WorldWideScience

Sample records for east pacific ocean

  1. Fin whale vocalizations observed with ocean bottom seismometers of cabled observatories off east Japan Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Ryoichi

    2015-07-01

    Fin whale vocalizations were found in the archived waveform data from both hydrophones and ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) of a cabled observatory off Kushiro-Tokachi in Hokkaido. A fin whale was localized on the basis of the incident orientation estimated with a single OBS and the time difference of multipath arrival of sound pressure data from a hydrophone. Furthermore, several fin whale vocalizations were found in the archived OBS waveform data from other cabled observatories off east Japan Pacific Ocean. These findings suggest that the cabled OBSs would be significant apparatuses for real-time monitoring of the presence of baleen whales around Japan.

  2. Predicting East African spring droughts using Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Funk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In southern Ethiopia, Eastern Kenya, and southern Somalia, poor boreal spring rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers implement disaster risk reduction measures while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent droughts in that region to a stronger Walker Circulation, warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, and an increased western Pacific sea surface temperature (SST gradient, we show that the two dominant modes of East African boreal spring rainfall variability are tied, respectively, to western-central Pacific and central Indian Ocean SST. Variations in these rainfall modes can be predicted using two previously defined SST indices – the West Pacific Gradient (WPG and Central Indian Ocean index (CIO, with the WPG and CIO being used, respectively, to predict the first and second rainfall modes. These simple indices can be used in concert with more sophisticated coupled modeling systems and land surface data assimilations to help inform early warning and guide climate outlooks.

  3. Recent Progresses in Impacts of Indo-Western Pacific Ocean on East Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Some progresses in impacts of Western Pacific Ocean (WPO) on East Asian monsoon and stratosphere climate are reviewed from the following aspects. (1) Impact of the IPOD (a cross-basin dipole pattern of SSTA variability between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean) on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM).The IPOD exhibits a considerable correlation with the EASM. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (2) TheIndo-Western Pacific convection oscillation (IPCO),which is an out-of-phase fluctuation in convection anomalies between the north Indian Ocean and the western North Pacific region,is closely related to the EASM.Negative IPCO phases, which exhibit an enhanced convection over the north Indian Ocean and a suppressed convection over the western North Pacific, favor a weakened EASM and an increase of summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley with the joint actions of the stronger than normal Ural and Okhotsk blocking highs and the subtropical western Pacific high, and vice versa.(3) Asymmetric influence of the two types of ENSO on summer rainfall in China. The two types of ENSO have asymmetric impacts on summer rainfall over the Yangtze River Valley. The relation between summer rainfall over this valley and the cold tongue (CT) El Niño is significantly positive, while the relation with the CT La Niña is not significant. The negative phase of the warm pool (WP) ENSO has a significant positive influence, whereas no significant relation with the positive phase. They indicated that this asymmetric response of the EASM is likely to be linked to the different spatial patterns of the two types of ENSO.(4) Linkage between recent winter precipitation increase in the middle-lower Yangtze River valley (MLY) since the late 1970s andwarming in the

  4. Groups without cultured representatives dominate eukaryotic picophytoplankton in the oligotrophic South East Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPE with a cell size less than 3 microm play a critical role in oceanic primary production. In recent years, the composition of marine picoeukaryote communities has been intensively investigated by molecular approaches, but their photosynthetic fraction remains poorly characterized. This is largely because the classical approach that relies on constructing 18S rRNA gene clone libraries from filtered seawater samples using universal eukaryotic primers is heavily biased toward heterotrophs, especially alveolates and stramenopiles, despite the fact that autotrophic cells in general outnumber heterotrophic ones in the euphotic zone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to better assess the composition of the eukaryotic picophytoplankton in the South East Pacific Ocean, encompassing the most oligotrophic oceanic regions on earth, we used a novel approach based on flow cytometry sorting followed by construction of 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. This strategy dramatically increased the recovery of sequences from putative autotrophic groups. The composition of the PPE community appeared highly variable both vertically down the water column and horizontally across the South East Pacific Ocean. In the central gyre, uncultivated lineages dominated: a recently discovered clade of Prasinophyceae (IX, clades of marine Chrysophyceae and Haptophyta, the latter division containing a potentially new class besides Prymnesiophyceae and Pavlophyceae. In contrast, on the edge of the gyre and in the coastal Chilean upwelling, groups with cultivated representatives (Prasinophyceae clade VII and Mamiellales dominated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate that a very large fraction of the eukaryotic picophytoplankton still escapes cultivation. The use of flow cytometry sorting should prove very useful to better characterize specific plankton populations by molecular approaches such as gene cloning or metagenomics

  5. Properties and organic activation of ocean clay in the East Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiping Zhang; Xiaoguo Chi; Chunyan Tian; Baojun Wang; Huahua Lü; Xuefa Shi

    2006-01-01

    In order to make use of ocean clay reasonably and excavate its potential applications the properties of ocean clay in Chinese investigating area of the East Pacific have been tested with the chemical analysis, XRFS, ICP/MAS, granulometry and SSA, etc. The results show that the clay sediments of this area are rich in clay minerals, fine granularity, bigger SSA, bigger water absorbability and lower ion changing ability etc. To improve the adaptability of ocean clay and macromolecule materials, using the dry milling method with silane, aluminate, stearic acid coupling agents etc the properties of ocean clay are improved. The effect has been evaluated by testing the water absorbing of the modified ocean clay and their dispersing in paraffin liquid. The result is that KH550 is better than any other active reagents, and the best activation technics is that 1.5% (volume) of KH550 quantity, 20min of milling time. The DTA, XRD, SEM and IR analyses and SSA testing show that the organic activation can not change the mineral structure but can densify the structure of clay, and activation mechanism is chemical covered mainly and chemical combined secondly.

  6. Chemical and temperature profile data from CTD casts in the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 9700022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and temperature profile data were collected from CTD casts in the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific Ocean. Data were submitted by the Japan...

  7. A dipole pattern in the Indian and Pacific oceans and its relationship with the East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiayu; Li, Jianping; Feng, Juan

    2014-07-01

    This study demonstrates a robust relationship between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean dipole (IPOD) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) using observational datasets and sensitivity tests from the Community Atmosphere Model version 3.1 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The IPOD, which is a significant pattern of boreal summer SSTA in the Indian and Pacific oceans characterized by positive (negative) sea-surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the North Pacific and negative (positive) SSTA in the IPWP, appears around May, intensifies in the following months, and weakens in September. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with the axis of the WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa.

  8. Trophic ecology of sharks in the mid-east pacific ocean inferred from stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunkai; Gong, Yi; Chen, Xinjun; Dai, Xiaojie; Zhu, Jiangfeng

    2013-11-01

    As apex predators, sharks are of ecological and conservation importance in marine ecosystems. In this study, trophic positions of sharks were estimated using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen for five representative species caught by the Chinese longline fleet in the mid-east Pacific, i.e., the blue shark (Prionace glauca), the bigeye thresher shark (Alopias superciliosus), the silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis), the scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), and the oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus). Of these species, oceanic whitetip shark has the lowest trophic level and mean δ15N value (3.9 and 14.93‰ ± 0.84‰), whereas bigeye thresher shark has the highest level/values (4.5 and 17.02‰ ± 1.21‰, respectively). The bigeye thresher shark has significantly higher δ15N value than other shark species, indicating its higher trophic position. The blue shark and oceanic whitetip shark has significantly higher δ13C values than bigeye thresher shark, silky shark and scalloped hammerhead, possibly due to different diets and/or living habitats. The stable isotope data and stomach content data are highly consistent, suggesting that stable isotope analysis supplements traditional feeding ecology study of sharks, and thus contributes to understanding their trophic linkage.

  9. Trophic Ecology of Sharks in the Mid-East Pacific Ocean Inferred from Stable Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yunkai; GONG Yi; CHEN Xinjun; DAI Xiaojie; ZHU Jiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    As apex predators, sharks are of ecological and conservation importance in marine ecosystems. In this study, trophic positions of sharks were estimated using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen for five representative species caught by the Chinese longline fleet in the mid-east Pacific, i.e., the blue shark (Prionace glauca), the bigeye thresher shark (Alopias superciliosus), the silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis), the scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), and the oceanic whitetip shark (Car-charhinus longimanus). Of these species, oceanic whitetip shark has the lowest trophic level and meanδ15N value (3.9 and 14.93‰± 0.84‰), whereas bigeye thresher shark has the highest level/values (4.5 and 17.02‰± 1.21‰, respectively). The bigeye thresher shark has significantly higherδ15N value than other shark species, indicating its higher trophic position. The blue shark and oceanic whitetip shark has significantly higherδ13C values than bigeye thresher shark, silky shark and scalloped hammerhead, possibly due to different diets and/or living habitats. The stable isotope data and stomach content data are highly consistent, suggesting that sta-ble isotope analysis supplements traditional feeding ecology study of sharks, and thus contributes to understanding their trophic linkage.

  10. Effects of Variations in East Asian Snow Cover on Modulating Atmospheric Circulation over the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Serreze, Mark C.

    2000-10-01

    At least four different modeling studies indicate that variability in snow cover over Asia may modulate atmospheric circulation over the North Pacific Ocean during winter. Here, satellite data on snow extent for east Asia for 1971-95 along with atmospheric fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis are used to examine whether the circulation signals seen in model results are actually observed in nature. Anomalies in snow extent over east Asia exhibit a distinct lack of persistence. This suggests that understanding the effects of east Asian snow cover is more germane for short- to medium-range weather forecasting applications than for problems on longer timescales. While it is impossible to attribute cause and effect in the empirical study, analyses of composite fields demonstrate relationships between snow cover extremes and atmospheric circulation downstream remarkably similar to those identified in model results. Positive snow cover extremes in midwinter are associated with a small decrease in air temperatures over the transient snow regions, a stronger east Asian jet, and negative geopotential height anomalies over the North Pacific Ocean. Opposing responses are observed for negative snow cover extremes. Diagnosis of storm track feedbacks shows that the action of high-frequency eddies does not reinforce circulation anomalies in positive snow cover extremes. However, in negative snow cover extremes, there are significant decreases in high-frequency eddy activity over the central North Pacific Ocean, and a corresponding decrease in the mean cyclonic effect of these eddies on the geopotential tendency, contributing to observed positive height anomalies over the North Pacific Ocean. The circulation signals over the North Pacific Ocean are much more pronounced in midwinter (January-February) than in the transitional seasons (November-December and March-April).

  11. Role of the tropical Pacific Ocean in strengthening the East Asian Monsoon: Climate model study of MIS-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, M.; Herold, N.; Yin, Q.; Berger, A.

    2012-12-01

    Studying past climates is a valuable approach to improve our understanding of the present and future climate systems. Among the significant events in the history of climate, the interglacial periods are good candidates for representation of the future climate because of their astronomical characteristics and their similarity to predicted anthropogenic warming. Moreover, some interglacials exhibited significant changes in atmospheric and oceanic properties due to only small changes in their climatic forcing (greenhouse gases and solar insolation) which also make them a good case for investigating past climates. For instance, the interglacial stage of around 0.5 Ma identified as Marine Isotopic stage 13 (MIS-13), the focus of this study, was characterized by extremely strong East Asian and Indian summer monsoons while the CO2 and CH4 levels were lower and seasonal radiation energy could reach up to 50 Wm-2 higher than today. The extreme monsoon precipitation is quite unexpected for a climate with such forcing. To understand the physics-based mechanism that enhances the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) during MIS-13, we used two fully coupled general circulation models, the HadCM3 and CCSM3. In MIS-13 experiments, concentrations of greenhouse gases were prescribed lower than in pre-industrial and seasonal insolation characterised by Northern-Hemisphere (NH) summer occurring at perihelion instead of aphelion as it does today. Results of both models confirm increased summer precipitation in the monsoon regions. We find that the tropical Pacific Ocean plays a major role in strengthening the EASM in MIS-13. Simulations of MIS-13 show stronger easterly surface winds along the equatorial Pacific and a subsequent increase in the mean thermocline tilt, in addition to a westward shift of the cold tongue. These changes alter the background climatic state of the equatorial Pacific towards a La Niña-type state. The interannual variability around the La Niña-like background

  12. Diversity of cultured photosynthetic flagellates in the North East Pacific and Arctic Oceans in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzano, S.; Gourvil, P.; Siano, R.; Chanoine, M.; Marie, D.; Lessard, S.; Sarno, D.; Vaulot, D.

    2012-06-01

    During the MALINA cruise (summer 2009) an extensive effort was undertaken to isolate phytoplankton strains from the North East (NE) Pacific Ocean, the Bering Strait, and the Beaufort Sea. Strains were isolated by flow cytometry sorting (FCS) and pipetting before or after phytoplankton enrichment of seawater samples. Strains were isolated both onboard and back in the laboratory and cultured at 4 °C under light/dark conditions. Overall, we isolated and characterised by light microscopy and 18S rRNA gene sequencing 104 strains of photosynthetic flagellates which grouped into 21 genotypes (defined by 99.5% 18S rRNA gene sequence similarity) mainly affiliated to Chlorophyta and Heterokontophyta. The taxon most frequently isolated was an Arctic ecotype of the green algal genus Micromonas (Arctic Micromonas) which was almost the only phytoplankter recovered within picoplankton (≤ 2 μm) size range. Strains of Arctic Micromonas as well as three unidentified strains related to the same genus were identified in further details by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA operon. The MALINA Micromonas strains share identical 18S rRNA and ITS sequences suggesting high genetic homogeneity within Arctic Micromonas. The unidentified strains form a genotype likely belonging to a new genus within the family Mamiellaceae to which Micromonas belongs. Other green algae genotypes from the genera Nephroselmis, Chlamydomonas, Pyramimonas were also isolated whereas Heterokontophyta included Pelagophyceae, Dictyochophyceae and Chrysophyceae. Dictyochophyceae included Pedinellales which could not be identified to the genus level whereas Chrysophyceae comprised Dinobryon faculiferum. Moreover, we isolated Rhodomonas sp. as well as a few Haptophyta and dinoflagellates. We identified the dinoflagellate Woloszynskia cincta by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and 28S rRNA gene sequencing. Our morphological analyses show that this species possess the diagnostic

  13. Predicting East African spring droughts using Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Hoell, Andrew; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Blade, Ileana; Liebmann, Brant; Roberts, Jason B.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    In southern Ethiopia, Eastern Kenya, and southern Somalia poor boreal spring rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers support disaster risk reduction while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent droughts to a stronger Walker Circulation, warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, and an increased western Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, we explore the dominant modes of East African rainfall variability, links between these modes and sea surface temperatures, and a simple index-based monitoring-prediction system suitable for drought early warning.

  14. The finding of natural GaN crystals in sediments from the East Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; SHI Xuefa; ZHANG Haiping; Lü Huahua; FU Zhendong

    2006-01-01

    The first finding of natural GaN crystals is reported in sediments from the East Pacific. They are identified by multiple micro-beam techniques such as TEM, EDS and EELS. Detailed examinations show that these GaN crystals are euhedral and authigenic, and belong to the hexagonal system (space group P63mc) with cell parameters: a = b = 0.3186 nm, c = 0.5178 nm. Structure data fit closely with those of the synthetic GaN crystals obtained from high-temperature and high-pressure experiments. Moreover, the nearly perfect euhedral form of the sample excludes the possible synthetic origin of the GaN crystals as artifacts with long transport. The sampling localities are located between the Clarion and Clipperton Fracture Zone in the East Pacific where ongoing hydrothermal activities, deformation, and volcanic eruptions are very intensive. It is suggested that the natural GaN crystals may form at relatively high-temperature and high-pressure conditions in geologic environments that have been affected by intense hydrothermal activities.

  15. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 March 2000 to 31 March 2000 (NODC Accession 0000150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes. Data...

  16. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 April 2000 to 30 April 2000 (NODC Accession 0000156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes. Data...

  17. Wind Wave Spectra and other data from buoy casts in the East/West Coast US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 October 2000 to 31 October 2000 (NODC Accession 0000348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected at fixed platforms in Gulf of Mexico, East/West Coast US, South Pacific Ocean, and Great Lakes from October 1, 2000...

  18. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 February 2000 to 29 February 2000 (NODC Accession 0000140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes. Data...

  19. The East Pacific Rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1961-01-01

    Evidence gathered by expeditions of the University of California’s Scripps Institution of Oceanography during the International Geophysical Year suggests that the East Pacific Rise is one of the largest physical structures on earth. It runs in a sickle-shaped curve from near New Zealand 8,000 miles

  20. The East Pacific Rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1961-01-01

    Evidence gathered by expeditions of the University of California’s Scripps Institution of Oceanography during the International Geophysical Year suggests that the East Pacific Rise is one of the largest physical structures on earth. It runs in a sickle-shaped curve from near New Zealand 8,000 miles

  1. The cycling of iron, zinc and cadmium in the North East Pacific Ocean - Insights from stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Tim M.; John, Seth G.

    2015-09-01

    Dissolved stable isotope ratios of the transition metals provide useful information, both for understanding the cycling of these bioactive trace elements through the oceans, and tracing their marine sources and sinks. Here, we present seawater dissolved Fe, Zn and Cd concentration and stable isotope ratio (δ56Fe, δ66Zn, and δ114Cd) profiles from two stations in the Pacific Ocean, the SAFe Station (30°N 140°W) in the subtropical North East Pacific from the GEOTRACES IC2 cruise, and the marginal San Pedro Basin (33.8°N 118.4°W) within the South California Bight. These data represent, to our knowledge, the first full-water column profiles for δ66Zn and δ56Fe from the open-ocean North Pacific, and the first observations of dissolved δ66Zn and δ114Cd in a low-oxygen marginal basin. At the SAFe station, δ56Fe is isotopically lighter throughout the water column (-0.6 to +0.1‰, relative to IRRM-014) compared to the North Atlantic, suggesting significant differences in Fe sources or Fe cycling between these two ocean basins. A broad minimum in δ56Fe associated with the North Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ; hydrothermal vents and oxic sediments below the OMZ. Zn and Cd concentration profiles at both stations broadly match the distribution of the macronutrients silicate and phosphate, respectively. At SAFe, δ114Cd increases towards the surface, reflecting the biological preference for assimilation of lighter Cd isotopes, while negative Cd∗ (-0.12) associated with low oxygen waters supports the recently proposed hypothesis of water-column CdS precipitation. In contrast to δ114Cd, δ66Zn at SAFe decreases towards the surface ocean, perhaps due to scavenging of isotopically heavy Zn, while at intermediate depths δ66Zn provides further evidence of a mid-depth dissolved δ66Zn maximum. We suggest this may be a global feature of Zn biogeochemistry related to either regeneration of heavy adsorbed Zn, or to ZnS formation and removal within the water column. Data

  2. Picoplankton diversity in the South-East Pacific Ocean from cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Le Gall

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In late 2004, the BIOSOPE cruise sailed between the equatorial influenced waters off Marquesas islands and the nutrient enriched waters of the Chilean upwelling. Along the way, it explored the Southeast Pacific gyre centred around Easter Island, which is probably the most oligotrophic oceanic region on earth. During this cruise, we undertook a vigorous effort to isolate novel photosynthetic picoplanktonic eukaryotes. Two strategies were attempted on board: enrichment of samples with culture medium and sorting of specific populations by flow cytometry based on chlorophyll fluorescence. Over 1900 pre-cultures were started and then further purified by flow cytometry, serial dilution or pipette isolation to yield a total of 212 strains. These strains were characterized morphologically and for more than 50% of them, genetically, through partial sequencing of the 18 S rRNA gene.

    Among the characterized strains, the largest number are stramenopiles (Heterokontophyta with a record of 38 strains belonging to the species Pelagomonas calceolata (Pelagophyceae. Strains from the recently described genera Bolidomonas and Florenciella have been re-isolated for the first time since their description. Two other abundant groups are the Chlorophyta, especially Prasinophyceae, and the Haptophyta, especially the genera Phaeocystis and Emiliania. A limited number of heterotrophic flagellates have also been isolated, all of them closely related to known species. Finally over a dozen of unicellular cyanobacteria strains have been obtained, some forming unusual short chains.

    Overall our strategy was quite successful since it allowed us to isolate a large number of picoplankton strains but failed in two respects. First, apparently very few novel taxa have been obtained. One set of strains is related to Prasinoderma coloniale (Prasinococcales, Prasinophyceae but their sequences are sufficiently different from the

  3. Picoplankton diversity in the South-East Pacific Ocean from cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Le Gall

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In late 2004, the BIOSOPE cruise sailed between the equatorial influenced waters off the Marquesas Islands and the nutrient enriched waters of the Chilean upwelling. Along the way, it explored the Southeast Pacific gyre centred around Easter Island, which is probably the most oligotrophic oceanic region on earth. During this cruise, we undertook a vigorous effort to isolate novel photosynthetic picoplanktonic eukaryotes. Two strategies were attempted on board: enrichment of filtered samples with culture medium and sorting of specific populations by flow cytometry based on size and chlorophyll fluorescence. Over 1900 pre-cultures were started and then further purified by flow cytometry, serial dilution or pipette isolation to yield a total of 212 strains. These strains were characterized morphologically and for more than 50% of them, genetically, through partial sequencing of the 18 S rRNA gene.

    Among the characterized strains, the largest number belongs to stramenopiles (Heterokontophyta with a record of 38 strains belonging to the species Pelagomonas calceolata (Pelagophyceae. Strains from the recently described genera Bolidomonas and Florenciella have been re-isolated for the first time since their description. Two other abundant groups are the Chlorophyta, especially Prasinophyceae, and the Haptophyta, especially the genera Phaeocystis and Emiliania. A limited number of heterotrophic flagellates have also been isolated, all of them belonging to groups containing known species. Finally, over a dozen of unicellular cyanobacterial Synechococcus strains have been obtained, some forming unusual short chains.

    Overall our strategy was quite successful since it allowed us to isolate a large number of picoplankton strains. Still it failed in two respects. First, apparently very few novel taxa have been obtained. One set of strains is related to Prasinoderma coloniale (Prasinococcales

  4. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) East Pacific/ North Pacific Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the East Pacific/ North Pacific teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated...

  5. Predicted radionuclide release from reactor-related unenclosed solid objects dumped in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lynn, N.M.; Warden, J.M. [Royal Naval Coll., Greenwich (United Kingdom)

    1996-06-01

    Between 1978 and 1991 reactor-related solid radioactive waste was dumped by the former Soviet Union as unenclosed objects in the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and the Sea of Japan. This paper presented estimates for the current (1994) inventory of activation and corrosion products contained in the reactor-related unenclosed solid objects. In addition, simple models derived for prediction of radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea are applied to certain of the dumped objects to provide estimates of radionuclide release to the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and Sea of Japan environments. For the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, total release rates start below 0.01 GBq yr{sup -1} and over 1,000 years, fall to 100 Bq yr{sup -1}. In the Sea of Japan, the total release rate starts just above 1 GBq yr{sup - 1}, dropping off to a level less than 0.1 GBq yr{sup -1}, extending past the year 4,000.

  6. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  7. An interdecadal change in the relationship between the western North Pacific Ocean and the East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peilong; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhong, Quanjia

    2016-09-01

    This study reveals that the relationship between the western North Pacific Ocean (WNPO; 0-55°N, 100-165°E) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) experiences a well-defined interdecadal change in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The EASM-related WNPO sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) pattern changes from the dipole pattern [WNPO dipole (WNPOD)] that develops over the period between 1968 and 1987 (P1) to a tripole pattern [WNPO tripole (WNPOT)] between 1991 and 2010 (P2). The positive (negative) phase of the WNPOD is characterized by warm (cold) SSTAs in the Japan Sea and Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension region, and cold (warm) SSTAs in the subtropical WNPO, whereas the positive (negative) phase of the WNPOT shows warming (cooling) in the Kuroshio Extension region (KER), and cooling (warming) in the south of Kamchatka Peninsula (SKP) and Philippine Sea (PS). During P1 (P2), the WNPOD (WNPOT) can be regarded as the first (second) leading mode of summer WNPO SST variability, and its positive phase is associated with a weakened WNPO subtropical high and thereby the deficient summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, together with a strong EASM, and vice versa. The change in the WNPO-EASM relationship may be caused by interdecadal changes in the relationship of the equatorial central Pacific (ECP) with the WNPO and EASM, and an increase in summer KER SST variability. During P2, because the ECP warming-induced cyclonic anomalies move northwestwards and intensify, summertime ECP warming is able to generate a strong EASM and significant cooling over the two poles of the WNPOT (SKP and PS). These strengthened impacts of the ECP on the WNPOT and EASM contribute to the strengthened WNPOT-EASM relationship during P2. In addition, summer KER SST variability increases between 1991 and 2010, and this may have enhanced the impact of the KER on the EASM during P2. These two factors probably cause the EASM-related WNPO SSTA pattern to change from the WNPOD in P1 to the WNPOT in

  8. Changes in the East-West contrast of the upper equatorial Pacific Ocean over the last 10 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselle, Gabrielle; Beltran, Catherine; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; de Rafélis, Marc; Schouten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents new data of the past 10 Ma climate in the Equatorial Pacific. Combining UK'37 and TEX86-derived temperatures as well as carbon and oxygen isotope of calcifying planktonic species living in surface and subsurface waters at the IODP site U1338 (Eastern Equatorial Pacific) and 806 (Western Equatorial Pacific) we investigate the temporal evolution of the zonal gradient across the equatorial Pacific. This multi-proxy approach is used to reconstruct changes in the asymmetric pattern between the Eastern and Western Equatorial Pacific surface and thermocline depth waters. Based on the cross-analysis of our data and those available in the literature we propose a schematic view of long-term La Niña- and El Niño-like alternations from the upper Miocene in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. We suggest a general shoaling of the thermocline along the equator from about 11 Ma ago demonstrate that this shoaling is linked to the equatorial upwelling and the establishment of the Eastern Pacific Cold tongue particularly discernible during three time intervals referring to La Niña-like periods (11.5 - 9 Ma, 6.8 - 6 Ma and 4.8 - 1.4 Ma). Our study also reveals intervals of weakened oceanic circulation during El Niño-like periods (9 - 6.8 Ma and 6 - 4.8 Ma). The role of global ice sheet, the Indonesian seaway restriction and the Central American seaway closure as driving factors of the observed changes are discussed.

  9. Regional distribution of styrene analogues generated from polystyrene degradation along the coastlines of the North-East Pacific Ocean and Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Saido, Katsuhiko; Koizumi, Koshiro; Sato, Hideto; Ogawa, Naoto; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kusui, Takashi; Kodera, Yoichi; Kogure, Kazuhio

    2014-05-01

    Beach sand and seawater taken from the coastlines of the North-East Pacific Ocean and Hawaii State were investigated to determine the causes of global chemical contamination from polystyrene (PS). All samples were found to contain styrene monomer (SM), styrene dimers (SD), and styrene trimers (ST) with a concentration distribution of styrene analogues in the order of ST > SD > SM. The contamination by styrene analogues along the West Coast proved more severe than in Alaska and other regions. The Western Coastlines of the USA seem be affected by both land- and ocean-based pollution sources, which might result from it being a heavily populated area as the data suggest a possible proportional relationship between PS pollution and population. Our results suggest the presence of new global chemical contaminants derived from PS in the ocean, and along coasts.

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2000-01-22 to 2009-07-06 (NODC Accession 0116980)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116980 includes Surface underway data collected from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan...

  11. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-08-01 to 2002-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0000785)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  12. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-03-01 to 2002-03-31 (NCEI Accession 0000716)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  13. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 01 September 2002 to 31 September 2002 (NODC Accession 0000799)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  14. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-06-01 to 2002-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0000771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  15. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-07-01 to 2002-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0000773)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2010-04-15 to 2013-09-13 (NODC Accession 0117056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117056 includes Surface underway data collected from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the MIRAI in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean and others from 2005-10-31 to 2006-01-30 (NODC Accession 0109919)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109919 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean,...

  18. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 01 November 2002 to 31 November 2002 (NCEI Accession 0000835)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 1995-07-16 to 1999-11-05 (NODC Accession 0116981)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116981 includes Surface underway data collected from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2001-01-20 to 2012-06-12 (NODC Accession 0116978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116978 includes Surface underway data collected from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan...

  1. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-04-01 to 2002-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0000726)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  2. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-05-01 to 2002-05-31 (NODC Accession 0000752)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  3. Numerical tsunami simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea from hypothetical M 9 earthquakes along the Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Furumura, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    We carried out tsunami numerical simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea in order to examine the behavior of massive tsunami outside Japan from the hypothetical M 9 tsunami source models along the Nankai Trough proposed by the Cabinet Office of Japanese government (2012). The distribution of MTHs (maximum tsunami heights for 24 h after the earthquakes) on the east coast of China, the east coast of the Philippine Islands, and north coast of the New Guinea Island show peaks with approximately 1.0-1.7 m,4.0-7.0 m,4.0-5.0 m, respectively. They are significantly higher than that from the 1707 Ho'ei earthquake (M 8.7), the largest earthquake along the Nankai trough in recent Japanese history. Moreover, the MTH distributions vary with the location of the huge slip(s) in the tsunami source models although the three coasts are far from the Nankai trough. Huge slip(s) in the Nankai segment mainly contributes to the MTHs, while huge slip(s) or splay faulting in the Tokai segment hardly affects the MTHs. The tsunami source model was developed for responding to the unexpected occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, with 11 models along the Nanakai trough, and simulated MTHs along the Pacific coasts of the western Japan from these models exceed 10 m, with a maximum height of 34.4 m. Tsunami propagation was computed by the finite-difference method of the non-liner long-wave equations with the Corioli's force and bottom friction (Satake, 1995) in the area of 115-155 ° E and 8° S-40° N. Because water depth of the East China Sea is shallower than 200 m, the tsunami propagation is likely to be affected by the ocean bottom fiction. The 30 arc-seconds gridded bathymetry data provided by the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO-2014) are used. For long propagation of tsunami we simulated tsunamis for 24 hours after the earthquakes. This study was supported by the"New disaster mitigation research project on Mega thrust earthquakes around Nankai

  4. Air-sea exchange and gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons over the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Role of East Asian continental outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zilan; Lin, Tian; Li, Zhongxia; Jiang, Yuqing; Li, Yuanyuan; Yao, Xiaohong; Gao, Huiwang; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-11-01

    We measured 15 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmosphere and water during a research cruise from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) in the spring of 2015 to investigate the occurrence, air-sea gas exchange, and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs with a particular focus on the influence of East Asian continental outflow. The gaseous PAH composition and identification of sources were consistent with PAHs from the upwind area, indicating that the gaseous PAHs (three-to five-ring PAHs) were influenced by upwind land pollution. In addition, air-sea exchange fluxes of gaseous PAHs were estimated to be -54.2-107.4 ng m(-2) d(-1), and was indicative of variations of land-based PAH inputs. The logarithmic gas-particle partition coefficient (logKp) of PAHs regressed linearly against the logarithmic subcooled liquid vapor pressure (logPL(0)), with a slope of -0.25. This was significantly larger than the theoretical value (-1), implying disequilibrium between the gaseous and particulate PAHs over the NWP. The non-equilibrium of PAH gas-particle partitioning was shielded from the volatilization of three-ring gaseous PAHs from seawater and lower soot concentrations in particular when the oceanic air masses prevailed. Modeling PAH absorption into organic matter and adsorption onto soot carbon revealed that the status of PAH gas-particle partitioning deviated more from the modeling Kp for oceanic air masses than those for continental air masses, which coincided with higher volatilization of three-ring PAHs and confirmed the influence of air-sea exchange. Meanwhile, significant linear regressions between logKp and logKoa (logKsa) for PAHs were observed for continental air masses, suggesting the dominant effect of East Asian continental outflow on atmospheric PAHs over the NWP during the sampling campaign. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tectonic analysis and paleo-stress determination of the upper lava section at ODP/IODP site 1256 (East Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Emanuele

    2015-09-01

    Research on the deep sea is of great importance for a better understanding of the mechanism of magma emplacement and the tectonic evolution of oceanic crust. However, details of the internal structure in the upper levels of the oceanic crust are much less complete than that of the more fully studied sub-aerial areas. For the first time, this study proposes a dynamic analysis using the inversion method on core data derived from the drilled basement of the present-day intact oceanic crust at ODP/IODP Site 1256 in the Cocos plate. The research is based on an innovative core reorientation process and combines different stress hypothesis approaches for the analysis of heterogeneous failure-slip data via exploitation of two distinct techniques. From the analysis of the failure-slip data, both techniques produce 5 distinct subsystem datasets. All calculated subsystems are mechanically and geometrically admissible. Interpretation of the results allows the researchers to note a complex local and regional tectonic evolution deriving from the interplay of (1) the ridge push and rotation of both the East Pacific Rise and the Cocos-Nazca Spreading Center, (2) the effect of the slab pull of the Middle America Trench, (3) the influence of lava emplacement mechanisms, and (4) intra-plate deformation.

  6. Decadal to millennial-scale variability in sea ice, primary productivity, and Pacific-Water inflow in the Chukchi/East Siberian Sea area (Arctic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Matthiessen, Jens; Méheust, Marie; Nam, Seung-il; Niessen, Frank; Schade, Inka; Schreck, Michael; Wassmuth, Saskia; Xiao, Xiaotong

    2014-05-01

    Sea-ice is an essential component of the global climate system and, especially, the Polar Oceans. An alarming decrease in term of sea-ice concentration, thickness and duration, has been observed in the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas over the last 30 years. Thus, understanding the processes controlling modern sea-ice variability and reconstructing paleo-sea-ice extent and variability in polar regions have become of great interest for the international scientific community during the last years. Here, we present new proxy records determined in sediment cores from the East Siberian Sea (RV Polarstern Expedition ARK-XXIII/3 in 2008; Core PS72/350) and from the Chukchi Sea (RV Araon Expedition ARA2B in 2011; Core ARA2B-1A, -1B). These records, including organic-geochemical bulk parameters, specific biomarkers (IP25 and sterols; PIP25; for recent reviews see Stein et al., 2012; Belt and Müller, 2013), biogenic opal, mineralogical data as well as high-resolution XRF scanning data, give new insight into the short-term (decadal-, centennial- to millennial-scale) variability in sea-ice, primary productivity and Pacific-Water inflow during Holocene times. Maximum concentrations of phytoplankton biomarkers and biogenic opal were determined between 8.5 and 4 kyrs. BP, suggesting enhanced primary productivity triggered by increased inflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water (and/or an increased nutrient input due to an ice-edge position). Short-lived peak values in productivity might be related to strong pulses of Pacific-Water input during this time period (cf., Ortiz et al., 2009). A seasonal sea-ice cover was present in the Chukchi Sea throughout the last 10 kyrs. During the last 3-4 kyrs. BP, the sea-ice cover significantly extended. References Belt, S.T. and Müller, J., 2013. The Arctic sea ice biomarker IP25: a review of current understanding, recommendations for future research and applications in palaeo sea ice reconstructions. Quaternary Science Review 73, 9-25. Ortiz

  7. Volcanic eruption of the mid-ocean ridge along the East Pacific Rise crest at 9°45-52'N: direct submersible observations of seafloor phenomena associated with an eruption event in April, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymon, R.M.; Fornari, D.J.; Von Damm, K. L.; Lilley, M.D.; Perfit, M.R.; Edmond, J.M.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Lutz, R.A.; Grebmeier, J.M.; Carbotte, S.; Wright, D.; McLaughlin, E.; Smith, M.; Beedle, N.; Olson, E.

    1993-01-01

    In April, 1991, we witnessed from the submersible Alvin a suite of previously undocumented seafloor phenomena accompanying an in-progress eruption of the mid-ocean ridge on the East Pacific Rise crest at 9°45′N–52′N. The volume of the eruption could not be precisely determined, although comparison of pre- and post-eruption SeaBeam bathymetry indicate that any changes in ridge crest morphology resulting from the eruption were < 10 m high.

  8. Identification and characterization of a distinct banana bunchy top virus isolate of Pacific-Indian Oceans group from North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Roy, Somnath; Behere, Ganesh T; Roy, Subhra Saikat; Dutta, Sudip Kumar; Ngachan, S V

    2014-04-01

    Banana bunch top virus (BBTV) is considered to be a serious threat to banana production. A new isolate of the virus (BBTV-Umiam) was identified and characterized from local banana mats growing in mid-hills of Meghalaya in North-East India. The complete nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of six full-length ssDNA components (DNA R, DNA U3, DNA S, DNA M, DNA C and DNA N) sharing major common region (CR-M) and a stem-loop common region (CR-SL). BBTV-Umiam showed a unique deletion of 20 nucleotides in the intergenic region of DNA R, the absence of predicted open reading frame (ORF) in DNA U3 and probability for a small ORF in DNA U3 expecting functional evidence at transcriptional level. Phylogenetic analysis based on 88 complete nucleotide sequence of BBTV DNA R available in GenBank generated two broad clusters of Pacific-Indian Oceans (PIO) and South-East Asian (SEA) groups including BBTV-Umiam within PIO cluster. However, BBTV-Umiam was identified as the most distinct member of the PIO group with 100% bootstrap support. This was further supported by the phylogenetic grouping of each genomic component of BBTV-Umiam at the distant end of PIO group during clustering of 21 complete BBTV sequences. BBTV-Umiam shared relatively less nucleotide identity with PIO group for each genomic component (85.0-95.4%) and corresponding ORF (93.8-97.5%) than that of earlier PIO isolates (91.5-99.6% and 96.0-99.3%, respectively). Recombination analysis revealed two intra-component and five inter-component recombination events in BBTV-Umiam, but none of them was unique. Moreover, the isolate was identified as major parental sequence for intra-component recombination event spanning the replication-associated protein encoding region in Tongan BBTV DNA R. The current study indicated differential evolution of BBTV in North-East India (Meghalaya). The natural occurrence of hybrids of Musa balbisiana and M. acuminata in this geographically isolated region could be the

  9. Zonal displacement of western Pacific warm pool and zonal wind anomaly over the Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The thermal condition anomaly of the western Pacific warm pool and its zonal displacement have very important influences on climate change in East Asia and even the whole world.However, the impact of the zonal wind anomaly over the Pacific Ocean on zonal displacement of the warm pool has not yet been analyzed based on long-term record. Therefore, it is important to study the zonal displacement of the warm pool and its response to the zonal wind anomaly over the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Based on the NCDC monthly averaged SST (sea surface temperature) data in 2°×2° grid in the Pacific Ocean from 1950 to 2000, and the NCEP/NCAR global monthly averaged 850 hPa zonal wind data from 1949 to 2000, the relationships between zonal displacements of the western Pacific warm pool and zonal wind anomalies over the tropical Pacific Ocean are analyzed in this paper. The results show that the zonal displacements are closely related to the zonal wind anomalies over the western, central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Composite analysis indicates that during ENSO events, the warm pool displacement was trigged by the zonal wind anomalies over the western equatorial Pacific Ocean in early stage and the process proceeded under the zonal wind anomalies over the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean unless the wind direction changes. Therefore, in addition to the zonal wind anomaly over the western Pacific, the zonal wind anomalies over the central and eastern Pacific Ocean should be considered also in investigation the dynamical mechanisms of the zonal displacement of the warm pool.

  10. Eastern Pacific Ocean Purse-seine Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data sets from U.S.A.-flagged purse-seine vessels fishing in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). These purse seiners...

  11. The pathway of the interdecadal variability in the Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cases of the interdecadal variability in the Pacific Ocean and their evolution were examined in the paper with the statistic methods (CEOF and composite analysis) over the period of 1950 1993. Observations of oceanic temperatures in the upper 400 m revealed an obvious region of the interdecadal signals in the central North Pacific. Such signals propagated southwestward, then subducted to the subtropics. The hypothesized link for interdecadal oceanic variability between the subtropics and the tropics, especially with the western tropical Pacific was unraveled in order to detect the cause of decadal signals in the tropics. The thermal anomalies subducted in the central North Pacific east to the dateline only reach 18° N. There has been no further southward propagation since then due to a certain barrier. The origin of the interdecadal signals in the western tropical Pacific was traced to the southern tropical Pacific. There is a meridional pathway around the dateline where the signals were loaded. These variabilities were in the nature of the thermocline circulation.

  12. Massive deep-sea sulphide ore deposits discovered on the East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francheteau, Jean; Needham, H.D.; Choukroune, P.; Juteau, Tierre; Seguret, M.; Ballard, Richard D.; Fox, P.J.; Normark, William; Carranza, A.; Cordoba, D.; Guerrero, J.; Rangin, C.; Bougault, H.; Cambon, P.; Hekinian, R.

    1979-01-01

    Massive ore-grade zinc, copper and iron sulphide deposits have been found at the axis of the East Pacific Rise. Although their presence on the deep ocean-floor had been predicted there was no supporting observational evidence. The East Pacific Rise deposits represent a modern analogue of Cyprus-type sulphide ores associated with ophiolitic rocks on land. They contain at least 29% zinc metal and 6% metallic copper. Their discovery will provide a new focus for deep-sea exploration, leading to new assessments of the concentration of metals in the upper layers of the oceanic crust. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1) East area. All waters within a circle having a radius of one nautical mile centered at latitude 33°13′45... approximately 101°, 420 yards, from San Nicolas Island East End Light. (2) West area. Shoreward of a...

  14. Pacific Array (Transportable Broadband Ocean Floor Array)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Ekstrom, Goran; Evans, Rob; Forsyth, Don; Gaherty, Jim; Kennett, Brian; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Utada, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    Based on recent developments on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry1, together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (azimuthal, and hopefully radial), with deployments of ~15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for a 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way or concurrently (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure beneath Pacific ocean, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations is essential: if three countries/institutions participate this endeavor together, Pacific Array may be accomplished within five-or-so years.

  15. Biological, physical, nutrients, sediment, and other data from sediment sampler-grab, bottle, and CTD casts in the Arabian Sea, Equatorial Pacific Ocean, Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and Southern Oceans as part of the Long Term Monitoring East-West Flower Garden Banks project from 08 January 1995 to 08 April 1998 (NODC Accession 0001155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological, physical, nutrients, sediment, and other data were collected using sediment sampler-grab, bottle and CTD casts in the Arabian Sea, North/South Pacific...

  16. Indian Ocean temperature dipole and SSTA in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The observed sea surface temperature (SST) data of recent 100 years are analyzed and the existence of the Indian Ocean temperature dipole in the equatorial region is exposed further. It is very clear that the amplitude of the positive phase (higher SST in the west and lower SST in the east than normal) is larger than that of the negative phase (higher SST in the east and lower SST in the west). The dipole is stronger in September-November and weaker in January-April than in other months and it also appears obviously inter-annual and inter-decadal variations. Although the Indian Ocean dipole in the individual year seems to be independent of ENSO in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, in general, the Indian Ocean dipole has obviously negative correlation with the Pacific Ocean dipole (similar to the inverse phase of ENSO mode). The atmospheric zonal (Walker) circulation over the equator is fundamental to relate the two dipoles to each other.

  17. Projections of ocean climate for northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHOI Byung Ho; KIM Dong Hoon; CHOI Young Jin; YUK Jin Hee

    2005-01-01

    The long-term adjustment processes of atmosphere and ocean in response to gradually increased atmospheric CO2 concentration havebeen analyzed in 70 and 140 a integrations with NCAR fully-coupled climate system model (CSM). In these experiments the CO2concentration has been increased to double and quadruples the initial concentration, respectively. After 70 a, at the time of CO2doubling, the model predicts surface air temperature rises by 1.2 and 1.5 K for the globe and the northwestern Pacific Ocean,respectively. The behavior of the quadrupling run is similar: each global and regional mean surface air temperatures increase by 2.8 and 3.0K at the time of CO2 quadrupling. From the experiments, surface air temperature changes in the northwestern Pacific Ocean will be more distinctive compared with the global average, mainly due to exceptionally large warming and sea level change near the entrance of the Kuroshio extension.

  18. Evaluating the impacts of cumulus, land surface and ocean surface schemes on summertime rainfall simulations over East-to-southeast Asia and the western north Pacific by RegCM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Bin; Tam, Chi-Yung; Huang, Wan-Ru; Cheung, Kevin K. W.; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of summertime rainfall simulations over East-to-southeast Asia and the western north Pacific in the regional climate model version 4 (RegCM4) to cumulus (including Grell with Arakawa-Schubert type closure, Grell with Fritsch-Chappell type closure, and Emanuel), land surface (Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme or BATS, and the community land model or CLM) and ocean surface (referred to as Zeng1, Zeng2 and BATS1e in the model) schemes by running the model with different combinations of these parameterization packages. For each of these experiments, ensemble integration of the model was carried out in the extended boreal summer of May-October from 1998 to 2007. The simulated spatial distribution, intensity and inter-annual variation of the precipitation, latent heat flux, position of the subtropical high and tropical cyclone genesis patterns from these numerical experiments were analyzed. Examinations show that the combination of Emanuel, CLM and Zeng2 (E-C-Z2) yields the best overall results, consistent with the fact that physical mechanisms considered in E-C-Z2 tend to be more comprehensive in comparison with the others. Additionally, the rainfall quantity is found very sensitive to sea surface roughness length, and the reduction of the roughness length constant (from 2 × 10-4 to 5 × 10-5 m) in our modified BATS1e mitigates the drastic overestimation of latent heat flux and rainfall, and is therefore preferable to the default value for simulations in the western north Pacific region in RegCM4.

  19. Ophiolites, synthetic seismograms, and oceanic crustal structure: 2. A comparison of synthetic seismograms of the Samail Ophiolite, Oman, and the ROSE refraction data from the East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempner, William C.; Gettrust, Joseph F.

    1982-10-01

    Synthetic seismograms for the Samail ophiolite, computed using the full reflectivity technique, are used to test the hypothesis that this ophiolite complex can serve as a prototype for young oceanic crust. If so, then this ophiolite complex can be compared with the older (45 m.y.) Bay of Islands (BOI) ophiolite to develop an aging model for oceanic crust. Synthetics for this young emplacement age (5-8 m.y.) ophiolite are compared with ocean bottom hydrophone data from 0.5- and 4.5-m.y.-age crust obtained during the Rivera Ocean Seismic Experiment. Second-arrival phases from reflected refractions from one ophiolite velocity-depth model and data from 4.5-m.y.-age crust are in excellent agreement; this agreement suggests that the Samail ophiolite is a good working model for young oceanic crust. Earlier work has shown that the BOI ophiolite is a good prototype for mature oceanic crust. The BOI ophiolite data also suggest that alteration of the lower oceanic crust and upper mantle is limited. We use the petrologic and geochemical properties of the Samail and BOI ophiolites to develop a two-stage model for crustal aging that directly limits alteration of the lower crust and upper mantle materials.

  20. Upper ocean circulation modulation by phytoplankton concentration in the Equatorial Pacific and the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Sammarco, P.; Muneyama, K.; Sato, T.; AjoyKumar, A.; Frouin, R.

    in the equatorial Pacific, while the spatial asymetricity of wind pattern along with the north-south coastline of the Indian ocean makes upper ocean circulation more complex than that in the Pacific. We propose a feedback mechanisms between phytoplankton...

  1. Mercury in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis):bioaccumulation and trans-Pacific Ocean migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Nogueira, Jacob I.; Pancorbo, Oscar C.; Batdorf, Carol A.; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) have the largest home range of any tuna species and are well known for the capacity to make transoceanic migrations. We report the measurement of mercury (Hg) concentrations in wild Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), the first reported with known size-of-fish and capture location. The results indicate juvenile PBFT that are recently arrived in the California Current from the western Pacific Ocean have significantly higher Hg concentrations in white muscle (0.51 ug/g wet mass, wm) than PBFT of longer California Current residency (0.41 ug/g wm). These new arrivals are also higher in Hg concentration than PBFT in farm pens (0.43 ug/g wm) that were captured on arrival in the California Current and raised in pens on locally derived feed. Analysis by direct Hg analyzer and attention to Hg by tissue type and location on the fish allowed precise comparisons of mercury among wild and captive fish populations. Analysis of migration and nearshore residency, determined through extensive archival tagging, bioaccumulation models, trophic investigations, and potential coastal sources of methylmercury, indicates Hg bioaccumulation is likely greater for PBFT juvenile habitats in the western Pacific Ocean (East China Sea, Yellow Sea) than in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California Current). Differential bioaccumulation may be a trophic effect or reflect methylmercury availability, with potential sources for coastal China (large hypoxic continental shelf receiving discharge of three large rivers, and island-arc volcanism) different from those for coastal Baja California (small continental shelf, no large rivers, spreading-center volcanism).

  2. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. (a) Danger zones—(1) Aerial bombing and strafing target surrounding Kaula...

  3. Dissolved iron and iron isotopes in the southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Conway, Tim M.; Lee, Jong-Mi; Kayser, Richard; Thyng, Kristen M.; John, Seth G.; Boyle, Edward A.

