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Sample records for east resources export

  1. Middle East gas utilization and export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornet-Gandolphe, S.

    1995-01-01

    There is huge gas supply potential in the Middle East, which possesses over one third of the world's natural gas reserves. However, marketed production represents only 6% of the world total, demonstrating that gas resources in the Middle East are under utilized. The value of these resources will be realized only if the gas finds a commercial outlet that guarantees proper return on investments for gas producers and the best possible use of this nonrenewable resource for governments. Apart from the chemical sector, which has provided a good outlet for natural gas, the development of natural gas resources in the region has been very limited historically, inhibited by many factors linked to the resource itself and to the characteristics of the region. However, natural gas in the Middle East is now at a crossroads, facing both major challenges and significant opportunities. The region, which currently plays only a marginal role on the world gas market, has the potential to become a leading world supplier, provided a number of political and economic conditions are fulfilled. This paper discusses some of the challenges that Middle Eastern countries face in trying to develop their natural gas resources. It reviews development potential for Middle Eastern gas reserves, whether for local use and/or exports, and it highlights future opportunities. (Author)

  2. Emerging energy security issues: Natural gas in the Gulf Nations, An overview of Middle East resources, export potentials, and markets. Report Series No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This paper proceeds with a presentation of the natural gas resource base of the Gulf nations of the Middle East. The resource base is put in the context of the world natural gas resource and trade flows. This is followed by a discussion of the existing and planned project to move Gulf natural gas to consuming regions. Then a discussion of the source of demand in the likely target markets for the Gulf resource follows. Next, the nature of LNG pricing is discussed. A brief summary concludes the paper

  3. Exploring crude oil production and export capacity of the OPEC Middle East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Voudouris, Vlasios; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Rigby, Robert; Di Maio, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    As the world economy highly depends on crude oil, it is important to understand the dynamics of crude oil production and export capacity of major oil-exporting countries. Since crude oil resources are predominately located in the OPEC Middle East, these countries are expected to have significant leverage in the world crude oil markets by taking into account a range of uncertainties. In this study, we develop a scenario for crude oil export and production using the ACEGES model considering uncertainties in the resource limits, demand growth, production growth, and peak/decline point. The results indicate that the country-specific peak of both crude oil export and production comes in the early this century in the OPEC Middle East countries. On the other hand, they occupy most of the world export and production before and after the peak points. Consequently, these countries are expected to be the key group in the world crude oil markets. We also find that the gap between the world crude oil demand and production broadens over time, meaning that the acceleration of the development of ultra-deep-water oil, oil sands, and extra-heavy oil will be required if the world continuous to heavily rely on oil products. - Highlights: ► We simulate the future scenario of crude oil export and production using ACEGES. ► The simulated results are analyzed using the GAMLSS framework. ► The peak points of oil export and production will come early in this century. ► The OPCE Middle East will produce most of the world crude oil in the near future. ► These countries will continuously be the key players in the crude oil markets.

  4. Gas export potential of Russia's East: Will it match Asia-Pacific markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.; Starostina, E.

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Far East and East Siberia are emerging as new major sources of gas supplies for East Asian energy markets. Thanks to ongoing and earmarked resource and infrastructure developments in Sakhalin, Yakutia (Sakha) and Irkutsk, by around 2020 these poorly developed but naturally endowed areas of the country's East can provide between 50 and 70 Bcm/yr (5-7 Bcfd) of natural gas, including up to 10 Mt/yr of LNG, available for exports to neighbouring Pacific countries (primarily to the PRC, Japan, South Korea as well as to Taiwan and the U.S. West Coast). This can noticeably reshape today's matrix of the Asia-Pacific energy flows and even destabilize the regional gas market. (author)

  5. Middle East gas export projects: The case of Abu Dhabi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Marzooqi, H.

    1995-01-01

    Abu Dhabi is ranked in the industry journals in the top 5 in the world tables of both oil and gas reserves. Gas is produced both Onshore and Offshore from associated and non-associated fields. Production has tripped during the last ten years and will increase further in the next few years as a result of current and planned investment. Development of Abu Dhabi's gas resources is aimed at enhancing oil production and recovery, meeting local and export demand and eliminating waste. Companies in Abu Dhabi are involved in all the main sectors of gas industry including production, processing, transportation and sales. The first large LNG export project by sea in Arabian Gulf was established in 1977 from Abu to Japan. Development continues and the gas is exported as LNG and is also processed into LPG and Pentane Plus for export. Japan remains the main market. The volume of Condensate available for export and processing will increase significantly in the next few years. In order to ensure a continuing and increasing supply of gas to world markets, in future years, prices will need to provide an adequate return on investment and should also reflect the environmental advantages of gas. 9 tabs

  6. Effects of distances and company resources for enterprise export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to evaluate the effect of distance on the export performance of companies in Santa Catarina, and to what extent this effect is moderated by organizational resource characteristics. Multiple linear regression and variance analysis were used for a perception survey of export managers with a final sample of 49 exporting producers. The constructs showed internal validity and allowed the data to be analyzed. The results only revealed evidence regarding the effect of psychic distance, showing a positive relationship with export performance. Also, the model estimation showed that the organization's resources moderate the relation between distance and export performance. Finally the study also shows that the export team and the organizational structure moderate the effect of distance on the performance and future performance expectations of the companies.

  7. Essays on China’s Exports to East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian

    China’s emergence as the world’s major trading nation has been well documented and discussed in the economics literature. One such trend that has garnered intensive media exposure and political discussion but far less formal economic analysis is the sudden rise of China as Africa’s biggest trading......’s exports to Ethiopia, including their increased market shares and expanded product penetrations. It further provides formal measures of “sophistication” of Chinese exports to this market, relative to both exports sourced from other major exporters such as the EU, and China’s overall exports. Findings...... to the EAC. While augmenting the empirical evidence on the impacts of rising Chinese exports, our results also provide useful inputs into the debates on formulating future trade arrangements between the EU and EAC....

  8. Intra-regional agricultural exports in the East African community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the causes of intra-EAC agricultural exports. Five Augmented gravity models were estimated using the Pseudo Poisson Maximum Likelihood (PPML) Approach. The study used panel data from UNCOMTRADE, International Financial Statistics and World Development Indicators for the period 2000 ...

  9. The directory of US coal and technology export resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of The Directory remains focused on offering a consolidated resource to potential buyers of US coal, coal technology, and expertise. This is consistent with the US policy on coal and coal technology trade, which continues to emphasize export market strategy implementation. Within this context, DOE will continue to support the teaming'' approach to marketing; i.e., vertically integrated large project teams to include multiple industry sectors, such as coal producers, engineering and construction firms, equipment manufacturers, financing and service organizations.

  10. A RESOURCE-BASED VIEW OF SMALL EXPORT FIRMS' SOCIAL CAPITAL IN A SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doren Chadee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the social capital that facilitates the flow of export knowledge, thereby supporting the entrepreneurial stance of small export firms. By applying the VRIO (value, rarity, inimitability and organisation of firm resources framework to the resource-based view (RBV of the firm, this study suggests that superior performance is a function of resources that are valuable, rare, inimitable and sufficiently organised to develop and sustain the firm's competitive advantage. This study argues that small, resource-constrained export firms in a developing economy are able to adopt entrepreneurial tactics and reap positive rates of return by exploiting their relational capital to acquire export knowledge. A survey of 175 small export firms in the Philippines was conducted, and the data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results suggest positive relationships between the firm's social capital and export knowledge. Export knowledge is associated with entrepreneurial orientation, which then correlates with export performance.

  11. Resource price turbulence and macroeconomic adjustment for a resource exporter. A conceptual framework for policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Grant M.; Harvie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Increased global demand for energy and other resources, particularly from the rapidly developing economies of China and India and the opening up of global resource markets to global investors and speculative activity, has resulted in considerable recent turbulence in resource prices. The recent magnitude of change in resource prices, both positive and negative, and their macroeconomic implications is of considerable contemporary importance to both resource importing and exporting economies. For a resource exporting economy, such as that of Australia, the recent resource price boom has resulted in: increased government taxation revenue, increased employment and wages in the resource and resource related sectors, increased spending in the domestic economy that contributed to buoyant economic growth, increased resource exports to the booming economies of China and India and contributed to a stronger domestic currency with beneficial effects upon inflation. On the other hand these developments have had adverse effects on the non-resource sector by: subjecting it to more intense competition for limited resources, contributing to a loss of international competitiveness and reduced exports arising from a stronger exchange rate, reducing employment in the relatively more labour intensive non-resource sector, and contributing to an eventual slow down in the overall economy. These positive and negative effects, and the overall impact of a resource price boom, require a fundamentally closer analysis of the structure of the economy under scrutiny. In this context the policy response by government is likely to be pivotal in determining the overall macroeconomic outcomes from a resource price boom. The aim of this paper is to develop a generic analytical framework to appraise economic outcomes in the wake of a resource price boom for a resource producing and exporting economy. To this end a dynamic long run macroeconomic model is developed, emphasising the important role and

  12. The resource curse: Analysis of the applicability to the large-scale export of electricity from renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisgruber, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    The “resource curse” has been analyzed extensively in the context of non-renewable resources such as oil and gas. More recently commentators have expressed concerns that also renewable electricity exports can have adverse economic impacts on exporting countries. My paper analyzes to what extent the resource curse applies in the case of large-scale renewable electricity exports. I develop a “comprehensive model” that integrates previous works and provides a consolidated view of how non-renewable resource abundance impacts economic growth. Deploying this model I analyze through case studies on Laos, Mongolia, and the MENA region to what extent exporters of renewable electricity run into the danger of the resource curse. I find that renewable electricity exports avoid some disadvantages of non-renewable resource exports including (i) shocks after resource depletion; (ii) macroeconomic fluctuations; and (iii) competition for a fixed amount of resources. Nevertheless, renewable electricity exports bear some of the same risks as conventional resource exports including (i) crowding-out of the manufacturing sector; (ii) incentives for corruption; and (iii) reduced government accountability. I conclude with recommendations for managing such risks. - Highlights: ► Study analyzes whether the resource curse applies to renewable electricity export. ► I develop a “comprehensive model of the resource curse” and use cases for the analysis. ► Renewable electricity export avoids some disadvantages compared to other resources. ► Renewable electricity bears some of the same risks as conventional resources. ► Study concludes with recommendations for managing such risks

  13. REVENUE FROM EXPORTING OIL, INCOME DISTRIBUTION, AND ECONOMIC PROGRESS IN THE MIDDLE EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi MOHAGHEGH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The increases in petrodollars received by oil produ cing countries of the Middle East in the past few years can become a reality again when the wo rld economy recovers from this recession. The access to so much hard currency in the past co uld have potentially impr oved the economies of these nations beyond imagination. Economic de velopment specialists regard reaching some goals such as higher growth rate of real output, less chronic inflation, Improvements in education and healthcare services, greater diversity in the economy and in exports, greater equality in the distribution of income, and lower unemployment rate as indication of economic progress or socio –economic improvements in a developing country. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relative success of the Oil-Produc ing Countries of the Middle East in achieving the above socio- economic goals within the context of huge inflows of petrodollars into their countries every year. Through analysis of data from the region the author of this paper has obtained convincing evidence in support of the view that the oil-exporting nations have, for the most part, wasted the abundant and extremely valuable foreign curr encies that they have received every year for the past several decades.

  14. Export of Atmospheric Mercury from East Asia Observed at Various Monitoring Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, G.; Lin, N.; Wang, J.; Lee, C.; Chang, S.

    2009-12-01

    East Asia is the major atmospheric mercury (Hg) source region in the world due to the excessive coal combustion, industrial emission, and biomass burning in this area. Nonetheless, studies concerning the export of atmospheric Hg from East Asia are still limited. Accordingly, atmospheric Hg has been measured at various sites in Taiwan to study its temporal and spatial distribution, and the significance of long-range transport from the East Asian continent as well. Here we report the data collected in Fu-guei-jiao (121.97°E, 25.47°N, ~30 m a.s.l.), Mt. Bamboo (121.54°E, 25.19°N, 1025 m a.s.l.), and Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS; 120.87°E, 23.47°N, 2862 m a.s.l.) to discuss the atmospheric Hg export from the East Asian continent. Twenty-four hour-integrated total atmospheric Hg (THg) samples were manually collected in Fu-guei-jiao and Mt. Bamboo in 2007-2008 and quantified by dual amalgamation CVAFS. On the other hand, continuous measurements of gaseous elemental Hg (GEM), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Hg (PHg) at LABS began since April 13, 2006 using the Tekran 2537A/1130/1135 speciation system. Mean(±S.D.) THg concentrations were 2.09±0.71 and 1.86±0.50 ng m-3 for Fu-guei-jiao and Mt. Bamboo, respectively. At LABS between April 2006 and April 2009, the mean(±S.D.) concentrations of GEM, RGM and PHg were 1.77±0.54 ng m-3, 22.4±43.8 pg m-3 and 6.3±10.9 pg m-3, respectively. Evident seasonal distribution in THg/GEM concentrations was observed at all sites with higher values usually occurred between fall and spring when the air masses were mainly from the East Asian continent, indicating the influence of the East Asian atmospheric Hg outflow. This also demonstrated that the atmospheric Hg export is occurring both in the boundary layer and in the free troposphere. Concentrations of PHg were usually low at LABS; however, elevated values were detected in spring when the Indochina Peninsula biomass burning plumes frequently affected

  15. Composite study of aerosol export events from East Asia and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Luan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We use satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS together with the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to contrast export of aerosols from East Asia and North America during 2004–2010. The GEOS-Chem model reproduces the spatial distribution and temporal variations of Asian aerosol outflow generally well, although a low bias (−30% is found in the model fine mode AOD, particularly during summer. We use the model to identify 244 aerosol pollution export events from E. Asia and 251 export events from N. America over our 7-year study period. When these events are composited by season, we find that the AOD in the outflow is enhanced by 50–100% relative to seasonal mean values. The composite Asian plume splits into one branch going poleward to the Arctic in 3–4 days, with the other crossing the Pacific Ocean in 6–8 days. A fraction of the aerosols is trapped in the subtropical Pacific High during spring and summer. The N. American plume travels to the northeast Atlantic, reaching Europe after 4–5 days. Part of the composite plume turns anticyclonically in the Azores High, where it slowly decays. Both the Asian and N. American export events are favored by a dipole structure in sea-level pressure anomalies, associated with mid-latitude cyclone activity over the respective source regions. This dipole structure during outflow events is a strong feature for all seasons except summer, when convection becomes more important. The observed AOD in the E. Asian outflow exhibits stronger seasonality, with a spring maximum, than the N. American outflow, with a broad spring/summer maximum. The large spring AOD in the Asian outflow is the result of enhanced sulfate and dust aerosol concentrations, but is also due to a larger export efficiency of sulfate and SO2 from the Asian boundary layer relative to the N. American boundary layer. While the N. American sulfate outflow

  16. Modeling riverine nitrate export from an East-Central Illinois watershed using SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; McIsaac, G F; David, M B; Louwers, C A L

    2007-01-01

    Reliable water quality models are needed to forecast the water quality consequences of different agricultural nutrient management scenarios. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), version 2000, was applied to simulate streamflow, riverine nitrate (NO(3)) export, crop yield, and watershed nitrogen (N) budgets in the upper Embarras River (UER) watershed in east-central Illinois, which has extensive maize-soybean cultivation, large N fertilizer input, and extensive tile drainage. During the calibration (1994-2002) and validation (1985-1993) periods, SWAT simulated monthly and annual stream flows with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients (E) ranging from 0.67 to 0.94 and R(2) from 0.75 to 0.95. For monthly and annual NO(3) loads, E ranged from -0.16 to 0.45 and R(2) from 0.36 to 0.74. Annual maize and soybean yields were simulated with relative errors ranging from -10 to 6%. The model was then used to predict the changes in NO(3) output with N fertilizer application rates 10 to 50% lower than original application rates in UER. The calibrated SWAT predicted a 10 to 43% decrease in NO(3) export from UER and a 6 to 38% reduction in maize yield in response to the reduction in N fertilizer. The SWAT model markedly overestimated NO(3) export during major wet periods. Moreover, SWAT estimated soybean N fixation rates considerably greater than literature values, and some simulated changes in the N cycle in response to fertilizer reduction seemed to be unrealistic. Improving these aspects of SWAT could lead to more reliable predictions in the water quality outcomes of nutrient management practices in tile-drained watersheds.

  17. High-altitude wind resources in the Middle East

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew; Gunturu, Udaya; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2017-01-01

    In the Middle East, near-surface wind resources are intermittent. However, high-altitude wind resources are abundant, persistent, and readily available and may provide alternative energy resources in this fossil-fuel-dependent region. Using wind field data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2), this study identifies areas favorable to the deployment of airborne wind energy (AWE) systems in the Middle East and computes the optimal heights at which such systems would best operate. AWE potential is estimated using realistic AWE system specifications and assumptions about deployment scenarios and is compared with the near-surface wind generation potential with respect to diurnal and seasonal variability. The results show the potential utility of AWE in areas in the Middle East where the energy demand is high. In particular, Oman and Saudi Arabia have a high level of the potential power generation with low annual variability.

  18. High-altitude wind resources in the Middle East

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew

    2017-08-23

    In the Middle East, near-surface wind resources are intermittent. However, high-altitude wind resources are abundant, persistent, and readily available and may provide alternative energy resources in this fossil-fuel-dependent region. Using wind field data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2), this study identifies areas favorable to the deployment of airborne wind energy (AWE) systems in the Middle East and computes the optimal heights at which such systems would best operate. AWE potential is estimated using realistic AWE system specifications and assumptions about deployment scenarios and is compared with the near-surface wind generation potential with respect to diurnal and seasonal variability. The results show the potential utility of AWE in areas in the Middle East where the energy demand is high. In particular, Oman and Saudi Arabia have a high level of the potential power generation with low annual variability.

  19. Analysis of Structural Changes and Competitiveness of East Asian Exports after the Currency Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangjoong Kim

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This thesis analyzed the export structure and competitive relation of Eastern Asia after the economic crisis in 1997. After the crisis, the export of Eastern Asia slowed down; especially the economic stagnation of Eastern Asia resulted in the big scale decrease in export in that area. Under this situation, Eastern Asia began more and more depending on the export of America. The competition among the Eastern Asia countries takes on a fiercer situation in American market. On the other hand, observing the export competition among the Eastern Asia countries in American market around the foreign exchange crisis period in aspects such as the market share, the extent of export competition and the index of MCA, the result is that Korea has fallen behind the other countries of Asia including China. The export-oriented economy of Korea has been pinned down. Especially considering the importance of export after foreign exchange crisis, this will be a disconcerting problem.

  20. Resource nationalism in Indonesia—Effects of the 2014 mineral export ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Graham W.

    2016-09-27

    Resource nationalism encompasses a broad range of political and economic actions taken by Governments to regulate the extraction of natural resources within their borders. Policies such as increased tariffs or export restrictions can have far-reaching economic effects on international trade. As the Governments of several developing countries consider enacting nationalistic policies, an examination of the 2014 mineral export ban in Indonesia provides an instructive example of the possible impacts of resource nationalism. Significant changes in the production and trade of unprocessed (that is, ores and concentrates) and processed (that is, refined metal) aluminum, copper, and nickel before and after the export ban form the basis of this study.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Minerals Information Center (NMIC) tracks production and trade of mineral commodities between producer and consumer countries. Materials flow studies clarify the effects of an export ban on different mineral commodities by assessing changes in production, processing capacity, and trade. Using extensive data collection and monitoring procedures, the USGS NMIC investigated the effects of resource nationalism on the flow of mineral commodities from Indonesia to the global economy.

  1. Export diversification and resource-based industrialization: the case of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massol, Olivier; Banal-Estanol, Albert

    2012-01-01

    For resource-rich economies, primary commodity specialization has often been considered to be detrimental to growth. Accordingly, export diversification policies centered on resource-based industries have long been advocated as effective ways to moderate the large variability of export revenues. This paper discusses the applicability of a mean-variance portfolio approach to design these strategies and proposes some modifications aimed at capturing the key features of resource processing industries (presence of scale economies and investment lumpiness). These modifications help make the approach more plausible for use in resource-rich countries. An application to the case of natural gas is then discussed using data obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of a calibrated empirical model. Lastly, the proposed framework is put to work to evaluate the performances of the diversification strategies implemented in a set of nine gas-rich economies. These results are then used to formulate some policy recommendations. (authors)

  2. The Stock Potency of Demersal Fish Resource at The Coastal Zone, East Kutai District in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliani Juliani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate the potency of demersal fish resource spread over three sub-districts i.e. Sangkulirang, Sandaran and Kaliorang in Kutai district, East Kalimantan province. The result showed that the highest total biomass was produced by aquatic zone of Sandaran sub-district with 1,763,713.6 ton/zone and the density stock was 13,566.5 kg/km2. It was followed by Sangkulirang sub-district with 264,653.3 ton/zone and 6,640.4 kg/km2, respectively and then by Kaliorang sub-district with 58.086,5 ton/zone and 2,768.0 kg/km2, respectively. In term of species particularly from crustaseaae family, the most economic aquatic zone was found in Sangkulirang sub-district. The export product species Penaeus sp was obtained from Penaeus monodon, Metapenaeus monoceros, Metapenaeus sp, Parapenaeopsis sculptilis, Penaeus sp, and lobster which was accounted by 3,381.6 tons/zone, 83,199 tons/zone, 14,492.7 tons/zone, 24,691.3 tons/zone, 41,331.1 tons/zone, and 1,073.5 tons/zone, respectively. It was followed by Sandaran sub-district with export product species was Penaeus merguensis 33,495.7 tons/zone and non-export products were Parapenaeopsis sculptilis 63,641.7 tons/zone, Penaeus sp 16,747.8 tons/zone, Metapenaeus sp 1.674,8 tons/zone, Caridina sp 1.562.572,2 tons/zone, and Scylla serrata 3,349.6 tons/zone. Next was Kaliorang sub-district which accounted by Penaeus merguensis 62.2 tons/zone and Metapenaeus monoceros 49.7 tons/zone. In situ measurement on seven physical-chemical quality parameters of water which compared to the standardized of sea water showed that water quality found in coastal zone of Kaliorang, Sangkulirang and Sandaran sub-district, East Kutai province was suitable and feasible for the aquatic and living of marine habitats Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  3. Homegrown hydro, part 2: Private sector an important resource for developing Canadian exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    A review of four major hydro consultants across Canada illustrates how the private sector has become an important resource for export of Canadian goods and services. The major utilities have contributed in operations and training and have acted as catalysts in this process. An overview is presented of the history and export activities of four consultants: Monenco, Acres, SNC, and Klohn-Crippen. The linkage between domestic experience and expansion into foreign markets in hydro resource development is apparent. Domestic projects have fallen into a severe decline due to the market; it is suggested that cyclical markets might be avoided by constructing capacity in advance. A tally is provided of current Canadian projects, which represent a substantial economic potential for sustainable, renewable hydroelectric resource development. 1 fig

  4. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also reveals domestic investment plays an important role to enhance vertical as well as horizontal export diversification for East Asia, while it only ... resource-based industries and gradually shift production and exports from customary products to more dynamic ones by developing competitive advantage in the ...

  5. PROSPECTS OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT FOR EAST CISCAUCASIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Alkhasov; D. A. Alkhasova

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Work subject. Aim. The Northern Caucasus is one of the prospective regions for development of geothermal energy.The hydrogeothermal resources of the only East Ciscaucasian Artesian basin are estimated up to 10000 MW of heat and 1000 MW of electric power. For their large-scale development it is necessary to built wells of big diameter and high flow rate involving huge capital investments. Reconstruction of idle wells for production of thermal water will allow to reduce capital invest...

  6. Labor market reforms, growth, and unemployment in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik

    2007-01-01

    A general equilibrium model is used to study the impact of labor market policies on growth, employment, urban inequality, and rural welfare in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Various experiments are conducted, such as a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public......-enhancing job creation in the region, labor market reforms must take account of general equilibrium effects, including crowding-in effects on private investment and variations in income remittances and international migration patterns. Finally, we argue that labor market reforms should be viewed as a component...... of a more comprehensive program of structural reforms aimed at spurring growth and employment...

  7. The impact of export performance resources of companies belonging to clusters: a study in the French winery industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Carneiro Zen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to analyze the impact of resources on export performance of clustered companies. We argue that the insertion in clusters provides access to resources that influence the internationalization process of firms. We conducted a survey in the French wine industry, the main consumer market in volume and second largest producer of wine in the world. The population of the study includes exporting French wineries, located in clusters. The sample consists of 130 French wine exporters, located in different wine clusters. In short, the results indicated that access to cluster’s resources has a positive impact on the process of internationalization and export performance of companies. One managerial implication of the research is the importance of commercial resources. The firms with higher export performance attributed greater importance to their commercial resources. Further studies may measure the utilization of resources in the internationalization strategy, and compare the importance and the use of resources in accordance with the level of export performance of companies.

  8. Rapid Decline in Carbon Monoxide Emissions and Export from East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Yin, Y.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    MOPITT satellite- and ground-based measurements both suggest of a widespread downward trend in CO concentrations over East Asia during the period 2005-2016. This negative trend is inconsistent with bottom-up inventories of CO emissions, which show a small increase or stable emissions in this region, except for the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC). We try to reconcile the observed CO trend with emission inventories using an inversion of the MOPITT CO data that provides emissions from primary sources, secondary CO production, and chemical sinks of CO. We find that the decreasing trend of -0.41% yr-1 for CO column concentrations over East Asia is mainly due to a -2.51% yr-1 decrease in emissions from primary sources over this region, or a cumulative decline of -32% from 2005 to 2016. This emission decrease is enough to counterbalance the effect of rising concentrations of CH4 in East Asia, that increase the secondary CO formation at a rate of 1.56% yr-1, according to our multispecies inversion. The reducing emissions are mainly contributed by China. The MEIC inventory is the only one to be consistent with the inversion-diagnosed regional decrease of CO emissions. According to this inventory, decreased CO emissions from four main sectors (iron and steel industries, residential sources, gasoline vehicles, and construction materials industries) in China explain 76% of the inversion-based trend of emissions from East Asia. This result suggests that global inventories underestimated the recent decrease of CO emission factors in China which occurred despite the increasing consumption of carbon-based fuels, and is driven by fast technological changes and emission control measures.

  9. Rapid decline in carbon monoxide emissions and export from East Asia between years 2005 and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bo; Chevallier, Frederic; Ciais, Philippe; Yin, Yi; Deeter, Merritt N.; Worden, Helen M.; Wang, Yilong; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2018-04-01

    Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite and ground-based carbon monoxide (CO) measurements both suggest a widespread downward trend in CO concentrations over East Asia during the period 2005–2016. This negative trend is inconsistent with global bottom-up inventories of CO emissions, which show a small increase or stable emissions in this region. We try to reconcile the observed CO trend with emission inventories using an atmospheric inversion of the MOPITT CO data that estimates emissions from primary sources, secondary production, and chemical sinks of CO. The atmospheric inversion indicates a ~ ‑2% yr‑1 decrease in emissions from primary sources in East Asia from 2005–2016. The decreasing emissions are mainly caused by source reductions in China. The regional MEIC inventory for China is the only bottom up estimate consistent with the inversion-diagnosed decrease of CO emissions. According to the MEIC data, decreasing CO emissions from four main sectors (iron and steel industries, residential sources, gasoline-powered vehicles, and construction materials industries) in China explain 76% of the inversion-based trend of East Asian CO emissions. This result suggests that global inventories underestimate the recent decrease of CO emission factors in China which occurred despite increasing consumption of carbon-based fuels, and is driven by rapid technological changes with improved combustion efficiency and emission control measures.

  10. PROSPECTS OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT FOR EAST CISCAUCASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Alkhasov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Work subject. Aim. The Northern Caucasus is one of the prospective regions for development of geothermal energy.The hydrogeothermal resources of the only East Ciscaucasian Artesian basin are estimated up to 10000 MW of heat and 1000 MW of electric power. For their large-scale development it is necessary to built wells of big diameter and high flow rate involving huge capital investments. Reconstruction of idle wells for production of thermal water will allow to reduce capital investments for building of geothermal power installations. In the East Ciscaucasian Artesian basin there are a lot of promising areas with idle wells which can be converted for production of thermal water. The purpose of work is substantiation possibility of efficient development of geothermal resources of the Northern Caucasus region using idle oil and gas wells.Methods. The schematic diagram is submitted for binary geothermal power plant (GPP with use of idle gas-oil wells where the primary heat carrier in a loop of geothermal circulation system is used for heating and evaporation of the low-boiling working agent circulating in a secondary contour of steam-power unit. Calculations are carried out for selection of the optimum parameters of geothermal circulation system for obtaining the maximum useful power of GPP. The thermodynamic analysis of low-boiling working agents is made. Development of medial enthalpy thermal waters in the combined geothermal-steam-gas power installations is offered where exhaust gases of gas-turbine installation are used for evaporation and overheat of the working agent circulating in a contour of GPP. Heating of the working agent in GPP up to the temperature of evaporation is carried out by thermal water.Results. The possibility of efficient development of geothermal resources of the Northern Caucasus region by construction of binary geothermal power plants using idle oil and gas wells is substantiated. The capacities and the basic

  11. Casting a Resource-Based View on Intangible Assets and Export Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Tabatabaei Nasab

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prosperous companies in the 21st century have come to know the necessity of intangible assets as an important factor to achieve sustainable competitive advantage and constant presence in the international markets. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to examine intangible assets and evaluate its relationship with export behaviour in terms of export intensity (Export-Sales Ratio and export type (Permanent, Occasional & Periodical. The population under study includes all export firms during 2002 until 2010 in Yazd province, Iran. Research data were collected by questionnaire and in order to answer the research questions and testing hypotheses, MCDM techniques (i.e. AHP & TOPSIS and statistical analysis (i.e. ANOVA were utilized. According to the research results, human capital, relational capital, technological capital, corporate reputation, and structural capital placed as the first to the fifth significant factors respectively. Findings revealed that there is a significant difference between the permanent and occasional presence in the international markets regarding intangible assets; as the mean of intangible assets in the firms with permanent export is higher than the mean of intangible assets in the firms with occasional export. However, there is no significant difference between intangible assets and the export intensity.

  12. Determinants of Export Performance of Small and Medium-sized Manufacturing Brazilian Enterprises from the Perspective of Resource-based View and Uppsala Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Wilson Torrens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the determinants of export performance include companies located in developed countries and emerging economies. A predominance of studies focusing on large companies in developed countries was observed. The studies tested the RBV and the Uppsala model in isolated ways. The combined use of variables in the models of RBV and Uppsala studies of Brazilian SMEs appear as a gap to be filled in organizational research. This research contributes to theoretical and empirical knowledge involving the phenomena related to the internationalization of Brazilian SMEs by proposing a model integrating these approaches. This research aims identify the determinants of export performance of SMEs in the perspective of RBV and the Uppsala Model. On a survey with 84 SMEs were employed multiple statistical techniques (factor analysis, linear and logistic regression and structural equation modeling. Resources influenced by the idiosyncrasies of the company and its stage of internationalization affected the export performance. Managerial resources were prevalent on organizational resources. Stage of internationalization and exporting time influenced the relationship between export performance and resources. Size and technological intensity not mediated export performance. Resources and stage of internationalization affect the export performance of SMEs. The following question was developed: What are the determinants of export performance of Brazilian manufacturing SMEs? SMEs in emerging countries arouse the attention of governments worldwide since its economic, employment and income opportunities that provide and challenges facing to innovate, promote sustainability, establish and consolidate its internationalization.

  13. The competitiveness of domestic rice production in East Africa: A domestic resource cost approach in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Kikuchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of rice imports in sub-Saharan Africa under the unstable situation in the world rice market during the 2000s has made it an important policy target for the countries in the region to increase self-sufficiency in rice in order to enhance food security. Whether domestic rice production can be competitive with imported rice is a serious question in East African countries that lie close, just across the Arabian Sea, to major rice exporting countries in South Asia. This study investigates the international competitiveness of domestic rice production in Uganda in terms of the domestic resource cost ratio. The results show that rainfed rice cultivation, which accounts for 95% of domestic rice production, does not have a comparative advantage with respect to rice imported from Pakistan, the largest supplier of imported rice to Uganda. However, the degree of non-competitiveness is not serious, and a high possibility exists for Uganda’s rainfed rice cultivation to become internationally competitive by improving yield levels by applying more modern inputs and enhancing labour productivity. Irrigated rice cultivation, though very limited in area, is competitive even under the present input-output structure when the cost of irrigation infrastructure is treated as a sunk cost. If the cost of installing irrigation infrastructure and its operation and maintenance is taken into account, the types of irrigation development that are economically feasible are not large-scale irrigation projects, but are small- and microscale projects for lowland rice cultivation and rain-water harvesting for upland rice cultivation.

  14. The future of Russian gas exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiononv, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Yuri; Panin, Sergei

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; The structure of Russian gas exports; Exports to Europe; Exports to Turkey/Middle East; Exports to Asia/Pacific Rim; FSU gas exports; Regulations for exporting gas from Russia; Equipment and services. (Author)

  15. Human Resource Education in the Middle East Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Khalil M.; Hamie, Christine Silva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of human resource development (HRD) education in Middle Eastern countries. In particular, the authors discuss the current state of HRD education, country readiness and challenges that hinder HRD progress in Middle Eastern countries. They argue that HRD programs need to prepare young…

  16. The Middle East. Domestic sufficiency of fossil fuel resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, John A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kessinger, Samuel E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we’ve compared energy production and consumption across the broader Middle East, paying special attention to three different countries; Saudi Arabia, one of the world’s largest oil producers (second in the CIA World Factbook ranking of crude oil producing countries), with a growing population in the mid-range (47th in the world, according to the CIA World Factbook, and fifth among the nations in this region), a large GDP and GDP per capita (15th in the world, second in this region in GDP, and 21st in GDP per capita in the world, just behind the US at 19th); Qatar, the world’s fourth largest producer of natural gas, with a small native population (and a relatively large foreign labor contingent) that is very wealthy (with the world’s highest GDP per capita, more than twice that of the US); and Egypt, the most populous nation in the region (with the world’s 16th largest population), but relatively poor (with a GDP per capita of about a fifth that of the US and a twelfth that of Qatar); Egypt is a significant energy producer – 29th in the world in crude oil production and 17th in natural gas production – but production has stalled or declined in recent years, and domestic consumption has overtaken production.

  17. Resource Prospects of Municipal Solid Wastes Generatedin the Ga East Municipal Assembly of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Benedicta Abiti; Susanne Hartard; Heike B. Bradl; Davar Pishva; John Kojo Ahiakpa

    2017-01-01

    Background. Municipal solid wastes management has recently become an important public health concern. Municipal solid wastes are a major source of raw materials that could be used for resource recovery for diverse applications. Objectives. The present study aimed to determine the composition of municipal solid waste and recoverable resources from the waste of the Ga East Municipal Assembly (GEMA) in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Methods. An exploratory approach was used to collect ...

  18. ERDA test facilities, East Mesa Test Site. Geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Detailed specifications which must be complied with in the construction of the ERDA Test Facilities at the East Mesa Site for geothermal resource investigations in Imperial Valley, California are presented for use by prospective bidders for the construction contract. The principle construction work includes a 700 gpm cooling tower with its associated supports and equipment, pipelines from wells, electrical equipment, and all earthwork. (LCL)

  19. Economic Transition and Natural Resource Management in East and Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckmann, V.; Dung, N.H.; Shi, X.; Spoor, M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Economic and institutional reforms in East and Southeast Asia have caused impressive economic growth and improved the livelihood of millions of people. In several regions, however, this growth has been obtained at the expense of land quality or to the detriment of other natural resources. As a

  20. Water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogers, P.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Terink, W.; Hoogeveen, J.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Debele, B.

