possible a better utilization of the lift, focusing cycles during the day and high flows periods.

  5. in River Oluwa, Ondo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The natural foods of Ctenopoma pethereci from River Oluwa in Ondo State, South-west Nigeria, were ... constituted 0.83% of the body weight while food in the intestine formed 1.54%, thus, giving ... South East Asian countries, where the group.

  6. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. 33 CFR 117.824 - Neuse River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.824 Neuse River. (a) The draw of the U.S... for public vessels of the United States. (4) Shall open on signal at all other times. (b) The draw of the Atlantic and East Carolina Railway bridge, mile 80.0 at Kinston, shall open on signal if at least...

  8. 33 CFR 117.825 - Newport River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Atlantic and East Carolina Railway bridge, mile 13.0 at Newport, need not be opened for the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newport River. 117.825 Section 117.825 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES...

  9. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    sail on the Niger River between Nigeria and Mali. Crossing villages, borders and cultures, they stop only to rest by setting up camp on riverbanks or host villages. In River Nomads, we join the nomadic Kebbawa fishermen on one of their yearly crossing, experiencing their relatively adventurous...

  10. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was this highly venerated river Saraswati flowing through. Haryana, Marwar and Bahawalpur in Uttarapath and emptying itself in the Gulf ofKachchh, which has been described in glowing terms by the Rigveda. "Breaking through the mountain barrier", this "swift-flowing tempestuous river surpasses in majesty and.

  11. Pipe rupture and steam/water hammer design loads for dynamic analysis of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, B.R. Jr.; Baschiere, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The design of restraints and protection devices for nuclear Class I and Class II piping systems must consider severe pipe rupture and steam/water hammer loadings. Limited stress margins require that an accurate prediction of these loads be obtained with a minimum of conservatism in the loads. Methods are available currently for such fluid transient load development, but each method is severely restricted as to the complexity and/or the range of fluid state excursions which can be simulated. This paper presents a general technique for generation of pipe rupture and steam/water hammer design loads for dynamic analysis of nuclear piping systems which does not have the limitations of existing methods. Blowdown thrust loadings and unbalanced piping acceleration loads for restraint design of all nuclear piping systems may be found using this method. The technique allows the effects of two-phase distributed friction, liquid flashing and condensation, and the surrounding thermal and mechanical equipment to be modeled. A new form of the fluid momentum equation is presented which incorporates computer generated fluid acceleration histories by inclusion of a geometry integral termed the 'force equivalent area' (FEA). The FEA values permit the coupling of versatile thermal-hydraulic programs to piping dynamics programs. Typical applications of the method to pipe rupture problems are presented and the resultant load histories compared with existing techniques. (Auth.)

  12. An in-pipe mobile micromachine using fluid power. A mechanism adaptable to pipe diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Yokota, Shinichi; Takahashi, Ken

    2000-01-01

    To realize micro maintenance robots for small diameter pipes of nuclear reactors and so on, high power in-pipe mobile micromachines have been required. The authors have proposed the bellows microactuator using fluid power and have tried to apply the actuators to in-pipe mobile micromachines. In the previous papers, some inchworm mobile machine prototypes with 25 mm in diameter are fabricated and the traveling performances are experimentally investigated. In this paper, to miniaturize the in-pipe mobile machine and to make it adaptable to pipe diameters, firstly, a simple rubber-tube actuator constrained with a coil-spring is proposed and the static characteristics are investigated. Secondly, a supporting mechanism which utilizes a toggle mechanism and is adaptable to pipe diameters is proposed and the supporting forces are investigated. Finally, an in-pipe mobile micromachine for pipe with 4 - 5 mm in diameter is fabricated and the maximum traveling velocity of 7 mm/s in both ahead and astern movements is experimentally verified. (author)

  13. Pipe Crawler internal piping characterization system. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Pipe Crawler reg-sign is a pipe surveying system for performing radiological characterization and/or free release surveys of piping systems. The technology employs a family of manually advanced, wheeled platforms, or crawlers, fitted with one or more arrays of thin Geiger Mueller (GM) detectors operated from an external power supply and data processing unit. Survey readings are taken in a step-wise fashion. A video camera and tape recording system are used for video surveys of pipe interiors prior to and during radiological surveys. Pipe Crawler reg-sign has potential advantages over the baseline and other technologies in areas of cost, durability, waste minimization, and intrusiveness. Advantages include potentially reduced cost, potential reuse of the pipe system, reduced waste volume, and the ability to manage pipes in place with minimal disturbance to facility operations. Advantages over competing technologies include potentially reduced costs and the ability to perform beta-gamma surveys that are capable of passing regulatory scrutiny for free release of piping systems

  14. New assessment of feed water piping in GKN I including optimisation of piping supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiss, W.; Heil, C.; Baier, B.; Manke, A.

    2003-01-01

    The quality of nuclear power plant components and piping is specified according to the then current state of knowledge. In operation, the quality can be reduced by ageing phenomena, so in-service quality assessment is constantly required. The contribution discusses the individual aspects of reassessment and its technical procedure, using the example of a feedwater pipe in the GKN I containment. (orig.) [de

  15. The First Assembly Line of Large-longitudinally-welded Steel Pipe in China Went into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bing

    2002-01-01

    @@ On July 27, the first assembly line to produce JCOE large diameter Longitudinally-submerged-arc-welded steel pipe in China, Which is the key homemade equipment project of "West-East Gas Transmission"project, was put into production. Chen Gen, vice general manager of CNPC; Xie Zhiqiang and Liu Haisheng, assistant chief manager of CNPC; Shi Xingquan, vice president of PetroChina; and the president of Itochu-Marubeni Steel & iron Co., Ltd.of Japan; attended the opening ceremony and cut the ribbon.

  16. Analysis of pipe stress using CAESAR II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitandung, Y.B.; Bandriyana, B.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of this piping stress with the purpose of knowing stress distribution piping system in order to determine pipe supports configuration. As an example of analysis, Gas Exchanger to Warm Separator Line was chosen with, input data was firstly prepared in a document, i.e. piping analysis specification that its content named as pipe characteristics, material properties, operation conditions, guide equipment's and so on. Analysis result such as stress, load, displacement and the use support type were verified based on requirements in the code, standard, and regularities were suitable with piping system condition analyzed. As the proof that piping system is in safety condition, it can be indicated from analysis results (actual loads) which still under allowable load. From the analysis steps that have been done CAESAR II code fulfill requirements to be used as a tool of piping stress analysis as well as nuclear and non nuclear installation piping system

  17. Development of bore tools for pipe welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Takiguchi, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in-vessel components replacement and maintenance requires that connected cooling pipes be cut and removed beforehand and that new components be installed to which cooling pipes must be rewelded. All welding must be inspected for soundness after completion. These tasks require a new task concept for ensuring shielded areas and access from narrow ports. Thus, it became necessary to develop autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools for branch and main pipes to weld pipes by in-pipe access; a system was proposed that cut and welded branch and main pipes after passing inside pipe curves, and elemental technologies developed. This paper introduces current development in tools for welding and cutting branch pipes and other tools for welding and cutting the main pipe. (author)