    2016-10-01

    The Southeast Pacific Ocean is a severely understudied yet dynamic region for trace metals such as iron, since it experiences steep redox and productivity gradients in upper waters and strong hydrothermal iron inputs to deep waters. In this study, we report the dissolved iron (dFe) distribution from seven stations and Fe isotope ratios (δ56Fe) from three of these stations across a near-zonal transect from 20 to 27°S. We found elevated dFe concentrations associated with the oxygen-deficient zone (ODZ), with light δ56Fe implicating porewater fluxes of reduced Fe. However, temporal dFe variability and rapid δ56Fe shifts with depth suggest gradients in ODZ Fe source and/or redox processes vary over short-depth/spatial scales. The dFe concentrations decreased rapidly offshore, and in the upper ocean dFe was controlled by biological processes, resulting in an Fe:C ratio of 4.2 µmol/mol. Calculated vertical diffusive Fe fluxes were greater than published dust inputs to surface waters, but both were orders of magnitude lower than horizontal diffusive fluxes, which dominate dFe delivery to the gyre. The δ56Fe data in the deep sea showed evidence for a -0.2‰ Antarctic Intermediate Water end-member and a heavy δ56Fe of +0.55‰ for distally transported hydrothermal dissolved Fe from the East Pacific Rise. These heavy δ56Fe values were contrasted with the near-crustal δ56Fe recorded in the hydrothermal plume reaching Station ALOHA in the North Pacific. The heavy hydrothermal δ56Fe precludes a nanopyrite composition of hydrothermal dFe and instead suggests the presence of oxides or, more likely, binding of hydrothermal dFe by organic ligands in the distal plume.

  4. Gravimetric geoid in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. B.; Leeds, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 3708 1 x 1 deg free-air gravity anomaly averages have been used to construct a new 1 x 1 deg gravimetric geoid of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The 1 x 1 deg averages are based on a compilation of 147,000 surface ship and pendulum gravity measurements. Difference geoid undulations range from a maximum of +19 m over the Hawaiian ridge to a minimum of -31 m over the junction of the Kuril and Aleutian trenches. The Hawaiian swell is associated with a geoidal high of up to +15 m with wavelengths of about 2200 km and the topographic rises seaward of deep-sea trenches are associated with geoidal highs of up to 4 m with wavelengths of about 220-900 km. The agreement between the gravimetric geoid and Skylab-4 and Geos-3 altimeter data is close for wavelengths greater than about 300 km but poor for shorter wavelengths.

  5. Flexure and rheology of Pacific oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Johnny; Watts, Tony

    2016-04-01

    The idea of a rigid lithosphere that supports loads through flexural isostasy was first postulated in the late 19th century. Since then, there has been much effort to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of the lithosphere's flexural rigidity, and to understand how these variations are linked to its rheology. We have used flexural modelling to first re-assess the variation in the rigidity of oceanic lithosphere with its age at the time of loading, and then to constrain mantle rheology by testing the predictions of laboratory-derived flow laws. A broken elastic plate model was used to model trench-normal, ensemble-averaged profiles of satellite-derived gravity at the trench-outer rise system of circum-Pacific subduction zones, where an inverse procedure was used to find the best-fit Te and loading conditions. The results show a first-order increase in Te with plate age, which is best fit by the depth to the 400 ± 35°C plate-cooling isotherm. Fits to the observed gravity are significantly improved by an elastic plate that weakens landward of the outer rise, which suggests that bending-induced plate weakening is a ubiquitous feature of circum-Pacific subduction zones. Two methods were used to constrain mantle rheology. In the first, the Te derived by modelling flexural observations was compared to the Te predicted by laboratory-derived yield strength envelopes. In the second, flexural observations were modelled using elastic-plastic plates with laboratory-derived, depth-dependent yield strength. The results show that flow laws for low-temperature plasticity of dry olivine provide a good fit to the observations at circum-Pacific subduction zones, but are much too strong to fit observations of flexure in the Hawaiian Islands region. We suggest that this discrepancy can be explained by differences in the timescale of loading combined with moderate thermal rejuvenation of the Hawaiian lithosphere.

  6. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MCCLUSKY using BT and XBT casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean and other seas from 24 July 1992 to 10 December 1992 (NODC Accession 9300003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MCCLUSKY in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, East / South...

  7. Climate variability and predictability associated with the Indo-Pacific Oceanic Channel Dynamics in the CCSM4 Coupled System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Xu, Peng; Xu, Tengfei

    2017-01-01

    An experiment using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4), a participant of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 (CMIP5), is analyzed to assess the skills of this model in simulating and predicting the climate variabilities associated with the oceanic channel dynamics across the Indo-Pacific Oceans. The results of these analyses suggest that the model is able to reproduce the observed lag correlation between the oceanic anomalies in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean and those in the cold tongue in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean at a time lag of 1 year. This success may be largely attributed to the successful simulation of the interannual variations of the Indonesian Throughflow, which carries the anomalies of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) into the western equatorial Pacific Ocean to produce subsurface temperature anomalies, which in turn propagate to the eastern equatorial Pacific to generate ENSO. This connection is termed the "oceanic channel dynamics" and is shown to be consistent with the observational analyses. However, the model simulates a weaker connection between the IOD and the interannual variability of the Indonesian Throughflow transport than found in the observations. In addition, the model overestimates the westerly wind anomalies in the western-central equatorial Pacific in the year following the IOD, which forces unrealistic upwelling Rossby waves in the western equatorial Pacific and downwelling Kelvin waves in the east. This assessment suggests that the CCSM4 coupled climate system has underestimated the oceanic channel dynamics and overestimated the atmospheric bridge processes.

  8. Accretion and Subduction of Oceanic Lithosphere: 2D and 3D Seismic Studies of Off-Axis Magma Lenses at East Pacific Rise 9°37-40'N Area and Downgoing Juan de Fuca Plate at Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuoshuo

    Two thirds of the Earth's lithosphere is covered by the ocean. The oceanic lithosphere is formed at mid-ocean ridges, evolves and interacts with the overlying ocean for millions of years, and is eventually consumed at subduction zones. In this thesis, I use 2D and 3D multichannel seismic (MCS) data to investigate the accretionary and hydrothermal process on the ridge flank of the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9°37-40'N and the structure of the downgoing Juan de Fuca plate at the Cascadia subduction zone offshore Oregon and Washington. Using 3D multichannel seismic (MCS) data, I image a series of off-axis magma lenses (OAML) in the middle or lower crust, 2-10 km from the ridge axis at EPR 9°37-40'N. The large OAMLs are associated with Moho travel time anomalies and local volcanic edifices above them, indicating off-axis magmatism contributes to crustal accretion though both intrusion and eruption (Chapter 1). To assess the effect of OAMLs on the upper crustal structure, I conduct 2-D travel time tomography on downward continued MCS data along two across-axis lines above a prominent OAML in our study area. I find higher upper crustal velocity in a region ~ 2 km wide above this OAML compared with the surrounding crust. I attribute these local anomalies to enhanced precipitation of alteration minerals in the pore space of upper crust associated with high-temperature off-axis hydrothermal circulation driven by the OAML (Chapter 2). At Cascadia, a young and hot end-member of the global subduction system, the state of hydration of the downgoing Juan de Fuca (JdF) plate is important to a number of subduction processes, yet is poorly known. As local zones of higher porosity and permeability, faults constitute primary conduits for seawater to enter the crust and potentially uppermost mantle. From pre-stack time migrated MCS images, I observe pervasive faulting in the sediment section up to 200 km from the deformation front. Yet faults with large throw and

  9. Chlorophyll a and primary production in the northeastern Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEN Xingqun; LIN Rongeheng

    2008-01-01

    The primary production and chlorophyll a concentration of picoplankton (0.2~2μm),nanoplankton (2~20 μm) and micro- plankton (20~200 μm) are described in the northeastern Pacific Ocean near the Hawaii Islands during the six survey cruises from 1996 to 2003:DY85-4,DY95-7,DY95-8,DY95-10,DY105-11 and DY105-12.14.The primary production of carbon was in range from 76.8 to 191.9 mg/(m2·d) with an average of 116.1 mg/( m2·d) in the east region,and from 73.1 to 222.5 mg/(m2·d) with an average of 127.1 mg/( m2·d) in the west region,similar to the other oligotrophic regions of the Pacific Ocean investigated.The chlorophyll a concentration was about 0.1 mg/m3 from the surface to the 50 m depth,about 0.2-0.4 mg/m3from 50 to 100 m,and gradually decreased below the 100 m depth.The picoplankton accounted for more than 70% of the total chlorophyll a in the upper layer (surface to 125 m),but it decreased to less than 50% in depth below 125 m.The na- noplankton and microplankton combined only accounted for less than 30% of the total chlorophyll a in the upper layer,but showed a more even vertical distribution.

  10. Phylogenetic and Pigment Phenotypical Diversification of Synechococcus Community in the Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Xia, X.

    2016-02-01

    Synechococcus, a group of phylogenetically and phenotypically (pigment) diverse unicellular cyanobacteria, are important primary producers in marine environments. Here we reported the abundance, pigmentation genetic diversity, and taxonomic diversity of Synechococcus in the western Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas. The abundance of Synechococcus was low in the subarctic ocean and the South China Sea, slightly higher in the western subtropical Pacific and the Tokara Strait, and the highest in the Japan Sea and the East China Sea. Synechococcus with different phycobiliprotein composition co-occurred in the western Pacific Ocean, but their abundance showed apparent geographic differentiation. Two types of CA4 gene island which involved in chromatic acclimation (CA) process were detected in the western Pacific Ocean with geographic segregation; type CA4-A mainly occurred in the subarctic ocean, while type CA4-B dominated in mid-latitude. The distribution of lineages clades I and II in the western Pacific Ocean followed the global distribution pattern that the former dominated in temperate cold waters, while the latter dominated in tropical/subtropical warm waters. Clade IV Synechococcus, which often co-occur with clade I according to previous reports, were rarely found in this study. Clades III, VI, VII, WPC1 and subcluster 5.3 were also the major Synechococcus lineages in the western Pacific Ocean warm waters, but with relatively narrower niche than that of clade II. Our results show that Synechococcus communities with similar phylogenetic composition could contain phenotypes with different pigment composition, and vice versa, suggesting that phylogenetic and pigmentation phenotypic diversity of Synechococcus are raised independently.

  11. Status of marine mammals in the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the status or marine mammals in the eastern north Pacific Ocean. Species covered are: sea otter, northern, Guadalupe fur seals, stellar,...

  12. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity.

  13. INTERDECADAL VARIATIONS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN NORTH PACIFIC SSTA AND EAST ASIAN SUMMER MONSOON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 何金海

    2001-01-01

    Identification of key SST zones is essential in predicting the weather / climate systems in East Asia. With the SST data by the U.K. Meteorological Office and 40-year geopotential height and wind fields by NCAR / NCEP, the relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon and north Pacific SSTA is studied, which reveals their interactions are of interdecadal variation. Before mid-1970's, the north Pacific SSTA acts upon the summer monsoon in East Asia through a great circle wavetrain and results in more rainfall in the summer of the northern part of China. After 1976, the SSTA weakens the wavetrain and no longer influences the precipitation in North China due to loosened links with the East Asian summer monsoon. It can be drawn that the key SST zones having potential effects on the weather / climate systems in East Asia do not stay in one particular area of the ocean but rather shift elsewhere as governed by the interdecadal variations of the air-sea interactions. It is hoped that the study would help shed light on the prediction of drought / flood spans in China.

  14. Identification of CO2 disposal locations in an ocean general circulation model of the North Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yongfu; AOKI Shigeaki; HARADA Koh

    2009-01-01

    A basin-wide ocean general circulation model of the North Pacific is used to identify which location is more effi-cient for ocean CO2 sequestration in the North Pacific. Four injection depths at each one of fifteen locations are chosen. In terms of effectiveness index (EI) and escape factor (EF), it is clear that the effectiveness increases with increasing latitude at the end of the 50 a injection period. Site-by-site differences in the EI can be over 9% for the 1 000 m injection depth in the western North Pacific at the end of 50 a of continuous injection. The difference is much larger for the 500 m injection. The difference decreases with increasing injection depth. However, the site-by-site difference is small for the injection in the eastern North Pacific. The sequestration is more efficient for the injection in the east than in the west. For the 500 m injection depth, the difference in ef-fectiveness between the west and the east is over 10% at the end of 50 a injection period. The largest concentra-tion of sequestered CO2 increases with increasing injection depth. For the injection in both the western and cen-tral North Pacific, the largest exchange flux always appears to be at about 42°N, 150°E, whereas for the injec-tion in the eastern area the large flux appears to be in the equatorial region (120°W).

  15. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the SE Pacific (limit -140 W) as part of the East Pacific Investigations of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere from 2001-02-01 to 2001-03-08 (NODC Accession 0000660)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the SE Pacific (limit-140 W) from from 01 February 2001 to 08 March 2001. CTD data consist of...

  16. A STUDY ON VARIABILITY OF SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN TROPICAL PACIFIC, INDIAN OCEAN AND RELATED AIR CIRCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Mao-chang; Qiao Fang-li; Mo Jun

    2003-01-01

    Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was adopted in the present paper to study the of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean and related air circulation.The results show that on the seasonal time scale, E1 Nio events can be divided into two types: the east one and the middle one.For the middle type the SST variations appear contrarily in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean, and the anomalous SST decreases in the east but increases in the northwest and south-middle of the tropical Indian Ocean, specially in the east of Madagascar Island.And vice versa.On annual time scale, when the Asian continent high gets stronger and the deepened Aleutian low shifts southeastward, both of them trigger an onset of the E1 Nio events.Contrarily, the La Nia events take place.On decadal time scale, there are two basic modes of air-sea system over the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean.Firstly, when the Asian continent high gets stronger and deepened Aleutian low shifts southeastward, the anomalous SST increases in the middle and east of the proical Pacific, extending to the subtropical regions, and so in most of the tropical Indian Ocean, specially in the northeast of Madagascar Island and nearby.And vice versa.Secondly, when the Asian continent high gets stronger in the north and the Aleutian low decreases fixedly or even disappears, the anomalous SST decreases slightly in middle of the tropical Pacific and the temperate northern Pacific but increases weakly in other regions, the anomalous SST increases in the south but decreases in the north of the tropical Indian Ocean, and the SST increases more obviously in southeast of Madagascar Island.And vice versa.The linear trends of global warming seems to play a certain role for the E1 Nio onsets.

  17. Basin-scale transport of hydrothermal dissolved metals across the South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, Joseph A.; Sedwick, Peter N.; German, Christopher R.; Jenkins, William J.; Moffett, James W.; Sohst, Bettina M.; Tagliabue, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Hydrothermal venting along mid-ocean ridges exerts an important control on the chemical composition of sea water by serving as a major source or sink for a number of trace elements in the ocean. Of these, iron has received considerable attention because of its role as an essential and often limiting nutrient for primary production in regions of the ocean that are of critical importance for the global carbon cycle. It has been thought that most of the dissolved iron discharged by hydrothermal vents is lost from solution close to ridge-axis sources and is thus of limited importance for ocean biogeochemistry. This long-standing view is challenged by recent studies which suggest that stabilization of hydrothermal dissolved iron may facilitate its long-range oceanic transport. Such transport has been subsequently inferred from spatially limited oceanographic observations. Here we report data from the US GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect (EPZT) that demonstrate lateral transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron, manganese, and aluminium from the southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) several thousand kilometres westward across the South Pacific Ocean. Dissolved iron exhibits nearly conservative (that is, no loss from solution during transport and mixing) behaviour in this hydrothermal plume, implying a greater longevity in the deep ocean than previously assumed. Based on our observations, we estimate a global hydrothermal dissolved iron input of three to four gigamoles per year to the ocean interior, which is more than fourfold higher than previous estimates. Complementary simulations with a global-scale ocean biogeochemical model suggest that the observed transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron requires some means of physicochemical stabilization and indicate that hydrothermally derived iron sustains a large fraction of Southern Ocean export production.

  18. Wind Wave Spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes from 01 March 2001 to 31 March 2001 (NODC Accession 0000437)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were collected...

  19. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl compounds in surface waters from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Minghong; Zhao, Zhen; Yin, Zhigao; Ahrens, Lutz; Huang, Peng; Cai, Minggang; Yang, Haizhen; He, Jianfeng; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Xie, Zhiyong

    2012-01-17

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were determined in 22 surface water samples (39-76°N) and three sea ice core and snow samples (77-87°N) collected from North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean during the fourth Chinese Arctic Expedition in 2010. Geographically, the average concentration of ∑PFC in surface water samples were 560 ± 170 pg L(-1) for the Northwest Pacific Ocean, 500 ± 170 pg L(-1) for the Arctic Ocean, and 340 ± 130 pg L(-1) for the Bering Sea, respectively. The perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were the dominant PFC class in the water samples, however, the spatial pattern of PFCs varied. The C(5), C(7) and C(8) PFCAs (i.e., perfluoropentanoate (PFPA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA)) were the dominant PFCs in the Northwest Pacific Ocean while in the Bering Sea the PFPA dominated. The changing in the pattern and concentrations in Pacific Ocean indicate that the PFCs in surface water were influenced by sources from the East-Asian (such as Japan and China) and North American coast, and dilution effect during their transport to the Arctic. The presence of PFCs in the snow and ice core samples indicates an atmospheric deposition of PFCs in the Arctic. The elevated PFC concentration in the Arctic Ocean shows that the ice melting had an impact on the PFC levels and distribution. In addition, the C(4) and C(5) PFCAs (i.e., perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), PFPA) became the dominant PFCs in the Arctic Ocean indicating that PFBA is a marker for sea ice melting as the source of exposure.

  20. Oceanic Control of Northeast Pacific Hurricane Activity at Interannual Timescales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-10-16

    Despite the strong dependence of the Power Dissipation Index (PDI), which is a measure of the intensity of Tropical Cyclone (TC) activity, on tropical sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), the variations in PDI are not completely explained by SST. Here we show, using an analysis of a string of observational data sets, that the variability of the thermocline depth (TD) in the east Pacific exerts a significant degree of control on the variability of PDI in that region. On average, a deep thermocline with a larger reservoir of heat favors TC intensification by reducing SST cooling while a shallow thermocline with a smaller heat reservoir promotes enhanced SST cooling that contributes to TC decay. At interannual time scales, the variability of basin-mean TD accounts for nearly 30% of the variability in the PDI during the TC season. Also, about 20% of the interannual variability in the east Pacific basin-mean TD is due to the El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a dominant climate signal in this region. This study suggests that a better understanding of the factors governing the interannual variability of the TD conditions in the east Pacific and how they may change over time, may lead to an improved projection of future east Pacific TC activity.

  1. Mid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Z; Jiang, D.

    2013-01-01

    Mid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East Asia are investigated by a set of numerical experiments performed with the version 4 of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4). With reference to the pre-industrial period, most of the mid-Holocene annual and seasonal surface-air temperature and precipitation changes are found to result from a direct response of the atmosphere to insolation forcing, while dynamic ocean and vegetation modulate regional climate of East...

  2. Interannual variability of mixed layer depth and heat storage of upper layer in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yihua; YOU Xiaobao; GUAN Yuping

    2004-01-01

    By using the upper layer data (downloaded trom the web of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography ),the interannual variability of the heat storage of upper layer(from surface to 400 m depth) and the mixed layer depth in the tropical Pacific Ocean are investigated. The abnormal signal of the warm event comes from the central and west Pacific Ocean, whereas it is regarded that the abnormal signal of the warm event comes from the east Pacific Ocean in the popular viewpoint. From the viewpoint on the evolution of the interannual variability of the mixed layer depth and the heat storage of the whole upper layer, the difference between the two types of El Nino is so smallthat it can be neglected. During these two El Nino/La Nina events(1972/1973 and 1997/1998), other than the case of the heat storage or for the mixed layer depth, the abnormal signal propagates from the central and west Pacific Ocean to the east usually by the path along the equator whereas the abnormal signal propagates from the east to the west by the path northern to the equator. For the interannual variability, the evolution of the mixed layer depth corresponds to that of the heat storage in the upper layer very well. This is quite different from the evolution of seasonality.

  3. Dynamic triggering and earthquake swarms on East Pacific Rise transform faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattania, Camilla; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Collins, John A.

    2017-01-01

    While dynamic earthquake triggering has been reported in several continental settings, offshore observations are rare. Oceanic transform faults share properties with continental geothermal areas known for dynamic triggering: high geothermal gradients, high seismicity rates, and frequent swarms. We study dynamic triggering along the East Pacific Rise by analyzing 1 year of seismicity recorded by Ocean Bottom Seismographs. By comparing the response to teleseismic waves from global earthquakes, we find triggering to be most sensitive to changes in normal stress and to preferentially occur above 0.25 kPa. The clearest example of triggering occurs on the Quebrada and Gofar faults after the Mw8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. On Gofar, triggered seismicity occurs between the rupture areas of large earthquakes, within a zone characterized by aseismic slip, abundant microseismicity, frequent swarms, and low Vp. We infer that lithological properties inhibiting rupture propagation, such as high porosity and fluid content, also favor dynamic triggering.

  4. Enhanced East Pacific Rise hydrothermal activity during the last two glacial terminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, D. C.; Asimow, P. D.; Farley, K. A.; Rooney, T. O.; Seeley, E.; Jackson, E. W.; Durham, Z. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mid-ocean ridge magmatism is driven by seafloor spreading and decompression melting of the upper mantle. Melt production is apparently modulated by glacial-interglacial changes in sea level, raising the possibility that magmatic flux acts as a negative feedback on ice-sheet size. The timing of melt variability is poorly constrained, however, precluding a clear link between ridge magmatism and Pleistocene climate transitions. Here we present well-dated sedimentary records from the East Pacific Rise that show evidence of enhanced hydrothermal activity during the last two glacial terminations. We suggest that glacial maxima and lowering of sea level caused anomalous melting in the upper mantle and that the subsequent magmatic anomalies promoted deglaciation through the release of mantle heat and carbon at mid-ocean ridges.

  5. Protozoa in the diets of Neocalanus spp. in the oceanic subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Dian J.

    Copepod species of the genus Neocalanus dominate the zooplankton biomass of the oceanic subarctic Pacific Ocean. Neocalanus spp. populations in the subarctic Pacific environment are successful: they feed, accumulate lipid, and persist from year to year. Prior experimental observations derived from a variety of methods indicated that, although their functional morphology is such that they clear the small phytoplankton cells characteristic of the oceanic subarctic Pacific environment efficiently, Neocalanus spp. do not consume sufficient phytoplankton to meet even basic metabolic requirements in that environment. Hence, their success in the subarctic Pacific must depend on their ability to obtain nutrition from other sources. As part of the SUPER ( SUbarctic Pacific Ecosystem Research) program, experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that N. plumchrus and N. cristatus obtain a significant portion of their nutrition from planktonic Protozoa. The experiments demonstrate that Protozoa alone do not provide sufficient nutrition for N. cristatus to meet its basic metabolic needs. Protozoa constitute the major dietary component of N. plumchrus however, in agreement with the predictions of FROST'S (1987) model of the subarctic Pacific ecosystem. At a minimum this diet permits N. plumchrus to meet basic metabolic requirements. Copepod grazing activities appear to be sufficient to control protozoan stocks in the oceanic subarctic Pacific during late spring and early summer when Neocalanus spp. inhabit the upper water column.

  6. The Oldest from Baikal to the Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Sharavina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the Temple of Dormition of the Mother of God in Kalinino village (Nerchinsky District, Zabaikalsky Krai, the oldest stone building from Lake Baikal to the Pacific Ocean. The author questions the decision relating to conservation of the temple, the project of which does not eliminate the main cause of its destruction.

  7. Anatomizing the Ocean's role in maintaining the pacific decadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia-Yuh; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2014-05-01

    The role of ocean dynamics in maintaining the Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) was investigated based on simulation results from the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean general circulation model developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A long-term control simulation of the LANL-POP model forced by a reconstructed coupled wind stress field over the period 1949-2001 showed that the ocean model not only simulates a reasonable climatology, but also produces a climate variability pattern very similar to observed PDV. In the Equatorial Pacific (EP) region, the decadal warming is confined in the thin surface layer. Beneath the surface, a strong compensating cooling, accompanied by a basin-wide-scale overturning circulation in opposition to the mean flow, occurs in the thermocline layer. In the North Pacific (NP) region, the decadal variability nonetheless exhibits a relatively monotonous pattern, characterized by the dominance of anomalous cooling and eastward flows. A term balance analysis of the perturbation heat budget equation was conducted to highlight the ocean's role in maintaining the PDV-like variability over the EP and NP regions. The analyses showed that strong oceanic adjustment must occur in the equatorial thermocline in association with the anomalous overturning circulation in order to maintain the PDV-like variability, including a flattening of the equatorial thermocline slpoe and an enhancement of the upper ocean's stratification (stability), as the climate shifts from a colder regime toward a warmer one. On the other hand, the oceanic response in the extratropical region seems to be confined to the surface layer, without much participation from the subsurface oceanic dynamics.

  8. Jiamusi Leading to the Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    SANJIANG Plain in eastern Heilongjiang Province was formed from the alluvium of the winding and rolling Heilong, Songhua, and Wusuli rivers. Located in the hinterland of the fertile Sanjiang Plain, Jiamusi faces Russia’s far east region on its opposite bank, and a border measuring 438 kilometers.

  9. Vertical distribution of (236)U in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigl, R; Steier, P; Sakata, K; Sakaguchi, A

    2017-04-01

    The first extensive study on (236)U in the North Pacific Ocean has been conducted. The vertical distribution of (236)U/(238)U isotopic ratios and the (236)U concentrations were analysed on seven depth profiles, and large variations with depth were found. The range of (236)U/(238)U isotopic ratios was from (0.09 ± 0.03) × 10(-10) to (14.1 ± 2.2) × 10(-10), which corresponds to (236)U concentrations of (0.69 ± 0.24) × 10(5) atoms/kg and (119 ± 21) × 10(5) atoms/kg, respectively. The variations in (236)U concentrations could mainly be attributed to the different water masses in the North Pacific Ocean and their formation processes. Uranium-236 inventories on the water column of each sampling station were calculated and varied between (3.89 ± 0.08) × 10(12) atoms/m(2) and (7.03 ± 0.50) × 10(12) atoms/m(2), which is lower than in former studies on comparable latitudes in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Sea of Japan. The low inventories of (236)U found for the North Pacific Ocean in this study can be explained by the lack of additional input sources of artificial radionuclides, apart from global and regional/local fallout. This study expands the use of (236)U as oceanographic circulation tracer to yet another ocean basin and shows that this isotope can be used for tracing circulation patterns of water masses in the Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental Impact of Artificial Harbors in Tropic Pacific Oceanic Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chunting; Russell Howorth; HE Chaoxiong

    2004-01-01

    For loading and unloading of boats or ships round the clock, the access channel and its expanded part-a port are excavated on the lagoon and ocean reef flats in the tropic Pacific oceanic islands. Without moles, the access channel-port traps sediment and further transports it to the ocean or lagoon, resulting in coastal erosion. The wide uneven reef flat with a large catchment area tends to cause the formation of tide currents in the channel-port, while strong waves on the narrow even reef flat can give rise to rip currents. An access channel-port with a mole on one side or two moles on both sides results in less erosion. A model is recommended as an artificial harbor on the ocean coast, which is an excavated port surrounded by a mole, connected with the ocean by an access channel and with the shore by a bridge-shaped pier.

  11. Deep and bottom water export from the Southern Ocean to the Pacific over the past 38 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Flierdt, T.; Frank, M.; Halliday, A.N.; Hein, J.R.; Hattendorf, B.; Gunther, D.; Kubik, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The application of radiogenic isotopes to the study of Cenozoic circulation patterns in the South Pacific Ocean has been hampered by the fact that records from only equatorial Pacific deep water have been available. We present new Pb and Nd isotope time series for two ferromanganese crusts that grew from equatorial Pacific bottom water (D137-01, "Nova," 7219 m water depth) and southwest Pacific deep water (63KD, "Tasman," 1700 m water depth). The crusts were dated using 10Be/9Be ratios combined with constant Co-flux dating and yield time series for the past 38 and 23 Myr, respectively. The surface Nd and Pb isotope distributions are consistent with the present-day circulation pattern, and therefore the new records are considered suitable to reconstruct Eocene through Miocene paleoceanography for the South Pacific. The isotope time series of crusts Nova and Tasman suggest that equatorial Pacific deep water and waters from the Southern Ocean supplied the dissolved trace metals to both sites over the past 38 Myr. Changes in the isotopic composition of crust Nova are interpreted to reflect development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and changes in Pacific deep water circulation caused by the build up of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The Nd isotopic composition of the shallower water site in the southwest Pacific appears to have been more sensitive to circulation changes resulting from closure of the Indonesian seaway. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Share Information across the Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ms.Mayo Tsirigotis Oge,Director of Office of Transportation and Air Quality,Environmental Protection Agency of United States"flew across the Pacifie Ocean to share the experiences and exchange information with China".That was what she said when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.Yes,to ioin the International Forum on Chinese Automotive Industry Development was an important stagc to make communications across the cotmtries and continents.

  13. Calls reveal population structure of blue whales across the southeast Indian Ocean and the southwest Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, Naysa E; Tripovich, Joy S; Klinck, Holger; Nieukirk, Sharon L; Mellinger, David K; Dziak, Robert P; Rogers, Tracey L

    2015-11-24

    For effective species management, understanding population structure and distribution is critical. However, quantifying population structure is not always straightforward. Within the Southern Hemisphere, the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) complex is extremely diverse but difficult to study. Using automated detector methods, we identified "acoustic populations" of whales producing region-specific call types. We examined blue whale call types in passive acoustic data at sites spanning over 7,370 km across the southeast Indian Ocean and southwest Pacific Ocean (SWPO) from 2009 to 2012. In the absence of genetic resolution, these acoustic populations offer unique information about the blue whale population complex. We found that the Australian continent acts as a geographic boundary, separating Australia and New Zealand blue whale acoustic populations at the junction of the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins. We located blue whales in previously undocumented locations, including the far SWPO, in the Tasman Sea off the east coast of Australia, and along the Lau Basin near Tonga. Our understanding of population dynamics across this broad scale has significant implications to recovery and conservation management for this endangered species, at a regional and global scale.

  14. Mineralogy of smectites in the surface sediments from the East Pacific and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS are employed to analyze smectites in the clay fraction of the surface sediments from the East Pacific. It is shown from the XRD results that the clay fraction consists of about 20% smectites. Three types of smectites are identified, Fe-rich (TypeⅠ), Fe, Mg-rich (Type Ⅱ) and Na,Ca smectite (Type Ⅲ), and most of them are not well-crystallized. TypeⅠ is widely distributed in sediments, showing honeycomblike in the SEM, and aggregated or dispersive hairlike, or cloudy assemblage with a bit curl near its edge in the TEM. This type is considered to be typomorphic type of authigenic smectite in the East Pacific. TypeⅡ is similar to TypeⅠ in micromorphology in the TEM, showing a transition micronite, while Type Ⅲ is tabletlike in the TEM with an unclear edge. TypeⅠ may be altered from volcanics and some of them even precipitated from the low subthermal water. TypeⅡ could also be form- ed in the ocean floor, while Type Ⅲ comes from dry and distant continental area. This study suggests that the characteristic of chemical composition and morphology of smectite may give a clue to understand sediment source, origin of minerals and sedimentation in the deep sea.

  15. Mineralogy of smectites in the surface sediments from the East Pacific and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHaiping; SHIXuefa; CHENJin; XUEYongfang; HEJinfa; ZHUDesheng; XINChunying; WEIJianwei

    2003-01-01

    XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS are employed to analyze smectites in the clay fraction of the surface sediments from the East Pacific. It is shown from the XRD results that the clay fraction consists of about 20% smectites.Three types of smectites are identified, Fe-rich (Type Ⅰ), Fe,Mg-rich (Type Ⅱ) and Na,Ca smectite (Type Ⅲ), and most of them are not well-crystallized. Type Ⅰ is widely distributed in sediments, showing honeycomblike in the SEM, and aggregated or dispersive hairlike, or cloudy assemblage with a bit curl near its edge in the TEM. This type is considered to be typomorphic type of authigenic smectite in the East Pacific. Type Ⅱ is similar to Type Ⅰ in micromorphology in the TEM, showing a transition micronite, while Type Ⅲ is tabletlike in the TEM with an unclear edge. Type Ⅰ may be altered from voleanics and some of them even precipitated from the low subthermal water. Type Ⅱ could also be formed in the ocean floor, while Type Ⅲ comes from dry and distant continental area. This study suggests that the characteristic of chemical composition and morphology of smectite may give a clue to understand sediment source, origin of minerals and sedimentation in the deep sea.

  16. Investigating the Vertical Distribution and Source Attribution of Black Carbon over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Tao, S.

    2014-12-01

    Long-range transport of black carbon (BC) aerosols to the Pacific Ocean can potentially play a significant role in changing the marine climate through influences on temperature and cloud profiles and the top-of-atmosphere and surface energy balance. Therefore, quantitatively understanding sources of BC over the Pacific, particularly at different altitudes, is of great importance. In this study, we simulate the transport of thirteen continental BC tracers with a variety of e-folding aging times (few hours to 1 month) using the global chemical transport model MOZART-4. We then optimize BC aging rate according to different source regions by constraining the vertical profile of BC concentrations to the HAIPER Polo-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO). We find that for all HIPPO deployments, a shorter BC aging timescale (less than half day) for tropical and mid-latitude tracers and a longer aging timescale (2-10 days) for high-latitude tracers (except summer) in most cases significantly reduces model biases. By comparing the source-receptor relationship between the optimized BC tracers over the Pacific, we find that during 2009-2011, East Asia contributes most to the BC loading over the Northern Pacific in all seasons except summer, while South American, African and Australian tracers dominate the BC loadings over the Southern Pacific. In addition, unlike other tracers, African BC is a dominant contributor over a larger area in the free troposphere versus the boundary layer. Our findings indicate that the aging rate of BC strongly depends on source location and season, which may significantly influence the contribution of different source regions to BC forcing over the Pacific Ocean.

  17. Seismic Imaging in Three Dimensions on the East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, John C.; Carbotte, Suzanne; Nedimovic, Mladen; Canales, Juan Pablo; Carton, Hélène

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. R/V Marcus G. Langseth (operated by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University) sailed in late June 2008 from Manzanillo, Mexico, to the 9°50'N area of the East Pacific Rise (EPR), a site of vigorous hydrothermal venting (Figure 1). The cruise, MGL0812, the first research deployment of the Langseth's advanced three-dimensional (3-D) seismic imaging capability, had as its objective obtaining high-resolution images of crustal structure beneath the ridge crest and adjacent regions. The benefits of 3-D seismic imaging had been outlined in a U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored workshop in 2005 [Mutter and Moore, 2005]. Short courses on techniques of 3-D survey planning were given at AGU Fall Meetings in 2007 and 2008. This brief report describes experiences during the cruise, with the objective of aiding future researchers in planning cruises using Langseth's unique imaging capability for 3-D.

  18. Subduction of Fukushima accident derived radiocaesium in the Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Res. Inst. (Japan); Hamajima, Y. [LLRL, Kanazawa University (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The oceans are important sinks of anthropogenic pollutants, such as radionuclides, heavy metals and organic compounds, that are mainly atmospherically derived and/or directly discharged, but there is little information on their overall transport process during several decades after their injection. The bulk of the anthropogenic radionuclide {sup 137}Cs present in the oceans today was injected about five decades ago from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and total inventory of {sup 137}Cs in the North Pacific Ocean was 69 PBq just before the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident. FNPP1 accident occurred on 11 March 2011, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were released into the air and ocean from three cores of FNPP1 and about 15 PBq of {sup 137}Cs were injected in the North Pacific Ocean. Until the end of 2012, a main body of Fukushima derived radiocaesium was located at around 40 deg. N and between 160 deg. E and 170 deg. W and not to reach western coast of American continent. We also found subsurface maximum of Fukushima derived {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs at about 400 meters depth due to subduction in 2012. Regarding with {sup 137}Cs activity in surface water at the center of the North Pacific Ocean, it is already close to pre-Fukushima level, a few Bq m{sup -3}, while 80 % of total water column inventory of {sup 137}Cs was already below 200 meters depth at the region of subduction. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  19. Effect of the East Siberian barrier on the echinoderm dispersal in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, A. N.; Dilman, A. B.

    2010-06-01

    The distributional patterns were analyzed for 43 species and 33 genera of echinoderms in the Laptev and East Siberian seas and for 59 species and 35 genera of the asteroid species in the Arctic Ocean. The probable colonization route through the Arctic was suggested for each species based on (1) the distributional patterns of the Arctic species, (2) the distributional patterns of the closely related species, and (3) the location of the center of the diversity of the species belonging to a certain genus. The species of the Pacific origin prevailed in the asteroid fauna of the Arctic seas. The asteroid species diversity and the ratio of the species of Pacific origin decreased from the Barents towards the Laptev Sea and increased, respectively, in the East Siberian and the Chukchee seas. The species range limits were found for 19 species in the East Siberian Sea compared to only 3 species in the Laptev Sea. The East Siberian Sea was a limiting area for the dispersal of four species groups: (1) invaders from the North Pacific dispersing along the Asian coast of the Arctic (shallow-water stenobathic species), (2) invaders from the North Pacific dispersing along the American coast of the Arctic and further on back into the Arctic along the Eurasian coast (secondarily Atlantic species); (3) originally invaders from the Northern Atlantic; (4) representatives of the Arctic autochthonous fauna. A great width of the biotic boundaries (i.e., the zones of the species range boundaries crowding) was typical for the Arctic Basin, which was a sign of their young geological age.

  20. Mixed layer modeling in the East Pacific warm pool during 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Roekel, Luke P. [Colorado State University, Department of Atmospheric Science, Fort Collins, CO (United States); University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Maloney, Eric D. [Colorado State University, Department of Atmospheric Science, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Two vertical mixing models (the modified dynamic instability model of Price et al.; PWP, and K-Profile Parameterizaton; KPP) are used to analyze intraseasonal sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the northeast tropical Pacific near the Costa Rica Dome during boreal summer of 2002. Anomalies in surface latent heat flux and shortwave radiation are the root cause of the three intraseasonal SST oscillations of order 1 C amplitude that occur during this time, although surface stress variations have a significant impact on the third event. A slab ocean model that uses observed monthly varying mixed layer depths and accounts for penetrating shortwave radiation appears to well-simulate the first two SST oscillations, but not the third. The third oscillation is associated with small mixed layer depths (<5 m) forced by, and acting with, weak surface stresses and a stabilizing heat flux that cause a transient spike in SST of 2 C. Intraseasonal variations in freshwater flux due to precipitation and diurnal flux variability do not significantly impact these intraseasonal oscillations. These results suggest that a slab ocean coupled to an atmospheric general circulation model, as used in previous studies of east Pacific intraseasonal variability, may not be entirely adequate to realistically simulate SST variations. Further, while most of the results from the PWP and KPP models are similar, some important differences that emerge are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Impacts of Interannual Ocean Circulation Variability on Japanese Eel Larval Migration in the Western North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Sheng, Jinyu; Ohashi, Kyoko; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Miyazawa, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese eel larvae hatch near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain and travel through the North Equatorial Current (NEC), the Kuroshio, and the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) region during their shoreward migration toward East Asia. The interannual variability of circulation over the subtropical and tropical regions of the western North Pacific Ocean is affected by the Philippines-Taiwan Oscillation (PTO). This study examines the effect of the PTO on the Japanese eel larval migration routes using a three-dimensional (3D) particle tracking method, including vertical and horizontal swimming behavior. The 3D circulation and hydrography used for particle tracking are from the ocean circulation reanalysis produced by the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2 (JCOPE2). Our results demonstrate that bifurcation of the NEC and the strength and spatial variation of the Kuroshio affect the distribution and migration of eel larvae. During the positive phase of PTO, more virtual eels ("v-eels") can enter the Kuroshio to reach the south coast of Japan and more v-eels reach the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait; the stronger and more offshore swing of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea leads to fewer eels entering the East China Sea and the onshore movement of the Kuroshio to the south of Japan brings the eels closer to the Japanese coast. Significant differences in eel migration routes and distributions regulated by ocean circulation in different PTO phases can also affect the otolith increment. The estimated otolith increment suggests that eel age tends to be underestimated after six months of simulation due to the cooler lower layer temperature. Underestimation is more significant in the positive PTO years due to the wide distribution in higher latitudes than in the negative PTO years.

  2. Impacts of Interannual Ocean Circulation Variability on Japanese Eel Larval Migration in the Western North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Chang

    Full Text Available The Japanese eel larvae hatch near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain and travel through the North Equatorial Current (NEC, the Kuroshio, and the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC region during their shoreward migration toward East Asia. The interannual variability of circulation over the subtropical and tropical regions of the western North Pacific Ocean is affected by the Philippines-Taiwan Oscillation (PTO. This study examines the effect of the PTO on the Japanese eel larval migration routes using a three-dimensional (3D particle tracking method, including vertical and horizontal swimming behavior. The 3D circulation and hydrography used for particle tracking are from the ocean circulation reanalysis produced by the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2 (JCOPE2. Our results demonstrate that bifurcation of the NEC and the strength and spatial variation of the Kuroshio affect the distribution and migration of eel larvae. During the positive phase of PTO, more virtual eels ("v-eels" can enter the Kuroshio to reach the south coast of Japan and more v-eels reach the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait; the stronger and more offshore swing of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea leads to fewer eels entering the East China Sea and the onshore movement of the Kuroshio to the south of Japan brings the eels closer to the Japanese coast. Significant differences in eel migration routes and distributions regulated by ocean circulation in different PTO phases can also affect the otolith increment. The estimated otolith increment suggests that eel age tends to be underestimated after six months of simulation due to the cooler lower layer temperature. Underestimation is more significant in the positive PTO years due to the wide distribution in higher latitudes than in the negative PTO years.

  3. Indicators of Marine Pollution in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tanya M; Takada, Hideshige

    2017-08-01

    The complex nature of ocean pollution underscores the utility in identifying and characterizing a limited number of "indicators" that enables scientists and managers to track trends over space and time. This paper introduces a special issue on indicators of marine pollution in the North Pacific Ocean and builds on a scientific session that was held at the North Pacific Marine Science Organization. The special issue highlights studies using a variety of indicators to provide insight into the identification of legacy and emerging contaminants, the ranking of priority pollutants from various sources, and the effects of contaminants on ecosystem health in the North Pacific Ocean. Examples include the use of mussels to illustrate spatial and temporal trends of a number of contaminants following the 2011 tsunami in Japan, the use of molecular marker (linear alkylbenzenes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) profiles to identify pollution sources, and the use of plastic resin pellets to illustrate spatial trends of petroleum pollution around the world. Stable isotopes were used to strengthen the utility of the Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) as an indicator of marine pollution. Examples also demonstrate the development and application of biomarker approaches, including gene transcripts, oxidative stress, estradiol, hatchability, and respiration and swimming behavior abnormalities, as a function of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, sulfur-diesel, Pinghu crude oil, galaxolide and antifouling biocides. We provide a brief review of indicators of marine pollution, identify research gaps, and summarize key findings from the articles published within the issue. This special issue represents the first compilation of research pertaining to marine pollution indicators in the North Pacific Ocean and provides guidance to inform mitigation and monitoring efforts of contaminants in the region.

  4. Heat and salt transport throughout the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-11-01

    Absolute geostrophic currents in the North Pacific Ocean are calculated using the P-vector method and gridded Argo profiling data from January 2004 to December 2012. Three-dimensional structures and seasonal variability of meridional heat transport (MHT) and meridional salt transport (MST) are analyzed. The results show that geostrophic and Ekman components are generally opposite in sign, with the southward geostrophic component dominating in the subtropics and the northward Ekman component dominating in the tropics. In combination with the net surface heat flux and the MST through the Bering Strait, the MHT and MST of the western boundary currents (WBCs) are estimated for the first time. The results suggest that the WBCs are of great importance in maintaining the heat and salt balance of the North Pacific. The total interior MHT and MST in the tropics show nearly the same seasonal variability as that of the Ekman components, consistent with the variability of zonal wind stress. The geostrophic MHT in the tropics is mainly concentrated in the upper layers, while MST with large amplitude and annual variation can extend much deeper. This suggests that shallow processes dominate MHT in the North Pacific, while MST can be affected by deep ocean circulation. In the extratropical ocean, both MHT and MST are weak. However, there is relatively large and irregular seasonal variability of geostrophic MST, suggesting the importance of the geostrophic circulation in the MST of that area.

  5. ENSO and East Asian winter monsoon relationship modulation associated with the anomalous northwest Pacific anticyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Won; An, Soon-Il; Jun, Sang-Yoon; Park, Hey-Jin; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Using observational datasets and numerical model experiments, the mechanism on the slowly varying change in the relationship between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is investigated. The decadal-window (11-, 15-, and 21-year) moving correlations show a significant change in the boreal wintertime ENSO-EAWM relationship between two sub-periods of 1976‒1992 and 1997‒2013. Such recent change in ENSO-EAWM relationship is mainly attributed to the changes in the intensity and zonal location of the anomalous lower-tropospheric northwest Pacific anticyclone (NWP-AC). NWP-AC commonly develops near the region of the Philippine Sea during the ENSO's peak phase and plays an important role of bridging the tropical convection and mid-latitude teleconnection. On one hand, the intensity of the NWP-AC is influenced by the interdecadal variation in a linkage between ENSO and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability, referring that a strong connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans results in the strengthening of NWP-AC response to ENSO. On the other hand, the zonal displacement of the NWP-AC is associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). That is, the tropical Pacific mean state (i.e., zonal SST gradient between climatologically warm western Pacific and cold eastern Pacific)—strengthened by either the negative PDO phase or the positive AMO phase—drives the anomalous ENSO-induced convection to be shifted to the west. With this westward shift, the zonal center of the NWP-AC also migrates westward over the Philippine Islands and exerts stronger connection between ENSO and EAWM. In contrast, the relaxed zonal SST contrast associated with either the positive PDO phase or the negative AMO phase tends to exhibit weaker ENSO-EAWM relationship via both of eastward shifted zonal centers of the anomalous ENSO-induced convection and the NWP-AC. Finally, a

  6. Dynamics of a seafloor-spreading episode at the East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yen Joe; Tolstoy, Maya; Waldhauser, Felix; Wilcock, William S. D.

    2016-12-01

    Seafloor spreading is largely unobserved because 98 per cent of the global mid-ocean-ridge system is below the ocean surface. Our understanding of the dynamic processes that control seafloor spreading is thus inferred largely from geophysical observations of spreading events on land at Afar in East Africa and Iceland. However, these are slow-spreading centres influenced by mantle plumes. The roles of magma pressure and tectonic stress in the development of seafloor spreading are still unclear. Here we use seismic observations to show that the most recent eruption at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise just North of the Equator initiated at a melt-rich segment about 5 kilometres long. The change in static stress then promoted almost-concurrent rupturing along at least 35 kilometres of the ridge axis, where tectonic stress had built up to a critical level, triggering magma movement. The location of impulsive seismic events indicative of lava reaching the seafloor suggests that lava subsequently erupted from multiple isolated magma lenses (reservoir chambers) with variable magma ascent rates, mostly within 48 hours. Therefore, even at magmatically robust fast-spreading ridges, a substantial portion of the spreading may be due to tectonic stress building up to a critical level rather than magma overpressure in the underlying magma lenses.

  7. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ATLANTIS during cruise AT15-63 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-03-15 to 2010-04-14 (NODC Accession 0103918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0103918 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ATLANTIS during cruise AT15-63 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  8. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ATLANTIS during cruise AT15-42 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-01-09 to 2009-02-02 (NODC Accession 0103871)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0103871 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ATLANTIS during cruise AT15-42 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  9. Physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1007 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-05-17 to 2010-06-16 (NODC Accession 0089615)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0089615 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1007 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  10. Physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN195-03 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-01-12 to 2009-02-23 (NODC Accession 0104265)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104265 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN195-03 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  11. Ocean circulation in the tropical Indo-Pacific during early Pliocene (5.6 - 4.2 Ma): Paleobiogeographic and isotopic evidence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Srinivasan; D K Sinha

    2000-09-01

    A Comparison of late Neogene planktic foraminferal biogeography and stable isotopic records of shallow dwelling and deep dwelling planktic foraminifera from DSDP sites 214 (Ninetyeast Ridge, northeast Indian Ocean) and 586B (ontong-Java Plateau, western Equatorial Pacific) provides a clue to the nature of the ocean circulation in the tropical Indo-Pacific during early Pliocene. The Present study reveals that the late Neogene planktic foraminiferal data from the eastern and western sides of the Indonesian Seaway are very similar. The only distinct inter-ocean difference however is the absence of Pulleniatina spectablis from the Indian Ocean. This species makes its first evolutionary appearance in the Equatorial Pacific at about 5.6 Ma (Early Gilbert reversed) and ranges up to 4.2 Ma (Top Conhiti subchron). The complete absence of Pulleniatina spectablis from the Indian Ocean is attributed to blocking of westward flow of tropical waters of the Pacific to the Indian Ocean resulting in a major change in the tropical Pacific and Indian oceans during 5.6 to 4.2 ma. In order to understand the nature of this blockage, isotopic depth ranking of selected planktic foraminifera and thus may be interpreted that the shallow sills that mark the Seaway in modern times were present as early as 5.6 Ma. The distribution of Pulleniatina spectablis throughout the Equatorial Pacific reveals that Modern Equatorial Pacific Under Current (Cromwell Current) flowing towards east at a depth of 200-300 m (which is also the depth habitat of Pulleniatina spectablis) was present at the beginning of the Pliocene (5.6 Ma). As a dequel to the blocking of the Indonesian Seaway and the resultant interruption in the flow of central Equatorial Current System of the Pacific to the west there was an increase in the western Pacific Warm Pool Waters and strengthening of the gyral circulation in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. This eventually triggered the intensification of the Asian Monsoon System.