    Changes in water resources availability can be expected as consequences of climate change, population growth, economic development and environmental considerations. A two-stage modeling approach is used to explore the impact of these changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. An

  1. The current situation of uranium resources exploration in East China: Problems, thought and countermeasure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaomei; Mao Mengcai

    2014-01-01

    Based on analyzing the current situation of uranium resources and exploration effort in East China, the main existing problems, technical thought and countermeasure for the future exploration in East China are discussed in this paper. The degree of both uranium exploration and study in East China is relatively high, philosophy of scientific mineral-prospecting should be established in the new round of mineral prospecting. Under guidance of metallogenic theory of large mineralization cluster area and uranium metallogenic theory of multi-sources, previous data and research achievement should be analyzed and summarized. With the help of metallogenic model, useful methods and means should be applied to set up exploration model in order to realize news phase of model exploration, comprehensive exploration, 3D exploration and quantitative exploration. Efficiency of exploration of uranium resources should be strugglingly increased. High profitable uranium resources will be actively found with rich, shallow, near and easy features. The prospecting targets and strategy reserves of uranium resources will be increased in East China. (authors)

  2. Climatic changes and water resources in the Middle East and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zereini, Fathi [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences; Hoetzl, Heinz (eds.) [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. Geologie

    2008-07-01

    ''Climatic Change and Water Resources in the Middle East and North Africa'' is dedicated to high-priority topics related to the impact of climate change on water resources in a water scarce region. The subject is described and discussed in three main chapters and different case studies. The three main chapters are (1) Climatic changes - sources and effects on the water cycle, (2) Impact of climate change on water resources, (3) Water resources and water management. These chapters are split up into further 26 sections. A total of 64 individuals from many countries have made contributions to this book. All topics in this book are complimentary and contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between global climate change, world water cycle and water resources. A valuable and meaningful interdisciplinary mixture of topics is combined in this book which will be of great interest to many scientists. (orig.)

  3. Exploring spatiotemporal changes of the Yangtze River (Changjiang) nitrogen and phosphorus sources, retention and export to the East China Sea and Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaochen; Beusen, Arthur H W; Van Beek, Ludovicus P H; Mogollón, José M; Ran, Xiangbin; Bouwman, Alexander F

    2018-06-04

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows from land to sea in the Yangtze River basin were simulated for the period 1900-2010, by combining models for hydrology, nutrient input to surface water, and an in-stream retention. This study reveals that the basin-wide nutrient budget, delivery to surface water, and in-stream retention increased during this period. Since 2004, the Three Gorges Reservoir has contributed 5% and 7% of N and P basin-wide retention, respectively. With the dramatic rise in nutrient delivery, even this additional retention was insufficient to prevent an increase of riverine export from 337 Gg N yr -1 and 58 Gg P yr -1 (N:P molar ratio = 13) to 5896 Gg N yr -1 and 381 Gg P yr -1 (N:P molar ratio = 35) to the East China Sea and Yellow Sea (ECSYS). The midstream and upstream subbasins dominate the N and P exports to the ECSYS, respectively, due to various human activities along the river. Our spatially explicit nutrient source allocation can aid in the strategic targeting of nutrient reduction policies. We posit that these should focus on improving the agricultural fertilizer and manure use efficiency in the upstream and midstream and better urban wastewater management in the downstream subbasin. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The Importance of Forest and Landscape Resource for Community Around Gunung Lumut Protected Forest, East Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Murniati, Murniati; Padmanaba, Michael; Basuki, Imam

    2009-01-01

    The forest of Gunung Lumut in Pasir District, East Kalimantan was designated for a protection forest in 1983. It is surrounded by 15 villages and one settlement lies inside it. Communities in those villages are dependent upon the landscape and forest resources mainly for non timber forest products. This study was focused on the perception of the communities on the importance of the landscape and forests. The study was conducted in two settlements, located in and outside (near) the ...

  5. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  6. Factors influencing changes in U.S. hardwood log and lumber exports from 1990 to 2011. BioResources

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2013-01-01

    Domestic consumption of hardwood products in the United States since 2000 has trended downward, making exports the single most important market for higher grade hardwood lumber and a major market for higher value hardwood logs. Between 1990 and 2011, hardwood lumber exports increased by 46%. During most of this period, Canada was the largest export market for U.S....

  7. Biennial Supplement to The Directory of US Coal ampersand Technology Export Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of available US coal and coal related resources to potential purchasers of those resources abroad. The directory lists business entities within the United States which offer coal related resources, products and services for sale on the international market. Each listing is intended to describe the particular business niche or range of product and/or services offered by a particular company. The listing provides addresses, telephones, and telex/fax for key staff in each company committed to the facilitation of international trade. The content of each listing has been formulated especially for this directory and reflects data current as of the date of this edition

  8. Renewable energy export network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    A Renewable Energy Exporters Network (REEN) has recently been established, following a meeting of renewable energy exporters and government agencies on 30 October 2000. REEN will assist the Australian renewable energy industry to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the burgeoning global market for renewable energy goods and services. Recent estimates of the significant potential global growth is renewable energy demand have reinforced the industry and Government's view that, in the medium to long-term, growth in the Australian renewable energy industry will largely depend on capturing export market share. Expanding the export market was identified as a crucial component in the Renewable Energy Action Agenda, developed jointly by industry and Government and released in June 2000. It was estimated that, for the industry to achieve its vision of sales of $4 billion per year by 2010, exports would need to comprise approximately 50% of the forecast growth in sales. As such, the need for a specific export strategy for the Australian renewable energy industry was recognised in the Action Agenda, and the establishment of the REEN is one of the first initiatives undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy. The REEN comprises approximately 50 export-ready renewable energy companies, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, Austrade, and Stage Government agencies such as NSW's Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The Export Network will operate electronically, with face-to-face meetings held as appropriate. The Department of Industry, Science and Resources will facilitate the Export Network and has published a website at www.isr.gov.au/industry/reen. The site includes: a members directory; a discussion forum; information on opportunities to showcase Australian renewable; energy products and services; and Iinks to sites containing information that may be useful to renewable energy exporters. Other actions that are being undertaken as

  9. Export incentives, exchange rate policy and export growth in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Arslan, I.

    1993-01-01

    The driving forces behind the Turkish export miracle, and in fact its very existence, have remained a matter of debate We show there was a boom. As to contributing factors, import growth in the Middle East in excess of import growth elsewhere made a negative contribution. On exports to non-oil

  10. Exports of petroleum products, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1988 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 32,000 m 3 /d in 1988, up 44% from 1987 levels. Each product except aviation fuel registered increases in export volumes, which reached the highest total volume of the decade. The main reason for the large increase was the first full year of production from the export-directed refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was mostly above the USA east coast spot price during 1988. Attractive prices on the USA east coast resulted in a few cargoes of middle distillate and motor gasoline shipped from British Columbia. Petroleum products imports came from 12 countries; Quebec had the largest volume of imports in 1988. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Western exporters view the Far East as an ongoing important market. The top single exporter in Canada was Newfoundland Processing, with 32% of the total export volume. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Reactor experiments, workshops, and human resource development education simulating the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Tomosada

    2012-01-01

    Kinki University Atomic Energy Research Institute has been implementing a social education program such as reactor experiments and training sessions for junior and senior high school teachers since 1987, and in recent years, it has been implementing an education program for common citizens. However, the Great East Japan Earthquake has made it necessary to consider not only the dissemination of accurate knowledge, but also responding to the anxiety on nuclear power. This paper explains the contents of the social contribution activities and workshops conducted at Kinki University Atomic Energy Research Institute, after the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. As the activities that are carried out in addition to training sessions, it introduces the implementation state of telephone consultation about nuclear power, and earthquake reconstruction assistance advisory at Kawamata Town, Date-gun, Fukushima Prefecture. As workshop support, it reports human resource development education in the nuclear field at the university, activities at the workshops for junior/senior high school teachers and general public, and questionnaire survey at the time of the workshops. (A.O.)

  12. Water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Droogers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in water resources availability can be expected as consequences of climate change, population growth, economic development and environmental considerations. A two-stage modeling approach is used to explore the impact of these changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. An advanced, physically based, distributed, hydrological model is applied to determine the internal and external renewable water resources for the current situation and under future changes. Subsequently, a water allocation model is used to combine the renewable water resources with sectoral water demands. Results show that total demand in the region will increase to 393 km3 yr−1 in 2050, while total water shortage will grow to 199 km3 yr−1 in 2050 for the average climate change projection, an increase of 157 km3 yr−1. This increase in shortage is the combined impact of an increase in water demand by 50% with a decrease in water supply by 12%. Uncertainty, based on the output of the nine GCMs applied, reveals that expected water shortage ranges from 85 km3 yr−1 to 283 km3 yr−1~in 2050. The analysis shows that 22% of the water shortage can be attributed to climate change and 78% to changes in socio-economic factors.

  13. The directory of United States coal & technology export resources. Profiles of domestic US corporations, associations and public entities, nationwide, which offer products or services suitable for export, relating to coal and its utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of available U.S. coal and coal related resources to potential purchasers of those resources abroad. The directory lists business entities within the US which offer coal related resources, products and services for sale on the international market. Each listing is intended to describe the particular business niche or range of product and/or services offered by a particular company. The listing provides addresses, telephones, and telex/fax for key staff in each company committed to the facilitation of international trade. The content of each listing has been formulated especially for this directory and reflects data current as of the date of this edition. The directory listings are divided into four primary classifications: coal resources; technology resources; support services; and financing and resource packaging. The first three of which are subdivided as follows: Coal Resources -- coal derivatives, coal exporters, and coal mining; Technology Resources -- advanced utilization, architects and engineers, boiler equipment, emissions control and waste disposal systems, facility construction, mining equipment, power generation systems, technical publications, and transport equipment; Support Services -- coal transport, facility operations, freight forwarders, sampling services and equipment, and technical consultants. Listings for the directory were solicited on the basis of this industry breakdown. Each of the four sections of this directory begins with a matrix illustrating which companies fall within the particular subclassifications specific to that main classification. A general alphabetical index of companies and an index by product/service classification are provided following the last section of the directory.

  14. Against 'green development fantasies': resource degradation and the lack of community resistance in the middle Mahakam wetlands, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, G.; de Jong, E. B .P.

    2010-01-01

    In the middle Mahakam wetlands, East Kalimantan, local populations are hit hard by ecological deterioration in the form of degraded water quality, floods, depletion of fish stocks, and increasing sedimentation and aquatic weeds. In the short term, resources such as fish and wood are being depleted,

  15. Exports of petroleum products, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m 3 /d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m 3 . Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  16. The Role Of The Natural Resource Sector And Government Spending For Education Towards Poverty Reduction In East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarlan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available East Kalimantan Province is one of the rich provinces in natural resources such as coal mining oil and gas. Utilization of the natural resources is expected to be used optimally to improve the welfare of the community. The purpose of this research is to find out how big the influence of natural resources sector which the consist of mining and quarrying sector and processing industry sector and government expenditure for education against poverty alleviation in East Kalimantan Province. This research uses explanatory method with time-series and cross-section data and applying multiple regression model with Ordinary Least Square OLS method. The results of this study show that a the natural resource sector and government spending on education have no effect on per capita income growth b economic growth as measured by per capita income growth positively affects on poverty and government spending on education is not significantly influential to poverty reduction and c the natural resource sector has no significant effect on the poverty headcount in East Kalimantan.

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF FOREST AND LANDSCAPE RESOURCE FOR COMMUNITY AROUND GUNUNG LUMUT PROTECTED FOREST, EAST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murniati Murniati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The forest of Gunung  Lumut  in Pasir District,  East Kalimantan was designated  for a protection  forest in 1983. It is surrounded  by 15 villages  and one settlement  lies inside it. Communities in those villages are dependent upon the landscape and forest resources mainly for non timber forest products. This study was focused on the perception of the communities on the importance of the landscape and forests. The study was conducted in two settlements, located  in and outside  (near  the protection  forest,  namely  Rantau  Layung  Village  and Mului  Sub-Village.  Data collection  was undertaken through  general field observations, key- informant personal  interviews and focus group  discussions.  In Rantau  Layung, the most important land  type  was rice  field, whereas  in Mului  was forest.  There  were  13 and 14 use categories  of landscape  resources  in Rantau  Layung  and Mului,  respectively, such as food, medicine,  constructions and source of income.  People in Rantau  Layung  and Mului ranked  plants  to be more  important than  animals.  People  also considered  products  from wild  resources  to be more  important than  those from cultivated  and purchased  sources. Communities living  in both  settlements  considered  the future  uses of forests to be the most important as compared to those of the present and past. They  suggested that sungkai (Peronema canescens and telien (Eusideroxylon zwageri to be the most important plants while payau  (Cervus unicolor and telaus (Muntiacus muntjak to be the most important animals. People used the wildlife mainly for food and source of income. They also identified important and potential  resources for economic  development in the area, i.e. ecotourism  and hydro- power for electric  generator.

  18. A quantitative assessment of groundwater resources in the Middle East and North Africa region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzaik, Khalil; Milewski, Adam

    2018-02-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the world's most water-stressed region, with its countries constituting 12 of the 15 most water-stressed countries globally. Because of data paucity, comprehensive regional-scale assessments of groundwater resources in the MENA region have been lacking. The presented study addresses this issue by using a distributed ArcGIS model, parametrized with gridded data sets, to estimate groundwater storage reserves in the region based on generated aquifer saturated thickness and effective porosity estimates. Furthermore, monthly gravimetric datasets (GRACE) and land surface parameters (GLDAS) were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage between 2003 and 2014. Total groundwater reserves in the region were estimated at 1.28 × 106 cubic kilometers (km3) with an uncertainty range between 816,000 and 1.93 × 106 km3. Most of the reserves are located within large sedimentary basins in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia accounting for approximately 75% of the region's total freshwater reserves. Alternatively, small groundwater reserves were found in fractured Precambrian basement exposures. As for groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014, all MENA countries except for Morocco exhibited declines in groundwater storage. However, given the region's large groundwater reserves, groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014 are minimal and represent no immediate short-term threat to the MENA region, with some exceptions. Notwithstanding this, the study recommends the development of sustainable and efficient groundwater management policies to optimally utilize the region's groundwater resources, especially in the face of climate change, demographic expansion, and socio-economic development.

  19. Monitoring Water Resources in Pastoral Areas of East Africa Using Satellite Data and Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, H.; Senay, G. B.; Velpuri, N.; Asante, K. O.

    2008-12-01

    The nomadic pastoral communities in East Africa heavily depend on small water bodies and artificial lakes for domestic and livestock uses. The shortage of water in the region has made these water resources of great importance to them and sometimes even the reason for conflicts amongst rival communities in the region. Satellite-based data has significantly transformed the way we track and estimate hydrological processes such as precipitation and evapotranspiration. This approach has been particularly useful in remote places where conventional station-based weather networks are scarce. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data were extracted for the study region. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) data were used to extract the climatic parameters needed to calculate reference evapotranspiration. The elevation data needed to delineate the watersheds were extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) with spatial resolution of 90m. The waterholes (most of which have average surface area less than a hectare) were identified using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images with a spatial resolution of 15 m. As part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) funded enhancement to a livestock early warning decision support system, a simple hydrologic water balance model was developed to estimate daily waterhole depth variations. The model was run for over 10 years from 1998 till 2008 for 10 representative waterholes in the region. Although there were no independent datasets to validate the results, the temporal patterns captured both the seasonal and inter-annual variations, depicting known drought and flood years. Future research includes the installation of staff-gauges for model calibration and validation. The simple modeling approach demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating dynamic coarse resolution datasets such as TRMM with

  20. On the Wind Energy Resource and Its Trend in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ayodotun Osinowo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study utilizes a 30-year (1980–2009 10 m wind field dataset obtained from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast to investigate the wind energy potential in the East China Sea (ECS by using Weibull shape and scale parameters. The region generally showed good wind characteristics. The calculated annual mean of the wind power resource revealed the potential of the region for large-scale grid-connected wind turbine applications. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal variations showed strong trends in wind power in regions surrounding Taiwan Island. These regions were evaluated with high wind potential and were rated as excellent locations for installation of large wind turbines for electrical energy generation. Nonsignificant and negative trends dominated the ECS and the rest of the regions; therefore, these locations were found to be suitable for small wind applications. The wind power density exhibited an insignificant trend in the ECS throughout the study period. The trend was strongest during spring and weakest during autumn.

  1. The Middle East and the Development of a Natural Gas World Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honore, Anouk

    2006-01-01

    Gas resources can easily meet the projected increase in global demand. However, international trade in energy will need to expand to accommodate the growing mismatch between the location of demand or production. The Middle East nations emerge among the leading countries, with a reserve to production ratios exceeding 100 years. Although some have significant domestic consumption, this mostly leaves ample potential for exports. Most of the incremental output in the Middle East will be exported to North America, Europe and Asia, where indigenous production will fall behind demand on the short to medium term. The key question is whether the Middle East can live up to the consuming countries' supply expectations

  2. Australia's uranium export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    During the period 1954-71 in Australia approximately 9000 MT of U 3 O 8 was produced from five separate localities. Of this, 7000 MT was exported to the United Kingdom and United States and the balance stockpiled by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC). Australia's uranium ore reserves occur in eight deposits in three states and the Northern Territory. However, 83% of Australia's reserves are contained in four deposits in lower Proterozoic rocks in the East Alligator River region of the Northern Territory. The AAEC has calculated Australia's recoverable uranium reserves by eliminating estimated losses during the mining and milling of the ores. AAEC has estimated reasonably assured resources of 289,000 MT of uranium at a recovery cost of less than US$80 per kilogram uranium. The companies have collectively announced a larger ore reserve than the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This difference is a result of the companies adopting different ore reserve categories. On August 25, 1977, the federal government announced that Australia would develop its uranium resources subject to stringent environmental controls, recognition of Aboriginal Land Rights, and international safeguards. Australian uranium production should gradually increase from 1981 onward, growing to 10,000 to 15,000 MT by 1985-86. Further increases in capacity may emerge during the second half of the 1980s when expansion plans are implemented. Exploration for uranium has not been intensive due to delays in developing the existing deposits. It is likely that present reserves can be substantially upgraded if more exploration is carried out. 6 figures, 3 tables

  3. Export spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choquette, Eliane; Meinen, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of export spillovers in a firm's decision to enter specific export markets and extends the current state of the literature by assessing different mechanisms through which they may occur, namely (i) labour movement, (ii) intra-industry spillovers and (iii) inter......-industry linkages. We do so by exploiting a unique data set covering the universe of manufacturing firms in Denmark for the period 1995–2006 which combines transaction-level export data, firm accounting data, employer–employee linked data and information from yearly input–output tables. We corroborate...... the literature on export spillovers by presenting robust evidence of destination-specific export spillovers. The results suggest that labour mobility as well as intra- and inter-industry linkages (backward linkages) are important channels for export spillovers, while presenting heterogeneous effects across firms...

  4. Financial resources for development. Capital markets in developing countries: a study on borrowing by developing countries in the emerging capital markets of the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashashibi, H S

    1980-10-01

    Private transfers of capital from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to developing countries are intended to complement private transfers from the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) by tapping the emerging capital markets in the Middle East. Developing countries will be able to diversify their borrowing and gain additional financing. The long-term investment of oil-producing countries will benefit and the pressures on the banking institutions to recycle funds will lessen. Middle East capital markets include international loans and international bonds. The history of the Kuwaiti dinar (KD) bond market, with its advantages for both investors and borrowers, illustrates the successful development of a capital market. Financial intermediation needs to be improved, however, if the Middle East is to become efficient enough to compete with the Euromarkets. Efficiency will require different measures and should reflect strengthening relationships among Middle East nations. (DCK)

  5. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....

  6. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  7. The Political Consequences of Resource Dependence - How Natural Gas Export Can Affect Policy Outcomes: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øistein Breiland Harsem

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the use of a liberal/rational framework as a baseline, this article examines whether economic asymmetric interdependence can yield political influence. More specifically, it examines exogenous gas supply to the EU and develops a theory that provides testable hypotheses aiming to answer whether the export of gas provides political advantages for the sender state. The outlined hypotheses, and more, are tested in a cross sectional time series dataset, where votes in the United Nations (UN Assembly are used as the dependent variable, as a measurement for the policy preferences of states. The empirical findings support the prediction made in the theory section. Gas dependence has a conditional effect on policy behaviour. The sender government has to be a sizeable international power, whilst the recipient government should have low military capabilities and be dependent on foreign support.

  8. Applications of NASA GSFC's Land Information System (LIS) for water resources management in Korea and East-Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D. H.; Hwang, E.; Jung, H. C.; Kim, E. J.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; Chae, H.; Baeck, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    NASA has contributed to resolve global water issues by utilizing their long-term legacy of remote sensing technologies supported by a state of art software engineering. In this context, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a land surface model framework to monitor and predict water hazards such as flood and drought with the Land Information System (hereafter LIS) applied to North America and beyond it to include a global coverage. However, it is still challenging to apply the LIS to East-Asia where a rice-paddy agriculture is prevalent compared to other parts of the world, but retains a high population density in this region. Thus, this paper introduces recent efforts from the Korea Water Resources Corporation (K-water) in S. Korea to establish the LIS in East-Asia including Korea, aiming at producing surface hydrology datasets in Asia. One of the ultimate goals of this project is to manage the water hazards in Korea and to provide the water resources dataset in East-Asia by adapting the LIS with their abundantly available hydrometeorological observations to support the LIS applications. Preliminary results from initiating efforts since the beginning of 2017 between NASA and K-water are addressed in the paper to review the possible outcomes after this ongoing project to benefit both entities. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant (17AWMP-B079625-04) from Water Management Research Program sponsored by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  9. Insignificant enhancement of export flux in the highly productive subtropical front, east of New Zealand: a high resolution study of particle export fluxes based on 234Th: 238U disequilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Hall

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the export fluxes of Particulate Organic Carbon (POC in the Subtropical Frontal zone (STF of the SW Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. The site is characterized by enhanced primary productivity, which has been suggested to be stimulated through so-called natural iron fertilization processes where iron-depleted subantarctic water (SAW mixes with mesotrophic, iron-replete subtropical water (STW. We adopted the small-volume 234Th method to achieve the highest possible spatial sampling resolution in austral late autumn-early winter, May–June, 2008. Inventories of chlorophyll-a, particulate 234Th and POC observed in the upper 100 m were all elevated in the mid-salinity water type (34.5 34.8 salinity waters which were of STW origin with low macronutrients. However, Steady-State 234Th fluxes were similar across the salinity gradient being, 25 ± 0.78 ((1.5 ± 0.047 × 103 in the mid-salinity, and 29 ± 0.53 ((1.8 ± 0.032 × 103 and 22 ± 1.1 Bq m−2 d−1 ((1.3 ± 0.066 × 103 dpm m−2 d–1 in the high and low salinity waters respectively. Bottle POC/Th ratios at the depth of 100 m were used to convert 234Th fluxes into POC export fluxes. The derived POC flux did not appear to be enhanced in mid-salinity waters where the primary productivity was inferred to be the highest at the time of sampling, with a flux of 11 ± 0.45 mmol C m−2 d−1, compared to 14 ± 0.39 mmol C m−2 d−1 in high salinity waters and 8.5 ± 0.66 mmol C m−2 d−1 in low salinity waters. This study thus implied that natural iron fertilization does not necessarily lead to an enhancement of POC export in STF regions.

  10. Summary of the mineral- and energy-resource endowment, BLM roswell resource area, east-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Sutphin, D.M.; Ball, M.M.; Korzeb, S.L.; Kness, R.F.; Dutchover, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    In this summary of two comprehensive resource reports produced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we discuss the mineral- and energyresource endowment of the 14-millon-acre Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The Bureau and Survey reports result from separate studies that are compilations of published and unpublished data and integrate new findings on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral, industrial, and energy commodities, and resources for the seven-county area. The reports have been used by the Bureau of Land Management in preparation of the Roswell Resource Area Resource Management Plan, and will have future use in nationwide mineral- and energy-resource inventories and assessments, as reference and training documents, and as public-information tools. In the Roswell Resource Area, many metals, industrial mineral commodities, and energy resources are being, or have been, produced or prospected. These include metals and high-technology materials, such as copper, gold, silver, thorium, uranium and/or vanadium, rare-earth element minerals, iron, manganese, tungsten, lead, zinc, and molybdenum; industrial mineral resources, including barite, limestone/dolomite, caliche, clay, fluorspar, gypsum, scoria, aggregate, and sand and gravel; and fuels and associated resources, such as oil, gas, tar sand and heavy oil, coal, and gases associated with hydrocarbons. Other commodities that have yet to be identified in economic concentrations include potash, halite, polyhalite, anhydrite, sulfur, feldspar, building stone and decorative rock, brines, various gases associated with oil and gas exploration, and carbon dioxide. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  11. Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan: Chapter P in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Demarr, Michael W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Ludington, Stephen; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of East and Southeast Asia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The assessment covers the Philippines in Southeast Asia, and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), and Japan in East Asia. The Philippines host world class porphyry copper deposits, such as the Tampakan and Atlas deposits. No porphyry copper deposits have been discovered in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), or Japan.

  12. A Chinese resource curse? The human rights effects of oil export dependence on China versus the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, J.; Daxecker, U.

    2015-01-01

    Critiques of China’s ‘oil diplomacy’ center on its alleged disregard for transparency and human rights, yet such claims ignore that the problematic relationship between resource extraction and human rights precedes Chinese market entry. This article explores whether human rights implications are

  13. Organizing export strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    G. Lojacono; M. Venzin

    2014-01-01

    The article unfolds as follows: after a brief introduction on the relevance of international trade and the characteristics of export strategies, we describe four distinct archetypes: export manager, centralistic export developer, export skimmer, integrated export developer.

  14. The East Bay Vegetation Management Consortium:\\ta subregional approach to resource management and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Acosta

    1995-01-01

    Formed in response to the October 20, 1991, Oakland/Berkeley hills firestorm, the East Bay Vegetation Management Consortium (EBVMC) is a voluntary association of public agencies concerned with vegetation management and planning related to fire hazard reduction in the Oakland/ Berkeley hills. To date, a total of nine agencies are participating in the EBVMC, including...

  15. Impacts of Global Change on Water Resources in Dryland East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Xiaoming Feng; Jingfeng Xiao; Alex Shiklomanov; Shengping Wang; Zhiqiang Zhang; Nan Lu; Shuai Wang; Liding Chen; Bojie Fu; Yaning Chen; Jiquan Chen

    2013-01-01

    The vast Dryland East Asia (DEA) area consists of several large geographic regions including the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Loess Plateau, and Mongolia Plateau. T he region is of great importance to the functioning of the earth system under a changing climate. In the past three decades, due to the unprecedented land use/land cover change, urbanization, industrialization...

  16. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Chris [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); O' Connor, Ben L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tompson, Andrew F.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support the utility-scale solar energy development at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) solar energy program.

  17. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of, and including, part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU ) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study—the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU— encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West GreenlandEast Canada Province are 10.7 billion barrels of oil, 75 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 billion barrels of oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  18. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  19. Understanding and predicting climate variations in the Middle East for sustainable water resource management and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Rana

    Water issues are a source of tension between Israelis and Palestinians. In the and region of the Middle East, water supply is not just scarce but also uncertain: It is not uncommon for annual rainfall to be as little as 60% or as much as 125% of the multiannual average. This combination of scarcity and uncertainty exacerbates the already strained economy and the already tensed political situation. The uncertainty could be alleviated if it were possible to better forecast water availability. Such forecasting is key not only for water planning and management, but also for economic policy and for political decision making. Water forecasts at multiple time scales are necessary for crop choice, aquifer operation and investments in desalination infrastructure. The unequivocal warming of the climate system adds another level of uncertainty as global and regional water cycles change. This makes the prediction of water availability an even greater challenge. Understanding the impact of climate change on precipitation can provide the information necessary for appropriate risk assessment and water planning. Unfortunately, current global circulation models (GCMs) are only able to predict long term climatic evolution at large scales but not local rainfall. The statistics of local precipitation are traditionally predicted using historical rainfall data. Obviously these data cannot anticipate changes that result from climate change. It is therefore clear that integration of the global information about climate evolution and local historical data is needed to provide the much needed predictions of regional water availability. Currently, there is no theoretical or computational framework that enables such integration for this region. In this dissertation both a conceptual framework and a computational platform for such integration are introduced. In particular, suite of models that link forecasts of climatic evolution under different CO2 emissions scenarios to observed rainfall

  20. The development of Middle Eastern gas: analyses of the graveyard of export projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabro, Robert

    1994-01-01

    There are three types of opportunities for gas developments in the Middle East. The first are those provided by the domestic energy market, the second by regional trade and the third by the potential for exports outside the region. The development of the full gas potential of the region, given the size of the reserves held by several countries, will only be possible through export. Of course, there is still room for the expansion of gas use within the producing countries and their regional neighbours but growth of domestic demand would not make a significant dent in the regional reserves before several decades. The potential for exports is constrained, however, by the uncertainty about future oil prices, the long lead-in time of major gas projects and the associated financing problems. There is a graveyard of gas export projects in the Middle East. New projects are continually conceived and then abandoned or indefinitely postponed. Even the famous Qatargas project which took so long to bring to the threshold of implementation appears in the present climate to be unattractive for both the country and the foreign investors involved. Gas in the Middle East will remain for a very long time a resource for an ever more distant future. There is still too much oil around for its price to rise to a support level for big gas projects in the Middle East. And there is no significant demand yet in Europe for Middle East oil which only leaves the Far East as a potential market. The paradox is that if gas resources are not developed ahead of needs, gas will not be available in sufficient volumes when required. (Author)

  1. Reasons for decision in the matter of Altresco Pittsfield L.P., Crestar Energy, Enron Capital and Trade Resources Corp. applications pursuant to Part VI of the National Energy Board Act of Licences to Export Natural Gas and, Husky Oil Operations Ltd., application pursuant to section 32 of the National Energy Board Act to amend a Licence to Export Natural Gas. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Basis for the National Energy Board's decisions in four gas export applications were presented. Gas export applications were discussed in general terms, followed by a review of each of the four applications. (Altreso Pittsfield L.P., Crestar Energy, Enron Capital and Trade Resources Corp., and Husky Oil Operations Ltd). The reviews took into account the current gas supply, transportation, markets, gas sales contracts, and the status of regulatory authorizations. All four applications were approved. The terms and conditions of the licences to be issued were reproduced in Appendix 1. 1 tab

  2. Indonesian law and reality in the Delta : a socio-legal inquiry into laws, local bureaucrats and natural resources management in the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simarmata, Rikardo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a socio-legal inquiry into the legal and administrative management of the natural resources of the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. This book argues that due to a combination of complex legal and non-legal factors, laws and regulations on natural resources management of

  3. Inventory of uranium resources potency at Kawat area, upper Mahakam, East Kalimantan detailed prospecting stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; I Gde Sukadana; Adi Gunawan Muhammad; Suripto

    2011-01-01

    Result of the general prospecting in East Kalimantan has found several radioactivity outcrop anomalies at upper Mahakam in the acid volcanic rock area which is approximately 25 km 2 in wide. The objective of the research is to know detailed geological information and characteristic of uranium mineralization. Method of this research are detailed geological, radiometric and geochemical mapping 1:10.000 on scale. The lithology of Kawat area is composed of seven units of rock. They are black clay unit, feldspatic sandstone unit, Nyaan rhyolite unit, lower andesite unit, Kawat rhyolite unit, upper andesite unit and tuffaceous sandstone unit. Evolving fault is dextral fault and normal fault. The trending of dextral fault is west-east and southwest-northeast, meanwhile the trending of normal faults is west-east and southwest northeast. There are two period of uranium mineralization occurrences in the area, the first is connected with the eruption of Nyaan rhyolite magma and the second is connected with the eruption of Kawat rhyolite magma. Uranium mineralization occurred in the stage of hydrothermal process and including in the pneumatogenic class of volcanogenic uranium deposits. This investigation has yielded two sites of potential uranium sector are the Nyaan sector with an area of about 6 km 2 and Kawat sector with an area of about 10 km 2 . (author)

  4. The Chinese Export Displacement Effect Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian; Yu, Wusheng; Yu, Qian

    China’s global export share has increased dramatically over the past decades. This development has prompted an empirical literature on whether Chinese exports displace those originated from elsewhere in various destination markets. In this paper we focus on the growth of China’s exports to the East...... African Community (EAC) countries and show how it has affected exports from the European Union (EU) to the EAC. Our main contribution to the literature on the displacement effect of Chinese exports is a set of total and relative displacement estimates based on different specifications of the gravity model...... where we control for country-year fixed effects so as to avoid the “gold medal mistake” of not accounting for time varying “multilateral resistance”. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Chinese exports have displaced exports from other countries in general. Nor do they support the hypothesis...

  5. THE VOSTOCHNY COSMODROME AS A NEW RESOURCE BASE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN THE FAR EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia Aleksandrovna Gurkova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An article studies the resource base of tourism development in the Far East, namely space tourism by studying the appropriate infrastructure, as well as problems in the functioning of space objects of the country. The purpose of articles researching of the existing infrastructure as a space launch platform for the implementation of tourist programs of space orientation and cultural and educational products.The methodology of the work: the description, a theoretical analysis, synthesis. The results of the study of available resource base of the Far East today is the lack of infrastructure for the development of the packaged tourist products. Rocket launchers development Vostochny cosmodrome of the Russian Federation are not yet ready to make sub-orbital tourist flights into space and the lack of accommodation facilities in its territory and is still a small number of excursion sites display does not allow to create quality tourism products of space orientation. Therefore, appropriate for today is to design a cultural and educational tours into areas that are located in close proximity to the cosmodrome, including a visiting to the Vostochny in the tour program. In the near future the space travel demand is depending on the technical component of the spaceport and licensing companies in the implementation of commercial vehicle operations.

  6. The export of China nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian

    2012-01-01

    The article first introduces the meaning of nuclear power export, and then analyses the advantages of China nuclear industry based on the status and development of this industry. At the same time. the collection of nuclear development for the next 30 years of several nations in south-east Asia, south Asia, Middle East, Africa and South America is compiled, which could be a valuable reference for foreseeing nuclear power export market. Finally, as the situation throughout the world is considered, some suggestions are made that what else could be done for future development and export. (author)

  7. Exploring Pacific Climate Variability and Its Impacts on East African Water Resources and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C. C.; Hoerling, M. P.; Hoell, A.; Liebmann, B.; Verdin, J. P.; Eilerts, G.

    2014-12-01

    In 8 out the past 15 boreal springs (1999, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013), substantial parts of eastern East Africa experienced very low boreal spring rains. These rainfall deficits have triggered widespread food insecurity, and even contributed to the outbreak of famine conditions in Somalia in 2011. At both seasonal and decadal time scales, new science supported by the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network seeks to understand the mechanisms producing these droughts. We present research suggesting that the ultimate and proximate causes of these increases in aridity are i) stronger equatorial Pacific SST gradients and ii) associated increases in the strength of the Indo-Pacific Walker circulation. Using observations and new modeling ensembles, we explore the relative contributions of Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) and global warming under warm and cold east Pacific Ocean states. This question is addressed in two ways: by using atmospheric GCMs forced with full and ENSO-only SSTs, and ii) by decomposing coupled ocean-atmosphere climate simulations into PDV and non-PDV components. These analyses allow us to explore the Walker circulation's sensitivity to climate change under various PDV states, and inform a tentative bracketing of 2030 climate conditions. We conclude by discussing links to East African development. Regions of high rainfall sensitivity are delineated and intersected with recent changes in population and land cover/land use. The interaction of elevation and climate is shown to create climatically secure regions that are likely to remain viable even under drier and warmer conditions; such regions may be logical targets for agricultural intensification. Conversely, arid low elevation regions are likely to experience substantial temperature impacts. Continued expansion into these areas may effectively create more 'drought' even if rainfall increases.

  8. Economics of LNG and pipeline gas export from GC C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the economic and non-economic considerations underlying gas exports from the GC C and the Arabian Peninsula in general. It addresses four themes: policy issues, political risks, technical risks and economics. It examines the distance between the regional resource areas and the major gas markets in the Far East and Europe, and examines the implications for moving gas to those markets in liquid form or by pipeline, in terms of number of LNG vessels required, and capital costs. (Author)

  9. Middle East gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  10. Natural gas development in the Russian Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The poorly explored and mostly underdeveloped gas resources of the Russian Far East (RFE) are large enough to support several large-scale projects, with an aggregate exportable surplus of up to 30 bcm of natural gas a year. However, owing to the uncertainties of the regional and national investment climate, new development projects, which heavily rely upon invited foreign participation, are likely to be delayed and will hardly yield, by the year 2000, more than 10 bcm of Russian gas for export. Nevertheless, in the forecastable future the region will emerge as an important player in the Asia-Pacific energy market and, consequently, in this area's geopolitical arena as well. (author)

  11. Export regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Australia is a major uranium supplier. Uranium is exported under conditions laid down to avoid any nuclear proliferation. On 24 May 1977 the Prime Minister had stated the main elements of Australian policy: the strengthening of the system of international safeguards and the selection of importing countries. (Non-nuclear weapon states must be Contracting Parties to the NPT. Nuclear weapon states must undertake not to use Australian uranium for this purpose). Australia retains property of the uranium up to the UF 6 stage (uranium hexafluoride) in the fuel cycle; it reserves the right to stop any export if the importing country no longer complies with AIEA Safeguards. Any transfer to a third country, any irradiated fuel reprocessing, requires Australia's prior agreement. Finally, importing countries must satisfy physical protection conditions. (NEA) [fr

  12. Export-led growth hypothesis : new evidence from Thirlwall's idea

    OpenAIRE

    Chee-Keong Choong; Zulkornain Yusop; Siong-Hook Law

    2007-01-01

    This study reexamines the relationship between exports and economic growth in ten East Asian and Pacific economies by building upon Verdoorn's [1941] idea. The cointegration tests indicate the existence of long-run and stable relationships between economic growth, exports, imports, capital, and labor in each economy. Granger-causality tests indicate short-run in causality (either export-led growth or growth-driven exports) in most economies. Besides, among the long-run estimated coefficients ...