  18. Development of bore tools for pipe welding and cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Takiguchi, Yuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in-vessel components replacement and maintenance requires that connected cooling pipes be cut and removed beforehand and that new components be installed to which cooling pipes must be rewelded. All welding must be inspected for soundness after completion. These tasks require a new task concept for ensuring shielded areas and access from narrow ports. Thus, it became necessary to develop autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools for branch and main pipes to weld pipes by in-pipe access; a system was proposed that cut and welded branch and main pipes after passing inside pipe curves, and elemental technologies developed. This paper introduces current development in tools for welding and cutting branch pipes and other tools for welding and cutting the main pipe. (author)

  19. Small pipe characterization system (SPCS) conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.O.; Ferrante, T.A.; McKay, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are many facilities that have been identified for Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D). As processes are terminated or brought off-line, facilities are placed on the inactive list, and facility managers and site contractors are required to assure a safe and reliable decommissioning and transition of these facilities to a clean final state. Decommissioning of facilities requires extensive reliable characterization, decontamination and in some cases dismantlement. Characterization of piping systems throughout the DOE complex is becoming more and more necessary. In addition to decommissioning activities, characterization activities are performed as part of surveillance and maintenance (S&M). Because of the extent of contamination, all inactive facilities require some type of S&M. These S&M activities include visual assessment, equipment and material accounting, and maintenance. The majority of the inactive facilities have piping systems 3 inches or smaller that are inaccessible because they are contaminated, imbedded in concrete, or run through hot cells. Many of these piping systems have been inactive for a number of years and there exists no current system condition information or the historical records are poor and/or missing altogether. Many of these piping systems are placed on the contaminated list, not because of known contamination, but because of the risk of internal contamination. Many of the piping systems placed on the contamination list may not have internal contamination. Because there is a potential however, they are treated as such. The cost of D&D can be greatly reduced by identifying and removing hot spot contamination, leaving clean piping to be removed using conventional methods. Accurate characterization of these piping systems is essential before, during and after all D&D activities.

  20. Small pipe characterization system (SPCS) conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.O.; Ferrante, T.A.; McKay, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are many facilities that have been identified for Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D). As processes are terminated or brought off-line, facilities are placed on the inactive list, and facility managers and site contractors are required to assure a safe and reliable decommissioning and transition of these facilities to a clean final state. Decommissioning of facilities requires extensive reliable characterization, decontamination and in some cases dismantlement. Characterization of piping systems throughout the DOE complex is becoming more and more necessary. In addition to decommissioning activities, characterization activities are performed as part of surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M). Because of the extent of contamination, all inactive facilities require some type of S ampersand M. These S ampersand M activities include visual assessment, equipment and material accounting, and maintenance. The majority of the inactive facilities have piping systems 3 inches or smaller that are inaccessible because they are contaminated, imbedded in concrete, or run through hot cells. Many of these piping systems have been inactive for a number of years and there exists no current system condition information or the historical records are poor and/or missing altogether. Many of these piping systems are placed on the contaminated list, not because of known contamination, but because of the risk of internal contamination. Many of the piping systems placed on the contamination list may not have internal contamination. Because there is a potential however, they are treated as such. The cost of D ampersand D can be greatly reduced by identifying and removing hot spot contamination, leaving clean piping to be removed using conventional methods. Accurate characterization of these piping systems is essential before, during and after all D ampersand D activities

  1. Round dance in pipes; Runddans i roer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensen, Anders J.

    2004-07-01

    On the offshore production plants, oil, water, and gas are separated from the well streams. The oil is sold on the market while the gas is in part exported, in part reinjected into the wells in large quantities to sustain the pressure in the reservoirs. The water is cleaned, some is pumped to the sea and some returned to the reservoir. Although these processes may seem straightforward, they cause a great deal of worry since there are so many complex processing and pipe systems taking up space. Pipes vibrate and make noise, most often because of pressure fluctuations created by the flowing liquid and gas. Or vortices form inside the pipe that make the whole pipe drone. In the offshore activities, these phenomena can be very annoying; on the Statfjord B platform people baulked at entering the area where the produced water treatment system was standing. A new system had to be developed since existing equipment would take up too much space. In the new system, a pipe section is installed in the pipeline that makes the gas/liquid mixture spin rapidly as in a centrifuge. The gas collects along the centre of the pipe and is tapped off. The principle can also be used to separate liquid from gas. In many gas treatment systems, liquid accumulation, or carry over, is detrimental. But gas dehydrators are usually dimensioned for a minimal content of liquid in the gas. Important features of these new pipe-based separators are that they are small, remove bottlenecks in the production, and are straightforward to install. But operators who live with the problems every day are very sceptical about the new separators and should be given the opportunity to test them on land before they are installed in the field.

  2. Heat transfer capability analysis of heat pipe for space reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huaqi; Jiang Xinbiao; Chen Lixin; Yang Ning; Hu Pan; Ma Tengyue; Zhang Liang

    2015-01-01

    To insure the safety of space reactor power system with no single point failures, the reactor heat pipes must work below its heat transfer limits, thus when some pipes fail, the reactor could still be adequately cooled by neighbor heat pipes. Methods to analyze the reactor heat pipe's heat transfer limits were presented, and that for the prevailing capillary limit analysis was improved. The calculation was made on the lithium heat pipe in core of heat pipes segmented thermoelectric module converter (HP-STMC) space reactor power system (SRPS), potassium heat pipe as radiator of HP-STMC SRPS, and sodium heat pipe in core of scalable AMTEC integrated reactor space power system (SAIRS). It is shown that the prevailing capillary limits of the reactor lithium heat pipe and sodium heat pipe is 25.21 kW and 14.69 kW, providing a design margin >19.4% and >23.6%, respectively. The sonic limit of the reactor radiator potassium heat pipe is 7.88 kW, providing a design margin >43.2%. As the result of calculation, it is concluded that the main heat transfer limit of HP-STMC SRPS lithium heat pipe and SARIS sodium heat pipe is prevailing capillary limit, but the sonic limit for HP-STMC SRPS radiator potassium heat pipe. (authors)

  3. The IPIRG-1 pipe system fracture tests: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.J.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the First International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-1) program, six dynamic pipe system experiments were conducted. The objective of these experiments was to generate experimental data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system subjected to combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The pipe system evaluated was an expansion loop with over 30 m (100 feet) of 16-inch nominal diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility was equipped with special hardware to ensure that system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe system experiments. The uncracked-pipe experiment was conducted to evaluate the piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments were conducted to evaluate the fracture behavior, piping system response, and fracture stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided the tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Key results from the six pipe system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Detailed analyses will be published in a companion paper

  4. Modeling of pulsating heat pipes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Givler, Richard C.; Martinez, Mario J.