  12. Ship Radar Observations of a Developing Hurricane in the East Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, Robert; Petersen, Walter A.; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Fairall, Chris W.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the recently completed East Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System (EPIC) field program, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown (RHB) was deployed in the east Pacific Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) for approximately 3 weeks near 10 deg. N, 95 deg. W. One of the principal objectives of the EPIC-ITCZ program was to observe the modulation of convection by synoptic-scale easterly waves and the air-sea coupling process in this poorly sampled region of the east Pacific. Data from the experiment will be used as validation to improve forecast models. The RHB carried a variety of platforms during EPIC to sample atmospheric and oceanic phenomena, including a scanning C-band Doppler radar, radiation flux instrumentation, air-sea flux system, Doppler lidar, 35 GHz cloud radar, UHF wind profiler, sea surface temperature (SST) sensors, as well as standard surface meteorological instrumentation and a suite of rain gauges. This presentation will focus on the analysis of C-band radar data that was collected on 10 September, 2001 as the ship passed through an easterly wave which later developed into hurricane Ivo. The ship captured approximately 12 hours of convection associated with the tropical disturbance. During this period, the domain sampled by the radar (approximately 71,000 sq km) contained a significant number of echo features. Specifically, the fraction of the domain containing radar echo above 10 dBZ reached 80% for over 2 hours and remained near 60% for a continuous six hour period. Animation of radar images showed distinct rotation in echo features associated with the easterly wave passage. Despite an approximate 4 C drop in surface air temperature and sustained winds approaching 20 m/ s, the SST remained nearly constant throughout the observation period (approx. 29.5 C). Peak values of latent and sensible heat flux exceeded 400 and 100 W /sq m, respectively. The radar documented the change in precipitation

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean and others from 2001-01-20 to 2011-03-22 (NODC Accession 0081044)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081044 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea from 1997-06-23 to 1997-07-22 (NODC Accession 0115597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115597 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Ryofu Maru II in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea from 2004-10-21 to 2004-11-09 (NODC Accession 0112286)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112286 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Ryofu Maru II in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North...

  16. Denitrification and N2 fixation in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Curtis; Gruber, Nicolas; Key, Robert M.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Ganachaud, Alexandre

    2001-06-01

    We establish the fixed nitrogen budget of the Pacific Ocean based on nutrient fields from the recently completed World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The budget includes denitrification in the water column and sediments, nitrogen fixation, atmospheric and riverine inputs, and nitrogen divergence due to the large-scale circulation. A water column denitrification rate of 48±5 Tg N yr -1 is calculated for the Eastern Tropical Pacific using N* [Gruber and Sarmiento, 1997] and water mass age tracers. On the basis of rates in the literature, we estimate sedimentary denitrification to remove an additional 15±3 Tg N yr-1. We then calculate the total nitrogen divergence due to the large scale circulation through the basin, composed of flows through a zonal transect at 32°S, and through the Indonesian and Bering straits. Adding atmospheric deposition and riverine fluxes results in a net divergence of nitrogen from the basin of -4±12 Tg N yr-1. Pacific nitrogen fixation can be extracted as a residual component of the total budget, assuming steady state. We find that nitrogen fixation would have to contribute 59±14 Tg N yr-1 in order to balance the Pacific nitrogen budget. This result is consistent with the tentative global extrapolations of Gruber and Sarmiento [1997], based on nitrogen fixation rates estimated for the North Atlantic. Our estimated mean areal fixation rate is within the range of direct and geochemical rate estimates from a single location near Hawaii [Karl et al., 1997]. Pacific nitrogen fixation occurs primarily in the western part of the subtropical gyres where elevated N* signals are found. These regions are also supplied with significant amounts of iron via atmospheric dust deposition, lending qualitative support to the hypothesis that nitrogen fixation is regulated in part by iron suppy.

  17. Relative roles of land- and ocean-atmosphere interactions in Asian-Pacific thermal contrast variability at the precessional band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Jian, ZhiMin; Zhao, Ping; Xiao, Dong; Chen, JunMing

    2016-01-01

    In a 250-kyr transient simulation of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), we identified a precessional forced seesaw of the summer middle-upper tropospheric eddy temperature between Asia and the North Pacific as the paleo-APO (Asian-Pacific oscillation). The paleo-APO variability is out of phase with the precession parameter. Corresponding to a positive paleo-APO phase, both the subtropical anticyclonic circulation over the North Pacific and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) strengthen. Summer anomalous sea surface temperature shows a western cold-eastern warm pattern over the extratropical North Pacific and a zonal positive-negative-positive pattern over the tropical Pacific. The variations in the simulated paleo-APO and East Asian southerly wind at the precessional band agree well with the geological proxies at the Dongge, Sanbao, Linzhu, and Hulu caves in China, which also implies that these proxies may well reflect the variability in the southerly wind over East Asia. Sensitivity experiments further reveal that the reduced precession parameter may enhance the positive paleo-APO phase and the associated EASM because of the response of the land-atmosphere interactions to the precessional insolation changes. The effect of the ocean-atmosphere interactions on the paleo-APO is secondary. PMID:27381940

  18. Kinematics and dynamics of the East Pacific Rise linked to a stable, deep-mantle upwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, David B; Forte, Alessandro M; Rowan, Christopher J; Glišović, Petar; Moucha, Robert; Grand, Stephen P; Simmons, Nathan A

    2016-12-01

    Earth's tectonic plates are generally considered to be driven largely by negative buoyancy associated with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. In this context, mid-ocean ridges (MORs) are passive plate boundaries whose divergence accommodates flow driven by subduction of oceanic slabs at trenches. We show that over the past 80 million years (My), the East Pacific Rise (EPR), Earth's dominant MOR, has been characterized by limited ridge-perpendicular migration and persistent, asymmetric ridge accretion that are anomalous relative to other MORs. We reconstruct the subduction-related buoyancy fluxes of plates on either side of the EPR. The general expectation is that greater slab pull should correlate with faster plate motion and faster spreading at the EPR. Moreover, asymmetry in slab pull on either side of the EPR should correlate with either ridge migration or enhanced plate velocity in the direction of greater slab pull. Based on our analysis, none of the expected correlations are evident. This implies that other forces significantly contribute to EPR behavior. We explain these observations using mantle flow calculations based on globally integrated buoyancy distributions that require core-mantle boundary heat flux of up to 20 TW. The time-dependent mantle flow predictions yield a long-lived deep-seated upwelling that has its highest radial velocity under the EPR and is inferred to control its observed kinematics. The mantle-wide upwelling beneath the EPR drives horizontal components of asthenospheric flows beneath the plates that are similarly asymmetric but faster than the overlying surface plates, thereby contributing to plate motions through viscous tractions in the Pacific region.

  19. Heterotrophic bacterial production in the South East Pacific: longitudinal trends and coupling with primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Van Wambeke

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variations of heterotrophic bacterial production and phytoplankton primary production were investigated across South East Pacific Ocean (–141° W, –8° S to –72° W, –35° S in November–December 2004. Bacterial production (³H leucine incorporation integrated over the euphotic zone encompassed a wide range of values, from 43 mg C m−2 d−1 in the hyper-oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre to 392 mg C m−2 d−1 in the upwelling off Chile. Within the gyre (120° W, 22° S records of low phytoplankton biomass (7 mg TChla m−2 were obtained and in situ 14C based particulate primary production rates were as low as 153 mg C m−2 d−1, thus equal to the value considered as a limit for primary production under strong oligotrophic conditions. In the South Pacific gyre average rates of ³H leucine incorporation rates, and leucine incorporation rates per cell (5–21 pmol L−1 h−1 and 15–56×10−21 mol cell−1 h−1, respectively, were in the same range as those reported for other oligotrophic sub tropical and temperate waters. Rates of dark community respiration, determined at selected stations across the transect varied in a narrow range (42–97 mmol O2 m−2 d−1, except for one station in the upwelling off Chile (245 mmol O2 m−2 d−1. Bacterial growth efficiencies varied between 5 and 38% and bacterial carbon demand largely exceeded 14C particulate primary production across the South Pacific Ocean. Net community production also revealed negative values in the South Pacific Gyre (–13±20 to –37±40 mmol O2 m−2 d−1. Such imbalances being impossible in this area far from any external input, we discuss the techniques involved for determining the coupling between

  20. Trans-Pacific transport of dust aerosols from East Asia: Insights gained from multiple observations and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; Lou, Mengyun; Miao, Yucong; Wang, Yuan; Zeng, Zhaoliang; Liu, Huan; He, Jing; Xu, Hui; Wang, Fu; Min, Min; Zhai, Panmao

    2017-07-27

    East Asia is one of the world's largest sources of dust and anthropogenic pollution. Dust particles originating from East Asia have been recognized to travel across the Pacific to North America and beyond, thereby affecting the radiation incident on the surface as well as clouds aloft in the atmosphere. In this study, integrated analyses are performed focusing on one trans-Pacific dust episode during 12-22 March 2015, based on space-borne, ground-based observations, reanalysis data combined with Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), and the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). From the perspective of synoptic patterns, the location and strength of Aleutian low pressure system largely determined the eastward transport of dust plumes towards western North America. Multi-sensor satellite observations reveal that dust aerosols in this episode originated from the Taklimakan and Gobi Deserts. Moreover, the satellite observations suggest that the dust particles can be transformed to polluted particles over the East Asian regions after encountering high concentration of anthropogenic pollutants. In terms of the vertical distribution of polluted dust particles, at the very beginning, they were mainly located in the altitudes ranging from 1 km to 7 km over the source region, then ascended to 2 km-9 km over the Pacific Ocean. The simulations confirm that these elevated dust particles in the lower free troposphere were largely transported along the prevailing westerly jet stream. Overall, observations and modeling demonstrate how a typical springtime dust episode develops and how the dust particles travel over the North Pacific Ocean all the way to North America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Pacific Ocean general circulation model for satellite data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Y.; Halpern, D.; Mechoso, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    A tropical Pacific Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) to be used in satellite data assimilation studies is described. The transfer of the OGCM from a CYBER-205 at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory to a CRAY-2 at NASA's Ames Research Center is documented. Two 3-year model integrations from identical initial conditions but performed on those two computers are compared. The model simulations are very similar to each other, as expected, but the simulations performed with the higher-precision CRAY-2 is smoother than that with the lower-precision CYBER-205. The CYBER-205 and CRAY-2 use 32 and 64-bit mantissa arithmetic, respectively. The major features of the oceanic circulation in the tropical Pacific, namely the North Equatorial Current, the North Equatorial Countercurrent, the South Equatorial Current, and the Equatorial Undercurrent, are realistically produced and their seasonal cycles are described. The OGCM provides a powerful tool for study of tropical oceans and for the assimilation of satellite altimetry data.

  2. A dynamic view of the tropospheric teleconnection between IOD and the Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Na; CHEN Hongxia; CHEN Xianyao; PAN Zengdi; TAO Yi

    2005-01-01

    The tropospheric teleconnection pattern between the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the Pacific Ocean was studied using GISST and NECP/NCAR reanalysis data. Results show that a structure of Rossby wave train extends from the tropical Indian Ocean over southern subtropical regions of Australia and Pacific Ocean to the tropical Pacific Ocean, where a strong correlation between IOD and geo- potential height (GH) anomaly of Pacific Ocean exists. Energy propagating pathways of the planetary wave with wave numbers 1―3 are qualitatively in agreement with the Rossby wave train, which implies that the energy propagation of the stationary planetary wave could be responsible for the tropospheric teleconnection between IOD and tropical Pacific Ocean.

  3. IMPACTS OF THE TROPICAL PACIFIC COUPLED PROCESS ON THE INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY IN THE INDIAN OCEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jun-qiao; BAI Xue-zhi

    2010-01-01

    The basic features of climatology and interannual variations of tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans were analyzed using a coupled general circulation model(CGCM),which was constituted with an intermediate 2.5-layer ocean model and atmosphere model ECHAM4.The CGCM well captures the spatial and temporal structure of the Pacific El Nifio-Southern Oscillation(ENSO)and the variability features in the tropical Indian Ocean.The influence of Pacific air-sea coupled process on the Indian Ocean variability was investigated carefully by conducting numerical experiments.Results show that the occurrence frequency of positive/negative Indian Ocean Dipole(IOD)event will decrease/increase with the presence/absence of the coupled process in the Pacific Ocean.Further analysis demonstrated that the air-sea coupled process in the Pacific Ocean affects the IOD variability mainly by influencing the zonal gradient ofthermocline via modulating the background sea surface wind.

  4. Droughts and fertility, Pacific Ocean echos from the past Millenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herguera, J. C.

    2010-03-01

    An outstanding issue in our understanding of future evolution of climate and coastal ocean dynamics in México and is how the increasing anthropogenic CO2 injection into the atmosphere will change rainfall patterns on land and biological fertility patterns in the coastal oceans. The discovery, barely two decades ago, of a large biological regime shifts in the Pacific spawned the search for the underlying physical variability to explain them. Climate and oceanographic observations soon discovered fluctuations in air temperatures, atmospheric circulation, and ocean temperatures that were remarkably similar in timing and duration to the biological records. Recent modeling work has shown how complex coastal food webs can undergo substantial changes in response to subtle physical forcing. Here we will review some physical and biological fluctuations in the Pacific preserved in high resolution records from the California Current to show their variability patterns for the past millennium, the period prior to the present atmospheric carbon forcing, to explore and evaluate their links with climate forcings known to operate during this period. Hemispheric temperature and pressure gradients are linked to surface circulation patterns on the ocean, thermal structure, and depth of the thermocline separating nutrient depleted surface waters from nutrient rich at depth through the strength of the trade winds. These basin scale gradients oscillate between extremes influenced by large scale events like El Niño or its counterpart La Niña or by basin wide multidecadal fluctuations with similar effects on sea surface temperatures, rainfall variability on land and fertility patterns in the coastal ocean. Our knowledge of these large scale, long period recurring variations becomes critical especially when considering adaptative and sustainable strategies to human-induced climate change.

  5. Changes in storm track and precipitation variability in East Asia and western North Pacific related to the MJO during boreal winter under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, C.; Shirooka, R.

    2013-12-01

    The present study examines the change in precipitation intensity and storm track activity (STA) influenced by Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) in response to global warming in East Asia and western North Pacific during the boreal winter using CMIP5 models. The synoptic eddy activity and precipitation intensity are enhanced (suppressed) with the MJO in the tropical Indian Ocean (western Pacific). Several models have relatively good representation of MJO precipitation characteristics with high skill score (BEST models). In the present climate simulation (the latter half of 20th century), the BEST models ensemble produce weaker amplitude of upper-atmospheric circulations in the western North Pacific associated with the MJO in the Indian Ocean. This result arises from the weakened Rossby wave response excited by the MJO convective heating due to the reduced amplitude of MJO precipitation in the western Pacific. In the future climate (the late 21st century) projection, BEST models exhibit increased amplitude of MJO rainfall in the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific. The STA in the western North Pacific related to the MJO in the Indian Ocean intensify in the future warming climate. The intensification of STA corresponds to the increased lower-atmospheric meridional eddy heat flux. The analysis shows their intensifications correspond to the strengthened intraseasonal baroclinicity in the western North Pacific influenced by the MJO. BEST models project increase of precipitation over eastern China and Japan in East Asia. The diagnosis of the moisture budget indicate that this precipitation change is attributed to the increases of moisture flux due to mean moisture advection by strengthened anomalous intraseasonal southerly flow. On the other hand, the mean moisture convergence by anomalous intraseasonal flows and sea surface evaporation contribute to the increased precipitation over the subtropical western Pacific. These results suggests that correct projection in the

  6. Geoid anomalies and fracture zones in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The high degree and order geoid field in the Pacific is a superposition of fracture zone anomalies and hot-spot swell anomalies. A two-dimensional spectral analysis of this field reveals a very strong north-south wavenumber contribution with a dominant wavelength of about 2000 km, a much smaller contribution from east-west wavenumbers, and negligible contributions from other directions. One dimensional profiles were taken in order to appreciate the magnitudes of the north-south and east-west components. A calculated geoid anomaly using an idealized fracture zone model contains just about the same amount of power in the 2350 km band wavelength as does the north-south profile of the SEASAT geoid field. In an attempt to correlate plate age with geoid anomalies, a digitized age map of the Pacific was used to generate a synthetic geoid, which was subtracted from SEASAT. This procedure produces a residual geoid in which the fracture zone anomalies appear to be diminished, if not removed.

  7. Oceanic migration behaviour of tropical Pacific eels from Vanuatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schabetsberger, R; Økland, F; Aarestrup, K

    2013-01-01

    Information on oceanic migrations and spawning areas of tropical Pacific freshwater eels (genus Anguilla) is very limited. Lake Letas and its single outflowing river, Mbe Solomul on Gaua Island, Vanuatu, were surveyed for large migrating individuals. Twenty-four Anguilla marmorata (87 to 142 cm......), 39 A. megastoma (50 to 131 cm), and 3 A. obscura (119 to 126 cm) were caught. Seven individuals were tagged with pop-up satellite transmitters and released offshore. One A. marmorata migrated 843 km towards the South Equatorial Current. The tag surfaced only 330 km from the point where the smallest...

  8. East Greenland Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Thybo, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The combined Greenland-Senja Fracture Zones (GSFZ) represent a first-order plate tectonic feature in the North Atlantic Ocean. The GSFZ defines an abrupt change in the character of magnetic anomalies with well-defined seafloor spreading anomalies in the Greenland and Norwegian basins to the south...... but ambiguous and weak magnetic anomalies in the Boreas Basin to the north. Substantial uncertainty exists concerning the plate tectonic evolution of the latter area, including the role of the East Greenland Ridge, which is situated along the Greenland Fracture Zone. In 2002, a combined ocean-bottom seismometer...... and multichannel seismic (MCS) survey acquired two intersecting wide-angle reflection and coincident MCS profiles across and along the East Greenland Ridge. We present the results of integrated reflection seismic interpretation, first-arrival tomography, 2D kinematic raytracing, full-wave amplitude modeling...

  9. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse M; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±8.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1) standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±7.32 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±45.6 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±13.9 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  10. Oceanographic and marine meteorological observations in the Northwest Pacific ocean during 1998 (NODC Accession 0000070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, plankton, and nutrients data were collected using buoy and CTD casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 22 January 1998...

  11. Chemical oceanography. Increasing anthropogenic nitrogen in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Nam; Lee, Kitack; Gruber, Nicolas; Karl, David M; Bullister, John L; Yang, Simon; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2014-11-28

    The recent increase in anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen from northeastern Asia and the subsequent enhanced deposition over the extensive regions of the North Pacific Ocean (NPO) have led to a detectable increase in the nitrate (N) concentration of the upper ocean. The rate of increase of excess N relative to phosphate (P) was found to be highest (~0.24 micromoles per kilogram per year) in the vicinity of the Asian source continent, with rates decreasing eastward across the NPO, consistent with the magnitude and distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. This anthropogenically driven increase in the N content of the upper NPO may enhance primary production in this N-limited region, potentially leading to a long-term change of the NPO from being N-limited to P-limited. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Cross equator transport of 137Cs from North Pacific Ocean to South Pacific Ocean ( BEAGLE2003 cruises)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, M.; Fukasawa, M.; Hirose, K.; Hamajima, Y.; Kawano, T.; Povinec, P. P.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    The anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I and some transuranics are important tracers of transport and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. 137Cs, with a half-life of 30 years, a major fission product present in a dissolved form in seawater, is a good tracer of oceanic circulation at a time scale of several decades. At WOCE P6 line along 30°S during the BEAGLE cruise in 2003, surface seawater (around 80 L) was collected a few meters below the ocean surface by a pumping system. Water column samples (from 5 to 20 L) were collected using a Rosette multisampling system and Niskin bottles. 137Cs was separated from seawater samples using ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) and analysed for 137Cs in low-level HPGe gamma-ray spectrometers. Results allowed to draw a detailed picture of the distribution of 137Cs in the South Pacific Ocean along P6 line. A 137Cs depth section was depicted from about 160 samples. 137Cs concentrations in the subsurface layers ranged from 0.07 ± 0.04 Bq m -3 to 1.85 ± 0.145 Bq m -3, high in the Tasman Sea and very low in the eastern region where upwelling occurs. Water column inventories of 137Cs from surface to 1000 dbar depth ranged from 270 ± 104 to 1048 ± 127 Bq m -2. It was concluded that the source of higher 137Cs concentration and inventories in the Tasman Sea was 137Cs deposited in the mid latitude of the North Pacific Ocean and transported across the equator during four decades.

  13. Physical and meteorological data from the seventy moorings of the Tropical Atmosphere/Ocean (TAO) Project in the Tropical Pacific Ocean, 1979-2002 (NODC Accession 0000727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and meteorological data were collected in the Tropical Pacific Ocean from 29 January 1979 to 03 November 2001. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine...

  14. Ophiolite and Tectonic Development of the East Pacific Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, E. M.

    2001-12-01

    Well-preserved ophiolites represent oceanic crust and mantle formed at a spreading center and emplaced by collision of a mantle-rooted thrust fault (subduction zone) with a continental margin or island arc. Ophiolite nappes thus represent remnants of lithospheric plates; their basal thrusts (fossil subduction zones) intrinscally cannot be balanced; their displacements are unknown but very large. Many environments of formation are possible for ophiolites: mid-ocean ridge, back-arc, forearc, or intra-arc spreading vrnyrtd, but geochemistry alone is inadequate to differentiate between the possibilities; geologic field evidence is needed, as well. Mesozoic ophiolites in western North America are associated either with the Stikine-Intermontane superterrane (e.g. Sierra Nevada, Klamath Mountains, California. Guerrero terrane, Mexico?), or lie west of it (e.g. Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite and correlatives to north and south.). The "Great Arc" of the Caribbean (Burke, 1988), including ophiolitic rocks in Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Colombia, may also correlate with the Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite and/or with ophiolites in the Sierra Nevada. The Wrangellia/Insular superterrane may have extended to the south and at times may have included parts of the Chortis-Choco blocks of Central America, as well as the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia and Ecuador). These relations suggest the hypothesis that in mid-late Mesozoic time, a separate intra-oceanic plate similar to the present Philippine plate, herein informally called "Americordilleria" was separated by active island arc complexes from the American andFarallon/Kula plates to the east and west, respectively. Basement rocks of the Colombian, Venezuelan, and Yucatan basins, as well as the Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite, may represent remnants of "Americordilleria". Convergence and collision of "Americordilleria" and its island arc margins with the American continents were major factors in

  15. Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. S. Van Mooy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. Specifically, the synthesis of cell membrane phospholipids creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L−1 h−1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43− incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43− uptake were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

  16. NOAA marine environmental buoy data from moored buoys from the US East/West coasts, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes of US and other locations from 2001-07-01 to 2001-07-31 (NODC Accession 0000587)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the US East/West coasts, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes and other locations. Data were...

  17. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 28 May 1986 to 11 May 1987 (NODC Accession 8900168)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from 28 May 1986 to 01 May 1983. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 20 January 1979 - 01 April 1984 (NODC Accession 8700077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from January 20, 1979 to April 1, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  19. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 20 January 1979 to 26 April 1984 (NODC Accession 8500007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from January 20, 1979 to April 26, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  20. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 30 April 1990 - 15 May 1991 (NODC Accession 9400005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from April 30, 1990 to May 15, 1991. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  1. Chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1105 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2011-04-29 to 2011-05-28 (NODC Accession 0116958)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116958 includes chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1105 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  2. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise AMAT02RR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2005-09-03 to 2006-03-03 (NCEI Accession 0155592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155592 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise AMAT02RR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  3. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise AMAT03RR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2006-03-07 to 2006-04-13 (NCEI Accession 0155593)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155593 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise AMAT03RR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  4. Anomalous circulation in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean in July-December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Oceana P.; Yaremchuk, Max; Panteleev, Gleb G.; Zhang, Jinlun; Kulakov, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    Variability of the mean summer-fall ocean state in the Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean (PSAO) is studied using a dynamically constrained synthesis (4Dvar) of historical in situ observations collected during 1972 to 2008. Specifically, the oceanic response to the cyclonic (1989-1996) and anticyclonic (1972-1978, 1997-2006) phases of the Arctic Ocean Oscillation (AOO) is assessed for the purpose of quantitatively comparing the 2008 circulation pattern that followed the 2007 ice cover minimum. It is shown that the PSAO circulation during July-December of 2008 was characterized by a pronounced negative Sea Surface Height (SSH) anomaly along the Eurasian shelf break, which caused a significant decline of the transport in the Atlantic Water (AW) inflow region into the PSAO and increased the sea level difference between the Bering and Chukchi Seas. This anomaly could be one of the reasons for the observed amplification of the Bering Strait transport carrying fresh Pacific Waters into the PSAO. Largrangian analysis of the optimized solution suggests that the freshwater (FW) accumulation in the Beaufort Gyre has a negligible contribution from the East Siberian Sea and is likely caused by the enhanced FW export from the region north of the Canadian Archipelago/Greenland. The inverse modeling results are confirmed by validation against independent altimetry observations and in situ velocity data from NABOS moorings. It is also shown that presented results are in significantly better agreement with the data than the output of the PIOMAS model run utilized as a first guess solution for the 4dVar analysis.

  5. Signal propagations and linkages of subsurface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Weihong; HU Haoran

    2005-01-01

    The propagation characteristics of signals along different zonal-time profiles are analyzed using surface and subsurface temperature anomalies over the tropical Pacific and Indian oceans. Analyses show that there are intrinsic relationships between El Nino events in the eastern equatorial Pacific and dipole events in the equatorial Indian Ocean. In the region of tropical North Pacific between the equator and 16°N, there is a circle of propagation of subsurface temperature anomalies. El Nino events only happen when the warm subsurface signals reach the eastern equatorial Pacific. Dipole events are characterized when a warm subsurface signal travels along off-equatorial Indian Ocean to the western boundary. From these analyses, we believe that subsurface temperature anomalies can be considered to be the oceanographic early signal to forecast El Nino events in Pacific Ocean and dipole events in Indian Ocean, respectively.

  6. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-12-01 to 1976-12-07 (NCEI Accession 8100325)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW in the Pacific Ocean from December 1, 1976 to December 7, 1976. Data...

  7. Atmospheric occurrence, transport and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls over the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zilan; Lin, Tian; Li, Zhongxia; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Tianfeng; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-10-01

    Ship-board air samples were collected during March to May 2015 from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) to explore the atmospheric occurrence and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when the westerly East Asian Monsoon prevailed. Total PCB concentrations in the atmosphere ranged from 56.8 to 261 pg m-3. Higher PCB levels were observed off the coast and minor temperature-induced changes showed that continuous emissions from East Asia remain as an important source to the regional atmosphere. A significant relationship between Koa (octanol-air partition coefficient) and KP (gas-particle partition coefficient) for PCBs was observed under continental air masses, suggesting that land-derived organic aerosols affected the PCB gas-particle partitioning after long-range transport, while an absence of this correlation was identified in marine air masses. The PCB partitioning cannot be fully explained by the absorptive mechanism as the predicted KP were found to be 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the measured Kp, while the prediction was closely matched when soot adsorption was considered. The results suggested the importance of soot carbon as a transport medium for PCBs during their long-range transport and considerable impacts of continental outflows on PCBs across the downwind area. The estimated transport mass of particulate PCBs into the ECS and NWP totals 2333 kg during the spring, constituting ca. 17% of annual emission inventories of unintentionally produced PCB in China.

  8. Meridional overturning transports at 30°S in the Indian and Pacific Oceans in 2002-2003 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guerra, Alonso; Talley, Lynne D.

    2016-08-01

    The meridional circulation and transports at 30°S in the Pacific and Indian Oceans for the years 2002-2003 and 2009 are compared, using GO-SHIP hydrographic section data with an inverse box model and several choices of constraints. Southward heat transport across the combined Indian-Pacific sections, reflecting net heating north of these sections, doubled from -0.7 ± 0.2 PW in 2002-2003 to -1.4 ± 0.1 PW in 2009 (negative sign is southward), with the increase concentrated in the Indian Ocean (∼0.6 PW compared with ∼0.2 PW in the Pacific), and was insensitive to model choices for the Indonesian Throughflow. Diagnosed net evaporation also more than doubled in the Indian Ocean, from 0.21-0.27 Sv in 2002-2003 to 0.51-0.58 in 2009, with a smaller but significant increase in net evaporation in the Pacific, from 0.06-0.08 Sv to 0.16-0.32 Sv. These increased heat and freshwater exports coincided with Indian Ocean warming, a shift in the Indian's shallow gyre overturning transport to lower densities, and an increase in southward Agulhas Current transport from 75 Sv in 2002 to 92 Sv in 2009. The Indian's deep overturn weakened from about 11 Sv in 2002 to 7 Sv in 2009. In contrast, the Pacific Ocean overturning circulation was nearly unchanged from 2003 to 2009, independent of model within the uncertainties. The East Australian Current transport decreased only slightly, from -52 Sv to -46 Sv. The southward Pacific Deep Water transport was at a higher density than the southward Indian Deep Water transport in both years and all models, similar to prior results. Estimated diapycnal diffusivity and velocity are strongly enhanced near the ocean bottom and are higher farther up in the water column in the Indian than in the Pacific, likely extending the reach of Indian Ocean overturning up to shallower depths than in the Pacific. The horizontal distribution of transports in the Pacific at all depths changed notably from 2003 to 2009, despite the stability of its meridional

  9. Dust transport from non-East Asian sources to the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S.; Huh, C.; Lin, C.; Chen, W.; Mahowald, N. M.; Liu, S. C.; Chou, C. C.; Liang, M.; Tsai, C.; Lin, F.; Chen, J.; Huang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    It is generally thought that East Asia dominates the supply of eolian dust to the North Pacific. Here we show the first data-based evidence of dust primarily from non-East Asian sources even during March 2010 when a super dust storm from East Asia struck the western Pacific. Chemical characteristics of aerosol samples collected at a high-mountain site in Taiwan show variable inputs from eolian dust and biomass burning. From backward trajectory analyses, satellite observation and model simulation, dust origins can be traced to the Middle East and North Africa, suggesting an integrated source from the global dust belt. Our global model results demonstrate that dust deposition in the North Pacific is primarily contributed by non-East Asian sources with an eastward decrease along the Westerlies. Time-series of aerosol composition at Mt. Lulin: (A) 210Pb and biomass burning potassium (KBB), (B) 7Be and aluminum. Also shown (in A) are daily mean O3 and CO , hourly relative humidity (gray curve/area) and (in B) daily rainfall (yellow bars) measured at Taiwan EPA's Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS), ~25 m southeast of our aerosol sampling site. Results from the MATCH model showing (A) total annual dust deposition fluxes, and (B) fraction of the total deposition attributable to East Asian sources over the North Pacific.

  10. February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy

    2010-05-01

    The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from

  11. North Pacific deglacial hypoxic events linked to abrupt ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, S K; Mix, A C; Walczak, M H; Wolhowe, M D; Addison, J A; Prahl, F G

    2015-11-19

    Marine sediments from the North Pacific document two episodes of expansion and strengthening of the subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) accompanied by seafloor hypoxia during the last deglacial transition. The mechanisms driving this hypoxia remain under debate. We present a new high-resolution alkenone palaeotemperature reconstruction from the Gulf of Alaska that reveals two abrupt warming events of 4-5 degrees Celsius at the onset of the Bølling and Holocene intervals that coincide with sudden shifts to hypoxia at intermediate depths. The presence of diatomaceous laminations and hypoxia-tolerant benthic foraminiferal species, peaks in redox-sensitive trace metals, and enhanced (15)N/(14)N ratio of organic matter, collectively suggest association with high export production. A decrease in (18)O/(16)O values of benthic foraminifera accompanying the most severe deoxygenation event indicates subsurface warming of up to about 2 degrees Celsius. We infer that abrupt warming triggered expansion of the North Pacific OMZ through reduced oxygen solubility and increased marine productivity via physiological effects; following initiation of hypoxia, remobilization of iron from hypoxic sediments could have provided a positive feedback on ocean deoxygenation through increased nutrient utilization and carbon export. Such a biogeochemical amplification process implies high sensitivity of OMZ expansion to warming.

  12. Mesoscale cyclogenesis over the western north Pacific Ocean during TPARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of mesoscale marine cyclogenesis over the subtropics of the Western Pacific Ocean are investigated. Each case occurred during the THORPEX Pacific Asia Regional Campaign and Tropical Cyclone Structure (TCS-08 field phases in 2008. Each cyclone developed from remnants of disturbances that earlier showed potential for tropical cyclogenesis within the tropics. Two of the cyclones produced gale-force surface winds, and one, designated as a tropical cyclone, resulted in a significant coastal storm over eastern Japan. Development was initiated by a burst of organized mesoscale convection that consolidated and intensified the surface cyclonic circulation over a period of 12–24 h. Upper-tropospheric potential vorticity anomalies modulated the vertical wind shear that, in turn, influenced the periods of cyclone intensification and weakening. Weak baroclinicity associated with vertical shear was also deemed important in organizing mesoscale ascent and the convection outbreaks. The remnant tropical disturbances contributed exceptional water vapour content to higher latitudes that led to strong diabatic heating, and the tropical remnants contributed vorticity that was the seed of the development in the subtropics. Predictability of these events more than three days in advance appears to be minimal.

  13. Excitation of Annual Polar Motion by the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The global oceans play important roles in exciting the annual polar motion besides the atmosphere. However, it is still unclear about how large the regional oceans contribute to the annual polar motion. We investigate systemically the contributions of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans to the excitation of the annual polar motion, based on the output data of ocean current velocity field and ocean bottom pressure field from "Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO)" ocean circulation model over the period 1993-2005. The result shows that due to its particular location and shape, the Atlantic Ocean makes a less significant contribution to the x-component of the annual polar motion excitation than the Pacific and Indian Oceans, while all these three oceans contribute to the y-component of the annual polar motion excitation to some extent.

  14. On the dominant intra-seasonal modes over the East Asia-western North Pacific summer monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyung-Ja; Oh, Hyoeun

    2017-04-01

    Intra-seasonal monsoon prediction is the most imperative task due to high impact on 2/3 of world populations' daily life, but there remains an enduring challenge in climate science. The present study aims to provide a physical understanding of the sources for prediction of dominant intra-seasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon (EA-WNPSM): preMeiyu&Baiu, Changma&Meiyu, WNPSM, and monsoon gyre modes classified by the self-organizing map analysis. The major modes tend to be dominated by the moisture convergence of the moisture budget equation along the rain-band. The preMeiyu-Baiu mode is strongly linked to both the anomalous low-level convergence and vertical wind shear through baroclinic instability, and the Changma&Meiyu mode has a strengthened tropic-subtropics connection along the western north Pacific subtropical high, which induces vertical destabilization and strong convective instability. The WNPSM and monsoon gyre modes are characterized by anomalous southeasterly flow of warm and moist air from western north Pacific monsoon, and low-level easterly flow, respectively. Prominent difference in response to the ENSO leads to different effects of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific thermal state, and consequently, the distinct moisture supply and instability variations for the EASM intra-seasonal modes. We discuss the major driving forces of sub-seasonal variability over EA-WNPSM regions. Lastly we attempted to determine the predictability sources for the four modes in the EA-WNPSM. The selected predictors are based on the persistent and tendency signals of the SST/2m air temperature and sea level pressure fields, which reflect the asymmetric response to the ENSO and the ocean and land surface anomalous conditions. For the preMeiyu&Baiu mode, the SST cooling tendency over the WNP, which persists into summer, is the distinguishing contributor that results in strong baroclinic instability. A major precursor for the Changma&Meiyu mode

  15. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Wilson

    Full Text Available Community respiration (CR of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3 d(-1±8.0 mmol m(-3 d(-1 standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3 d(-1±7.32 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between 10°N and 10°S and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3 d(-1±45.6 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3 d(-1±13.9 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between 156°E and the Australian coast. We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  16. Mid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East Asia are investigated by a set of numerical experiments performed with the version 4 of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4. With reference to the pre-industrial period, most of the mid-Holocene annual and seasonal surface-air temperature and precipitation changes are found to result from a direct response of the atmosphere to insolation forcing, while dynamic ocean and vegetation modulate regional climate of East Asia to some extent. Because of its thermal inertia, the dynamic ocean induced an additional warming of 0.2 K for the annual mean, 0.5 K in winter (December–February, 0.0003 K in summer (June–August, and 1.0 K in autumn (September–November, but a cooling of 0.6 K in spring (March–May averaged over China, and it counteracted (amplified the direct effect of insolation forcing for the annual mean and in winter and autumn (spring for that period. The dynamic vegetation had an area-average impact of no more than 0.4 K on the mid-Holocene annual and seasonal temperatures over China, with an average cooling of 0.2 K for the annual mean. On the other hand, ocean feedback induced a small increase of precipitation in winter (0.04 mm day−1 and autumn (0.05 mm day−1, but a reduction for the annual mean (0.14 mm day−1 and in spring (0.29 mm day−1 and summer (0.34 mm day−1 over China, while it also suppressed the East Asian summer monsoon rainfall. The effect of dynamic vegetation on the mid-Holocene annual and seasonal precipitation was comparatively small, ranging from −0.03 mm day−1 to 0.06 mm day−1 averaged over China. In comparison, the CCSM4 simulated annual and winter cooling over China agrees with simulations within the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP, but the results are contrary to the warming reconstructed from multiple proxy data for the mid-Holocene. Ocean feedback narrows this model–data mismatch, whereas vegetation feedback plays

  17. Negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement : Evaluation and Implications for East Asian Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Inkyo CHEONG

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement seems to have reached a crossroads : it could either be a building block toward achieving economic integration in Asia and the Pacific, or trigger the formation of two large trade blocs which will work independently of one another. When the Government of Japan announced its participation in the TPP negotiations in March 2013, the partnership began to attract greater interest from other East Asian countries. This paper analyzes the progress and ...

  18. Temperature Data From AUSTRALIA STAR and Other Platforms From Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean From 19860929 to 19890106 (NODC Accession 8900196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data from Australia Star and other ships from Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from September 29, 1986 to January 6, 1989. The data were collected by...

  19. Connection of sea level height between Western Pacific and South Indian Ocean in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Y.; Wang, T.; Zhuang, W.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Based on merged altimetry data and in site observations from tide gauges, we analyzed the fast increasing trend of sea surface height (SSH) in the recent two decades in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean. The results of analysis indicated a dynamic connection of SSH between the tropical western Pacific and the southeastern Indian Ocean. The low-frequency variations of SSH propagate westward in the tropical Pacific, enter the Indonesian Seas through the waveguide, and influence the southeastern India Ocean with the Kelvin-Rossby wave transformation. The thermal structure of upper ocean reveals the above adjustment mainly occur in the thermocline. However, the impacts from the Pacific are limited in the southeast Indian Ocean. In the central and west of the south Indian Ocean, local wind dominates the SSH changes in the last two decades. By lead-lag statistic analyses, we identified the cause of interdecadal from the interannual SSH variations. The interannual SSH variations is dominated by ENSO, forced by the anomalous wind along the equatorial Pacific. Whereas, the interdecadal SSH variations results from the off-equatorial wind stress curl, which is closely related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The dynamic connections between the western Pacific and the south Indian Ocean were tested in the baroclinic Rossby wave solution and the numerical experiments based on the nonlinear reduced-gravity dynamics model.

  20. Stratospheric microbiology at 20 km over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    An aerobiology sampling flight at 20 km was conducted on 28 April 2008 over the Pacific Ocean (36.5° N, 118–149° W), a period of time that coincided with the movement of Asian dust across the ocean. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of viable bacteria and fungi within a transoceanic, atmospheric bridge and to improve the resolution of flight hardware processing techniques. Isolates of the microbial strains recovered were analyzed with ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing to identify bacterial species Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus endophyticus, and the fungal genus Penicillium. Satellite imagery and ground-based radiosonde observations were used to measure dust movement and characterize the high-altitude environment at the time of collection. Considering the atmospheric residency time (7–10 days), the extreme temperature regime of the environment (-75°C), and the absence of a mechanism that could sustain particulates at high altitude, it is unlikely that our samples indicate a permanent, stratospheric ecosystem. However, the presence of viable fungi and bacteria in transoceanic stratosphere remains relevant to understanding the distribution and extent of microbial life on Earth.

  1. SEA Semester Undergraduates Research the Ocean's Role in Climate Systems in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A. W.; Becker, M. K.; Grabb, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Sea Education Association (SEA)'s fully accredited Oceans & Climate SEA Semester program provides upper-level science undergraduates a unique opportunity to explore the ocean's role in the global climate system as they conduct real-world oceanographic research and gain first-hand understanding of and appreciation for the collaborative nature of the scientific research process. Oceans & Climate is an interdisciplinary science and policy semester in which students also explore public policy perspectives to learn how scientific knowledge is used in making climate-related policy. Working first at SEA's shore campus, students collaborate with SEA faculty and other researchers in the local Woods Hole scientific community to design and develop an original research project to be completed at sea. Students then participate as full, working members of the scientific team and sailing crew aboard the 134-foot brigantine SSV Robert C. Seamans; they conduct extensive oceanographic sampling, manage shipboard operations, and complete and present the independent research project they designed onshore. Oceans & Climate SEA Semester Cruise S-250 sailed from San Diego to Tahiti on a 7-week, >4000nm voyage last fall (November-December 2013). This remote open-ocean cruise track traversed subtropical and equatorial regions of the Pacific particularly well suited for a diverse range of climate-focused studies. Furthermore, as SEA has regularly collected scientific data along similar Pacific cruise tracks for more than a decade, students often undertake projects that require time-series analyses. 18 undergraduates from 15 different colleges and universities participated in the S-250 program. Two examples of the many projects completed by S-250 students include a study of the possible relationship between tropical cyclone intensification, driven by warm sea surface temperatures, and the presence of barrier layers; and a study of nutrient cycling in the eastern Pacific, focusing on primary

  2. An Ocean Reanalysis System for the Joining Area of Asia and Indian-Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chang-Xiang; ZHU Jiang; XIE Ji-Ping

    2010-01-01

    An ocean reanalysis system for the joining area of Asia and Indian-Pacific Ocean(AIPO)has been developed and is currently delivering reanalysis data sets for study on the air-sea interaction over AIPO and its climate variation over China in the inter-annual time scale.This system consists of a nested ocean model forced by atmospheric reanalysis,an ensemble-based multivariate ocean data assimilation system and various ocean observations.The following report describes the main components of the data assimilation system in detail.The system adopts an ensemble optimal interpolation scheme that uses a seasonal update from a free running model to estimate the background error covariance matrix.In view of the systematic biases in some observation systems,some treatments were performed on the observations before the assimilation.A coarse resolution reanalysis dataset from the system is preliminarily evaluated to demonstrate the performance of the system for the period 1992 to 2006 by comparing this dataset with other observations or reanalysis data.

  3. Growth constraints of the Indian Ocean seamounts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Khadge, N.H.

    parallel orientation, morphology, and lava chemistry between these ancient seamounts in CIOB, and young seamount chains off East Pacific Rise (EPR) in the Pacific Ocean indicate that seamount chains are the fundamental product of fast spreading ridges...

  4. The tropical Pacific-Indian Ocean temperature anomaly mode and its effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hui; JIA Xiaolong; LI Chongyin

    2006-01-01

    Temperature anomaly in the Indian Ocean is closely related to that in the Pacific Ocean because of the Walker circulation and the Indonesian throughflow. So only the El Ni(n)o/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific cannot entirely explain the influence of sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA)on climate variation. The tropical Pacific-Indian Ocean temperature anomaly mode (PIM) is presented based on the comprehensive research on the pattern and feature of SSTA in both Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. The features of PIM and ENSO mode and their influences on the climate in China and the rainfall in India are further compared. For proving the observation results, numerical experiments of the global atmospheric general circulation model are conducted. The results of observation and sensitivity experiments show that presenting PIM and studying its influence are very important for short-range climate prediction.

  5. Property and performance amelioration of pelagic clay from the East Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiping ZHANG; Shufeng LIU; Xuefa SHI; Huahua LU; Juanjuan LIU; Xiaoguo CHI

    2008-01-01

    To make use of the pelagic clay as polymer filling, the properties of clay sediments from the ocean investigation zone of China in the East Pacific were studied by the SSA, XRF, ICP/MAS, FHR, XRD, SEM, DTA/TG and granularity distributing etc. , and experiments were settled to improve the whiteness and activation of the clay based on these data. Compared with land clay, pelagic clay holds many particular features, such as fine particles and incompact accumulation, worse crystallization and more defects, high activity, complex mineral and chemical components, and low whiteness etc. Processing the purified pelagic clay with acids and zinc, then baked it at different temperatures, the whiteness of clay can be increased from 23.8% to 73.1%, and the optimized conditions is : consistency of vitriol 25%, ratio of clay to water 4:1, reaction time 4h, reaction temperature 90℃, dosage of zinc 2.0 g/L, and baking temperature 700℃. And the SSA of whited clay is increased too. Using the dry milling method to modify the pelagic clay with organic reagents, the optimized technique is KH550, concentration 1.5%, reaction time 20 min. XRD,FTIR and SEM testing indicate that the mechanism of organic activation was mainly surface absorbing and chemical combination secondly.

  6. An intimate coupling of ocean-atmospheric interaction over the extratropical North Atlantic and Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Wu, Lixin; Wang, Qi; Qu, Liwei; Zhang, Liping

    2009-05-01

    The inter-basin teleconnection between the North Atlantic and the North Pacific ocean-atmosphere interaction is studied using a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. In the model, an idealized oceanic temperature anomaly is initiated over the Kuroshio and the Gulf Stream extension region to track the coupled evolution of ocean and atmosphere interaction, respectively. The experiments explicitly demonstrate that both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interactions are intimately coupled through an inter-basin atmospheric teleconnection. This fast inter-basin communication can transmit oceanic variability between the North Atlantic and the North Pacific through local ocean-to-atmosphere feedbacks. The leading mode of the extratropical atmospheric internal variability plays a dominant role in shaping the hemispheric-scale response forced by oceanic variability over the North Atlantic and Pacific. Modeling results also suggest that a century (two centuries) long observations are necessary for the detection of Pacific response to Atlantic forcings (Atlantic response to Pacific forcing).

  7. Distal transport of dissolved hydrothermal iron in the deep South Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica N; Boyle, Edward A; Jenkins, William J

    2014-11-25

    Until recently, hydrothermal vents were not considered to be an important source to the marine dissolved Fe (dFe) inventory because hydrothermal Fe was believed to precipitate quantitatively near the vent site. Based on recent abyssal dFe enrichments near hydrothermal vents, however, the leaky vent hypothesis [Toner BM, et al. (2012) Oceanography 25(1):209-212] argues that some hydrothermal Fe persists in the dissolved phase and contributes a significant flux of dFe to the global ocean. We show here the first, to our knowledge, dFe (hydrothermally derived based on its correlation with primordial (3)He and dissolved Mn (dFe:(3)He of 0.9-2.7 × 10(6)). Given the known sites of hydrothermal venting in these regions, this dFe must have been transported thousands of kilometers away from its vent site to reach our sampling stations. Additionally, changes in the size partitioning of the hydrothermal dFe between soluble (vents indicate that dFe transformations continue to occur far from the vent source. This study confirms that although the southern East Pacific Rise only leaks 0.02-1% of total Fe vented into the abyssal Pacific, this dFe persists thousands of kilometers away from the vent source with sufficient magnitude that hydrothermal vents can have far-field effects on global dFe distributions and inventories (≥3% of global aerosol dFe input).

  8. Dynamic Validation of Envisat ASAR Derived Ocean Swell Against Directional Buoy Measurements in Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Mouche, Alexis; Husson, Romain; Chapron, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) in wave mode aboard Envisat satellite from ESA provides the unique 10-years swell spectra dataset on a continuous and global basis for scientific community. In this paper, a method of a dynamical validation approach for SAR swell spectra is developed, in which the in situ buoy spectra are reconstructed, partitioned, and retro- propagated to the vicinity of satellite observation along the great circle based upon the linear wave theory. More than 40,000 ASAR-buoy swell partitions are dynamically collocated for the full mission of Envisat, making this study the first to provide detailed quality assessment for ASAR derived ocean swell spectra. Comparison results show a general statistics of 0.40 m, 44.99 m and 16.89 ̊ for swell height, peak wavelength and direction RMSE, indicating a good agreement with buoy in-situ in Pacific Ocean.