  13. Maghreb and Middle East, future leaders of the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebouddj, I.

    2006-01-01

    The countries of Middle East and North Africa possess the most important resources in fossil energy and should play the first parts from now to about fifteen years, especially on the liquefied natural gas market. The famous peak oil will be the result of a lack of investments but not of a lack of resources says the president of the French Institute of petroleum. But the exporting countries have no interest to increase their production because the demand does not change in spite of high prices. Russian federation excepted, the world reserves are concentrated in the countries of Middle East and North Africa. Algeria will export 85 milliards of meters cube of natural gas in 2010 years 100 milliards in 2015; Qatar is said as the future world leader of liquefied natural gas. Europe will be dependant for its imports of gas for 80% in 2050. (N.C.)

  14. Exports of petroleum products, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m 3 /d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m 3 to 7,700 m 3 /d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m 3 /d, compared to 18,400 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m 3 . 24 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Modelling renewable energy resource and the electricity network (East Midlands region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, P.A.; Ma, T.

    2002-07-01

    The UK Government's targets for renewable generation and combined heat and power (CHP) are expected to result in a significant growth in embedded generation. This report describes the results of a study of the capability of the electricity distribution network in the East Midlands to accept embedded generation. Detailed network studies were performed for two sample networks: one representing an urban network (Leicester) and one representing a rural network (Boston). The 132 kV networks of the grid groups covering these areas were also studied. This included an examination of the connection points from major 132 kV busbars at grid supply points down to 11 kV primary substations. Power system studies were performed to identify the constraints and capabilities of the existing network, These studies included load flow to examine voltage profile and overloading, fault level analysis and transient studies to examine generator and network stability following faults on the network and voltage step change due to generator tripping. Space network capacity for the region was identified and used to assess the ability to accommodate regional targets for renewables and CHP. The study also examined constraining factors and potential solutions, including four improvement scenarios.

  16. Role of Forest Resources to Local Livelihoods: The Case of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Langat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Kenya are threatened by unsustainable uses and conversion to alternative land uses. In spite of the consequences of forest degradation and biodiversity loss and reliance of communities on forests livelihoods, there is little empirical data on the role of forest resources in livelihoods of the local communities. Socioeconomic, demographic, and forest use data were obtained by interviewing 367 households. Forest product market survey was undertaken to determine prices of various forest products for valuation of forest use. Forest income was significant to households contributing 33% of total household income. Fuel wood contributed 50%, food (27%, construction material (18%, and fodder, and thatching material 5% to household forest income. Absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were not significantly different across study locations and between ethnic groups. However, absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were significantly different among wealth classes. Poor households were more dependent on forests resources. However, in absolute terms, the rich households derived higher forest income. These results provide valuable information on the role of forest resources to livelihoods and could be applied in developing forest conservation policies for enhanced ecosystem services and livelihoods.

  17. Future European gas supply in the resource triangle of the Former Soviet Union, the Middle East and Northern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remme, Uwe; Blesl, Markus; Fahl, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    A steady increase of natural gas demand can be observed in Europe over the last decades. Due to the European obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the framework of the Kyoto Protocol, the trend toward natural gas is expected to continue in the future. The increased consumption is faced by comparably low indigenous gas resources within Europe, so that the dependency of Europe on gas imports from abroad will rise in the future. In addition to the existing supply sources Russia and Algeria, gas resources from the Middle East and the Caspian and the Central Asian regions may be supply options to cover Europe's gas demand in the future. Against this background, possible natural gas supply options as well as the transport infrastructure to and within Europe are discussed regarding their technical capacity and their costs. With the help of a cost-minimization model of the European gas supply system, the gas flows and the infrastructure capacity development up to the year 2030 are analyzed. In a sensitivity analysis, the impacts of demand variations on the choice of supply sources are studied. (author)

  18. A strategy to improve skills in pharmaceutical supply management in East Africa: the regional technical resource collaboration for pharmaceutical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minzi Omary

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International initiatives such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative have significantly increased availability and access to medicines in some parts of the developing world. Despite this, however, skills remain limited on quantifying needs for medications and ordering, receiving and storing medications appropriately; recording medications inventories accurately; distributing medications for use appropriately; and advising patients on how to use medications appropriately. The Regional Technical Resource Collaboration for Pharmaceutical Management (RTRC has been established to help address the problem of skills shortage in pharmaceutical management in East Africa. Methods The initiative brings together academic institutions from four East African countries to participate in skills-building activities in pharmaceutical supply management. The initiative targeted the institutions' ability to conduct assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and to develop and implement effective skills-building programmes for pharmaceutical supply chain management. Results Over a two-year period, the RTRC succeeded in conducting assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and practices in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. In 2006, the RTRC participated in a materials-development workshop in Kampala, Uganda, and contributed to the development of comprehensive HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management training materials; these materials are now widely available in all four countries. In Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been involved with the training of health care workers in HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management. In Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been conducting operations research to find solutions to their countries' skills-shortage problems. Some of the interventions tested include applying and evaluating the

  19. Diverse Rice Landraces of North-East India Enables the Identification of Novel Genetic Resources for Magnaporthe Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanth, Bangale; Vishalakshi, Balija; Sathish Kumar, P; Rama Devi, S J S; Bhadana, Vijay Pal; Senguttuvel, P; Kumar, Sudhir; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Prasad, M S; Madhav, Maganti S

    2017-01-01

    North-East (NE) India, the probable origin of rice has diverse genetic resources. Many rice landraces of NE India were not yet characterized for blast resistance. A set of 232 landraces of NE India, were screened for field resistance at two different hotspots of rice blast, viz., IIRR-UBN, Hyderabad and ICAR-NEH, Manipur in two consecutive seasons. The phenotypic evaluation as well as gene profiling for 12 major blast resistance genes ( Pitp , Pi33 , Pi54 , Pib , Pi20 , Pi38 , Pita2 , Pi1 , Piz , Pi9 , Pizt , and Pi40 ) with linked as well as gene-specific markers, identified 84 resistant landraces possessing different gene(s) either in singly or in combinations and also identified seven resistant landraces which do not have the tested genes, indicating the valuable genetic resources for blast resistance. To understand the molecular diversity existing in the population, distance and model based analysis were performed using 120 SSR markers. Results of both analyses are highly correlated by forming two distinct subgroups and the existence of high diversity (24.9% among the subgroups; 75.1% among individuals of each subgroup) was observed. To practically utilize the diversity in the breeding program, a robust core set having an efficiency index of 0.82 which consists of 33 landraces were identified through data of molecular, blast phenotyping, and important agro-morphological traits. The association of eight novel SSR markers for important agronomic traits which includes leaf and neck blast resistance was determined using genome-wide association analysis. The current study focuses on identifying novel resources having field resistance to blast as well as markers which can be explored in rice improvement programs. It also entails the development of a core set which can aid in representing the entire diversity for efficiently harnessing its properties to broaden the gene pool of rice.

  20. Perceived impediments to export involvement among small and medium sized firms : non-exporters perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Mpinganjira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to examine perceived impediments to export involvement among non-exporting small and medium sized firms (SME's in Malawi. The study also examines levels of interest in exporting among the firms. Problem investigated: Many countries have programs aimed at promoting export involvement among SME's. Despite this, most SME's continue to ignore exporting as a viable business strategy. Information on perceived impediments to export involvement especially from the non-exporters' perspective is often lacking hence the need for this study. Methodology: Data was collected from 80 owner managers of non-exporting SME's. A structured questionnaire was the main instrument used to collect data. Personal interviews were also held with managers for the purposes of probing their answers to the questions in the questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 18 was used to analyse the quantitative data obtained from use of the structured questionnaire. Qualitative data obtained through personal interviews was analysed used thematic analysis. Findings: The findings of the study showed significant levels of interest in exporting among the firms. The majority of the owner managers indicated willingness to exploit export opportunities that may be readily available to them. The findings however showed that just over half of the respondents had discussed or investigated the possibility of exporting before. On impediments to exporting, the findings showed that managers perceive many factors as important impediments to their firm's involvement in exporting. The top two most important impediments were internal to the firm and related to human resource issues. They included insufficient knowledge about export opportunities and lack of personnel knowledgeable in exporting. Originality and value of the research: A review of literature shows that most export promotion studies tend to focus more on issues relating to

  1. Magnetotelluric and aeromagnetic investigations for assessment of groundwater resources in Parnaiba basin in Piaui State of North-East Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, E.; Fontes, Sergio L.; Flexor, Jean M.; Rajaram, Mita; Anand, S. P.

    2009-06-01

    In an attempt to locate the presence of possible groundwater resource regions in the semi-arid North-East Brazil, an integrated survey including aeromagnetic and magnetotelluric (MT) studies have been undertaken in the Guaribas region and only MT survey in the Caracol region. In the Guaribas region the aeromagnetic data, its analytic signal and Euler solutions reveal several subsurface small-scale faults and intrusives that are conducive to be potential groundwater resource regions. A total of about 22 broad-band magnetotelluric (MT) soundings in the period range of 0.006-300 s along two profiles on the marginal arcs of the intra-cratonic sedimentary Parnaíba basin in North-East Brazil have been made across the regional geological strike, the Senador Pompeu Lineament (SPL). SPL trends N40°E and marks a basement high reflecting an irregularity in the original basin geometry. While one of the MT profiles traverses across the SPL, the other lies only in the aeromagnetically surveyed sedimentary region. Two-dimensional inversion of MT data of both profiles shows that the sedimentary basin is conductive (100-150 Ω m) and shows as a thin graben with an average thickness of about 2-3 km beneath both profiles. The basin is located to be at shallow depths (from surface to about 500 m). Based on the facts that the study region falls on sedimentary region having low-to-very low permeability and also in accordance with the subsurface lithology around the study region, the mapped sedimentary basin largely manifests the zone of potential sedimentary aquifer having moderate resistivity of 50-250 Ω m and is located at relatively shallow depths. The identified aquifer zone is believed to have links with the Parnaiba River flowing at a distance of about 300 km NW from the study region. We discuss interpretation of our results of MT and aeromagnetic data sets in the light of hydrological features of the study region.

  2. Australia: A Growing Market for Asean Exports?

    OpenAIRE

    Tongzon, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Much has been written regarding South East Asian countries as growing markets for Australian exports particularly in the past decade. But nothing so far has been done to examine whether ASEAN exports have also experienced some redirection towards the Australian market. The findings confirm our a priori expectations: no significant general reorientation was observed for the ASEAN group of countries, and ASEAN’s country bias declined over the period under study. This is in contrast to the Austr...

  3. Russian LNG: The Long Road to Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrova, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    On December 1, 2013 a law on liquefied natural gas (LNG) export liberalization came into legal force in Russia. The law grants two categories of companies other than Russia's state gas giant Gazprom and its subsidiary companies the right to export LNG: (1) users of mineral resources that have a license to construct an LNG plant or to send their gas production for liquefaction, and (2) companies that are more than 50% owned by the Russian government, for gas produced from Russian offshore fields or under production-sharing agreements. This is-without exaggeration-a historic decision for the Russian gas industry, the path to which was certainly not easy. Recent years have seen a radical change in the global economic climate, which has changed the dynamics of the European gas market (gas demand decline and Russian gas import reduction, changing pricing mechanism for a much higher share of spot indexing, European Commission anti-trust investigations against Gazprom, etc) and is increasingly pushing Russia to diversify its gas exports. However, diversifying exports through the development of LNG has proven to be not so simple. Over the past 20 years, with the exception of the Sakhalin-2 project, structured under a project-sharing agreement (PSA) rather than in the framework of national legislation, all other projects failed to come close to completion. The Kharasavey and Baltic LNG projects were abandoned in the early stages of project evaluation, while the Shtokman project progressed to the point of the operating company being created, but in the end was postponed indefinitely. The first stage of LNG development in Russia ended in failure. However, the Russian government considers the development of LNG exports to be a priority, which can be evidenced in all official policy papers. It is believed that LNG will help in achieving a set of objectives, namely: increasing the absolute volume of exports, allowing the country to enter into previously inaccessible markets

  4. Middle East oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This study is intended to shed light on structural changes occurring in six Middle East countries (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) that can be expected to have a significant impact on their oil and gas industry. These six countries provide 42% of the world's traded crude oil, on which Member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA) are increasingly dependent. They also contain about 65% and 30% of the world's proven oil and natural gas reserves, respectively, and command a strategic location between Europe and Asia. The Middle East has been one of the most volatile parts of the world where war, revolution and embargoes have caused major upheavals that have led to oil supply disruptions. The oil resources of all six countries were initially developed by international oil companies and all are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1994, their crude oil production capacity was about 23 million barrels per day (mbd) and is planned to expand to about 28 mbd by the year 2000. Revenue from the sale of oil accounts for more than 80% of each nation's total exports and about 75% of each government's income. The objectives of this study are: to detail their announced oil and gas development plans, to describe the major trends occurring in these countries, to outline the government responses to the trends, and to analyse the impact of government policies on oil and gas development. (J.S.). 121 refs., 136 figs., 212 tabs

  5. US exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the past, present, and future of US coal exports. It is expected that in the 1990's, the following factors will be evident: Significant increases in coal production and port capacity in Australia and South Africa, but little in Canada; Potentially significant increase in coal production and port capacity in Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia; Continued movement away from subsidized indigenous coal production in Europe and Japan. A substantial growth in world coal trade; Stronger growth in energy demand in the 1990s than in the 1980s; Significantly fewer additions to nuclear generating capacity in the 1990s than in the 1980s; Reduced coal production in Eastern Europe from that of the 1980s; Greater caution will be exercised in putting in new coal production capacity

  6. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  7. Impact of Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak on the use of emergency medical resources in febrile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyunho; Jeong, Sikyoung; Oh, Juseok; Woo, Seon Hee; So, Byung Hak; Wee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Ji Hoon; Im, Ji Yong; Choi, Seung Pill; Park, Kyoungnam; Cho, Byul Nim Hee; Hong, Sungyoup

    2017-06-01

    Outbreaks of transmissible respiratory infection are suspected to have significant effects on the health of pediatric and geriatric patients. The objective was to assess the impact of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak on the use of emergency resources. An ecologic analysis of emergency department (ED) records between September and December 2015, was performed. Data was obtained from the National Emergency Department Information System database for Korea. All demographic and diagnostic data from patients presenting with febrile symptoms as a main complaint were collected. The data were compared to the equivalent period in the three years preceding the MERS outbreak in Korea. Following the MERS outbreak, there was an increase in overall ED visits by febrile patients and the proportion of visits by febrile patients, relative to total ED attendances. This effect was more prominent in the children under five years. The duration of the chief complaint before ED arrival and the length of ED stay were significantly increased among younger pediatric patients. Decreased body temperature on arrival was observed in younger pediatric patients. MERS outbreak appears to have had a significant effects on ED use by febrile patients. The use of emergency care services by pediatric patients makes them more vulnerable to an outbreak of a transmissable disease. An effective strategy to control emergency center visits by non-urgent febrile patients and provide proper medical services is urgently needed.

  8. Research and Development Strategy for Fishery Technology Innovation for Sustainable Fishery Resource Management in North-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of fishery technologies supports food sustainability to achieve a steady supply of fish and fishery products. However, the priorities for research and development (R&D in fishery technologies vary by region due to differences in fish resource availability, environmental concerns, and consumer preferences for fishery products. This study examines trends in fishery technology innovations using data on patents granted as an indicator of changing R&D priorities. To clarify changes in R&D priorities, we apply a decomposition analysis framework that classifies fishery technologies into three types: harvesting, aquaculture, and new products. This study mainly focuses on China, Japan, and Korea as the major fishing countries in the north-east Asia region. The results show that the number of fishery technology patents granted increased between 1993 and 2015; in particular, the number of aquaculture patents granted has grown rapidly since 2012. However, the trend in Japan was the opposite, as the apparent priority given to aquaculture technology innovation decreased between 1993 and 2015. The trends and priority changes for fishery technology inventions vary by country and technology group. This implies that an international policy framework for fishery technology development should recognize that R&D priorities need to reflect diverse characteristics across countries and the technologies employed.

  9. Data on corrosion and scaling potential of drinking water resources using stability indices in Jolfa, East Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mahmood; Saleh, Hossein Najafi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar

    2018-02-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on the drinking water resources of the city of Jolfa (East Azerbaijan province, Iran) from samples taken from 30 wells. Calcium hardness, pH, total alkalinity, TDS, temperature and other chemical parameters were measured using standard methods. The Langelier, Rayzner, Puckhorius and aggressive indices were calculated. The results showed that the Langelier, Reynar, Puckorius, Larson-skold and aggressive indices were 1.15 (± 0.43), 6.92 (± 0.54), 6.42 (± 0.9), 0.85 (± 0.72) and 12.79 (± 0.47), respectively. In terms of water classification, 30% of samples fell into the NaCl category and 26.6% in the NaHCO 3 category and 43.4% samples in the CaHCO 3 , MgHCO 3 and MgCl category. The sedimentation indices indicated that the water of the wells could be considered as corrosive.

  10. Data on corrosion and scaling potential of drinking water resources using stability indices in Jolfa, East Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Yousefi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted on the drinking water resources of the city of Jolfa (East Azerbaijan province, Iran from samples taken from 30 wells. Calcium hardness, pH, total alkalinity, TDS, temperature and other chemical parameters were measured using standard methods. The Langelier, Rayzner, Puckhorius and aggressive indices were calculated. The results showed that the Langelier, Reynar, Puckorius, Larson-skold and aggressive indices were 1.15 (± 0.43, 6.92 (± 0.54, 6.42 (± 0.9, 0.85 (± 0.72 and 12.79 (± 0.47, respectively. In terms of water classification, 30% of samples fell into the NaCl category and 26.6% in the NaHCO3 category and 43.4% samples in the CaHCO3, MgHCO3 and MgCl category. The sedimentation indices indicated that the water of the wells could be considered as corrosive. Keywords: Corrosion and scaling potential, Stability indices, Ground water, Jolfa

  11. Gas Exports in Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanczki, Luca Zs.

    2011-01-01

    The Caspian region has been at the center of attention since Europe began seeking alternative routes to natural-gas resources. Turkmenistan has the potential to become an important gas exporter to Europe. As a landlocked country, Turkmenistan until recently has relied on post-Soviet pipeline infrastructures. The Central Asian republic has been at the mercy of Moscow's energy policy, which overlaps its foreign policy. At the same time, the revenue from gas exports is an essential part of the Turkmen national budget. This prompted Ashgabat to look for energy partners bypassing Russian territories. It started to convey natural gas first to Iran and then to China. This gave Turkmenistan strong leverage vis-a-vis Moscow. Ashgabat has not decided to export every gas molecule eastward, but, in jeopardizing its relations with Moscow, it expects more than empty pledges from Europe. On the other hand, a simple question emerges: Does Europe really need alternative sources? The answer is in the hands of Gazprom and Russian policy-makers

  12. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  13. China's coal export and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Li

    1993-01-01

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  14. Porphyry copper assessment of the Mesozoic of East Asia: China, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, and Russia: Chapter G in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Giplin R.; Frost, Thomas P.; Gans, Kathleen D.; Light, Thomas D.; Miller, Robert J.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with the China Geological Survey (CGS) to conduct a mineral resource assessment of Mesozoic porphyry copper deposits in East Asia. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Dexing deposit in eastern China that contains more than 8,000,000 metric tons of copper. In addition, large parts of the area are undergoing active exploration and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  15. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African Schools of Public Health: strengthening human and financial resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite its importance in providing evidence for health-related policy and decision-making, an insufficient amount of health systems research (HSR) is conducted in low-income countries (LICs). Schools of public health (SPHs) are key stakeholders in HSR. This paper, one in a series of four, examines human and financial resources capacities, policies and organizational support for HSR in seven Africa Hub SPHs in East and Central Africa. Methods Capacity assessment done included document analysis to establish staff numbers, qualifications and publications; self-assessment using a tool developed to capture individual perceptions on the capacity for HSR and institutional dialogues. Key informant interviews (KIIs) were held with Deans from each SPH and Ministry of Health and non-governmental officials, focusing on perceptions on capacity of SPHs to engage in HSR, access to funding, and organizational support for HSR. Results A total of 123 people participated in the self-assessment and 73 KIIs were conducted. Except for the National University of Rwanda and the University of Nairobi SPH, most respondents expressed confidence in the adequacy of staffing levels and HSR-related skills at their SPH. However, most of the researchers operate at individual level with low outputs. The average number of HSR-related publications was only capacity. This study underscores the need to form effective multidisciplinary teams to enhance research of immediate and local relevance. Capacity strengthening in the SPH needs to focus on knowledge translation and communication of findings to relevant audiences. Advocacy is needed to influence respective governments to allocate adequate funding for HSR to avoid donor dependency that distorts local research agenda. PMID:24888371

  16. Geology and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered petroleum resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province as part of its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. These two provinces are situated northeast of Scandinavia and the northwestern Russian Federation, on the Barents Sea Shelf between Novaya Zemlya to the east and the Barents Platform to the west. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined in the East Barents Basins Province for this study: the Kolguyev Terrace AU, the South Barents and Ludlov Saddle AU, and the North Barents Basin AU. A fourth AU, defined as the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch AU, coincides with the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province. These four AUs, all lying north of the Arctic Circle, were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources, resulting in total estimated mean volumes of ~7.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 318 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  17. Assessings impact of drought on water resources management in the Middle East using the GRACE data and hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rateb, A., II; Kuo, C. Y.; Imani, M.; Kao, H. C.; Shum, C. K.; Ching, K. E.; Tseng, K. H.; Lan, W. H.; Tseng, T. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Middle East (ME) region experiences severe freshwater shortages in 90% of the region due primarily to its semi-arid landscape and climate setting, the growth of its population which outpaces world's average population rate by 3.7%, and rapid economic development. The prolonged and intense drought which started in 2007 resulted in the significant decline of surface water availability in the Tigris-Euphrates basin, and exacerbated the anthropogenic groundwater extraction rate, which declined the productivity of agriculture, and displaced hundreds of thousands of people. Therefore, evaluating the impact of the drought on the total water storage (TWS) and groundwater storage (GWS) decline is critical to quantify water availability, towards more effective water resources management in the region. In this study, we use the monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin-satellite mission gravity solutions, covering April 2002 through December 2015, and hydrological models (GLDAS, CLM4.5, and WGHM2.2b) to monitor the TWS and GWS before and after the onset of the pronged drought which started in 2007. We built an effective Slepian basis concentrated over the Arabian Peninsula (AP) and six regions, including Iran, Iraq, North AP, South AP, Syria-Jordan, and Eastern Turkey, to characterize the impact of the drought at the country scale. The results show that the drought has resulted in further reducing the TWS and GWS depletion rate by more than 50%. The ME region experienced a small negative trend between 2002 and 2007, and then the trend dropped dramatically after 2007. The worst affected regions are northern Iraq, northwestern Iran, and North AP. We compared the estimates with agriculture irrigation maps and characterized the depletion rates have been primarily caused by agriculture irrigation, which is directly linked to the pronged drought. Droughts are arguably longer in duration, more frequency and more intense in an increasingly warmer climate. The

  18. 專論/從柏林國立圖書館東亞部看德國國家東亞研究資料資源/考恩 | The East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library: German National Resources for East Asian Materials / Matthias Kaun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    考恩

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available

    For more than 50 years the East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library has been hosting a special interest collection on East- and Southeast Asia. Integrated into a federal network of German libraries, supervised and in part financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG – Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, this collection has become the largest of its kind in Europe. The East Asia Department supplies German and European libraries with publications in East Asian languages through a special inter-library loan service. Since 2002 the Berlin State Library has offered access to electronic resources like databases and electronic journals from the East Asian region via the virtual library CrossAsia. Furthermore the East Asia Department has become an access point to East Asian databases for European consortia.

    頁次:9-18

  19. Will Exports Prevail over Austerity?

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily Astrov; Vladimir Gligorov; Peter Havlik; Mario Holzner; Gabor Hunya; Kazimierz Laski; Sebastian Leitner; Zdenek Lukas; Anton Mihailov; Olga Pindyuk; Leon Podkaminer; Josef Pöschl; Sandor Richter; Waltraut Urban; Hermine Vidovic

    2010-01-01

    The Central, East and Southeast European (CESEE) economies will experience on average a minor rebound of economic growth to 1% in 2010 which will speed up to 2.5% in 2011 and 3.5% in 2012. GDP growth will be higher in the CIS countries and in Turkey, about average in the Central European NMS and lower in the SEE countries and the Baltics. Growth is currently driven mostly by exports which should outweigh the dampening effects of the austerity measures. Whether the countries will actually bene...

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Papua-New Guinea, Eastern Indonesia, and East Timor, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 5.8 billion barrels of oil and 115 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in five geologic provinces in the areas of Papua New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and East Timor.

  1. Exports and Job Training

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Paulo; Silva, Joana; Proenca, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether export participation matters for job training. The paper draws on longitudinal worker-firm data for Brazilian manufacturing, linked with detailed records on training activity from the main provider. The analysis uses industry-specific exchange rate movements to generate exogenous variation in export status at the firm-level. The findings indicate that export par...

  2. 78 FR 29700 - President's Export Council; Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council; Subcommittee on... and Security, Space and Intelligence Systems, Building S24, Conference Center, 2020 East Imperial... security and foreign policy reasons. Agenda (Subject to Change) Tuesday, June 4 Open Session 1. Welcome and...

  3. Oil exporting countries need nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    The economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil exporting countries is analysed, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. The need for appropriate new institutions for licensing reactors, training personnel, and starting up plants follows directly from the size of the market and the economic incentives for the oil exporters to husband gas and oil. Gas and oil resources of the Middle Eastern countries are discussed, and future electricity needs estimated. (author)

  4. Exporting and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    different policy stance than typical in Africa. This is especially so in promoting export-oriented industry. If learning by exporting is a key driver of progress, then a fundamental reason for Africa's lack of transformation is likely to be the low policy priority given to export promotion in the past....... To enlarge the body of empirical evidence, we use an extensive 2005–2012 firm-level panel data set from Vietnam and separate out productivity effects of exporting due to self-selection. This allows us to conclude that firms actually learn by exporting. We also examine how this learning takes place. Our...... findings suggest that productivity gains are associated with moving to larger scale for foreign-owned firms with little evidence of subsequent learning on export markets. We find strong evidence to suggest that private domestic firms learn and accumulate knowledge from export markets with learning...

  5. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, South East Region: Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the South East Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the South East Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  6. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, East Region: Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the East Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the East Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  7. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, Mid East Region: Volume 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the Mid East Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the Mid East Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  8. Economic Valuation As a Basis for Sustainable Mangrove Resource Management: A Case in East Sinjai, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Suharti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of mangrove function generates both tangible and intangible benefits and services causing its overall value is not easily recognized hence often overlooked in coastal areas development. The study used the total economic value as a framework for estimating the values of the different uses of mangroves in East Sinjai Sub District, South Sulawesi. Survey method was carried out from September 2014 February 2015. The results showed that − total value of mangrove ecosystems in East Sinjai with total area of ​​758 ha is IDR37,535,809,496 year . Those v -1 alues were derived from direct benefits (polyculture fish pond, catching aquatic biota such as fish, shrimp, crab and milkfish, collecting fuelwood and bats catching and from indirect benefits i.e. its function to evade abrasion and sea water intrusion, its function as carbon sink and sequestration, its biodiversity values ​​and its existence benefits. The problem that should be anticipated is potential expansion of polyculture fishpond which drives clearing intact mangrove forests as it contributes quick and direct income to local people. The research results are expected could be used as a consideration in formulating for sustainable for local government recommendations mangrove management in East Sinjai.

  9. Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China: Chapter W in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Wallis, John C.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey assesses resources (mineral, energy, water, environmental, and biologic) at regional, national, and global scales to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources in undiscovered deposits.

  10. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  11. Conservation and utilization of natural resources in the East Usambara forest reserves: conventional views and local perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessy, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of conserving biological resources and the need for managing these resources for present and future generations has been given much attention internationally in the past three decades. These ideas have been emphasized in key documents such as the Brundtland report as well as in

  12. Water supply facility damage and water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in miyagi prefecture in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takashi; Osaki, Shizuka; Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Egawa, Shinichi; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light on damage to water supply facilities and the state of water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011), in order to identify issues concerning the operational continuity of hospitals in the event of a disaster. In addition to interview and written questionnaire surveys to 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, a number of key elements relating to the damage done to water supply facilities and the operation of water resources were identified from the chronological record of events following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nine of the 14 hospitals experienced cuts to their water supplies, with a median value of three days (range=one to 20 days) for service recovery time. The hospitals that could utilize well water during the time that water supply was interrupted were able to obtain water in quantities similar to their normal volumes. Hospitals that could not use well water during the period of interruption, and hospitals whose water supply facilities were damaged, experienced significant disruption to dialysis, sterilization equipment, meal services, sanitation, and outpatient care services, though the extent of disruption varied considerably among hospitals. None of the hospitals had determined the amount of water used for different purposes during normal service or formulated a plan for allocation of limited water in the event of a disaster. The present survey showed that it is possible to minimize the disruption and reduction of hospital functions in the event of a disaster by proper maintenance of water supply facilities and by ensuring alternative water resources, such as well water. It is also clear that it is desirable to conclude water supply agreements and formulate strategic water allocation plans in preparation for the eventuality of a long-term interruption to water services.

  13. Exporter Price Premia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    This paper provides new evidence on manufacturing firms' output prices: in Denmark, on average, exported varieties are sold at a lower price (i.e. a negative exporter price premium) relative to only domestically sold varieties. This finding stands in sharp contrast to previous studies, which have...... found positive exporter price premia. We also document that the exporter price premium varies substantially across products (both in terms of sign and magnitude). We show that in a standard heterogeneous firms model with heterogeneity in quality as well as production efficiency there is indeed no clear......-cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  14. Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saneev, B.G.; Sokolov, A.D.; Popov, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound basis for fuelling Russia's position in the natural gas market of NEA countries. Development of the powerful gas industry in the East of Russia faces some particular conditions that can decrease the effectiveness of investments. The eastern geopolitical direction is very important for Russia and the necessity to create a favourable political and economic environment for oil and gas export is of prime interest, as stressed in Energy Strategy for Russia till the Year 2020. In this context, the long-term market for natural gas in East Siberia and the Far East of Russia is investigated. Possible routes of natural gas export from Russia to NEA countries include three main directions: to the west of China with connection to the 'West-East gas pipeline', a route through and/or round Mongolia and, finally, a route along the Trans-Siberian or Baikal-Amur railroads to Russian ports in the Far East. As a result of complex studies, three stages in the creation of the unified gas pipeline system are suggested. Evaluation of the investments required for construction of such a natural gas pipeline system, expected gas volumes and prices on the markets show its high economic efficiency. In conclusion, the most valuable ideas are stressed. (author)

  15. Total pressing Indonesian gas development, exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Total is on track to become Indonesia's leading gas exporter by the turn of the century. Total's aggressive development of its Mahakam Delta acreage in East Kalimantan is intended to keep pace with growing liquefied natural gas demand, mainly from Japan but also increasingly from South Korea and Taiwan. A frantic scramble is under way among natural gas suppliers in the Pacific Rim region, particularly those with current LNG export facilities, to accommodate projections of soaring natural gas demand in the region. Accordingly, Total's Indonesian gas production goal is the centerpiece of a larger strategy to become a major player in the Far East Asia gas scene. Its goals also fall in line with Indonesia's. Facing flat or declining oil production while domestic oil demand continues to soar along with a rapidly growing economy, Indonesia is heeding some studies that project the country could become a net oil importer by the turn of the century. The paper describes Total's Far East strategy, the Mahakam acreage which it operates, the shift to gas development, added discoveries, future development, project spending levels, and LNG export capacity

  16. Demand Uncertainty: Exporting Delays and Exporting Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of the resolution of uncertainty found in models with heterogeneity...... of firm productivity. This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands...... to forecast unknown demands in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit...

  17. The US Natural Gas Exports: New Rules on the European Gas Landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    This study addresses the consequences of US Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) exports towards Europe, in particular on the strategy of Russia, the EU's main gas supplier. The shale gas revolution has profoundly changed the US gas scene and the competitiveness of gas on the US market. The abundant resources and sharp rise in production have resulted in surplus production and have driven the US gas prices down. The price spread between regional markets (United States, Europe, and Asia) has led US producers to look for new export opportunities. After a lively debate between advocates of exports, mainly gas producers, and their critics, mainly the major industrial users who were worried about a price increase, US LNG exports started in late February 2016 with the first cargo from the Sabine Pass (Cheniere) liquefaction plant exported to Brazil. Four other liquefaction plants are currently under construction. In 2020, the United States could become the third largest exporter in the world after Australia and Qatar. The US LNG exports will revolutionise international trade in LNG. Their contract structure (linked to the US gas spot price, no destination clauses, and tolling agreements) and the projected volumes will enable greater flexibility in the international LNG market and facilitate price convergence between regional markets. However, the US exports are starting in a market very different from that envisioned at the start of the 2010's when the export projects were launched. The drop in oil prices, the entry into production of new liquefaction capacities since 2014, and the slowdown in demand growth in Asia have driven LNG prices down on import markets. After four years of tight supply, the market is now in a surplus situation which should continue until the turn of the decade. These new conditions are profoundly changing the economics of US LNG export projects, which is questioned in the short term: the current prices are insufficient to cover the full cost of the

  18. A study on the effect of workaholism on human resource productivity: A case study of managers of East Azerbaijan Water and Waste Water Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ahmadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available These days, work is considered as an integral part of the human life and many people spend significant amount of their time in different organizations and departments to earn income. Unlimited organizational pressures and demands facing people have made them allocate much of their time on working. Because of these pressures, people are becoming increasingly subject to workaholism. On the other hand, leaders and managers are trying to improve performance and activities of their respective organizations. Therefore, different concepts such as productivity are turned to the major subject of the management and organizational studies within the same organizations. Note that today changeable and competitive environment and the available limited resources and facilities have turned the concept of productivity into one the most important preoccupations of management within modern organizations. In view of the limited studies and information available in Iran on workaholism and its adverse consequences, the present research intends to investigate and identifies the impacts of workaholism components on human resource productivity. In the present, research the descriptive-survey research method is used and where statistical community includes 130 managers of the East Azerbaijan Water and Waste Company. Using the correlation coefficient and linear regression technique the research tries to investigate the relationships between the concepts of workaholism and human resource productivity and demonstrates how they are applied in above-mentioned community.

  19. Trade Promotion Organizations (TPOs Role in Laying the Groundwork for an Export Promotion Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIAN-LIVIU OLARU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most countries focus on strategies for export development and promotion, given the importance of national goals and, in many cases, limited resources. A TPO has a significant role in laying the groundwork for an export promotion program. TPOs should pay close attention to the trade information needs of exporters and have appropriate mechanisms for acquiring such information systematically and disseminating it in a timely way. Moreover, a TPO provides basic and useful support to the export community if it can facilitate contacts between foreign buyers and exporters. Developing the export promotion program is one of the basic requirements when the TPO formulates its support program for the export sector.

  20. Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from...

  1. Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from traditi...

  2. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  3. Application of scenario-neutral methods to quantify impacts of climate change on water resources in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascott, M.; Macdonald, D.; Lapworth, D.; Tindimugaya, C.

    2017-12-01

    Quantification of the impact of climate change on water resources is essential for future resource planning. Unfortunately, climate change impact studies in African regions are often hindered by the extent in variability in future rainfall predictions, which also diverge from current drying trends. To overcome this limitation, "scenario-neutral" methods have been developed which stress a hydrological system using a wide range of climate futures to build a "climate response surface". We developed a hydrological model and scenario-neutral framework to quantify climate change impacts on river flows in the Katonga catchment, Uganda. Using the lumped catchment model GR4J, an acceptable calibration to historic daily flows (1966 - 2010, NSE = 0.69) was achieved. Using a delta change approach, we then systematically changed rainfall and PET inputs to develop response surfaces for key metrics, developed with Ugandan water resources planners (e.g. Q5, Q95). Scenarios from the CMIP5 models for 2030s and 2050s were then overlain on the response surface. The CMIP5 scenarios show consistent increases in temperature but large variability in rainfall increases, which results in substantial variability in increases in river flows. The developed response surface covers a wide range of climate futures beyond the CMIP5 projections, and can help water resources planners understand the sensitivity of water resource systems to future changes. When future climate scenarios are available, these can be directly overlain on the response surface without the need to re-run the hydrological model. Further work will consider using scenario-neutral approaches in more complex, semi-distributed models (e.g. SWAT), and will consider land use and socioeconomic change.