    2009-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a computer model that describes the behavior of pulsating heat pipes (PHP). The purpose of the project was to develop a highly efficient (as compared to the heat transfer capability of solid copper) thermal groundplane (TGP) using silicon carbide (SiC) as the substrate material and water as the working fluid. The objective of this project is to develop a multi-physics model for this complex phenomenon to assist with an understanding of how PHPs operate and to be able to understand how various parameters (geometry, fill ratio, materials, working fluid, etc.) affect its performance. The physical processes describing a PHP are highly coupled. Understanding its operation is further complicated by the non-equilibrium nature of the interplay between evaporation/condensation, bubble growth and collapse or coalescence, and the coupled response of the multiphase fluid dynamics among the different channels. A comprehensive theory of operation and design tools for PHPs is still an unrealized task. In the following we first analyze, in some detail, a simple model that has been proposed to describe PHP behavior. Although it includes fundamental features of a PHP, it also makes some assumptions to keep the model tractable. In an effort to improve on current modeling practice, we constructed a model for a PHP using some unique features available in FLOW-3D, version 9.2-3 (Flow Science, 2007). We believe that this flow modeling software retains more of the salient features of a PHP and thus, provides a closer representation of its behavior.

  5. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer trademark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer trademark system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane. Advantages of this approach include the capability of deploying through constrictions in the pipe, around 90 degrees bends, vertically up and down, and in slippery conditions. Because the detector is transported inside the membrane (which is inexpensive and disposable), it is protected from contamination, which eliminates cross-contamination. Characterization sensors that have been demonstrated with the system thus far include: gamma detectors, beta detectors, video cameras, and pipe locators. Alpha measurement capability is currently under development. A remotely operable Pipe Explorer trademark system has been developed and demonstrated for use in DOE facilities in the decommissioning stage. The system is capable of deployment in pipes as small as 2-inch-diameter and up to 250 feet long. This paper describes the technology and presents measurement results of a field demonstration conducted with the Pipe Explorer trademark system at a DOE site. These measurements identify surface activity levels of U-238 contamination as a function of location in drain lines. Cost savings to the DOE of approximately $1.5 million dollars were realized from this one demonstration

  6. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-11-11

    Nov 11, 2003 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. ... Lecturer/Consultant Surgeon, Paediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, .... mind and the results obtained were however satisfying.

  7. Fluxus East / Petra Stegmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stegmann, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Näitusest "Fluxus East" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis. Fluxuse liikumisest leedu kunstniku George Maciunase (1931-1978) eestvedamisel. Liikumise ilmingutest Eestis (happeningid, muusikaaktsioonid, visuaalne poeesia, mail art). Kuraator Petra Stegmann, kujundaja Andrea Pichl

  8. Multiple blowdown pipe experiments with the PPOOLEX facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.

    2011-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two steel blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through the blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged through two parallel blowdown pipes into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. Particularly, the aim was to study if the pipe material (polycarbonate) used in the earlier experiment series with two blowdown pipes has had an effect on the general chugging behaviour and measured loads. In the experiments the initial temperature of the pool water was 20 deg. C. The steam flow rate ranged from 220 g/s to 2 350 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 148 deg. C to 207 deg. C. The formation and collapse of steam bubbles and the movement of the steam/water interface inside the pipes was non-synchronous. There could be even a 70 ms time difference between the occurrences of steam bubble collapses at the outlets of the two pipes. There was no clear pattern in which pipe the steam bubble first starts to collapse. Several successive bubbles could collapse first in either pipe but then the order changed for a single or several cycles. High pressure loads were measured inside the blowdown pipes due to rapid condensation of the steam volumes in the pipes and resulting water hammer effects. The loads seemed to be higher in pipe 1 than in pipe 2. An explanation for this could be a possible unequal distribution of steam flow between the two pipes. The pipe material has an effect on the condensation phenomena inside the blowdown pipes. A huge difference in the measured pressure curves inside the pipes could be observed compared to the experiments with the polycarbonate pipes. With the same test conditions the amplitude of the

  9. Multiple blowdown pipe experiments with the PPOOLEX facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-03-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two steel blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through the blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged through two parallel blowdown pipes into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. Particularly, the aim was to study if the pipe material (polycarbonate) used in the earlier experiment series with two blowdown pipes has had an effect on the general chugging behaviour and measured loads. In the experiments the initial temperature of the pool water was 20 deg. C. The steam flow rate ranged from 220 g/s to 2 350 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 148 deg. C to 207 deg. C. The formation and collapse of steam bubbles and the movement of the steam/water interface inside the pipes was non-synchronous. There could be even a 70 ms time difference between the occurrences of steam bubble collapses at the outlets of the two pipes. There was no clear pattern in which pipe the steam bubble first starts to collapse. Several successive bubbles could collapse first in either pipe but then the order changed for a single or several cycles. High pressure loads were measured inside the blowdown pipes due to rapid condensation of the steam volumes in the pipes and resulting water hammer effects. The loads seemed to be higher in pipe 1 than in pipe 2. An explanation for this could be a possible unequal distribution of steam flow between the two pipes. The pipe material has an effect on the condensation phenomena inside the blowdown pipes. A huge difference in the measured pressure curves inside the pipes could be observed compared to the experiments with the polycarbonate pipes. With the same test conditions the amplitude of the

  10. Probabilistic analyses of failure in reactor coolant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    LLNL is performing probabilistic reliability analyses of PWR and BWR reactor coolant piping for the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Specifically, LLNL is estimating the probability of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in the reactor coolant loop piping in PWR plants, and in the main stream, feedwater, and recirculation piping of BWR plants. In estimating the probability of DEGB, LLNL considers two causes of pipe break: pipe fracture due to the growth of cracks at welded joints (direct DEGB), and pipe rupture indirectly caused by the seismically-induced failure of critical supports or equipment (indirect DEGB)

  11. An inspection of pipe by snake robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Trebuňa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with development and application of snake robot for inspection pipes. The first step involves the introduction of a design of mechanical and electrical parts of the snake robot. Next, the analysis of the robot locomotion is introduced. For the curved pipe, potential field method is used. By this method, the system is able to generate path for the head and rear robot, linking the environment with obstacles, which are represented by the walls of the pipe. Subsequently, the solution of potential field method is used in inverse kinematic model, which respects tasks as obstacle avoidance, joint limit avoidance, and singularity avoidance. Mentioned approach is then tested on snake robot in provisional pipe with rectangular cross section. For this research, software Matlab (2013b is used as the control system in cooperation with the control system of robot, which is based on microcontrollers. By experiments, it is shown that designed robot is able to pass through straight and also curved pipe.

  12. Thinned pipe management program of Korean NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Kim, T.R.; Jeon, S.C.; Hwang, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    Wall thinning of carbon steel pipe components due to Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is one of the most serious threats to the integrity of steam cycle systems in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). If the thickness of a pipe component is reduced below the critical level, it cannot sustain stress and consequently results in leakage or rupture. In order to minimize the possibility of excessive wall thinning, Thinned Pipe Management Program (TPMP) has been set up and being implemented to all Korean NPPs. Important elements of the TPMP include the prediction of the FAC rate for each component based on model analysis, prioritization of pipe components for inspection, thickness measurement, calculation of wear and wear rate for each component. Additionally, decision making associated with replacement or continuous service for thinned pipe components and establishment of long-term strategic management plan based on diagnosis of plant condition regarding overall wall thinning also are essential part of the TPMP. From pre-service inspection data, it has been found that initial thickness is varies, which influences wear and wear rate calculations. (author)

  13. NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Zhang, J. T.; Merlone, A.; Duan, Y.; Wang, W.

    2013-09-01

    Gas controlled heat pipes (GCHPs) provide a uniform, stable and reproducible temperature zone to calibrate thermometers and thermocouples, and to realize defining fixed points using a calorimetric method. Therefore, to perform such investigations, a GCHP furnace using sodium as its working fluid was constructed at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. Also, investigations into the thermal characteristics of the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe were carried out. The temperature stability over 5 hours was better than ±0.25 mK while controlling the pressure at 111250 Pa. The temperature uniformity within 14 cm from the bottom of the thermometer well was within 0.3 mK. While keeping the pressure stable at the same value, 17 temperature determinations were performed over 14 days, obtaining a temperature reproducibility of 1.27 mK. Additionally, the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe was compared with the sodium heat pipe produced by INRiM. The temperature in the INRiM sodium heat pipe operating at 111250 Pa was determined, obtaining a difference of 21 mK with respect to the NIM GCHP. This difference was attributed to sodium impurities, pressure controller capabilities and reproducibility, and instabilities of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs). Further investigations will be carried out on extending the pressure/temperature range and connecting both GCHPs to the same pressure line.