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-15 to 2008-02-23 (NODC Accession 0109903)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109903 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  10. Ocean Color and the Equatorial Annual Cycle in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, A. C.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of chlorophyll, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and other scatterers in ocean surface waters affect the flux divergence of solar radiation and thus the vertical distribution of radiant heating of the ocean. While this may directly alter the local mixed-layer depth and temperature (Martin 1985; Strutton & Chavez 2004), non-local changes are propagated through advection (Manizza et al. 2005; Murtugudde et al. 2002; Nakamoto et al. 2001; Sweeny et al. 2005). In and coupled feedbacks (Lengaigne et al. 2007; Marzeion & Timmermann 2005). Anderson et al. (2007), Anderson et al. (2009) and Gnanadesikan & Anderson (2009) have performed a series of experiments with a fully coupled climate model which parameterizes the e-folding depth of solar irradiance in terms of surface chlorophyll-a concentration. The results have so far been discussed with respect to the climatic mean state and ENSO variability in the tropical Pacific. We extend the discussion here to the Pacific equatorial annual cycle. The focus of the coupled experiments has been the sensitivity of the coupled system to regional differences in chlorophyll concentration. While runs have been completed with realistic SeaWiFS-derived monthly composite chlorophyll ('green') and with a globally chlorophyll-free ocean ('blue'), the concentrations in two additional runs have been selectively set to zero in specific regions: the oligotrophic subtropical gyres ('gyre') in one case and the mesotrophic gyre margins ('margin') in the other. The annual cycle of ocean temperatures exhibits distinctly reduced amplitudes in the 'blue' and 'margin' experiments, and a slight reduction in 'gyre' (while ENSO variability almost vanishes in 'blue' and 'gyre', but amplifies in 'margin' - thus the frequently quoted inverse correlation between ENSO and annual amplitudes holds only for the 'green' / 'margin' comparison). It is well-known that on annual time scales, the anomalous divergence of surface currents and vertical

  11. Silicon stable isotope distribution traces Southern Ocean export of Si to the eastern South Pacific thermocline

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, G. F.; Reynolds, B. C.; Johnson, G. C.; Bullister, J. L.; Bourdon, B.

    2012-11-01

    The cycling and transport of dissolved silicon (Si) in the ocean may be traced by its stable isotope composition, δ30Si. We present a dataset of δ30Si values along 103° W in the eastern South Pacific Ocean, ranging from the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean (62° S) to the equatorial Pacific (12° S). At high southern latitudes, the uptake and associated isotope fractionation of Si by diatoms results in highly elevated δ30Si values (up to +3.2‰) in the summer mixed layer. High δ30Si values (+2‰) are also preserved in the high-latitude fossil winter mixed layer, documenting the efficient export of diatom opal beyond the maximum depth of winter convection. This elevated winter mixed layer δ30Si signature is introduced into the ocean interior by the subduction of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), whose northward spreading results in a strong isopycnal control on lower-thermocline and intermediate δ30Si values in the well-ventilated eastern South Pacific. Values of δ30Si are strongly conserved along SAMW and AAIW density levels as far north as 26° S, documenting the importance of the export of preformed Si from the surface Southern Ocean to lower latitudes. In contrast, in the equatorial Pacific, depressed δ30Si values in the mesopelagic ocean are observed, most likely documenting the combined influence of a North Pacific Si source as well as the accumulation of remineralized Si within the eastern equatorial Pacific shadow zone. At depth, δ30Si values in the South Pacific remain indistinguishable from deep Southern Ocean values of +1.25‰, even within Si-rich and oxygen-poor deep waters returning from the North Pacific. This homogeneity implies that the dissolution of opal plays a negligible role in altering the δ30Si value of deep waters as they traverse the deep Pacific Ocean.

  12. Observation of Directional Ocean Wave Spectra in China Seas and Northwest Pacific Ocean Using SAR Retrieval Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Kan; He, Mingxia

    2014-11-01

    A software to retrieve directional ocean wave spectra from SAR images has been developed for China seas and northwest Pacific. The software, written with C programming language, is based on the MPI method proposed by Hasselmann. It is designed to support the wave mode SAR data of ERS, Envisat, Sentinel and so on. The directional ocean wave spectra produced by this software are validated with buoy data in global ocean area, northwest Pacific and China seas and the retrieved significant wave height (SWH) errors are 5.2%, 4.9% and 9.3% respectively. About 15,000 directional ocean wave spectra are obtained with the software from the wave mode data of Envisat/ASAR over the China seas and northwest Pacific during the period between Jan 2003 and Jan 2012. The preliminary analysis is presented.

  13. Interbasin effects of the Indian Ocean on Pacific decadal climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kimoto, Masahide; Watanabe, Masahiro; Chikamoto, Yoshimitsu; Ishii, Masayoshi

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate the significant impact of the Indian Ocean on the Pacific climate on decadal timescales by comparing two sets of data assimilation experiments (pacemaker experiments) conducted over recent decades. For the Indian Ocean of an atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate model, we assimilate ocean temperature and salinity anomalies defined as deviations from climatology or as anomalies with the area-averaged changes for the Indian Ocean subtracted. When decadal sea surface temperature (SST) trends are observed to be strong over the Indian Ocean, the equatorial thermocline uniformly deepens, and the model simulates the eastward tendencies of surface wind aloft. Surface winds strongly converge around the maritime continent, and the associated strengthening of the Walker circulation suppresses an increasing trend in the equatorial Pacific SST through ocean thermocline shoaling, similar to common changes associated with seasonal Indian Ocean warming.

  14. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  15. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  16. Radiocarbon evidence for mid-late Holocene changes in southwest Pacific Ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komugabe-Dixson, Aimée. F.; Fallon, Stewart J.; Eggins, Stephen M.; Thresher, Ronald E.

    2016-07-01

    Variability in the southwest (SW) Pacific Ocean circulation is influenced by the changes in the South Pacific subtropical gyre and its western boundary current, the East Australian Current (EAC). The EAC plays a significant role in transporting warm, well-ventilated, nutrient-poor waters to more temperate higher latitudes. Recent climate changes associated with EAC intensification have led to anomalous warming in the South Tasman, with implications for marine ecosystems and environment. A clear understanding of the significance of these changes requires knowledge of past natural variability. Here we have reconstructed a 4500 year record of regional sea surface radiocarbon reservoir ages (R) and local reservoir effects (ΔR). Our results reveal the centennial-scale variability over the last 4500 years, with R ranges as large as 390 14C yr. Older R (~410 14C yr) between 1610 to 1860 A.D. in our record, corresponding to the "Little Ice Age," suggests a weaker influence of the EAC in the South Tasman. Between 4000 and 1900 cal years B.P., R and ΔR were significantly younger than the modern, with values of ~170 and -130 14C yr, respectively, indicating increased EAC transport of tropical waters into the South Tasman. We propose that the large R variability was influenced by strong and abrupt El Niño events which punctuated the muted El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) period in the mid-late Holocene and enabled increased westward flow of gyre waters into the SW Pacific. The strengthening of the EAC extension appears to have been a response to the precession-modulated ENSO-Southern Annular Mode interactions.

  17. Water exchange through the Kerama Gap estimated with a 25-year Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenzheng; Yu, Fei; Nan, Feng

    2017-03-01

    V ariations in water exchange through the Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island) from 1979 to 2003 were estimated with the 0.08° Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The model results show that the mean transport through the Kerama Gap (KGT) from the Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) was 2.1 Sv, which agrees well with the observed mean KGT (2.0 Sv) for 2009-2010. Over the time period examined, the monthly KGT varied from -10.9 Sv to 15.8 Sv and had a standard deviation of ± 5.0 Sv. The water mainly enters the ECS via the subsurface layer (300-500 m) along the northeastern slope of the Kerama Gap and mainly flows out of the ECS into the southwest of the Kerama Gap. The seasonal and interannual variations of the KGT and the Kuroshio upstream transport were negatively correlated. The Kuroshio upstream transport was largest in summer and smallest in autumn while the KGT was smallest in summer (1.02 Sv) and largest in spring (2.94 Sv) and autumn (2.44 Sv). The seasonal and interannual variations in the Kuroshio downstream (across the PN-line) transport differed significantly from the Kuroshio upstream transport but corresponded well with the KGT and the sum of the transport through the Kerama Gap and the Kuroshio upstream, which indicates that information about variation in the KGT is important for determining variation in the Kuroshio transport along the PN-line.

  18. Distribution characteristics of co-rich manganese deposits on a seamount in the central Pacific Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yamazaki, T.; Sharma, R.

    Distribution characteristics of cobalt-rich manganese deposits were evaluated from stereo photographs and video data on a seamount in the central Pacific Ocean by image analysis, photogrammetric technique, and visual observations. The results show...

  19. Pacific Ocean buoy temperature date - TAO/TRITON database & National Buoy Data Center database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pacific Ocean buoy temperature data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Carbone, F., M. Landis, C.N. Gencarelli, A. Naccarato, F. Sprovieri,...

  20. Helium isotopes in ferromanganese crusts from the central Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Stuart, F.M.; Klemm, V.; Korschinek, G.; Knie, K.; Hein, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Helium isotopes have been measured in samples of two ferromanganese crusts (VA13/2 and CD29-2) from the central Pacific Ocean. With the exception of the deepest part of crust CD29-2 the data can be explained by a mixture of implanted solar- and galactic cosmic ray-produced (GCR) He, in extraterrestrial grains, and radiogenic He in wind-borne continental dust grains. 4He concentrations are invariant and require retention of less than 12% of the in situ He produced since crust formation. Loss has occurred by recoil and diffusion. High 4He in CD29-2 samples older than 42 Ma are correlated with phosphatization and can be explained by retention of up to 12% of the in situ-produced 4He. 3He/4He of VA13/2 samples varies from 18.5 to 1852 Ra due almost entirely to variation in the extraterrestrial He contribution. The highest 3He/4He is comparable to the highest values measured in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and micrometeorites (MMs). Helium concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than in oceanic sediments reflecting the low trapping efficiency for in-falling terrestrial and extraterrestrial grains of Fe-Mn crusts. The extraterrestrial 3He concentration of the crusts rules out whole, undegassed 4–40 μm diameter IDPs as the host. Instead it requires that the extraterrestrial He inventory is carried by numerous particles with significantly lower He concentrations, and occasional high concentration GCR-He-bearing particles.

  1. The dependence on atmospheric resolution of ENSO and related East Asian-western North Pacific summer climate variability in a coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhao, Guijie; Huang, Gang; Wang, Pengfei; Yan, Bangliang

    2017-08-01

    The authors present results for El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and East Asian-western North Pacific climate variability simulated in a new version high-resolution coupled model (ICM.V2) developed at the Center for Monsoon System Research of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (CMSR, IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. The analyses are based on the last 100-year output of a 1000-year simulation. Results are compared to an earlier version of the same coupled model (ICM.V1), reanalysis, and observations. The two versions of ICM have similar physics but different atmospheric resolution. The simulated climatological mean states show marked improvement over many regions, especially the tropics in ICM.V2 compared to those in ICM.V1. The common bias in the cold tongue has reduced, and the warm biases along the ocean boundaries have improved as well. With improved simulation of ENSO, including its period and strength, the ENSO-related western North Pacific summer climate variability becomes more realistic compared to the observations. The simulated East Asian summer monsoon anomalies in the El Niño decaying summer are substantially more realistic in ICM.V2, which might be related to a better simulation of the Indo-Pacific Ocean capacitor (IPOC) effect and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO).

  2. On the enigmatic birth of the Pacific Plate within the Panthalassa Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Boschman, Lydian M.; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The oceanic Pacific Plate started forming in Early Jurassic time within the vast Panthalassa Ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangea, and contains the oldest lithosphere that can directly constrain the geodynamic history of the circum-Pangean Earth. We show that the geometry of the oldest marine magnetic anomalies of the Pacific Plate attests to a unique plate kinematic event that sparked the plate’s birth at virtually a point location, surrounded by the Izanagi, Farallon, and Phoenix...

  3. Distribution and air-sea exchange of current-use pesticides (CUPs) from East Asia to the high Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guangcai; Xie, Zhiyong; Cai, Minghong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-01-03

    Surface seawater and marine boundary layer air samples were collected on the ice-breaker R/V Xuelong (Snow Dragon) from the East China Sea to the high Arctic (33.23-84.5° N) in July to September 2010 and have been analyzed for six current-use pesticides (CUPs): trifluralin, endosulfan, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, and dicofol. In all oceanic air samples, the six CUPs were detected, showing highest level (>100 pg/m(3)) in the Sea of Japan. Gaseous CUPs basically decreased from East Asia (between 36.6 and 45.1° N) toward Bering and Chukchi Seas. The dissolved CUPs in ocean water ranged widely from air. Trifluralin in seawater was relatively high in the Sea of Japan (35.2° N) and evenly distributed between 36.9 and 72.5° N, but it remained below the detection limit at the highest northern latitudes in Chukchi Sea. In contrast with other CUPs, concentrations of chlorothalonil and dacthal were more abundant in Chukchi Sea and in East Asia. The air-sea gas exchange of CUPs was generally dominated by net deposition. Latitudinal trends of fugacity ratios of α-endosulfan, chlorothalonil, and dacthal showed stronger deposition of these compounds in East Asia than in Chukchi Sea, while trifluralin showed stronger deposition in Chukchi Sea (-455 ± 245 pg/m(2)/day) than in the North Pacific (-241 ± 158 pg/m(2)/day). Air-sea gas exchange of chlorpyrifos varied from net volatilizaiton in East Asia (<40° N) to equilibrium or net deposition in the North Pacific and the Arctic.

  4. Wind-driven interannual variability over the northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Patrick F.; Lagerloef, Gary S. E.

    2004-12-01

    Interannual variability of the sea surface height (SSH) over the northeast Pacific Ocean is hindcast with a reduced-gravity, quasi-geostrophic model that includes linear damping. The model is forced with monthly Ekman pumping fields derived from the NCEP reanalysis wind stresses. The numerical solution is compared with SSH observations derived from satellite altimeter data and gridded at a lateral resolution of 1 degree. Provided that the reduced gravity parameter is chosen appropriately, the results demonstrate that the model has significant hindcast skill over interior regions of the basin, away from continental boundaries. A damping time scale of 2 to 3 years is close to optimal, although the hindcast skill is not strongly dependent on this parameter. A simplification of the quasi-geostrophic model is considered in which Rossby waves are eliminated, yielding a Markov model driven by local Ekman pumping. The results approximately reproduce the hindcast skill of the more complete quasi-geostrophic model and indicate that the interannual SSH variability is dominated by the local response to wind forcing. There is a close correspondence the two leading empirical orthogonal modes of the local model and those of the observed SSH anomalies. The latter account for over half of the variance of the interannual signal over the region.

  5. The seismic Moho structure of Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinchang; Sager, William W.; Korenaga, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Oceanic plateaus are large igneous provinces formed by extraordinary eruptions that create thick oceanic crust, whose structure is poorly known owing to the lack of deep-penetration seismic data. Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection and wide-angle refraction data allow us to show Moho structure beneath a large part of the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Moho reflectors in the two data sets can be connected to trace the interface from the adjacent abyssal plain across much of the interior. The reflectors display varied character in continuity, shape, and amplitude, similar to characteristics reported in other locations. Beneath normal crust, the Moho is observed at ∼13 km depth (∼7 km below the seafloor) in MCS data and disappears at ∼20 km depth (∼17 km below the seafloor) beneath the high plateau. Moho at the distal flanks dips downward towards the center with slopes of ∼0.5°-1°, increasing to 3°-5° at the middle flanks. Seismic Moho topography is consistent with Airy isostasy, confirming this widely-applied assumption. Data from this study show that crustal thickness between the massifs in the interior of the plateau is nearly twice normal crustal thickness, despite the fact that this crust records apparently normal seafloor spreading magnetic lineations. The Moho model allows improved estimates of plateau area (5.33 ×105 km2) and volume (6.90 ×106 km3), the latter assuming that the entire crust was formed by Shatsky Rise volcanism because the massifs formed at spreading ridges. This study is unique in showing Moho depth and structure over an extraordinarily large area beneath an oceanic plateau, giving insight to plateau structure and formation.

  6. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USNS SILAS BENT in the North Pacific Ocean, East China Sea, and Sea of Japan in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 13 November 1975 to 11 December 1975 (NODC Accession 7601776)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USNS SILAS BENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval...

  7. East Antarctic land-ice/ocean networks: progress and questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, D. D.; Young, D. A.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Roberts, J. L.; van Ommen, T. D.; Aitken, A.; Siegert, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    International collaborative exploration over the last decade has revealed East Antarctica as a geologically diverse continent underlying an ice sheet with significant sea level potential, parts of which are currently undergoing rapid change. The Wilkes and Aurora Subglacial Basins (WSB and ASB), two of the largest reservoirs of sea level potential in Antarctica, are broader, deeper, and more susceptible to marine ice sheet instability than previously known. The morphology and coastal connections of the ASB indicate a dynamic early ice sheet with a significant erosional history and multiple ice sheet configurations. Recent results imply significant retreat into the WSB during the Pliocene while today irreversible discharge there is halted by only a small ridge. We have unveiled complex contemporary subglacial landscapes beneath both basins providing new challenges and opportunities to ice sheet modelers. For instance, geothermal heat flow varies spatially on multiple scales in the continental crust assumed to be homogeneous. A large, active, subglacial hydrological system flows through the ASB along pathways that likely predate large-scale glaciation. Proxies indicate four to eight meters of global sea level rise during the last interglacial period. Ice core results constrain the amount of sea level rise to one to three meters from contributed by East Antarctica. Going forward, new altimetry data along the East Antarctic coast reveal extensive lowering of the Totten and Denman Glaciers while satellite gravity indicate a variable but persistent record of negative regional mass loss. These discoveries provide a new baseline as the international community increases its focus on the region through ongoing airborne and marine exploration to address the many outstanding questions: What is the character and distribution of subglacial boundary conditions and water systems upstream of the grounding line in areas of significant potential sea level impact? How much subglacial

  8. Phylogeography of Indo-Pacific reef fishes: sister wrassesCoris gaimardandC. cuvieriin the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Ahti, Pauliina A.

    2016-02-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to resolve the evolutionary history, biogeographical barriers and population histories for sister species of wrasses, the African Coris (Coris cuvieri) in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, and the Yellowtail Coris (Coris gaimard) in the Pacific Ocean. Glacial sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene have shaped the evolutionary trajectories of Indo-Pacific marine fauna, primarily by creating barriers between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Here, we evaluate the influence of these episodic glacial barriers on sister species C. cuvieri and C. gaimard. Location: Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean. Methods: Sequences from mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI), and nuclear introns gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and ribosomal S7 protein were analysed in 426 individuals from across the range of both species. Median-joining networks, analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian estimates of the time since most recent common ancestor were used to resolve recent population history and connectivity. Results: Cytochrome oxidase c subunit I haplotypes showed a divergence of 0.97% between species, and nuclear alleles were shared between species. No population structure was detected between the Indian Ocean and Red Sea. The strongest signal of population structure was in C. gaimard between the Hawaiian biogeographical province and other Pacific locations (COI ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.040-0.173, P < 0.006; S7 ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.046, P < 0.001; GnRH ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.022, P < 0.005). Time to most recent common ancestor is c. 2.12 Ma for C. cuvieri and 1.76 Ma for C. gaimard. Main conclusions: We demonstrate an Indian-Pacific divergence of c. 2 Myr and high contemporary gene flow between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, mediated in part by the long pelagic larval stage. The discovery of hybrids at Christmas Island indicates that Indian and Pacific lineages have come into secondary contact after allopatric isolation. Subspecies

  9. Radiocesium in the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Nishino, Shigeto; Murata, Akihiko; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    We measured radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in seawater from the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014. Fukushima-derived (134)Cs in surface seawater was observed in the western subarctic area and Bering Sea but not in the Arctic Ocean. Vertical profile of (134)Cs in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean implies that Fukushima-derived (134)Cs intruded into the basin from the Bering Sea through subsurface (150m depth) in 2014. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) in the Pacific Ocean: the origin of a supertramp clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronk, Quentin C B; Kiehn, Michael; Wagner, Warren L; Smith, James F

    2005-06-01

    Cyrtandra comprises at least 600 species distributed throughout Malesia, where it is known for many local endemics and in Polynesia and Micronesia, where it is present on most island groups, and is among the most successfully dispersing genera of the Pacific. To ascertain the origin of the oceanic Pacific island species of Cyrtandra, we sequenced the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA of samples from throughout its geographical range. Because all oceanic Pacific island species form a well-supported clade, these species apparently result from a single initial colonization into the Pacific, possibly by a species from the eastern rim of SE Asia via a NW-to-SE stepping stone migration. Hawaiian species form a monophyletic group, probably as a result of a single colonization. The Pacific island clade of Cyrtandra dispersed across huge distances, in contrast to the apparent localization of the SE Asian clades. Although highly vagile, the Pacific clade is restricted to oceanic islands. Individual species are often endemic to a single island, characteristic of the "supertramp" life form sensu Diamond (1974, Science 184: 803-806). The evolution of fleshy fruit within Cyrtandra provided an adaptation for colonization throughout the oceanic Pacific via bird dispersal from a single common ancestor.

  11. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH OF THE PACIFIC-INDIAN OCEAN SSTA MODE AND DEFINITION OF ITS INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin-ling; JU Jian-hua; LI Chong-yin

    2005-01-01

    Applying the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to the sea surface temperature (SST) field of the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans for determination of the first eigenvector field, the current work reveals that there are significant zonal gradients of SST in all seasons of the year in the northwestern and eastern Indian Ocean and equatorial central and eastern Pacific and western Pacific. It is also found that the variance contribution rates of the first EOF mode of every season is more than 33%. This shows that this kind of spatial distribution of the SST is stable. This pattern is named Pacific-Indian Oceans SSTA mode. Through careful analysis and comparison, an index of the mode was defined.

  12. Northwest Pacific Ocean during the last 20,000 years: Initial results of the Sino-German Pacific Ocean Experiment (SiGePax)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Gerrit; Lembke-Jene, Lester; Scholz, Patrick; Gong, Xun; Max, Lars; Tiedemann, Ralf; Shi, Xuefa; Zou, Jianjun; Liu, Yanguang; Wu, Yonghua; Ge, Shulan

    2016-04-01

    Arctic and Subarctic Regions are most sensitive to climate change, and reversely provide dramatic feedbacks to the global climate. Paleoclimate studies in these regions are of vital importance for a better understanding of the natural processes in the climate system prior to the influences of human activities. With a focus on discovering paleoceanographic evolutions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean during the last 20,000 years, we show first results of the German-Sino cooperation programme SiGePax. We present a collection of sediment cores covering climatical key regions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Our climate simulations provide the first step towards 'Data-Model Syntheses', which are crucial for exploring the underlying mechanisms of observed changes in proxy records. Analyses of Holocene sea surface temperature records on a basin-wide scale show a spatially heterogenous, but no simple warming or cooling pattern, indicating that extratropical atmospheric dynamics is involved. The temperature data are compared to model scenarios. We use the Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM) in a global configuration, with a regional focus on the marginal seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean to provide the underlying dynamics. We find that the Okhotsk Sea is characterized by a highly dynamical sea-ice cover, where due to brine release, the Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water is formed, contributing to North Pacific Intermediate Water.

  13. Deep circulation in the northwest corner of the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, W. Brechner; Warren, Bruce A.

    2001-04-01

    We deployed for two years a line of nine current-meter moorings bearing instruments at depths of 2, 3, and 4 km running southeast of Hokkaido, to measure currents above the continental slope, Kuril Trench, and Hokkaido Rise. The mean flow was directed southwestward above the continental slope, northeastward above the trench and upper rise (except at one mooring), and westward onto the lower rise. The mean currents were highly barotropic, except above the continental slope, and unexpectedly swift (8 cm s -1 in the trench). The velocity pattern above the Hokkaido Rise is like that observed earlier above the Aleutian Rise at Long. 175°W, and may be due, as suggested for the latter, to varying topographic beta associated with the curvature of the bottom profile of the rise. Thermal-wind fields from three CTD sections along the mooring line, while consistent among themselves, were unlike the observed mean shear, and therefore useless for estimating mean transports. Estimates based on the direct current measurements alone, for depths greater than 2000 m, are 4×10 6 m3 s-1 southwestward above the continental slope and 20×10 6 m3 s-1 northeastward in the trench; but the former might be too small, the latter too large, by as much as 10×10 6 m3 s-1 because of the relatively broad mooring spacing. These measurements, in combination with many others reported earlier, unequivocally describe swift deep southward flow along the inshore sides of the Izu-Ogasawara, Japan, and Kuril Trenches, and opposed flow along their offshore sides, as well as above their axes (except in the Izu-Ogasawara Trench). The southward flow may be, at least in part, the recirculation western-boundary current predicted for the northern North Pacific, although the oceanic geometry is different from, and more complicated than, that of the classic analytical predictive models. Reasons for the strong opposed flow are obscure. Water properties reveal that deep water spreads into the Izu-Ogasawara Trench

  14. On the enigmatic birth of the Pacific Plate within the Panthalassa Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, Lydian M.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The oceanic Pacific Plate started forming in Early Jurassic time within the vast Panthalassa Ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangea, and contains the oldest lithosphere that can directly constrain the geodynamic history of the circum-Pangean Earth. We show that the geometry of the oldest ma

  15. On the enigmatic birth of the Pacific Plate within the Panthalassa Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, Lydian M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41129119X; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The oceanic Pacific Plate started forming in Early Jurassic time within the vast Panthalassa Ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangea, and contains the oldest lithosphere that can directly constrain the geodynamic history of the circum-Pangean Earth. We show that the geometry of the oldest ma

  16. Regional boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation over Indian Ocean and Western Pacific: comparison and predictability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Seon; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    The boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) has two major activity centers, the northern Indian Ocean and tropical Western North Pacific, which dominate the monsoon intraseasonal variability over South Asia and East Asia, respectively. The spatial-temporal structures of BSISO over the Indian Ocean (10°S-30°N, 60°-105°E) (IOISO) and Western Pacific (10°S-30°N, 105°-150°E) (WPISO) are examined by corresponding the leading modes of daily OLR and 850-hPa zonal wind (U850). The IOISO features a northeastward propagation with a 30-45 days energy peak and the first principal component (PC1) has maximum variance in May, while the WPISO propagates northward with a broad spectral peak on 10-60 days and the PC1 has maximum variance in August. Because of the large regional differences, two regional indices, the IOISO index and WPISO index, are defined by their corresponding first two leading PCs. The combined IOISO-WPISO index captures about 30 % (10 %) of U850 (OLR) daily variance over the entire IO-WP region (10°S-30°N, 60°-150°E), which doubles that captured by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) index (Wheeler and Hendon 2004) and is 50 % higher than that captured by the BSISO index (Lee et al. 2013). The combined index also shows superior performance in representing biweekly and pentad-mean variations in the Asian-Pacific summer monsoon region (north of 10°N). The predictability/prediction skill and simulated principal modes of two regional BSISO indices are explored by using data derived from the Intraseasonal Variability Hindcast Experiment project. The major regional modes are reasonably well captured, but the forecasted fractional variances of the leading modes and variability center's locations exhibit significant deficiencies. The multi-model mean estimate of the predictability is 40-45 days for the IOISO index, whereas 33-37 days for the WPISO index. The less predictable WPISO is likely due to the existence of its significant biweekly component

  17. Ocean acidification from 1997 to 2011 in the subarctic western North Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wakita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rising atmospheric CO2 contents have led to greater CO2 uptake by the oceans, lowering both pH due to increasing hydrogen ions and CaCO3 saturation states due to declining carbonate ion (CO32−. Here, we used previously compiled data sets and new data collected in 2010 and 2011 to investigate ocean acidification of the North Pacific western subarctic gyre. In winter, the western subarctic gyre is a source of CO2 to the atmosphere because of convective mixing of deep waters rich in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC. We calculated pH in winter mixed layer from DIC and total alkalinity (TA, and found that it decreased at the rate of −0.001 ± 0.0004 yr−1 from 1997 to 2011. This decrease rate is slower than that expected under condition of seawater/atmosphere equilibration, and it is also slower than the rate in the subtropical regions (−0.002 yr−1. The slow rate is caused by a reduction of CO2 emission in winter due to an increase in TA. Below the mixed layer, the calcite saturation horizon (~185 m depth shoaled at the rate of 2.9 ± 0.9 m yr−1 as the result of the declining CO32− concentration (−0.03 ± 0.01 μmol k−1yr−1. Between 200 m and 300 m depth, pH decline during the study period (−0.0051 ± 0.0010 yr−1 was larger than ever reported in the open North Pacific. This enhanced acidification rate below the calcite saturation horizon reflected not only the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 but also the increase in the decomposition of organic matter evaluated from the increase in AOU, which suggests that the dissolution of CaCO3 particles increased.

  18. The East Pacific Wavetrain: Its Variability and Impact on the Atmospheric Circulation in the Boreal Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Putian; SUO Lingling; YUAN Jiacan; TAN Benkui

    2012-01-01

    The East Pacific wavetrain (EPW) refers to here the intense stationary wave activity detected in the troposphere over the East Pacific and North America in 45 northern winters from 1958 to 2002.The EPW is generated in the lower troposphere over the East Pacific,propagating predominantly eastward into North America and slightly upward then eventually into the stratosphere.The intensity of the EPW varies from year to year and exhibits apparent decadal variability.For the period 1958-1964,the EPW was in its second maximum,and it was weakest for the period 1965-1975,then it was strongest for the period 1976-1987.After 1987,the EPW weakened again.The intensity and position of the members (i.e.,the Aleutian low,the North American trough,and the North American ridge) of the EPW oscillate from time to time.For an active EPW versus a weak EPW,the Aleutian low deepens abnormally and shifts its center from the west to the east of the date line,in the middle and upper troposphere the East Asian trough extends eastward,and the Canadian ridge intensifies at the same tine.The opposite is true for a weak EPW.Even in the lower stratosphere,significant changes in the stationary wave pattern are also observed.Interestingly the spatial variability of the EPW assumes a Pacific-North American (PNA)-like teleconnection pattern. It is likely that the PNA low-frequency oscillation is a reflection of the oscillations of intensity and position of the members of the EPW in horizontal direction.

  19. Biomineralisation of the ferromanganese crusts in the Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Guan, Yao; Gong, Jun-Li; Lu, Yang; Lu, Rong-Fei; Wang, Chi

    2017-04-01

    Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts are deep-sea sedimentary polymetallic minerals that are explored for their economic potential, particularly for Mn, Cu, Co, Ni and rare earth elements (REEs). The precipitation mechanism of the metallic elements in crusts has remained controversial between chemical oxidation (abiotic origin) and microbial enzymatic processes (biomineralization). In this study, the microbial mineralization in ferromanganese crusts from the Western Pacific Ocean was explored. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses showed abundant micron-scale spherical aggregates of Mn-oxide filaments (20-80 nm), which are closely associated with filamentous cells within the biofilm (biofilm mineralization) exist within the stromatolitic structure. The high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis suggests that biofilms are dominated by three Mn-oxidizing bacterial species from the families Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas. In addition, Mn concentration in the biofilms is approximately 108 times that of the associated seawater (2.3 ppb Mn). Iron (16.2 wt%), Cu (0.11 wt%), Co (0.719 wt%) and Ni (0.459 wt%) were found in the biofilms via X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). We suggest that biomineralization provides a new perspective for understanding Fe-Mn crustal-related mineral deposits, and the ultra-high microbial trace element enrichment ability is noteworthy. Utilization of microbial activities in accumulating precious metals from seawater may offer a viable alternative for the world's metal production in the future.

  20. Decoupling of Serpentinization and Prehnitization in Lower East Pacific Rise Crust at Hess Dee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, R. T.; Wintsch, R. P.; Meyer, R.; Bish, D. L.; Gasaway, C.; Heimdal, T.

    2014-12-01

    Our down-hole mineralogical and geochemical analyses from the East Pacific Rise fast-spreading lower oceanic crust indicate that alteration of olivine to serpentine and of plagioclase to prehnite were independent, and neither alone monitors the total "alteration." The results are based on representative channel sub-samples recovered from every Hole J core during IODP Expedition 345 to the Hess Deep tectonic window. Samples have been analyzed for trace element, Sr isotopic, and quantitative mineralogical compositions (the latter by Rietveld refinement using X-ray diffraction data). Hole J is the most representative rock succession drilled at the Hess Deep as it penetrated the two principle plutonic lithologies: an upper gabbro and a lower troctolite. Units are significantly distinguished by XRD modal mineralogy and trace element abundances. The more heterogeneous gabbro contains 23-32 wt% clinopyroxene (cpx), 34-54 wt% plagioclase (plag), and <4 wt% olivine (ol). The troctolite contains 3-11% cpx, 14-36% plag, and ≤6% ol. Alteration minerals comprise together 18-31% in the gabbro versus 55-80% of the troctolite. The most abundant alteration products are prehnite and chlorite. Gabbro samples with lowest abundances of alteration minerals (18-20 wt%) preserve 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70275-0.7028) consistent with unaltered mantle. The abundance of plag in the gabbro, the major host for Sr, suggests retention of mantle Sr isotopic compositions there is due to the large reservoir of magmatic Sr. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70300-0.70342 in the troctolite samples indicate seawater interaction, even where olivine is most abundant, and serpentine is at or below the ~1% detection limit by XRD. Significant alteration of the deep crust by seawater thus predates the first appearance of serpentine. These data suggest that the timing and operation of prehnite- and serpentine-producing alteration reactions are independent.

  1. Over Three years of Monitoring 129I spread in Pacific Ocean After the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. C.; Burr, G.; Jull, A. J. T.; Priyadarshi, A.; Thiemens, M. H.; Biddulph, D.; Russell, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    129I is a long-lived radionuclide that has been used as a useful environmental tracer. At present, the global 129I in surface water is about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than pre-1990 levels. The anthropogenic 129I signal produced from industrial nuclear fuel reprocessing plants is known to be the primary source of 129I in marine surface waters of the Atlantic, and elevated 129I values are found globally. The Great East Japan Earthquake and the induced tsunami in 2011 triggered the nuclear shutdowns, failures, and partial meltdowns of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The accident resulted in a series of radioactive material releases into the environment and spread out through atmospheric and ocean circulation. We will present 129I results of water samples collected weekly near Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA for the past 3 years. We also have several measurements collected a year apart from Kaohsiung, Taiwan, which represent west margin of Pacific Ocean, and from Alaska, Washington, and Oregon. By establishing 129I time series, we can observe the spread of 129I in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean that resulted from the accidental releases.

  2. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerovecki, Ivana [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; McClean, Julie [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Koracin, Darko [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States). Division of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-11-14

    The overall objective of this study was to improve the representation of regional ocean circulation in the North Pacific by using high resolution atmospheric forcing that accurately represents mesoscale processes in ocean-atmosphere regional (North Pacific) model configuration. The goal was to assess the importance of accurate representation of mesoscale processes in the atmosphere and the ocean on large scale circulation. This is an important question, as mesoscale processes in the atmosphere which are resolved by the high resolution mesoscale atmospheric models such as Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), are absent in commonly used atmospheric forcing such as CORE forcing, employed in e.g. the Community Climate System Model (CCSM).

  3. Geocemical provinces of magmatism in the south-eastern part of the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Belyatsky, Boris; Teterin, Dmitry

    2010-05-01

    Comparison of geochemical signatures of island magmatism in the south-eastern part of the Pacific Ocean and tholeiites of the Bransfield and Powell rift zones revealed the similar character of the enrichment which reflects the melting of a close mantle source. But alkaline magmatism of the islands in the west of Antarctic and Marie Byrd Land differs from the enriched basalts of the northern province (Bransfield, Powell, BTJ) by showing more radiogenic Sr values and non-radiogenic Nd. The tectonic development of the South Ocean is characterized by its formation under stationary conditions of Antarctic continent. As a result of this, for the volcanic islands distributed at the western part of the Antarctic we observe no long mountain ridges typical for their development under conditions of the moving plate. Intraplate magmatism evolution was coincided with the extinction of the old subduction zones, formation of the new rift zones and separation of South America from Antarctic [Udintsev, Schenke, 2007; Teterin, 2008]. Such complicated geodynamics caused the possibility of formation of rupture cracks reaching the underlying metasomatizated mantle and decompression melting with further island formation. In Oligocene due to migration of asthenospheric flow from the west to east in the result of destruction of previously united continental blocks there was formed the Scotia Sea, South Sandwich island arc as well as Drake Passage. This caused the mechanical weakening of South Atlantic lithosphere and the starting at the end of Oligocene - beginning Miocene of the new plate border formation - American-Antarctic ridge, which propagated in the eastern direction till the Bouvet triple junction [Dubinin et al., 1999]. The close geochemical signatures of mantle source for islands basalts including the Bouvet Island and the enriched tholeiites of the western extremity of the SW Indian Ridge proves the development of a specific geochemical province enveloping the southeastern

  4. Temperature profile data from BATHYTHERMOGRAPH (XBT) from LEXA MAERSK and other platforms in the eastern Pacific Ocean and southern Atlantic Ocean: 19880526 to 19890911 (NODC Accession 9000078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water depth and temperature data was collected from ships such as Lexa Maersk and 14 other ships. The data was collected from Eastern Pacific Ocean and Southern...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean and others from 2012-10-24 to 2013-08-27 (NODC Accession 0116977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116977 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North...

  6. Ship-based detection of glyoxal over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Sinreich, R.; Coburn, S.; Dix, B.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first detection of glyoxal (CHOCHO) over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL). The measurements were conducted by means of the University of Colorado Ship Multi-Axis Differential Optical Spectroscopy (CU SMAX-DOAS) instrument aboard the research vessel Ronald H. Brown. The research vessel was on a cruise in the framework of the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study – Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) ...

  7. Impact of East Asian winter monsoon on MJO over the equatorial western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiong; Li, Chongyin; Ling, Jian; Tan, Yanke

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the processes and mechanisms by which the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) affects the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) over the equatorial western Pacific in boreal winter (November-April). The results show that both the EAWM and MJO over the equatorial western Pacific have prominent interannual and interdecadal variabilities, and they are closely related, especially on the interannual timescales. The EAWM influences MJO via the feedback effect of convective heating, because the strong northerlies of EAWM can enhance the ascending motion and lead the convection to be strengthened over the equatorial western Pacific by reinforcing the convergence in the lower troposphere. Daily composite analysis in the phase 4 of MJO (i.e., strong MJO convection over the Maritime Continent and equatorial western Pacific) shows that the kinetic energy, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), moisture flux, vertical velocity, zonal wind, moist static energy, and atmospheric stability differ greatly between strong and weak EAWM processes over the western Pacific. The strong EAWM causes the intensity of MJO to increase, and the eastward propagation of MJO to become more persistent. MJO activities over the equatorial western Pacific have different modes. Furthermore, these modes have differing relationships with the EAWM, and other factors can also affect the activities of MJO; consequently, the relationship between the MJO and EAWM shows both interannual and interdecadal variabilities.

  8. Igneous Rocks of the East Pacific Rise: The alkali volcanic suite appear to be differentiated from a tholeiitic basalt extruded from the mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, A E; Engel, C G

    1964-10-23

    The apical parts of large volcanoes along the East Pacific Rise (islands and seamounts) are encrusted with rocks of the alkali volcanic suite (alkali basalt, andesine- and oligoclase-andesite, and trachyte). In contrast, the more submerged parts of the Rise are largely composed of a tholeiitic basalt which has low concentrations of K, P, U, Th, Pb, and Ti. This tholeiitic basalt is either the predominant or the only magma generated in the earth's mantle under oceanic ridges and rises. It is at least 1000-fold more abundant than the alkali suite, which is probably derived from tholeiitic basalt by magmatic differentiation in and immediately below the larger volcanoes. Distinction of oceanic tholeiites from almost all continental tholeiites is possible on the simple basis of total potassium content, with the discontinuity at 0.3 to 0.5 percent K(2)O by weight. Oceanic tholeiites also are readily distinguished from some 19 out of 20 basalts of oceanic islands and seamount cappings by having less than 0.3 percent K(2)O by weight and more than 48 percent SiO(2). Deep drilling into oceanic volcanoes should, however, core basalts transitional between the oceanic tholeiites and the presumed derivative alkali basalts. The composition of the oceanic tholeiites suggests that the mantle under the East Pacific Rise contains less than 0.10 percent potassium oxide by weight; 0.1 part per million of uranium and 0.4 part of thorium; a potassium:rubidium ratio of about 1200 and a potassium: uranium ratio of about 10(4).

  9. Changes in ocean circulation in the South-east Atlantic Ocean during the Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, B. F.; McClymont, E.; Felder, S.; Leng, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast Atlantic Ocean is an important ocean gateway because major oceanic systems interact with each other in a relatively small geographic area. These include the Benguela Current, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and the input of warm and saline waters from the Indian Ocean via the Agulhas leakage. However, there remain questions about circulation change in this region during the Pliocene, including whether there was more or less Agulhas Leakage, which may have implications for the strength of the global thermohaline circulation. ODP Site 1087 (31°28'S, 15°19'E, 1374m water depth) is located outside the Benguela upwelling region and is affected by Agulhas leakage in the modern ocean. Sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are thus sensitive to the influence of Agulhas Leakage at this site. Our approach is to apply several organic geochemistry proxies and foraminiferal analyses to reconstruct the Pliocene history of ODP 1087, including the UK37' index (SSTs), pigments (primary productivity) and planktonic foraminifera (water mass changes). SSTs during the Pliocene range from 17 to 22.5 °C (mean SSTs at 21 °C), and show variability on orbital and suborbital time scales. Our results indicate that the Benguela upwelling system had intensified and/or shifted south during the Pliocene. We find no evidence of Agulhas leakage, meaning that either Agulhas Leakage was severely reduced or displaced during the mid-Pliocene. Potential causes of the observed signals include changes to the local wind field and/or changes in the temperature of intermediate waters which upwell in the Benguela system. Pronounced cooling is observed during cold stages in the Pliocene, aligned with the M2 and KM2 events. These results may indicate that changes to the extent of the Antarctic ice sheet had impact on circulation in the south east Atlantic during the Pliocene via displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Currents.

  10. South East Pacific atmospheric composition and variability sampled along 20° S during VOCALS-REx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Allen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx was conducted from 15 October to 15 November 2008 in the South East Pacific (SEP region to investigate interactions between land, sea and atmosphere in this unique tropical eastern ocean environment and to improve the skill of global and regional models in representing the region. This study synthesises selected aircraft, ship and surface site observations from VOCALS-REx to statistically summarise and characterise the atmospheric composition and variability of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL and Free Troposphere (FT along the 20° S parallel between 70° W and 85° W. Significant zonal gradients in mean MBL sub-micron aerosol particle size and composition, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and ozone were seen over the campaign, with a generally more variable and polluted coastal environment and a less variable, more pristine remote maritime regime. Gradients in aerosol and trace gas concentrations were observed to be associated with strong gradients in cloud droplet number. The FT was often more polluted in terms of trace gases than the MBL in the mean; however increased variability in the FT composition suggests an episodic nature to elevated concentrations. This is consistent with a complex vertical interleaving of airmasses with diverse sources and hence pollutant concentrations as seen by generalised back trajectory analysis, which suggests contributions from both local and long-range sources. Furthermore, back trajectory analysis demonstrates that the observed zonal gradients both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere are characteristic of marked changes in airmass history with distance offshore – coastal boundary layer airmasses having been in recent contact with the local land surface and remote maritime airmasses having resided over ocean for in excess of ten days. Boundary layer composition to the east of 75° W was observed to be dominated by coastal

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ocean sediments from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxin; Halsall, Crispin J; Xie, Zhiyong; Koetke, Danijela; Mi, Wenying; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Gao, Guoping

    2017-08-01

    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surficial sediments along a marine transect from the North Pacific into the Arctic Ocean. The highest average Σ18PAHs concentrations were observed along the continental slope of the Canada Basin in the Arctic (68.3 ± 8.5 ng g(-1) dw), followed by sediments in the Chukchi Sea shelf (49.7 ± 21.2 ng g(-1) dw) and Bering Sea (39.5 ± 11.3 ng g(-1) dw), while the Bering Strait (16.8 ± 7.1 ng g(-1) dw) and Central Arctic Ocean sediments (13.1 ± 9.6 ng g(-1) dw) had relatively lower average concentrations. The use of principal components analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA/MLR) indicated that on average oil related or petrogenic sources contributed ∼42% of the measured PAHs in the sediments and marked by higher concentrations of two methylnaphthalenes over the non-alkylated parent PAH, naphthalene. Wood and coal combustion contributed ∼32%, and high temperature pyrogenic sources contributing ∼26%. Petrogenic sources, such as oil seeps, allochthonous coal and coastally eroded material such as terrigenous sediments particularly affected the Chukchi Sea shelf and slope of the Canada Basin, while biomass and coal combustion sources appeared to have greater influence in the central Arctic Ocean, possibly due to the effects of episodic summertime forest fires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 21 November 1981 - 20 November 1983 (NODC Accession 8500258)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean from November 21, 1981 to November 20, 1983. Data were submitted by...

  13. Wind and temperature data from current meter in the TOGA - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS), 28 May 1994 to 21 March 1995 (NODC Accession 9800041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind and temperature data were collected using current meter in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from May 28, 1994 to March 21, 1995. Data were submitted...

  14. Temperature profile data collected using XBT from the KANA KEOKI from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 1979-02-06 to 1980-06-14 (NCEI Accession 8100518)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, depth, and other data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from KANA KEOKI in the Pacific Ocean from February 6, 1979 to June 14, 1980....

  15. Physical and underway data collected aboard the Marcus G. Langseth during cruise MGL1208 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2012-04-30 to 2012-05-26 (NODC Accession 0104335)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104335 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the Marcus G. Langseth during cruise MGL1208 in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  16. Physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1214 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2012-11-05 to 2012-11-16 (NCEI Accession 0129852)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129852 includes physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1214 in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  17. Temperature profile data from STD/CTD casts from the MOANA WAVE from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 22 February to 27 May 1975 (NODC Accession 7800703)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data were collected using STD/CTD casts from MOANA WAVE in the Pacific Ocean from February 22, 1975 to May 27, 1975. Data were...

  18. Physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1213 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2012-10-04 to 2012-11-05 (NCEI Accession 0129851)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129851 includes physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1213 in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  19. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR0914 in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-11-05 to 2009-11-14 (NODC Accession 0089672)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0089672 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR0914 in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and...

  20. Temperature and other data collected using tide gauge from the Pacific Ocean as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project from 01 January 1977 to 01 January 1978 (NODC Accession 8100451)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, pressure, salinity, wind direction, and tide height data were collected using tide gauge in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from January 1, 1977...

  1. Physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the NEW HORIZON during cruise NH1418 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2014-09-19 to 2014-10-08 (NCEI Accession 0153297)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0153297 includes physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the NEW HORIZON during cruise NH1418 in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  2. Chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1014 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-10-19 to 2010-11-14 (NODC Accession 0089659)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0089659 includes chemical, optical, physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1014 in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  3. On the Enigmatic Birth of the Pacific Plate within the Panthalassa Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, L.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The oceanic Pacific Plate started forming in Early Jurassic time within the vast Panthalassa Ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangea and contains the oldest lithosphere that can directly constrain the geodynamic history of the circum-Pangean Earth. Here, we show that the geometry of the oldest marine magnetic anomalies of the Pacific Plate attests of a unique plate kinematic event that sparked the plate's birth in virtually a point location, surrounded by the Izanagi, Farallon and Phoenix Plates. We reconstruct the unstable triple junction that caused the plate reorganization leading to the birth of the Pacific Plate and present a model of the plate tectonic configuration that preconditioned this event. We show that a stable, but migrating triple junction involving the gradual cessation of intra-oceanic Panthalassa subduction culminated in the formation of an unstable transform-transform-transform triple junction. The consequent plate boundary reorganization resulted in the formation of a stable triangular three-ridge system from which the nascent Pacific Plate expanded. We link the birth of the Pacific Plate to the regional termination of intra-Panthalassa subduction. Remnants thereof have been identified in the deep lower mantle of which the locations may provide paleolongitudinal control on the absolute location of the early Pacific Plate. Our results constitute an essential step in unraveling the plate tectonic evolution of `Thalassa Incognita' comprising the comprehensive Panthalassa Ocean surrounding Pangea.

  4. Marine Isotope Stage 11 in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean; a coccolithophore perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Pellitero, Mariem; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Ullermann, Johannes; Lamy, Frank

    2017-02-01

    This work aims to provide new insights into environmental conditions during late Pleistocene Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS 11) in the Southern Ocean. We generated a multi-proxy coccolithophore dataset based on sediment core PS75/059-2. This core was retrieved at the western flank of the southern East Pacific Rise crest at ∼3600 m water depth. Coccolithophore assemblage counts indicated that the coccolith fraction (CF; productivity as well as apparent coccolith calcification during Termination V. Maximum values were reached during MIS 11. We explain this high coccolithophore production during MIS 11 by changes in sea surface temperature and nutrient regimes, due to a re-organisation of the surface circulation patterns and a southward migration of the frontal systems. Furthermore, the immense carbonate production of the coccolithophores may have contributed to increased atmospheric CO2 contents, causing a drawdown of the carbonate saturation and an increase in dissolution at the seafloor. However the atmospheric CO2 did not reach higher values probably due to the effective ballasting of organic matter by coccoliths.