  4. European Energy Integration in East European Countries: Real Necessity to Assure Fair Market prices for Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin IGNATOV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure energy, and therefore, economic stability of East European States (hereafter EES there should be undertaken visible steps towards deeper energetic integration of the region under the coordination of EU. In such a way there will be considerably strengthened the regional economic security through creating functional mechanisms of solving current and potential energy issues including diversification of supplies and fairer market prices. Moreover, it will be possible to develop and implement more effectively energy infrastructure projects. Deeper and more functional energy integration in EES will create favorable preconditions of fostering the states’ economic development. Also, there will be considerably reduced the macroeconomic risks which could possible occur as a result of the struggle of interests of importing and supplying countries. The current paper is intended to underline the most important weaknesses in terms of energy security of EES and exemplify how efficient these problems could be tackled by cumulating common countries’ efforts in the sector. Also, it highlights the shortcomings of EU energy policy in EES and how these affect the economic prospective of the countries. Finally, it is remarked that EES need a common energy market in order to strengthen their negotiation positions in relation with supplying countries.

  5. Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Blake, Andon [CEPMLP, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume. (author)

  6. Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Blake, Andon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume. (author)

  7. Challenges in groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers of East Africa: Investigations and lessons learnt in the Comoros Islands, Kenya and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Comte

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Coastal areas of Kenya (Kilifi County, Tanzania (Kilwa district and Comoros (Ngazidja island, East Africa. Study focus: Research aimed to understand the physical and societal drivers of groundwater accessibility and identify critical aspects of groundwater access and knowledge gaps that require further monitoring and research. Interdisciplinary societal, environmental and hydrogeological investigations were consistently undertaken in the three areas considered as exemplars of the diversity of the coastal fringes of the wider region. This paper focuses on the hydrogeological outcomes of the research, framed within the principal socio-environmental issues identified. New hydrological insights: Results confirm the fundamental importance of coastal groundwater resources for the development of the region and the urgent need to match groundwater development with demographic and economic growth. Hydrogeological knowledge is fragmented, groundwater lacks a long-term monitoring infrastructure and information transfer from stakeholders to users is limited. Current trends in demography, climate, sea-level and land-use are further threatening freshwater availability. Despite possessing high-productivity aquifers, water quality from wells and boreholes is generally impacted by saltwater intrusion. Shallow large-diameter wells, following the traditional model of these areas, consistently prove to be less saline and more durable than deeper small-diameter boreholes. However, promoting the use of large numbers of shallow wells poses a significant challenge for governance, requiring coherent management of the resource at local and national scales and the engagement of local communities. Keywords: Groundwater, Coastal aquifer, Eastern Africa, Environmental change, Governance, Community engagement

  8. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  9. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a method to estimate markups using plant-level production data. Our approach relies on cost minimizing producers and the existence of at least one variable input of production. The suggested empirical framework relies on the estimation of a production function and provides...... estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge......, on average, higher markups and that markups increase upon export entry....

  10. Guide to software export

    CERN Document Server

    Philips, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software

  11. Diagnostics of the Enterprise Export Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to form and develop theoretical and methodological foundations for diagnostics of the enterprise export potential, which should be understood as a process of identification, analysis and assessment of the level of potential possibility and readiness of the enterprise to implement export activities taking into account the impact of interrelated internal variables (goals, technology, structure, tasks, educational and professional potential of the staff and factors of the enterprise external environment (customers, competitors, suppliers, intermediaries, contact audience, etc. in order to ensure a qualitatively new level of its development and formation of its prospects. It is determined that the key business indicators of the system for diagnostics of enterprise export potential are: the level of enterprises competitiveness in the international (global market; the level of competitiveness of enterprise products; the level of competitiveness of enterprise export products; the level of enterprise resource opportunities; the level of enterprise export performance. Prospects for further research in this direction are to develop a classification (specifically detailed list of objectives of the enterprise diagnostics by the level of detail (element, partial, complex, taking into account diagnostics of export potential of the enterprise as part of diagnostic objective.

  12. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Idris Babiker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livestock markets. These markets are deficient in basic infrastructures and systematic marketing research. The system as a whole is faced by various complex obstacles and constraints, which decrease the contribution of livestock in general, and sheep in particular, to the national economy, and suppress the optimum exploitation of this resource. These obstacles are represented in the lack of transportation networks that connect the production and consumption centres to break the seasonality of supply that creates shortages and high prices at the consumption centres. This paper employs the policy analysis matrix (PAM technique to examine the Sudanese live sheep and mutton competitiveness in the international market. The results indicated that the market price was greater than the border price implying a positive incentive as an implicit subsidy to the live sheep exporter. The mutton exporters were found subsidised as well. The international value added (IVA indicted a positive foreign exchange earnings or savings. Exported live sheep and mutton coefficient of competitiveness (CIC implied that sheep and mutton exports are profitable and internationally competitive.

  13. Resource use associated with type 2 diabetes in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey: results from the International Diabetes Management Practice Study (IDMPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardino, Juan J; Atanasov, Petar K; Chan, Juliana C N; Mbanya, Jean C; Shestakova, Marina V; Leguet-Dinville, Prisca; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications form a global healthcare burden but the exact impact in some geographical regions is still not well documented. We describe the healthcare resource usage (HRU) associated with T2D in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey. In the fifth wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS; 2011-2012), we collected self-reported and physician-reported cross-sectional data from 8156 patients from 18 countries across 5 regions, including different types of HRU in the previous 3-6 months. Negative binomial regression was used to identify parameters associated with HRU, using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) to express associations. Patients in Africa (n=2220), the Middle East (n=2065), Eurasia (n=1843), South Asia (n=1195) and Turkey (n=842) experienced an annual hospitalization rate (mean±SD) of 0.6±1.9, 0.3±1.2, 1.7±4.1, 0.4±1.5 and 1.3±2.7, respectively. The annual number of diabetes-related inpatient days (mean±SD) was 4.7±22.7, 1.1±6.1, 16.0±30.0, 1.5±6.8 and 10.8±34.3, respectively. Despite some inter-regional heterogeneity, macrovascular complications (IRRs varying between 1.4 and 8.9), microvascular complications (IRRs varying between 3.4 and 4.3) and, to a large extent, inadequate glycemic control (IRRs varying between 1.89 and 10.1), were independent parameters associated with hospitalization in these respective regions. In non-Western countries, macrovascular/microvascular complications and inadequate glycemic control were common and important parameters associated with increased HRU.

  14. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  15. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  16. Quebec's electricity exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyt, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 Hydro-Quebec exported over 16 TWh to New England and New York and it plans to export 3,500 MW of firm power, not interruptible, by the early 2000s. It estimates that the northeast US market has an additional potential of 9,000 MW. The export market has become more difficult than anticipated. The federal/state regulatory framework for electricity generation was changing - it encouraged small scale generation, cogeneration and conservation which decreased demand. Demand for power imports has also been influenced by pricing judgements and avoided costs. Environmental concerns and Native protest have become increasingly important factors affecting future export sales and hence the proposed James Bay developments. Regulatory changes affecting supply and pricing, concerns about continental impacts, about further development of electrical sources together with Native requirements will further complicate the Quebec-US electricity trade. (author)

  17. Nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    One approach to describing the multilateral nuclear export controls is to do it according to time. This led to an interesting discovery, i.e. multilateral export controls have been defined by four distinct periods, the forst two of abut five years each, the second two about twice as long. These time periods have another interesting property. The two suppliers groups, which we will discuss in detail, have alternated in dominance over nearly thirty years. After describing the historical developments, the status of the present situation in multilateral nuclear export controls is examined, with the strengths and weaknesses. The future of multilateral nuclear export controls and possible ways that might be taken are considered

  18. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  19. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  20. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  1. An exporter's checklist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englot, P.

    1995-01-01

    The benefits of exporting goods and services was discussed. The article listed a summary of issues which could be referred to to assist with the development of an effective plan to export. Some issues to consider were: (1) analysis of the export market, such as political and cultural issues, local legislation, competition, infrastructure, transportation and logistics, (2) internal issues, such as people, equipment, capital, time, understanding of the risks, relocation and identification of all costs, (3) sources of support such as banks, government and transporters, (4) development of a solid payment plan. It was concluded that exporting was not for the faint-hearted. It can be expensive, and time consuming, however, if approached in the right spirit it could be highly rewarding. As a rule of thumb, the probability of success was said to be directly related to the amount of effort put into the preparatory phase. Potential exporters were reminded of the very strong infrastructure that exists in Canada to promote and support export initiatives, including all levels of government, financial institutions, freight forwarders and innumerable consultant/specialists

  2. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Resource utilization in the emergency department of a tertiary care university-based hospital in Tokyo before and after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Mai; Tanabe, Aska; Gunshin, Masataka; Riffenburgh, Robert H; Tanen, David A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the resource utilization of a tertiary care Japanese emergency department (ED) that was not immediately adjacent to the area of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami. A retrospective chart review was performed at a tertiary care university-based urban ED located approximately 290 km from the primary site of destruction secondary to an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter Scale and the resulting tsunami. All patients who presented for a period of twelve days before and twelve days after the disaster were included. Data were collected using preformed data collection sheets, and stored in an Excel file. Abstracted data included gender, time in the ED, intravenous fluid administration, blood transfusion, oxygen, laboratories, electrocardiograms (ECGs), radiographs, ultrasound, diagnoses, surgical and medical referrals, and prescriptions written. Ten percent of the charts were reviewed for accuracy, and an error rate reported. Data were analyzed using 2-tailed t-tests, Fisher's exact tests or rank sum tests. Bonferroni correction was used to adjust P values for multiple comparisons. Charts for 1193 patients were evaluated. The error rate for the abstracted data was 3.2% (95% CI, 2.4%-4.1%). Six hundred fifty-seven patients (53% male) were evaluated in the ED after the earthquake, representing a 23% increase in patient volume. Mean patient time spent in the ED decreased from 61 minutes to 52 minutes (median decrease from 35 minutes to 32 minutes; P = .005). Laboratory utilization decreased from 51% to 43% (P = .006). The percentage of patients receiving prescriptions increased from 48% to 54% (P = .002). There was no change in the number of patients evaluated for surgical complaints, but there was an increase in the number treated for medical or psychiatric complaints. There was a significant increase in the number of people utilizing the ED in Tokyo after the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami. Time spent

  4. Hydrologic and Agent-based Modelling of Hydro-refugia in East Africa, Insights into the Importance of Water Resources in Hominin Evolution and Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, G. M.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Gleeson, T. P.; Reynolds, S. R.; Bennett, M. R.; Newton, A. C.; McCormack, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Hominin evolution and climate variability have often been linked because of the apparent coincidence of climate fluctuations and speciation or extinctions, although the cause and effect of climate on natural selection is not clear. Climate in the EARS (East African Rift System) where most hominin first occurrences are located experienced an overall drying over the last 7 myr. Superimposed on this trend, Milankovitch cycles generated wet-dry precession cycles ( 23 kyr) that changed both water and food resource availability. During dry periods, lakes became more alkaline and rivers ephemeral but, groundwater, buffered from surface climate effects, remained a potential resource during the driest of times. The possibility of widespread groundwater sources hydro-refugia, such as springs, wetlands and groundwater-fed perennial streams has received little attention with respect to the paleoenvironmental context of hominin evolution or dispersal. We demonstrate that hydrogeological modelling of the modern landscape in East Africa coupled with ABM (agent-based modelling) of hominin movement yields new insight into potential correlates of hominin survival and dispersal. Digitized hydrological mapping of present day rivers, lakes and springs along the EARS (2000 km) from northern Tanzania to Ethiopia provided the modelling framework. Present day conditions are considered analogous to past dry periods; wet period conditions are an expanded hydrologic network including all surface water bodies. Our focus was on perennial springs discharging at 1,000 m3/y (volume to sustain a small wetland). 450 such springs occur and were found to be significantly controlled by geology, not just climate. The ABM was designed to determine if it was possible for humans to walk between hydro-refugia in 3 days. Four climate scenarios were run on ABM: wet, wet-to-dry, dry and dry-to-wet. During dry periods our results suggest that groundwater availability would have been critical to supporting

  5. Export Taxes under Bertrand Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie; Roger Clarke

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses export taxes in a Bertrand duopoly with product differentiation, where a home and a foreign firm both export to a third-country market. It is shown that the maximum-revenue export tax always exceeds the optimum-welfare export tax. In a Nash equilibrium in export taxes, the country with the low cost firm imposes the largest export tax. The results under Bertrand duopoly are compared with those under Cournot duopoly. It is shown that the absolute value of the export subsid...

  6. Offshore Gas in East Mediterranean: From Myth to Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de

    2013-01-01

    The wave of deep offshore and unconventional gas and oil exploration projects, rendered economically feasible by relatively high prices and new technologies, has reached the shores of the Mediterranean. Levantine countries, including Cyprus, Israel, Palestinian Territories, Lebanon, Syria, have new offshore gas potentials. A few years ago, the East Mediterranean energy situation looked gloomy. East Mediterranean countries, struggling to feed their growing domestic energy consumption, were forced to depend on neighbours like Egypt whose export gas pipeline kept on blowing or Syria which was unable to fulfil the export contracts it signed and they meanwhile had to buy LNG at world markets high spot prices or fuel their power stations with highly priced fuel oil or diesel. Long term prospects did not look good either as the ability of Egypt -the main regional supplier- to maintain gas export's volumes is being challenged by rising domestic demand. Israel in particular, given its tense relations with energy rich Arab countries was finding itself in a difficult situation to secure its supplies. The discoveries of giant gas fields offshore Israel, now followed by its neighbours who all started to explore their offshore, has changed the picture. Gas fields have provided these countries a great feeling of blessing as expected economic benefits will be massive and energy security improved - a major concern after Arab Revolutions have shaken established energy routes. The road leading to a change of energy paradigm in the East Mediterranean is however long and bumpy. Before these countries will be able to tap benefits from these deep water gas (and oil) resources, these countries will actually have to overcome significant geopolitical, regulatory and commercial hurdles. Energy laws and clear and attractive legal frameworks for exploration and production activities, will need to be set up, and sometimes from scratch. Infrastructures -so far almost inexistent- will have to be

  7. The Impact of Hydraulic Resources on Sustainable Development of the Timgad Basin North-East of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, D; Ali, A.

    2009-01-01

    Algeria has undertaken a great project consisting to realise an interconnection hydraulic Work in objective to be satisfy in resource water for population and agriculture. Timgad basin located in Aures is characterized by a particular morpho structural relief with dense streams which favorise streaming rain water. This basin includes globally detritital geological formations represented by argilious and sand of Miocene. Concerning agriculture development in this area and to supply neighbouring population with fresh water, Forum Toub site is choose to built a reserve collinear. Geological and geotechnical investigations give interesting results concerning place. However from hydrological study appear that an important solid volume, on twenty years, is largely over capacity water. Then the apparition of this new problem makes this project unrealisable and the site must be changed. It is interesting to build another Work with great capacity on another site taking in account the characteristic of the catchment area. The second proposal will could be assure a sustainable development with availability of water. The handling methods of transported sediments must be applied in upstream in order to increase the life time of water stopping

  8. Virtual water exported from Californian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Johansson, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    In an increasingly teleconnected world, international trade drives the exchange of virtual land and water as crops produced in one region are consumed in another. In theory, this can be an optimal use of scarce resources if crops are grown where they can most efficiently be produced. Several recent analyses examine the export of land and water from food production in developing countries where these resources may be more abundant. Here we focus on a developed region and examine the virtual export of land and water from California, the leading agricultural state in the US and the leading global producer of a wide range of fruit, nut, and other specialty crops. As the region faces a serious, ongoing drought, water use is being questioned, and water policy governance re-examined, particularly in the agricultural sector which uses over three-quarters of water appropriations in the state. We look at the blue water embodied in the most widely grown crops in California and use network analysis to examine the trading patterns for flows of virtual land and water. We identify the main crops and export partners representing the majority of water exports. Considered in the context of tradeoffs for land and water resources, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for food production systems to play a sustainable role in meeting human needs while protecting the life-support systems of the planet.

  9. How Export and Import Platforms Drive Industry Upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishida, Masami; Machikita, Tomohiro; Ueki, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    to extend the geographic scope of their foreign platforms if they run both exporting and importing; (2) firm size and R&D sales ration play a role of foreign platforms in ASEAN, Europe, and the USA, but these have no effects on foreign platforms in east Asia; (3) emerging multinationals do not achieve...

  10. Science informed water resources decision-making: Examples using remote sensing observations in East Africa, the Lower Mekong Basin and the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, S. L.; Andreadis, K.; Das, N.; Farr, T. G.; Ines, A. V. M.; Jayasinghe, S.; Jones, C. E.; Melton, F. S.; Ndungu, L. W.; Lai-Norling, J.; Painter, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Across the globe, planners and decision makers are often hampered by organizational and data silos and/or a lack of historic data or scant in situ observations on which to base policy and action plans. The end result is a complex interaction of responsibilities, legal frameworks, and stakeholder needs guided by uncertain information that is essentially bounded by how climate extremes are defined and characterized. Because of the importance of water, considerable resources in the developing and developed world are invested in data and tools for managing water. However, the existing paradigm of water management around the world faces significant challenges including inadequate funding to install, maintain or upgrade monitoring networks, lack of resources to integrate new science and data sources into existing tools, and demands for improved spatial coverage of observations. Add to this, a changing hydrology that is so complex it requires measurements and analyses that have never been done before. Interest in applying remote sensing science and observations into the decision making process is growing the world over, but in order to succeed, it is essential to form partnerships with stakeholder organizations and decision makers at the outset. In this talk, we describe examples of succesful decision-maker and science partnering based on projects that apply remote sensing science and observations in East Africa and the Lower Mekong Basin supported by the SERVIR Initiative, a joint United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program, and projects in the western United States supported by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Western Water Applications Office (WWAO). All of these examples have benefitted from strong, committed partnerships with end user agencies. Best practices and lessons learned in connecting science to decision making amongst these examples are explored.

  11. Oil and natural gas prospects: Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    The MENA region is endowed with enormous resources of oil and gas, rendering it the world′s richest region in this regard. Endowment differs from one country to another with few countries are almost dry; however the economic benefits proliferated to almost every country in the region. In spite of some doubts being cast about the amount of proven oil reserves, these with improved technology and new discoveries are increasing year after another. With no long term feasible alternatives to oil for transport and the increasing trade in LNG, the region′s importance as a world′s leading supplier of fossil fuels will continue for decades to come. However, these favourable prospects hide many challenges facing the MENA region, among them is the difficulty in mobilizing investment funds for sustaining and increasing output to feed growing global demand. Growing local demand, due to the proliferation of subsides, is another worrying aspect that already caused few countries with modest resources to become oil importers instead of exporters, with larger exporters decreasing their surplus output. The region is also still mainly dependant on foreign technologies and skilled manpower. Regional cooperation in oil and gas networks and electricity interconnections is still modest. The region has a long history of conflict; correspondingly it is a major importer of armaments which is increasingly eating a lot of its surplus income. With the political and social changes presently taking place in many MENA countries, due to the Arab spring and continuation of local conflicts, the sustainability of supplies from the region are increasingly a source of worry to MENA exporters and its many importers. It is also causing increasing involvement of the super powers in regional affairs. - Highlights: • Global oil and gas reserves and prices. • Energy sustainability and the Middle East. • Energy economics and investments in the Middle East

  12. Gas projects surge in the Middle East as governments seek new revenue sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    The rapid development of natural gas and condensate reserves in the Middle East results from a simple motivation: the desire of governments to earn revenues. For the past decade, Middle East governments have run budget deficits, which they funded by drawing down foreign assets and issuing debt. Now in the process of structural economic reform, they have begun to use an under-utilized resource--natural gas, of which Middle East governments own about one third of the world's reserves. Governments receive revenues from several sources in natural gas developments, which makes the projects very attractive. Revenue comes from the sale of the natural gas in the domestic market and, if exported, the international market; the sale of associated condensates; the additional exports of crude oil or refined products if natural gas is substituted for refined products in domestic markets; the increased sale of crude oil if natural gas is injected into reservoirs to maintain pressure; and the sale of petrochemicals where natural gas is used as feedstock. Large projects under way in the Middle East highlight the consequences of multiple revenue sources and interlinked costs of natural gas and condensate development. Other countries in the region are undertaking similar projects, so examples cited represent only a portion of what is occurring. The paper describes Abu Dhabi, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Iran

  13. Study of Export Trade Financing in India with Particular Reference to Commercial Banks: Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sen Gupta, A. K.; Keshari, Pradeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Exports are instrumental in the development of an economy, particularly developing nations. The Indian Financial System, through commercial bank offer financial resources for promoting exports by providing both pre and post shipment finances. LERMS and Full –convertibility on trade account of Indian rupee have provided importers to export financing, so also the New Trade Policy, provides a Favourable climate for exports. The present paper spells out the role and share of commercial banks ...

  14. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  15. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  16. Correlations-Adjusted Export Market Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Joo La

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces new export market diversification indices incorporated with correlations of business cycles among export partners to identify the actual effects of export market diversification on export instability. Three existing export market diversification indices reflect the dispersion level in terms of the number of export partners and their export shares, without a clear control for correlations among export earnings from export partners. In addition, they are underestimated or ...

  17. Export constraints facing Lesotho-based manufacturing enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motšelisi C. Mokhethi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Exporting is preferred by many enterprises as the mode of foreign entry as it requires less commitment of organisational resources and offers flexibility of managerial actions. However, enterprises face a number of challenges when attempting to initiate exports or expand their export operations. Research purpose: This study was undertaken to determine the characteristics and composition of export barriers constraining exporting by Lesotho-based manufacturing enterprises. Motivation for the study: Lesotho is faced with low destination diversity and low diversity in export products. Research design, approach and method: Data was collected from 162 Lesotho-based manufacturing enterprises through a self-administered questionnaire. Main findings: In its findings, the study firstly identified international constraints, distribution constraints and financial constraints as factors constraining exporting. Secondly, it was determined that three exporting constraints, all internal to the enterprise and all related to one factor (namely financial constraint hampered exporting. Lastly, the ANOVA results revealed that the perceptions of export constraints differed according to the enterprise characteristics, enterprise size, ownership and type of industry. Contribution/value-add: With the majority of enterprises in this study being identified as micro-enterprises, the government of Lesotho needs to pay particular attention to addressing the export needs of these enterprises in order to enable them to participate in exporting activities − especially considering that they can play a pivotal role in the alleviation of poverty, job creation and economic rejuvenation.

  18. European energy security: An analysis of future Russian natural gas production and exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederbergh, Bengt, E-mail: bengt.soderbergh@fysast.uu.s [Global Energy Systems, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Laegerhyddsvaegen 1, Box 535, SE-751 21, Uppsala (Sweden); Jakobsson, Kristofer; Aleklett, Kjell [Global Energy Systems, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Laegerhyddsvaegen 1, Box 535, SE-751 21, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The widening gap between EU gas production and consumption may require an 87% increase of import volumes between 2006 and 2030, and there are great uncertainties regarding the amounts of gas that can be expected from new suppliers. The potential of increased production from Norway and Algeria is limited; hence, Russia is likely to play a crucial part of meeting the anticipated growing gas demand of the EU. A field-by-field study of 83 giant gas fields shows that the major producing Russian gas fields are in decline, and by 2013 much larger supplies from the Yamal Peninsula and the Shtokman field will be needed in order to avoid a decline in production. Gas from fields in Eastern Siberia and the Far East will mainly be directed to the Asian and Pacific Rim markets, thereby limiting its relevance to the European and CIS markets. As a result, the maximum export increase to the European and CIS markets amounts only to about 45% for the period 2015-2030. The discourse surrounding the EU's dependence on Russian gas should thus not only be concerned with geopolitics, but also with the issue of resource limitations. - Research highlights: {yields}Natural gas production in the Nadym Pur Taz region (Western Siberia) will start to decline within a few years. {yields}New production from the Yamal peninsula is critical to ensure gas exports to Europe. {yields}Additional production in East Siberia and the Far East will not be available for the European market. {yields}Rapid gas demand growth in China might also lead to competition for gas from Western Siberia.

  19. Composition of Exports and Export Performance of Eurozone Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierts, P.J.; Kerkhoff, H.; de Haan, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent the composition of exports is related to the export performance of eurozone countries using a data set on exports from the oldest eurozone countries to their top 20 trade partners for the period 1988-2009. The results suggest that a higher share of high

  20. 12 Ministries Control Rare Earth Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>"It is very natural to reserve rare earth as a strategic resource.Many countries do this,including China."On April 8,Sun Lihui,Vice Director of Metal Section of Chemicals Import & Export Commerce Chamber of China Minmetals Corporation told a reporter that as early as 2006,China has launched a strategic plan for rare earth,"but it was interrupted by the subsequent financial crisis."

  1. Exporting Humanist Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The article is a chapter in the catalogue for the Danish exhibition at the 2016 Architecture Biennale in Venice. The catalogue is conceived at an independent book exploring the theme Art of Many - The Right to Space. The chapter is an essay in this anthology tracing and discussing the different...... values and ethical stands involved in the export of Danish Architecture. Abstract: Danish architecture has, in a sense, been driven by an unwritten contract between the architects and the democratic state and its institutions. This contract may be viewed as an ethos – an architectural tradition...... with inherent aesthetic and moral values. Today, however, Danish architecture is also an export commodity. That raises questions, which should be debated as openly as possible. What does it mean for architecture and architects to practice in cultures and under political systems that do not use architecture...

  2. Nuclear exporters cartel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, M.

    1977-01-01

    Events that have transpired in the past few years that have caused renewed concern about the spread of nuclear weapons are reviewed. Many proposals have been made recently for keeping the bomb from spreading. The author feels that the most novel and intriguing of them is the one advanced by Senator Abraham Ribicoff and Steven J. Baker; in their proposal, the world market for nuclear reactors would be divided into precisely defined shares among the industrial nations that now manufacture them for export; each exporter would be guaranteed a certain number of sales annually; and each would pledge not to sell uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing technology, as Germany did to Brazil. This might not halt proliferation, but it would give the world a few more years to find a solution

  3. Export development financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, J.

    1995-01-01

    The main activities of the Export Development Corporation (EDC) were described, as well as some of the changes currently being implemented. EDC is Canada's official export credit agency, providing risk management services such as insurance, loans, guarantees, equity and leasing. EDC's project finance initiative started in 1991, and focused mainly on the up-front process. It has established itself as a recognized leader in project financing. It has over 15 years experience in a variety of sectors and countries. Energy projects financed to date include hydro projects in India, Argentina and Pakistan, and thermal projects in Thailand, China, Indonesia and Egypt. Lending criteria used to select projects were outlined, along with the risks endemic to project financing

  4. OPEC Middle East plans for rising world demand amid uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.A.H.

    1996-01-01

    The Middle Eastern members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries must plan for huge increases in oil production capacity yet wonder whether markets for the new output will develop as expected. With worldwide oil consumption rising and non-OPEC output likely to reach its resource limits soon, OPEC member countries face major gains in demand for their crude oil. To meet the demand growth, those with untapped resources will have to invest heavily in production capacity. Most OPEC members with such resources are in the Middle East. But financing the capacity investments remains a challenge. Some OPEC members have opened up to foreign equity participation in production projects, and others may eventually do so as financial pressures grow. That means additions to the opportunities now available to international companies in the Middle East. Uncertainties, however, hamper planning and worry OPEC. Chief among them are taxation and environmental policies of consuming-nation governments. This paper reviews these concerns and provides data on production, pricing, capital investment histories and revenues

  5. TEN YEARS AFTER THE GLOBAL CRISES - EXPORTS RECOVERY AT REGIONAL LEVEL IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur-Emilian SIMION

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available After ten years of the global financial crises, which peak in Romania was 2009, the negative impact on exports and imports of Romania are still in place for some Romanian counties. The scale of the impact highlights the strong connections between the national economy and the economy of the other EU countries, which have suffered during the crisis because of falling demand for imports from Romania. The good export recovery is not a favorable thing for those counties who focused theirs exports on primary products, products based on natural resources and low-technology products. These exports lead to the decrease in foreign exchange earnings and implicitly the potential of endogenous growth at the county level, mainly due to deteriorating terms of trade. The paper is focused on Romanian exports recovery analysis, taking into account the impact of world financial crisis, which started in Romania in 2009. A special attention is paid to the recovery of exports at the regional level and to the importance of the structural changes of Romanian export, occurred in 2017 compared to 2008. Also, in this article are analyzed the concentration of exports at county level, the main partners on export, the share of the first 10 partners and evolution of export per capita at the counties level. The trade balance is used to classify the counties in: net exporters (export>import and net importers (import>export.

  6. Forests of east Texas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J.W. Dooley; T.J. Brandeis

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. Forest resource estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  7. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi; Reza Aghamousa; Fataneh Alizadeh Meshkani

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate th...

  8. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    the aspects of territoriality and institutional context, and suggests their integration into one concept, or rather a process of contextualizing territories. In doing so, the article argues for a methodology that not only examines current events, but also captures change as particularly important in what we......This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  9. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  10. Kalimantan field development hikes gas supply for LNG export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharmoko, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of Tambora and Tunu gas fields in Kalimantan that have increased available gas supply for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Indonesia. The demand for LNG is increasing in the energy thirsty Far East market. And Indonesia, the world's largest exporter, is keeping pace by expanding the Bontang liquefaction plant in East Kalimantan. A fifth train, with a capacity of around 2.5 million tons/year, began operating in January 1990. Start-up of a sixth train, of identical capacity, is planned for January 1994. The Bontang plant is operated by PT Badak on behalf of Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas mining company. The feed to the fifth train comes primarily from the first-phase development of Total Indonesie's two gas fields, Tambora and Tunu. The sixth train will be fed by a second-phase development of the Tunu field

  11. Estimates of radionclide export by animals-migrants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsevich, L.I.; Komissar, A.D.; Ermakov, A.A.; Kryzhanovskij, V.I.; Sabinevskij, B.V.; Gajchenko, V.A.; Arkhipchuk, V.A.; Panov, G.M.; Mikityuk, A.Yu.; Kolesnik, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    For estimation of zoogenic radionuclide export from the emergency ChNPP area the following aspects were studied: biomass of dry land animals withing the 30 km area; radionuclide amount in zoomass of settled animals; annual radionuclide export by migrants, a collective dose for a direct take-in way by people. It is revealed that a major part of radionuclides is dispersed to the south and south-east of the accident place. Annual export does not exceed a Curie unit. The upper value of radiocesium absorbed by a man with bird's meat (ducks) was up to 0.1 Ci/yr, the lower value was up to 1400 BER. refs. 7; tabs. 6

  12. Export Variety and Country Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Feenstra, Robert; Looi Kee, Hiau

    2004-01-01

    The authors study the link between export product variety and country productivity based on data from 34 industrial and developing countries, from 1982 to 1997. They measure export product variety by the share of U.S. imports on the set of goods exported by each sampled country relative to the world. It is a theoretically sound index which is consistent with within-country GDP maximization...

  13. Import-Export Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Asad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Import export businesses, also known as international trading, are one of the hottest commercial trends of this decade. Since the owner of an import export enterprise, can work as a distributor by focusing on exporting and importing goods and services that cannot be obtained on national soil. With a rapidly growing population of about 150 million, Pakistan is a major country, recognized by the international community, and is one of the most important actors in the Islamic world. Based on its ...

  14. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Russian nuclear industry exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatchev, A.

    2016-01-01

    Rosatom is the world leader for the export of nuclear technologies. 34 reactors of Russian technology are being built or planned worldwide. Most reactors proposed by Rosatom are third generation VVER-1200 units with an electric power output of 1200 MWe. Although the nuclear island is always built by Rosatom, the remain of the plant can be subcontracted to other enterprises and European companies are sought because they would bring a european quality touch to Russian works. One of the main assets of Rosatom is to propose an integrated offer from supplying nuclear fuel to managing nuclear waste via the turnkey building of nuclear power plants. Another important asset is the financial assistance of the Russian state through state credit or the support from Russian national banks that appears to be a decisive advantage in the international competition to win markets. We have to temper the Russian export perspectives by noting that most projects are set in countries that are prone to instabilities and that the economic crisis affecting Russia has a negative impact on its financial means. (A.C.)

  16. [Import and export of licorice and its products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuai; Wang, Nuo; Yang, Guang; Que, Ling

    2017-06-01

    Licorice is an important harmonic drug which has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. However, with the increasing demand of industrial production, the licorice resources in our country have been reduced rapidly and we have to import licorice resources from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan consequently. In order to find out the trade flow of licorice resources and evaluate the status of Chinese licorice in the world trade, the trade situation of licorice and its products from 2011 to 2015 May in Chinese customs was investigated and analyzed in this paper. The import and export volumes of licorice were declining; the import and export volumes of licorice were relatively concentrated in international trade, with greater risks of trade; and export quota management was not well executed. As one of the strategic resources of medicine, licorice resources must be based on domestic development, and we should adjust the export quota management from passive quota to active quota management and improve the intrinsic value of licorice resources to establish the international market position of our licorice and control the pricing power in international market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Determinants of Export Diversification in Nigeria: Any Special Role for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola Felix Arawomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of export diversification is presently taking a center stage in trade literature. This paper contributed to the evolving literature by examining the extent of export diversification in Nigeria and also analyzed the impact of foreign direct investment on it. Two major methods of export diversification: export count (horizontal and Herfindahl Index were used. Nigeria’s exports flows based on 4-digit SICT product classification were used. The Generalized Moment Methods (GMM was used to analyze our specified model. Empirical analysis showed that foreign direct investment discourages export diversification in Nigeria, while domestic investment promotes it. Exchange rate and democratic accountability are other factors that discourage export diversification in Nigeria. No evidence was found on the impact of per capita GDP, trade openness and natural resource.

  18. Liberalization of Russian gas exports: benefits and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakunina Alla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian gas export liberalization has been discussed throughout the post-Soviet period. Recently, the number of Gazprom’s export monopoly advocates has been diminishing as a result of dramatic changes in both European and Russian gas markets, which are: increasing international trade in liquefied natural gas; the EU movement from long-term contracts to the commodity markets and hub pricing; substantially increased share of the non-Gazprom gas suppliers at the Russian domestic market. Although there is a potential risk of price decrease in the EU gas market in the case of the Gazprom export monopoly abolition, the benefits of the Russian gas export liberalization would be greater than losses. The gas resource base and the cost of pipeline gas production would allow Russia to improve its positions in the world market.

  19. Service Innovation by Industrial Cluster Formation and Export Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noleen Pisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Service innovation drives economic growth and structural change by stimulating the development of new sectors and productivity improvements in existing sectors. Resource based sectors are the main contributors to South Africa’s North West province’s economic output This paper illustrates how such a region can use industrial cluster formation and focused export promotion as a strategy to enhance service innovation. Four service clusters were identified within the above mentioned province through structural path analysis and power of pull methods. An export market selection model is applied to the identified service industrial clusters to reveal realistic export opportunities associated with each cluster. Finally, trade multipliers are used to show the spill-over benefits given an increase in the clusters’ exports. Policymakers can use these results to inform actions that may assist in the development of these services clusters to strengthen the province’s competitive advantage and diversify its output.

  20. Going global - how to reduce the risks involved in exporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowers, J.

    1999-01-01

    Exporting oilfield expertise and technology overseas to new markets can be risky, a lesson that the company Fracmaster Ltd. learned the hard way when it lost investment in the former Soviet Union. The company's demise illustrates some of the risks inherent in conducting business in a foreign country. To be successful at this Canadian oilfield service and supply companies must not only know how to recognize opportunities but also to recognize the possible pitfalls and learn how to avoid them. Before looking at the export market, oil and gas service and supply companies should first ensure that they have not missed any opportunities at home. Canada is the second largest market in the world after the U.S. But companies should approach the American market with caution. The rule that companies should approach the U.S. first does not necessarily hold in the oil and gas industries. Mexico is another country where Canadian companies should use caution. The current hotspots in exporting are countries in the Middle East and the Latin American countries. Saudi Arabia is interested in technology and expertise. although political factors in Iran will have to improve before commitment to that market is advisable. Industry Canada has a wealth of information and services available to companies interested in exporting. There are a number of government programs to help companies finance efforts to enter the export market. Industry Canada also offers a capital projects bidding program for Canadian companies bidding on projects greater than $1 million

  1. The south's timer export potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog

    1986-01-01

    Exports of southern wood products have bccil dcclirling since 1980, following a dramatic rise during the 1970s. The value of these exports rose from near the $50 million level in the early 1970s to almost $500 million in 1980, but has dropped by more than a third since then. Now, however, changing monetary conditions appear to be turning the trend upward again....