  14. Development of FBR piping bellows joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukimori, Kazuyuki; Iwata, Koji

    1991-01-01

    Reduction of construction cost is one of the most important problems to realize a FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor) Plant. Significant reduction of the construction cost of a reactor building, related equipments and facilities can be expected by shortening the length of its long cooling pipes. Since the bellows has a great capacity for absorbing thermal expansion displacement, application of bellows expansion joints is considered as the most influential measure for reduction of the piping length. To confirm technological possibilities of application and practical use of bellows joints in the main piping systems, extensive R and D's, development of various methods for evaluating the strength of bellows, establishment of inspection and maintenance techniques, studies on safety logic, etc., were carried out by PNC from 1983 to 1988. Through these studies, technological possibilities of bellows joints were confirmed and the results were summarized in the 'Structural Design Guide for Class 1 Piping Bellows Expansion Joints of Fast Breeder Reactor for Elevated Temperature Service' and the 'Inspection and Maintenance Standards of Piping bellows expansion Joints'. (author)

  15. Metallized ceramic vacuum pipe for particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, B.L.; Featherby, M.

    1990-01-01

    A ceramic vacuum chamber segment in the form of a long pipe of rectangular cross section has been assembled from standard shapes of alumina ceramic using glass bonding techniques. Prior to final glass bonding, the internal walls of the pipe are metallized using an electroplating technology. These advanced processes allow for precision patterning and conductivity control of surface conducting films. The ability to lay down both longitudinal and transverse conductor patterns separated by insulating layers of glass give the accelerator designer considerable freedom in tailoring longitudinal and transverse beam pipe impedances. Assembly techniques of these beam pipes are followed through two iterations of semi-scale pipe sections made using candidate materials and processes. These demonstrate the feasibility of the concepts and provide parts for electrical characterization and for further refinement of the approach. In a parallel effort, a variety of materials, joining processes and assembly procedures have been tried to assure flexibility and reliability in the construction of 10-meter long sections to any required specifications

  16. LWR primary coolant pipe rupture test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitoshi, Shyoji

    1978-01-01

    The rupture test rig for primary coolant pipes is constructed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to verify the reliability of the primary coolant pipes for both PWRs and BWRs. The planned test items consisted of reaction force test, restraint test, whip test, jet test and continuous release test. A pressure vessel of about 4 m 3 volume, a circulating pump, a pressurizer, a heater, an air cooler and the related instrumentation and control system are included in this test rig. The coolant test condition is 160 kg/cm 2 g, 325 deg C for PWR test, and 70 kg/cm 2 g, saturated water and steam for BWR test, 100 ton of test load for the ruptured pipe bore of 8B Schedule 160, and 20 lit/min. discharge during 20 h for continuous release of coolant. The maximum pit internal pressure was estimated for various pipe diameters and time under the PWR and BWR conditions. The spark rupturing device was adopted for the rupture mechanics in this test rig. The computer PANAFACOM U-300 is used for the data processing. This test rig is expected to operate in 1978 effectively for the improvement of reliability of LWR primary coolant pipes. (Nakai, Y.)

  17. Pipe Decontamination Involving String-Foam Circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchet, J.P.; Estienne, G.; Fournel, B.

    2002-01-01

    Foam applications number for nuclear decontamination purposes has recently increased. The major advantage of foam decontamination is the reduction of secondary liquid wastes volumes. Among foam applications, we focus on foam circulation in contaminated equipment. Dynamic properties of the system ensures an homogeneous and rapid effect of the foam bed-drifted chemical reagents present in the liquid phase. This paper describes a new approach of foam decontamination for pipes. It is based on an alternated air and foam injections. We called it 'string-foam circulation'. A further reduction of liquid wastes is achieved compared to continuous foam. Secondly, total pressure loss along the pipe is controlled by the total foam length in the pipe. It is thus possible to clean longer pipes keeping the pressure under atmospheric pressure value. This ensures the non dispersion of contamination. This study describes experimental results obtained with a neutral foam as well with an acid foam on a 130 m long loop. Finally, the decontamination of a 44 meters pipe is presented. (authors)

  18. Nuclear power plant piping damping parametric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The present NRC guidelines for structural damping to be used in the dynamic stress analyses of nuclear power plant piping systems are generally considered to be overly conservative. As a result, plant designers have in many instances used a considerable number of seismic supports to keep stresses calculated by large scale piping computer codes below the allowable limits. In response to this problem, the NRC and EG and G Idaho are engaged in programs to evaluate piping system damping, in order to provide more realistic and less conservative values to be used in seismic analyses. To generate revised guidelines, solidly based on technical data, new experimental data need to be generated and assessed, and the parameters which influence piping system damping need to be quantitatively identified. This paper presents the current state-of-the-art knowledge in the United States on parameters which influence piping system damping. Examples of inconsistencies in the data and areas of uncertainty are explained. A discussion of programs by EG and G Idaho and other organizations to evaluate various effects is included, and both short and long range goals of the program are outlined

  19. Leukaemia in East Suffolk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, M.F.H.

    1983-09-01

    An investigation was conducted by the East Suffolk Health Authority to determine whether there were any geographical variations in the incidence of leukaemia over the last fifteen years in East Suffolk suggesting an environmental hazard, e.g. Sizewell Power Station. No areas were found to have a statistically significant increased incidence of leukaemia cases although there did appear to be a cluster of cases in the Leiston area. (U.K.)

  20. Humin to Human: Organic carbon, sediment, and water fluxes along river corridors in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutfin, Nicholas Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-20

    This is a presentation with slides on What does it mean to be human? ...humin?; River flow and Hydrographs; Snake River altered hydrograph (Marston et al., 2005); Carbon dynamics are important in rivers; Rivers and streams as carbon sink; Reservoirs for organic carbon; Study sites in Colorado; River morphology; Soil sample collection; Surveys at RMNP; Soil organic carbon content at RMNP; Abandoned channels and Cutoffs; East River channel migration and erosion; Linking hydrology to floodplain sediment flux; Impact of Extreme Floods on Floodplain Sediment; Channel Geometry: RMNP; Beavers dams and multithread channels; Geomorphology and carbon in N. St. Vrain Creek; Geomorphology and carbon along the East River; Geomorphology and carbon in N. St. Vrain Creek; San Marcos River, etc.