  5. TRMM-observed summer warm rain over the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean: Characteristics and regional differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fang; Fu, Yunfei

    2016-06-01

    Based on the merged measurements from the TRMM Precipitation Radar and Visible and Infrared Scanner, refined characteristics (intensity, frequency, vertical structure, and diurnal variation) and regional differences of the warm rain over the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean (40ffiS-40ffiN, 120ffiE-70ffiW) in boreal summer are investigated for the period 1998-2012. The results reveal that three warm rain types (phased, pure, and mixed) exist over these regions. The phased warm rain, which occurs during the developing or declining stage of precipitation weather systems, is located over the central to western Intertropical Convergence Zone, South Pacific Convergence Zone, and Northwest Pacific. Its occurrence frequency peaks at midnight and minimizes during daytime with a 5.5-km maximum echo top. The frequency of this warm rain type is about 2.2%, and it contributes to 40% of the regional total rainfall. The pure warm rain is characterized by typical stable precipitation with an echo top lower than 4 km, and mostly occurs in Southeast Pacific. Although its frequency is less than 1.3%, this type of warm rain accounts for 95% of the regional total rainfall. Its occurrence peaks before dawn and it usually disappears in the afternoon. For the mixed warm rain, some may develop into deep convective precipitation, while most are similar to those of the pure type. The mixed warm rain is mainly located over the ocean east of Hawaii. Its frequency is 1.2%, but this type of warm rain could contribute to 80% of the regional total rainfall. The results also uncover that the mixed and pure types occur over the regions where SST ranges from 295 to 299 K, accompanied by relatively strong downdrafts at 500 hPa. Both the mixed and pure warm rains happen in a more unstable atmosphere, compared with the phased warm rain.

  6. Tropical Cyclone Exposure for U.S. waters within the Eastern Pacific Ocean basin, 1900-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent modeled, historical exposure of U.S. offshore and coastal waters to tropical cyclone activity within the Eastern Pacific Ocean basin. BOEM Outer...

  7. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Conrath: Notes on the Reproductive Biology of Female Salmon Sharks in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Little information has previously been published on the reproductive biology of the salmon shark in the Eastern North Pacific ocean. This data set incorporates basic...

  8. Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigment in a mixed layer isopycnal ocean general circulation model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Ishizaka, J.; Muneyama, K.; Frouin, R.

    The influence of phytoplankton on the upper ocean dynamics and thermodynamics in the equatorial Pacific is investigated using an isopycnal ocean general circulation model (OPYC) coupled with a mixed layer model and remotely sensed chlorophyll...

  9. Diversity of culturable filamentous Ascomycetes in the eastern South Pacific Ocean off Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jeanett; Gutiérrez, Marcelo H; Palfner, Götz; Pantoja, Silvio

    2017-08-01

    Our study reports the diversity of culturable mycoplankton in the eastern South Pacific Ocean off Chile to contribute with novel knowledge on taxonomy of filamentous fungi isolated from distinct physicochemical and biological marine environments. We characterized spatial distribution of isolates, evaluated their viability and assessed the influence of organic substrate availability on fungal development. Thirty-nine Operational Taxonomic Units were identified from 99 fungal strains isolated from coastal and oceanic waters by using Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery. All Operational Taxonomic Units belonged to phylum Ascomycota and orders Eurotiales, Dothideales, Sordariales and Hypocreales, mainly Penicillium sp. (82%); 11 sequences did not match existing species in GenBank, suggesting occurrence of novel fungal taxa. Our results suggest that fungal communities in the South Pacific Ocean off Chile appear to thrive in a wide range of environmental conditions in the ocean and that substrate availability may be a factor influencing fungal viability in the ocean.

  10. Annual cycles of deep-ocean biogeochemical export fluxes in subtropical and subantarctic waters, southwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodder, Scott D.; Chiswell, Stephen M.; Northcote, Lisa C.

    2016-04-01

    The annual cycles of particle fluxes derived from moored sediment trap data collected during 2000-2012 in subtropical (STW) and subantarctic waters (SAW) east of New Zealand are presented. These observations are the most comprehensive export flux time series from temperate Southern Hemisphere latitudes to date. With high levels of variability, fluxes in SAW were markedly lower than in STW, reflecting the picophytoplankton-dominated communities in the iron-limited, high nutrient-low chlorophyll SAW. Austral spring chlorophyll blooms in surface STW were near synchronous with elevated fluxes of bio-siliceous, carbonate, and organic carbon-rich materials to the deep ocean, probably facilitated by diatom and/or coccolithophorid sedimentation. Lithogenic fluxes were also high in STW, compared to SAW, reflecting proximity to the New Zealand landmass. In contrast, the highest biogenic fluxes in SAW occurred in spring when surface chlorophyll concentrations were low, while highest annual chlorophyll concentrations were in summer with no associated flux increase. We hypothesize that the high spring export in SAW results from subsurface chlorophyll accumulation that is not evident from remote-sensing satellites. This material was also rich in biogenic silica, perhaps related to the preferential export of diatoms and other silica-producing organisms, such as silicoflagellates and radiolarians. Organic carbon fluxes in STW are similar to that of other mesotrophic to oligotrophic waters (˜6-7 mg C m-2 d-1), whereas export from SAW is below the global average (˜3 mg C m-2 d-1). Regional differences in flux across the SW Pacific and Tasman region reflect variations in physical processes and ecosystem structure and function.

  11. Silicon stable isotope distribution traces Southern Ocean export of Si to the eastern South Pacific thermocline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cycling and transport of dissolved silicon (Si in the ocean may be traced by its stable isotope composition, δ30Si. We present a dataset of δ30Si values along 103° W in the eastern South Pacific Ocean, ranging from the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean (62° S to the equatorial Pacific (12° S. At high southern latitudes, the uptake and associated isotope fractionation of Si by diatoms results in highly elevated δ30Si values (up to +3.2 ‰ in the summer mixed layer. The efficient export of diatom opal to depths inaccessible to annual winter convection is reflected by high δ30Si values (+2 ‰ preserved in high-latitude winter mixed layers. These elevated δ30Si values are introduced into the ocean interior by the subduction of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW, whose northward spreading results in a strong isopycnal control on lower-thermocline and intermediate δ30Si values in the well-ventilated eastern South Pacific. Values of δ30Si are strongly conserved along SAMW and AAIW density levels as far north as 26° S, documenting the importance of the export of preformed Si from the surface Southern Ocean to lower latitudes. In contrast, in the equatorial Pacific, depressed δ30Si values in the mesopelagic ocean are observed, most likely documenting the combined influence of a North Pacific Si source as well as the accumulation of remineralized Si within the eastern equatorial Pacific shadow zone. At depth, δ30Si values in the South Pacific remain indistinguishable from deep Southern Ocean values of +1.25 ‰, even within Si-rich and oxygen-poor deep waters returning from the North Pacific. This homogeneity implies that the dissolution of opal plays a negligible role in altering the δ30Si value of deep waters as they traverse the deep Pacific Ocean.

  12. First Lanuginellinae (Porifera, Hexactinellida, Rossellidae) from the NE Pacific and first species of Doconesthes from the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiswig, Henry M

    2015-02-24

    A new sac-shaped hexactinellid collected from western Canada bearing long lateral prostal spicules was first thought to be a typical Rossellinae.  Subsequent examination of its spiculation proved it to have distinctive strobiloplumicomes, typical of the subfamily Lanuginellinae.  Other spicules showed it to be a member of the monospecific genus Doconesthes, known previously only from the North Atlantic Ocean.  The new species described here as Doconesthes dustinchiversi is only the second known species of the genus and the first to be found in the Pacific Ocean.

  13. The meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean, and the influence of the East African Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingo, Julia; Spencer, Hilary; Hoskins, Brian; Berrisford, Paul; Black, Emily

    2005-01-15

    This paper reviews the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean and uses a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model to investigate the influence of the East African Highlands on the climate of the Indian Ocean and its surrounding regions. The new 44-year re-analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has been used to construct a new climatology of the Western Indian Ocean. A brief overview of the seasonal cycle of the Western Indian Ocean is presented which emphasizes the importance of the geography of the Indian Ocean basin for controlling the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean. The principal modes of inter-annual variability are described, associated with El Nino and the Indian Ocean Dipole or Zonal Mode, and the basic characteristics of the subseasonal weather over the Western Indian Ocean are presented, including new statistics on cyclone tracks derived from the ECMWF re-analyses. Sensitivity experiments, in which the orographic effects of East Africa are removed, have shown that the East African Highlands, although not very high, play a significant role in the climate of Africa, India and Southeast Asia, and in the heat, salinity and momentum forcing of the Western Indian Ocean. The hydrological cycle over Africa is systematically enhanced in all seasons by the presence of the East African Highlands, and during the Asian summer monsoon there is a major redistribution of the rainfall across India and Southeast Asia. The implied impact of the East African Highlands on the ocean is substantial. The East African Highlands systematically freshen the tropical Indian Ocean, and act to focus the monsoon winds along the coast, leading to greater upwelling and cooler sea-surface temperatures.

  14. Combined effect of the East Atlantic/West Russia and Western Pacific teleconnections on the East Asian winter monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyoeun; Jhun, Jong-Ghap; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Seo, Kyong-Hwan

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the individual effects of the East Atlantic/West Russia (EATL/WRUS) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection patterns and their combined effect on the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The contributions of the respective EATL/WRUS and WP teleconnection patterns to the EAWM are revealed by removing the dependence on the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) using a linear regression, which are named as N_EATL/WRUS and N_WP, respectively. This is because the EATL/WRUS (WP) is closely linked to the Arctic (tropics) region. A significant increase (decrease) in temperature over East Asia (EA) corresponding to a weak (strong) EAWM is associated with the N_EATL/WRUS and N_WP teleconnection patterns during the positive (negative) phases. In order to examine impacts of these two teleconnections on the EAWM, three types of effects are reconstructed on the basis of ± 0.5 standard deviation: 1) Combined effect, 2) N_EATL/WRUS effect, and 3) N_WP effect. The positive N_EATL/WRUS teleconnection induces to a weakened Siberian High and a shallow EA trough at the mid-troposphere through wave propagation, leading to the weak EAWM. During the positive N_WP pattern, warm air from the tropics flows toward the EA along western flank of an anomalous anticyclone over the North Pacific that is relevant to the meridional shift of the Aleutian Low. When the two mid-latitude teleconnections have the in-phase combination, the increase in temperature over EA appears to be more pronounced than the individual effects by transporting warm air from tropics via strong southeasterly wind anomalies induced by anomalous zonal pressure gradient between the Siberian High and Aleutian Low. Therefore, the impact of the mid-latitude teleconnections on the EAWM becomes robust and linearly superimposed, unlike a nonlinear in-phase combined effect of the AO and ENSO.

  15. THE ANALYSIS OF INTRASEASONAL LONG ROSSBY WAVE SPEED IN THE SUBTROPICAL PACIFIC OCEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the satellite altimeter data suggests that the propagating speed of intraseasonal long Rossby wave amplified in the subtropical Pacific Ocean is faster than that of first-mode baroclinic free Rossby wave predicted by the liner theory and the propagating speed of intraseasonal long Rossby wave reflected in the eastern boundary of Pacific Ocean agrees basically with the liner theory speed of first-mode baroclinic free Rossby wave. If we do not distinguish the two kinds of long Rossby waves and estimate the Rossby wave speed in the whole basin, the phase speed is merely 25% higher than the linear theory long Rossby wave speed. The acceleration of the propagating speed of intraseasonal long Rossby wave amplified in the subtropical Pacific Ocean is due to the existence of westward thermolcline mean flow.

  16. Overview of surface ozone variability in East Asia-North Pacific region during IGAC/APARE (1994-1996)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.S. Lam; T.J.Wang; T. Wangt; J. Tang; Y.Kajii; C.M. Liu; S.G. Shim

    2004-01-01

    Surface ozone(O3) was measured at Oki Island(Japan), Cheju Island(South Korea), Lanyu Island (Taiwan Province, China), Cape D' Aguilar (Hong Kong SAR) and Lin'an, Longfenshan, Waliguan (China mainland) during January 1994-December 1996 as a component of IGAC/APARE(International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/East Asia-North Pacific Regional Experiment). This paper gave a joint discussion on the observational results at these stations over the study region. Investigations showed that the average of surface O3 mixing ratios at the seven sites are 47.9 ± 15.8, 48.1 ± 17.9, 30.2 + 16.4, 31.6 + 17.5, 36.3 ± 17.5, 34.8 ± 11.5 and 48.2 ± 9.5ppbv, respectively. Significant diurnal variations of surface O3 have been observed at Oki, Cheju, D' Aguilar, Lin'an and Longfenshan. Their annual averaged diurnal differences range from 8 to 23 ppbv and differ in each season.Surface O3 at Lanyu and Waliguan do not show strong diurnal variability. Seasonal cycles of surface O3 showed difference at the temperate and the subtropical remote sites. Oki has a summer minimum-spring maximum, while Lanyu has a summer minimum-autumn maximum. The suburban sites at D'Aguilar and Lin' an report high-level O3in autumn and Iow level O3 in summer. Surface O3 remainshigh in autumn and Iow in winter at the rural site Longfenshan. For the global background station Waliguan, surface O3 exhibits a broad spring-summer maximum and autumn-winter minimum. The backward air trajectories to these sites have shown different pathways of long-range transport of air pollution from East Asia Continent to North Pacific Ocean. Surface O3 was found to be strongly and positively correlated with CO at Oki and Lanyu, especially in spring and autumn, reflecting the substantial photochemical buildup of O3 on a regional scale. It is believed that the regional sources of pollution in East Asia have enhanced the average surface O3 concentrations in the background atmosphere of North Pacific.

  17. Zooplankton, temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from bottle and net casts in the South Pacific and Equatorial Pacific Oceans from the CORIOLIS from 05 April 1981 to 16 August 1981 (NODC Accession 0000527)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton, nutrients, and other data were collected from bottle and net casts in the South Pacific and Equatorial Pacific Oceans from the CORIOLIS from 05 April...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from WECOMA and GYRE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1979-02-07 to 1980-06-14 (NCEI Accession 0143951)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143951 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from WECOMA and GYRE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1979-02-07 to...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2004-05-23 to 2011-09-01 (NODC Accession 0100077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100077 includes chemical, physical and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2004-05-23 to...

  20. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-09-17 to 1991-10-02 (NODC Accession 0115596)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115596 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Kaiyo in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-01-06 to 1994-02-05 (NODC Accession 0112362)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112362 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Kaiyo in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1999-10-13 to 1999-11-20 (NODC Accession 0112253)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112253 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Kaiyo in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-29 to 1997-12-25 (NODC Accession 0112363)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112363 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Kaiyo in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2004-11-17 to 2004-12-09 (NODC Accession 0112263)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112263 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  5. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-08-13 to 1991-09-01 (NODC Accession 0115591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115591 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-02-16 to 2007-03-26 (NODC Accession 0112269)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112269 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2002-12-17 to 2003-02-14 (NODC Accession 0113608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113608 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-10-06 to 1993-04-13 (NODC Accession 0115156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115156 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  9. Atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, How-Ran; Lin, Ding-Yan; Chen, Kuang-Yu; Gou, Yan-Yu; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Shui-Jen; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the atmospheric occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines. We determined sixty-six compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), in air samples simultaneously collected from the offshore oceanic atmosphere (n=6) and over a rural area (n=2). We calculated the atmospheric World Health Organization 2005 toxic equivalency levels (WHO2005-TEQ), for the total dioxin-like POPs, including PCDD/Fs, DLPCBs, and PBDD/Fs, being 0.00612 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) and 0.0138 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) over the ocean and land, respectively. We found unexpected lower averaged atmospheric PBDE concentrations in the rural area (15.9 pg/m(3)) than over the ocean (31.1 pg/m(3)) due to higher levels of the BDE209 congener, although the difference was not statistically significant. We have compared and reported our field results with previously published datasets over the global oceans, which suggest PCBs and PBDEs are the dominant chemical contaminants in the global oceanic atmosphere among these halogenated POPs (e.g. PCBs and Σdi-hepta PBDEs could be found in the range of 0.09-48.7 and 8.07-94.0 pg/m(3), respectively, including our dataset). However, there are still very few investigations on the global atmospheric levels of PBDD/Fs, PCDEs and PBBs and our data sums to these earlier studies. Finally, we point out that the halogenated POPs originated from Taiwan or the continental East Asia which could easily reach remote ocean sites via atmospheric transport.

  10. Seasonal variation of the surface North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) in the western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Fan

    2016-11-01

    The North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) is an important zonal flow in the upper circulation of the tropical Pacific Ocean, which plays a vital role in the heat budget of the western Pacific warm pool. Using satellite-derived data of ocean surface currents and sea surface heights (SSHs) from 1992 to 2011, the seasonal variation of the surface NECC in the western tropical Pacific Ocean was investigated. It was found that the intensity (INT) and axis position (Y CM ) of the surface NECC exhibit strikingly different seasonal fluctuations in the upstream (128°-136°E) and downstream (145°-160°E) regions. Of the two regions, the seasonal cycle of the upstream NECC shows the greater interannual variability. Its INT and YCM are greatly influenced by variations of the Mindanao Eddy, Mindanao Dome (MD), and equatorial Rossby waves to its south. Both INT and Y CM also show semiannual signals induced by the combined effects of equatorial Rossby waves from the Central Pacific and local wind forcing in the western Pacific Ocean. In the downstream region, the variability of the NECC is affected by SSH anomalies in the MD and the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. Those in the MD region are especially important in modulating the YCM of the downstream NECC. In addition to the SSH-related geostrophic flow, zonal Ekman flow driven by meridional wind stress also plays a role, having considerable impact on INT variability of the surface NECC. The contrasting features of the variability of the NECC in the upstream and downstream regions reflect the high complexity of regional ocean dynamics.

  11. Electrically-Active Convection in Tropical Easterly Waves and Implications for Tropical Cyclogenesis in the Atlantic and East Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Kenneth D., II; Petersen, Walter A.; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the characteristics of tropical easterly wave convection and the possible implications of convective structure on tropical cyclogenesis and intensification over the Atlantic Ocean and East Pacific using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Microwave Imager, Precipitation Radar (PR), and Lightning Imaging Sensor as well as infrared (IR) brightness temperature data from the NASA global-merged IR brightness temperature dataset. Easterly waves were partitioned into northerly, southerly, trough, and ridge phases based on the 700-hPa meridional wind from the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis dataset. Waves were subsequently divided according to whether they did or did not develop tropical cyclones (i.e., developing and nondeveloping, respectively), and developing waves were further subdivided according to development location. Finally, composites as a function of wave phase and category were created using the various datasets. Results suggest that the convective characteristics that best distinguish developing from nondeveloping waves vary according to where developing waves spawn tropical cyclones. For waves that developed a cyclone in the Atlantic basin, coverage by IR brightness temperatures .240 K and .210 K provide the best distinction between developing and nondeveloping waves. In contrast, several variables provide a significant distinction between nondeveloping waves and waves that develop cyclones over the East Pacific as these waves near their genesis location including IR threshold coverage, lightning flash rates, and low-level (<4.5 km) PR reflectivity. Results of this study may be used to help develop thresholds to better distinguish developing from nondeveloping waves and serve as another aid for tropical cyclogenesis forecasting.

  12. Emissions and transport of air pollutants from China to the Pacific: Major findings from the EAST-AIRE air campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Li, Z.; Dickerson, R. R.; Chen, H.

    2007-12-01

    Accompanying economic boom over the past few decades, pollutant emissions from China have increased dramatically and raised growing concerns regarding their large-scale impact. Observations over the Pacific Ocean and numerical simulations generally identify mid-latitude cyclones as the major mechanism driving the long-range transport of pollutants off the Chinese coast to downwind areas. Here we present results from the first aircraft campaign of EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment), carried out over an industrialized region in Northeast China in spring 2005. Prefrontal and postfrontal flights provide vertical distribution of pollutants within different sectors of two mid-latitude cyclones traveling through the area. In consistence with previous studies, both cyclones feature abundant anthropogenic pollutants ahead of cold fronts, and much lower pollutant levels (but with dust) behind cold fronts. Pollutant levels above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) were found substantial in one prefrontal flight (April 5) but low in the other (April 11), showing different potentials for long-range transport. Backward trajectories suggest that in both cases, isentropic upward motions associated with the SW flows in the warm sector were weak and largely constrained within PBL. Synoptic analysis and satellite observations further indicate that upwind dry (non- precipitating) convection may explain the pollutants observed above PBL on the 5th. With the assistance of forward trajectory analysis and chemical transport models, two satellite sensors (OMI and MODIS) successfully tracked the pollution plume associated with the April 5 cyclone, as it propagated into the North Pacific on the next few days. Satellite observed changes in SO2 and aerosol content within the plume are used to qualitatively estimate the conversion from aerosol precursor gases to secondary aerosols, in a semi-Lagrangian way.

  13. Spatial and sex-specific variation in growth of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga across the South Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley J Williams

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in growth is a common feature of demersal fish populations which often exist as discrete adult sub-populations linked by a pelagic larval stage. However, it remains unclear whether variation in growth occurs at similar spatial scales for populations of highly migratory pelagic species, such as tuna. We examined spatial variation in growth of albacore Thunnus alalunga across 90° of longitude in the South Pacific Ocean from the east coast of Australia to the Pitcairn Islands. Using length-at-age data from a validated ageing method we found evidence for significant variation in length-at-age and growth parameters (L(∞ and k between sexes and across longitudes. Growth trajectories were similar between sexes up until four years of age, after which the length-at-age for males was, on average, greater than that for females. Males reached an average maximum size more than 8 cm larger than females. Length-at-age and growth parameters were consistently greater at more easterly longitudes than at westerly longitudes for both females and males. Our results provide strong evidence that finer spatial structure exists within the South Pacific albacore stock and raises the question of whether the scale of their "highly migratory" nature should be re-assessed. Future stock assessment models for South Pacific albacore should consider sex-specific growth curves and spatial variation in growth within the stock.

  14. Population structure and connectivity of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) across the Indo-Pacific Ocean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Bonnie J.; Williams, Samuel M.; Otway, Nicholas M.

    2017-01-01

    Population genetic structure using nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci was assessed for the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) at seven locations across the Indo-Pacific, and one location in the southern Atlantic. Genetic analyses revealed considerable genetic structuring (FST > 0.14, p....001) between all Indo-Pacific locations and Brazil. By contrast, no significant genetic differences were observed between locations from within the Pacific or Indian Oceans, identifying an apparent large, single Indo-Pacific population. A lack of differentiation between tiger sharks sampled in Hawaii and other...... Indo-Pacific locations identified herein is in contrast to an earlier global tiger shark nDNA study. The results of our power analysis provide evidence to suggest that the larger sample sizes used here negated any weak population subdivision observed previously. These results further highlight the need...

  15. Environmental variability and chum salmon production at the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suam; Kang, Sukyung; Kim, Ju Kyoung; Bang, Minkyoung

    2017-09-01

    Chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, are distributed widely in the North Pacific Ocean, and about 76% of chum salmon were caught from Russian, Japanese, and Korean waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean during the last 20 years. Although it has been speculated that the recent increase in salmon production was aided by not only the enhancement program that targeted chum salmon but also by favorable ocean conditions since the early 1990s, the ecological processes for determining the yield of salmon have not been clearly delineated. To investigate the relationship between yield and the controlling factors for ocean survival of chum salmon, a time-series of climate indices, seawater temperature, and prey availability in the northwestern Pacific including Korean waters were analyzed using some statistical tools. The results of cross-correlation function (CCF) analysis and cumulative sum (CuSum) of anomalies indicated that there were significant environmental changes in the North Pacific during the last century, and each regional stock of chum salmon responded to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) differently: for Russian stock, the correlations between PDO index and catch were significantly negative with a time-lag of 0 and 1 years; for Japanese stock, significantly positive with a timelag of 0-2 years; and for Korean stock, positive but no significant correlation. The results of statistical analyses with Korean chum salmon also revealed that a coastal seawater temperature over 14°C and the return rate of spawning adults to the natal river produced a significant negative correlation.

  16. Last Glacial Maximum sea surface temperature and sea-ice extent in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Verena; Esper, Oliver; Gersonde, Rainer; Lamy, Frank; Tiedemann, Ralf

    2016-08-01

    Sea surface temperatures and sea-ice extent are most critical variables to evaluate the Southern Ocean paleoceanographic evolution in relation to the development of the global carbon cycle, atmospheric CO2 and ocean-atmosphere circulation. Here we present diatom transfer function-based summer sea surface temperature (SSST) and winter sea-ice (WSI) estimates from the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean to bridge a gap in information that has to date hampered a well-established reconstruction of the last glacial Southern Ocean at circum-Antarctic scale. We studied the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at the EPILOG time slice (19,000-23,000 calendar years before present) in 17 cores and consolidated our LGM picture of the Pacific sector taking into account published data from its warmer regions. Our data display a distinct east-west differentiation with a rather stable WSI edge north of the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge in the Ross Sea sector and a more variable WSI extent over the Amundsen Abyssal Plain. The zone of maximum cooling (>4 K) during the LGM is in the present Subantarctic Zone and bounded to its south by the 4 °C isotherm. The isotherm is in the SSST range prevailing at the modern Antarctic Polar Front, representing a circum-Antarctic feature, and marks the northern edge of the glacial Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). The northward deflection of colder than modern surface waters along the South American continent led to a significant cooling of the glacial Humboldt Current surface waters (4-8 K), which affected the temperature regimes as far north as tropical latitudes. The glacial reduction of ACC temperatures may also have resulted in significant cooling in the Atlantic and Indian Southern Ocean, thus enhancing thermal differentiation of the Southern Ocean and Antarctic continental cooling. The comparison with numerical temperature and sea-ice simulations yields discrepancies, especially concerning the estimates of the sea-ice fields, but some simulations

  17. Plutonium and {sup 137}Cs in surface water of the South Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, K.; Komura, K. [Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052 (Japan); Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Kanazawa University, Wake, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1224 (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052 (Japan); Fukasawa, M. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), 2-15, Natsushima, Yokosuka 237-0061 (Japan); Kim, C.S. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daeduk-Danji Daejeon 305-336 (Korea); Povinec, P.P. [Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-842 48, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. [Marine Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC98000 (Monaco)

    2007-08-01

    The present plutonium and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in South Pacific Ocean surface waters were determined. The water samples were collected in the South Pacific mid-latitude region (32.5 S) during the BEAGLE expedition conducted in 2003-04 by JAMSTEC. {sup 239,240}Pu concentrations in surface seawater of the South Pacific were in the range of 0.5 to 4.1 mBq m{sup -3}, whereas {sup 137}Cs concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.7 Bq m{sup -3}. The observed {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the South Pacific were almost of the same level as those in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. The surface {sup 239,240}Pu in the South Pacific subtropical gyre showed larger spatial variations than {sup 137}Cs, as it may be affected by physical and biogeochemical processes. The {sup 239,240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratios, which reflect biogeochemical processes in seawater, were generally smaller than that observed in global fallout, except for the most eastern station. The {sup 239,240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratios in the South Pacific tend to be higher than that in the North Pacific. The relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters such as salinity and nutrients were examined. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the western South Pacific (the Tasman Sea) and the eastern South Pacific were negatively correlated with the phosphate concentration, whereas there is no correlation between the {sup 137}Cs and nutrients concentrations in the South Pacific subtropical gyre. The mutual relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters are important for better understanding of transport processes of anthropogenic radionuclides and their fate in the South Pacific. (author)

  18. A novel widespread cryptic species and phylogeographic patterns within several giant clam species (Cardiidae: Tridacna from the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Huelsken

    Full Text Available Giant clams (genus Tridacna are iconic coral reef animals of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, easily recognizable by their massive shells and vibrantly colored mantle tissue. Most Tridacna species are listed by CITES and the IUCN Redlist, as their populations have been extensively harvested and depleted in many regions. Here, we survey Tridacna crocea and Tridacna maxima from the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans for mitochondrial (COI and 16S and nuclear (ITS sequence variation and consolidate these data with previous published results using phylogenetic analyses. We find deep intraspecific differentiation within both T. crocea and T. maxima. In T. crocea we describe a previously undocumented phylogeographic division to the east of Cenderawasih Bay (northwest New Guinea, whereas for T. maxima the previously described, distinctive lineage of Cenderawasih Bay can be seen to also typify western Pacific populations. Furthermore, we find an undescribed, monophyletic group that is evolutionarily distinct from named Tridacna species at both mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This cryptic taxon is geographically widespread with a range extent that minimally includes much of the central Indo-Pacific region. Our results reinforce the emerging paradigm that cryptic species are common among marine invertebrates, even for conspicuous and culturally significant taxa. Additionally, our results add to identified locations of genetic differentiation across the central Indo-Pacific and highlight how phylogeographic patterns may differ even between closely related and co-distributed species.

  19. Response of the tropical Pacific Ocean to El Niño versus global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fukai; Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Wan, Xiuquan

    2017-02-01

    Climate models project an El Niño-like SST response in the tropical Pacific Ocean to global warming (GW). By employing the Community Earth System Model and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component, Parallel Ocean Program version 2, this study investigates the similarity and difference of formation mechanism for the changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean under El Niño and GW. Results show that, despite sharing some similarities between the two scenarios, there are many significant distinctions between GW and El Niño: (1) the phase locking of the seasonal cycle reduction is more notable under GW compared with El Niño, implying more extreme El Niño events in the future; (2) in contrast to the penetration of the equatorial subsurface temperature anomaly that appears to propagate in the form of an oceanic equatorial upwelling Kelvin wave during El Niño, the GW-induced subsurface temperature anomaly manifest in the form of off-equatorial upwelling Rossby waves; (3) while significant across-equator northward heat transport (NHT) is induced by the wind stress anomalies associated with El Niño, little NHT is found at the equator due to a symmetric change in the shallow meridional overturning circulation that appears to be weakened in both North and South Pacific under GW; and (4) heat budget analysis shows that the maintaining mechanisms for the eastern equatorial Pacific warming are also substantially different.

  20. Response of the tropical Pacific Ocean to El Niño versus global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fukai; Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-04-15

    Climate models project an El Niño-like SST response in the tropical Pacific Ocean to global warming (GW). By employing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component, Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2), this study investigates the similarity and difference of formation mechanism for the changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean under El Niño and GW. Results show that, despite sharing some similarities between the two scenarios, there are many significant distinctions between GW and El Niño: 1) the phase locking of the seasonal cycle reduction is more notable under GW compared with El Niño, implying more extreme El Niño events in the future; 2) in contrast to the penetration of the equatorial subsurface temperature anomaly that appears to propagate in the form of an oceanic equatorial upwelling Kelvin wave during El Niño, the GW-induced subsurface temperature anomaly manifest in the form of off-equatorial upwelling Rossby waves; 3) while significant across-equator northward heat transport (NHT) is induced by the wind stress anomalies associated with El Niño, little NHT is found at the equator due to a symmetric change in the shallow meridional overturning circulation that appears to be weakened in both North and South Pacific under GW; and 4) the maintaining mechanisms for the eastern equatorial Pacific warming are also substantially different.

  1. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such other...

  2. Volcanology and Geochemistry of the Taney Seamounts northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumans, J. P.; Clague, D. A.; Stix, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Taney seamounts are a NW-SE trending, linear, near-ridge chain consisting of five submarine volcanoes located on the Pacific plate 300 km west of San Francisco, California. Morphologically, the seamounts are characterized as truncated cones with nested calderas decreasing in age towards the ridge axis. This study examines the volcanology and geochemistry of the largest and oldest seamount, (Taney A, ~26 Ma), which is comprised of four well-exposed nested calderas. Each successive collapse event exposes previously infilled lavas, defining a relative chronology. The caldera walls and intracaldera pillow mounds were carefully sampled by the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Doc Ricketts to obtain stratigraphically-controlled samples. Whole rock samples were analyzed for major and trace elements, volcanic glasses were analyzed for major and volatile elements(S, Cl), and plagioclase phenocrysts were separated for mineral and glass inclusion microprobe analysis. Overall, the erupted lavas are mostly subalkalic mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) varying from differentiated to more primitive (6.0 - 8.2 wt. % MgO) with decreasing age. Incompatible elements and REE profiles normalized to primitive mantle suggest that the lavas are transitional to slightly enriched (0.1 - 0.3 wt. % K2O; 1.1 - 2.2 wt. % TiO2), which is unusual for near-ridge seamounts. Sc, which is compatible in clinopyroxene, increases linearly with TiO2 at primitive compositions (>7.0 wt. % MgO). In more evolved seamount basalts (<7.0 wt. % MgO), the low CaO and Sc contents and decreasing CaO/Al2O3 suggest that there is either extensive clinopyroxene fractionation, or mixing with magmas that have undergone extensive clinopyroxene fractionation. MELTS modeling suggests that clinopyroxene fractionation occurs at <6.0 wt. % MgO, inconsistent with the observed clinopyroxene imprint at <7.0 wt. % MgO. The discrepancy could indicate magma mixing. Although whole rock ICP-MS data have some scatter, especially for

  3. Estimate of radiocaesium derived FNPP1 accident in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2017-04-01

    134Cs and 137Cs (radiocaesium) were released to the North Pacific Ocean by direct discharge and atmospheric deposition released from the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident in 2011. After the FNPP1 accident, measurements of 134Cs and 137Cs were conducted by many researches. However, those results are only snapshots in order to interpret the distribution and transport of the released radiocaesium on a basin scale. It is recognized that estimation of the total amount of released 134Cs and 137Cs is necessary to assess the radioecological impacts of their release on the environment. It was reported that the inventory of 134Cs or 137Cs on the North Pacific Ocean after the FNPP1 accident was 15.2-18.3 PBq based on the observations (Aoyama et al., 2016a), 15.3±1.6 PBq by OI analysis (Inomata et al., 2016), 16.1±1.64 PBq by global ocean model (Tsubono et al., 2016). These suggest that more than 75 % of the atmospheric-released radiocaesium (15.2-20.4 PBq; Aoyama et al., 2016a) were deposited on the North Pacific Ocean. The radiocaesium from the atmospheric fallout and direct discharge were expected to mixing as well as diluting near the coastal region and transported eastward across the North Pacific Ocean in the surface layer. Furthermore, radicaesium were rapidly mixed and penetrated into the subsurface water in the North Pacific Ocean in winter. It was revealed that these radiocaesium existed in the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW, Aoyama et al., 2016b; Kaeriyama et al., 2016) and Central Mode Water (CMW, Aoyama et al., 2016b), suggesting that mode water formation and subduction are efficient pathway for the transport of FNPP1 derived radiocaesium into the ocean interior within 1-year timescale. Kaeriyama et al. (2016) estimated the total amount of FNPP1 derived radiocaesium in the STMW was 4.2 ± 1.1 PBq in October-November 2012. However, there is no estimation of the amount of radiocaesium in the CMW. Therefore, it is impossible to discuss

  4. Air-sea CO{sub 2} flux variability in the equatorial Pacific Ocean near 100 deg W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etcheto, J.; Boutin, J.; Dandonneau, Y.; Bakker, D.C.E. [CNRS/ORSTOM/UPMC, Paris (France). Lab. d`Oceanographie Dynamique et de Climatologie; Feely, R.A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States). Pacific Marine Environmental Lab.; Ling, R.D.; Nightingale, P.D. [Plymouth Marine Lab. (United Kingdom); Wanninkhof, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, FL (United States). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Labs.

    1999-07-01

    The interannual variability of the CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2oc)} in the surface layer of the east equatorial Pacific Ocean near 100 deg W is studied and compared with the sea surface temperature (SST) monitored from satellites. This variability is shown to be correlated with the SST anomaly rather than with the temperature itself. The pCO{sub 2oc} variability is related to the variability of the upwelling systems (the equatorial upwelling and the upwelling along the American coast), the main influence being from the coastal upwelling via the surface water advected from the east. A method is derived to interpolate the pCO{sub 2oc} measurements using the SST satellite measurements. By combining the result with the exchange coefficient (K) deduced from the wind speed provided by satellite borne instruments we deduce the air-sea CO{sub 2} flux and for the 1st time we monitor continuously its temporal evolution. The variability of this flux is mainly due to the variability of K, with a clear seasonal variation. The flux obtained using the Liss and Merlivat (1986) relationship averaged from April 1985 to June 1997 in the region 97.5-107.5 deg W 0-5 deg S is 1.67 mole m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} of CO{sub 2} leaving the ocean with an estimated accuracy of 30% 44 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  5. Impact of effective ocean optical properties on the Pacific subtropical cell: a CGCM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, G.; Tsujino, H.; Ishizaki, H.; Nakano, H.; Hirabara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The choice of ocean radiant scheme is important for modeling the upper ocean. According to the ocean-only simulation (Yamanaka et al., 2012), introduction of the chlorophyll-a dependent ocean radiant scheme results in the decreased mixed layer depth (MLD), the enhanced subtropical cell (STC), and the cooling of the eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST). They also found that the enhanced STC results from the velocity profile change associated with the decreased Ekman boundary layer. However, the impact is not well understood when the air-sea feedback process is at work. This study examines the impact of the effective ocean optical properties on the Pacific mean fields, especially focusing on the STC, using a coupled general circulation model (CGCM). The CGCM we employed is the Meteorological Research Institute Earth System Model (MRI-ESM1). The atmospheric model is TL159L48, and the ocean model has a horizontal resolution of 1 x 0.5 deg. with 51 levels in vertical. Experimental design basically follows the CMIP5 protocol. Two experiments (CTL and SLR runs) are performed to investigate the impact of the effective ocean optical properties. In the CTL run, a conventional ocean radiant heating scheme (Paul and Simpson, 1977) is used, whereas a new ocean radiant heating scheme is used in the SLR run, where the satellite-derived chlorophyll-a distribution is taken into consideration based on Morel and Antoine (1994) as well as the effect of the varying solar angle (Ishizaki and Yamanaka, 2010). Each experiment is integrated during the period from 1985 to 2005. It is found that introduction of the new ocean radiant scheme (SLR run) changes the long-term mean wind pattern in the Pacific: easterly winds are strengthened in the equatorial Pacific, but weakened in the off-equatorial region. In the tropical Pacific, the enhanced equatorial upwelling cools the equatorial SST and the MLD becomes shallower. This is similar to the ocean-only simulation, but is more

  6. Ship-based detection of glyoxal over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Sinreich, R.; Coburn, S.; Dix, B.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first detection of glyoxal (CHOCHO) over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL). The measurements were conducted by means of the University of Colorado Ship Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU SMAX-DOAS) instrument aboard the research vessel Ronald H. Brown. The research vessel was on a cruise in the framework of the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study – Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and the Tropical...

  7. Structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiabei; Yang, Xiu-Qun

    2016-09-01

    The structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system are examined in this study, using the NCEP/NCAR atmospheric reanalysis, HadISST SST and Simple Ocean Data Assimilation data for 1960-2010. The midlatitude decadal anomalies associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are identified, being characterized by an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low (high) pressure over a cold (warm) oceanic surface. Such a unique configuration of decadal anomalies can be maintained by an unstable ocean-atmosphere interaction mechanism in the midlatitudes, which is hypothesized as follows. Associated with a warm PDO phase, an initial midlatitude surface westerly anomaly accompanied with intensified Aleutian low tends to force a negative SST anomaly by increasing upward surface heat fluxes and driving southward Ekman current anomaly. The SST cooling tends to increase the meridional SST gradient, thus enhancing the subtropical oceanic front. As an adjustment of the atmospheric boundary layer to the enhanced oceanic front, the low-level atmospheric meridional temperature gradient and thus the low-level atmospheric baroclinicity tend to be strengthened, inducing more active transient eddy activities that increase transient eddy vorticity forcing. The vorticity forcing that dominates the total atmospheric forcing tends to produce an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low pressure north of the initial westerly anomaly, intensifying the initial anomalies of the midlatitude surface westerly and Aleutian low. Therefore, it is suggested that the midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interaction can provide a positive feedback mechanism for the development of initial anomaly, in which the oceanic front and the atmospheric transient eddy are the indispensable ingredients. Such a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback mechanism is fundamentally responsible for the observed decadal anomalies in the midlatitude North Pacific ocean

  8. Exceptional warming in the Western Pacific-Indian Ocean warm pool has contributed to more frequent droughts in eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Peterson, Thomas C.; Stott, Peter A.; Herring, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, East Africa faced a tragic food crisis that led to famine conditions in parts of Somalia and severe food shortages in parts of Ethiopia and Somalia. While many nonclimatic factors contributed to this crisis (high global food prices, political instability, and chronic poverty, among others) failed rains in both the boreal winter of 2010/11 and the boreal spring of 2011 played a critical role. The back-to-back failures of these rains, which were linked to the dominant La Niña climate and warm SSTs in the central and southeastern Indian Ocean, were particularly problematic since they followed poor rainfall during the spring and summer of 2008 and 2009. In fact, in parts of East Africa, in recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of below-normal rainy seasons, which may be related to the warming of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans (for more details, see Funk et al. 2008; Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011; Lyon and DeWitt 2012). The basic argument of this work is that recent warming in the Indian–Pacific warm pool (IPWP) enhances the export of geopotential height energy from the warm pool, which tends to produce subsidence across eastern Africa and reduce onshore moisture transports. The general pattern of this disruption has been supported by canonical correlation analyzes and numerical experiments with the Community Atmosphere Model (Funk et al. 2008), diagnostic evaluations of reanalysis data (Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011), and SST-driven experiments with ECHAM4.5, ECHAM5, and the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3.6) (Lyon and DeWitt 2012).

  9. Sensitivity of summer precipitation to tropical sea surface temperatures over East Asia in the GRIMs GMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Wu, Renguang

    2013-05-01

    In this study, uncoupled atmospheric general circulation model experiments are conducted to examine the sensitivity of tropical Ocean basins from the Indian Ocean to the tropical Pacific Ocean on the summer precipitation variability over East Asia. It is remarkable that the Indian Ocean basin sea surface temperature (SST) and the tropical Pacific basin SST act on summer precipitation variability over Northeast Asia and southern China quite differently. That is, SST warming in the Indian Ocean largely contributes to the increase in the amount of summer precipitation over East Asia, which is in contrast to the warming of the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Our further analysis indicates that an altered large-scale atmospheric circulation over the western tropical Pacific contributes to contrasting atmospheric motion over East Asia due to the tropics-East Asia teleconnections, which results in changes in the amount of summer precipitation due to the warming of the Indian and western tropical Pacific Oceans.

  10. Nitrogen speciation in various types of aerosol in spring over the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Luo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cumulative atmospheric nitrogen deposition has been found to profoundly impact the nutrient stoichiometry of the East China seas (ECSs and the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWPO. In spite of the potential significance of dry deposition in those regions, ship-board observations of atmospheric aerosols remain insufficient, particularly, for compositions of water-soluble nitrogen species (nitrate, ammonium and water-soluble organic nitrogen – WSON. We conducted a cruise covering the ECSs and the NWPO during the spring of 2014 and observed three types of atmospheric aerosols. Al content, air mass backward trajectory, weather condition, and ion stoichiometry allowed us to discern dust aerosol patches and sea fog modified aerosols (widespread on the ECSs from background aerosols (open ocean. Among the three types, sea fog modified aerosols contained the highest concentrations of nitrate (536 ± 300 nmol N m−3, ammonium (442 ± 194 nmol N m−3 and WSON (147 ± 171 nmol N m−3; moreover, ammonium and nitrate together occupied ~ 65 % molar fraction of total ions. The dust aerosols also contained significant amounts of nitrate (100 ± 23 nmol N m−3 and ammonium (138 ± 24 nmol N m−3 which were obviously larger than those in background aerosols (26 ± 32 and 54 ± 45 nmol N m−3, respectively, for nitrate and ammonium, yet this was not the case for WSON. It appeared that dust aerosols had less of a chance to contact WSON during its transport. In the open ocean, we found that sea salt (e.g. Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, as well as WSON, correlates positively with wind speed. Apparently, marine WSON was emitted during breaking waves. Regardless of the variable wind speeds from 0.8 to as high as 18 m s−1 nitrate and ammonium, by contrast, remained in narrow ranges implying that some supply and consumption processes of nitrate and ammonium were required to maintain such a quasi-static condition. Mean dry deposition of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN for sea

  11. Non-hotspot volcano chains produced by migration of shear-driven upwelling toward the East Pacific Rise (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, M. D.; Conrad, C. P.; Smith, E. I.; Harmon, N.

    2013-12-01

    While most oceanic volcanism is associated with the passive rise of hot mantle beneath the spreading axes of mid-ocean ridges (MOR), volcanism occurring off-axis reflects intraplate upper-mantle dynamics and composition, yet is poorly understood. Close to the East Pacific Rise (EPR), active magmatism propagated towards the spreading center to create a series of parallel volcanic ridges on the Pacific Plate ( ~3500 km in length for the Pukapuka, and ~500 km for the Sojourn, and Hotu-Matua ridges). Propagation of this volcanism by ~20 cm/a, as well as asymmetry in a variety of geophysical observables across the EPR, indicates strong lateral eastward pressure-driven flow in the asthenosphere; likely driven by upwelling beneath the South Pacific Superswell [1]. Although this pattern of large-scale mantle flow can account for the propagation of intraplate magmatism towards the EPR, it does not explain decompression melting itself. We hypothesize that shear-driven upwelling sustains off-axis volcanism. Unlike e.g. mantle plumes, shear-driven upwelling is a mechanism for mantle decompression that does not require lateral density heterogeneity to drive upwelling. For example, in the presence of shear across the asthenosphere, vertical flow emerges at the edges of viscosity heterogeneity [2]. These ingredients are present in the SE Pacific, where (1) shear across the asthenosphere is inferred to be greatest worldwide [2], and (2) lateral heterogeneity in mantle viscosity is indicated by geoid lineations that are associated with anomalies in seismic tomography [3]. Eastward pressure-driven flow from the South Pacific Superswell may separate into low-viscosity fingers thus providing viscosity heterogeneity [3]. Our three-dimensional numerical models [4] show that asthenospheric shear can excite upwelling and decompression melting at the tip of low-viscosity fingers that are propelled eastward by vigorous asthenospheric flow. This shear-driven upwelling is able to sustain

  12. Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones intensified by El Niño delivery of subsurface ocean heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, F-F; Boucharel, J; Lin, I-I

    2014-12-04

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) creates strong variations in sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Pacific, leading to major climatic and societal impacts. In particular, ENSO influences the yearly variations of tropical cyclone (TC) activities in both the Pacific and Atlantic basins through atmospheric dynamical factors such as vertical wind shear and stability. Until recently, however, the direct ocean thermal control of ENSO on TCs has not been taken into consideration because of an apparent mismatch in both timing and location: ENSO peaks in winter and its surface warming occurs mostly along the Equator, a region without TC activity. Here we show that El Niño--the warm phase of an ENSO cycle--effectively discharges heat into the eastern North Pacific basin two to three seasons after its wintertime peak, leading to intensified TCs. This basin is characterized by abundant TC activity and is the second most active TC region in the world. As a result of the time involved in ocean transport, El Niño's equatorial subsurface 'heat reservoir', built up in boreal winter, appears in the eastern North Pacific several months later during peak TC season (boreal summer and autumn). By means of this delayed ocean transport mechanism, ENSO provides an additional heat supply favourable for the formation of strong hurricanes. This thermal control on intense TC variability has significant implications for seasonal predictions and long-term projections of TC activity over the eastern North Pacific.

  13. Tropical climate variability: interactions across the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajtar, Jules B.; Santoso, Agus; England, Matthew H.; Cai, Wenju

    2016-06-01

    Complex interactions manifest between modes of tropical climate variability across the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans. For example, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) extends its influence on modes of variability in the tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans, which in turn feed back onto ENSO. Interactions between pairs of modes can alter their strength, periodicity, seasonality, and ultimately their predictability, yet little is known about the role that a third mode plays. Here we examine the interactions and relative influences between pairs of climate modes using ensembles of 100-year partially coupled experiments in an otherwise fully coupled general circulation model. In these experiments, the air-sea interaction over each tropical ocean basin, as well as pairs of ocean basins, is suppressed in turn. We find that Indian Ocean variability has a net damping effect on ENSO and Atlantic Ocean variability, and conversely they each promote Indian Ocean variability. The connection between the Pacific and the Atlantic is most clearly revealed in the absence of Indian Ocean variability. Our model runs suggest a weak damping influence by Atlantic variability on ENSO, and an enhancing influence by ENSO on Atlantic variability.

  14. Zoogeography of Elasmobranchs in the Colombian Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Navia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to investigate zoogeographical patterns of the marine elasmobranch species of Colombia, species richness of the Pacific and Caribbean and their subareas (Coastal Pacific, Oceanic Pacific, Coastal Caribbean, Oceanic Caribbean was analyzed. The areas shared 10 families, 10 genera and 16 species of sharks, and eight families, three genera and four species of batoids. Carcharhinidae had the highest contribution to shark richness, whereas Rajidae and Urotrygonidae had the greatest contribution to batoid richness in the Caribbean and Pacific, respectively. Most elasmobranchs were associated with benthic and coastal habitats. The similarity analysis allowed the identification of five groups of families, which characterize the elasmobranch richness in both areas. Beta diversity indicated that most species turnover occurred between the Coastal Pacific and the two Caribbean subareas. The difference in species richness and composition between areas may be due to vicariant events such as the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama. It is unlikely that the Colombian elasmobranch diversity originated from a single colonization event. Local diversification/speciation, dispersal from the non-tropical regions of the Americas, a Pacific dispersion and an Atlantic dispersion are origin possibilities without any of them excluding the others.