  2. Insurability of export credit risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Antufjew, J.; Huizingh, K.R.E.; Koning, Ruud H.; Sterken, E.; Woltil, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firms exporting their goods and services abroad face risks that are different from the risks faced by firms who do not engage in international trade. It is common practice to allow the receiving party to pay in instalments. The exporting firm faces credit risk, but as in most countries, Dutch firms

  3. Exports of crude oil, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Effective June 1, 1985, licensing and charging of oil exports ended. The Board now issues export orders specifying neither volumes nor prices and covering an exportation period of up to 1 year for light crude oil and up to 2 years for heavy crude oil, available on request to both Canadian and foreign companies. The Board has assumed a monitoring role, and export prices and volumes are reported monthly by exporters. This annual report provides a review of the volumes and prices associated with the supply and disposition of Canadian crude oil during 1988. Highlights are given with detailed information on prices, both internationally, in Canada, and the Chicago posted price by light or heavy crude, and on volumes including capacity and disposition in both domestic and export markets. A short description of the import market is included. Comparisons are made with the previous year. Export volumes of light crude oil in 1988 increased by 13% to average 50,200 m 3 /d. Export volumes of heavy crude also increased by ca 13% to 62,600 m 3 /d. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Management of a 600 MW CANDU project to facilitate electricity export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, G.E.

    1983-06-01

    The export of electricity from 600-MW CANDU nuclear power plants built in Canada remains feasible providing certain requirements continue to be met. The principal objective in developing nuclear power resources for export is that they must produce economically attractive electricity. A review of the experience of construction and operation of Point Lepreau Unit 1 suggests an inherent ability to reduce construction costs and shorten construction schedules so as to make electrical power output from these stations even more attractive to export customers

  5. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  6. Second Thoughts on Exporter Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument is the te......Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument...... is the tension between empirical work measuring productivity based on average cost information, and theoretical work representing productivity by marginal cost. In a heterogeneous firms trade model, we compute productivity based on average cost and find that around the export-indifferent firm, exporters...... will be less productive than non-exporters. Furthermore, we show that this effect may feed through at the industry level....

  7. Forests of East Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas derived from an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. These estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are...

  8. Forests of east Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Dooley

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS) in cooperation with Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—Southeast (unit 1),...

  9. Uranium exports could match oil imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    Apart from a temporary embargo while safeguards are negotiated, the Canadian government limits uranium exports so as to guarantee fuel for every Canadian reactor built or planned for 30 years. On the basis of present known reserves of 172 Gg of 'cheap' U 3 O 8 and 33 of 'dear', that would mean phasing out exports after the mid 1980's, but probably much more 'dear' uranium remains to be discovered. Provincial taxation and restrictions on foreign ownership may be limitations. Discoveries range over eleven areas, but production capacity at present is 14190 Mg/d from Ontario and 3400 from Saskatchewan, with 8800 mothballed and 4860 planned or being rehabilitated. The price has jumped to $95/kg, so that uranium exports may cover half the cost of oil imports. All producers use sulfuric acid leaching, except Eldorado, which uses carbonate leaching; a process using tertiary amine is being developed. Development of the organic-cooled Th/ 233 U fuelled reactor may greatly extend fuel resources. (N.D.H.)

  10. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate the results and they both validated the questionnaire. The results of the survey have determined six effective groups including product development, e-commerce, marketing planning, organizational performance, competitiveness and supply chain management.

  11. The impact of management,technology and finance on export performance : analyzing the garment industry in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Muktadir, Zahid

    2012-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2012 Drawing on resources-base view theory and approaching from quantitative field work, this study examines the three factors influencing the export performances of Bangladeshi Readymade Garments industries: Financial resources, Technology and managerial skill. This study also investigates the role of mediating effect in the relationship between factors and export performance. Most of the previous studies about export perfo...

  12. Canadian solar export market study. Export policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    This report outlines policies and recommendations on the export of Canadian solar equipment and technology, with a view toward stimulating the domestic solar industry. The current picture is of an industry which is relatively small, operates in a competitive domestic market with low profit margins, and needs assistance in order to break into the world market. A number of recommendations are therefore made on the main thrust of industry and government solar export development activities. An export development program is described which includes a strategy of concentrating on a limited number of product lines, namely: low-temperature solar heating systems for recreational applications, integrated residential water heating systems, prepackaged commercial water heating systems, and industrial pre-heat systems. It is also recommended that this strategy be directed only at a limited number of target countries where the market justifies such activity. Market research, international cooperation agreements, promotional services, and proper export organization are also needed.

  13. The implications of uranium export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that Australia should not enter the business of uranium mining enrichment and export because of the hazards of nuclear power and because there are practical alternatives to the development of nuclear power. (R.L.)

  14. Export controls on high technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    A overview of the Export Administration Act of 1979 and subsequent regulations and amendments focuses on how licensing requirements and restrictions against boycott affect high technology exports. The purpose of these controls is to limit the export of technology with possible military applications, as well as to advance US foreign policy and protect the economy without imposing too great a restriction on the principles of free trade. Thus, the act encompasses political, economic, and security goals. Problems of predictability arise when embargoes or other controls are imposed for political or foreign policy reasons without regard to economic impacts. Amendments have attempted to streamline the exporting process, particularly in the area of computer and software licensing.

  15. Export market potential for Alaskan and Western US coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, J.

    1992-01-01

    Major utilization trends may create opportunity for dramatic expansion of Alaska's coal exports from a huge ultra-low sulfur coal resource base. Markets are expected to open up in the Pacific Basin for sub-bituminous and bituminous steam coals from Alaska to include not only run-of-mine coals but also product streams from beneficiation technologies. Market considerations aside, deficiencies in physical infrastructure and an unresolved resource ownership issue are the principal impediments at this time to property development

  16. Exports of petroleum products, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1990 calendar year. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 34,000 m 3 /d in 1990, up 12% from 1989 levels. The increase reflects increased output from the Come By Chance refinery in Newfoundland. Motor gasoline exports increased 35% to 10,500 m 3 /d, reflecting refinery upgrading in eastern Canada. Export prices were generally in line with spot product prices in the USA. Spot prices rose sharply following the Kuwait crisis in August 1990 but fell again in November. The spot price for jet fuel rose more dramatically in that period than for other products, reflecting increased military demand. In winter 1989/90 and during the Kuwait conflict, the export price of heating oil tended to track the USA spot price. Petroleum products imports in 1990 were 18,500 m 3 /d, compared to 21,900 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports were lower partially as a result of higher crude runs in Quebec and a Quebec refinery expansion. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada continued to be strong in comparison to the mid-1980s. The top single exporter in 1990, as in 1989, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 4,506,400 m 3 . 13 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Researching the Components of Formation of the Export Potential of Industry on the Micro-and Meso-Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlenchyk Nataliya F.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses approaches to formation of the export potential of industry on the micro- and meso-levels. A number of factors influencing the formation of the export potential of industry on the micro- and meso-levels has been considered. It was found that the components of the export potential of industry on the micro- and meso-levels are factors, capabilities (potential, and resources. It has been suggested to perceive the defining resources of formation of the export potential of industrial enterprises as: personnel, production, financial-investment, innovation, marketing, information, organizational, and managerial. It has been found that the main resources of export potential of the industry of region include: production, raw material, natural, financial, investment, social, and innovation. There is a number of opportunities that contribute to the formation of the export potential of the region’s industry, in particular: labor, industrial, financial, raw material, natural, investment, innovation, social, information, and organizational-managerial.

  18. The anatomy of China's export growth

    OpenAIRE

    Amiti, Mary; Freund, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Decomposing China's real export growth, of over 500 percent since 1992, reveals a number of interesting findings. First, China's export structure changed dramatically, with growing export shares in electronics and machinery and a decline in agriculture and apparel. Second, despite the shift into these more sophisticated products, the skill content of China's manufacturing exports remained ...

  19. E-business and small Ghanaian exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinson, Robert; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2006-01-01

    The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items.......The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items....

  20. 27 CFR 28.30 - Export status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export status. 28.30... Export status. (a) Distilled spirits and wines manufactured, produced, bottled in bottles packed in... such purposes are considered to be exported. Export status is not acquired until application on Form...

  1. Depletion policies for oil-exporting developing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stournaras, Y A

    1984-01-01

    The fact that most oil-exporting countries are developing economies has important implications for oil supply which have not been properly taken into account in the literature on exhaustible resource depletion. The way in which depletion policies are affected by trade uncertainty, given the high degree of the major oil exporters' 'dependence' on crude oil revenues, by investment time lags which delay the exploitation of (some of) these countries' comparative advantage in a petroleum based development, and by ideological objections to the ideal of a rentier society and to foreign capital are examined.

  2. Phases definition in marketing export process

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Dragan; Kokić Miljko

    2004-01-01

    The result of export marketing process depends on its five phases. The first phase-revision of export capacities, inner view on advantages and defects of company concerning export possibilities. The second phase-identification of export strategy market penetration. The forth phase-preparing for the marketing campaign (action). The fifth phase-carrying out the above mentioned activities. This study shows the structure and contents of the mentioned phases. At the end, export marketing analyzed ...

  3. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    and export behavior using plant-level data. We find that i) markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity, ii) exporters charge on average higher markups and iii) firms' markups increase (decrease) upon export entry (exit).We see these findings as a first step...... in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....

  4. Topics in Productivity, Exporting and Outsourced Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kidder, Matthew Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three empirical studies using the a survey of Chilean Manufactures. The first two chapters of this dissertation evaluates the productivity impact of exporting and service outsourcing. The last chapter evaluates selection mechanisms into exporting.The first chapter examines productivity and exporting. I find that asymmetric responses, between exporters and non-exporters, to changes in the domestic lending rate can cause propensity-score-matching-differen...

  5. Soviet and East European energy databook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    For the USSR, energy data is assembled under the following main headings: energy and the economy; production; engineering; exploration; transport of fuel; refining; consumption by sector; employment; finance; trade; electricity. There are 162 tables. Five tables of data on Eastern Europe as a region cover production of energy, consumption, and exports of crude and oil products. Using similar broad headings as these for the USSR, a further 184 tables give data for the following individual countries: Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia; East Germany; Hungary; Poland; Romania; Yugoslavia. The data has been accumulated from Soviet and East European sources, mainly newspapers, journals, annual yearbooks and private contacts and the chief of these are listed. (UK)

  6. Electricity exports: Discussion of provincial economic benefits and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A review was conducted by the British Columbia Energy Council to assess the economic and social impacts of the export of long-term firm electricity to the USA and the distribution of these impacts. The objectives of, and the differences between, benefit-cost and socio-economic impact analysis are discussed as they apply to potential electricity export projects. Provincial export project review requirements (project justification, environmental impacts, socio-economic impact assessment) and proposed legislative changes are first reviewed. The concepts and objectives of value added, economic rent, opportunity costs, economic (benefit-cost) analysis, and socio-economic impact analysis are explained. Employment issues including unemployed labor, employment benefits, and regional and occupational considerations are then discussed, as well as transfers to various levels of government in the form of taxes, subsidies, resource royalties, and depletion costs. 8 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Press freedom, oil exports, and risk for natural disasters: a challenge for climato-economic theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Joana; Grace, Randolph C; Kemp, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Does the interaction between climactic demands, monetary resources, and freedom suggest a more general relationship between the environmental challenges that human societies face and their resources to meet those challenges? Using data on press freedom (Van de Vliert 2011a), we found no evidence of a similar interaction with natural resources (as measured by oil exports) or risk for natural disasters.

  8. South-South cooperation: Brazilian soy diplomacy looking East?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the food price crisis of 2007/8, concerns about global food supply interruptions have mounted. However, while exports from Brazil, the world’s leading soy exporter, are currently under threat, this is not due to geopolitical concerns, but due to resource mismanagement. As a consequence,

  9. Marketing technologies for building competitiveness of companies export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Tsygankova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In context of post-industrial development of global economy, escalating competition in international goods markets, the definition of competitive export is proposed based upon both existing criteria – sustainability, effectiveness, adaptivity and fair competition, and on those described in the work – ecological performance, service maintenance, brand awareness and high technology. Given that, it is proved that with the aim of detailing the elements of competitive export, the latter should be typified depending upon the performer (export competitiveness of a company, country, region and subject (export competitiveness of goods, services, rights upon intellectual property objects, keeping in mind universal and specific features of export criteria proposed to be characterised through a range of indices on corporate and state levels. Groups of factors affecting export competitiveness building are systematized (institutional, financial and economic, marketing, foreign trade, scientific and technological, resource-related and social and ecological. Marketing technologies are typified on corporate level under the following criteria: novelty, object, creative component availability, internationalization stages, international marketing forms, digitalization level, management functions, customer-centreness scale, international marketing activity stages, financial security, specific features of intercorporate coordination. The practice of applying international marketing technologies by companies is investigated. In context of necessity to overcome crisis phenomena and increase competitive export volume, an assessment is made of integrating national manufacturing into regulated global chains of creating added value with the relevant rating, in particular, depending upon the available potential, minimality of technical and organizational changes, marketing relevancy, enabling to determine the manufacturing areas most prepared to cooperation, and

  10. East Europe's energy trade takes new shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movit, C.

    1991-01-01

    Often in the past, Western analysts of global energy demand have treated Eastern Europe as just part of a black box labeled Communist. Only the net flow of energy to the non-Communist world was of any consequence. The region, although primarily a major net importer of energy from the Soviet Union, was a very small net exporter of energy to non-Communist countries based Polish coal exports. Romanian refined petroleum product exports, and some minor exports of refined products by other East European countries. The political and economic configurations of Eastern Europe has changed dramatically over the past 2 years, however, and the way in which East European energy relationships are considered will have to change accordingly. With the sweeping transformation of these economies (for the most part, radically in the direction of a market orientation) and the breakup of their unique system of mutual trade, the patterns of energy production, consumption, and trade which have prevailed in the region during the post-war period will also change significantly. Forecasting the net-impact on energy demand in this region of offsetting trends due to economic reform (i.e., renewed economic dynamism vs. decreased energy intensity of aggregate economic output) is a very difficult task. Moreover, there are additional complications introduced by changes in the political system, such as the increased importance of environmental quality in the choice of fuel and production technology due to clearly enunciated concern of the popular political movements with these issues

  11. The Export Administration Act of 1979 and Computer Exports to China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    .... The statute that regulates computer exports, the Export Administration Act of 1979 (EAA79), has been interpreted both strictly and loosely by policymakers, executive agencies, and export control regimes...

  12. Real estate boom and export performance bust in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkalec

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to estimate the effect of resource reallocation from the manufacturing to the real estate economic sector on exporting activity in Croatia, a small open post-transition country that experienced a real estate boom during the previous decade. This paper follows the work by Égert and Kierzenkowski (2014 as we test the hypothesis that the real estate boom had an adverse impact on country’s export performance. For that purpose we use quarterly data ranging from 1Q1998 to 3Q2013, and estimate export equations using maximum likelihood and dynamic ordinary least squares estimators of cointegration. Our results indicate that the distortion of relative prices in favor of non-tradable sectors (construction and real estate, which is a direct by-product of the real estate boom, has had stifling effects on export performance. Our results also suggest that ailing cost competitiveness and governments’ inability to implement policies promoting private sector economic development adversely influenced export performance during the period analyzed. The basic conclusion of our research is that the expansion of a non-tradable sector in a country with limited supply of production factors can have a detrimental effect on the ability of the tradable sector to increase its output and compete in international markets.

  13. The Effect of Export Tax on Indonesia’s Cocoa Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Rifin, Amzul; Nauly, Dahlia

    2013-01-01

    The government of Indonesia implemented an export tax policy on cocoa beans since April 2010 in order to develop cocoa processing industry. The objective of this article is to analyze the effect of export tax on Indonesia’s cocoa export competitiveness. The results indicate that with the implementation of export tax, cocoa export product composition shift from cocoa beans to processed cocoa products. On the other hand, Indonesia’s cocoa export growth is lower than the growth of cocoa world de...

  14. Quality, Export and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    in an international context. The paper, therefore, addresses the complicated interactions between economic growth, export performance and quality. The contribution of the paper, compared to other growth accounting research, is the inclusion of quality data, quality being a significant mirror of technological...... development. The countries covered by the research represent a wide variation in terms of economic development, from poor LDC's to the most developed industrial nations. The empirical results reveal a probable strong relationship between quality/price and export growth as well as economic growth. This new...

  15. Creative destruction and export patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    varieties obsolete. For a given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. While all firms are assumed to be symmetric in a life-cycle perspective, at a given point in time firms of different ages differ in productivity, firm size, product quality, and export...... behavior. The model highlights a process of creative destruction, which allows firms to produce in a finite span of periods determined by the intensity of product and process innovations. The model predicts a wide range of export behavior of the individual firm during its life cycle depending...

  16. 75 FR 44761 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... sales prices and/or minimum target sales prices, and other terms of sales in the Export Markets... canned salmon in the Export Markets, selling strategies for the Export Markets, sales for the Export... described below for the following Export Trade and Export Markets: Export Trade Products Shelf stable non...

  17. Export-Led Growth Hypothesis: Evidence from Agricultural Exports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the nature and direction of causality in Tanzania between economic growth and agricultural exports along with some selected variables such as labour force and domestic investment. The analysis for this study was carried out using time series data for the period of 1980 to 2013. The data series were ...

  18. Export of radiopharmaceuticals and establishment of export base of cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyungil; Kim, Youngsik

    2006-01-01

    Sam young Unit ech has seized an opportunity to advance into the radiopharmaceuticals market through successful transfer of radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing technology and medical cyclotron, an original technology in nuclear medicine that is the core of less developed areas in nuclear-related fields. The company has continued to push for research development and establishment of market base through industry-academia-research center cooperation with an aim to complement relatively less developed domestic technology and market than in advanced countries, and is making efforts to establish export base in the overseas market based on stabilized supply in the domestic market. As for radiopharmaceuticals, the company is exporting Tc-99m generator to Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines and preparing itself to export manufacture facilities for Tc-99m generator to Syria and Kazakhstan. In addition, it plans to export 13Mev Cyclotron that has been commercialized after being developed in the domestic market to the U. S. The company plans to grow up to play a pivotal role in the domestic RT area by conducting proactive business activities with an aim to revitalize the domestic market and further domestic original technologies and products in the global market

  19. Determinants of Short-Term Export Performance in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms.Amber; Habib, Sukaina

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the interdependency between independent (Increase of pricing strategy adaptation, Increase of export intensity, Firm's commitment to exporting, Export market development, Export market competition, Past Pricing Strategy Adaptation, Past Export Performance Satisfaction, Past Export Intensity, Export market distance) and dependent variables (i.e. Expected Short-Term Export Performance improvement) of export performance. The framework is tested via a survey through que...

  20. Export Potential of the Enterprise: Essence and Methodological Bases of the Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Olga G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical and methodological aspects of the analysis of the enterprise’s export potential and the methodological basis for its measurement. Analyzing and summarizing scientific works on the problem, the views of researchers on the definition of the concept of “export potential of the enterprise” are systematized. The article considers the economic content of the enterprise’s export potential from the standpoint of the system-structural approach defining it as a complex systemic formation of interrelated and interacting elements of economic and non-economic origin, internal and external action. It is found out that in the international economic space the export potential of the enterprise acquires new qualitative features reflecting not just the resource potential of the national economic entity but also the needs and interests of foreign countries and their economic agents. It is identified that the functional role of the export potential is to implement the targets of the foreign economic activity of the enterprise. The nature of these targets can be different and is formed on the principle of ensuring the needs of external markets. The level of satisfaction of these needs by an individual enterprise can be evaluated through such indicators as the volume of exports, the quality of exported products, the level of export diversification, which determine the result of the export activity and in relation to its purpose serve as a criterion of the efficiency of the enterprise’s export potential. As a result of the study, the components of the export potential of the enterprise are singled out, and a model of their interrelationships is presented. The prospects of the research are connected with branch aspects of the formation of the enterprise’s export potential allowing to highlight its structural elements and directions of development.

  1. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal is published by the Kenya ... water resource base to meet the challenges of poverty alleviation and food security. ... on maize growth, nitrogen uptake and yield in a semi-arid Kenyan environment ...

  2. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-03-20

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC.

  3. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Katahira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex.

  4. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  5. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  6. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex. PMID:25836925

  7. Export Intermediation and the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2005-01-01

    It is claimed that the remarkable growth in numbers of connected firms to the Internet marks a radical shift in current organisation of international business channels. For export intermediaries these new possibilities pose a threat to their current market position. However, virtual market presence...

  8. Domestic Resources Cost Analysis of Small-Scale Beef Cattle Farming at Upstream Area of Benain-Noelmina Watershed, West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalle Agus Arnold

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the Domestic Resources Cost (DRC of beef cattle raised either on grazing, or a tethering system of small-scale beef cattle farming. The study was done using a survey method. A total of 120 respondents were selected purposively to consist of 60 farmers applying the grazing system and another 60 farmers applying the tethering system. The parameters measured were socio-economic characteristic, Domestic Resources Cost Ratio (DRCR and Private Cost Ratio (PCR. Data were analyzed by applying a method of Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The result of the study indicated that 87% of those farmers involved in the grazing system and 85% of those involved in tethered beef cattle production, were within the productive age range. In the grazing system, the cattle farmers upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed area gain the private and social profit levels which is IDR 406,284,-/AU/year and IDR 688,388,-/AU/year, respectively. Further, in the tethering system, the average of private and social profit gain is IDR 855,222,-/AU/year and IDR 1,385,712,-/AU/year, respectively. The small-scale beef cattle farming upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed has competitive and comparative advantages, indicated by the value of PCR and DRCR which are less than 1. The PCR value was 0.41 in the grazing system and 0.71 on the tethering system; hence, the DRCR of the grazing system was 0.29 and 0.60 of the tethering system.

  9. Export markets for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettl, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    By late 1984, nuclear power plants were in operation or under construction in 32 countries of the globe. An additional six countries had concrete plans for building nuclear power plants. Of these 38 countries, ten have shown that they posses the necessary know-how and the technical facilities to plan and build nuclear power plants practically on their own. Seven of these ten countries have already acted as exporters of nuclear power plants, albeit with very different degrees of market penetration. In addition, there have been a number of countries for quite some time whose industries have managed to manufacture many important nuclear power plant components. Their high level of technical development and the problems frequently encountered in export financing have made them very attractive partners of the true exporters of nuclear power plants. For the future, it must be expected that some of the countries which have so far limited their efforts to the construction of nuclear power plants at home will also develop into exporters of nuclear technology. The report contains a survey of the range of nuclear products available, a list of reactor vendors, reactor lines, and data on the economics of electricity generation in nuclear plants. It then goes on to offer detailed descriptions of the market and the demand situation. Interesting chapters are devoted to the selection criteria applied by importing countries, to financing problems, and to the influences exerted by the political environment. A realistic forecast is attempted in order to make a quantitative analysis of possible export contracts up until the year 2000. (orig.) [de

  10. Towards Integrated Pest Management in East Africa : a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Bremmer, J.; Kerklaan, E.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk reduction through registration of less hazardous pesticides and the promotion of nonchemical pest and disease control approaches such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is essential for a more sustainable plant production in East Africa in order to enhance both export market access

  11. Australian coal exports - threat to market share

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, P

    1989-10-01

    Australian coal exports fell 3% for the fiscal year ending June 1989, but at just under 100mt, they make Australia the world's leading coal exporter. Figures for production, consumption and exports are given. Industrial and structural changes within the industry are discussed. It is concluded that the industry and unions must improve structures and communication if potential production and exports are to be achieved. 2 figs.

  12. Chinese Competition and Brazilian Exports of Manufactures

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhys

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns have been raised over the impact of Chinese competition on Latin American exports, particularly those from Mexico. This article shows that Brazilian manufactured exports too have been negatively affected, and that this has been reflected in the “primarization” of Brazilian exports and a declining share in the import markets of its major customers. A variety of different indicators were used to analyse the extent to which Brazilian exports have faced competition from C...

  13. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  14. Trade Liberalization between Russia and East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Izotov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the international statistics data the author estimates effects of trade liberalization between Russia and East Asian countries. The prospective niche markets in mutual trade and the impact of trade liberalization on the national economies were identified. Using a partial equilibrium model the author indicates the following positive trade effects for Russia and East Asia: trade creation effect prevails over trade diversion effect; general welfare and mutual trade of the countries tend to increase. The Russian economy has positive trade effects with all the East Asian countries, with the highest scale in the case of Sino-Russian trade. At the same time trade liberalization has following some costs for the Russian economy: a the growing role of imports, mostly from China, compared to Russian exports; b reduction of tariff revenues, which are four times higher for Russia, compared to East Asian countries; c continued negative trade balance with the East Asian countries. The evaluation shows that the increase of Russian exports to East Asian countries is feasible only for certain commodity groups which determine marketable niches of specific East Asian countries; at the same time, Russia can import from East Asia a huge range of commodity groups. The study reveals that reduction in tariff measures and non- tariff restrictions will not lead to a massive increase in Russian exports and changing in its trade and geographical structure. On the basis of prolongation of short-term trends the author identifies long-term challenges and opportunities for the Russian economy from trade liberalization with East Asian countries. According to the estimation results, the author suggests that in the current environment of global trade liberalization the tariff measures become less significant as a tool for redistribution of commodity flows

  15. A political economy of China's export restrictions on rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pothen, Frank [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Kilian [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany)

    2015-04-20

    We investigate why governments restrict exports of exotic raw materials taking rare earth elements as a case study. Trade restrictions on exotic materials do not have immediate macroeconomic effects. Relocating rare earth intensive industries is found to be the main reason behind China's export barriers. They are part of a more extensive strategy aiming at creating comparative advantages in these sectors and at overcoming path dependencies. Moreover, export barriers serve as a second-best instrument to reduce pollution and to slow down the depletion of exhaustible resources. Growing domestic rare earth consumption renders those increasingly ineffective. Rising reliance on mine-site regulation indicates that this fact is taken into account. Rare earth extraction is dominated by a few large companies; the demand side is dispersed. That speaks against successful lobbying for export restrictions. It appears as if the export barriers are set up to compensate mining firms.

  16. Fragmented Production in East Asia: What are Their Implications for the Sino-U.S. Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feiting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragmented production means organization of production in which different stages of production are divided among different suppliers that are located in different countries. East Asia is one of the most important manufacturing centers in the world, China imports components from other East Asian economies for processing and then exports to the United States. The volume of export from China to the United States increase in traditional international trade statistics. Therefore, the solution of Sino-U.S. trade imbalance should pay attention to the relationship between the United States, China, and other East Asian economies.

  17. Exporting nuclear engineering and the government's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, H.

    1986-01-01

    The reasons for the government's positive attitude to nuclear engineering exports are explained, especially with regard to them being a compensation of the decreasing domestic demand. The federal government considers such exports to be necessary and correct for economical and energy-political reasons. Their contribution reaches from accompanying measures to the provision of state guarantees of export financing activities. (UA) [de

  18. Firm-level volatility and exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vannoorenberghe, G.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows that the share of exports in the total sales of a firm has a positive and substantial impact on the volatility of its sales. Decomposing the volatility of sales of exporters between their domestic and export markets, I show using an identification strategy based on a firm-specific

  19. 75 FR 12433 - National Export Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Order 13534 of March 11, 2010 National Export Initiative By the authority vested in me as President by... performance will, in turn, create good high-paying jobs. The National Export Initiative (NEI) shall be an Administration initiative to improve conditions that directly affect the private sector's ability to export. The...

  20. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216 Section 28.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Wine With Benefit of Drawback § 28.216...

  1. 77 FR 16768 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales... Sales Reporting Requirements, is being withdrawn. The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) is currently...: Contact Peter W. Burr, Branch Chief, Export Sales Reporting Branch, Import Policies and Export Reporting...

  2. 78 FR 35195 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952, and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... Energy (DOE) is proposing to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export... comments, identified by ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods...

  3. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 923.15 Section 923.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship cherries...

  4. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  5. 7 CFR 958.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 958.14 Section 958.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.14 Export. Export...

  6. 7 CFR 945.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 945.14 Section 945.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.14 Export. Export...

  7. 77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2012 LNG Export Study AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability of 2012 LNG Export Study and request for comments. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. [FE Docket No. 10-161-LNG] and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC. Lake Charles Exports, LLC.... [FE Docket...

  8. 7 CFR 948.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 948.17 Section 948.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.17 Export. Export means the shipment of potatoes to any destination...

  9. 7 CFR 959.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 959.18 Section 959.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.18 Export. Export means to ship onions to any destination which is not within...

  10. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 915.12 Section 915.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which is...

  11. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 922.15 Section 922.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond the...

  12. 7 CFR 946.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 946.15 Section 946.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.15 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of...

  13. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 966.18 Section 966.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...

  14. 7 CFR 51.912 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 51.912 Section 51.912 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.912 Export. When designated as Export, grapes shall be packed with any of the customary protective materials such as cushions...

  15. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination which...

  16. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except by...

  17. 7 CFR 924.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 924.15 Section 924.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.15 Export. Export means...

  18. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or for...

  19. 7 CFR 947.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 947.17 Section 947.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 947.17 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of continental United...

  20. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... (78 FR 35195) to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control... ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal...

  1. 75 FR 69573 - Export Enforcement Coordination Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Export Enforcement Coordination Center By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and... enforcement of United States export control laws and enhanced intelligence exchange in support of such enforcement efforts, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. Export controls are critical to...

  2. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  3. 76 FR 66693 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    .... ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss.... exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: November 16, 2011 at 9:30 a.m. (ET) ADDRESSES: The President's Export... on December 20, 1973 to advise the President on matters relating to U.S. export trade and report to...

  4. 76 FR 9550 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    .... ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss.... exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: March 11, 2011 at 9:30 a.m. (ET). ADDRESSES: The President's Export... on December 20, 1973 to advise the President on matters relating to U.S. export trade and report to...

  5. 75 FR 47548 - President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of Private-Sector Members SUMMARY: The President's Export... their services. The PECSEA is seeking private-sector members with senior export control expertise and...

  6. Opportunity for inter-regional integration of electricity markets: the case of Shandong and Shanghai in East China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Dong Jun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the opportunity for the inter-regional integration of the electricity market in East China is analysed on the basis of strategies for the future expansion of the electricity generation system. We assume that during its first stage, the operational breakthrough of the electricity sector reform in China will be to achieve an economic dispatch of the generating plants. On the basis of this assumed goal a multi-region model is proposed to appraise the potential benefits of an integrated inter-regional electricity market. This model includes: propositions on design and operation of the market, electricity demand forecasting, least-cost generating system expansion. As case study, three strategies of electricity supply are assessed in two provinces: Shandong and Shanghai in East China. While Shandong is a potential electricity exporter due to availability of primary energy resources, Shanghai is an electricity importer. The strategies include: autarkical expansion of each regional system, import/export only for minimizing operation costs, integration of the system expansion for minimizing total costs including operation and investment costs. One of the findings is that building up an inter-regional integrated electricity market is profitable for both the Shanghai and Shandong regions compared with the two other strategies, if the future regulation makes it possible to insure an economic dispatch of the generating power plants

  7. European energy security. An analysis of future Russian natural gas production and exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederbergh, Bengt; Jakobsson, Kristofer; Aleklett, Kjell [Global Energy Systems, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Laegerhyddsvaegen 1, Box 535, SE-751 21, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The widening gap between EU gas production and consumption may require an 87% increase of import volumes between 2006 and 2030, and there are great uncertainties regarding the amounts of gas that can be expected from new suppliers. The potential of increased production from Norway and Algeria is limited; hence, Russia is likely to play a crucial part of meeting the anticipated growing gas demand of the EU. A field-by-field study of 83 giant gas fields shows that the major producing Russian gas fields are in decline, and by 2013 much larger supplies from the Yamal Peninsula and the Shtokman field will be needed in order to avoid a decline in production. Gas from fields in Eastern Siberia and the Far East will mainly be directed to the Asian and Pacific Rim markets, thereby limiting its relevance to the European and CIS markets. As a result, the maximum export increase to the European and CIS markets amounts only to about 45% for the period 2015-2030. The discourse surrounding the EU's dependence on Russian gas should thus not only be concerned with geopolitics, but also with the issue of resource limitations. (author)

  8. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE Docket Nos. FREEPORT LNG...-LNG QUICKSILVER RESOURCES INC 12-12-NG UNITED ENERGY TRADING CANADA, ULC 12-13-NG ENCANA NATURAL GAS... authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These Orders are summarized in the...

  9. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Using a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities...

  10. Phases definition in marketing export process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Dragan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The result of export marketing process depends on its five phases. The first phase-revision of export capacities, inner view on advantages and defects of company concerning export possibilities. The second phase-identification of export strategy market penetration. The forth phase-preparing for the marketing campaign (action. The fifth phase-carrying out the above mentioned activities. This study shows the structure and contents of the mentioned phases. At the end, export marketing analyzed DPV is given as the example.

  11. Genetic diversity and connectivity in the East African giant mud crab Scylla serrata: Implications for fisheries management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus Rumisha

    Full Text Available The giant mud crab Scylla serrata provides an important source of income and food to coastal communities in East Africa. However, increasing demand and exploitation due to the growing coastal population, export trade, and tourism industry are threatening the sustainability of the wild stock of this species. Because effective management requires a clear understanding of the connectivity among populations, this study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity and connectivity in the East African mangrove crab S. serrata. A section of 535 base pairs of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI gene and eight microsatellite loci were analysed from 230 tissue samples of giant mud crabs collected from Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, and South Africa. Microsatellite genetic diversity (He ranged between 0.56 and 0.6. The COI sequences showed 57 different haplotypes associated with low nucleotide diversity (current nucleotide diversity = 0.29%. In addition, the current nucleotide diversity was lower than the historical nucleotide diversity, indicating overexploitation or historical bottlenecks in the recent history of the studied population. Considering that the coastal population is growing rapidly, East African countries should promote sustainable fishing practices and sustainable use of mangrove resources to protect mud crabs and other marine fauna from the increasing pressure of exploitation. While microsatellite loci did not show significant genetic differentiation (p > 0.05, COI sequences revealed significant genetic divergence between sites on the East coast of Madagascar (ECM and sites on the West coast of Madagascar, mainland East Africa, as well as the Seychelles. Since East African countries agreed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD target to protect over 10% of their marine areas by 2020, the observed pattern of connectivity and the measured genetic diversity can serve to provide useful information for designing

  12. A study on the effects of exchange rate and foreign policies on Iranians dates export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khalighi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was studying the impact of exchange rate on date export as one of the most important and greatest foreign currency income earned horticultural products in agriculture sector in Iran. Selected time period in this study was chosen between 1991 and 2011. For this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS method has used to estimate the relationships between the value of date export and the variables taken from stationary tests. Library research method has used for the analysis. In this regard, required data have collected from various scientific and research resources. The results indicated that, exchange rate is a crucial factor for dates export and also for exporters. In addition, other factors specially government policies have been placed in export model. In this field, short-term outsourcing foreign policy has decreased the export value. Results also showed that, applying exchange rate unification policy without an appropriate exchange rate to encourage exporters has negative impact on dates export. Therefore, by applying exchange rate stabilization policy, according to inflation in the country, the potential exporters’ income has reduced and production costs have increased alternately.

  13. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-30

    uti - lization of natural resources." "The, Stale shall from lime.1.6 lime, review to upgrade pensions and other benefits due to retirees of both the...VIETNAM RATIONAL, INTENSIVE EXPORT OF PHARMACEUTICALS PROPOSED Hanoi NHAN DAN in Vietnamese 14 Apr 87 p 3 [Article by pharmacist Nguyen Duy Cuong

  14. Core labour standards and exports

    OpenAIRE

    Siroën, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    (english) Core labour standards defined by the ILO in 1998 are universal, but applied very differently across countries. Compliance is much higher in high income countries. However, the causality between improved labour standards and economic growth remains a controversial issue. Export-led growth strategies might encourage developing countries to curb the process of standards improvement. In this way, they can raise the volume of their unskilled labour endowments (child and/or forced labour)...

  15. Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Diasporas and Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Bratti, Massimiliano; De Benedictis, Luca; Santoni, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we highlight a new complementary channel to the business and social network effect à la Rauch (2001) through which immigrants generate increased export flows from the regions in which they settle to their countries of origin: they can become entrepreneurs. Using very small-scale (NUTS-3) administrative data on immigrants’ location in Italy, the local presence of immigrant entrepreneurs (i.e. firms owned by foreign-born entrepreneurs) in the manufacturing sector, and on trade ...