  1. MISR Views the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image, generated using 16 orbits of MISR data collected between August 16 and August 30, 2000, takes us to the cradle of many civilizations. The data are from the 60-degree aftward-viewing camera. Because the individual orbit swaths are only 400 kilometers wide, they were 'mosaiced' together to form this composite picture, which covers about 2700 kilometers from west to east and 1750 kilometers from north to south. A few discontinuities are present in the mosaic, particularly near clouds, due to changes in the scene which occurred between dates when the individual orbit data were acquired.At the northern tip of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba frame the sandy deserts and spectacular mountains of the Sinai Peninsula. The highest peaks are Gebel Katherina (Mountain of St. Catherine, 2637 meters) and Gebel Musa (Mountain of Moses, also known as Mount Sinai, 2285 meters). To the northeast, Israel and Jordan flank the Dead Sea, one of the saltiest inland water bodies in the world. At its northern edge is Qumran, where the ancient Scrolls were discovered; the city of Jerusalem lies about 30 kilometers to the west.Several large rivers are prominent. Flowing southeastward through Iraq are the Tigris and Euphrates. The dark area between the two rivers, northwest of the Persian Gulf, is a very fertile region where fishing and farming are prevalent. Wending its way through eastern Egypt is the Nile. In the south is Lake Nasser and the Aswan Dam; continuing northward the Nile passes the Temple of Luxor as it sharply loops to the east. It then turns west and northward, eventually passing the capital city of Cairo, and finally spreading into a prominent delta as it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The bright dot just west of the apex of the delta marks the location of the great Pyramids and Sphinx complexes on the Giza Plateau. On the coast, west of the delta, is the ancient city of Alexandria, Egypt's main seaport.'MISR', as it turns out, is the

  2. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Responses of Open Channels to Exposed Pipe Encasements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Q Mao

    Full Text Available The effects of exposed pipe encasements on the local variation of hydrodynamic and sediment conditions in a river channel are examined. Laboratory experiments are performed to assess the response of water level, flow regime and bed deformation to several representative types of concrete encasements. The experimental conditions considered are: three types of exposed pipe encasements exposed on the bed, including trapezoidal shape, circular-arc shape and polygonal shape, and three sets of discharges, including annual discharge, once-in-3-year flood, and once-in-50-year flood. Our experiments show that: (1 the amount of backwater definitely depends on the encasement geometric shape and the background discharge; (2 smaller discharges generally tend to induce local scour of river bed downstream of the encasement, and the order of sensitivity of bed deformation to the encasement geometric shape is trapezoidal > circular-arc > polygonal; (3 comparatively speaking, the polygonal encasement may be considered as a suitable protective structure for pipelines across alluvial rivers, with relatively modest effects on the local hydrodynamic conditions and bed stabilization.

  3. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Responses of Open Channels to Exposed Pipe Encasements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J Q; Zhang, H Q; Dai, H C; Yuan, B H; Hu, T F

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exposed pipe encasements on the local variation of hydrodynamic and sediment conditions in a river channel are examined. Laboratory experiments are performed to assess the response of water level, flow regime and bed deformation to several representative types of concrete encasements. The experimental conditions considered are: three types of exposed pipe encasements exposed on the bed, including trapezoidal shape, circular-arc shape and polygonal shape, and three sets of discharges, including annual discharge, once-in-3-year flood, and once-in-50-year flood. Our experiments show that: (1) the amount of backwater definitely depends on the encasement geometric shape and the background discharge; (2) smaller discharges generally tend to induce local scour of river bed downstream of the encasement, and the order of sensitivity of bed deformation to the encasement geometric shape is trapezoidal > circular-arc > polygonal; (3) comparatively speaking, the polygonal encasement may be considered as a suitable protective structure for pipelines across alluvial rivers, with relatively modest effects on the local hydrodynamic conditions and bed stabilization.

  4. Modification of Turbulent Pipe Flow Equations to Estimate the Vertical Velocity Profiles Under Woody Debris Jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervania, A.; Knack, I. M. W.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of woody debris (WD) jams in rivers and streams increases the risk of backwater flooding and reduces the navigability of a channel, but adds fish and macroinvertebrate habitat to the stream. When designing river engineering projects engineers use hydraulic models to predict flow behavior around these obstructions. However, the complexities of flow through and beneath WD jams are still poorly understood. By increasing the ability to predict flow behavior around WD jams, landowners and engineers are empowered to develop sustainable practices regarding the removal or placement of WD in rivers and flood plains to balance the desirable and undesirable effects to society and the environment. The objective of this study is to address some of this knowledge gap by developing a method to estimate the vertical velocity profile of flow under WD jams. When flow passes under WD jams, it becomes affected by roughness elements on all sides, similar to turbulent flows in pipe systems. Therefore, the method was developed using equations that define the velocity profiles of turbulent pipe flows: the law of the wall, the logarithmic law, and the velocity defect law. Flume simulations of WD jams were conducted and the vertical velocity profiles were measured along the centerline. A calculated velocity profile was fit to the measured profile through the calibration of eight parameters. An optimal value or range of values have been determined for several of these parameters using cross-validation techniques. The results indicate there may be some promise to using this method in hydraulic models.

  5. Structural analysis program of plant piping system. Introduction of AutoPIPE V8i new feature. JSME PPC-class 2 piping code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Kazuhiko

    2009-01-01

    After an integration with ADLPipe, AutoPIPE V8i (ver.9.1) became the structural analysis program of plant piping system featured with analysis capability for the ASME NB Class 1 and JSME PPC-Class 2 piping codes including ASME NC Class 2 and ASME ND Class 3. This article described analysis capability for the JSME PPC-Class 2 piping code as well as new general features such as static analysis up to 100 thermal, 10 seismic and 10 wind load cases including different loading scenarios and pipe segment edit function: join, split, reverse and re-order segments. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Experimental Investigation on Corrosion of Cast Iron Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mohebbi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that corrosion is the predominant mechanism for the deterioration of cast iron pipes, leading to the reduction of pipe capacity and ultimate collapse of the pipes. In order to assess the remaining service life of corroded cast iron pipes, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of corrosion over a long term and to develop models for pipe deterioration. Although many studies have been carried out to determine the corrosion behavior of cast iron, little research has been undertaken to understand how cast iron pipes behave over a longer time scale than hours, days, or weeks. The present paper intends to fill the gap regarding the long-term corrosion behaviour of cast iron pipes in the absence of historical data. In this paper, a comprehensive experimental program is presented in which the corrosion behaviour of three exservice pipes was thoroughly examined in three simulated service environments. It has been found in the paper that localised corrosion is the primary form of corrosion of cast iron water pipes. It has also been found that the microstructure of cast irons is a key factor that affects the corrosion behaviour of cast iron pipes. The paper concludes that long-term tests on corrosion behaviour of cast iron pipes can help develop models for corrosion-induced deterioration of the pipes for use in predicting the remaining service life of the pipes.