  15. Interaction between coastal and oceanic ecosystems of the Western and Central Pacific Ocean through predator-prey relationship studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Allain

    Full Text Available The Western and Central Pacific Ocean sustains the highest tuna production in the world. This province is also characterized by many islands and a complex bathymetry that induces specific current circulation patterns with the potential to create a high degree of interaction between coastal and oceanic ecosystems. Based on a large dataset of oceanic predator stomach contents, our study used generalized linear models to explore the coastal-oceanic system interaction by analyzing predator-prey relationship. We show that reef organisms are a frequent prey of oceanic predators. Predator species such as albacore (Thunnus alalunga and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares frequently consume reef prey with higher probability of consumption closer to land and in the western part of the Pacific Ocean. For surface-caught-predators consuming reef prey, this prey type represents about one third of the diet of predators smaller than 50 cm. The proportion decreases with increasing fish size. For predators caught at depth and consuming reef prey, the proportion varies with predator species but generally represents less than 10%. The annual consumption of reef prey by the yellowfin tuna population was estimated at 0.8 ± 0.40 CV million tonnes or 2.17 × 10(12± 0.40 CV individuals. This represents 6.1% ± 0.17 CV in weight of their diet. Our analyses identify some of the patterns of coastal-oceanic ecosystem interactions at a large scale and provides an estimate of annual consumption of reef prey by oceanic predators.

  16. Ocean water temperature from data loggers from the HALE-ALOHA Moorings in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux (JGOFS), the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), and Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) from 24 April 1998 to 03 May 1999 (NODC Accession 9900212)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean water temperature data were collected from data loggers attached to the HALE-ALOHA Moorings in the North Pacific Ocean from 24 April 1998 to 03 May 1999. Data...

  17. The ENSO Events in the Tropical Pacific and Dipole Events in the Indian Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO Jiping; CHAO Qingchen; LIU Lin

    2006-01-01

    A depth map (close to that of the thermocline as defined by 20℃) of climatically maximum sea-temperature anomaly was created at the subsurface of the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean, based on which the evolving sea-temperature anomaly at this depth map from 1960 to 2000 was statistically analyzed. It is noted that the evolving sea temperature anomaly at this depth map can be better analyzed than the evolving sea surface one. For example, during the ENSO event in the tropical Pacific, the sea-temperature anomaly signals travel counter-clockwise within the range of 10°S-10°N, and while moving, the signals change in intensity or even type. If Dipole is used in the tropical Indian. Ocean for analyzing the depth map of maximum sea-temperature anomaly, the sea-temperature anomalies of the eastern and western Indian Oceans would be negatively correlated in statistical sense (Dipole in real physical sense), which is unlike the sea surface temperature anomaly based analysis which demonstrates that the inter-annual positive and negative changes only occur on the gradients of the western and eastern temperature anomalies.Further analysis shows that the development of ENSO and Dipole has a time lag features statistically, with the sea-temperature anomaly in the eastern equatorial Pacific changing earlier (by three months or so). And the linkage between these two changes is a pair of coupled evolving Walker circulations that move reversely in the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans.

  18. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  19. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1350 Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. 334.1140 Section 334.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1140 Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. (a) The area. The waters around...

  2. MEAN SQUARE DEVIATION ANALYSIS OF INTERANNUAL SST VARIABILITY IN TROPICAL PACIFIC AND INDIAN OCEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严华生; 李艳; 等

    2002-01-01

    Using the SST data series in tropical ocean(20°N-20°S,50°E-80°W)during 1951-1997 to calculate its monthly mean square deviation,the work obtains results showing that interannual SST variability of the Pacific is more significant than that of the Indian Ocean.Especially near the central and eastern equatorial Pacific(165°W-90°W,6°N-6°S)。where it ranges from 2℃ to 4℃.The interannual SST variability is obvious in November and December but small in March and April.The interannual variabiltiy of "warm pool"SST is not so obvious as that of the eastern equatorial Pacific,Howerver,interannual SST variability of the Indian Ocean ranges from 1℃to 2℃ or so,being smaller than that of the Pacific,In the Indian ocean.Interannual SST variability of the Southern Hemisphere is more obvious than that of the Northern Hemisphere,According to above characterstics of interannual SST variability,the key sectors are determined.

  3. Surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific Ocean and the Indian rainfall

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    The time variation of the monthly mean surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific Ocean during 1982-1987 has been studied in relation to summer monsoon rainfall over India The ENSO events of 1982 and 1987 were related to a significant reduction...

  4. Pigment distribution in the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean (autumn 1995)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwe, M.A. van; Baar, H.J.W. de; Veldhuis, M.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Phytoplankton distribution patterns are still largely unknown for the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean. Pigment distributions were determined by HPLC on 40-m samples collected from the mixed layer during the ANTXII/4 cruise in March-May 1995 aboard RV "Polarstern". A transect was covered (90 deg

  5. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. 334.950 Section 334.950 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The... degrees true, 5.35 nautical miles; thence 040.4 degrees true to the beach. (3) The waters of the...

  6. Iron stress in the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean : evidence from enrichment bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Klaas; van Leeuwe, M.A.; de Jong, J.T.M.; Nolting, R.F.; Witte, H.J; van Ooyen, J; Swagerman, M.J W; Kloosterhuis, H; de Baar, H.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of iron on phytoplankton physiology in a scarcely investigated part of the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean was studied during an expedition aboard RV 'Polarstern'. Physiological effects of iron enrichments were studied during short-term bottle experiments (72 h) in high-nutrient, low

  7. Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean T-S variations with El Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, O.; Fukumori, I.; Lee, T.; Johnson, G. C.

    2004-01-01

    Temperature-Salinity (T-S) relationship variability in the pycnocline of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (NINO3 region, 5 degrees S ??degrees N, 150 degrees W ?? degrees W) over the last two decades is investigated using observational data and model simulation.

  8. Fe (III) speciation in the high nutrient, low chlorophyll Pacific region of the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolting, R.F.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Swagerman, M.J.W.; Timmermans, K.R.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1998-01-01

    Fe speciation was measured with competitive ligand equilibration adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry in the Pacific part of the Southern Ocean between 58° and 68°30′S along the 90°W meridian. The conditional stability constant (K′ with respect to [Fe3+]) was between 10^20.6 and 10^21.6 when

  9. Decadal and long-term sea level variability in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nidheesh, A.G.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Dayan, H.

    Decadal and long-term steric sea level variations over 1966-2007 period in the Indo-Pacific sector were analysed using an ocean general circulation model forced by reanalysis winds. The simulated steric sea level compares favourably with sea level...

  10. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ydenberg, R.C.; Dekker, D.; Kaiser, G.; Shepherd, P.C.F.; Ogden, L.E.; Rickards, K.; Lank, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica) wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative

  11. PECULIARITIES OF LONG TERM VARIATION OF SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN TROPICAL WESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is necessary to study the tropical western Pacific SST in association with variations of other parts of the globe. Two basic compositions are revealed of long-term variation in SST over three major tropical oceans since the 1950's (linear warming and ElNi(n)o-La Ni(n)a oscillations) and typical patterns with which they are displayed over the oceans are compared. On the basis of it, difference in long-term variation of SST over western, central and eastern tropical Pacific is analyzed in details. It is pointed out that the ElNi(n)o-La Ni(n)a oscillations are relatively weak in the long-term variation of SST in the tropical western Pacific and linear warming trend there is replaced by interdecadal oscillations. Further understanding of the peculiarity over the region helps improve short-term climatic predictions in China.

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2001-12-08 to 2002-01-19 (NODC Accession 0113547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113547 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2001-12-08 to 2002-01-19 (NODC Accession 0112347)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112347 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean...

  14. Spatial and temporal variabilities of spring Asian dust events and their impacts on chlorophyll-a concentrations in the western North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Joo-Eun; Kim, Kitae; Macdonald, Alison M.; Park, Ki-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Yoo, Kyu-Cheul; Yoon, Ho-Il; Yang, Eun Jin; Jung, Jinyoung; Lim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Hyoung; Lee, Jiyoung; Choi, Tae-Jun; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Il-Nam

    2017-02-01

    As the western North Pacific Ocean is located downwind of the source regions for spring Asian dust, it is an ideal location for determining the response of open waters to these events. Spatial analysis of spring Asian dust events from source regions to the western North Pacific, using long-term daily aerosol index data, revealed three different transport pathways supported by the westerly wind system: one passing across the northern East/Japan Sea (40°N-50°N), a second moving over the entire East/Japan Sea (35°N-55°N), and a third flowing predominantly over the Siberian continent (>50°N). Our results indicate that strong spring Asian dust events can increase ocean primary productivity by more than 70% (>2-fold increase in chlorophyll-a concentrations) compared to weak/nondust conditions. Therefore, attention should be paid to the recent downturn in the number of spring Asian dust events and to the response of primary production in the western North Pacific to this change.

  15. Physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1101 in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from 2011-01-11 to 2011-02-16 (NCEI Accession 0126863)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0126863 includes physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1101 in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  16. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Richard R; Eble, Jeffrey A; DiBattista, Joseph D; Rocha, Luiz A; Randall, John E; Berumen, Michael L; Bowen, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occurs on reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d=0.006-0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographic barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST=0.066-0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7-0.9Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypothesis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition. We recommend P.d. diacanthus and P.d. flavescens for the Pacific and Indian Ocean/Red Sea forms.

  17. Biogeographic patterns in the cartilaginous fauna (Pisces: Elasmobranchii and Holocephali in the southeast Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bustamante

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and species richness of the cartilaginous fish community of the continental shelf and slope off central Chile is described, based on fishery-independent trawl tows made in 2006 and 2007. A total of 194,705 specimens comprising 20 species (9 sharks, 10 skates, 1 chimaera were caught at depths of 100–500 m along a 1,000 km transect between 29.5°S and 39°S. Sample site locations were grouped to represent eight geographical zones within this latitudinal range. Species richness fluctuated from 1 to 6 species per zone. There was no significant latitudinal trend for sharks, but skates showed an increased species richness with latitude. Standardised catch per unit effort (CPUE increased with increasing depth for sharks, but not for skates, but the observed trend for increasing CPUE with latitude was not significant for either sharks or skates. A change in community composition occurred along the depth gradient with the skates, Psammobatis rudis, Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma dominating communities between 100 and 300 m, but small-sized, deep-water dogfishes, such as Centroscyllium spp. dominated the catch between 300 and 500 m. Cluster and ordination analysis identified one widespread assemblage, grouping 58% of sites, and three shallow-water assemblages. Assemblages with low diversity (coldspots coincided with highly productive fishing grounds for demersal crustaceans and bony fishes. The community distribution suggested that the differences between assemblages may be due to compensatory changes in mesopredator species abundance, as a consequence of continuous and unselective species removal. Distribution patterns and the quantitative assessment of sharks, skates and chimaeras presented here complement extant biogeographic knowledge and further the understanding of deep-water ecosystem dynamics in relation to fishing activity in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

  18. Seafloor geomorphology and geology of the Kingman Reef-Palmyra Atoll region, Central Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, Barry; Barth, Ginger; Scheirer, Dan; Mosher, Dave; Armstrong, Andy

    2017-04-01

    Kingman Reef and Palmyra Atoll are the exposed summits of two seamounts within the Line Islands Volcanic Chain in the Central Pacific Ocean. Both are U.S. Territories, and the Exclusive Economic Zone around the islands was partially surveyed in 1991 with GLORIA sidescan sonar and seismic reflection profiling. New multibeam swath sonar surveys were conducted in 2010, 2015, and 2016 around the islands, in support of U.S. Extended Continental Shelf investigations. Numerous transits through the region by research vessels have collected additional multibeam swath sonar data. We present new, detailed maps of bathymetry, sidescan sonar imagery, geology, and sediment isopachs of the seafloor surrounding the islands, and how these have informed our understanding of the islands' margins. The islands are the last subaerial remnants of a complex, horse-shoe-shaped volcanic platform spanning roughly 200 km in diameter. The elevated platform from which the seamounts arise comprises at least 10 individual volcanic centers that have heights exceeding 3000m above the nearby abyssal plains. Gravity modeling suggests that the elevated platform is compensated by thickened crust. Strong carbonate caps and voluminous sediment accumulations flanking the platform indicate that the volcanoes were once shallow-water or emergent systems. These systems produced vast quantities of carbonate sediment that were shed to a deep interior basin to the east of Palmyra Atoll, and to nearby abyssal plains. The identification of mass failures, sediment reworking and bedforms, and channel networks provide evidence for extensive sedimentary processes around these volcanic centers. Analysis of the seamounts atop the elevated platform and in the seamount province to the northwest shows that flat-topped seamounts ("guyots") are principally found at depths shallower than 1300 meters, while peaked seamounts are almost exclusively found at greater depths. This constrains the amount of regional subsidence that

  19. Impact of atmospheric and oceanic conditions on the frequency and genesis location of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific in 2004 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pan; Zhu, Jiang; Zhong, Zhong; Qi, Linlin; Wang, Xiaodan

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the impact of atmospheric and oceanic conditions during May-August of 2004 and 2010 on the frequency and genesis location of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific. Using the WRF model, four numerical experiments were carried out based on different atmospheric conditions and SST forcing. The numerical experiments indicated that changes in atmospheric and oceanic conditions greatly affect tropical cyclone activity, and the roles of atmospheric conditions are slightly greater than oceanic conditions. Specifically, the total number of tropical cyclones was found to be mostly affected by atmospheric conditions, while the distribution of tropical cyclone genesis locations was mainly related to oceanic conditions, especially the distribution of SST. In 2010, a warmer SST occurred west of 140°E, with a colder SST east of 140°E. On the one hand, the easterly flow was enhanced through the effect of the increase in the zonal SST gradient. The strengthened easterly flow led to an anomalous boundary layer divergence over the region to the east of 140°E, which suppressed the formation of tropical cyclones over this region. On the other hand, the colder SST over the region to the east of 140°E led to a colder low-level air temperature, which resulted in decreased CAPE and static instability energy. The decrease in thermodynamic energy restricted the generation of tropical cyclones over the same region.

  20. Surface and deep water carbon isotope record of the last one million years in the SW Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriam, Cobianchi; Valeria, Luciani; Claudia, Lupi; Nicoletta, Mancin; Nicola, Pelosi; Mario, Sprovieri; Iacopo, Trattenero

    2010-05-01

    The Pleistocene carbon isotope record from the core MD 97-2114 (SW Pacific Ocean) is used to reconstruct the surface- and deep-water circulation variability during the last one million years. The analyzed core has been recovered from an IMAGES (International Marine Past Global Change Study) cruise, at 1,935 m water depth, on the north eastern slope of Chatham Rise (east of New Zealand). This region represents a key area for investigating the evolution during the Pleistocene of the biogeochemistry and dynamic of the southern oceanic fronts (Subtropical, Subantarctic, Polar Fronts). In fact, in this crucial area the largely wind-driven Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) interacts with the west Pacific Ocean circulation via Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) coming from the Antarctic region. The excellent record of the core MD 97-2114 offers a unique opportunity to investigate the climate and oceanographic evolution of the region at a millenarian time-scale by mean of a high-resolution chemostratigraphic, multi-proxy dataset. Moreover, quantitative data on the calcareous planktic and benthic microfossil record, integrated with the C and O isotope data performed both on planktic and benthic foraminiferal tests, allows to understand coupling or decoupling events between sea surface and bottom waters in terms of productivity, current activity and carbon export dynamics. The northward migration of the Polar Front during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition is particularly focalized for its potential effects on the primary productivity and on the carbon biological pump. This oceanographic event seems to be related to a variation in the volume of the DWBC like a response to changes in the water production from the Antarctic source, as already proposed in previous papers.

  1. Biogeography of the deep-sea galatheid squat lobsters of the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Enrique; Richer de Forges, Bertrand; Schnabel, Kareen; Samadi, Sarah; Boisselier, Marie-Catherine; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni

    2010-02-01

    We analyzed the distribution patterns of the galatheid squat lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae) of the Pacific Ocean. We used the presence/absence data of 402 species along the continental slope and continental rise (200-2000 m) obtained from 54 cruises carried out in areas around the Philippines, Indonesia, Solomon, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna and French Polynesia. The total number of stations was ca. 3200. We also used published data from other expeditions carried out in the Pacific waters, and from an exhaustive search of ca. 600 papers on the taxonomy and biogeography of Pacific species. We studied the existence of biogeographic provinces using multivariate analyses, and present data on latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of species richness, rate of endemism and the relationship between body sizes with the size of the geographic ranges. Latitudinal species richness along the Western and Eastern Pacific exhibited an increase from higher latitudes towards the Equator. Longitudinal species richness decreased considerably from the Western to the Central Pacific. Size frequency distribution for body size was strongly shifted toward small sizes and endemic species were significantly smaller than non-endemics. This study concludes that a clear separation exists between the moderately poor galatheid fauna of the Eastern Pacific and the rich Western and Central Pacific faunas. Our results also show that the highest numbers of squat lobsters are found in the Coral Sea (Solomon-Vanuatu-New Caledonia islands) and Indo-Malay-Philippines archipelago (IMPA). The distribution of endemism along the Pacific Ocean indicates that there are several major centres of diversity, e.g. Coral Sea, IMPA, New Zealand and French Polynesia. The high proportion of endemism in these areas suggests that they have evolved independently.

  2. Quantifying dispersal from hydrothermal vent fields in the western Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, Satoshi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Nakajima, Yuichi; Shchepetkin, Alexander F; McWilliams, James C

    2016-03-15

    Hydrothermal vent fields in the western Pacific Ocean are mostly distributed along spreading centers in submarine basins behind convergent plate boundaries. Larval dispersal resulting from deep-ocean circulations is one of the major factors influencing gene flow, diversity, and distributions of vent animals. By combining a biophysical model and deep-profiling float experiments, we quantify potential larval dispersal of vent species via ocean circulation in the western Pacific Ocean. We demonstrate that vent fields within back-arc basins could be well connected without particular directionality, whereas basin-to-basin dispersal is expected to occur infrequently, once in tens to hundreds of thousands of years, with clear dispersal barriers and directionality associated with ocean currents. The southwest Pacific vent complex, spanning more than 4,000 km, may be connected by the South Equatorial Current for species with a longer-than-average larval development time. Depending on larval dispersal depth, a strong western boundary current, the Kuroshio Current, could bridge vent fields from the Okinawa Trough to the Izu-Bonin Arc, which are 1,200 km apart. Outcomes of this study should help marine ecologists estimate gene flow among vent populations and design optimal marine conservation plans to protect one of the most unusual ecosystems on Earth.

  3. Isotopic composition of dissolved iron in the Equatorial Pacific and the Southern oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, A.; Lacan, F.; Jeandel, C.; Poitrasson, F.; Sarthou, G.

    2009-12-01

    Iron is a fundamental element linking ocean biogeochemistry and climate. Iron isotopes are a very promising tool for the study of the iron oceanic cycle, notably for tracing its sources to the ocean and/or for studying its speciation. Several studies reports iron isotopic data in the marine environment: in plankton tows, pore waters, aerosols, seafloor or marginal seas (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006; Severmann et al., 2006; De Jong et al., 2007). To link these isotopic data together and to fully study the iron isotope marine cycle, we need to document the central reservoir in the marine environment : dissolved iron in seawater, espacially in High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (NHLC) areas. So far there are very few comunicated data of dissolved iron isotopic composition in the open ocean (Rouxel, 2008; Lacan et al., 2008; John and Andkins, 2009;). Here, the first profiles in HNLC areas will be presented : 2 full-depth profiles in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (EUCFe 2006), 2 full-depth profiles in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (Bonus-GoodHope 2008) and some data from the Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean, KEOPS 2005). δ56Fe values range from -0.7‰ to more than 1.0‰. All the samples from the Equatorial Pacific Ocean display positive values (heavy iron) whereas samples from the Sourthern Ocean display rather negative values (light iron), especially around 450 m deepth. These results will be discussed in terms of iron sources to ocean. Potential applications of this new tracer for studying internal oceanic processes, such as biological uptake, will be discussed.

  4. Diurnal Cycle of Convection in the East Pacific ITCZ during EPIC-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Cifelli, Robert; Rutledge, Steven A.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last three weeks of September 2001, the EPIC-2001 intensive field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the ITCZ over the Mexican warm pool region (10N, 95W) of the East Pacific. This study focuses on the pronounced observed diurnal cycle of environmental and convective parameters within the experiment domain. Data from three primary sources are examined: the R/V Ronald H. Brown C-band weather radar, 4-hourly soundings from the Brown and the Global Atmospherics, Inc. National Lightning Detection Network (long range product). Satellite data from TRMM, GOES and OV-1 are also used. The domain boundary layer shows a robust daily evolution of moist enthalpy (as reflect by equivalent potential temperature, theta-e, or wet bulb potential temperature, theta-w), with contributions from changes in both dry and moist entropy. Peak theta-w is found after local nightfall; the average diurnal range of theta-w is approximately 1 deg C. A composite diurnal cycle of convective properties was derived from the C-band volume scans, sampled continuously through the experiment at 10 minute updates. Products derived from the volumetric data include a surface PPI, 15 and 30 dBZ echo top height, vertically integrated liquid, and 6 km (mixed phase region) reflectivity CAPPIs. For almost all products, the parameter means showed virtually no diurnal cycle. However, for the upper-level products, the parameter spectra showed a clear peak in the occurrence of deep/vigorous convection (the "tail end of the distribution") between 7-9 UTC (1-3 AM local), while overall frequency of occurrence peaked later, from 12-15 UTC (6-9 AM local). This represents a daily "outbreak" of isolated deep cells a couple of hours after sunset and subsequent growth, organization and decay through the nighttime hours. The coherence of the diurnal cycle of the convective spectrum is impressive given the wide variety of convective organization observed during the experiment, and given the modulation

  5. Predicting bycatch hotspots for endangered leatherback turtles on longlines in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, John H; Morreale, Stephen J; Paladino, Frank V; Shillinger, George L; Benson, Scott R; Eckert, Scott A; Bailey, Helen; Tomillo, Pilar Santidrián; Bograd, Steven J; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Dutton, Peter H; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Block, Barbara A; Spotila, James R

    2014-02-22

    Fisheries bycatch is a critical source of mortality for rapidly declining populations of leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea. We integrated use-intensity distributions for 135 satellite-tracked adult turtles with longline fishing effort to estimate predicted bycatch risk over space and time in the Pacific Ocean. Areas of predicted bycatch risk did not overlap for eastern and western Pacific nesting populations, warranting their consideration as distinct management units with respect to fisheries bycatch. For western Pacific nesting populations, we identified several areas of high risk in the north and central Pacific, but greatest risk was adjacent to primary nesting beaches in tropical seas of Indo-Pacific islands, largely confined to several exclusive economic zones under the jurisdiction of national authorities. For eastern Pacific nesting populations, we identified moderate risk associated with migrations to nesting beaches, but the greatest risk was in the South Pacific Gyre, a broad pelagic zone outside national waters where management is currently lacking and may prove difficult to implement. Efforts should focus on these predicted hotspots to develop more targeted management approaches to alleviate leatherback bycatch.

  6. The Role of the Kuroshio in the Winter North Pacific Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction: Comparison of a Coupled Model and Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study between the output of the Flexible Global Climate Model Version 1.0 (FGCM-1.0) and the observations is performed. At 500 hPa, the geopotential height of FGCM is similar to the observations, but in the North Pacific the model gives lower values, and the differences are most significant over the northern boundary of the Pacific. In a net heat flux comparison, the spatial patterns of the two are similar in winter, but more heat loss appears to the east of Japan in FGCM than in COADS. On the interannual timescale, strong (weak) Kuroshio transports to the east of Taiwan lead the increasing (decreasing) net heat flux, which is centered over the Kuroshio Extension region, by 1-2 months, with low (high) pressure anomaly responses appearing at 500 hPa over the North Pacific (north of 25°N) in winter.The northward heat transport of the Kuroshio is one of the important heat sources to support the warming of the atmosphere by the ocean and the formation of the low pressure anomaly at 500 hPa over the North Pacific in winter.

  7. Indo-Pacific variability on seasonal to multidecadal timescales. Part II: Multiscale atmosphere-ocean linkages

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The coupled atmosphere-ocean variability of the Indo-Pacific on interannual to multidecadal timescales is investigated in a millennial control run of CCSM4 and in observations using a family of modes recovered in Part~I of this work from unprocessed SST data through nonlinear Laplacian spectral analysis (NLSA). It is found that ENSO and combination modes of ENSO with the annual cycle exhibit a seasonally synchronized southward shift of equatorial surface zonal winds and thermocline adjustment consistent with terminating El Nino and La Nina events. The surface wind patterns associated with these modes also generate teleconnections between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, leading to a pattern of SST anomalies characteristic of the Indian Ocean dipole. Fundamental and combination modes representing the tropospheric biennial oscillation (TBO) in CCSM4 are also found to be consistent with mechanisms for seasonally synchronized biennial variability of the Asian-Australian monsoon and Walker circulation. On longer tim...

  8. Characteristic analysis of wind field and sea wave field over the NW Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金芳; 唐晓卫; 何丹华

    2001-01-01

    According to ship observation data over the NW Pacific Ocean during 1950 - 1995, taking 5°x5° grid, the characteristics and variation rule of wind, wave and swell are analyzed. This area is typical monsoon area. In the period of monsoon, the directions of wind, sea wave and swell are roughly consistent. Sea wave of northeasterly is always prevailing in equatorial zone. The monsoon in winter is stronger than in summer, correspondingly, average wave height is higher, and the frequencies of high sea and heavy swell are also bigger. Both of North Indian Ocean and adjacent sea area is also monsoon area, but characteristic is opposite. This paper provides specific data of wind field and wave field and variaton for ship navigation, operation and scientific experiment in the NW Pacific Ocean.

  9. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koracin, Darko; Cerovecki, Ivana; Vellore, Ramesh; Mejia, John; Hatchett, Benjamin; McCord, Travis; McLean, Julie; Dorman, Clive

    2013-04-11

    Executive summary The main objective of the study was to investigate atmospheric and ocean interaction processes in the western Pacific and, in particular, effects of significant ocean heat loss in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions on the lower and upper atmosphere. It is yet to be determined how significant are these processes are on climate scales. The understanding of these processes led us also to development of the methodology of coupling the Weather and Research Forecasting model with the Parallel Ocean Program model for western Pacific regional weather and climate simulations. We tested NCAR-developed research software Coupler 7 for coupling of the WRF and POP models and assessed its usability for regional-scale applications. We completed test simulations using the Coupler 7 framework, but implemented a standard WRF model code with options for both one- and two-way mode coupling. This type of coupling will allow us to seamlessly incorporate new WRF updates and versions in the future. We also performed a long-term WRF simulation (15 years) covering the entire North Pacific as well as high-resolution simulations of a case study which included extreme ocean heat losses in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions. Since the extreme ocean heat loss occurs during winter cold air outbreaks (CAO), we simulated and analyzed a case study of a severe CAO event in January 2000 in detail. We found that the ocean heat loss induced by CAOs is amplified by additional advection from mesocyclones forming on the southern part of the Japan Sea. Large scale synoptic patterns with anomalously strong anticyclone over Siberia and Mongolia, deep Aleutian Low, and the Pacific subtropical ridge are a crucial setup for the CAO. It was found that the onset of the CAO is related to the breaking of atmospheric Rossby waves and vertical transport of vorticity that facilitates meridional advection. The study also indicates that intrinsic parameterization of the surface fluxes

  10. Principles underlying the epizootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring and other fishes throughout the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Garver, Kyle A.; Winton, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Although viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) typically occurs at low prevalence and intensity in natural populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and other marine fishes in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, epizootics of the resulting disease (VHS) periodically occur, often in association with observed fish kills. Here we identify a list of principles, based on a combination of field studies, controlled laboratory experiments, and previously unpublished observations, that govern the epizootiology of VHS in Pacific herring. A thorough understanding of these principles provides the basis for identifying risk factors that predispose certain marine fish populations to VHS epizootics, including the lack of population resistance, presence of chronic viral carriers in a population, copious viral shedding by infected individuals, cool water temperatures, limited water circulation patterns, and gregarious host behavioral patterns. Further, these principles are used to define the epizootiological stages of the disease in Pacific herring, including the susceptible (where susceptible individuals predominate a school or subpopulation), enzootic (where infection prevalence and intensity are often below the limits of reasonable laboratory detection), disease amplification (where infection prevalence and intensity increase rapidly), outbreak (often accompanied by host mortalities with high virus loads and active shedding), recovery (in which the mortality rate and virus load decline owing to an active host immune response), and refractory stages (characterized by little or no susceptibility and where viral clearance occurs in most VHS survivors). In addition to providing a foundation for quantitatively assessing the potential risks of future VHS epizootics in Pacific herring, these principles provide insights into the epizootiology of VHS in other fish communities where susceptible species exist.

  11. Intraseasonal variability in the far-east pacific: investigation of the role of air-sea coupling in a regional coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, R.J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Jacobs Technology, Stennis Space Center, MS (United States); University of Hawaii, International Pacific Research Center, POST 401, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii, International Pacific Research Center, POST 401, Honolulu, HI (United States); University of Hawaii, Department of Meteorology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Maloney, Eric D. [Colorado State University, Department of Atmospheric Science, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Szoeke, Simon P. de [Oregon State University, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Corvallis, OR (United States); Miyama, Toru [Frontier Research for Global Change, Yokohama (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Intraseasonal variability in the eastern Pacific warm pool in summer is studied, using a regional ocean-atmosphere model, a linear baroclinic model (LBM), and satellite observations. The atmospheric component of the model is forced by lateral boundary conditions from reanalysis data. The aim is to quantify the importance to atmospheric deep convection of local air-sea coupling. In particular, the effect of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on surface heat fluxes is examined. Intraseasonal (20-90 day) east Pacific warm-pool zonal wind and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) variability in the regional coupled model are correlated at 0.8 and 0.6 with observations, respectively, significant at the 99% confidence level. The strength of the intraseasonal variability in the coupled model, as measured by the variance of outgoing longwave radiation, is close in magnitude to that observed, but with a maximum located about 10 further west. East Pacific warm pool intraseasonal convection and winds agree in phase with those from observations, suggesting that remote forcing at the boundaries associated with the Madden-Julian oscillation determines the phase of intraseasonal convection in the east Pacific warm pool. When the ocean model component is replaced by weekly reanalysis SST in an atmosphere-only experiment, there is a slight improvement in the location of the highest OLR variance. Further sensitivity experiments with the regional atmosphere-only model in which intraseasonal SST variability is removed indicate that convective variability has only a weak dependence on the SST variability, but a stronger dependence on the climatological mean SST distribution. A scaling analysis confirms that wind speed anomalies give a much larger contribution to the intraseasonal evaporation signal than SST anomalies, in both model and observations. A LBM is used to show that local feedbacks would serve to amplify intraseasonal convection and the large-scale circulation. Further

  12. Depleted Radiocarbon in Deep Water in the Southwest Pacific and Southern Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, E. L.; Cook, M. S.; Elmore, A. C.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2011-12-01

    The relative 14C ages of surface and deep marine waters reflect the balance between air-sea exchange of 14CO2 in deep-water formation areas, the radioactive decay of 14C during subsurface circulation, and the mixing between adjacent water masses. The Δ14C of the interior ocean is known to vary due to the major reorganization of circulation and CO2 sequestration associated with glacial to interglacial climate changes. Using benthic and planktonic 14C ages from deep-sea sediment cores from the southwest Pacific, east of New Zealand, we have constructed a composite depth profile of 14C ages from the late glaciation through the early deglaciation. By using regionally widespread tepha layers as independent stratigraphic markers we can estimate atmosphere- ocean Δ14C differences. Relative to the atmosphere, our estimates of the Δ14C at intermediate depths (above 1600 m) are broadly consistent with ventilation similar to today. In contrast, the Δ14C of upper and mid-depth deep water (~2000-3800 m) at several points between the late glacial and early deglaciation (24-15 ka) indicate a deep water mass with significantly lower Δ14C than we would expect for a deep circulation similar to today's. The Δ14C depletions are range from 50-500%, with the gradient between deep and intermediate waters both shallower and steeper than today. Below 3800 m, deep water Δ14C appear less depleted. Benthic-planktonic Δ14C differences at all depths show greater relative differences than modern, with the largest differences in upper deep waters. The data from these deep Pacific cores may be susceptible to biases from dissolution and/or bioturbation. However, our consistently low Δ14C estimates of deep water during the late glacial support the hypothesis that there was a 14C-depleted CO2 rich water mass in the deep Pacific Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum that was released to the atmosphere through exchange in the Southern Ocean during the deglaciation.

  13. Contrasting rainfall declines in northern and southern Tanzania: Potential differential impacts of west Pacific warming and east Pacific cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Pedreros, D. H.; Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Here, we present analysis of a new 1900-2014 rainfall record for the Greater Horn of Africa with high station density (CenTrends), and evaluate potential climate change "hot spots" in Tanzania. We identify recent (1981-2014) downward trends in Tanzanian rainfall, use CenTrends to place these in a longer historical context, and relate rainfall in these regions to decadal changes in global sea surface temperatures (SSTs). To identify areas of concern, we consider the potential food security impacts of the recent rainfall declines and also rapid population growth. Looking forward, we consider what the links to SSTs might mean for rainfall in the next several decades based on SST projections. In addition to CenTrends, we use a variety of geographic data sets, including 1981-2014 rainfall from the Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPSv2.0), simulated crop stress from the USGS Geospatial Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (GeoWRSI) model, NOAA Extended Reconstructed SSTs (ERSST v4), SST projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), and land cover and population maps from SERVIR, WorldPOP, and CIESIN's Gridded Population of the World. The long-term CenTrends record allows us to suggest an interesting dichotomy in decadal rainfall forcing. During the March to June season, SSTs in the west Pacific appear to be driving post-1980 rainfall reductions in northern Tanzania. In the 2000s, northern Tanzania's densely populated Pangani River, Internal Drainage, and Lake Victoria basins experienced the driest period in more than a century. During summer, negative trends in southern Tanzania appear linked to a negative SST trend in the Nino3.4 region. Since the SST trend in the west (east) Pacific appears strongly influenced by global warming (natural decadal variability), we suggest that water resources in northern Tanzania may face increasing challenges, but that this will be less the case in southern Tanzania.

  14. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIsaac, Hugh J; De Roy, Emma M; Leung, Brian; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to USA ports on the Pacific coast. Over an eight-year period, we documented 27 commercial vessel-trips in which ballast water was loaded in colonized sites and later discharged untreated into Pacific coast ports in the USA. California had the highest number of discharges including San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles-Long Beach. A species distribution model suggests that the probability of lionfish establishment is low for the western USA, Colombia and Panama, low to medium for Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, medium to high for mainland Ecuador, and very high for western Mexico, Peru and the Galapagos Islands. Given the species' intolerance of freshwater conditions, we propose that ballast water exchange be conducted in Gatún Lake, Panama for western-bound vessels carrying 'risky' ballast water to prevent invasion of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  15. The relative importance of tropical variability forced from the North Pacific through ocean pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Amy; Shin, Sang-Ik [NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Physical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO (United States); CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center, Boulder, CO (United States); Alexander, Michael A. [NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Physical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO (United States); McCreary, Julian P. [University of Hawaii, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2008-08-15

    To what extent is tropical variability forced from the North Pacific through ocean pathways relative to locally generated variability and variability forced through the atmosphere? To address this question, in this study we use an anomaly-coupled model, consisting of a global, atmospheric general circulation model and a 41/2-layer, reduced-gravity, Pacific-Ocean model. Three solutions are obtained; with coupling over the entire basin (CNT), with coupling confined to the tropics and wind stress and heat fluxes in the North and South Pacific specified by climatology (TP), and with coupling confined to the Tropics and wind stress and heat fluxes in the North Pacific specified by output from CNT (NPF). It is found that there are two distinct signals forced in the North Pacific that can impact the tropics through ocean pathways. These two signals are forced by wind stress and surface heat flux anomalies in the subtropical North Pacific. The first signal is relatively fast, impacts tropical variability less than a year after forcing, is triggered from November to March, and propagates as a first-mode baroclinic Rossby wave. The second signal is only triggered during springtime when buoyancy forcing can effectively generate higher-order baroclinic modes through subduction anomalies into the permanent thermocline, and it reaches the equator 4-5 years after forcing. The slow signal is found to initiate tropical variability more efficiently than the fast signal with one standard deviation in subtropical zonal wind stress forcing tropical SST anomalies centered on the equator at 135 W of approximately 0.5 C. Allowing extratropically forced tropical variability is found to shift primarily 2-year ENSO variability in a tropics-alone simulation to a more realistic range of 2-6 years. (orig.)

  16. The relative importance of tropical variability forced from the North Pacific through ocean pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Amy; Shin, Sang-Ik; Alexander, Michael A.; McCreary, Julian P.

    2008-08-01

    To what extent is tropical variability forced from the North Pacific through ocean pathways relative to locally generated variability and variability forced through the atmosphere? To address this question, in this study we use an anomaly-coupled model, consisting of a global, atmospheric general circulation model and a 4½-layer, reduced-gravity, Pacific-Ocean model. Three solutions are obtained; with coupling over the entire basin (CNT), with coupling confined to the tropics and wind stress and heat fluxes in the North and South Pacific specified by climatology (TP), and with coupling confined to the Tropics and wind stress and heat fluxes in the North Pacific specified by output from CNT (NPF). It is found that there are two distinct signals forced in the North Pacific that can impact the tropics through ocean pathways. These two signals are forced by wind stress and surface heat flux anomalies in the subtropical North Pacific. The first signal is relatively fast, impacts tropical variability less than a year after forcing, is triggered from November to March, and propagates as a first-mode baroclinic Rossby wave. The second signal is only triggered during springtime when buoyancy forcing can effectively generate higher-order baroclinic modes through subduction anomalies into the permanent thermocline, and it reaches the equator 4-5 years after forcing. The slow signal is found to initiate tropical variability more efficiently than the fast signal with one standard deviation in subtropical zonal wind stress forcing tropical SST anomalies centered on the equator at 135°W of approximately 0.5°C. Allowing extratropically forced tropical variability is found to shift primarily 2-year ENSO variability in a tropics-alone simulation to a more realistic range of 2-6 years.

  17. Geographical Distribution and Sources of Nutrients in Atmospheric Aerosol Over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Pacific Ocean, the world's largest (occupying about 30% of the Earth's total surface area) has several distinguishing biogeochemical features. In the western Pacific, dust particles originating from arid and semi-arid regions in Asia and Australia are transported to the north and south, respectively. Biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia are exported to the tropical Pacific, and anthropogenic substances flowing out of Asia and Eurasia spread both regionally and globally. Over high primary productive areas such as the subarctic North Pacific, the equatorial Pacific and the Southern Ocean, biogenic gasses are released to the atmosphere and transported to other areas. These processes may affect cloud and rainfall patterns, air quality, and the radiative balance of downwind regions. The deposition of atmospheric aerosols containing iron and other essential nutrients is important for biogeochemical cycles in the oceans because this source of nutrients helps sustain primary production and affects food-web structure; these effects in turn influence the chemical properties of marine atmosphere. From an atmospheric chemistry standpoint, sea-salt aerosols produced by strong winds and marine biogenic gases emitted from highly productive waters affect the physicochemical characteristics of marine aerosols. As phytoplankton populations are patchy and atmospheric processes sporadic, the interactions between atmospheric chemical constituents and marine biota vary for different regions as well as seasonally and over longer timescales. To address these and other emerging issues, and more generally to better understand the important biogeochemical processes and interactions occurring over the open oceans, more long-term recurrent research cruises with standardized atmospheric shipboard measurements will be needed in the future.

  18. Responses of the East Asian jet stream to the North Pacific subtropical front in spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leying; Xu, Haiming; Shi, Ning; Deng, Jiechun

    2017-02-01

    This study concerns atmospheric responses to the North Pacific subtropical front (NPSTF) in boreal spring over the period 1982-2014. Statistical results show that a strong NPSTF in spring can significantly enhance the East Asian jet stream (EAJS). Both transient eddy activity and the atmospheric heat source play important roles in this process. The enhanced atmospheric temperature gradient due to a strong NPSTF increases atmospheric baroclinicity, resulting in an intensification of transient eddy and convection activities. On the one hand, the enhanced transient eddy activities can excite an anomalous cyclonic circulation with a quasi-baraotropical structure in the troposphere to the north of the NPSTF. Accordingly, the related westerly wind anomalies around 30°N can intensify the component of the EAJS over the Northeast Pacific. On the other hand, an enhanced atmospheric heat source over the NPSTF, which is related to increased rainfall, acts to excite an anomalous cyclonic circulation system in the troposphere to the northwest of the NPSTF, which can explain the enhanced component of the EAJS over the Northwest Pacific. The two mechanisms may combine to enhance the EAJS.

  19. Are Fluctuations in Energy Consumption Transitory or Permanent? Evidence From a Panel of East Asia & Pacific Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kum

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the unit root properties of energy consumption per capita for 15 East Asia & Pacific countries employing the Lagrange Multiplier (LM panel unit root test with one structural break for 1971-2007. When we apply the LM univariate test without break, we find a unit root in per capita consumption for Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and Myanmar. However, when we apply LM unit root with structural break, we find overwhelming evidence that there is no unit root in per capita energy consumption for these 15 East Asia & Pacific countries.

  20. Drought reconstruction in eastern Hulun Buir steppe, China and its linkages to the sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Liu, Yu; Bao, Guang; Bao, Ming; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Lizhi; Ge, Yuxiang; Bao, Wurigen; Tian, Heng

    2016-01-01

    A tree-ring width chronology covering the period 1780-2013 AD was developed from Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica for the eastern Hulun Buir steppe, a region located on the edge of the eastern Mongolian Plateau, China. Climate-growth response analysis revealed drought stress to be the primary limiting factor for tree growth. Therefore, the mean February-July standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was reconstructed over the period 1819-2013, where the reconstruction could account for 32.8% of the variance in the instrumental record over the calibration period 1953-2011. Comparison with other tree-ring-based moisture sequences from nearby areas confirmed a high degree of confidence in our reconstruction. Severe drought intervals since the late 1970s in our study area consisted with the weakening East Asian summer monsoon, which modulating regional moisture conditions in semi-arid zone over northern China. Drought variations in the study area significantly correlated with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in North Pacific Ocean, suggesting a possible connection of regional hydroclimatic variations to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The potential influence associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was primarily analyzed.

  1. Tracking blue whales in the eastern tropical Pacific with an ocean-bottom seismometer and hydrophone array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert A; Hernandez, Olga

    2009-09-01

    Low frequency northeastern Pacific blue whale calls were recorded near the northern East Pacific Rise (9 degrees N latitude) on 25 ocean-bottom-mounted hydrophones and three-component seismometers during a 5-day period (November 22-26, 1997). Call types A, B, C, and D were identified; the most common pattern being approximately 130-135 s repetitions of the AB sequence that, for any individual whale, persisted for hours. Up to eight individual blue whales were recorded near enough to the instruments to determine their locations and were tracked call-by-call using the B components of the calls and a Bayesian inversion procedure. For four of these eight whales, the entire call sequences and swim tracks were determined for 20-26-h periods; the other whales were tracked for much shorter periods. The eight whales moved into the area during a period of airgun activity conducted by the academic seismic ship R/V Maurice Ewing. The authors examined the whales' locations and call characteristics with respect to the periods of airgun activity. Although the data do not permit a thorough investigation of behavioral responses, no correlation in vocalization or movement with airgun activity was observed.

  2. Biogeographical distribution and diversity of microbes in methane hydrate-bearing deep marine sediments, on the Pacific Ocean Margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inagaki, F.; Nunoura, T.; Nakagawa, S.

    2006-01-01

    The deep subseafloor biosphere is among the least-understood habitats on Earth, even though the huge microbial biomass therein plays an important role for potential long-term controls on global biogeochemical cycles. We report here the vertical and geographical distribution of microbes and their ......The deep subseafloor biosphere is among the least-understood habitats on Earth, even though the huge microbial biomass therein plays an important role for potential long-term controls on global biogeochemical cycles. We report here the vertical and geographical distribution of microbes...... in prokaryotic distribution patterns in sediments with or without methane hydrates, we studied > 2,800 clones possessing partial sequences (400-500 bp) of the 16S rRNA gene and 348 representative clone sequences (approximate to 1 kbp) from the two geographically separated subseafloor environments. Archaea...... of the JS1 group, Planctomycetes, and Chloroflexi. Results from cluster and principal component analyses, which include previously reported data from the West and East Pacific Margins, suggest that, For these locations in the Pacific Ocean, prokaryotic communities from methane hydrate-bearing sediment cores...

  3. Air-Sea Interaction Studies of the Indian and Pacific Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Air-Sea Interaction Studies of the Indian and Pacific...2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air-Sea Interaction Studies of the Indian and Pacific Oceans...applied to ship- generated waves in the 1989 Loch Linnhe experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 10,259-10,269. Wikipedia, 2013: “Crow’s Nest”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Crow %27s_nest, Referenced May 30, 2013.

  4. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    MacIsaac, Hugh J.; De Roy, Emma M.; Leung, Brian; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Ruiz, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to ...

  5. Anthropogenic processing of dust affects the oxygen content of the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Ito, Taka; Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Valett, Jackie; Deutsch, Curtis

    2015-04-01

    Observations from the last several decades show a significant expansion of the tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). However, the underlying causes remain elusive, as the currently accepted effects of ocean warming and associated solubility decease cannot fully explain the observed oxygen trend. Here we show that anthropogenic pollution can change the pattern of biological productivity and oxygen trends consistent with observations in the tropics and extratropics. These effects are caused by the mobilization of iron in mineral dust by pollutants, where it is transported and deposited to the HNLC regions of the tropical pacific affecting primary productivity and oxygen consumption by bacterial respiration. In this study, it is shown that pollution-mobilized iron deposited to high latitude oceanic environments can profoundly impact subsurface oxygen and the extent of the OMZ through long-range oceanic transport. Together with the intensification of tropical upwelling since the 1990s associated with natural climate variability, our results can explain the expansion of the OMZ in the tropical Pacific in the late twentieth century. Unlike climate variability, however, anthropogenic pollution likely influences the long-term trends in marine biogeochemistry and further alters regional productivity and subsurface oxygen distributions with profound implications for marine habitats and nitrate inventory of the oceans.

  6. Geographic variation in Pacific herring growth in response to regime shifts in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin-ichi; Rose, Kenneth A.; Megrey, Bernard A.; Schweigert, Jake; Hay, Douglas; Werner, Francisco E.; Aita, Maki Noguchi

    2015-11-01

    Pacific herring populations at eight North Pacific Rim locations were simulated to compare basin-wide geographic variations in age-specific growth due to environmental influences on marine productivity and population-specific responses to regime shifts. Temperature and zooplankton abundance from a three-dimensional lower-trophic ecosystem model (NEMURO: North Pacific Ecosystem Model for Understanding Regional Oceanography) simulation from 1948 to 2002 were used as inputs to a herring bioenergetics growth model. Herring populations from California, the west coast of Vancouver Island (WCVI), Prince William Sound (PWS), Togiak Alaska, the western Bering Sea (WBS), the Sea of Okhotsk (SO), Sakhalin, and Peter the Great Bay (PGB) were examined. The half-saturation coefficients of herring feeding were calibrated to climatological conditions at each of the eight locations to reproduce averaged size-at-age data. The depth of averaging used for water temperature and zooplankton, and the maximum consumption rate parameter, were made specific to each location. Using the calibrated half-saturation coefficients, the 1948-2002 period was then simulated using daily values of water temperature and zooplankton densities interpolated from monthly model output. To detect regime shifts in simulated temperatures, zooplankton and herring growth rates, we applied sequential t-test analyses on the 54 years of hindcast simulation values. The detected shifts of herring age-5 growth showed closest match (69%) to the regime shift years (1957/58, 1970/71, 1976/77, 1988/89, 1998/99). We explored relationships among locations using cluster and principal component analyses. The first principal component of water temperature showed good correspondence to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and all zooplankton groups showed a pan-Pacific decrease after the 1976/77 regime shift. However, the first principal component of herring growth rate showed decreased growth at the SO, PWS, WCVI and California

  7. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, K. M.; McManus, J. F.; Anderson, R. F.; Ren, H.; Sigman, D. M.; Winckler, G.; Fleisher, M. Q.; Marcantonio, F.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age—the Last Glacial Period (LGP)—but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the 232Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, 231Pa/230Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ15N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0-10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000-27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  8. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, K M; McManus, J F; Anderson, R F; Ren, H; Sigman, D M; Winckler, G; Fleisher, M Q; Marcantonio, F; Ravelo, A C

    2016-01-28

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age--the Last Glacial Period (LGP)--but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the (232)Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, (231)Pa/(230)Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ(15)N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0-10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000-27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  9. Sensitivity of the Tropical Pacific Ocean to Precipitation Induced Freshwater Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Schopf, Paul S.