  16. Detecting privatization factors on promoting exports of steel companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen SeyedAliAkbar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Privatization is considered as the transfer of business from the government to the private sector. This process is often accomplished in an attempt to reduce the size of government, increase the productivity and export activities. There is no doubt that in an export oriented economy, government tries to promote expert based activities by making necessary changes on rules and regulations. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on promoting export in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some experts active in steel industry. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy is equal to 0.839 and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity yields an approximation Chi-Square value of 2485.02 (Sig. = 0.000, df = 276. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has detected five important factors including human resources development, productivity management, marketing management, creating competitive environment and building necessary infrastructures, which influence the most on export activities.

  17. Nuclear export controls - Closing the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Fritz W.

    2005-01-01

    Concerns over a nuclear 'black market' have focused international attention on the effectiveness of nuclear export controls. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei has stated that the emergence of a multinational illicit network demonstrated the inadequacy of the present export control system, that international cooperation on export controls lay on informal arrangements that were not only not binding but also limited in membership, and that export control information was not systematically shared with the IAEA. This criticism, often heard on the political level, does not really do justice to the work of export control groups. The emergence of a multinational illicit network does not necessarily prove failures in export control systems. Criminal activities, by definition, try to circumvent existing rules and regulations, or they exploit the absence of such rules on State level. To fight such individual cases is not so much a task of regular export control systems, whose function lies primarily in establishing standards and procedures for export controls on State level, but rather the task for intelligence services and their international cooperation. The basis of the export control regime is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Export controls can - and do - play an important role in fostering this universality goal by demanding the implementation of internationally agreed security standards in recipient countries before export licenses are granted. Drawn from the deliberations in the NPT conferences, the current standards to be demanded as conditions of supply are the following: Safeguards, Physical Protection, National export control provisions. According to the NPT system, export controls require IAEA verification in the recipient country. In addition, export controls enable States to provide information to the IAEA on exports and imports as required by the Additional Protocol. The 2005 NPT Review Conference will be an opportunity to review developments

  18. Understanding China's renewable energy technology exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jialu; Goldstein, Don

    2013-01-01

    China became a major player in renewable energy (RE) technology during the 2000s. Chinese solar PV cell and module makers quickly dominated global sales in that industry, while the country's wind turbine producers became poised for significant exports after capturing their rapidly growing home market. In countries like the US, Chinese RE technology strength has been met with claims of excessive governmental support of exports. This study examines to what extent Chinese firms' solar PV and wind technology successes have been enabled by policy supports, and whether those policies appear to have been driven by broader goals versus RE export promotion per se. The evidence suggests that governmental policy toward both wind and solar originated in a push for export-competitive Chinese companies. But the specifics differed substantially due to the particular requirements of building technological capabilities in each: export readiness necessitated substantial support for domestic installation of wind but not solar PV power. The findings also suggest that as the decade of the 2000s progressed, environmental goals played an increasing role alongside export promotion in motivating and shaping Chinese RE technology policies. - Highlights: ► Export policy in the rise of Chinese renewable energy technologies is studied. ► Policy supported wind turbine firms' capabilities via domestic uptake, not exports. ► Pre-2009 solar module exports enjoyed, but did not depend on, export subsidies. ► Renewables development also fit wider technology and environmental policy goals.

  19. Prioritizing towards a green export portfolio for India: An environmental input-output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldar, Amrita; Bhanot, Jaya; Shimpo, Kazushige

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of free trade have often hailed international trade as an engine of economic growth. However, the foreign trade sector, like many other sectors in developing countries, frequently involves these countries walking a tightrope between their developmental objectives and environmental goals. In this regard, prioritizing for developing a 'green' yet internationally competitive export portfolio provides a quintessential win-win solution to the problem. This study factors in both environmental benignity (indicated by total CO 2 emission intensity) as well as trade competitiveness (indicated by revealed comparative advantage index) in identifying the 'ideal' Indian export portfolio. The analysis calculates the level of direct and indirect emissions from the foreign trade sector (exports and imports) using the environmental input-output (EIO) matrix for 2003/04 for India that has been jointly developed by researchers from Keio University, Japan, and The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi. The derived basket is compared to the current portfolio to estimate the potential saving from compositional changes and to suggest directions for policymaking to emphasize or de-emphasize the export of certain categories of exports. - Highlights: → India was a net GHG importer (0.064 Gt CO 2 ) in 2003/04. → Emissions from exports and imports were 0.189 and 0.253 Gt CO 2 , respectively. → Prioritizing of exports using IO and RCA shows horticultural exports to be ideal. → Services and gems and jewelry exports were also found suitable. → A composition change in exports leads to reduction in emissions by 30 Mt CO 2 annually.

  20. A perspective on energy exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, A.J.

    1983-06-01

    Based on New Brunswick Power's energy export experience over the past two decades, it appears that Canada could have a very special and unique opportunity to input into the US energy market over the coming decades. The CANDU reactor can offer one of these opportunities. Such business opportunities can be of very real benefit to both countries and to the particular regions involved. Like any other form of business, this one must be carefully planned and must be conducted in an environment conducive to the achievement of the objectives of the business

  1. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Osing a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...

  2. Promoting exports in the energy technology area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Oettli, B.; Jochem, E.; Mannsbart, W.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories. Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion

  3. Price and Income Elasticities of Russian Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardina Algieri

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gauges export demand elasticities for Russia using an Error Correction technique within a cointegration framework. An extended version of the Imperfect Substitutes Model has been implemented to estimate the sensitivity of Russian exports without oil components to price and to Russian and world income. Our results suggest a robust and negative long run cointegration relationship between the real effective exchange rate, defined as the weighted average of the rouble’s exchange rates versus a basket of the three currencies with the largest share in the trade turnover adjusted to incorporate inflation rate differences (the ratio of the domestic price indices to the foreign price indices, and Russian exports. An increase in exports by 24% is caused by a real depreciation by 10%. Furthermore, a 10% growth in world income leads to a 33% rise in exports. Finally, exports drop by 14% whenever a 10% increase in domestic income occurs

  4. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    We derive an estimating equation to estimate markups using the insight of Hall (1986) and the control function approach of Olley and Pakes (1996). We rely on our method to explore the relationship between markups and export behavior using plant-level data. We find significantly higher markups when...... we control for unobserved productivity shocks. Furthermore, we find significant higher markups for exporting firms and present new evidence on markup-export status dynamics. More specifically, we find that firms' markups significantly increase (decrease) after entering (exiting) export markets. We...... see these results as a first step in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....

  5. Forecasting of Currency Crises in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Young Song

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have developed a forecasting system for currency crisis in East Asia based on a signaling approach. Our system uses 15 monthly indicators of five East Asian countries including Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand that were severely hit by the currency crisis in 1997. We investigate the performance of the system through deploying out-of-sample forecasting for the periods both before and after the 1997 East Asian currency crisis. Unlike the existing research based on the signaling approach, our out-of-sample forecasting does not fix the in-sample period. The out-of-sample forecasting between July 1995 and June 1997 shows that prior to breakout of the crisis, several indicators including real exchange rates and exports sent frequent warnings to all crisis-hit East Asian countries except the Philippines. This may indicate that a signaling-based early warning system for currency crisis could have been an useful method of forecasting the East Asian crisis. On the other hand, we also find that our forecasting system often generates warning signals during the out-of-sample period between July 1999 and June 2001. Since we have not observed any currency crisis in this region after 1998, these are all false alarms, indicating that our system may be seriously exposed to the type II error. We can, however, mitigate this problem if we adjust the optimal critical values of indicators depending on the preferences of forecasting system manager.

  6. Export Failure and its Consequences: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to argue that exporting is a risky endeavor and that there are consequences to export failure. Exporters pay high fixed costs to enter foreign markets, yet the majority will not export beyond one year. What happens to these exporters after they fail abroad? For these firms, exporting likely resulted in heavy profit losses. Despite this, trade literature often views exporting as a harmless exercise based on a simple cost-benefit analysis of foreign profits. ...

  7. Chapter 2. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley group, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System is defined for this assessment to include (1) Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation carbonates and calcareous shales and (2) Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group organic-rich shales. The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System includes four conventional Cotton Valley assessment units: Cotton Valley Blanket Sandstone Gas (AU 50490201), Cotton Valley Massive Sandstone Gas (AU 50490202), Cotton Valley Updip Oil and Gas (AU 50490203), and Cotton Valley Hypothetical Updip Oil (AU 50490204). Together, these four assessment units are estimated to contain a mean undiscovered conventional resource of 29.81 million barrels of oil, 605.03 billion cubic feet of gas, and 19.00 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The Cotton Valley Group represents the first major influx of clastic sediment into the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Major depocenters were located in south-central Mississippi, along the Louisiana-Mississippi border, and in northeast Texas. Reservoir properties and production characteristics were used to identify two Cotton Valley Group sandstone trends across northern Louisiana and east Texas: a high-permeability blanket-sandstone trend and a downdip, low-permeability massive-sandstone trend. Pressure gradients throughout most of both trends are normal, which is characteristic of conventional rather than continuous basin-center gas accumulations. Indications that accumulations in this trend are conventional rather than continuous include (1) gas-water contacts in at least seven fields across the blanket-sandstone trend, (2) relatively high reservoir permeabilities, and (3) high gas-production rates without fracture stimulation. Permeability is sufficiently low in the massive-sandstone trend that gas-water transition zones are vertically extensive and gas-water contacts are poorly defined. The interpreted presence of gas-water contacts within the Cotton Valley

  8. Coal resources availability in Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modisi, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that Southern Africa, and Botswana in particular, is well-endowed with relatively large reserves of coal. The existence of coal in Botswana has been known since the end of the last century. Exploration activities by the Geological Survey and the private sector led to the discovery of major deposits and by the late 1960s reserves capable of supporting a mine at Morupule for the domestic market has been confirmed. The oil crises of 1973-74 and 1978-79 stimulated increased interest in coal exploration the world over and Botswana attracted several private sector companies looking for coal that could be traded on the international market. As a result vast resources and reserves of low to medium quality bituminous coal, suitable for the export market, were proved. Resources amounting to 21,680 million tonnes of in situ coal had been revealed by 1987. Reserves of possible economic exploitation are estimated at 10,180 million tonnes in two coal field areas, namely the Morupule Coal Field and the Mmamabula Coal Field. Since the collapse of oil prices and consequently coal prices in the mid-1980s, enthusiasm for coal exploration has plummeted and relatively little prospecting has taken place. The coal occurs within the Upper Carboniferous to Jurassic Karoo Supergroup which underlies some 60 percent of the country's land surface. The western part of the country is mantled by the Kalahari beds, a top layer of unconsolidated sands masking bedrock geology. Although coal seams have been intersected in boreholes in this western area, most exploration activity has taken place in the eastern part of the country where the Morupule and Mmamabula coal fields are located. It is in the east that most of the population is concentrated and infrastructure has been developed

  9. Export dynamics and sales at home

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Berman; Antoine Berthou; Jérôme Héricourt

    2012-01-01

    How do firms’ sales interact across markets? Are foreign and domestic sales complements or substitutes? Using a large French firm-level database that combines balance-sheet and product-destination specific export information over the period 1995-2001, we study the interconnections between exports and domestic sales. We identify exogenous shocks that affect the firms’ demand on foreign markets to instrument yearly variations in exports. We use alternatively as instruments product-destination s...

  10. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  11. Vertical integration, disintegration and ability to export

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini, Giampaolo; Vici, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Recent literature on trade has emphasized the role of firms' heterogeneities in export performance and trade specialization of countries (Melitz, 2003; Melitz and Ottaviano, 2005). Exporting seems to be a strategy available only to most efficient and productive firms even in a framework with transport costs and no reciprocal dumping. We do not know much about the internal organization of these smarter companies which are exporting part of their production. However, from related theoretical (H...

  12. Nuclear exportation and importation - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavos Coimbra, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author proposes to set up a working group which should be responsible for the compilation of laws, procedures, and national policies for the nuclear importation and exportation in the supplying and receiving countries. Shared international views would simplify the flow of imports and exports between the countries. The author describes the different phases of exportation and importation of nuclear material are processed in her country, Brazil. (CW) [de

  13. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import- "push" hypothesis as well as the export- "pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  14. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import-"push" hypothesis as well as the export-"pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  15. East-West European economic integration: Difficult to reach target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ermo, V.; Manca, S.

    1993-01-01

    The energy sector of Western Europe is now undergoing a slow growth period due largely to the socio-economic upheavals of East and West German unification and the political-economic restructuring of the countries making up Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. This paper evidences this fact by tabling and commenting on 1991-1992 coal, petroleum, natural gas and electric power production/consumption/export statistical data representing energy sector activities in the former COMECON member countries. The poor performance of these countries can be attributed to the effects of energy market liberalization, the restructuring of utility assets, limited production capacities and inflation. It is estimated that the adjustment time to reach economic parity with Western nations will be long but that the waiting period could be shortened through the implementation of technology transfer and financial cooperation programs with the more prosperous countries capable of providing the investment capital and know-how needed for the restructuring of production systems and resource development

  16. Sonatrach prepares for greater exports of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleb, M.

    1993-01-01

    Algeria is increasing its capacity to export natural gas in order to reinforce its strong position in the growing international market. The country's reserves are estimated at more than 3.6 trillion cu m. Algerian energy and development policy is based on a rational exploitation of this resource. A liquefield natural gas (LNG) pioneer, Algeria has one of the world's most important LNG production capacities. With a location encouraging export to nearby countries, Algeria has an important place in the world natural gas market and an exclusive role within its trading region. The effort will especially focus on southern Europe. The paper discusses Algeria's growing role in international markets, as well as local markets

  17. Balance of trade: export-import in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pust, Ronald E

    2007-01-01

    North American family physicians leaving for less-developed countries (LDCs) may not be aware of internationally validated diagnostic and treatment technologies originating in LDCs. Thus they may bring with them inappropriate models and methods of medical care. More useful "exports" are based in sharing our collaborative vocational perspective with dedicated indigenous generalist clinicians who serve their communities. More specifically, Western doctors abroad can promote local reanalyses of international evidence-based medicine (EBM) studies, efficient deployment of scarce clinical resources, and a family medicine/generalist career ladder, ultimately reversing the "brain drain" from LDCs. Balancing these exports, we should import the growing number of EBM best practices originated in World Health Organization and other LDCs research that are applicable in developed nations. Many generalist colleagues, expatriate and indigenous, with long-term LDC experience stand ready to help us import these practices and perspectives.

  18. Export opportunities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.

    1992-01-01

    Developing countries will offer major opportunities to US exporters of energy and related environmental equipment in the next ten years. These opportunities arise because the markets in developing countries will be growing much faster than those in the developed countries during this period, and because these countries will not in most cases have strong domestic manufacturers to compete against. US technologies will help these countries solve their energy, environmental, and economic development problems, and help the US solve its serious trade balance problems. This market will represent over $200 billion between now and 2000. There are, however, many potential problems. These include a lack of focus and coordination among US government trade assistance organizations, a lack of interest on the part of US firms in exporting and an unwillingness to make the needed investments, barriers put up by the governments of potential foreign customers, and strong international competition. This paper describes how the United States Agency for International Development's (A.I.D.) Office of Energy and other US agencies are helping US firms resolve these problems with a comprehensive program of information, trade promotion assistance, and co-funding of feasibility studies. In addition, there are monies available to match unfair concessionary financing offered by our major competitors

  19. Nuclear exports and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCardle, J.J.

    1981-06-01

    Canada's nuclear export policy together with its non-proliferation and safeguards policy embrace both the country's desire to promote international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and its effort to minimize the risk of further proliferation of nuclear weapons. This policy reflects the belief that only if Canadian parliamentary and public opinion can be convinced that Canada's nuclear exports will not contribute to nuclear proliferation will the long-term health of the country's nuclear industry be assured. Canada requires a political commitment to non-proliferation from its nuclear partners, and looks to the IAEA to administer safeguards on nuclear material of Canadian origin to guarantee that commitment. Agreements reached with its nuclear partners are in accordance with provisions of the non-proliferation treaty and include a contingency provision for fall-back safeguards if the other state should withdraw from the NPT. Provision is made for mutual agreement on reprocessing and enrichment of nuclear material. Agreements have been reached with some twenty nuclear partners, and efforts are continuing to come to new international understanding on reprocessing, enrichment, and plutonium storage

  20. The Puzzle of the Missing Greek Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Boewer; Vasiliki Michou; Christoph Ungerer

    2014-01-01

    Why is Greece such a surprisingly closed economy? We employ a gravity model of trade to explain the appallingly poor export performance of Greece and argue that weak institutional quality accounts for a large part of this shortfall. Using a rich dataset of bilateral value-added exports of goods and services of 39 exporters and 56 importers for 18 sectors, we first estimate that Greece exports ? less than what regular international trade patterns would predict on basis of Greek GDP, the size o...

  1. Export Controls: Controls Over the Export Licensing Process for Chemical and Biological Items

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... foreign policy should read this report. The report discusses the effectiveness of the DoD review process for export license applications and updates to Federal export regulations to prevent the proliferation of items that could pose...

  2. The mediating role of total quality management between entrepreneurial orientation and SMEs export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating role of total quality management (TQM between entrepreneurial orientation (EO and SME export performance in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. This study was originated from the fact that only a few studies have examined on how the firm’s intangible resources and capabilities such as EO and TQM drive SMEs’ export performance. Some questionnaires in Likert scale were used to collect the data and 364 usable responses were received from the owner/managers of exporting SMEs. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM was used for the data analysis. The findings reveal significant relationship between EO and TQM with SME export performance. Furthermore, this study found the complementary mediating role of TQM between EO and SME export performance of manufacturing sector of Pakistan. This study has implications for owner/managers of SMEs. The results offer a better understanding regarding EO and TQM implementation to SMEs owner / managers. Thus, owner/managers of SMEs can take better decisions for the implementation of TQM practices. Furthermore, to the best of researcher’s knowledge, this study is the first work, which examines Pakistan`s SMEs export performance in association with the TQM as the mediating factor between EO and SME export performance.

  3. Foreign Direct Investment and Electronics Exports: Exploratory Empirical Evidence from Malaysia's Top Five Electronics Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck Cheong Tang; Koi Nyen Wong

    2007-01-01

    The foreign direct investment (FDI) has contributed significantly to Malaysia's electronics exports as well as the growth and development of the electronics industry as a result of the export-oriented industrialization initiatives undertaken since 1970s. The aim of this study is to explore the causation between FDI and electronics exports by using Malaysia''s top five electronics exports by SITC (Standard International Trade Classification) product groups. The findings show a bi-directional c...

  4. Export Margins, Price and Quantity of Belarus’s Export Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otamurodov Shavkat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the sources of Belarus’s export growth and decomposes export growth into extensive and intensive margins. This study also aims to determine export margins for intermediate and final goods and to determine the price and quantity components of the intensive export margin. In order to achieve the desired objectives, we use two methods for decomposing export growth, the count method and the export shares method. We analyse Belarus's export growth using export data at the HS-6 digit level for the 2004-2014 period. Our results show that Belarus's exports grew mainly due to growth in the price margin during the studied period 2004-2014. However, the extensive margin was important in export growth to some extent. Comparing the growth rate across final and intermediate goods reveals that although the share of final products in Belarus’s exports is not very big (18.9% in 2014, the average annual growth in exports of final products is higher than that of intermediate goods. Our investigation also shows that Belarus produces a wide range of commodities, but the share of the most of these commodities is not large; its exports depend on a restricted range of commodities. Moreover, most of the commodities are exported to Russia and Ukraine. Our results give us reason to assume that finding new markets for their new products is one of the main challenges for developing countries wishing to increase their exports by an extensive margin. This has important implications for how policy makers promote the trade and diversification of exports.

  5. Economic Impacts of Increased U.S. Exports of Natural Gas: An Energy System Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Sarıca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent shale gas boom, the U.S. is expected to have very large natural gas resources. In this respect, the key question is would it be better to rely completely on free market resource allocations which would lead to large exports of natural gas or to limit natural gas exports so that more could be used in the U.S.. After accounting for the cost of liquefying the natural gas and shipping it to foreign markets, the current price difference leaves room for considerable profit to producers from exports. In addition, there is a large domestic demand for natural gas from various sectors such as electricity generation, industrial applications, and the transportation sector etc. A hybrid modeling approach has been carried out using our version of the well-known MARket ALlocation (MARKAL-Macro model to keep bottom-up model richness with macro effects to incorporate price and gross domestic product (GDP feedbacks. One of the conclusion of this study is that permitting higher natural gas export levels leads to a small reduction in GDP (0.04%–0.17%. Higher exports also increases U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and electricity prices (1.1%–7.2%. We also evaluate the impacts of natural gas exports in the presence of a Clean Energy Standard (CES for electricity. In this case, the GDP impacts are similar, but the electricity and transport sector impacts are different.

  6. Options for CO2-lean hydrogen export from Norway to Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiller, Christoph; Buenger, Ulrich; Svensson, Ann Mari; Moeller-Holst, Steffen; Espegren, Kari Aamodt; Holm, Oeystein Bindesboell; Tomasgaard, Asgeir

    2008-01-01

    Norway is a nation with an abundant supply of energy, both from fossil and renewable resources. Due to limited domestic demand, Norway is today exporting large amounts of petroleum products. For the future, various options for export of CO 2 -lean energy exist, both from Northern and Southern Norway, and both from fossil sources (including carbon capture and storage), and renewable energies (particularly wind power). Transport vectors are hydrogen pipelines, liquid hydrogen ships and HVDC cables, and a plausible customer is central Europe due to its proximity, high population density and lack of domestic energy resources. Within the framework of the ''NorWays'' project, various options to deliver energy for hydrogen-based transportation from Norway to Germany were studied. Eight CO 2 -lean well-to-wheel energy export chains were evaluated with respect to efficiency, GHG emissions and other environmental impacts, costs and utilisation of Norwegian R and D experience. In the chosen scenarios, energy export via hydrogen pipelines and ships appeared energetically and economically interesting against existing approaches as NG and electricity export. Furthermore, increased utilisation of Norwegian R and D experience and higher value creation is anticipated by the export of a higher refined product. (author)

  7. Chapter 5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources-Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston formations, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation of east Texas and southern Arkansas (and the correlative Hosston Formation of Louisiana and Mississippi) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin from east Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic detritus was derived from two main fluvial-deltaic depocenters, one in northeastern Texas and the other extending from southeastern Mississippi northwestward into northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in east Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are about 2,000 ft thick.

  8. 75 FR 70905 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    .... ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss.... exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: December 9, 2010 at 9 a.m. (EST). ADDRESSES: The President's Export... trade and report to the President on its activities and on its recommendations for expanding U.S...

  9. 76 FR 54193 - Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ...] Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for Plants and.... SUMMARY: This notice pertains to user fees charged for Veterinary Services animal quarantine and other..., organisms, and vectors; for certain veterinary diagnostic services; and for export certification of plants...

  10. 76 FR 11756 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Ali Amirnazmi; Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Ali Amirnazmi; Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Ali Amirnazmi, Register 63302-066, FCI... release and forfeit $81,277.37. Section 766.25 of the Export Administration Regulations (``EAR'' or...

  11. IMPACT OF CURRENCY DEVALUATION ON THE EXPORTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH AND INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Shahzad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the impact of currency devaluation on exports of three major economies of South Asian (i.e., Pakistan, Bangladesh and India over the period 1980 to 2012, by implementing the multiple regression models. Results reveales that currency devaluation encourages exports of Pakistan and Bangladesh. Lending interest rate significant negative effect in Pakistan and Bangladesh but insignificant in India. Government expenditure encouraged the export of Pakistan while not significaant in Bangladesh while depress in India. Money supply also enhanced the export of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. Result suggest that concerned authorities should manage and use the resources properly in such a way which may assist to develop the economies.

  12. Scheme to reward microgenerators exporting excess electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Many suppliers are offering tariffs for export. However, many of the tariffs on offer deliver a value that is higher than the underlying commercial value of the electricity to the supplier. In most cases suppliers do not currently register the export within the industry's settlement arrangements and so gain no value from the export they have purchased. It is clear from this that the current situation is unlikely to be sustainable and suppliers will not be able to offer significant payment for a product that has little commercial value to them when the numbers of exporting microgenerators increases. Initiatives to simplify and streamline the existing trading arrangements should be progressed; this should include simplification of processes for registering new export customers and improvements in the provision of new export meters. Suppliers should initiate the change management procedures required to progress Option 1 (allowing suppliers to register a customer's export and import under a single registration (a single MPAN)) through the industry's normal change management procedures. Ofgem should ensure that its review of the Structure of Distribution charges includes the treatment of DUoS charges for customers with microgeneration and ensure that they properly reflect the benefits of microgeneration. Any changes that are progressed should not prevent the subsequent introduction of 'smart meters' that could process both import and export electricity data. Ofgem should ensure that the cost effectiveness of including both an import and export capability in all new metering systems is assessed as part of the metering innovation agenda. Suppliers should make the prices they are offering for export more widely available in a simple and easy to understand form. Government should consider whether additional intervention is required to yield a higher value for exported electricity (or total generation) via mechanisms such as those contemplated under Option 3 (The supplier

  13. Determinants of export demand and their stability in Ghana | Osei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the study examines the factors that determine export demand in Ghana for the period 1970 to 2011. Using Johansen cointegration methodology, export demand is cointegrated with real effective exchange rate, domestic export prices, world export prices and real world income. The export demand function exhibits ...

  14. 21 CFR 1312.23 - Issuance of export permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of export permit. 1312.23 Section 1312.23... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.23 Issuance of export permit. (a) The... regulation in § 1312.30 of this part be exported only pursuant to the issuance of an export permit. The...

  15. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1488.9 Section 1488.9 Agriculture... Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required for Financing § 1488.9 Evidence of export. (a) If the commodity is exported by rail or...

  16. 21 CFR 1312.22 - Application for export permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for export permit. 1312.22 Section... EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.22 Application for export permit. (a) An application for a permit to export controlled substances shall be made on DEA Form 161...

  17. Canadian gas resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Canadian exports of gas to the United States are a critical component of EMF-9 (North American Gas Supplies). However, it has been noted that there are differences between US expectations for imports and Canadian forecasts of export supply capacity. Recent studies by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) indicate that 1.8 to 2.4 Tcf of imports may be required in the mid to late 1990's; A recent study by Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) indicates that the conventional resource base may not be able to provide continued gas exports to the US after the mid 1990's and that frontier sources would need to be developed to meet US expectations. The discrepancies between US expectations and Canadian estimates of capacity are of great concern to US policymakers because they call into question the availability of secure supplies of natural gas and suggest that the cost of imports (if available) will be high. By implication, if shortages are to be averted, massive investment may be required to bring these higher cost sources to market. Since the long-term supply picture will be determined by the underlying resource base, EMF-9 participants have been asked to provide estimates of critical components of the Canadian resource base. This paper provides a summary of ICF-Lewin's recent investigation of both the Conventional and Tight Gas resource in Canada's Western Sedimentary Basin, which includes both quantitative estimates and a brief sketch of the analysis methodology

  18. Changes in East Asian Food Consumption: Some Implications for Australian Irrigated Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Taylor; Christopher Findlay

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the implications of economic growth for food consumption in Asia, the East Asian supply responses and the determinants of Australian competitiveness in meeting Asian demand from production in Australia. Our special interests are to draw out some implications for Australia’s irrigated agriculture and for the organisation of the export business of that sector of the economy. A key question is the scope for increased exports of fresh rather than processed products. Sources of ...

  19. The post-war Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempest, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Middle East remains today the global energy fulcrum. One year after the Persian Gulf war, the region is in greater turmoil and political uncertainty than it has known in modern times. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent external military intervention forced neighboring states to question the need for a foreign military presence in the future. The rift between the secular revolutionary states in the region led by Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria and the traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia and the emirates of the gulf has widened. Egypt provides, at present, an uncomfortable bridge. The balance of political forces may be shifting. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Where will we see the new leadership in the Middle East? Will it again play a role through the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and determination of the oil price in shaping the structure of global energy supply and demand?

  20. EXPORT INCENTIVE PROGRAMS: A STUDY ABOUT BRAZILIAN SME’S FROM SANTA CATARINA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Regina de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reality of the Brazilian economy during the last decade has influenced many companies to get new markets to expand to other parameters of competition. The export incentive programs created by the government, is an example of this, and he has performed positively, strengthening the relationship of resources and capacity to develop sales strategies and relationships with the external market. With the use of financial incentive programs for export, companies can enjoy the competitiveness and advantages related to cost of goods or services, and thus help them achieve a satisfactory goal with the export activity. Careful to promote exports, the Brazilian government creates lines of financial incentives that can meet the needs of Brazilian companies. These floor plane are known as advances on exchange contracts (ACC, Advances on foreign exchange delivered (ACE, Program for Export – (Proex among others. Santa Catarina has been active in the export process of the country, accounting for significant numbers for the trade balance. The target of this study is to understand the reactions of the business of Santa Catarina in the use of financial incentives for export. The research method adopted, as to the purposes of research, the research was exploratory and the means of investigation was a qualitative field research through interviews. The results showed that the reasons these companies entering in the international market, have been opening new markets, new business opportunities and increase the export volume. Financial incentives are most commonly used by companies to Advance on Export Contracts (ACC and Advances on Foreign Exchange Delivered (ACE.

  1. Implementing international experience in promoting agricultural products to foreign markets: the Russian export strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia S. Revenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all countries in the world actively regulate both import and export of agricultural products, however this process is very conflictгфд because of acute contradictions on the market. They are associated with the changing conditions of production, increase of attention of the world community to the food securitysituation, change of the used resources efficiency level, competition enhancement. Both internal and external components of agricultural producers support are important for Russia. That means the regulation should be aimed at meeting the needs of the domestic market and at increasing competitiveness of Russian products abroad. The development of the Russian export strategy for agricultural products is currently very important. This problem is closely related to the general subject of the agricultural productiondevelopment, but it has an explicit specific character. Inthiscontextexperienceofforeigncountriesisinteresting. Almost all tools of export regulation existing in the world practice are used in the foreign practice of export regulation of agricultural raw materials and food. Stimulation measures prevail in regards to the coverage of commodity items, number of episodes involving the use of agricultural export regulationmeasures, effectiveness of impact to the national agricultural sector. Holistic strategies of agricultural export development are not a widespread phenomenon abroad at the present stage of the world economy development. Their existence is typical for countries with a high level of food self-sufficiency. Special programs where export component is a harmonically built-in element are now more widely spread. Export development programs of the developed countries include a range of measures to maintain the target income level of producers and to maintain procurement and consumer prices. Export policy of the developing countries has a subordinated importance and is considered as one of the levels to develop national

  2. Export Specialisation and Local Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naude, Wim; Bosker, Maarten; Matthee, Marianne

    This paper aims to provide empirical evidence on whether export specialization or diversification is better for local economic growth. Using export data from 354 magisterial districts of South Africa for 1996 and 2001 we estimate spatial growth regressions that include measures of the degree of

  3. 14 CFR 1274.942 - Export licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... writing, that the Agreement Officer authorize it to export ITAR-controlled technical data (including... appropriate licenses or other approvals, if required, for exports of hardware, technical data, and software, or for the provision of technical assistance. (b) The Recipient shall be responsible for obtaining...

  4. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate to...

  5. Potentials in Asian Export Credit Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "Mekong River Regional Development Project advocated by Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been implemented. Trans-Asia Railway and Trans-Asia Highway are being discussed. It is a good opportunity for Asian Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to cooperate and financing these large crossboarder projects."On May 11, at the 10th Annual Meeting of Asian Export Credit Agencies,

  6. 77 FR 34342 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ..., Luohu District, Shenzhen, 518001, China. On January 26, 2011, in the U.S. District Court, District of... Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. (2000)) (``IEEPA'') and violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Wu was convicted of illegally exporting...

  7. 77 FR 34340 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. (2000)) (``IEEPA'') and Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Chitron- US was convicted of illegally exporting... components designated on the U.S. Munitions List to China through Hong Kong between 2004 and 2007. In...

  8. 78 FR 37785 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the... Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45... the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22...

  9. 78 FR 61953 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-08

    ... counsel, Gormley has indicated that he does not intend to contest BIS's decision to deny his export..., selling, delivering, storing, disposing of, forwarding, transporting, financing, or otherwise servicing in... Regulations that has been or will be exported from the United States, including financing or other support...

  10. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on...

  11. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  12. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    -country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral...

  13. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate for...

  14. 27 CFR 4.80 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations in...

  15. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax...

  16. Export versus domestic market opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, S.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation analyzed the current global wood pellet market and evaluated some of the forces currently driving market expansion. Global wood pellet production statistics were also presented. Large forest companies are now expanding into the energy sector and seeking to produce processing heat from biomass in addition to creating value-added products such as wood pellets, ethanol and electricity. The European biomass action plan has promised to increase production of energy from biomass from 4 per cent to 8 per cent by 2010. Various biomass boiler eco-directives have been established internationally, and some countries in Europe are now aggressively promoting the use of combined heat and power (CHP) systems. Biofuels mixing quotas have been established in various countries as well as tax relief plans for users of bio-fuels. As a result of these developments, along with various new directives, wood pellet consumption in Europe has increased from approximately 1 million tonnes in 2000 to 5 million tonnes in 2005. Consumption of wood pellets in Canada has increased only marginally in the same time period. While Canada currently exported 330,000 tonnes of wood pellets to Europe in 2006, it is expected that exports will increase to 800,000 tonnes by 2010. Other potential markets for Canadian wood pellets include South America, South Africa, Japan, and China. Production of wood pellets in China is expected to increase from current negligible production figures to approximately 50 million tonnes by 2020. Biomass research and development activities in Europe and North America are continuing to improve the calorific value of wood pellets and improve their mechanical strength. Researchers are also investigating methods of lowering wood pellet production costs. refs., tabs., figs

  17. 19 CFR 351.402 - Calculation of export price and constructed export price; reimbursement of antidumping and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.402 Calculation of export... (date of final determination of sales at less than fair value). (3) Presumption. The Secretary may...) Introduction. In order to establish export price, constructed export price, and normal value, the Secretary...

  18. Macroeconomic Effects of Export Demand in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji Adesola Adesoye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the macroeconomic effects of aggregate export demand in Nigeria using annual time series data between 1970 and 2013. The paper made use of the ordinary least square method to analyse the long-run relationship for the period under study. The empirical results confirm that there exists a unique and significant long-run equilibrium relationship among export volume, world income, crude oil price, domestic output, exchange rate and cost of doing business. The estimated results show that domestic income has the highest elasticity, followed by world’s output and cost of doing business, which all report positive relations. Other macroeconomic factors reported negative relationship with aggregate export volume. Thus, an important policy implication of our findings is that stabilizing Nigeria’s export earnings potential by counteracting the external factors that influence adversely the Nigerian exports such as crude oil price and cost of doing business.

  19. Exports and economic growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodly Otto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is an oil dependent economy, over 90 per cent of its exports receipts in recent years flow from petroleum but this sector is currently affected by local challenges, which include insecurity, oil thefts, sabotage and an unfriendly operational environment. These challenges are generating loses for the major producers and encouraging capital flight but amidst this situation, the economy is said to be having an impressive growth. This paradox informed this research. The study was designed to see the nexus between exports and economic growth in Nigeria. Using data from the Central Bank of Nigeria spanning 1980-2011, the study with the aid of OLS regression analysis found a strong relationship between Exports and economic growth in Nigeria. Nigeria will be better served if it diversifies its export base. It must also create structures that lead to better redistribution of export incomes within the local economy.

  20. Exporting nuclear engineering and the industry's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear energy offers all possibilities to reduce the energy problems in the world which arise with the world-wide increasing population and the energy demand connected with it. The Federal Republic of Germany lives on the exports of refined technical methods which also include nuclear engineering. The exports of nuclear engineering should lead to a technology transfer with guidance and training on an equal basis between the industrial and developing countries. The preconditions of exporting nuclear-technical systems are a well-functioning domestic market and a certain support by the government, especially with regard to giving guarantees for the special exports risks of these big projects. On the other hand, exports are also needed in order to be able to continue providing high-level technology for the domestic market. (UA) [de

  1. The Export Promoting Effect of Emigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne

    The theoretical claim that ethnic networks encourage trade has found broad empirical support in the literature on migration, business networks and international trade. Ethnic networks matter for the exporting firm, as they exhibit the potential to lower fixed and variable cost of exporting....... This paper provides a first attempt to identify the export-promoting effect of emigration on the firm level. Using detailed Danish firm-level data, we can parsimoniously control for export determinants other than emigration, unobserved heterogeneity at the firm level, as well as for self-selection of firms...... into exporting. Additionally accounting for taste similarity between Denmark and its trade partners, our findings suggest a positive effect of emigration on Danish manufacturing trade within Europe, thereby corroborating preceding studies on aggregate data. Nevertheless, as a novel insight, our analysis reveals...