  7. Piping in need of a facelift

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    The LS1 offers a good opportunity to renovate/consolidate the CERN piping system. This is actually one of this year’s objectives set by CERN's Director-General as the state of several pressurised pipe networks has become a matter of significant concern. The ageing infrastructure makes it essential to perform in-depth inspections and repairs on several networks, which are easier to perform when most systems are down.   We are advising each Department/Group concerned to take a series of actions to ensure that their pipelines comply with personal, environmental and operational safety requirements: an inventory of ageing installations to allow a long-term replacement plan to be drawn up; immediate repair in the event of major signs of deterioration; investigation and repair/mitigation measures to prevent leaks; marking and, if necessary, mechanical protection of pipes located in thoroughfares and exposed to vehicles or people. Help needed, questions? Do not hesitate to contact us ...

  8. Control of pipe vibrations; Schwingungsminderung bei Rohrleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinambari, G.R. [FH Bingen, Fachrichtung Umweltschutz, und IBS Ingenieurbuero fuer Schall- und Schwingungstechnik GmbH, Frankenthal (Germany); Thorn, U. [IBS Ingenieurbuero fuer Schall- und Schwingungstechnik GmbH, Frankenthal (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Following commissioning of a new vacuum system for the refinery of MiRO Mineraloelraffinerie Oberrhein GmbH and Co. KG, vibrations occurred in the furnace exhaust pipes. As these had to be regarded as critical for the fatigue strength of the pipes, the pipes' vibration response in the critical frequency range was investigated immediately by means of a vibration analysis, and appropriate measures for vibration control were elaborated. All investigations, and the installation of the hydraulic vibration dampers, took place with the system operating. The effectiveness of the measures taken was checked by means of measurements following installation. The measures succeeded in attenuating the vibrations to a level at which, empirically, damage need no longer be expected. This paper illustrates the procedure for developing the vibration control measures and the essential results of the investigations. (orig.)

  9. Wall thinning of piping in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Joji; Inada, Fumio; Morita, Ryo; Kawai, Noboru; Yoneda, Kimitoshi

    2005-01-01

    Major mechanisms causing wall thinning of piping in power plants are flow accelerated corrosion (FAC), cavitation erosion and droplet erosion. Their fundamental aspects are reviewed on the basis of literature data. FAC is chemical process and it is affected by hydrodynamic factors, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration and chemical composition of materials. On the other hand, cavitation erosion and droplet erosion are mechanical process and they are mainly affected by hydrodynamic factors and mechanical properties of materials. Evaluation codes for FAC and mitigation methods of FAC and the erosion are also described. Wall thinning of piping is one of public concerns after an accident of a pipe failure at Mihama Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., in August 2004. This paper gives comprehensive understanding of the wall thinning mechanism. (author)

  10. Nuclear power plant piping damping parametric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The NRC and EG and G Idaho are engaged in programs to evaluate piping-system damping, in order to provide realistic and less conservative values to be used in seismic analyses. To generate revised guidelines, solidly based on technical data, new experimental data need to be generated and assessed, and the parameters which influence piping-system damping need to be quantitatively identified. This paper presents the current state-of-the-art knowledge in the United States on parameters which influence piping-system damping. Examples of inconsistencies in the data and areas of uncertainty are explained. A discussion of programs by EG and G Idaho and other organizations to evaluate various effects are included, and both short-and long-range goals of the program are outlined

  11. Failure analysis on a ruptured petrochemical pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harun, Mohd [Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Kamardin, A. [Univ. Malaysia Perlis, Jejawi, Arau (Malaysia). School of Materials Engineering

    2010-08-15

    The failure took place on a welded elbow pipe which exhibited a catastrophic transverse rupture. The failure was located on the welding HAZ region, parallel to the welding path. Branching cracks were detected at the edge of the rupture area. Deposits of corrosion products were also spotted. The optical microscope analysis showed the presence of transgranular failures which were related to the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and were predominantly caused by the welding residual stress. The significant difference in hardness between the welded area and the pipe confirmed the findings. Moreover, the failure was also caused by the low Mo content in the stainless steel pipe which was detected by means of spark emission spectrometer. (orig.)

  12. Performance testing of a hydrogen heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alario, J.; Kosson, R.

    1980-01-01

    Test results are presented for a reentrant groove heat pipe with hydrogen working fluid. The heat pipe became operational between 20 and 30 K after a cooldown from 77 K without any difficulty. Steady-state performance data taken over a 19 to 23 K temperature range indicated the following: (1) maximum heat transport capacity 5.4 W-m (2) static wicking height 1.42 cm and (3) overall heat pipe conductance 1.7 W/C. These data agreed remarkably well with extrapolations made from comparable ammonia test results. The maximum heat transport capacity is 9.5% larger than the extrapolated value, but the static wicking height is the same. The overall conductance is 29% of the ammonia value, which is close to the ratio of liquid thermal conductivities (24%). Also, recovery from a completely frozen condition was accomplished within 5 min by simply applying an evaporater heat load of 1.8 W

  13. Analytical and numerical modeling for flexible pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Geng

    2011-12-01

    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers, in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties, has been analyzed. Specifically, the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics. The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness. With consideration of the effective elastic moduli, the structure can be properly analyzed. Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque. Further, the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered. Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed, which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  14. Inelastic analysis of SNR-300 piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebel, H [INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany); Di Luna, L J; Moy, G [Teledyne Engineering Services, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1983-05-01

    This paper investigates plasticity, creep, and elastic follow-up effects on a full size hot primary piping system of the German fast breeder reactor prototype, the SNR-300. A large model (327 elements, 419 nodes) of straight pipe, special elbow and hanger elements of the general purpose finite element program, MARC-CDC, is used to predict piping behavior for a heat-up, sodium loading-unloading-reloading cycle and other significant operating conditions. Included in this work are many time-dependent solution increments for a 5,000 hour creep period. Creep strains and relaxed stress results, after 5,000 hours, for the complete model are used with uniaxial and biaxial models and results to extrapolate conclusions for a 100,000 hour operating life. (author)

  15. Heat pipes for ground heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L

    1988-01-01

    Different versions of heat pipe ground heating and cooling devices are considered. Solar energy, biomass, ground stored energy, recovered heat of industrial enterprises and ambient cold air are used as energy and cold sources. Heat pipe utilization of air in winter makes it possible to design accumulators of cold and ensures deep freezing of ground in order to increase its mechanical strength when building roadways through the swamps and ponds in Siberia. Long-term underground heat storage systems are considered, in which the solar and biomass energy is accumulated and then transferred to heat dwellings and greenhouses, as well as to remove snow from roadways with the help of heat pipes and solar collectors.