    1999-01-01

    We have performed a series of experiments using an ocean model to study the sensitivity of tropical Pacific Ocean to variations in precipitation induced freshwater fluxes. Variations in these fluxes arise from natural causes on all time scales. In addition, estimates of these fluxes are uncertain because of differences among measurement techniques. The model used is a quasi-isopycnal model, covering the Pacific from 40 S to 40 N. The surface forcing is constructed from observed wind stress, evaporation, precipitation, and surface temperature (SST) fields. The heat flux is produced with an iterative technique so as to maintain the model close to the observed climatology, but with only a weak damping to that climatology. Climatological estimates of evaporation are combined with various estimates of precipitation to determine the net surface freshwater flux. Results indicate that increased freshwater input decreases salinity as expected, but increases temperatures in the upper ocean. Using the freshwater flux estimated from the Microwave Sounding Unit leads to a warming of up to 0.6 C in the western Pacific over a case with zero net freshwater flux. SST is sensitive to the discrepancies among different precipitation observations, with root-mean-square differences in SST on the order of 0.2-0.3 C. The change in SST is more pronounced in the eastern Pacific, with differences of over 1 C found among the various precipitation products. Interannual variation in precipitation during El Nino events leads to increased warming. During the winter of 1982-83, freshwater flux accounts for about 0.4 C (approximately 10-15% of the maximum warming) of the surface warming in the central-eastern Pacific. Thus, the error of SST caused by the discrepancies in precipitation products is more than half of the SST anomaly produced by the interannual variability of observed precipitation. Further experiments, in which freshwater flux anomalies are imposed in the western, central, and eastern

  10. 近45年太平洋海浪特征分析%Analysis of wave characteristics in the Pacific Ocean during the last 45 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑崇伟; 林刚; 孙岩; 杨松

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the ERA-40 wave data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) was used to analyze the characteristics of sea surface wind, wind wave, swell wave, and overall wave fields in the Pacific Ocean. The main findings are as follows. The swell wave height and significant wave height had an obvious increasing tendency from 1958 to 2001, of about 0.3-0.6 cm·a-1 and 0.3-1.2 cm·a-1, respectively, and the swell wave was the dominant one. There was a notable swell pool in the East Pacific Ocean near the equator. The relationship between wind field and wave field in the North Pacific Ocean was more correlated than that in the South Pacific Ocean. The relationship between wind field and swell field was, however, more correlated in the South Pacific Ocean. In addition, a close relationship between wave field and Nino3 index in the Pacific Ocean was found.%利用来自欧洲中期天气预报中心(European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts,ECMWF)将风浪、涌浪分离的具有较高时空分辨率的45年ERA-40海浪资料,对太平洋的海表风场、风浪、涌浪、混合浪的特征进行分析.研究发现太平洋大部分海域的涌浪波高、混合浪波高呈显著的逐年线性递增趋势,趋势分别为0.3-0.6cm·a-1、0.3-1.2cm·a-1;太平洋的涌浪在混合浪中四季皆起主导作用,涌浪指标的低值区主要集中在南北半球的西风带,太平洋赤道附近海域存在明显的涌浪池;北太平洋的风场与风浪场的相关系数好于南太平洋,风场与涌浪场的相关系数则是南太平洋好于北太平洋;研究还发现太平洋的浪场与Nino3指数有着密切的关系.

  11. Non-hotspot volcano chains produced by migration of shear-driven upwelling toward the East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, Maxim D.; Conrad, Clinton P.; Harmon, Nicholas; Smith, Eugene I.

    2013-04-01

    While most oceanic volcanism is associated with the passive rise of hot mantle beneath the spreading axes of mid-ocean ridges (MOR), volcanism occurring off-axis reflects intraplate upper-mantle dynamics and composition, yet is poorly understood. Close to the East Pacific Rise (EPR), active magmatism propagated towards the spreading center to create a series of parallel volcanic ridges on the Pacific Plate (of length ~3500 km for the Pukapuka, and ~500 km for the Sojourn, and Hotu-Matua ridges). Propagation of this volcanism by ~20 cm/a, as well as asymmetry in a variety of geophysical observables across the EPR, indicates strong lateral eastward pressure-driven flow in the asthenosphere that is driven by upwelling beneath the South Pacific Superswell [1]. Although this pattern of large-scale mantle flow can account for the propagation of intraplate melting towards the EPR, it does not explain decompression melting itself. We hypothesize that shear-driven upwelling sustains off-axis volcanism. Shear-driven upwelling is a mechanism for mantle decompression that does not require lateral density heterogeneity to drive upwelling. For example, vertical flow emerges at the edges of viscosity anomalies, if the asthenosphere is sheared horizontally [2]. These two ingredients are present in the SE Pacific, where (1) shear across the asthenosphere is inferred to be greatest worldwide [2], and (2) lateral variability in mantle viscosity is indicated by geoid lineations and anomalies in seismic tomography [3]. Eastward pressure-driven flow from the South Pacific Superswell has been suggested to break up into fingers thus providing this variability in viscosity [3]. Our three-dimensional numerical models [4] show that asthenospheric shear can excite upwelling and decompression melting at the tip of low-viscosity fingers that are propelled by vigorous sublithospheric flow. This shear-driven upwelling is able to sustain intraplate volcanism that progresses towards the MOR

  12. Late Cretaceous paleomagnetism of the East Ranges island arc complex, Kamchatka: Implications for terrane movements and kinematics of the northwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashova, Natalia M.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Shapiro, Mikhail N.

    1997-11-01

    A Campanian-lower Paleocene island arc complex was sampled for paleomagnetic studies at 12 sites in the East Ranges tectonic zone of Kamchatka. After thermal demagnetization, a reversed polarity characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) was isolated from most volcanoclastic and basaltic units as well as from lava debris from intraformational conglomerates. The fold and conglomerate tests are positive, and the ChRM in the studied rocks is likely primary. The formation-mean inclination of 66.3°±3.7° corresponds to a paleolatitude of 48.7°±5.0°N which is about 20° lower than the Late Cretaceous North American reference values. Because northward displacement of the studied terrane is indicated by the paleomagnetic data, we examine several models of intraoceanic transport with the Pacific and/or Kula plates and coastwise transport after terrane accretion, far to the south of the present-day position of Kamchatka. Our preferred interpretation is that the studied island arc complex accumulated at about 83-79 Ma; the island arc, to which the studied terrane had originally belonged, was active between this time and 65-60 Ma. According to geological data, the docking time nearly coincided with cessation of volcanic activity, and northward movement of the island arc took place simultaneously with the volcanic activity. The absolute motion of a subduction zone should have the same direction as the overriding plate; therefore, the subduction zone related to the East Ranges island arc is inferred to have moved northward with the Kula plate or with the Kula and Pacific plates, successively, consuming either the oceanic periphery of a continental plate or some unknown minor oceanic plate. This process went on until 65-55 Ma when the island arc and related subduction zone approached the continental margin and became extinct. The proposed models also place additional constraints on kinematics of the Kula-Pacific transform plate boundary.

  13. Geodynamic investigation of a Cretaceous superplume in the Pacific ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jing; King, Scott D.

    2016-08-01

    The similarity in both age and geochemistry of the Ontong-Java, Hikurangi, and Manihiki plateaus suggests that they formed as a single superplateau from a unique mantle source. We investigate the necessity of a thermal superplume to form the Great Ontong-Java plateau at about 120 Ma using 3D spherical models of convection with imposed plate reconstruction models. The numerical simulations show that the giant plateau which formed as a result of melting due to the interaction of a plume head and the lithosphere would have been divided into smaller plateaus by spreading ridges, and end up at the present locations of Ontong-Java, Manihiki, and Hikurangi plateaus as well as a fragment in the western Caribbean. By comparing temperature and melt fraction between models with and without an initial thermal superplume, we propose that a Cretaceous superplume in Pacific at 120 Ma is required to form large igneous plateaus.

  14. Helium and neon isotopes in deep Pacific Ocean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    Helium and neon concentration measurements, along with isotope ratio determinations, have been made for particles collected in the deep Pacific with a magnetic sled, and they are believed to be of extraterrestrial origin. Analyses were made for samples consisting of composites of many extremely fine particles and for several individual particles large enough to contain sufficient gas for analysis but small enough to escape melting in their passage through the atmosphere. Step-heating was employed to extract the gas. Cosmic-ray spallation products or solar-wind helium and neon, if present, were not abundant enough to account for the isotopic compositions measured. In the case of the samples of magnetic fines, the low temperature extractions provided elemental and isotopic ratios in the general range found for the primordial gas in carbonaceous chondrites and gas-rich meteorites. The isotopic ratios found in the high temperature extractions suggest the presence of solar-flare helium and neon.

  15. Long-range transport of black carbon to the Pacific Ocean and its dependence on aging timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Tao, S.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the ability of global models to predict concentrations of black carbon (BC) over the Pacific Ocean is essential to evaluate the impact of BC on marine climate. In this study, we tag BC tracers from 13 source regions around the globe in a global chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). Numerous sensitivity simulations are carried out varying the aging timescale of BC emitted from each source region. The aging timescale for each source region is optimized by minimizing errors in vertical profiles of BC mass mixing ratios between simulations and HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO). For most HIPPO deployments, in the Northern Hemisphere, optimized aging timescales are less than half a day for BC emitted from tropical and midlatitude source regions and about 1 week for BC emitted from high-latitude regions in all seasons except summer. We find that East Asian emissions contribute most to the BC loading over the North Pacific, while South American, African and Australian emissions dominate BC loadings over the South Pacific. Dominant source regions contributing to BC loadings in other parts of the globe are also assessed. The lifetime of BC originating from East Asia (i.e., the world's largest BC emitter) is found to be only 2.2 days, much shorter than the global average lifetime of 4.9 days, making the contribution from East Asia to the global BC burden only 36 % of that from the second largest emitter, Africa. Thus, evaluating only relative emission rates without accounting for differences in aging timescales and deposition rates is not predictive of the contribution of a given source region to climate impacts. Our simulations indicate that the lifetime of BC increases nearly linearly with aging timescale for all source regions. When the aging rate is fast, the lifetime of BC is largely determined by factors that control local deposition rates (e.g., precipitation). The sensitivity of lifetime to aging

  16. Radiocesium transfer from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Laceby, J Patrick; Lepage, Hugo; Onda, Yuichi; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-10-01

    The devastating tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) resulting in a loss of cooling and a series of explosions releasing the largest quantity of radioactive material into the atmosphere since the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Although 80% of the radionuclides from this accidental release were transported over the Pacific Ocean, 20% were deposited over Japanese coastal catchments that are subject to frequent typhoons. Among the radioisotopes released during the FDNPP accident, radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) is considered the most serious current and future health risk for the local population. The goal of this review is to synthesize research relevant to the transfer of FDNPP derived radiocesium from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean. After radiocesium fallout deposition on vegetation and soils, the contamination may remain stored in forest canopies, in vegetative litter on the ground, or in the soil. Once radiocesium contacts soil, it is quickly and almost irreversibly bound to fine soil particles. The kinetic energy of raindrops instigates the displacement of soil particles, and their bound radiocesium, which may be mobilized and transported with overland flow. Soil erosion is one of the main processes transferring particle-bound radiocesium from hillslopes through rivers and streams, and ultimately to the Pacific Ocean. Accordingly this review will summarize results regarding the fundamental processes and dynamics that govern radiocesium transfer from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean published in the literature within the first four years after the FDNPP accident. The majority of radiocesium is reported to be transported in the particulate fraction, attached to fine particles. The contribution of the dissolved fraction to radiocesium migration is only relevant in base flows and is hypothesized to decline over time. Owing to the hydro-meteorological context of the

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-09-06 to 1992-12-08 (NODC Accession 0000193)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0000193 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2000-12-27 to 2001-02-08 (NODC Accession 0112353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112353 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1999-11-21 to 1999-12-27 (NODC Accession 0112351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112351 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-10-08 to 2007-12-26 (NODC Accession 0108123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108123 includes Surface underway, discrete sample and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-24 (NODC Accession 0108082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108082 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-01-26 to 1994-04-27 (NODC Accession 0115152)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115152 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS WASHINGTON in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-08-31 to 1991-10-01 (NODC Accession 0115174)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115174 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS WASHINGTON in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  4. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Coleman, Richard R.

    2016-04-08

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occupies reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d = 0.006 – 0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographical barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST = 0.066 – 0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7 Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4 Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7 – 0.9 Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypthosis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition.

  5. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected from various platforms in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans from 1961-1964 (NODC Accession 0001903)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the ARGUS in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from...

  6. Physical and Optical Structures in the Upper Ocean of the East (Japan) Sea (WHOI Component)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-08

    We seek to understand the processes that control physical and bio -optical variability in the upper ocean of the East/Japan Sea. Specifically we are... bio -optical variability. Highly resolved, three-dimensional upper ocean measurements provide a unique picture of the integrated effects of wintertime...water mass formation in response to strong atmospheric forcing and of frontal eddy properties. Simultaneous measurements of bio -optical properties

  7. Submesoscale transition from geostrophic flows to internal waves in the northwestern Pacific upper ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bo; Nakano, Toshiya; Chen, Shuiming; Klein, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    With radar interferometry, the next-generation Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission will improve the measured sea surface height resolution down to 15 km, allowing us to investigate for the first time the global upper ocean variability at the submesoscale range. Here, by analysing shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler measurements along 137°E in the northwest Pacific of 2004-2016, we show that the observed upper ocean velocities are comprised of balanced geostrophic flows and unbalanced internal waves. The transition length scale, Lt, separating these two motions, is found to depend strongly on the energy level of local mesoscale eddy variability. In the eddy-abundant western boundary current region of Kuroshio, Lt can be shorter than 15 km, whereas Lt exceeds 200 km along the path of relatively stable North Equatorial Current. Judicious separation between the geostrophic and internal wave signals represents both a challenge and an opportunity for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission.

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-30 to 2005-11-20 (NCEI Accession 0148772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148772 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148771 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144533 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-31 to 2005-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0144531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144531 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  12. Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

    1991-01-01

    Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

  13. SEASONAL CIRCULATION IN THE NORTHWESTERN TROPICAL PACIFIC OCEAN DIAGNOSED WITH THE ASSIMILATION DATA FROM 1989 THROUGH 1997

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An assimilation data set based on the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Modular Ocean Model version 3 (MOM3) and the NODC XBT data set is used to examine the circulation and its variabilities in the western tropical Pacific, with special emphasis on the seasonal variations. It is shown that the assimilated and observed mean velocities and transports of the major flows in the western tropical Pacific agree well. The flows in the north Pacific, including the North Equatorial Current (NEC), Kuroshio, Mindanao Current (MC) and North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) west of 140°E display the seasonal cycles almost in the same phase, with the biggest transport in spring and the smallest in autumn. The phase of the NECC seasonal cycle east of 140°E is opposite to that in the west. Besides of the annual cycle, there seems to be a semi-annual fluctuation of the NECC transport possibly resulting from the phase lag between seasonal cycles of the NEC and NGCC. Strong in summer during the southeast monsoon, the seasonal cycle of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is closely linked with those of both the MC and the New Guinea Coastal Current/Undercurrent (NGCC/NGCUC), but not as strong as that in observations probably caused by the superimposed seasonal and interannual variations. Variations on the interannual time scale are also discussed, but only indistinct interannual variations of the flows related to the ENSO are revealed during 1989~1997. Transport of the NEC, Kuroshio and NECC are slightly larger in the E1 Nino years when that of the ITF is weaker, while the MC has little ENSO-related variation. There were also quasi-biennial signals superimposing the ENSO-like oscillations in the flows, but their relationships with the ENSO are still unclear.

  14. Physical and chemical data collected from bottle casts in the Pacific Ocean and the Southern Oceans from ALBA and other platforms from 18 November 1962 to 04 May 1990 (NODC Accession 0000413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts in the Pacific Ocean and the Southern Oceans from ALBA, LIRA, TAMGA and other platforms from 18 November...

  15. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX03RR in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 2007-02-04 to 2007-03-17 (NCEI Accession 0155647)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155647 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX03RR in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  16. Salinity, oxygen, temperature, and other data from CTD casts from the GEOLOG FERSMAN in the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean from 13 July 1990 to 17 October 1991 (NODC Accession 0000232)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salinity, oxygen, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD casts from the GEOLOG FERSMAN in the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean from to July...

  17. Temperature profile data collected using XBT and BT casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER from 1979-04-11 to 1983-05-10 (NCEI Accession 8300081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean from 11 April 1979...

  18. Temperature profile and other data collected from XBT casts in Indian Ocean and N / S Pacific Ocean from ICEBIRD and other platforms from 02 January 1993 to 01 January 1994 (NODC Accession 9400207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using XBT casts from ICEBIRD and other platforms in Indian Ocean and North / South Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  19. Physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1204 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2012-04-03 to 2012-04-18 (NCEI Accession 0138036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0138036 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1204 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  20. POC fluxes from euphotic zone estimated from 234Th deficiency in winter in the northwestern North Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yongliang; HAN Xu; KUSAKABE Masashi

    2004-01-01

    Dissolved and particulate 234Th, particulate organic carbon(PON), nitrogen, and chlorophyll-a concentrations in the upper 200 m of water columns from seven stations in the northwestern North Pacific Ocean were determined in the winter of 1997.The dissolved, particulate, and total 234Th activities (dissolved plus particulate)show a pronounced deficiency with respect to its parent 238U in the euphoric zone whereas the total 234Th shows a near-equilibrium at the depth greaterthan 100 m. The 234Th data are used to derive the mean residence time, export fluxes of 234Th, and fluxes of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen out of the euphotic zone. In the Subarctic Current area, the residence time of dissolved 234 Thwith respect to its removal onto particles is 40 ~50 d while the residence time of dissolved 234Th in the subtropical area is about 20 d due to the Kuroshio's influence.The particulate organic carbon (POC)and particulate organic nitrogegion than in the east, and higher in the south than in the north. The co-influence of Kuroshio-Oyashio Currents withsupply of nutrient substances from the coastal area and the light condition are two factors determining the horizontaldistribution of POC fluxes in winter. The depth distribution of the chlorophyll-a as well as the consistence of the ratio ofPOC to PON with the Redfield ratio suggest that phytoplankton is the main contributor to the export of POC in this areain winter. The POC fluxes in the northwestern North Pacific Ocean in winter are comparable to some areas in the worldoceans in spring and summer seasons.

  1. Annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass in the subarctic Atlantic and Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, Toby K.; Schultz, Patrick; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Dunne, John P.; Hiscock, Michael R.; Maritorena, Stephane; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Siegel, David A.

    2016-02-01

    High-latitude phytoplankton blooms support productive fisheries and play an important role in oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. In the subarctic North Atlantic Ocean, blooms are a recurrent feature each year, while in the eastern subarctic Pacific only small changes in chlorophyll (Chl) are seen over the annual cycle. Here we show that when evaluated using phytoplankton carbon biomass (Cphyto) rather than Chl, an annual bloom in the North Pacific is evident and can even rival blooms observed in the North Atlantic. The annual increase in subarctic Pacific phytoplankton biomass is not readily observed in the Chl record because it is paralleled by light- and nutrient-driven decreases in cellular pigment levels (Cphyto:Chl). Specifically, photoacclimation and iron stress effects on Cphyto:Chl oppose the biomass increase, leading to only modest changes in bulk Chl. The magnitude of the photoacclimation effect is quantified using descriptors of the near-surface light environment and a photophysiological model. Iron stress effects are diagnosed from satellite chlorophyll fluorescence data. Lastly, we show that biomass accumulation in the Pacific is slower than that in the Atlantic but is closely tied to similar levels of seasonal nutrient uptake in both basins. Annual cycles of satellite-derived Chl and Cphyto are reproduced by in situ autonomous profiling floats. These results contradict the long-standing paradigm that environmental conditions prevent phytoplankton accumulation in the subarctic Northeast Pacific and suggest a greater seasonal decoupling between phytoplankton growth and losses than traditionally implied. Further, our results highlight the role of physiological processes in shaping bulk properties, such as Chl, and their interpretation in studies of ocean ecosystem dynamics and climate change.

  2. Continuous transport of Pacific-derived anthropogenic radionuclides towards the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittauer, Daniela; Tims, Stephen G.; Froehlich, Michaela B.; Fifield, L. Keith; Wallner, Anton; McNeil, Steven D.; Fischer, Helmut W.

    2017-01-01

    Unusually high concentrations of americium and plutonium have been observed in a sediment core collected from the eastern Lombok Basin between Sumba and Sumbawa Islands in the Indonesian Archipelago. Gamma spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry data together with radiometric dating of the core provide a high-resolution record of ongoing deposition of anthropogenic radionuclides. A plutonium signature characteristic of the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) dominates in the first two decades after the start of the high yield atmospheric tests in 1950’s. Approximately 40–70% of plutonium at this site in the post 1970 period originates from the PPG. This sediment record of transuranic isotopes deposition over the last 55 years provides evidence for the continuous long-distance transport of particle-reactive radionuclides from the Pacific Ocean towards the Indian Ocean. PMID:28304374

  3. Identifying Stratospheric Air Intrusions and Associated Hurricane-Force Wind Events over the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Kelsey; Folmer, Michael J.; Phillips, Joseph; Sienkiewicz, Joseph M.; Berndt, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: Ocean data is sparse: reliance on satellite imagery for marine forecasting; Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) –“mariner’s weather lifeline”. Responsible for: Pacific, Atlantic, Pacific Alaska surface analyses –24, 48, 96 hrs.; Wind & wave analyses –24, 48, 96 hrs.; Issue warnings, make decisions, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite –R Series (now GOES-16), Compared to the old GOES: 3 times spectral resolution, 4 times spatial resolution, 5 times faster coverage; Comparable to Japanese Meteorological Agency’s Himawari-8, used a lot throughout this research. Research Question: How can integrating satellite data imagery and derived products help forecasters improve prognosis of rapid cyclogenesis and hurricane-force wind events? Phase I –Identifying stratospheric air intrusions: Water Vapor –6.2, 6.9, 7.3 micron channels; Airmass RGB Product; AIRS, IASI, NUCAPS total column ozone and ozone anomaly; ASCAT (A/B) and AMSR-2 wind data.

  4. Misidentification of Carcharhinus galapagensis (Snodgrass & Heller, 1905) in the Southwest Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Clinton A J

    2016-01-01

    Although primarily a coral reef species the grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos has been recorded from a number of subtropical oceanic islands and reefs in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. Examination of all nominal C. amblyrhynchos voucher material collected from Lord Howe Island, Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs and Norfolk Island resulted in the re-identification of these specimens as Galapagos sharks, C. galapagensis. As C. amblyrhynchos superficially resembles C. galapagensis visual records of C. amblyrhynchos from Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs and the Kermadec Islands cannot be substantiated without voucher material. Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos therefore appears to be confined to waters north of about 25o S in the Southwest Pacific. Precaudal vertebral counts should be used to confirm the identification of nominal C. amblyrhynchos specimens that have an interdorsal ridge.

  5. Continuous transport of Pacific-derived anthropogenic radionuclides towards the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittauer, Daniela; Tims, Stephen G.; Froehlich, Michaela B.; Fifield, L. Keith; Wallner, Anton; McNeil, Steven D.; Fischer, Helmut W.

    2017-03-01

    Unusually high concentrations of americium and plutonium have been observed in a sediment core collected from the eastern Lombok Basin between Sumba and Sumbawa Islands in the Indonesian Archipelago. Gamma spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry data together with radiometric dating of the core provide a high-resolution record of ongoing deposition of anthropogenic radionuclides. A plutonium signature characteristic of the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) dominates in the first two decades after the start of the high yield atmospheric tests in 1950’s. Approximately 40–70% of plutonium at this site in the post 1970 period originates from the PPG. This sediment record of transuranic isotopes deposition over the last 55 years provides evidence for the continuous long-distance transport of particle-reactive radionuclides from the Pacific Ocean towards the Indian Ocean.

  6. Continuous transport of Pacific-derived anthropogenic radionuclides towards the Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittauer, Daniela; Tims, Stephen G; Froehlich, Michaela B; Fifield, L Keith; Wallner, Anton; McNeil, Steven D; Fischer, Helmut W

    2017-03-17

    Unusually high concentrations of americium and plutonium have been observed in a sediment core collected from the eastern Lombok Basin between Sumba and Sumbawa Islands in the Indonesian Archipelago. Gamma spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry data together with radiometric dating of the core provide a high-resolution record of ongoing deposition of anthropogenic radionuclides. A plutonium signature characteristic of the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) dominates in the first two decades after the start of the high yield atmospheric tests in 1950's. Approximately 40-70% of plutonium at this site in the post 1970 period originates from the PPG. This sediment record of transuranic isotopes deposition over the last 55 years provides evidence for the continuous long-distance transport of particle-reactive radionuclides from the Pacific Ocean towards the Indian Ocean.

  7. Sound velocity from inverted echo sounders (IES) in the western Pacific Ocean from 19920826 to 19930322 (NODC Accession 9300159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains inverted echo sounder data collected from two stations in the western Pacific, TPW nominally @ 2S and 154E and TPE nominally @ 2S and 164E....

  8. Tropic dynamics of albatrosses associated with squid and large-mesh driftnet fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Diets of Laysan (LAA) and Black-footed albatrosses (BFA) killed in squid and large-mesh driftnets in the transitional zone of the North Pacific Ocean were...

  9. 78 FR 64892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of the Pacific ocean perch...: October 25, 2013. Kelly Denit, Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National...

  10. 78 FR 64891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of the Pacific ocean perch...: October 25, 2013. Kelly Denit, Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National...

  11. NODC Standard Product: Experimental Compact Disk NODC-01 Pacific Ocean Temperature-Salinity Profiles (1900-1988) (NODC Accession 0086259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) created a compact disk containing over 1.3 million temperature-depth and salinity-depth profiles taken in the Pacific...

  12. {sup 10}Be/{sup 230}Th ratios as proxy for particle flux in the equatorial Pacific ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.F.; Fleisher, M.Q. [LDEO of Columbia Univ. (United States); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Particulate {sup 10}Be/{sup 230}Th ratios collected by sediment traps in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean exhibit a positive correlation with particle flux, but little or no correlation with particle composition. (author) 1 fig., 4 refs.

  13. On the Cause of Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean T-S Variations Associated with El Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ou; Fukumori, Ichiro; Lee, Tong; Cheng, Benny

    2004-01-01

    The nature of observed variations in temperature-salinity (T-S) relationship between El Nino and non-El Nino years in the pycnocline of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (NINO3 region, 5(deg)S-5(deg)N, 150(deg)W-90(deg)W) is investigated using an ocean general circulation model. The origin of the subject water mass is identified using the adjoint of a simulated passive tracer. The higher salinity during El Nino is attributed to larger convergence of saltier water from the Southern Hemisphere and smaller convergence of fresher water from the Northern Hemisphere.

  14. The late Quaternary decline and extinction of palms on oceanic Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, M.; Dowe, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Late Quaternary palaeoecological records of palm decline, extirpation and extinction are explored from the oceanic islands of the Pacific Ocean. Despite the severe reduction of faunal diversity coincidental with human colonisation of these previously uninhabited oceanic islands, relatively few plant extinctions have been recorded. At low taxonomic levels, recent faunal extinctions on oceanic islands are concentrated in larger bodied representatives of certain genera and families. Fossil and historic records of plant extinction show a similar trend with high representation of the palm family, Arecaceae. Late Holocene decline of palm pollen types is demonstrated from most islands where there are palaeoecological records including the Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, the Hawaiian Islands, the Juan Fernandez Islands and Rapanui. A strong correspondence between human impact and palm decline is measured from palynological proxies including increased concentrations of charcoal particles and pollen from cultivated plants and invasive weeds. Late Holocene extinctions or extirpations are recorded across all five of the Arecaceae subfamilies of the oceanic Pacific islands. These are most common for the genus Pritchardia but also many sedis fossil palm types were recorded representing groups lacking diagnostic morphological characters.

  15. Atmospheric aerosol deposition influences marine microbial communities in oligotrophic surface waters of the western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Teruya; Ishikawa, Akira; Mastunaga, Tomoki; Pointing, Stephen B.; Saito, Yuuki; Kasai, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Koichi; Aoki, Kazuma; Horiuchi, Amane; Lee, Kevin C.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols contain particulates that are deposited to oceanic surface waters. These can represent a major source of nutrients, trace metals, and organic compounds for the marine environment. The Japan Sea and the western Pacific Ocean are particularly affected by aerosols due to the transport of desert dust and industrially derived particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) from continental Asia. We hypothesized that supplementing seawater with aerosol particulates would lead to measurable changes in surface water nutrient composition as well as shifts in the marine microbial community. Shipboard experiments in the Pacific Ocean involved the recovery of oligotrophic oceanic surface water and subsequent supplementation with aerosol particulates obtained from the nearby coastal mountains, to simulate marine particulate input in this region. Initial increases in nitrates due to the addition of aerosol particulates were followed by a decrease correlated with the increase in phytoplankton biomass, which was composed largely of Bacillariophyta (diatoms), including Pseudo-nitzschia and Chaetoceros species. This shift was accompanied by changes in the bacterial community, with apparent increases in the relative abundance of heterotrophic Rhodobacteraceae and Colwelliaceae in aerosol particulate treated seawater. Our findings provide empirical evidence revealing the impact of aerosol particulates on oceanic surface water microbiology by alleviating nitrogen limitation in the organisms.

  16. Siderophore-based microbial adaptations to iron scarcity across the eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Rene M.; Mende, Daniel R.; Hawco, Nicholas J.; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Saito, Mak A.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    2016-12-01

    Nearly all iron dissolved in the ocean is complexed by strong organic ligands of unknown composition. The effect of ligand composition on microbial iron acquisition is poorly understood, but amendment experiments using model ligands show they can facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on their identity. Here we show that siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, are a dynamic component of the marine ligand pool in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Siderophore concentrations in iron-deficient waters averaged 9 pM, up to fivefold higher than in iron-rich coastal and nutrient-depleted oligotrophic waters, and were dominated by amphibactins, amphiphilic siderophores with cell membrane affinity. Phylogenetic analysis of amphibactin biosynthetic genes suggests that the ability to produce amphibactins has transferred horizontally across multiple Gammaproteobacteria, potentially driven by pressures to compete for iron. In coastal and oligotrophic regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean, amphibactins were replaced with lower concentrations (1–2 pM) of hydrophilic ferrioxamine siderophores. Our results suggest that organic ligand composition changes across the surface ocean in response to environmental pressures. Hydrophilic siderophores are predominantly found across regions of the ocean where iron is not expected to be the limiting nutrient for the microbial community at large. However, in regions with intense competition for iron, some microbes optimize iron acquisition by producing siderophores that minimize diffusive losses to the environment. These siderophores affect iron bioavailability and thus may be an important component of the marine iron cycle.

  17. Ocean-state dependency of the equatorial Pacific response to Westerly Wind Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy, martin; Lengaigne, matthieu; Madec, gurvan; Vialard, jerome; Guilyardi, eric

    2015-04-01

    Short-lived wind events in the equatorial Pacific strongly influence the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolution. In the first part of this study, we found in observations that both westerly wind events (WWEs) and their easterly wind events (EWEs) counterpart are unambiguously associated with increased Madden Julian oscillation and atmospheric equatorial Rossby waves activity, i.e. that the atmospheric state influences the occurrence probability of WWEs. In the second part, we investigate how the oceanic state modulates the response to these WWEs by applying the same WWE forcing over a interannually-varying ocean state in an OGCM simulation. We find that the amplitude of the SST response, both at the warm pool eastern edge and in the eastern Pacific, can vary by a factor of up to two depending on the ocean state. The sea level and current response are also clearly modulated, with varying contributions of the second and third baroclinic modes depending on the oceanic stratification. We will discuss the mechanisms by which the oceanic state modulates the response to the WWE, and how this could contribute to their impact on ENSO

  18. Indo-western Pacific ocean capacitor and coherent climate anomalies in post-ENSO summer: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shang-Ping; Kosaka, Yu; Du, Yan; Hu, Kaiming; Chowdary, Jasti S.; Huang, Gang

    2016-04-01

    ENSO induces coherent climate anomalies over the Indo-western Pacific, but these anomalies outlast SST anomalies of the equatorial Pacific by a season, with major effects on the Asian summer monsoon. This review provides historical accounts of major milestones and synthesizes recent advances in the endeavor to understand summer variability over the Indo-Northwest Pacific region. Specifically, a large-scale anomalous anticyclone (AAC) is a recurrent pattern in post-El Ni˜no summers, spanning the tropical Northwest Pacific and North Indian oceans. Regarding the ocean memory that anchors the summer AAC, competing hypotheses emphasize either SST cooling in the easterly trade wind regime of the Northwest Pacific or SST warming in the westerly monsoon regime of the North Indian Ocean. Our synthesis reveals a coupled ocean-atmosphere mode that builds on both mechanisms in a two-stage evolution. In spring, when the northeast trades prevail, the AAC and Northwest Pacific cooling are coupled via wind-evaporation-SST feedback. The Northwest Pacific cooling persists to trigger a summer feedback that arises from the interaction of the AAC and North Indian Ocean warming, enabled by the westerly monsoon wind regime. This Indo-western Pacific ocean capacitor (IPOC) effect explains why El Ni˜no stages its last act over the monsoonal Indo-Northwest Pacific and casts the Indian Ocean warming and AAC in leading roles. The IPOC displays interdecadal modulations by the ENSO variance cycle, significantly correlated with ENSO at the turn of the 20th century and after the 1970s, but not in between. Outstanding issues, including future climate projections, are also discussed.

  19. Metal concentrations in pelagic seabirds from the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, K; Marcovecchio, J E; Kan, S; Tatsukawa, R; Ogi, H

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of four essential elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) and two toxic metals (Cd and Hg) were measured in selected tissues of 19 pelagic seabird species collected in the North Pacific and neighboring waters. Essential metal concentrations were generally highest in the liver and less variable than toxic metals among species and also within each species. Fe concentrations in the muscle were higher in Alcidae than in the other families, whereas the opposite trend was found for Fe and Mn in the liver. Zn concentrations varied among species, depending on the Cd concentrations. On the other hand, toxic metal concentrations were highest in the liver or kidney and varied widely among species, greatly depending on differences in the diet among species. Extraordinarily high Hg concentrations were found in Black-footed Albatrosses,Diomedea nigripes, exceeding 300 μg/g wet weight in some, and seemed to be due to constraints on the elimination of Hg. Also, some geographical differences in Cd and Hg concentrations of the seabirds were observed. The concentrations of Cd and Hg reported here, however, seem to be natural rather than due to environmental pollution.

  20. Air-sea CO2 flux in the Pacific Ocean for the period 1990–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ishii

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Air-sea CO2 fluxes over the Pacific Ocean are known to be characterized by coherent large-scale structures that reflect not only ocean subduction and upwelling patterns, but also the combined effects of wind-driven gas exchange and biology. On the largest scales, a large net CO2 influx into the extra-tropics is associated with a robust seasonal cycle, and a large net CO2 efflux from the tropics is associated with substantial inter-annual variability. In this work, we have synthesized estimates of the net air-sea CO2 flux from a variety of products drawing upon a variety of approaches in three sub-basins of the Pacific Ocean, i.e., the North Pacific extra-tropics (18° N–66° N, the tropical Pacific (18° S–18° N, and the South Pacific extra-tropics (44.5° S–18° S. These approaches include those based on the measurements of CO2 partial pressure in surface seawater (pCO2sw, inversions of ocean interior CO2 data, forward ocean biogeochemistry models embedded in the ocean general circulation models (OBGCMs, a model with assimilation of pCO2sw data, and inversions of atmospheric CO2 measurements. Long-term means, inter-annual variations and mean seasonal variations of the regionally-integrated fluxes were compared in each of the sub-basins over the last two decades, spanning the period from 1990 through 2009. A simple average of the long-term mean fluxes obtained with surface water pCO2 diagnostics and those obtained with ocean interior CO2 inversions are –0.47 ± 0.13 Pg C yr–1 in the North Pacific extra-tropics, +0.44 ± 0.14 Pg C yr–1 in the tropical Pacific, and –0.37 ± 0.08 Pg C yr–1 in the South Pacific extra-tropics, where positive fluxes are into the atmosphere. This suggests that approximately half of the CO2 taken up over the North and South Pacific extra-tropics is released back to the atmosphere from the tropical Pacific. These estimates of the regional fluxes are also supported by the estimates from OBGCMs after

  1. Model Evidence for Interdecadal Pathway Changes in the Subtropics and Tropics of the South Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rong-Hua; WANG Zhanggui

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations using a version of the GFDL/NOAA Modular Ocean Model (MOM 3) are analyzed to demonstrate interdecadal pathway changes from the subtropics to the tropics in the South Pacific Ocean.After the 1976-77 climate shift,the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific underwent significant changes,characterized by a slowing down in its circulation and a southward displacement of its center by about 5°-10° latitude on the western side.The associated circulation altered its flow path in the northwestern part of the subtropical gyre,changing from a direct pathway connecting the subtropics to the tropics before the shift to a more zonal one after.This effectively prevented some subtropical waters from directly entering into the western equatorial Pacific.Since waters transported onto the equator around the subtropical gyre are saline and warm,such changes in the direct pathway and the associated reduction in equatorward exchange from the subtropics to the tropics affected water mass properties downstream in the western equatorial Pacific,causing persisted freshening and cooling of subsurface water as observed after the late 1970s.Previously,changes in gyre strength and advection of temperature anomalies have been invoked as mechanisms for linking the subtropics and tropics on interdecadal time scales.Here we present an additional hypothesis in which geographic shifts in the gyre structure and location (a pathway change) could play a similar role.

  2. Enhanced Pacific Ocean Sea Surface Temperature and Its Relation to Typhoon Haiyan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Perez, Gay Jane P.; Stock, Larry V.

    2015-01-01

    Typhoon Haiyan, which devastated the Visayan Islands in the Philippines on November 8, 2013 was recorded as the strongest typhoon ever-observed using satellite data. Typhoons in the region usually originate from the mid-Pacific region that includes the Warm Pool, which is regarded as the warmest ocean surface region globally. Two study areas were considered: one in the Warm Pool Region and the other in the West Pacific Region near the Philippines. Among the most important factors that affect the strength of a typhoon are sea surface temperature (SST) and water vapor. It is remarkable that in November 2013 the average SST in the Warm Pool Region was the highest observed during the 1981 to 2014 period while that of the West Pacific Region was among the highest as well. Moreover, the increasing trend in SST was around 0.20C per decade in the warm pool region and even higher at 0.23C per decade in the West Pacific region. The yearly minimum SST has also been increasing suggesting that the temperature of the ocean mixed layer is also increasing. Further analysis indicated that water vapor, clouds, winds and sea level pressure for the same period did not reveal strong signals associated with the 2013 event. The SST is shown to be well-correlated with wind strength of historically strong typhoons in the country and the observed trends in SST suggest that extremely destructive typhoons like Haiyan are likely to occur in the future.

  3. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Heather M; Lin, Victor; Tanaka, Sho; Velikanov, Anatoly; Mollet, Henry F; Wintner, Sabine P; Fordham, Sonja V; Fisk, Aaron T; Hussey, Nigel E

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8), Republic of Korea (22), Japan (129), China (32), Taiwan (45), Philippines (1) and Vietnam (3). Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea) and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam). Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL) and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL) represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113). Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases) to near term (140 cm TL embryos). On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10) and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated research to

  4. Alternate sites for a connecting passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Samuel Jose

    1990-01-01

    CIVINS Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited This thesis is a geotechnical engineering report which includes a topographical profile at three propitious locations across the American continent for the construction of an interoceanic passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Surficial soils as well as the general topography of the centerline of the alignments were investigated to the extent possible and an attempt was made to investigate underlying strata. Some i...

  5. Temporal and Petrogenetic Constraints on Volcanic Accretionary Processes at 9-10 Degrees North East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    crust (e.g., Allegre & Turcotte , 1986; Ben Othman & Allegre, 1990; Hirschmann & Stolper, 1996; Lundstrom et al., 1999; Prinzhofer et al., 1989). In...East Pacific Rise, 10ºN. Journal of Petrology 30 (5), 1245-1298. Allègre, C.J. & Turcotte , D.L. (1986). Implications of a two-component marble-cake

  6. Surface ocean iron fertilization: The role of airborne volcanic ash and iron-flux into the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, N.; Duggen, S.; Croot, P.; Dietze, H.

    2009-04-01

    Iron is a limiting micro-nutrient for marine primary production (MPP) in vast areas in the surface ocean. Hence, atmospheric supply of iron to the surface ocean can affect marine biogeochemical cycles, associated ocean-atmosphere exchange of CO2 and eventually climate development. Airborne volcanic ash from volcanic eruptions can be an important atmospheric iron-source in the surface ocean by releasing bio-available iron while settling through in the surface ocean. Here we present new data from time-dependent geochemical experiments with pristine (unhydrated) volcanic ash samples and natural seawater by means of Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry. Our results demonstrate that volcanic ash mobilizes significant amounts of soluble Fe within 60 minutes of contact with natural seawater. Depending on the amount of volcanic ash deposited offshore during major volcanic eruptions and the amount of iron that ash can release on contact with seawater, the calculated increase in the surface ocean Fe levels range from several nanomolar up to several hundred nanomolar (nM). Only 2 nM increase in iron concentrations can stimulate massive diatom blooms in the oceanic regions in which MPP is limited by the availability of iron (the iron-limited oceanic areas) (Wells, 2003). Therefore volcanic ash should be able to significantly affect marine phytoplankton growth in an ash fall area, acting as an iron fertilizer. Based on our new iron-release data and marine sediment core data we provide the first estimate of the flux of Fe from volcanic ash into the Pacific Ocean that covers more than 60 percent of the iron-limited oceanic regions. Our calculations show that the flux of Fe from volcanic ash is comparable to the order of magnitude of the flux of Fe from aeolian dust. Our study shows that volcanic ash is a major and so far underestimated atmospheric iron-source for the oceans and therefore an important component in marine biogeochemical iron cycles. Wells, M.L.: The level of iron

  7. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during November 2014 (NODC Accession 0123641)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  8. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during March 2014 (NODC Accession 0118351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  9. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during February 2011 (NODC Accession 0092238)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  10. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during January 2011 (NODC Accession 0092237)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  11. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during January 2012 (NODC Accession 0092286)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  12. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during January 2013 (NODC Accession 0101901)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  13. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during December 2014 (NODC Accession 0125593)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  14. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during November 2011 (NODC Accession 0092284)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  15. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during December 2013 (NODC Accession 0116306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  16. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during November 2013 (NODC Accession 0114994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  17. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during January 2015 (NODC Accession 0125688)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  18. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during October 2012 (NODC Accession 0099239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  19. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during September 2011 (NODC Accession 0092282)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  20. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during May 2011 (NODC Accession 0092278)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  1. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during September 2014 (NODC Accession 0122514)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  2. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during December 2011 (NODC Accession 0092285)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  3. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during August 2012 (NODC Accession 0094858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  4. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during September 2013 (NODC Accession 0114237)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  5. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during April 2014 (NODC Accession 0118448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  6. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during July 2012 (NODC Accession 0093394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  7. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during July 2011 (NODC Accession 0092280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  8. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during December 2012 (NODC Accession 0101141)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  9. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during August 2011 (NODC Accession 0092281)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  10. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during March 2013 (NODC Accession 0104399)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  11. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during August 2014 (NODC Accession 0121631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  12. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during August 2013 (NODC Accession 0112759)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  13. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during May 2013 (NODC Accession 0108125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  14. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during June 2011 (NODC Accession 0092279)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  15. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during October 2011 (NODC Accession 0092283)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  16. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during March 2015 (NCEI Accession 0128050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  17. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during January 2014 (NODC Accession 0115701)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  18. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during November 2012 (NODC Accession 0100009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  19. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during April 2012 (NODC Accession 0092289)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  20. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during February 2012 (NODC Accession 0092287)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  1. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during July 2013 (NODC Accession 0110023)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  2. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during March 2012 (NODC Accession 0092288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  3. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during September 2012 (NODC Accession 0098162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  4. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during February 2014 (NODC Accession 0117433)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  5. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during March 2011 (NODC Accession 0092276)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  6. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during June 2013 (NODC Accession 0111754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  7. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during May 2012 (NODC Accession 0092290)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  8. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during April 2011 (NODC Accession 0092277)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  9. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during February 2013 (NODC Accession 0101902)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  10. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during October 2013 (NODC Accession 0114238)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  11. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during June 2012 (NODC Accession 0092481)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  12. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during April 2013 (NODC Accession 0105758)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  13. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during October 2014 (NODC Accession 0123218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  14. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during June 2014 (NODC Accession 0121264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  15. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during May 2014 (NODC Accession 0121263)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  16. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during July 2014 (NODC Accession 0121265)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  17. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during February 2015 (NODC Accession 0127321)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  18. Factors limiting heterotrophic bacterial production in the southern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Van Wambeke

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of potential factors limiting bacterial growth was investigated along vertical and longitudinal gradients across the South Eastern Pacific Gyre. The effects of glucose, nitrate, ammonium and phosphate additions on heterotrophic bacterial production (using leucine technique were studied in parallel in unfiltered seawater samples incubated under natural daily irradiance. Longitudinally, the enrichments realized on the subsurface showed three types of responses. From the Marquesas plateau (8° W to approx 125° W, bacteria were not bottom-up controlled, as confirmed by the huge potential of growth in non-enriched seawater (43±24 times in 24 h. Within the Gyre (125° W–95° W, nitrogen alone stimulated leucine incorporation rates by a factor of 5.6±3.6, but rapidly labile carbon (glucose became a second limiting factor (enhancement factor 49±32 when the two elements were added. Finally from the border of the gyre to the Chilean upwelling (95° W–73° W, labile carbon was the only factor stimulating heterotrophic bacterial production. Interaction between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial communities and the direct versus indirect effect of iron and macronutrients on bacterial production were also investigated in four selected sites: two sites on the vicinity of the Marquesas plateau, the centre of the gyre and the Eastern border of the gyre. Both phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria were limited by availability of nitrogen within the gyre, but not by iron. While iron limited phytoplankton at Marquesas plateau and at the eastern border of the gyre, heterotrophic bacteria were only limited by availability of labile DOC in those environments.

  19. [Emerging viral infections in South East Asia and the Pacific region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P; Tarantola, A; Lassel, L; Mollet, T; Quatresous, I; Paquet, C

    2008-10-01

    The epidemiology of several viral diseases underwent profound changes in South-East Asia and Oceania over the past decades. This was due to several factors, including the geographical distribution of vectors and the viruses they transmit; increasing traveling and trade; increasing ecological and demographic pressure. We reviewed the current state of knowledge based on published sources and available epidemiological data. The review was limited to potentially emerging viruses in Southeast Asia and the Pacific reported in human cases. Dengue, Chikungunya, and Japanese Encephalitis viruses have recurred on a yearly basis with a steady increase in these regions. Ross River and Barmah viruses now appear regularly in Australia, in an increasing number of cases. Nipah virus strikes regularly with limited but deadly epidemics in Southeast Asia. Finally, infections by lyssaviruses, Kunjin, Murray Valley, or Zika viruses were also reviewed.

  20. New evidence of microbe origin for ferromanganese nodules from the East Pacific deep sea floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using a fluorescence microscope and EPMA,abundant microbe "bodies" and clear microbic fluorescent microstructure are determined in the ferromanganese nodules recently collected from the East Pacific deep sea floor.The microbic fluorescent structure shows a close relation to the formation of the ferromanganese nodules.According to their morphological features,the microbes are classified into two types:one is named clumpy microbe,which takes a bar-shaped manganese mineral as a pillar and grows like fasciculate coral,resulting in irregular cauliflorate nodules with rough surfaces; the other is called filamentous microbe,which grows in very thin arcuate and/or concentric circular laminae composed of a microbe layer and a metal (manganese and iron)-rich layer,leading to potato-shaped nodules with relatively smooth surfaces.It also can be seen that the two types of microbes are intergrown together,resulting in nodules complicated in compositions and shapes.

  1. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  2. New evidence of microbe origin for ferromanganese nodules from the East Pacific deep sea floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文宣; 周怀阳; 顾连兴; 张文兰; 陆现彩; 符琦; 潘建明; 张海生

    2000-01-01

    Using a fluorescence microscope and EPMA, abundant microbe "bodies" and clear mi-crobic fluorescent microstructure are determined in the ferromanganese nodules recently collected from the East Pacific deep sea floor. The microbic fluorescent structure shows a close relation to the formation of the ferromanganese nodules. According to their morphological features, the microbes are classified into two types: one is named clumpy microbe, which takes a bar-shaped manganese mineral as a pillar and grows like fasciculate coral, resulting in irregular cauliflorate nodules with rough surfaces; the other is called filamentous microbe, which grows in very thin arcuate and/or concentric circular laminae composed of a microbe layer and a metal (manganese and iron)-rich layer, leading to potato-shaped nodules with relatively smooth surfaces. It also can be seen that the two types of microbes are intergrown together, resulting in nodules complicated in compositions and shapes.