  2. Wind-driven export of Weddell Sea slope water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, A. J. S.; Meredith, M. P.; Abrahamsen, E. P.; Morales Maqueda, M. A.; Jones, D. C.; Naveira Garabato, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    The export of waters from the Weddell Gyre to lower latitudes is an integral component of the southern subpolar contribution to the three-dimensional oceanic circulation. Here we use more than 20 years of repeat hydrographic data on the continental slope on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and 5 years of bottom lander data on the slope at 1000 m to show the intermittent presence of a relatively cold, fresh, westward flowing current. This is often bottom-intensified between 600 and 2000 dbar with velocities of over 20 cm s-1, transporting an average of 1.5 ± 1.5 Sv. By comparison with hydrography on the continental slope within the Weddell Sea and modeled tracer release experiments we show that this slope current is an extension of the Antarctic Slope Current that has crossed the South Scotia Ridge west of Orkney Plateau. On monthly to interannual time scales the density of the slope current is negatively correlated (r > 0.6 with a significance of over 95%) with eastward wind stress over the northern Weddell Sea, but lagging it by 6-13 months. This relationship holds in both the high temporal resolution bottom lander time series and the 20+ year annual hydrographic occupations and agrees with Weddell Sea export variability observed further east. We compare several alternative hypotheses for this wind stress/export relationship and find that it is most consistent with wind-driven acceleration of the gyre boundary current, possibly modulated by eddy dynamics, and represents a mechanism by which climatic perturbations can be rapidly transmitted as fluctuations in the supply of intermediate-level waters to lower latitudes.

  3. Ethiopian-Netherlands horticulture partnership : Prospects and challenges for refrigerated container transport of fruits and vegetables from Ethiopia to the Middle East

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, R.C.; Snels, J.C.M.A.; Admiraal, L.

    2008-01-01

    Ethiopia has a big potential to grow more fruits and vegetables. Ethiopia’s current fruit and vegetable export is very limited. Scope for expanding and diversifying its export markets is large. Demand for fruits and vegetables is growing in nearby international markets, like the Middle East.

  4. Nuclear exports. Parliamentary control and confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    With its decision taken on 21. October 2014 (Az.: 2 BvE 5/11) the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided during court proceedings between administrative bodies on the scope and limits of the parliamentary right of information. Even though the proceeding did not deal with nuclear exports but arm exports, foreign trade law, however, does not only designate an export licence obligation for military weapons but also for so called dual-use goods meaning goods, which can be used both for friendly as well as for military purposes. The export of these goods requires according to the so-called Dual-Use Regulation (EG) 428/2009 a licence. Annex I category 0 of the regulation (EG) 428/2009 lists a variety of nuclear materials, plants and equipment items for which this licence applies. In the same manner as arm exports, also exports of nuclear dual-use goods are being discussed in a special cabinet committee, the Federal Security Council (BSR), which shall coordinate cross-departmentally the German security and defence policy under consideration of economic interests and which categorises its results, according to the rules of procedure, as confidential. Also legally not regulated but common ''preliminary enquiries'' at the responsible Federal Ministry or rather Federal Office of Economics and Export Control by companies which plan an export and want to affirm the general approval for their export business prior to conclusion of contract take not only place for arm exports but also for nuclear dual-use goods. The decision by the Federal Constitutional Court can be applied to consultations about the authorisation of nuclear dual-use goods.

  5. UPAYA PENINGKATAN EXPORT DRIVE INDUSTRI FASHION DI ERA GLOBALISASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idah Hadijah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Efforts to Increase Export Drives of Fashion Industy in the Globali­sation Era. The fashion industry is inseparable from the development of fashion, cultural element/national culture, and the influence of fashion in many aspects of human life. Thus, fashion industry is a positive business opportunities in globalization era. Fashion industry involves various parties such as the resource of fabric thread, fabric manufacturers, designer, producers to distributors, starts from small business to large business, and also involves a lot of workers with various skills and talents. In order to support fashion industry producers having positive export drives, it is necessary to to pay attention to many components, such as production, supplier, and the final products that are distributed to the retailers. These components are also related to the quality of human resources, material resources, fashion forecasting, and the multimedia of fashion industry. : Industri fashion, tidak terlepas dari perkembangan busana, unsur budaya/ kultur suatu bangsa, serta pengaruh busana dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan manusia. Dengan demikian industri fashion merupakan peluang bisnis yang positif di era globalisasi. Industri fashion melibatkan berbagai pihak mulai dari asal serat, pem­buatan kain, desainer, produsen sampai distributor, mulai dari bisnis kecil sampai bisnis besar, juga melibatkan banyak pekerja dengan berbagai keahlian dan bakat. Upaya produsen industri fashion agar memiliki export drive yang positif, perlu memperhatikan komponen produksi, komponen supplier, produk akhir yang didistri­busikan pada retailer. Komponen-komponen tersebut terkait dengan kualitas: sumber daya manusia, sumber daya material, fashion forecasting, dan multimedia industri fashion.

  6. 77 FR 72324 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 85-17A18] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to... to amend an Export [[Page 72325

  7. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Zerquera, J.T.; Ramos V, O.; Alonso A, D.; Fernandez, I.M.; Caveda R, C.A.; Madrazo M, S.; Barroso P, I.

    2006-01-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  8. How can we reduce phosphorus export from lowland polders? Implications from a sensitivity analysis of a coupled model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiacong; Gao, Junfeng; Yan, Renhua

    2016-08-15

    Phosphorus (P) export from lowland polders has caused severe water pollution. Numerical models are an important resource that help water managers control P export. This study coupled three models, i.e., Phosphorus Dynamic model for Polders (PDP), Integrated Catchments model of Phosphorus dynamics (INCA-P) and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), to describe the P dynamics in polders. Based on the coupled models and a dataset collected from Polder Jian in China, sensitivity analysis were carried out to analyze the cause-effect relationships between environmental factors and P export from Polder Jian. The sensitivity analysis results showed that P export from Polder Jian were strongly affected by air temperature, precipitation and fertilization. Proper fertilization management should be a strategic priority for reducing P export from Polder Jian. This study demonstrated the success of model coupling, and its application in investigating potential strategies to support pollution control in polder systems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment: The case of oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisman, Henri; Rozenberg, Julie; Hourcade, Jean Charles

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the compensations that major oil producers have claimed for since the Kyoto Protocol in order to alleviate the adverse impacts of climate policy on their economies. The amount of these adverse impacts is assessed through a general equilibrium model which endogenizes both the reduction of oil exportation revenues under international climate policy and the macroeconomic effect of carbon pricing on Middle-East's economy. We show that compensating the drop of exportation revenues does not offset GDP and welfare losses because of the time profile of the general equilibrium effects. When considering instead compensation based on GDP losses, the effectiveness of monetary transfers proves to be drastically limited by general equilibrium effects in opened economies. The main channels of this efficiency gap are investigated and its magnitude proves to be conditional upon strategic and policy choices of the Middle-East. This leads us to suggest that other means than direct monetary compensating transfers should be discussed to engage the Middle-East in climate policies. - Highlights: • We endogenize the interplay between climate policy, oil markets and the macroeconomy. • We quantify the transfers to compensate climate policy losses in oil-exporting countries. • We assess the general equilibrium effect of monetary transfers in opened economies. • The macroeconomic efficiency of transfers is altered by general equilibrium effects. • Monetary compensation schemes are not efficient for oil exporters in climate policy

  10. Energy supply in East Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Tsutomu

    1988-07-10

    East Germany has abundant brown coal, about 90.4% of primary energy production in 1986. The high dependence upon brown coal has been established since its reevaluation in 1980 and the production is reaching a peak. Its share in power generation is also as high as 83.3% in the year. Therefore, the energy sufficiency of East Germany is about 80%. Problems are arising, however, in deterioration of excavation conditions and coal quality. Domestic energy resources such as the uranium and natural gas are also used to the maximum extent. The nuclear power has about 10% of share in the power generation. The share expansion policy is seemingly maintained even after the accident of Chernoble. Exploration, excavation and reprocessing of the uranium are conducted under the leadership of USSR. The country depends upon the oil in a very low level, less than 1%, as a result of the energy conservation policy in 1980's. (1 fig, 5 tabs)

  11. Exporting Rambutan to United States: One Reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Mohd Sidek Othman

    2011-01-01

    Rambutan is a one of commodity that are passed by United States of America authority to be market in that states. The main condition for the approval is the exporter must use irradiation technology as quarantine treatment to monitor the insects in there. United States of America's Agriculture Department (USDA-APHIS) has make early survey to the facilities involved in exporting process chain to overview Malaysia preparedness for this purpose. This paper work will discussed the possibility of this exporting implemented based on conditions rule by the USDA. (author)

  12. How Important is Export-Platform FDI?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geishecker, Ingo; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    This paper investigates the link between export performance and multinational enterprise presence utilizing trade and industry data for Polish manufacturing industries for the years 1994-2002. Decomposing trade into final and intermediate goods and assessing the impact of foreign-owned capital...... on the respective export performance of Polish industries, we suggest a significant role of export-platform FDI into Poland, while the importance of FDI for vertical integration is limited suggesting that the sourcing of intermediate goods from Poland primarily occurs through arm's-length contractual outsourcing...

  13. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  14. Photovoltaic systems for export application. Informal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, J.; Campbell, H.; Sajo, A.; Sanz, E. [Univ. of Lowell, MA (United States)

    1988-01-31

    One approach to improving the competitiveness of photovoltaic systems is the development of designs specifically for export applications. In other words, where is it appropriate in a system design to incorporate components manufactured and/or assembled in the receiving country in order to improve the photovoltaic exports from the US? What appears to be needed is a systematic method of evaluating the potential for export from the US of PV systems for various application in different countries. Development of such a method was the goal of this project.

  15. The Competitiveness of Romanian Services Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Grigorovici

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania carried on significant progresses in its intercession to fetch up the gaps towards the European Union concerning the services compartment, the balance of those being of almost 10% from the total Romanian export, during the first semester of 2007. In 2006, the export of services increased with 45% comparatively to the year before, consolidating the status of our country as a services exporter. The IT left its mark on the structure and organizing method of the tertiary compartment and ameliorated the form in which the services were performed in the context of enhanced electronic transfers.

  16. German radionuclide exports and imports 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Protection of imports and exports of radionuclides, irradiation samples and sealed emitters above 1850 GBq show a slight decline by 11.8%, on the basis of activity, in imports and a somewhat higher rise by 21.6% in exports in 1990. Imports returned to the level of 1988 after having experienced an extraordinary rise in 1989. Exports were slightly better than in the previous year, but still considerably below the average of the past five years. (orig.) [de

  17. Nuclear safeguards and export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely from the perspective of the two most important nonnuclear weapons states, Japan and Germany, the safeguards and arms control agendas have not been finally dealt with. Because of their central position in the nonproliferation regime as nuclear suppliers and states with large nuclear energy industries, both countries are compelled to take a leading role in pursuing future reforms. In the dialogue with the nonaligned, this leadership position is helped by their nonnuclear status. In fact, Japan and Germany have some interests in common with the nonaligned states, such as the expansion of safeguards in the nuclear weapons states. To be sure, both Japan and Germany will pursue such interests with due regard to the interests of their friends and allies. For Japan, maintaining a close relationship with the United States is as important as shaping viable relations with China. Initiatives and controversies on nuclear policy must be weighed against this interest. By the same token, Germany must take into account the dense network of relations with its allies and with Russia, in addition to the German-French friendship. This will always set limits to Germany's readiness to confront the nuclear weapons states on nuclear issues. This, however, does not mean that both countries must shut up when the P 5 speak. The nuclear weapons register and the extension of the ''erga omnes'' rule in export controls, for example, should not be relegated to the dustbin of history, just because some friendly nuclear powers don't like these ideas. (orig.)

  18. SMEs’ Innovation and Export Capabilities: Identification and Characterization of a Common Space Using Data Spatialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Enjolras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous publications try to identify and test empirically the link between innovation and export to explain firms’ competitiveness. But it seems that several ways of thinking coexist, without a real consensus. This article proposes a different approach, by considering innovation and export not in terms of impact of the one on the other, but rather as two complementary activities mobilizing common capabilities (resources, skills, knowledge. These common capabilities represent the capabilities that a company needs to mobilize as a priority to improve its performance regarding innovation as well as export. This article aims to identify the common spaces between innovation and export in terms of current practices within SMEs. Initially, the innovation and export practices were identified in the literature and through a set of interviews with business managers. Then an analysis of similarity put forward the common practices between the innovation and export processes. A data spatialization shows that the common practices concern at least: (1 network management, (2 consideration of the customer, (3 the acquisition of information, (4 skills management, (5 the capitalization of knowledge, (6 the global strategy, (7 the follow-up of the projects, (8 the intellectual property, and finally (9 the corporate culture.

  19. East Asia basin Analysis Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The United Nations-related Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP), in cooperation with the International Union of Geological Sciences and Circum-Pacific Council, is implementing the East Asia Basin Analysis Project. National and regional organizations, principally members of the ASEAN Council of Petroleum, are compiling maps at a scale of 1:2 million and stratigraphic cross sections of basins, with particular initial emphasis on defining and assessing oil and gas plays and with later analytical focus on other sedimentary minerals (e.g., coal, phosphate, evaporites, and uranium). Completion is anticipated in 1988. Two major elements of the project are being contributed from other agencies. (1) Base maps. - The US Geological Survey (USGS) has partly compiled eight sheets covering east Asia that show bathymetry, shorelines, and drainage systems. One sheet also presents topography and selected cultural features. All sheets are scheduled to be completed in 1987. (2) Geotectonic maps. - The Working Group on Studies of East Asian Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR) is now completing 10 transect studies with crustal profiles and strip maps at a scale of 1:1 million. One map for each transect shows a plate tectonic interpretation. Transect coordinators or others will be encouraged to extrapolate between the strips and complete the geotectonic interpretation (on USGS bases) in 1987. The IGCP Project 220 is also compiling on (USGS bases) the tin and tungsten granites of east Asia, emphasizing geochemical data needed to identify predictive models. Other mapping will probably follow mineral-deposit modeling workshops on ophiolotic chromite and regional symposia on oceanic massive sulfide and subvolcanic gold and base metals. Completion may be possible by 1989

  20. ANALISIS FAKTOR PENGHAMBAT EKSPOR BAGI UKM Small and Medium Enterprise’s Export Barrier Factor Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia Ivada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this research are to analyze Small and Medium Enterprises’ export barriers in Solo Raya (Surakarta, Boyolali, Sukoharjo, Karanganyar, Wonogiri, Sragen, Klaten and to prove that all indicators which are knowledge barriers, resources barriers, procedurs barriers and exogenous barrier support export barriers as its construct. This research provides a measurement tool for the next export barriers research as well This study combines questioner’s statements  that were developed by researchers from  previous studies in European countries and export obstacle expressions suggested by Indonesian’s expert. Using Small and Medium Enterprises in Solo Raya region as its respondent sample, and we can collect 400 respondent of SME.  There was no such researches in Indonesia before, thus this is the first study using export barrier’s questioner. That’s why Structural Equation Modelling (SEM is used to provide all construct variables and their indicators become acceptable as a measurement tool for this kind of research. When the researcher run the data using SEM, it showed that construct variables can  support the model. In other words, the model does fit the datas. Except for the exogenous barriers that don’t have significant influence to other two barrier which are resources and procedures.

  1. Promoting exports in the energy technology area; Foerderung des Exports im Bereich der Energietechnologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iten, R.; Oettli, B. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jochem, E.; Mannsbart, W. [Fraunhofer Institut Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories. Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion.

  2. Corporate Managers' International Orientation and the Export ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporate Managers' International Orientation and the Export Performance of Firms in ... and for determining influence between interval level variables, respectively. ... Enhancing product adaptation and use of foreign strategic partnerships by ...

  3. Private hydropower projects: exporting the american experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, W.L.; Bourgeacq, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses different aspects of exporting the American knowledge and experience in the private development of small-scale hydropower projects. It details the 'export' and 'adaptation/translation' of American PURPA philosophy to other countries. The major stumbling blocks on the road to exportation are listed. The subject countries'market evaluation is explained, as well as methods for researching and gathering the necessary information on a specific country. Methods of choosing a target country are discussed, and the criteria necessary for making a choice are detailed. The subject of legal framework and privatization of power generation issues overseas and the ways and means to help the 'export of U.S. expertise' through U.S. Government programs are described. The subjects of financing and joint ventures with local entities are also included in this paper. Various scenarios for private development overseas are presented

  4. 78 FR 54238 - President's Export Council; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration President's Export Council; Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open...; understanding best value in government procurement; de minimis reform; intellectual property protections in the...

  5. The NPT and nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1992-01-01

    Controls on the export of nuclear materials and technology were originally imposed in wartime and under the United States Atomic Energy Act of 1946 to restrict the supply of uranium. But there was no international agreement until the mid 1960s; before that the United States, Canada, France and the Soviet Union imposed export controls on a national basis. The Non-Proliferation Treaty, especially Articles I-IV, set out the first world wide controls on the nuclear trade. These articles are explained in the context of the relevant Committees (the Zangger Committee, the Committee on the Assurance of Supply, the National Export Committee and the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Control) and Guidelines (the Nuclear Suppliers Guidelines and the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation). Recent developments which have a bearing on nuclear trade, such as the single European market, the emergence of new supplies and the break-up of the Soviet Union, are considered. (UK)

  6. Safety and exportation of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudray, M.; Perrais, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Safety problems arising from exportation are especially handled through the French exportation of PWR stations. Regulations differ widely from one country to another. However, very large use of American regulations is made and frequently there is a tendency to harden such or such clause in the quotation. Industry must be ready to give satisfaction to such demands of customers. Sometimes also, it is a mere duplication of French stations which is above all looked for. In that case, it is the problem of using French regulations abroad which arises. Desirable changes in examination proceedings are analyzed together with a French regulation effort aiming to make easier the promotion of their use abroad. Finally, safety may be a factor of success for exportation attempts. It is shown how useless some outbiddings may be, but also how, on the contrary, speeding up of research and development effort towards specific safety problems in case of exportation, is to be promoted [fr

  7. 1986 imports and exports of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft), on behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Reactor Safety, of the imports and exports of radionuclides, irradiation samples, and sealed emitters of more than 1850 GBq show an enormous increase by 152.7% of imports (on the basis of activity) and a decline by 19.5% of exports. In the category of imports, some 98% of the total activity were made up of the H-3, Co-60, Mo-99, and Ir-192 nuclides. In the category of sealed emitters, the imports of Co-60 have trebled. In the exports category, more than 95% of the total activity were made up of the H-3, Mo-99, and Ir-192 nuclides. In the category of sealed emitters, exports of Cs-137 experienced a fourfold increase over the level of the previous year. (orig.) [de

  8. An Export Promotion Policy after Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyo Cheong

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Korean government puts in place various export support policies after the financial crisis, Korean export is still in stagnation because the foreign-oriented economic conditions, such as the continual ripple effect of the Eastern Asia financial crisis and the American economy which is slowing down, are deteriorating. After the financial crisis, Korean trading circle considered the difficulties in financing and the buying of raw material to be the most important factors which blocked the export. This thesis first analyzed the change of the actual export results, then analyzed the policy the government brought forward as the solution of the difficulties in financing and raw material buying. Meanwhile, this thesis brought forward alternative policies like taking auto-rediscount and signing Free Trade Agreement with major trade states.

  9. How the Eximbank helps US nuclear exporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The way in which the Export-Import Bank operates in support of the United States nuclear industry noting particularly its flexibility in responding to changing needs and budget constraints is described. (author)

  10. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan; Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak

    Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship) suggest that migrant entrepreneur play an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature (Saxenian, 2002; 2006, Ruzzlier et al, 2007; Honig and Drori, 2010, Drodi et al, 2010)). This paper aims at reducing this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export...... in across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...

  11. «Turn to the East» Policy: Expectations and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Minakir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic dynamics, foreign economic relations, reproduction proportions in the Russian economy and the economy of the Russian Far East are analyzed. The author considers sub-global orientation of state economic policy in Russia after 2010. The changing geographic vector of economic policy is analyzed through a modified geographic structure of the expected increase in the country’s export rent, and also through the shift of the center of concentration of resources, which are necessary to form a new pole of growth in the national economy. The author reviews macroeconomic dynamics and analyzes the factors of the cyclical development of the Russian economy. The paper evaluates the dynamics of the geographical structure of foreign markets. The author’s hypothesis suggests that foreign trade interactions are not sufficiently restructured to reconceive economic policies. For this purpose, the institutional integration within the new integration space is of critical importance. The article considers trends and regularities that explain the equilibrium parameters of the economic system of the Russian Far East, as well as the possibility of transition to new equilibrium levels. The author discusses the ratio of investment and institutional factors of modernization and the formation of stable positive macroeconomic and structural dynamics in the region. Based on Russian and foreign scientific literature, I consider the most common interpretations of threats and opportunities for the economic development of the Russian Far East, including the impact of demographic trends, structural improvement, competitive environment factors, institutional innovations. The study discusses the influence of the Chinese «one belt — one way» project on the prospects for implementing the domestic and foreign eastern economic policy of the Russian Federation.

  12. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Babiker Idris Babiker; Abdul-Jabbar Mohammed Abdullah; Mohamed Ahmed Al-Feel

    2011-01-01

    The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livesto...

  13. Export of electric power through industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de; David, J.M.S.; Campos, J.M.; Perecmanis, J.; Carneiro, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    We forecast the electrical energy incorporated to the exports of products of the industrial sectors of steel, aluminium, ferro-alloys, chlorine and caustic soda, pulp and paper and petrochemistry, accordingly to scenarios for these sectors consistent with a macro economic reference scenario, for the period 1990/2000. We also compare the electrical energy exported through those industrial products with the forecasted industrial and total markets of electrical energy. (author)

  14. Oil exports under GATT and the WTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will try to focus on two aspects of oil production policy under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The first is how freely an oil producer can regulate the quantity of oil production and exports without violating GATT rules and the second is how an oil exporter could benefit from GATT rules to overstep barriers to market access imposed by oil-importing countries. (author)

  15. Exporter Price Response to Exchange Rate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund

    Firms exporting to foreign markets face a particular challenge: to price their exports in a foreign market when the exchange rate changes. This paper takes on pricing- to-market using a unique data set that covers rm level monthly trade at great detail. As opposed to annual trade ows, monthly trade...... theoretical contributions to the litterature on pricing-to-market and exchange rate pass-through....

  16. Export Control in the AREVA Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zero, S.

    2013-01-01

    After the Second World War the nuclear technology was mostly considered inappropriate for the export. It remains strictly regulated today, but the development of the civil applications urged states to facilitate the peaceful uses while establishing a strict control in the domains of the internal security and the nuclear proliferation. AREVA decided to set up an Export Control program applied to all the products and in all the countries where the group operates. AREVA can export products or make transfer of technology considered as sensitive for the non-proliferation and the risks linked to the terrorism. This sensitiveness results from the nature of the products or from the country of destination and in certain cases both of them. AREVA has set up an Export Control program and an interactive e-learning training within the Group to make exports of sensitive products, raw materials and technologies more secure. The subject is rather complex, the regulations are constantly evolving, and becoming familiar with them is necessarily a gradual process, but it must be made in-depth, hence the idea of regular training sessions. The implementation of the Export Control in the AREVA Group declines in four fundamental stages: -) Policy and procedure; -) Appointment of Export Control Officers (ECO); -) Training; and -) Audit and Self Assessment. The training program is composed by the following elements: Ethics (Value Charter) of the Group, Non-proliferation, international regulations and more particularly those that are applicable in Europe (Germany and France) and in the United States. Particular attention is devoted to the Export Control practice in China, Japan and India. (A.C.)

  17. Competitiveness, export control and export promotion of dual-use goods. European and German balancing exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The EU Commission Communication of 24 April 2014 to the Council and the European Parliament ''The review of export control policy: Ensuring Security and Competitiveness in a changing world'' as well as the increasingly number of inquiries and applications to the German Federal Government (e.g. the rejection of Hermes guarantees and state funding of nuclear export and termination of bilateral cooperation in the field of nuclear technologies) once again reason to discuss the current tension between the principle of free movement of goods, competitiveness and export promotion on the one hand and the export control on the other.

  18. 77 FR 69591 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... meeting to deliberate on recommendations related to export expansion through streamlined consideration of.../peccomments.asp ) without change, including any business or personal information provided such as names...

  19. Renewables and exports: how Export Credit Agencies could help develop markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpi, G.; Salter, L.

    2002-01-01

    Future export markets for renewable energies have enormous potential, yet business-as-usual investment trends will not achieve that potential, write Giulio Volpi and Liam Salter. They examine the role that Export Credit Agencies - which have provided essential support for exports in the conventional energy business - could play in aiding the renewables sector, characterized as it is by small- and medium-sized enterprises. This new role will require certain reforms - but without those reforms the Export Credit Agencies will simply not be providing relevant services to new technologies and new market players. (author)

  20. Nuclear export controls and nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevini, F.

    2013-01-01

    The export control of dual use goods has developed since the early seventies to counter nuclear proliferation. The paper provides an overview of dual-use export control issues also in relation with the Additional Protocol to the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement, which requires States to provide declarations of the export of the controlled items listed in its Annex II, derived from the Nuclear Suppliers Group Trigger list. Recommendations for improvement are proposed. On the EU level, the paper summarises the framework set by the European Council Regulation 428/2009, requiring Member States to impose control on exports, brokering and transit of dual use goods. The Regulation includes the so-called 'EU dual-use control list' integrating the lists of dual-use items defined by the international regimes and requires also the control on intangible technology transfers as foreseen by U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540. ESARDA has recently launched a new sub-Working Group on export control, which raised large interest and may evolve to a full-fledged working group. Export control may provide an opportunity of technical collaboration between ESARDA and INMM. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  1. 75 FR 29514 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... new Export Markets, such as advertising and trade shows. 6. ALCC may, for itself and on behalf of its...: a. Sales and marketing efforts, and activities and opportunities for sales of Export Product in Export Markets, including but not limited to selling strategies and pricing, projected demand for Export...

  2. Are there regional differences in US hardwood product exports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; William Luppold

    2016-01-01

    Exporting is a critical component of the product mix for many domestic hardwood firms. Previous research has identified factors associated with hardwood lumber exporting behavior, but less is known about the advantages and disadvantages to exporting associated with the region within which a firm is located, or about exporting of secondary hardwood products. A procedure...

  3. Firm-Level Determinants of Exporting Behaviour: Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses firm-level panel data to investigate the exporting behaviour of the Kenyan manufacturing firms. Using probit and tobit regression models, the results obtained show that factors determining the decision to export are different from those affecting the share exported. Likewise, factors determining exporting ...

  4. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of... system for collection of export data for the Department of State. In accordance with this subchapter U.S...

  5. 7 CFR 1493.470 - Evidence of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1493.470 Section 1493.470... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier Credit Guarantee Program Operations § 1493.470 Evidence of export. (a) Report of export. The...

  6. 9 CFR 322.3 - Transferring products for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transferring products for export. 322... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXPORTS 1 § 322.3 Transferring products for export. When inspected and passed products for export are transferred from tank cars to other containers on vessels, such transfer shall be...

  7. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of export. 35.8 Section 35.8 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.8 Date of export. Date of export means the date of loading on board the...

  8. 78 FR 53727 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 84-24A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No. 84-24A12. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade...

  9. 19 CFR 113.55 - Cancellation of export bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of export bonds. 113.55 Section 113... export bonds. (a) Manner of cancellation. A bond to assure exportation as defined in § 101.1 of this... shall be signed by a revenue officer of the foreign country to which the merchandise is exported, unless...

  10. 78 FR 1837 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 84-23A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No. 84-23A12. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade...

  11. 48 CFR 1825.1103-70 - Export control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Export control. 1825.1103...-70 Export control. (a) Background. (1) NASA contractors and subcontractors are subject to U.S. export... 120 through 130, and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), 15 CFR parts 730 through 799. The...

  12. 7 CFR 1493.280 - Evidence of export report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export report. 1493.280 Section 1493.280... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Facility Guarantee Program (FGP) Operations § 1493.280 Evidence of export report. (a) Report of export. The...

  13. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1493.80 Section 1493.80... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103...

  14. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.-C.; Lee, T.-Y.; Lin, T.-C.; Hein, T.; Lee, L.-C.; Shih, Y.-T.; Kao, S.-J.; Shiah, F.-K.; Lin, N.-H.

    2015-10-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities has substantially altered N cycle both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind to the most rapidly industrializing east coast of China can be a demonstration site for extreme high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds classified into low-, moderate-, and highly-disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers and human emission and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ~ 3800 kg N km-2 yr-1, approximately 18-fold higher than the global average mostly due to the large input of synthetic fertilizers. The average riverine DIN export ratio is 0.30-0.51, which is much higher than the average of 0.20-0.25 of large rivers around the world indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low-disturbed watersheds, despite of high N input, only export 0.06-0.18 of the input so were well buffered to changes in input quantity suggesting high efficiency of nitrogen usage or high N retention capacity of the less disturbed watersheds. The high retention capacity probably is due to the effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderate-disturbed watersheds show a linear increase of output with increases in total N inputs and a mean DIN export ratio of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watershed is the relative proportions of agricultural land and forests, not the built-up lands. Thus, their greater DIN export quantity could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be

  15. INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGIES: A CASE STUDY AT SMALL EXPORT COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Di Diego Antunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the main internationalization strategies used by small manufacturers of hammocks. Our findings show that these export companies have up to 20 employees and their main internationalization strategy is exportation. This plan is carried out in 3 ways: indirect exportation, through trading companies; direct exportation, through sales performed in the companies and cooperative exportation, through a network of dealers in greater companies. Its was also verified that some organizations export up to 60% of their products while the vast majority does not even export 5% of it, turning primarily to the domestic market.

  16. Energy substitution in oil-exporting LDC's the Indonesian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A.; Soelistijo, U. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park (USA). Dept. of Mineral Economics)

    1989-02-01

    Many oil-exporting LDCs defy the stereotype of an OPEC country with an excess of oil reserves for current and future needs. In this paper it is suggested that serious consideration be given to the substitution of other fossil energy resources for oil used domestically in order to release more oil for export. This will generate more foreign exchange and extend the life of the reserve base. A coal-oil substitution programme for Indonesia is presented and analysed to illustrate the economic development benefits of this strategy. 11 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  18. Uranium resources and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, J.M.; Wright, W.J.

    1975-08-01

    Australia has about 19% of the reasonably assured resources of uranium in the Western World recoverable at costs of less than $A20 per kilogram, or about 9% of the resources (reasonably assured and estimated additional) recoverable at costs of less than $A30 per kilogram. Australia's potential for further discoveries of uranium is good. Nevertheless, if Australia did not export any of these resources it would probably have only a marginal effect on the development of nuclear power; other resources would be exploited earlier and prices would rise, but not sufficiently to make the costs of nuclear power unattractive. On the other hand, this policy could deny to Australia real benefits in foreign currency earnings, employment and national development. (author)

  19. Responsibilities of the exporting state derived from the application of the code of conduct on the safety and security of radioactive sources and the guidance on the import and export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Dora

    2008-01-01

    Full text: 'The exporting state in deciding whether to authorize an export of radioactive sources should satisfy itself, insofar as practicable: 1) That the recipient is authorized by the importing state to receive and possess the source in accordance with its laws and regulations; 2) That the importing state has the appropriate technical and administrative capability, resources and regulatory structure needed for the management of the source(s) in a manner consistent with the guidance in the code, and consider, based upon available information: i) Whether the recipient has been engaged in clandestine or illegal procurement of radioactive sources; ii) Whether an import or export authorization for radioactive sources has been denied to the recipient or importing state, or whether the recipient or importing state has made diverted for purposes inconsistent with the code any import or export of radioactive sources previously authorized; and iii) The risk of diversion or malicious acts involving radioactive sources'. It also should take, once it has decided to authorize the export, 'appropriate steps to ensure that the export is conducted in a manner consistent with existing relevant international standards relating to the transport of radioactive materials an the importing State is notified in advance of each shipment'. The Guidance has done a great effort in fixing the requirements that the importing State has to fulfill and it is the exporting State which has to verify, satisfy, and consider if these requirements are in place. It is remarkable the responsibility of the exporting state in analyzing the export from the point of view of the capabilities of the importing State to manage the sources with the purpose of use it has and even once it is not useful any more. This paper has the intention of bringing to reflect the responsibility of the exporting State in relation to those radioactive sources that are exported or are to be exported and have to fulfill with the

  20. Turkmenistan and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Bishku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkmenistan is a weak country militarily, but well-­endowed with natural gas reserves. While the latter also insulates it somewhat from international criticism of its human rights abuses, unfortunately, Turkmenistan is landlocked and dependent upon the goodwill of its neighbors in order to export that commodity. Additionally, Turkmenistan is in need of technological assistance. Given its relatively homogenous population and its hydrocarbon wealth it has adopted a policy of subsidizing certain necessities—though it underfunds other—and is fairly stable internally. Nevertheless, it is ruled under an autocratic political system, suffers massive corruption, and has to contend with fears of instability on its borders. Therefore, Turkmenistan has adopted a policy of permanent neutrality and is open to cooperation with all its neighbors as well as the big powers. The countries of the Middle East as both immediate and nearby neighbors play an important part in the international relations of Turkmenistan and in providing technological assistance and economic investments. This article, which reviews and analyzes those ties, utilizes government documents, academic works and newspapers from Turkmenistan and Middle Eastern countries.

  1. State planning policy 2/07: protection of extractive resources results in certainty of materials supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    Extractive resources are primary source materials used for building infrastructure such as roads, ports, airports, bridges, railways, factories, hospitals, schools and homes. The Policy seeks to protect those essential and finite construction materials for future and existing extraction purposes. Population increases in south-east Queensland the upgrading of rail and port facilities to export coal and other minerals will form a major part in the expansion of extractive industry. Over $4 billion has been committed by the Government and industry to coal infrastructure developments such as upgrades at RG Tanna, Barney Point and the proposed Wiggins Island coal terminals at Gladstone, the Dalryample Bay and Hay Point terminals near Mackay and the Abbot Point coal terminal near Bower. The new Bauhinia regional railway will service the Rolleston coal mines.

  2. The population policy of the Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Avdeev

    2017-01-01

    social and infrastructure complex. Self-organization processes occur independently from decisions, made in the power structures: shift method of organization of production becomes predominant for the areas with extreme climatic conditions, whereas the South of the Far East could become a foothold for ongoing family life for those who work in the North. Crucial issue of the regional demographic policy is the prospect of economic specialization: it is one thing when the rate is made on resource development and export of raw materials, and the other is industrial development, requiring highly qualified personnel, appropriate infrastructure, development of service industries, etc. Raising the level of migration attractiveness of territory applies to the investments, capital, not only to people. It is important to assess the severity of the demographic problems of the region, the critical state that does not allow you to make a mistake. Conclusion. Announcing Far East a priority for century, creating special conditions for business, population growth should be commensurate with the scale of the projects claimed, moreover, this growth must be faster, which is possible only through migration from the outside. In the coming decade efforts should be focused on the revitalization of the migratory processes, and ensure the growth of the population of the territory. 

  3. Political risk and export promotion: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Christoph; Nestmann, Thorsten; Wedow, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Political risk represents an important hidden transaction cost that reduces international trade. This paper investigates the claim that German public export credit guarantees (Hermes guarantees) mitigate this friction to trade flows and hence promote exports. We employ an empirical trade gravity model, where we explicitly control for political risk in the importing country in order to evaluate the effect of export guarantees. The idea behind export promotion through public export credit agenc...

  4. International Comparison of the Export Competitiveness of Chinese Honey

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lunjiao

    2009-01-01

    Honey production and trade in the world are introduced. Total output of honey shows an increasing trend while the output of Chinese honey always ranks the first in the world. China, Argentina, Mexico are the major exporters of honey. In the year 2006, honey exports of China, Argentina and Mexico occupy 49.9% of the world's total export volume. International competitiveness of the three honey export countries are calculated, compared and analyzed by adopting the indices such as export price, i...

  5. An Introduction to Export Assistance in the Internet Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Somasundaram; Rask, Morten

    2003-01-01

    's (2002) model about web marketing strategies for conceptualizing the Internet related developments associated with export assistance. Finally, we highlight the implications of providing export assistance over the Internet. Those interested in export assistance research and those providing export......Governments and other non-profit organizations have been providing information-oriented services for long to encourage exports. The primary targeted recipient of such services is Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME's). The effectiveness of such activities has been researched extensively until...