  16. Pipe-flange detection with GPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, Néstor; De la Vega, Matías; Martinelli, Patricia; Osella, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an application of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) method for detecting pipe flanges. A case history is described in which GPR was successfully used to locate pipe flanges along an 8 km metal pipeline, using a fixed-offset methodology, from the ground surface. Summaries of numerical simulations and in situ tests, performed before the definitive prospecting to evaluate the feasibility of detection, are included. Typical GPR signals are analysed and several examples shown. Constant-time sections of data volumes and migration are evaluated with the goal of distinguishing flange signals from rock signals in unclear situations. The applied methodology was effective for detecting the pipe flanges in relatively short times, with accuracies below 10 cm in the horizontal direction and 20 cm in the vertical direction

  17. Inelastic analysis of SNR-300 piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebel, H.; Di Luna, L.J.; Moy, G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper investigates plasticity, creep, and elastic follow-up effects on a full size hot primary piping system of the German fast breeder reactor prototype, the SNR-300. A large model (327 elements, 419 nodes) of straight pipe, special elbow and hanger elements of the general purpose finite element program, MARC-CDC, is used to predict piping behavior for a heat-up, sodium loading-unloading-reloading cycle and other significant operating conditions. Included in this work are many time-dependent solution increments for a 5,000 hour creep period. Creep strains and relaxed stress results, after 5,000 hours, for the complete model are used with uniaxial and biaxial models and results to extrapolate conclusions for a 100,000 hour operating life. (author)

  18. Development of solutions to benchmark piping problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, M; Chang, T Y; Prachuktam, S; Hartzman, M

    1977-12-01

    Benchmark problems and their solutions are presented. The problems consist in calculating the static and dynamic response of selected piping structures subjected to a variety of loading conditions. The structures range from simple pipe geometries to a representative full scale primary nuclear piping system, which includes the various components and their supports. These structures are assumed to behave in a linear elastic fashion only, i.e., they experience small deformations and small displacements with no existing gaps, and remain elastic through their entire response. The solutions were obtained by using the program EPIPE, which is a modification of the widely available program SAP IV. A brief outline of the theoretical background of this program and its verification is also included.

  19. Heat pipe with PCM for electronic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Ying-Che; Cho, Hung-Pin; Chang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Sih-Li

    2011-01-01

    This article experimentally investigates the thermal performances of a heat pipe with phase change material for electronic cooling. The adiabatic section of heat pipe is covered by a storage container with phase change material (PCM), which can store and release thermal energy depending upon the heating powers of evaporator and fan speeds of condenser. Experimental investigations are conducted to obtain the system temperature distributions from the charge, discharge and simultaneous charge/discharge performance tests. The parameters in this study include three kinds of PCMs, different filling PCM volumes, fan speeds, and heating powers in the PCM cooling module. The cooling module with tricosane as PCM can save 46% of the fan power consumption compared with the traditional heat pipe.

  20. Residual stress improvement for pipe weld by means of induction heating pre-flawed pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemoto, T.; Yoshida, K.; Okamoto, A.

    1980-01-01

    The intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) has been found in type 304 stainless steel piping of several BWR plants. It is already well known that IGSCC is most likely to occur when three essential factors, material sensitization, high tensile stress and corrosive environment, are present. If the welding residual stress is sufficiently high (200 to approximately 400 MPa) in the inside piping surface near the welded joint, then it may be one of the biggest contributors to IGSCC. If the residual stress is reduced or reversed by some way, the IGSCC will be effectively mitigated. In this paper a method to improve the residual stress named IHSI (Induction Heating Stress Improvement) is explained. IHSI aims to improve the condition of residual stress in the inside pipe surface using the thermal stress induced by the temperature difference in pipe wall, that is produced when the pipe is heated from the outside surface by an induction heating coil and cooled on the inside surface by water simultaneously. This method becomes more attractive when it can be successfully applied to in-service piping which might have some pre-flaw. In order to verify the validity of IHSI for such piping, some experiments and calculations using finite element method were conducted. These results are mainly discussed in this paper from the view-points of residual stress, flaw behaviour during IHSI and material deterioration. (author)

  1. Pipe rupture test results; 6 in. pipe whip test under BWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ryoichi; Yano, Toshikazu; Ueda, Shuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Rokuro; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1983-02-01

    A series of pipe rupture tests has been performed in JAERI to demonstrate the safety of the primary coolant circuits in the event of pipe rupture, in nuclear power plants. The present report summarizes the results of 6 in. pipe whip tests (RUN 5605, 5606), under BWR LOCA conditions (285 0 C, 6.8 MPa), which were performed in August, 1981. The test pipe is made of Type 304 stainless steel and its outer diameter is 6 in. and its thickness is 11.1 mm. The restraints are made of Type 304 stainless steel and its diameter is 16.0 mm. Two restraints were set on the restraint support with clearance of 100 mm. Overhang length was varied as the parameter in these tests and was 300 mm or 700 mm. The following results are obtained. (1) The deformations of a pipe and restraints are limited effectively by shorter overhang length of 300. However, they become larger when the overhang length is 700 mm, and the pipe deforms especially at the setting point of restraints. (2) Velocity at the free end of pipe becomes about 30 m/sec just after the break. However, velocity at the setting point of restraint becomes about only 4 m/sec just after the break. (3) It seems from the comparison between the 4 in. tests and 6 in. tests that the maximum restraint force of 6 in. tests is about two times as large as that of 4 in. tests. (author)

  2. Fibre optic monitoring of pipes a world first

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full text: This article explains how water authorities can remotely monitor vast kilometres of underground pipe, quickly pinpoint faults and, more importantly, assess how critical they are. A new fibre optic system developed in a collaboration between Melbourne Water, Monash University, South East Water, CSIRO Land and Water, and Hawk Measurement Systems has the potential to provide 24/7 monitoring, inexpensive fault and deterioration location, and to reduce unnecessary pipe maintenance. Trials show the system is accurate to within one metre along 50km of pipe. A grant from the Department of State Development, Business and Innovation's Market Validation Program, along with cash and in-kind contributions, has resulted in a $2.5 million project. Existing fibre optic-sensing technology was known to have the capability to monitor the condition and integrity of pipes, but available solutions were largely confined to those above ground. What was needed was a system that allowed sensors to be installed and managed on buried pipes in a cost- effective manner for the long service life of water pipelines - about 100 years. Traditionally, leaks need to become visible first. They are then located with a stethoscope-like instrument, which requires a site visit. This observation can be drawn out because leaking water often appears at the surface some distance from the actual pipe fracture. With the new fibre optic system, once a fault is identified it can be evaluated remotely using a data-acquisition system capable of sensing three variables - stress and strain (or pressure), sound vibrations and temperature. A laser beam is sent to the optical fibre, which measures the signals coming back. Analysis of the spectrum interprets the signals, telling the operator what kind of fault is occurring, its location and dimensions. Continuous, long-term remote monitoring using fibre optics eliminates the need for onsite inspection. All the sensed variables are monitored and accuracy is

  3. An elevator for lifting and turning pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, S.P.; Borchenkov, G.I.; Komarov, V.N.; Lebedev, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed for lifting and turning pipes, which includes a body and a bushing hinged to it with projections and a shank with a threaded adapter and cams which interact with the projections of the bushing. In order to increase the operational safety of the device through ensuring the capability of eliminating drops in the torque from the shank to the body when raising and extracting drill pipes, the body is equipped with eccentric cams rigidly connected to it, while the shank is equipped with a ring movable connected with it. The eccentric cams are installed between the bushing and the body with the capability of interacting with the shank ring.