  3. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A.; Brown, Derek S.; Mercy, James A.; Dunne, Michael P.; Butchart, Alexander R.; Corso, Phaedra S.; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region’s per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region’s GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367

  5. Biogeochemistry and ecosystems of continental margins in the western North Pacific Ocean and their interactions and responses to external forcing - an overview and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.-K.; Kang, C.-K.; Kobari, T.; Liu, H.; Rabouille, C.; Fennel, K.

    2014-12-01

    In this special issue we examine the biogeochemical conditions and marine ecosystems in the major marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean, namely, the East China Sea, the Japan/East Sea to its north and the South China Sea to its south. They are all subject to strong climate forcing as well as anthropogenic impacts. On the one hand, continental margins in this region are bordered by the world's most densely populated coastal communities and receive tremendous amount of land-derived materials. On the other hand, the Kuroshio, the strong western boundary current of the North Pacific Ocean, which is modulated by climate oscillation, exerts strong influences over all three marginal seas. Because these continental margins sustain arguably some of the most productive marine ecosystems in the world, changes in these stressed ecosystems may threaten the livelihood of a large population of humans. This special issue reports the latest observations of the biogeochemical conditions and ecosystem functions in the three marginal seas. The studies exemplify the many faceted ecosystem functions and biogeochemical expressions, but they reveal only a few long-term trends mainly due to lack of sufficiently long records of well-designed observations. It is critical to develop and sustain time series observations in order to detect biogeochemical changes and ecosystem responses in continental margins and to attribute the causes for better management of the environment and resources in these marginal seas.

  6. Nitrogen speciation in various types of aerosols in spring over the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cumulative atmospheric nitrogen deposition has been found to profoundly impact the nutrient stoichiometry of the eastern China seas (ECSs: the Yellow Sea and East China Sea and the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWPO. In spite of the potential significance of dry deposition in those regions, shipboard observations of atmospheric aerosols remain insufficient, particularly regarding the compositions of water-soluble nitrogen species (nitrate, ammonium and water-soluble organic nitrogen – WSON. We conducted a cruise covering the ECSs and the NWPO during the spring of 2014 and observed three types of atmospheric aerosols. Aluminum content, air mass backward trajectories, weather conditions, and ion stoichiometry allowed us to discern dust aerosol patches and sea-fog-modified aerosols (widespread over the ECSs from background aerosols (open ocean. Among the three types, sea-fog-modified aerosols contained the highest concentrations of nitrate (536 ± 300 nmol N m−3, ammonium (442 ± 194 nmol N m−3 and WSON (147 ± 171 nmol N m−3; furthermore, ammonium and nitrate together occupied  ∼  65 % of the molar fraction of total ions. The dust aerosols also contained significant amounts of nitrate (100 ± 23 nmol N m−3 and ammonium (138 ± 24 nmol N m−3 which were obviously larger than those in the background aerosols (26 ± 32 for nitrate and 54 ± 45 nmol N m−3 for ammonium, yet this was not the case for WSON. It appeared that dust aerosols had less of a chance to come in contact with WSON during their transport. In the open ocean, we found that sea salt (e.g., Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, as well as WSON, correlated positively with wind speed. Apparently, marine dissolved organic nitrogen (DON was emitted from breaking waves. Regardless of the variable wind speeds from 0.8 to as high as 18 m s−1, nitrate and ammonium, by contrast, remained in narrow ranges, implying that

  7. How well do climate models simulate atmospheric teleconnctions over the North Pacific and East Asia associated with ENSO?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyong; Son, Hye-Young; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-02-01

    During the El Niño and La Niña mature phase, atmospheric teleconnections over the North Pacific and East Asia vary considerably on sub-seasonal time scales, and are strongly phase-locked to the sub-seasonal evolution. In this study, we investigate how well climate models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulate the sub-seasonal evolution of teleconnections over the North Pacific and East Asia associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In the observations, there is a prominent anticyclone anomaly over the Kuroshio extension region (i.e. Kuroshio anticyclone), which significantly affects East Asian climate in the early winter (November-December) of El Niño years. However, in January, the Kuroshio anticyclone suddenly disappears, and a cyclonic flow dominates over the North Pacific. It is found here that the CMIP5 models simulate the overall extratropical teleconnection patterns, but they fail to reproduce some of these sub-seasonally-varying features in atmospheric circulation. For example, the models tend to simulate a weaker Kuroshio anticyclone in the early winter during El Niño phases, and fail to capture the abrupt decay of the Kuroshio anticyclone in the late winter. We demonstrate here that these systematic errors in ENSO teleconnection can be explained by systematic errors in tropical precipitation associated with ENSO. That is, negative precipitation anomalies over the western North Pacific (WNP) are too weak in the models compared to that in the observations, and their amplitude tends to be strengthened from December to the following January, while they are weakened in the observations. In addition, analyses on the inter-model diversity strongly support that relative magnitudes of WNP and central Pacific precipitation anomalies are critical for determining sub-seasonal evolution of ENSO teleconnections over the North Pacific and East Asia.

  8. First manned submersible dives on the East Pacific Rise at 21°N (project RITA): general results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francheteau, Jean; Needham, H.D.; Choukroune, P.; Juteau, Tierre; Seguret, M.; Ballard, Richard D.; Fox, P.J.; Normark, W.R.; Carranza, A.; Cordoba, D.; Guerrero, J.; Rangin, C.

    1981-01-01

    A submersible study has been conducted in February–March 1978 at the axis of the East Pacific Rise near 21°N. The expedition CYAMEX, the first submersible program to be conducted on the East Pacific Rise, is part of the French-American-Mexican project RITA (Rivera-Tamayo), a 3-year study devoted to detailed geological and geophysical investigations of the East Pacific Rise Crest. On the basis of the 15 dives made by CYANA in the axial area of the Rise, a morphological and tectonic zonation can be established for this moderately-fast spreading center. A narrow, 0.6 to 1.2 km wide zone of extrusion (zone 1), dominated by young lava flows, is flanked by a highly fissured and faulted zone of extension (zone 2) with a width of 1 to 2 km. Further out, zone 3 is dominated by outward tilted blocks bounded by inward-facing fault scarps. Active or recent faults extend up to 12 km from the axis of extrusion of the East Pacific Rise. This represents the first determination from direct field evidence of the width of active tectonism associated with an accreting plate boundary. Massive sulfide deposits, made principally of zinc, copper and iron, were found close to the axis of the Rise. Other signs of the intense hydrothermal activity included the discovery of benthic fauna of gian size similar to that found at the axis of the Galapagos Rift. We emphasize the cyclic character of the volcanicity. The main characteristics of the geology of this segment of the East Pacific Rise can be explained by the thermal structure at depth below this moderately-fast spreading center. The geological observations are compatible with the existence of a shallow magma reservoir centered at the axis of the Rise with a half-width of the order of 10 km.

  9. Spatial-temporal variations of dominant drought/flood modes and the associated atmospheric circulation and ocean events in rainy season over the east of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoni; Huang, Fei

    2012-06-01

    By using Season-reliant Empirical Orthogonal Function (S-EOF) analysis, three dominant modes of the spatial-temporal evolution of the drought/flood patterns in the rainy season over the east of China are revealed for the period of 1960-2004. The first two leading modes occur during the turnabout phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) decaying year, but the drought/flood patterns in the rainy season over the east of China are different due to the role of the Indian Ocean (IO). The first leading mode appears closely correlated with the ENSO events. In the decaying year of El Niño, the associated western North Pacific (WNP) anticyclone located over the Philippine Sea persists from the previous winter to the next early summer, transports warm and moist air toward the southern Yangtze River in China, and leads to wet conditions over this entire region. Therefore, the precipitation anomaly in summer exhibits a `Southern Flood and Northern Drought' pattern over East China. On the other hand, the basin-wide Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) plays a crucial role in prolonging the impact of ENSO on the second mode during the ENSO decaying summer. The Indian Ocean basin mode (IOBM) warming persists through summer and unleashes its influence, which forces a Matsuno-Gill pattern in the upper troposphere. Over the subtropical western North Pacific, an anomalous anticyclone forms in the lower troposphere. The southerlies on the northwest flank of this anticyclone increase the moisture transport onto central China, leading to abundant rainfall over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Huaihe River valleys. The anomalous anticyclone causes dry conditions over South China and the South China Sea (SCS). The precipitation anomaly in summer exhibits a `Northern Flood and Southern Drought' pattern over East China. Therefore, besides the ENSO event the IOBM is an important factor to influence the drought/flood patterns in the rainy season over

  10. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from AMERICAN RESERVIST using BT and XBT casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 20 January 1974 to 29 September 1977 (NODC Accession 8900287)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the AMERICAN RESERVIST in the North Pacific Ocean and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean....

  11. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from BAINBRIDGE using BT and XBT casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 28 June 1976 to 31 August 1989 (NODC Accession 8900257)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the BAINBRIDGE in the North Pacific Ocean and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean. Data...

  12. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from BAINBRIDGE using BT and XBT casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 03 July 1975 to 31 October 1977 (NODC Accession 8900230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the BAINBRIDGE in the North Pacific Ocean and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean. Data...

  13. Carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected via time series monitoring from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 1998-06-22 to 2004-11-23 (NODC Accession 0100079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0100079 includes chemical, time series and underway - surface data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  14. Dynamic changes in the composition of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes in the northwestern Pacific Ocean revealed by high-throughput tag sequencing of plastid 16S rRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong H; An, Sung M; Chun, Sungjun; Yang, Eun C; Selph, Karen E; Lee, Charity M; Noh, Jae H

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) are major oceanic primary producers. However, the diversity of such communities remains poorly understood, especially in the northwestern (NW) Pacific. We investigated the abundance and diversity of PPEs, and recorded environmental variables, along a transect from the coast to the open Pacific Ocean. High-throughput tag sequencing (using the MiSeq system) revealed the diversity of plastid 16S rRNA genes. The dominant PPEs changed at the class level along the transect. Prymnesiophyceae were the only dominant PPEs in the warm pool of the NW Pacific, but Mamiellophyceae dominated in coastal waters of the East China Sea. Phylogenetically, most Prymnesiophyceae sequences could not be resolved at lower taxonomic levels because no close relatives have been cultured. Within the Mamiellophyceae, the genera Micromonas and Ostreococcus dominated in marginal coastal areas affected by open water, whereas Bathycoccus dominated in the lower euphotic depths of oligotrophic open waters. Cryptophyceae and Phaeocystis (of the Prymnesiophyceae) dominated in areas affected principally by coastal water. We also defined the biogeographical distributions of Chrysophyceae, prasinophytes, Bacillariophyceaea and Pelagophyceae. These distributions were influenced by temperature, salinity and chlorophyll a and nutrient concentrations.

  15. Contrast between the Climatic States of the Warm Pool in the Indian Ocean and in the Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiangfeng; WU Dexing

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of Levitus data, the climatic states of the warm pool in the Indian Ocean (WPIO) and in the Pacific Ocean (WPPO) are studied. It is found that WPIO has a relatively smaller area, a shallower bottom and a slightly lower seawater temperature than those of WPPO. The horizontal area at different depths, volumes, central positions, and bottom depths of both WPIO and WPPO show quite apparent signals of seasonal variation. The maximum amplitude of WPIO surface area's seasonal variation is 58% larger over the annual mean value. WPIO's maximum volume variation amplitude is 66% larger ovcr the annual mean value. The maximum variation amplitudes of the surface area and volume of WPPO are 20.9% and 20.6% larger over the annual mean value respectively. WPIO and WPPO show different temporal and spatial characteristics mainly due to the different wind fields and restriction of ocean basin geometry. For instance, seasonal northern displacement of WPIO is, to some extent, constrained by the basin of the Indian Ocean, while WPPO moves relatively freely in the longitudinal direction. The influence of WPIO and WPPO over the atmospheric motion must be quite different.

  16. Comparison of Hygroscopicity, Volatility, and Mixing State of Submicrometer Particles between Cruises over the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibaek; Cho, Hee-Joo; Seo, Arom; Kim, Dohyung; Gim, Yeontae; Lee, Bang Yong; Yoon, Young Jun; Park, Kihong

    2015-10-20

    Ship-borne measurements of ambient aerosols were conducted during an 11 937 km cruise over the Arctic Ocean (cruise 1) and the Pacific Ocean (cruise 2). A frequent nucleation event was observed during cruise 1 under marine influence, and the abundant organic matter resulting from the strong biological activity in the ocean could contribute to the formation of new particles and their growth to a detectable size. Concentrations of particle mass and black carbon increased with increasing continental influence from polluted areas. During cruise 1, multiple peaks of hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of 1.1-1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 were found, and higher amounts of volatile organic species existed in the particles compared to that during cruise 2, which is consistent with the greater availability of volatile organic species caused by the strong oceanic biological activity (cruise 1). Internal mixtures of volatile and nonhygroscopic organic species, nonvolatile and less-hygroscopic organic species, and nonvolatile and hygroscopic nss-sulfate with varying fractions can be assumed to constitute the submicrometer particles. On the basis of elemental composition and morphology, the submicrometer particles were classified into C-rich mixture, S-rich mixture, C/S-rich mixture, Na-rich mixture, C/P-rich mixture, and mineral-rich mixture. Consistently, the fraction of biological particles (i.e., P-containing particles) increased when the ship traveled along a strongly biologically active area.

  17. Simulation of radionuclide dispersion in the Pacific Ocean from Mururoa Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, A. [Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Dynamique et de Climatologie, Unite Mixte de Recherche CNRS-ORSTOM-UPMC, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Rancher, J. [CEA/DAM/DSR/DTDS/SARI, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1999-04-01

    A series of numerical simulations was carried out to evaluate, on a Tropical South Pacific scale, the consequences over 10 yr of radionuclide releases to the ocean from French Polynesian nuclear test sites. Tracer advection and diffusion terms were computed based on a dispersion model using ocean dynamics and turbulent mixing coefficients derived from an Ocean General Circulation Model on the basis of a yearly climatological average. Preliminary experiments demonstrated sensitivity of the results to injection depth and type. Two instant unit releases were then carried out at the model characteristic depths of 5 and 364 m: maximum concentrations decrease by factors of more than 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 3}, respectively, over 10 yr. Temporal evolution tables for concentrations are given and can be applied to any given quantity of tracer introduced from Mururoa atoll into the Pacific Ocean. Taken as a whole, our results present, from qualitative and quantitative viewpoints, different dispersion scenarios as a function of release characteristics. Finally, a comparison with the surface release study by Ribbe and Tomczak (1990) shows that, while the order of magnitude of tracer concentrations is comparable, the direction of propagation is significantly different. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Neil F; Jansson, Krister N; Duller, Geoffrey A T; Singarayer, Joy; Holloway, Max; Harrison, Stephan

    2016-02-12

    Large freshwater lakes formed in North America and Europe during deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum. Rapid drainage of these lakes into the Oceans resulted in abrupt perturbations in climate, including the Younger Dryas and 8.2 kyr cooling events. In the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere major glacial lakes also formed and drained during deglaciation but little is known about the magnitude, organization and timing of these drainage events and their effect on regional climate. We use 16 new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates to define three stages of rapid glacial lake drainage in the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Cohrane/Pueyrredón basins of Patagonia and provide the first assessment of the effects of lake drainage on the Pacific Ocean. Lake drainage occurred between 13 and 8 kyr ago and was initially gradual eastward into the Atlantic, then subsequently reorganized westward into the Pacific as new drainage routes opened up during Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments using HadCM3 with an imposed freshwater surface "hosing" to simulate glacial lake drainage suggest that a negative salinity anomaly was advected south around Cape Horn, resulting in brief but significant impacts on coastal ocean vertical mixing and regional climate.

  19. Green sturgeon physical habitat use in the coastal Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D Huff

    Full Text Available The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris is a highly migratory, oceanic, anadromous species with a complex life history that makes it vulnerable to species-wide threats in both freshwater and at sea. Green sturgeon population declines have preceded legal protection and curtailment of activities in marine environments deemed to increase its extinction risk. Yet, its marine habitat is poorly understood. We built a statistical model to characterize green sturgeon marine habitat using data from a coastal tracking array located along the Siletz Reef near Newport, Oregon, USA that recorded the passage of 37 acoustically tagged green sturgeon. We classified seafloor physical habitat features with high-resolution bathymetric and backscatter data. We then described the distribution of habitat components and their relationship to green sturgeon presence using ordination and subsequently used generalized linear model selection to identify important habitat components. Finally, we summarized depth and temperature recordings from seven green sturgeon present off the Oregon coast that were fitted with pop-off archival geolocation tags. Our analyses indicated that green sturgeon, on average, spent a longer duration in areas with high seafloor complexity, especially where a greater proportion of the substrate consists of boulders. Green sturgeon in marine habitats are primarily found at depths of 20-60 meters and from 9.5-16.0°C. Many sturgeon in this study were likely migrating in a northward direction, moving deeper, and may have been using complex seafloor habitat because it coincides with the distribution of benthic prey taxa or provides refuge from predators. Identifying important green sturgeon marine habitat is an essential step towards accurately defining the conditions that are necessary for its survival and will eventually yield range-wide, spatially explicit predictions of green sturgeon distribution.

  20. Increased dust deposition in the Pacific Southern Ocean during glacial periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Frank; Gersonde, Rainer; Winckler, Gisela; Esper, Oliver; Jaeschke, Andrea; Kuhn, Gerhard; Ullermann, Johannes; Martinez-Garcia, Alfredo; Lambert, Fabrice; Kilian, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Dust deposition across the Southern Ocean plays a critical role for marine biological production through iron fertilization and is supposed to control a significant fraction of glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 changes. However, in the Pacific, the largest Southern Ocean sector, reliable sediment records are sparse and climate models mostly indicate low dust deposition both for modern times and the last glacial maximum. Here, we present comprehensive data-sets of dust supply based on the analysis of sediment records recently retrieved across the Pacific Southern Ocean. The shape and glacial/interglacial pattern of lithogenic sediment input records in the western and central sector reveals strong similarities to dust records from Antarctica and the South Atlantic. Though our new data document substantial sediment redistribution, glacial dust mass accumulation rates corrected for sediment focusing exceed interglacial values by a factor of ~3. The first-order changes in Subantarctic biological productivity largely follow increased dust supply during glacials. Taken together our new sediment records document a substantial glacial dust supply from Australian and New Zealand sources to the Pacific SO sector eastward to at least 125°W. Such enhancement of dust supply is consistent with stronger aridity in Australia and a glacial dust source in New Zealand. Although the most likely dust source for the South Pacific is Australia/New Zealand, the glacial/interglacial pattern and timing of lithogenic sediment deposition is similar to dust records from Antarctica and the South Atlantic dominated by Patagonian sources. These similarities imply large-scale common climate forcings such as latitudinal shifts of the southern westerlies and regionally enhanced glaciogenic dust mobilization in New Zealand and Patagonia.

  1. Distribution and bacterial availability of dissolved neutral sugars in the South East Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sempéré

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and bacterial availability of dissolved neutral sugars were studied in the South East Pacific from October to December 2004 during the BIOSOPE cruise. Four contrasting stations were investigated: Marquesas Islands (MAR, the hyper-oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre (GYR, the eastern part of the Gyre (EGY, and the coastal waters associated to the upwelling area off Chile (UPW. Total (free and combined dissolved neutral sugar (TDNS concentrations were in the same order of magnitude at MAR (387±293 nM, GYR (206±107 nM, EGY (269±175 nM, and UPW (231±73 nM, with the highest and lowest concentrations found at MAR (30 m, 890 nM and EGY (250 m, 58 nM, respectively. Their contribution to dissolved organic carbon (TDNS-C×DOC−1% was generally low for all sites varying from 0.4% to 6.7% indicating that South East Pacific surface waters were relatively poor in neutral sugars. Free dissolved neutral sugar (FDNS; e.g. sugars analyzed without hydrolysis concentrations were very low within the detection limit of our method (5–10 nM accounting for <5% of the TDNS. In general, the predominant sugars within the TDNS pool were glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose, while in the FDNS pool only glucose was present. TDNS stock to bacterial production ratios (integrated values from the surface to the deep chlorophyll maximum were high at GYR with respect to the low primary production, whereas the opposite trend was observed in the highly productive area of UPW. Intermediate situations were observed for MAR and EGY. Bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM exposed to natural solar radiation was also experimentally studied and compared to dark treatments. Our results showed no or little detectable effect of sunlight on DOM bacterial assimilation in surface waters of UPW and GYR, while a significant stimulation was found in MAR and EGY. The overall results clearly suggest that DOM is less labile at GYR compared to UPW, which is

  2. Distribution and bacterial availability of dissolved neutral sugars in the South East Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sempéré

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and bacterial availability of dissolved neutral sugars were studied in the South East Pacific from October to December 2004 during the BIOSOPE cruise. Four contrasted sites were investigated: Marquesas Islands (MAR, the hyper-oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre (GYR, the eastern part of the Gyre (EGY, and the coastal waters associated to upwelling of Chile (UPW. Total (free and combined dissolved neutral sugar (TDNS concentrations were higher in UPW (149–329 nM and MAR (111–540 nM, than in GYR (79–390 nM and EGY (58–492 nM. Nevertheless, their contribution to dissolved organic carbon (TDNS-C/DOC% was generally low for all sites varying from 0.5% to 4% indicating that our South East Pacific surface waters were relatively poor in neutral sugars. Free dissolved neutral sugar (FDNS; e.g. sugars analyzed without hydrolysis concentrations were very low within the detection of our method (5–10 nM accounting <5% of the TDNS. In general, the predominant sugars within the TDNS pool were glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose while in the FDNS pool only glucose was present. TDNS stock to bacterial production ratios (integrated values from the surface to the deep chlorophyll maximum were relatively high in GYR with respect to the low primary production, whereas the opposite trend was observed in the highly productive area of UPW. Intermediate situations were observed for MAR and EGY. Bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM exposed to natural solar radiation was also experimentally studied and compared to dark treatments. Our results showed no or little detectable effect of sunlight on DOM bacterial assimilation in UPW and in GYR while a significant stimulation was found in MAR and EGY. The overall results clearly suggest the semi-labile character of DOM in GYR compared to the labile of UPW and are consistent with dissolved organic carbon accumulation and the elevated C/N ratios reported by Raimbault et al. (2007.

  3. Factors influencing particulate lipid production in the East Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparović, B.; Frka, S.; Koch, B. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Bracher, A.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Neogi, S. B.; Lara, R. J.; Kattner, G.

    2014-07-01

    Extensive analyses of particulate lipids and lipid classes were conducted to gain insight into lipid production and related factors along the biogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Data are supported by particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phaeopigments, Chl a concentrations and carbon content of eukaryotic micro-, nano- and picophytoplankton, including cell abundances for the latter two and for cyanobacteria and prokaryotic heterotrophs. We focused on the productive ocean surface (2 m depth and deep Chl a maximum (DCM). Samples from the deep ocean provided information about the relative reactivity and preservation potential of particular lipid classes. Surface and DCM particulate lipid concentrations (3.5-29.4 μg L-1) were higher than in samples from deep waters (3.2-9.3 μg L-1) where an increased contribution to the POC pool was observed. The highest lipid concentrations were measured in high latitude temperate waters and in the North Atlantic Tropical Gyral Province (13-25°N). Factors responsible for the enhanced lipid synthesis in the eastern Atlantic appeared to be phytoplankton size (micro, nano, pico) and the low nutrient status with microphytoplankton having the most expressed influence in the surface and eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the DCM layer. Higher lipid to Chl a ratios suggest enhanced lipid biosynthesis in the nutrient poorer regions. The various lipid classes pointed to possible mechanisms of phytoplankton adaptation to the nutritional conditions. Thus, it is likely that adaptation comprises the replacement of membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorus containing glycolipids under low phosphorus conditions. The qualitative and quantitative lipid compositions revealed that phospholipids were the most degradable lipids, and their occurrence decreased with increasing depth. In contrast, wax esters, possibly originating from zooplankton, survived downward transport probably due to the fast sinking

  4. Population trends in Pacific Oceanic sharks and the utility of regulations on shark finning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Shelley C; Harley, Shelton J; Hoyle, Simon D; Rice, Joel S

    2013-02-01

    Accurate assessment of shark population status is essential for conservation but is often constrained by limited and unreliable data. To provide a basis for improved management of shark resources, we analyzed a long-term record of species-specific catches, sizes, and sexes of sharks collected by onboard observers in the western and central Pacific Ocean from 1995 to 2010. Using generalized linear models, we estimated population-status indicators on the basis of catch rate and biological indicators of fishing pressure on the basis of median size to identify trends for blue (Prionace glauca), mako (Isurus spp.), oceanic whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus), and silky (Carcharhinus falciformis) sharks. Standardized catch rates of longline fleets declined significantly for blue sharks in the North Pacific (by 5% per year [CI 2% to 8%]), for mako sharks in the North Pacific (by 7% per year [CI 3% to 11%]), and for oceanic whitetip sharks in tropical waters (by 17% per year [CI 14% to 20%]). Median lengths of silky and oceanic whitetip sharks decreased significantly in their core habitat, and almost all sampled silky sharks were immature. Our results are consistent with results of analyses of similar data sets. Combined, these results and evidence of targeted fishing for sharks in some regional fisheries heighten concerns for sustainable utilization, particularly for oceanic whitetip and North Pacific blue sharks. Regional regulations that prohibit shark finning (removal of fins and discarding of the carcass) were enacted in 2007 and are in many cases the only form of control on shark catches. However, there is little evidence of a reduction of finning in longline fisheries. In addition, silky and oceanic whitetip sharks are more frequently retained than finned, which suggests that even full implementation of and adherence to a finning prohibition may not substantially reduce mortality rates for these species. We argue that finning prohibitions divert attention from

  5. Outflow of Pacific water from the Chukchi Sea to the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert S Pickart; Greg Stossmeister

    2008-01-01

    Pacific water exits the Chukchi Sea shelf through Barrow Canyon in the east and Herald Canyon in the west, forming an eastward-directed shelfbreak boundary current that flows into the Beaufort Sea. Here we summarize the transformation that the Pacific water undergoes in the two canyons, and describe the characteristics and variability of the resulting shelfbreak jet, using recently collected summertime hydrographic data and a year-long mooring data set. In both canyons the northward-flowing Pacific winter water switches from the western to the eastern flank of the canyon, interacting with the northward-flowing summer water. In Barrow canyon the vorticity structure of the current is altered, while in Herald canyon a new water mass mode is created. In both instances hydraulic effects are believed to be partly responsible for the observed changes. The shelfbreak jet that forms from the canyon outflows has distinct seasonal configurations, from a bottom-intensified flow carrying cold, dense Pacific water in spring, to a surface-intensified current advecting warm, buoyant water in summer. The current also varies significantly on short timescales, from less than a day to a week. In fall and winter much of this mesoscale variability is driven by storm events, whose easterly winds reverse the current and cause upwelling. Different types of eddies arc spawned from the current, which are characterized here using hydrographic and satellite data.

  6. Oceanic Origin of A Recent La Ni(n)a-Like Trend in the Tropical Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liping; WU Lixin; YU Lisan

    2011-01-01

    Global ocean temperature has been rising since the late 1970s at a speed unprecedented during the past century of recordkeeping.This accelerated warming has profound impacts not only on the marine ecosystem and oceanic carbon uptake but also on the global water cycle and climate.During this rapid warming period,the tropical Pacific displays a pronounced La Ni(n)a-like trend,characterized by an intensification of westeast SST gradient and of atmospheric zonal overturning circulation,namely the Walker circulation.This La Ni(n)a-like trend differs from the E1 Niio-like trend in warm climate projected by most climate models,and cannot be explained by responses of the global water cycle to warm climate.The results of this study indicate that the intensification of the zonal SST gradient and the Walker circulation are associated with recent strengthening of the upper-ocean meridional overturning circulation.

  7. Oceanographic profile plankton, temperature, salinity collected using bottle from various unknown small boats in the South Pacific Ocean from 1981 to 1982 (NODC Accession 0002138)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity and other measurements found in dataset OSD taken from unknown platform(s)in the Coastal S Pacific, Equatorial Pacific and other locations...

  8. Six new deep-water sternaspid species (Annelida, Sternaspidae from the Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Salazar-Vallejo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most sternaspid species have been described from shallow water, and Caulleryaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 includes one deep water species: C. gudmundssoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 from Iceland. In Sternaspis Otto, 1821, the most speciose genus, most species were described from shallow water and only three thrive in deep water: S. maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, S. princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, and S. riestchi Caullery, 1944 from Indonesia. The study of some deep sea sternaspids from the Pacific Ocean in the collections of six research institutions resulted in the discovery of six undescribed species, and for three of them there were abundant materials showing ventro-caudal shield development. Caulleryaspis fauchaldi sp. n. is described based on specimens from Oregon and California; it differs from the known species because it has a shield with rounded anterior margins and its peg chaetae form thin, small spines. Caulleryaspis nuda sp. n. was collected off Oregon; it is unique because its shield lacks a layer of sediment particles firmly attached, but has instead a thin layer of small particles loosely attached. Four other species are newly described in Sternaspis: S. annenkovae sp. n. was collected east off the northern Kurile Islands in about 4,000 m depth; it differs from other species bya bicolored body, with the introvert darker than the abdomen, and its ventro-caudal shield plates are divergent resulting in a divided fan. The second species, S. maureri sp.n. was found off Peru in 1296–6489 m water depths and in the Southwestern Pacific in 795–3830 m; it resembles S. williamsae sp. n. but differs because its shield has better-developed ribs, the fan has a shallow or indistinct median notch and has lateral notches well-developed. The third species, S. uschakovi sp. n., was found in the Okhotsk Sea in 592–1366 m, off California in 1585 m, Gulf of California in 1200–1274 m, and Western

  9. Six new deep-water sternaspid species (Annelida, Sternaspidae) from the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I; Buzhinskaja, Galina

    2013-01-01

    Most sternaspid species have been described from shallow water, and Caulleryaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 includes one deep water species: C. gudmundssoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 from Iceland. In Sternaspis Otto, 1821, the most speciose genus, most species were described from shallow water and only three thrive in deep water: S. maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, S. princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, and S. riestchi Caullery, 1944 from Indonesia. The study of some deep sea sternaspids from the Pacific Ocean in the collections of six research institutions resulted in the discovery of six undescribed species, and for three of them there were abundant materials showing ventro-caudal shield development. Caulleryaspis fauchaldi sp. n. is described based on specimens from Oregon and California; it differs from the known species because it has a shield with rounded anterior margins and its peg chaetae form thin, small spines. Caulleryaspis nuda sp. n. was collected off Oregon; it is unique because its shield lacks a layer of sediment particles firmly attached, but has instead a thin layer of small particles loosely attached. Four other species are newly described in Sternaspis: S. annenkovae sp. n. was collected east off the northern Kurile Islands in about 4,000 m depth; it differs from other species by having a bicolored body, with the introvert darker than the abdomen, and its ventro-caudal shield plates are divergent resulting in a divided fan. The second species, S. maureri sp. n. was found off Peru in 1296-6489 m water depths and in the Southwestern Pacific in 795-3830 m; it resembles S. williamsae sp. n. but differs because its shield has better-developed ribs, the fan has a shallow or indistinct median notch and has lateral notches well-developed. The third species, S. uschakovi sp. n., was found in the Okhotsk Sea in 592-1366 m, off California in 1585 m, Gulf of California in 1200-1274 m, and Western Mexico in 2548 m; it

  10. As El Niño builds, Pacific Warm Pool expands, ocean gains more heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Birnbaum, Abigail N.

    2017-01-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects substantial redistributions of ocean temperature, both horizontal and vertical, on interannual time scales, especially in the Pacific Ocean. Analyses of monthly Argo-based ocean temperature maps illustrate large-scale ocean heat content redistributions with ENSO. They quantify a globally averaged sea surface temperature warming of 0.1°C with a 1°C increase of the Niño3.4 index (a moderate El Niño), a substantial perturbation to the 0.13°C decade-1 trend in sea surface temperature. Monthly satellite-based estimates of Earth's energy imbalance suggest that a 1°C increase of the Niño3.4 index corresponds to an increase of 3.4 ZJ in Earth's energy storage, more gently modulating the longer-term 114 ZJ decade-1 trend. Yearly global ocean heat content estimates based on ocean temperature data, with their reduced uncertainties compared to monthly maps, reveal interannual variations in Earth's energy storage that correspond well with satellite-based estimates.

  11. Decade-long deep-ocean warming detected in the subtropical South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Denis L.; Lee, Sang-Ki; Landerer, Felix W.; Lumpkin, Rick

    2017-01-01

    The persistent energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere, inferred from satellite measurements, indicates that the Earth's climate system continues to accumulate excess heat. As only sparse and irregular measurements of ocean heat below 2000 m depth exist, one of the most challenging questions in global climate change studies is whether the excess heat has already penetrated into the deep ocean. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis of satellite and in situ measurements to report that a significant deep-ocean warming occurred in the subtropical South Pacific Ocean over the past decade (2005-2014). The local accumulation of heat accounted for up to a quarter of the global ocean heat increase, with directly and indirectly inferred deep ocean (below 2000 m) contribution of 2.4 ± 1.4 and 6.1-10.1 ± 4.4%, respectively. We further demonstrate that this heat accumulation is consistent with a decade-long intensification of the subtropical convergence, possibly linked to the persistent La Niña-like state.

  12. Radiocaesium derived FNPP1 accident in the ocean interior of the western North Pacific Ocean through 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Inomata, Yayoi; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Oka, Eitarou; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke

    2017-04-01

    134Cs and 137Cs, hereafter radiocaesium, were released to the North Pacific Ocean by two major pathways, direct discharge and atmospheric deposition released from the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident in 2011. Activities of radiocaesium released from FNPP1 accident were measured as vertical profiles at 11 stations in 2011, at 14 stations in 2012, at 13 station in 2015 and at 6 stations in 2016 in the North Pacific Ocean to study transport processes in the ocean interior of the North Pacific Ocean. The major pathway from surface to ocean interior after injected in the ocean surface can be considered subduction of central mode water (CMW) and subduction of subduction of subtropical mode water (STMW) at potential densities of 26.1-26.3 for CMW and 25.1-25.3 for STMW, respectively. In June 2012 at 34°N-39°N along 165°E corresponding to the formation region of central mode water (CMW) located north of the Kuroshio Extension, 134Cs activity showed a maximum at around potential density= 26.3 kg m-3. 134Cs activity was higher in CMW than in any of the surrounding waters, including STMW. These observations also indicate that the most effective pathway by which FNPP1-derived radiocaesium is introduced into the ocean interior on a 1-year time scale is CMW formation and subduction. In June-July 2015 at 36 deg. N-44 deg. N along 165 deg. E and June 2016 at 38-40N, 165-170 deg. E, there are only very week signal of subduction of Fukushima derived radiocaesium at in the CMW formation region, which means that subducted radiocaesium might have moved eastward from this region. In June 2012, 134Cs activity reached a maximum of 6.12 ± 0.50 Bq m-3 at a 151-m depth (potential density, 25.3 kg m-3) at 29 deg. N, 165 deg. E. This subsurface maximum, which was also observed along 149°E, might reflect the southward transport of FNPP1-derived radiocaesium in association with the formation and subduction of subtropical mode water (STMW) from the region south

  13. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, PAR Sensor and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-16 to 2008-01-27 (NCEI Accession 0143932)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143932 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-11-28 to 2011-02-05 (NODC Accession 0108155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108155 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-03 (NODC Accession 0110379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110379 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  16. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-04 to 2011-02-06 (NCEI Accession 0143947)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143947 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-11-28 to 2013-01-04 (NCEI Accession 0143950)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143950 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ODEN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-12-14 to 2006-12-26 (NODC Accession 0108159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108159 includes Surface underway data collected from ODEN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  19. Beyond the tropical Pacific: Medieval climate dynamics and the role of Indian Ocean SSTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, N.; Ammann, C.; Fleitmann, D.

    2009-04-01

    Proxy evidence suggests that climate during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) was marked by a distinctive pattern of winter aridity through much of the Northern Hemisphere subtropics, an intensified North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and there are clear indications for a cooler, drier eastern tropical Pacific. Similarly timed shifts in marine and terrestrial climate are seen in many other regions of the planet including the Southern Hemisphere. The global distribution, persistence and general coherence of these changes imply that tropical SSTs were a main forcing mechanism. To date, model experiments exploring this "tropically-forced MCA" hypothesis logically have focused on the idea of a "cool tropical Pacific". The results show that while the "cool tropical Pacific" simulations reproduce some important attributes of Medieval climate (e.g., aridity in the western US), other major attributes inferred from proxy records are not well reproduced - these include a strengthened NAO, well-defined SST changes in the North Atlantic, and increased aridity from northwest Africa into southwest Asia. We have looked beyond the tropical Pacific for regions important to forcing large-scale MCA climate anomalies and present results from coupled model simulations in which tropical Indian and far western Pacific SSTs were warmed slightly (0.5-1.0C). The model response closely resembles many of the characteristics of MCA climate described earlier, and agrees with a number of climate proxy records for boreal summer as well. Among the features of the model response are a slightly cooler and much drier eastern tropical Pacific, reduced precipitation in western North America and a persistently enhanced NAO with related subtropical aridity extending through the Mediterranean, parts of North Africa and into southwest Asia. The model results also show changes in North Atlantic SSTs and sea ice in good agreement with marine proxy records. The simulated circulation changes are quite similar

  20. A regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model developed for CORDEX East Asia: assessment of Asian summer monsoon simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a developed regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model FROALS was applied to the CORDEX East Asia domain. The performance of FROALS in the simulation of Asian summer monsoon during 1989-2010 was assessed using the metrics developed by the CLIVAR Asian-Australian Monsoon Panel Diagnostics Task Team. The results indicated that FROALS exhibited good performance in simulating Asian summer monsoon climatology. The simulated JJA mean SST biases were weaker than those of the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble mean (MMEM). The skill of FROALS approached that of CMIP5 MMEM in terms of the annual cycle of Asian summer monsoon. The simulated monsoon duration matched the observed counterpart well (with a spatial pattern correlation coefficient of 0.59). Some biases of CMIP5 MMEM were also found in FROALS, highlighting the importance of local forcing and model physics within the Asian monsoon domain. Corresponding to a strong East Asian summer monsoon, an anomalous anticyclone was found over western North Pacific in both observation and simulation. However, the simulated strength was weaker than the observed due to the responses to incorrect sea surface anomalies over the key regions. The model also accurately captured the spatial pattern of the intraseasonal variability variance and the extreme climate indices of Asian summer monsoons, although with larger amplitude. The results suggest that FROALS could be used as a dynamical downscaling tool nested within the global climate model with coarse resolution to develop high-resolution regional climate change projections over the CORDEX East Asia domain.

  1. Uptake and Storage of Anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean Estimated Using Two Modeling Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yangchun; XU Yongfu

    2012-01-01

    A basin-wide ocean general circulation model (OGCM) of the Pacific Ocean is employed to estimate the uptake and storage of anthropogenic CO2 using two different simulation approaches.The simulation (named BIO) makes use of a carbon model with biological processes and full thermodynamic equations to calculate surface water partial pressure of CO2,whereas the other simulation (named PTB) makes use of a perturbation approach to calculate surface water partial pressure of anthropogenie CO2.The results from the two simulations agree well with the estimates based on observation data in most important aspects of the vertical distribution as well as the total inventory of anthropogenic carbon.The storage of anthropogenic carbon from BIO is closer to the observation-based estimate than that from PTB.The Revelle factor in 1994 obtained in BIO is generally larger than that obtained in PTB in the whole Pacific,except for the subtropical South Pacific.This,to large extent,leads to the difference in the surface anthropogenic CO2 concentration between the two runs.The relative difference in the annual uptake between the two runs is almost constant during the integration processes after 1850.This is probably not caused by dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC),but rather by a factor independent of time.In both runs,the rate of change in anthropogenic CO2 fluxes with time is consistent with the rate of change in the growth rate of atmospheric partial pressure of CO2.

  2. Transformation from Paleo-Asian Ocean closure to Paleo-Pacific subduction: New constraints from granitoids in the eastern Jilin-Heilongjiang Belt, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing-Hua; Zhu, Wen-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Qiao, Shi-Lei

    2017-08-01

    The eastern Jilin-Heilongjiang Belt (EJHB) of NE China is a unique orogen that underwent two stages of evolution within the tectonic regimes of the Paleo-Asian and Paleo-Pacific oceans. 158 available zircon U-Pb ages, including 26 ages obtained during the present study and 132 ages from the literature, were compiled and analyzed for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic granitoids from the EJHB and the adjacent Russian Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt (SAOB), to examine the temporal-spatial distribution of the granitoids and to constrain the tectonic evolution of the East Asian continental margin. Five stages of granitic magmatism can be identified: Early Triassic (251-240 Ma), Late Triassic (228-215 Ma), latest Triassic to Middle Jurassic (213-158 Ma), Early Cretaceous (131-105 Ma), and Late Cretaceous to Paleocene (95-56 Ma). The Early Triassic granitoids are restricted to the Yanbian region along the Changchun-Yanji Suture, and show geochemical characteristics of magmas from a thickened lower crust source, probably due to the final collision of the combined NE China blocks with the North China Craton. The Late Triassic granitoids, with features of A-type granites, represent post-collisional magmatic activities that were related to post-orogenic extension, marking the end of the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The latest Triassic to Paleocene granitoids with calc-alkaline characteristics were NE-trending emplaced along the EJHB and SAOB and young towards the coastal region, and represent continental marginal arc magmas that were associated with the northwestwards subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. Two periods of magmatic quiescence (158-131 and 105-95 Ma) correspond to changes in the subduction direction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate from oblique relative to the continental margin to subparallel. Taking all this into account, we conclude that: (1) the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean occurred along the Changchun-Yanji Suture during the Early Triassic; (2) the

  3. Impact of the quasi-biweekly oscillation over the western North Pacific on East Asian subtropical monsoon during early summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaolong; Yang, Song

    2013-05-01

    The impact of quasi-biweekly oscillation (QBWO) over the western North Pacific on East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is investigated. The life cycle of QBWO is divided into eight phases defined by the two leading principal components (PC1 and PC2) of an empirical orthogonal function analysis. Subtropical rainfall shows significant changes, with a northwestward propagation of convection from equatorial regions to the South China Sea (SCS). The most significant variations occur in QBWO phases 3 and 4 (enhanced convection over SCS) and phases 7 and 8 (reduced convection over SCS). The East Asia Mei-yu significantly decreases in QBWO phases 3 and 4 but increases in phases 7 and 8. The QBWO influences EASM through modulating the subtropical monsoon flow and extratropical circulation. The response of lower tropospheric atmosphere to QBWO shows a northwestward propagation and a downstream wave train that extends northward into the western North Pacific, modulating the SCS monsoon trough and the EASM flow associated with moisture transportation. The mid-tropospheric extratropical circulation and the western Pacific subtropical high also show obvious changes accompanying QBWO evolution, resulting in circulation patterns associated with cold air activity. Moreover, changes with QBWO are found in the upper tropospheric East Asian westerly jet stream and the South Asian high, and these changes contribute to upper level divergence over subtropical East Asia.

  4. Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardants and Plasticizers in Ocean Sediments from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxin; Xie, Zhiyong; Lohmann, Rainer; Mi, Wenying; Gao, Guoping

    2017-04-04

    The presence of organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants and plasticizers in surface sediment from the North Pacific to Arctic Ocean was observed for the first time during the fourth National Arctic Research Expedition of China in the summer of 2010. The samples were analyzed for three halogenated OPEs [tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate], three alkylated OPEs [triisobutyl phosphate (TiBP), tri-n-butyl phosphate, and tripentyl phosphate], and triphenyl phosphate. Σ7OPEs (total concentration of the observed OPEs) was in the range of 159-4658 pg/g of dry weight. Halogenated OPEs were generally more abundant than the nonhalogenated OPEs; TCEP and TiBP dominated the overall concentrations. Except for that of the Bering Sea, Σ7OPEs values increased with increasing latitudes from Bering Strait to the Central Arctic Ocean, while the contributions of halogenated OPEs (typically TCEP and TCPP) to the total OPE profile also increased from the Bering Strait to the Central Arctic Ocean, indicating they are more likely to be transported to the remote Arctic. The median budget of 52 (range of 17-292) tons for Σ7OPEs in sediment from the Central Arctic Ocean represents only a very small amount of their total production volume, yet the amount of OPEs in Arctic Ocean sediment was significantly larger than the sum of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the sediment, indicating they are equally prone to long-range transport away from source regions. Given the increasing level of production and usage of OPEs as substitutes of PBDEs, OPEs will continue to accumulate in the remote Arctic.

  5. Long-term Internal Variability of the Tropical Pacific Atmosphere-Ocean System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi Bordbar, Mohammad; Martin, Thomas; Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib

    2016-04-01

    The tropical Pacific has featured some remarkable trends during the recent decades such as an unprecedented strengthening of the Trade Winds, a strong cooling of sea surface temperatures (SST) in the eastern and central part, thereby slowing global warming and strengthening the zonal SST gradient, and highly asymmetric sea level trends with an accelerated rise relative to the global average in the western and a drop in the eastern part. These trends have been linked to an anomalously strong Pacific Walker Circulation, the major zonal atmospheric overturning cell in the tropical Pacific sector, but the origin of the strengthening is controversial. Here we address the question as to whether the recent decadal trends in the tropical Pacific atmosphere-ocean system are within the range of internal variability, as simulated in long unforced integrations of global climate models. We show that the recent trends are still within the range of long-term internal decadal variability. Further, such variability strengthens in response to enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations, which may further hinder detection of anthropogenic climate signals in that region.

  6. New production in the warm waters of the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, M. Angelica; Lewis, Marlon R.; Cullen, John J.

    1994-01-01

    The average depth-integrated rate of new production in the tropical Pacific Ocean was estimated from a calculation of horizontal and vertical nitrate balance over the region enclosed by the climatological 26 C isotherm. The net turbulent flux of nitrate into the region was computed in terms of the climatological net surface heat flux and the nitrate-temperature relationship at the base of the 26 C isotherm. The net advective transport of nitrate into the region was estimated using the mean nitrate distribution obtained from the analysis of historical data and previous results of a general circulation model of the tropical Pacific. The rate of new production resulting from vertical turbulent fluxes of nitrate was found to be similar in magnitude to that due to advective transport. Most (about 75%) of the advective input of nitrate was due to the horizontal transport of nutrient-rich water from the eastern equatorial region rather than from equatorial upwelling. An average rate of new production of 14.5 - 16 g C/sq m/yr was found for the warm waters of the tropical Pacific region. These values are in good agreement with previous estimates for this region and are almost five times less than is estimated for the eastern equatorial Pacific, where most of the nutrient upwelling occurs.

  7. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT JOHNSON from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-01-21 to 1977-01-29 (NCEI Accession 8100153)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT JOHNSON in the Pacific Ocean from January 21, 1977 to January 29, 1977....

  8. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the MEDELENA from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-10-27 to 1976-11-05 (NCEI Accession 8100380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from MEDELENA in the Pacific Ocean from October 27, 1976 to November 5, 1976. Data were...

  9. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the MEDELENA from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-02-28 to 1977-03-07 (NCEI Accession 8100387)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from MEDELENA in the Pacific Ocean from February 28, 1977 to March 7, 1977. Data were...

  10. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-02-22 to 1977-03-01 (NCEI Accession 8100293)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE in the Pacific Ocean from February 22, 1977 to March 1, 1977....

  11. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1985-01-02 to 1985-03-19 (NCEI Accession 8500081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from January 2, 1985 to...

  12. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1983-12-03 to 1986-01-29 (NCEI Accession 8600103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from December 3, 1983 to...

  13. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1985-02-19 to 1985-08-20 (NCEI Accession 8500185)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from February 19, 1985 to...

  14. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the AMERICA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-07-06 to 1977-07-14 (NCEI Accession 8100352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from AMERICA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from July 6, 1977 to July 14, 1977. Data were...

  15. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT VAN BUREN from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-05-20 to 1977-05-28 (NCEI Accession 8100218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT VAN BUREN in the Pacific Ocean from May 20, 1977 to May 28, 1977. Data...

  16. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT VAN BUREN from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-02-24 to 1977-03-06 (NCEI Accession 8100232)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT VAN BUREN in the Pacific Ocean from February 24, 1977 to March 6, 1977....

  17. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT VAN BUREN from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-12-10 to 1976-12-19 (NCEI Accession 8100231)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT VAN BUREN in the Pacific Ocean from December 10, 1976 to December 19,...

  18. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT VAN BUREN from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-04-22 to 1977-04-29 (NCEI Accession 8100217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT VAN BUREN in the Pacific Ocean from April 22, 1977 to April 29, 1977....

  19. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT VAN BUREN from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-03-08 to 1977-03-16 (NCEI Accession 8100234)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT VAN BUREN in the Pacific Ocean March 8, 1977 to March 16, 1977. Data...

  20. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT VAN BUREN from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-01-27 to 1977-02-06 (NCEI Accession 8100233)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT VAN BUREN in the Pacific Ocean from January 27, 1977 to February 6,...