  6. An Introduction to Export Assistance in the Internet Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Somasundaram; Rask, Morten

    2004-01-01

    's (2002) model about web marketing strategies for conceptualizing the Internet related developments associated with export assistance. Finally, we highlight the implications of providing export assistance over the Internet. Those interested in export assistance research and those providing export......Governments and other non-profit organizations have been providing information-oriented services for long to encourage exports. The primary targeted recipient of such services is Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME's). The effectiveness of such activities has been researched extensively until...

  7. INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGIES: A CASE STUDY AT SMALL EXPORT COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Di Diego Antunes; Joysinett Moraes Silva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the main internationalization strategies used by small manufacturers of hammocks. Our findings show that these export companies have up to 20 employees and their main internationalization strategy is exportation. This plan is carried out in 3 ways: indirect exportation, through trading companies; direct exportation, through sales performed in the companies and cooperative exportation, through a network of dealers in greater companies. Its was also veri...

  8. Trading on the West's Strength: The Dilemmas of Transnational Higher Education in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Li-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Responding to the impacts of globalization and the knowledge economy, the increasing demand for higher education in East Asia is not only met by domestic higher education, but also by importing transnational higher education (TNHE). Importing TNHE becomes an export strategy to attract international students to contribute to capacity building for…

  9. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In East Africa, Nile perch fish processing into chilled fish fillet for export along Lake Victoria generate large proportions of both solid and liquid wastes. However, no thorough auditing and characterization of the waste has been done that would guide potential value addition through bioconversions and waste management.

  10. Danish wind power export and cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, H.; Hvelplund, F.; Alberg OEstergaard, P. (and others)

    2010-02-15

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both local resources and international market mechanisms. This is done in a way which makes it possible for our neighbouring countries to follow a similar path. Moreover, Denmark has a strategy to raise this share to 50 percent and the necessary measures are in the process of being implemented. Recently, a study made by the Danish think tank CEPOS claimed the opposite, i.e. that most of the Danish wind power has been exported in recent years. However, this claim is based on an incorrect interpretation of statistics and a lack of understanding of how the international electricity markets operate. Consequently, the results of the CEPOS study are in general not correct. Moreover, the CEPOS study claims that using wind turbines in Denmark is a very expensive way of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions and that this is the reason for the high energy taxes for private consumers in Denmark. These claims are also misleading. The cost of CO{sub 2} reduction by use of wind power in the period 2004-2008 was only 20 EUR/ton. Furthermore, the Danish wind turbines are not paid for by energy taxes. Danish wind turbines are given a subsidy via the electricity price which is paid by the electricity consumers. In the recent years of 2004-2008, such subsidy has increased consumer prices by 0.54 EURO/kWh on average. On the other hand, however, the same electricity consumers also benefitted from the wind

  11. JPRS Report, East Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: East Europe, Party Activities, Socialist Party, Freedom Fighters, Education, Youth Training, Historian, Death Penalty, Peace Making Duties, Socialism, Communism, Economics, Restructuring...

  12. Export diversification in Uganda : developments in non-traditional agricultural exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last two decades agricultural export diversification has been pushed as an economic development strategy for sub-Saharan Africa. This paper looks at Uganda, where nontraditional agricultural export commodities have been (re)-introduced since Museveni came to power in 1986. The most

  13. 75 FR 52929 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    .... ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss... how to promote U.S. exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: September 16, 2010 at 9:30 a.m. (EDT). ADDRESSES... trade and report to the President on its activities and on its recommendations for expanding U.S...

  14. 78 FR 12719 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... deliberate on recommendations related to promoting the expansion of U.S. exports. Topics may include the Administration's ``Doing Business in Africa'' campaign, the need for nominations to the U.S. Export- Import Bank.../pec ) without change, including any business or personal information provided such as names, addresses...

  15. 75 FR 54857 - President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of Private-Sector Members; Date Extension Summary: The... Subcommittee will not be compensated for their services. The PECSEA is seeking private-sector members with...

  16. Notice to exporters on products prohibited from export (nuclear material, equipment and large nuclear units)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In order to ensure that the policy to avoid the proliferation of nuclear weapons is complied with, the French Administration applies stricter controls over the export of certain sensitive products, materials and equipment. To this effect, lists of such products, materials and equipment are published in the form of Notices to exporters and periodically revised. This Notice repeals and replaces the previous Notice published in the Official Gazette of 21 January 1986. Annex I contains the list of materials whose export is subject to nuclear non-proliferation controls. Annex II lists the equipment whose export is subject to the same controls. Annex III includes the list of large nuclear units for which an application for prior approval of export must be submitted to the Administrations concerned. (NEA) [fr

  17. Superstar Exporters: An Empirical Investigation of Strategic Interactions in Danish Export Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciliberto, Federico; Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    , product and destination. We also obtain detailed information on applied, preferential tariff protection from the MAcMap-HS6 database. We find evidence of strong negative competitive effects of entry: in the absence of strategic competitive effects, firms would be 54.3 percentage points more likely...... to export to a given market. Next, we run two counterfactual exercises. We show that failing to account for the strategic interaction among superstar exporters leads to: (i) overstating the probability that firms would start exporting to a market following tariff elimination by 8 percentage points; and, (ii......) overstating the probability that firms would stop exporting to a market if tariffs were imposed by 7.5 percentage points. We also show that competitive effects vary across export markets and competitors. This heterogeneity in the competitive effects implies that there exist multiple equilibria, both...

  18. Quebec-USA electricity export contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.-F.

    1993-06-01

    Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec to utilities in the USA significantly affects the economy and environment of Quebec. These exports may be arranged under interconnection agreements to sell excess capacity and production during off-peak periods or under firm sales contracts. Hydro-Quebec exports could also replace power plants that would otherwise be needed in the USA. The economic environment for Hydro-Quebec exports to the USA is reviewed along with the regulatory environment applicable to international trade (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement), Quebec (Canadian federal and provincial law), and the USA (federal and state law). A jurisdictional analysis of power export contracts is then presented, citing examples of contracts already signed by Hydro-Quebec with utilities in New York and New England. Contract law and contract provisions are discussed, including common clauses and particular clauses. Suggestions are made for new clauses that would improve the electricity trade. 215 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Final argument on regulation of electricity exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Ontario Hydro addresses the request of the National Energy Board review that parties comment on the broader question of the need for federal regulation in electricity exports and the objectives which underlie the view expressed. Electricity exports benefit Canadian sellers and U.S. purchasers as well the Canadian economy in general. There is a clear consensus that these benefits exist and should be realized, but the evidence indicates that there is no consensus on how the benefits can best be distributed within Canada. The divergent views expressed by interested parties from across Canada clearly demonstrate the complexity associated with determining the overall Canadian interest and that there is a need for a balancing of these interests by a federal body. The regulation of electricity exports is clearly a matter of international commerce and Ontario Hydro submitted that the Constitution Act deems the province incompetent to regulate the export of electricity from Canada. Ontario Hydro submitted that a federal body is required in the regulation of electricity exports to protect the broader Canadian interest.

  20. Resource area environment/energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The document comprises a detailed analysis of the business economics of resources related to energy and the environment. Non-domestic and domestic conditions influencing the business economics of this subject area, its infrastructure, problems and future perspectives are dealt with. Tables (amongst other forms of information) indicate the turnover, exports, and numbers of involved employees, workplaces and firms involved in supply, general production, consultancy and production connected with the building sector. The energy sector is the most significant in this respect, giving 30,000 employed (18% in state institutions), a turnover of 63 billion Danish kroner, and with an export of 16 billion Danish kroner. The environmental sector employs 15,000 (29% in the public sector), the total turnover is 20 billion Danish kroner and of this 3 billion Danish kroner is related to export. Many firms are relatively small. A number of firms could compete internationally and this number is growing. (AB) (79 refs.)

  1. African Muslim Youth and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Annette Haaber

    this African tradition of religious scholarship in the Middle East. The paper will, with the help of Pierre Bourdieu's notion of forms of capital related to various fields, analyse the challenges which Muslim students encounter during their stay in the Middle East and the forms of capital they bring back......, marked by economic decline and political instability. In Africa a weak or even failed state often means that young people have in reality no access to political, educational or economic positions and resources. In some countries like Nigeria, Ghana and the Ivory Coast the marginalisation of the youth...

  2. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Medical Journal is intended for publication of papers on ... research on problems relevant to East Africa and other African countries will receive special ... Analysis of survival patterns of TB‐HIV co‐infected patients in relation to ...

  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  4. Middle East - future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lior, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Facts concerning the basic features of Tlatelolco Treaty are discussed in comparison with the Middle East situation which is described as a special case. Countries in the Middle East should attain political, social and ideological maturity necessary for the adoption of negotiating strategies suitable for this particular region

  5. Export competitiveness of pakistani horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, W.; Akmal, N.; Shah, H.; Tahir, A.; Niazi, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Pakistan's competitiveness in export of selected horticulture commodities by employing set of revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and revealed competitive advantage indices with respect to global trade. Results demonstrate that Pakistan has comparative and competitive advantage over the period under analysis and indicates a transition from comparative and competitive disadvantage to comparative and competitive advantage during the period under analysis. Tangerines, mandarins, clem have maintained relatively higher revealed comparative advantage as compared to other categories for the whole period under analysis. Onion export has revealed comparative advantage with some fluctuations over time. The research indicates that Pakistan's comparative and competitive advantages have been increasing in all the selected commodities during period under analysis which indicates the potential of horticulture exports for foreign exchange earnings. There is need to strengthen comparative and competitive advantage in horticulture sector by policy support and facilitating role by all stakeholders. (author)

  6. Exporting by Migrants and Indigenous Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece

    2016-01-01

    Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may......, however, be contingent on attributes such as gender and education, especially among the first generation of migrants, in that being male and educated is more advantageous for migrants than for indigenous entrepreneurs. A representative sample of 50,371 entrepreneurs establishing or operating enterprises...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...

  7. Export and import. Conformity with regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, M.

    1976-01-01

    Since the division of the former US Atomic Energy Commission's tasks, the regulation and control of import and export of nuclear materials and equipment has become the responsability of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The import and export of nuclear fuels, equipment and reactors are therefore subject to prior licensing by the Commission. This requirement aims to guarantee that such activities will not create serious hazards for defense and national safety, and that the exported products will not be diverted from their peaceful uses. The relevant applicable legal provisions are based on the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and on the detailed regulations issued by the Commission. Under the pressure of public opinion, there is a current tendency to restrict these activities because of the hazards they present, in particular during transport, until the Commission has completed all the necessary studies. (NEA) [fr

  8. German nuclear fuel exports and imports 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Safety of imports and exports of nuclear fuels and source materials in 1991 show a major drop by 33.8% in imports and a pronounced rise by 191.5% in exports, compared to the levels in the previous year. Source material for the purposes of these statistics refers only to uranium concentrate. Quantitatively, the biggest import items are source materials, depleted uranium, and uranium enriched up to 3%. Exports of unirradiated material quantitatively comprise mainly depleted uranium, source material, and uranium enriched up to 10%. (orig.) [de

  9. New U.S. nuclear export legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patermann, C.

    1978-01-01

    The new 1978 Export Control Act of the United States of America introduces a comprehensive arrangement of the criteria, responsibilities and procedures associated with nuclear exports, especially under the nonproliferation aspect. After a detailed analysis of the multitude of provisions it must be feared that, merely as a result of the high degree of formalization, bureaucratization and politicalization of these procedures, the U.S. can henceforth no longer be regarded as a reliable source of nuclear materials and facilities. An aspect received abroad with particular anguish is the fact that this unilateral aggravation of export controls was initiated after the start of the two-year INFCE program for international fuel cycle evaluation and that the new legislation forces the American government to renegotiate existing agreements on cooperation with the receiver countries under the threat of a delivery stop. (orig.) [de

  10. Should Australia mine and export uranium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, M.; Broadbent, Steve.

    1989-01-01

    In this chapter, the case for and against the mining and export of Australian uranium is discussed. For those in favour of uranium export, the nuclear energy, a source of energy which could bring a much needed boost to Australian export and employment, is being stifled by specious 'scare tactics' about the danger and misuse of uranium. It is also shown that uranium is the only feasible energy source, being cheaper, safer and cleaner when compared with other energy sources. Meanwhile, the opponents of nuclear energy, argue that uranium mining is environmentally destructive, is a danger to workers and residents health, it is bad for economy and it provides raw materials for nuclear weapons. 2 tabs

  11. Direct Evidence on Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Belderbos, Rene

    2014-01-01

    learning and export learning – an issue that has been ignored in prior studies. Learning from foreign customers is more prevalent than learning from foreign competitors. Firms’ underlying innovation strategy appears as an important moderator of the propensity to learn and of the relationship between......We examine first direct evidence on the occurrence of learning by exporting, using unique survey data for German innovating firms on the role of (foreign) customers and competitors as sources of ideas and impetus for innovation. Export intensive firms frequently benefit simultaneously from domestic...... learning and innovativeness. Firms adopting a strategy of technology leadership more often exhibit effective learning from diverse foreign customers and this learning is strongly associated with innovative sales – but mostly so if combined with domestic customer learning. In contrast, firms that have...

  12. British Columbia's untapped wind export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed wind energy developments in British Columbia (BC). There are currently more than 5000 MW of wind power development activities in British Columbia, but only 325 MW of wind power purchase agreements (PPAs). Various renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas (GHG) initiatives are now being use to create demand for additional renewable energy development in the northwestern United States. Studies have demonstrated that BC wind export initiatives have the potential to deliver wind power to markets in the Pacific northwest. Canadian transmission export proposals are now examining methods of bringing renewable energy to areas with high load demands. However, the United States has more than 240,000 MW of proposed wind projects for key markets in the northwestern region. It was concluded that activities in United States wind development are now posing a challenge to Canadian wind energy exporters. Various transmission projects in the United States are now looking at developing renewable energy sources close to BC. tabs., figs

  13. Multiple Export Mechanisms for mRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaleau, Mildred; Borden, Katherine L. B.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear mRNA export plays an important role in gene expression. We describe the mechanisms of mRNA export including the importance of mRNP assembly, docking with the nuclear basket of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), transit through the central channel of the NPC and cytoplasmic release. We describe multiple mechanisms of mRNA export including NXF1 and CRM1 mediated pathways. Selective groups of mRNAs can be preferentially transported in order to respond to cellular stimuli. RNAs can be selected based on the presence of specific cis-acting RNA elements and binding of specific adaptor proteins. The role that dysregulation of this process plays in human disease is also discussed. PMID:26343730

  14. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak; Vang, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship suggest that migrant entrepreneur plays an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature. This paper aims to reduce this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from...... the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalisation of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different...

  15. Energy efficiency and exporting: Evidence from firm-level data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Jayjit; Yasar, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    While exporting firms and non-exporters have been compared across several dimensions, empirical comparisons on the basis of environmental performance are relatively few. Moreover, analyzing the environmental implications of firm-level exports is not trivial due to non-random selection into exporting. In this light, we examine the impact of exporting on firms' energy efficiency by resorting to an instrumental variables strategy based on a differencing approach (Pitt and Rosenzweig, 1990). Utilizing data from Indonesia, we find (i) exporting to reduce the use of fuels (relative to electricity) and (ii) concerns over endogeneity of exporting status to be relevant. - Highlights: • We examine the impact of exporting on firms' energy efficiency. • We employ cost share equations, firm-level data from Indonesia, and an instrumental variables strategy. • Exporting is found to reduce the use of fuels (relative to electricity).

  16. Decadal and seasonal trends of nutrient concentration and export from highly managed coastal catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Wan, Lei; Li, Yuncong; Doering, Peter

    2017-05-15

    Understanding anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentrations and export from highly managed catchments often necessitates trend detection using long-term monitoring data. This study analyzed the temporal trend (1979-2014) of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and export from four adjacent coastal basins in south Florida where land and water resources are highly managed through an intricate canal network. The method of integrated seasonal-trend decomposition using LOESS (LOcally weighted regrESSion) was employed for trend detection. The results indicated that long-term trends in TN and TP concentrations (increasing/decreasing) varied with basins and nutrient species, reflecting the influence of basin specific land and water management practices. These long-term trends were intervened by short-term highs driven by high rainfall and discharges and lows associated with regional droughts. Seasonal variations in TP were more apparent than for TN. Nutrient export exhibited a chemostatic behavior for TN from all the basins, largely due to the biogenic nature of organic N associated with the ubiquity of organic materials in the managed canal network. Varying degrees of chemodynamic export was present for TP, reflecting complex biogeochemical responses to the legacy of long-term fertilization, low soil P holding capacity, and intensive stormwater management. The anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentration and export behavior had great implications in nutrient loading abatement strategies for aquatic ecosystem restoration of the downstream receiving waterbody. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  18. US coal industry seeks export markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    Problems encountered in the expansion of the USA export market for coal are discussed, including: lack of port facilities to handle bulk coal shipments; inadequate rail facilities and the already high costs; and delays caused by complex legislation. Solutions to the problem of ports are suggested, and also the advantages of coal export expansion with respect to industry as a whole and unemployment. Details of projects on the Canton Railroad and the terminal in Baltimore are given. Views of the American Association of Port Authorities on navigation are expressed.

  19. ANALYSIS OF CHINESE GARMENT EXPORT SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mina

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Chinese garment export sector. The Chinese garment industry has been an economic pillar ever since the open-door policy and economic reforms of the country took effect in 1979. Earnings from apparel exports have been a major source of foreign revenue. The industry has thus developed and played a vital role in the growth of China?s foreign trade and economic development although some signs of slackened vigour have been revealed recently. To assess the threats and opport...

  20. Multinational retailers and home country food exports

    OpenAIRE

    Cheptea, Angela; Latouche, Karine; Emlinger, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This article questions whether food exports to a given national market are impacted by a domestic retailer opening in that market. To answer this question, we considered an empirical gravity-type trade model. We tested our model with data on bilateral exports of food products sold in supermarkets (groceries) on a large panel of countries, as well as the foreign grocery sales of the world’s 100 largest retail companies from 2001–2010. We found a strong positive effect of the overseas presence ...

  1. Export policy and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.A.V.

    1978-01-01

    Developing countries with a nuclear programme are about a dozen according to information obtained by IAEA. They are a group hostile to any restriction imposed on nuclear technology export and consider that such restriction is contrary to the global concept of North/South co-operation which provides for transfer of advanced technology. In particular, they object to the fact that nuclear weapon states make use of Article 4 of the NPT. Industrialised countries are required to keep a balance between a regular and stable supply system and the assurance that exported nuclear installations and materials are placed under international control according to the IAEA Safeguards. (NEA) [fr

  2. Balance of Payments of East Asian Countries: Impact of the Coordinated Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the equilibrium state of balance of payments of East Asian countries by means of the monetary policy instruments. For this purpose the author determines the value of the equilibrium exchange rate of AMU (Asian Monetary Unit against the U.S. dollar. The equilibrium exchange rate is the one that smoothes values of net merchandise exports and net capital exports. The author employs panel data regression analysis (using statistics of trade and capital (foreign direct investment flows between East Asian countries and the United States to obtain quantitative estimation of trade and investment effects of the coordinated monetary policy. The paper shows that transition of East Asian region (China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines and Thailand to the single currency (AMU will have a negative effect on the balance of payments of the studied countries: this will increase the mismatch between commodity and capital flows

  3. Canada's conventional natural gas resources : a status report : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada as well as the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. Energy market assessment reports examine different facets of the Canadian energy market and include long term-assessments of Canada's supply and demand as well as near-term energy market issues. This report examines the geological potential for conventional natural gas resources. An estimate of those resources for Canada was also presented. The main objective of the report is to set the groundwork for future partnerships between provincial, territorial and federal agencies. The size of Alberta's conventional natural gas resources is being examined in partnership with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). The ultimate potential for conventional natural gas in British Columbia is being assessed by the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines. The Board's internal assessment for 2004 has revealed an estimate of 207 trillion cubic feet for the ultimate of conventional natural gas in Alberta. This estimate is higher than the estimate provided by the Canadian Gas Potential Committee in 2001 and higher than the 1992 assessment of the EUB. It was noted that most undiscovered resources in Alberta will be found in the shallow Cretaceous zones, not in deep Devonian zones. The Board also revised its estimate for the Mackenzie Delta-Beaufort Sea region and the East Newfoundland Basin. The current estimate for ultimate potential of conventional natural gas in Canada is 501 trillion cubic feet, with the following distribution of the resources by basin: Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (54.5 per cent), Northern Canada (23.1 per cent), East Coast (18.3 per cent), West Coast (3.4 per cent), Ontario (0.5 per cent), and Gulf of St. Lawrence (0.3 per cent). 39 refs., 7 tabs., 13 figs

  4. River export of triclosan from land to sea: A global modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijnen, Jikke; Ragas, Ad M J; Kroeze, Carolien

    2018-04-15

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial agent that is added to commonly used personal care products. Emitted to the aquatic environment in large quantities, it poses a potential threat to aquatic organisms. Triclosan enters the aquatic environment mainly through sewage effluent. We developed a global, spatially explicit model, the Global TCS model, to simulate triclosan transport by rivers to coastal areas. With this model we analysed annual, basin-wide triclosan export for the year 2000 and two future scenarios for the year 2050. Our analyses for 2000 indicate that triclosan export to coastal areas in Western Europe, Southeast Asia and the East Coast of the USA is higher than in the rest of the world. For future scenarios, the Global TCS model predicts an increase in river export of triclosan in Southeast Asia and a small decrease in Europe. The number of rivers with an annual average triclosan concentration at the river mouth that exceeds a PNEC of 26.2ng/L is projected to double between 2000 and 2050. This increase is most prominent in Southeast Asia, as a result of fast population growth, increasing urbanisation and increasing numbers of people connected to sewerage systems with poor wastewater treatment. Predicted triclosan loads correspond reasonably well with measured values. However, basin-specific predictions have considerable uncertainty due to lacking knowledge and location-specific data on the processes determining the fate of triclosan in river water, e.g. sorption, degradation and sedimentation. Additional research on the fate of triclosan in river systems is therefore recommended. We developed a global spatially explicit model to simulate triclosan export by rivers to coastal seas. For two future scenarios this Global TCS model projects an increase in river export of triclosan to several seas around the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lifting the US crude oil export ban: A numerical partial equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Lissy; Huppmann, Daniel; Holz, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    The upheaval in global crude oil markets and the boom in shale oil production in North America brought scrutiny on the US export ban for crude oil from 1975. The ban was eventually lifted in early 2016. This paper examines the shifts of global trade flows and strategic refinery investments in a spatial, game-theoretic partial equilibrium model. We consider detailed oil supply chain infrastructure with multiple crude oil types, distinct oil products, as well as specific refinery configurations and modes of transport. Prices, quantities produced and consumed, as well as infrastructure and refining capacity investments are endogenous to the model. We compare two scenarios: an insulated US crude oil market, and a counter-factual with lifted export restrictions. We find a significant expansion of US sweet crude exports with the lift of the export ban. In the US refinery sector, more (imported) heavy sour crude is transformed. Countries importing US sweet crude gain from higher product output, while avoiding costly refinery investments. Producers of heavy sour crude (e.g. the Middle East) are incentivised to climb up the value chain to defend their market share and maintain their dominant position. - Highlights: • We study the impacts of lifting the US crude ban on global oil flows and investments. • We find massive expansion of US sweet crude oil exports. • We analyze the resulting welfare effects for US producers, refiners and consumers. • We indicate the changes on global trade patterns. • We conclude that lifting the ban is the right policy for the US and the global economy.

  6. UK resource base assessment of organisations and capabilities in the biomass sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    British Biogen is the trade association for the UK's emerging biomass industry. It has been recognised that the biomass industry has considerable export potential due to its immense scale potential overseas, and there is an accompanying need for an export development strategy for the industry. The report contains a detailed analysis of a selection of UK companies and organisations, with regard to their export capabilities, thus providing an essential pre-requisite to developing the export strategy. The fundamental aim of the study is to assess the nature, scale and current capabilities of the UK biomass industry resource base and, in turn, to determine its potential to service export markets. (author)

  7. The effect of oil revenues instability on the oil-based and labor-exporting economies: The case of the Arab region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Abbasi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The changes in the trend of the oil-export earnings in the oil-based economics not only affected the growth of the domestic economics not only affected the growth of the domestic economies but influenced the economic activities in the neighboring labor-exporting economies. This study investigates and tests the hypothesis that uncertainty associated with fluctuations in oil-export earnings affect adversely the economic growth in the oil-based economies of the Middle East. In addition, it seeks to examine the hypothesis that the impact of such fluctuations has been transmitted to the neighboring labor-exporting economies, during the period 1970-1986. Results show that oil-export instability does indeed create a wave of fluctuations in the domestic economic activity of the oil-based economies through the negative effect on investment, government spending, and domestic output. For the labor-exporting economies, results suggest that the flow of workers' remittances have had a positive impact on investment and income growth. Results also indicate that the rate of economic growth in the oil-based economies sets a broad limit on the range of feasible growth in the labor-exporting economies

  8. Energy and power source mix in East Asia. Restrictions on resource, fund and environment and the future prospect; Higashi Asia no energy dengen mix. Shigen shikin kankyo no seiyaku to kongo no tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    In Asian countries, the economic growth rate is extremely higher as compared with the world average, and accordingly a large growth in energy supply/demand and electric power supply/demand is paid attention to. Besides, at users` side, a fear is the worsening of the environmental problem which is brought about by a rapid increase in energy consumption. At suppliers` side, introduction/expansion of a large amount of foreign funds for rapid promotion of power source development become necessary so that supplying facilities catch up with the growth in demand. Moreover, dependence of the supply upon outside the area is becoming higher, and problems in safety guarantee are also becoming prominent. As for energy/power source mix in East Asian countries, the stable supply is basically considered as most important, and economical efficiency is also important including competition conditions among energies and potential raising of investment in supplying facilities. It is no exaggeration to say that the increase in the rate of coal which occupies most of the primary energy supply/power source in East Asian countries depends upon the progress of environmental harmony technology such as clean coal technology. 39 figs., 132 tabs.

  9. 78 FR 58995 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... computers from the United States to Iran in violation of the embargo imposed upon that country by the United... submission from Kazerani. Based upon my review and consultations with BIS's Office of Export Enforcement... at the time of his conviction. Accordingly, it is hereby Ordered I. Until January 30, 2018, Iman...

  10. Human capital and wages in exporting firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the link between the education level of workers, export performance and wages. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results. Using...

  11. Know-how and nuclear exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxo, A.

    1978-01-01

    The concrete content of nuclear know-how is defined, and the present position as to the exchange of know-how is discussed. The new forms which may be taken by this know-how are considered and the results which may be expected from a know-how transfer (both for the exporting and the importing countries) are related [fr

  12. France intends to raise electricity exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotelueschen, M.; Boiteux.

    1986-01-01

    In this interview with the Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Electricite de France (EdF), the promotion of nuclear power in France, the chances on the export sector, and the structure of electric power supply are discussed and compared with the situation in West Germany. (UA) [de

  13. Subcellular sites for bacterial protein export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campo, Nathalie; Tjalsma, Harold; Buist, Girbe; Stepniak, Dariusz; Meijer, Michel; Veenhuis, Marten; Westermann, Martin; Müller, Jörg P.; Bron, Sierd; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Jongbloed, Jan D.H.

    2004-01-01

    Most bacterial proteins destined to leave the cytoplasm are exported to extracellular compartments or imported into the cytoplasmic membrane via the highly conserved SecA-YEG pathway. In the present studies, the subcellular distributions of core components of this pathway, SecA and SecY, and of the

  14. Subcellular sites for bacterial protein export.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campo, N.; Tjalsma, H.; Buist, G.; Stepniak, D.; Meijer, M.; Veenhuis, M.; Westermann, M.; Muller, J.P.; Bron, S.; Kok, J.; Kuipers, O.P.; Jongbloed, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Most bacterial proteins destined to leave the cytoplasm are exported to extracellular compartments or imported into the cytoplasmic membrane via the highly conserved SecA-YEG pathway. In the present studies, the subcellular distributions of core components of this pathway, SecA and SecY, and of the

  15. Exporting vector muscles for facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, T.D.; Butz, Andreas; Kruger, Antonio; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Olivier, Patrick; Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a method of exporting vector muscles from one 3D face to another for facial animation. Starting from a 3D face with an extended version of Waters’ linear muscle system, we transfer the linear muscles to a target 3D face.We also transfer the region division, which is used

  16. Extensive Margins of Offshoring and Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    This paper derives new comparative statics within a two-country version of the recent offshoring model by Antràs, Fort, and Tintelnot (2014) with nonprohibitive costs of exporting final goods. One key finding is that an asymmetric trade liberalisation might very well imply that the fractions of o...

  17. 19 CFR 351.514 - Export subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export subsidies. 351.514 Section 351.514 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES... government, a benefit does not exist if the Secretary determines that the activities consist of general...

  18. Learning by Exporting, Importing or Both?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Valérie; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we analyze the relationship between exporting/importing status and firm productivity. We use a rich product-firm-level dataset providing both revenue and quantities of all products for a large panel of Danish manufacturing firms over the period 1998-2005 and link it to another...

  19. 77 FR 27418 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the..., Baniameri may file an appeal of this Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security... (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706); 18 U.S.C. 793, 794 or 798; section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950...

  20. Second Thoughts on the Exporter Productivity Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    and empirical representations of firm productivity. Instead of marginal productivity we examine in both models the theoretical equivalent of empirically observable productivity (value-added per employee). Given the presence of fixed export costs or heterogeneous mark-ups and trade costs, the observable...

  1. 19 CFR 10.430 - Export requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Chile customs authority for that purpose) to CBP upon request. (b) Notification of errors in... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export requirements. 10.430 Section 10.430 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  2. Membrane trafficking: ER export encounters dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlowe, Charles

    2015-02-16

    Cytoplasmic coat protein complexes perform central roles in sorting protein constituents within the endomembrane system. A new study reveals that the COPII coat operates through dual recognition of signals in a sorting receptor and its bound cargo to promote efficient export from the endoplasmic reticulum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. DOE/solar export opportunities workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-04-01

    The workshop was conducted to bring together persons from government agencies and the US solar industry to initiate dialogue needed to create and implement programs facilitating the export of US solar technology, hardware, and services. A separate abstract was prepared for 23 individual presentations, all of which will appear in Energy Research abstracts (ERA) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  4. Exporting apocalypse: CANDU reactors and nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Paul.

    The author believes that the peaceful use of nuclear technology leads inevitably to the production of nuclear weapons, and that CANDU reactors are being bought by countries that are likely to build bombs. He states that exports of reactors and nuclear materials cannot be defended and must be stopped

  5. California-Mexico gas exports eyed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that two California utilities have proposed providing natural gas transportation services to Mexico. The arrangement would provide a second U.S. export sales point at the U.S.-Mexico border and perhaps help alleviate an expected surplus of gas pipeline capacity available to California. Mexico currently imports about 200 MMcfd of U.S. gas via pipelines in Texas

  6. 77 FR 37823 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... information than the public on future prices and grain trade trends. Prior to the establishment of the export... wheat and wheat flour, feed grains, oil seeds, cotton, pork, beef and products thereof, and other.... market conditions. More recently the Mandatory Price Reporting Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-239) mandates...

  7. The Emergence of an Export Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2018-01-01

    Malaysia and Indonesia account for 90 percent of global exports of palm oil, forming one of the largest agricultural clusters in the world. This article uses archival sources to trace how this cluster emerged from the rubber business in the era of British and Dutch colonialism. Specifically...

  8. Export Processing Zones and Global Class Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neveling, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with one of the most striking developments in the global political economy of capitalism after the Second World War; the rise of export processing zones and special economic zones. Building on long-term ethnohistorical research on the zones’ global spread from one zone in

  9. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-10

    the law on demonopolizing, Igloopol has grabbed the meat market in our voivodship, leaving our butchers frozen goods, leftovers without shoulders... poultry meat products, so-called health foods permitted for export to EWG [European Common Mar- ket] countries. As evident, the regulations will

  10. Opening Up Natural Resource Based Industries for Innovation (LAC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Opening Up Natural Resource Based Industries for Innovation (LAC). Commodities based on natural resources account for at least half of the exports of two-thirds of the countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). There is growing concern, however, that existing natural resource-based industries are ...

  11. Trade and energy consumption in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 30 years many economies have experienced large increases in economic trade, income and energy consumption. This brings up an interesting question. How do increases in trade affect energy consumption? This study uses panel cointegration data estimation techniques to examine the impact of trade on energy consumption in a sample of 8 Middle Eastern countries covering the period 1980 to 2007. Short-run dynamics show Granger causality from exports to energy consumption, and a bi-directional feedback relationship between imports and energy consumption. Long run elasticities estimated from FMOLS show that a 1% increase in per capita exports increases per capita energy consumption by 0.11% while a one percent increase in per capita imports increases per capita energy consumption by 0.04%. These results are important in establishing that increased trade affects energy demand in the Middle East in both the short and long-run. This has implications for energy policy and environmental policy. - Research Highlights: → Trade affects energy consumption in Middle Eastern economies. → Short-run causality runs from exports to energy consumption. → There is a short-run feedback relationship between energy consumption and imports. → In the long-run a 1% increase in per capita exports increases per capita energy consumption by 0.11%. → In the long-run a 1% increase in per capita imports increases per capita energy consumption by 0.04%.

  12. Challenges to nuclear export controls today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, R.; Sevini, F.; Janssens, W.; Michel, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear energy and nuclear proliferation programs are potentially inter-twinned, which is a point to be taken into account when analysing the development of civil nuclear energy, both domestically and as foreign investment. International agreements ensure that the adhering countries fulfil their obligations and do not abuse civil nuclear programs for the production of nuclear weapons. Uranium enrichment is the process currently most focused on in this respect by recent news and recent technological and commercial developments. But also the so-called reactor-based pathway, with extraction of plutonium from spent nuclear fuel by reprocessing remains in the spotlight of inspectors. Two of the main and complementary pillars on which the prevention of such diversion relies, are Strategic Export Control and International Safeguards. Strategic export control is a key barrier against nuclear proliferation. In many countries including the EU, it is set by a legal framework, envisaging implementation, enforcement and prosecution. The goods that can exported only with authorisations are those identified by the international export control regimes; primarily the Nuclear Suppliers Group in the case of nuclear items. It is complemented by nuclear safeguards measures, and especially in the past few years, by the IAEA State Level concept, which looks at the overall country's potential, including its industrial structure to derive conclusions on the absence of undeclared activities. However, the strict control of goods and knowledge is a moving target, since technological developments, globalisation and the intensifying exchange of information via the worldwide web offer increasing opportunities to proliferators to acquire sensitive items and competencies, and create bigger challenges to enforcement, calling for new responses. Research and development programmes must be directed towards supporting the adaptation of current proliferation containment systems to these new

  13. 77 FR 37523 - Proposed Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Implementation of Export Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ...), respectively, that would implement various aspects of what has become known as the Export Control Reform... spirit and substance. BIS issued a notice soliciting public comment on streamlining its regulations...

  14. 77 FR 22191 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ..., Director, Office of National Security and Technology Transfer Controls, by phone at (202) 482-0092 or by... Administrative practice and procedure, Exports, Inventions and patents, Research science and technology. 15 CFR...

  15. EXPORT CONTROLS: Change in Export Licensing Jurisdiction for Two Sensitive Dual-Use Items

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spencer, F

    1997-01-01

    This report examines the jurisdiction shift of two items, previously controlled by the State Department to the Department of Commerce, and the implications of this change to export licensing jurisdiction...

  16. 76 FR 15294 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export licensing; advertising; documentation and services related to compliance with customs requirements; insurance and financing; trade show exhibitions; organizational development; management and labor strategies...

  17. 75 FR 35441 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ...; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export licensing; advertising; documentation and services related to compliance with customs... strategies; transfer of technology; transportation services; and facilitating the formation of shippers...

  18. 75 FR 44760 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export licensing; advertising; documentation and services related to compliance with customs requirements; insurance and financing; trade show exhibitions; organizational development; management and labor strategies...

  19. 75 FR 80456 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export licensing; advertising; documentation and services related to compliance with customs... strategies; licensing of technology; transportation; and facilitating the formation of products and services...

  20. Growth And Export Expansion In Mauritius - A Time Series Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth And Export Expansion In Mauritius - A Time Series Analysis. ... RV Sannassee, R Pearce ... Using Granger Causality tests, the short-run analysis results revealed that there is significant reciprocal causality between real export earnings ...