  4. Design analysis of liquid metal pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolin, L.L.; LaSalle, F.R.

    1979-02-01

    Design guidelines pertinent to liquid metal pipe supports are presented. The numerous complex conditions affecting the support stiffness and strength are addressed in detail. Topics covered include modeling of supports for natural frequency and stiffness calculations, support hardware components, formulas for deflection due to torsion, plate bending, and out-of-plane flexibility. A sample analysis and a discussion on stress analysis of supports are included. Also presented are recommendations for design improvements for increasing the stiffness of pipe supports and which were utilized in the FFTF system

  5. BOA: Pipe asbestos insulation removal robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W.

    1995-01-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee

  6. Corrosion Surveillance In Pipe By Computed Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen The Man; Dao Duy Dung; Dang Thu Hong; Le Duc Thinh; Ha Hong Thu; Nguyen Trong Nghia

    2014-01-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) is a technique of digital industrial radiology which is developed to replace conventional radiography. With a CR system, the detection of the outer and inner wall surface of the pipe is done usually by edge detection and filter algorithms of the profile line at the position under investigation. Applying in industries, radiographic examination shall be performed in accordance with a written procedure. This paper summarizes collected knowledge and experimental results to establish a procedure for radiography applications in monitoring corrosion in small bore pipes. (author)

  7. Design and analysis for piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterkel, H.-P.; Cutrim, J.H.C.

    1981-01-01

    The procedure and the typical techniques that are used in NUCLEN for the design and the calculation of the piping of Nuclear Plants. The classification system are generically described and the analysis techniques which are used for the design and verification of the piping systems, i.e. pressure design for the dimensioning of the wallthicknesses, temperature and dead weight analysis together with determination of support points, are shown. The techniques of dynamic design and analyses are described for earthquake and pressure impulse loadings. (Author) [pt

  8. Piping stress analysis with personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The growing market of the personal computers is providing an increasing number of professionals with unprecedented and surprisingly inexpensive computing capacity, which if using with powerful software, can enhance immensely the engineers capabilities. This paper focuses on the possibilities which opened in piping stress analysis by the widespread distribution of personal computers, on the necessary changes in the software and on the limitations of using personal computers for engineering design and analysis. Reliability and quality assurance aspects of using personal computers for nuclear applications are also mentioned. The paper resumes with personal views of the author and experiences gained during interactive graphic piping software development for personal computers. (orig./GL)

  9. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  10. Magnet fall inside a conductive pipe: motion and the role of the pipe wall thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, G; Ladera, C L; Martin, P [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon BolIvar, Apdo. 89000, Caracas 1080 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)], E-mail: clladera@usb.ve, E-mail: pmartin@usb.ve

    2009-07-15

    Theoretical models and experimental results are presented for the retarded fall of a strong magnet inside a vertical conductive non-magnetic tube. Predictions and experimental results are in good agreement modelling the magnet as a simple magnetic dipole. The effect of varying the pipe wall thickness on the retarding magnetic drag is studied for pipes of different materials. Conductive pipes of thinner walls produce less dragging force and the retarded fall of the magnet is seen to consist of an initial transient accelerated regime followed by a stage of uniform motion. Alternative models of the magnet field are also presented that improve the agreement between theory and experiments.

  11. Piping data retrieval system (PDRS): An integrated package to aid piping layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, K.N.; Sharma, A.; Susandhi, R.; Basu, S.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated package to aid piping layout has been developed and implemented on PDP-11/34 system at Hall 7. The package allows various equipments to be modelled, consisting of primitive equipment components. The equipment layout for the plant can then be reproduced in the form of drawings such as plan, elevation, isometric or perspective. The package has the built in function to perform hidden line removal among equipments. Once the equipment layout is finalised, the package aids in superimposing the piping as per the specified pipe routine. The report discusses the general capabilities and the major input requirements for the package. (author)

  12. 46 CFR 194.20-19 - Piping and electrical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Storerooms § 194.20-19 Piping and electrical requirements. (a) Piping, electrical equipment, and wiring shall... storeroom itself. (b) The electrical installation shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements of...

  13. PSA applications and piping reliability analysis: where do we stand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydell, B.O.Y.

    1997-01-01

    This reviews a recently proposed framework for piping reliability analysis. The framework was developed to promote critical interpretations of operational data on pipe failures, and to support application-specific-parameter estimation

  14. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 192 - Qualification of Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., “Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric-Fusion-Welded for High Pressure Service at... by reference, see § 192.7). ASTM D2517—Thermosetting plastic pipe and tubing, “Standard Specification...

  15. Inertial Effects on Finite Length Pipe Seismic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Corrado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A seismic analysis for soil-pipe interaction which accounts for length and constraining conditions at the ends of a continuous pipe is developed. The Winkler model is used to schematize the soil-structure interaction. The approach is focused on axial strains, since bending strains in a buried pipe due to the wave propagation are typically a second-order effect. Unlike many works, the inertial terms are considered in solving equations. Accurate numerical simulations are carried out to show the influence of pipe length and constraint conditions on the pipe seismic strain. The obtained results are compared with results inferred from other models present in the literature. For free-end pipelines, inertial effects have significant influence only for short length. On the contrary, their influence is always important for pinned pipes. Numerical simulations show that a simple rigid model can be used for free-end pipes, whereas pinned pipes need more accurate models.

  16. 46 CFR 34.25-15 - Piping-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) Distribution piping shall be of materials resistant to corrosion, except that steel or iron pipe may be used if inside corrosion resistant...

  17. Sludge pipe flow pressure drop prediction using composite power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sludge pipe flow pressure drop prediction using composite power-law friction ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ... When predicting pressure gradients for the flow of sludges in pipes, the ...

  18. High temperature heat pipe experiments in low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.; Critchley, E.

    1993-01-01

    Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most high power space power system designs, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro-gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation for testing in low earth orbit. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will be tested aborad the Space Shuttle in 1995. Three heat pipes will be tested in a cargo bay Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The heat pipes are SST/potassium, each with a different wick structure; homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap, the heat pipes have been designed, fabricated, and ground tested. In this paper, the heat pipe designs are specified, and transient and steady-state ground test data are presented

  19. Significance of residual stress on fatigue properties of welded pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, A.; Maeda, Y.; Kanao, M.

    1984-01-01

    The mean stress effect on the fatigue properties of two kinds of welded pipes was investigated in cantilever bending. The fatigue strength changed with the mean stress on fillet welded pipes, but did not change on butt welded pipes. The fatigue crack initiated from the toe of weld on the outer surface of fillet welded pipes and from the undercut on the inner surface of butt welded pipes. The measurement of the fatigue crack propagation rate and the residual stress distribution through the thickness of pipe revealed that the difference in the fatigue properties between fillet and butt welded pipes arose from the weld-induced residual stress, tension on the inner surface and compression on the outer surface. It is suggested that the production of compressive residual stress along the inner surface would be an effective means for improving the fatigue strength of butt welded pipes. (author)

  20. Automated ultrasonic inspection of IGSCC in DOE production reactor process water piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.M.; Sprayberry, R.; Ehrhart, W.

    1987-01-01

    Inspection of nuclear power components has always presented difficulties to the nondestructive testing (NDT) industry from a time consumption and radiation exposure standpoint. Recent advances in computerized NDT equipment have improved the situation to some extent; however, the need for high reliability, precision, reproducibility, and clear permanent documentation are indispensable requirements that can only be met by automatic inspection and recording systems. The Savannah River Plant's inspection program of over 1000 IGSCC-susceptible welds is one of the most complete in the country and offers educational insight into ultrasonic examination technology of thin-wall stainless steel pipe welds