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Sample records for east oil show

  1. Middle East and North African Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  2. Middle East oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This study is intended to shed light on structural changes occurring in six Middle East countries (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) that can be expected to have a significant impact on their oil and gas industry. These six countries provide 42% of the world's traded crude oil, on which Member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA) are increasingly dependent. They also contain about 65% and 30% of the world's proven oil and natural gas reserves, respectively, and command a strategic location between Europe and Asia. The Middle East has been one of the most volatile parts of the world where war, revolution and embargoes have caused major upheavals that have led to oil supply disruptions. The oil resources of all six countries were initially developed by international oil companies and all are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1994, their crude oil production capacity was about 23 million barrels per day (mbd) and is planned to expand to about 28 mbd by the year 2000. Revenue from the sale of oil accounts for more than 80% of each nation's total exports and about 75% of each government's income. The objectives of this study are: to detail their announced oil and gas development plans, to describe the major trends occurring in these countries, to outline the government responses to the trends, and to analyse the impact of government policies on oil and gas development. (J.S.). 121 refs., 136 figs., 212 tabs

  3. National oil companies of South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdip

    1998-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Pertamina; Petronas; Petroleum Authority of Thailand; Philippines National Oil Company; Petro Vietnam; Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise; Singapore; Asean Free Trade Agreement, and Appendix on Petroleum tax legislation in the main south east Asian countries. (Author)

  4. Making democracy safe for oil. Oilmen and the Islamic East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, C.T.

    1975-01-01

    Here is a devastating expose of what, according to Mr. Rand, is the most powerful conglomerate of wealth in America: the oil industry. Mr. Rand, a Persian and Arabic expert as well as a former oil industry employee who has lived in the Middle East, combines research with knowledge acquired firsthand. His analysis shows that the oil crisis, far from being a recent phenomenon, was years in developing. For the first time we learn just how energy is provided for--or withheld from--the public. Armed with facts, figures, and case histories, Rand divulges the full story behind Aramco, SoCal, Exxon, and the other oil producers. He uncovers the political ramifications of ''oil diplomacy'' in both the Arab world and in America, revealing the Executive Branch's reluctance to intervene as well as Congress's inability to do so. And he discusses what we can expect in the future, including suggestions about how we might cope with the problem. ''Making Democracy Safe for Oil,'' startling, timely, is a critique no one can afford to ignore, for the explosive situation continues to affect each one of us directly. (From book jacket)

  5. Assessment of conventional oil resources of the East African Rift Province, East Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean conventional resources of 13.4 billion barrels of oil and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the East African Rift Province of east Africa.

  6. Unites States and the oil of the Middle-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2005-08-01

    The author discusses different aspects of the United States intervention and behavior in the Middle-East petroleum management. The Iraq and Iran potentials are largely under used. The Saudi Arabia defines its own oil policy, but benefits of the Unites States military help. The United States intervention is in the domain of the security of flux on the world market. (A.L.B.)

  7. Oil and natural gas prospects: Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    The MENA region is endowed with enormous resources of oil and gas, rendering it the world′s richest region in this regard. Endowment differs from one country to another with few countries are almost dry; however the economic benefits proliferated to almost every country in the region. In spite of some doubts being cast about the amount of proven oil reserves, these with improved technology and new discoveries are increasing year after another. With no long term feasible alternatives to oil for transport and the increasing trade in LNG, the region′s importance as a world′s leading supplier of fossil fuels will continue for decades to come. However, these favourable prospects hide many challenges facing the MENA region, among them is the difficulty in mobilizing investment funds for sustaining and increasing output to feed growing global demand. Growing local demand, due to the proliferation of subsides, is another worrying aspect that already caused few countries with modest resources to become oil importers instead of exporters, with larger exporters decreasing their surplus output. The region is also still mainly dependant on foreign technologies and skilled manpower. Regional cooperation in oil and gas networks and electricity interconnections is still modest. The region has a long history of conflict; correspondingly it is a major importer of armaments which is increasingly eating a lot of its surplus income. With the political and social changes presently taking place in many MENA countries, due to the Arab spring and continuation of local conflicts, the sustainability of supplies from the region are increasingly a source of worry to MENA exporters and its many importers. It is also causing increasing involvement of the super powers in regional affairs. - Highlights: • Global oil and gas reserves and prices. • Energy sustainability and the Middle East. • Energy economics and investments in the Middle East

  8. The Middle East: A mixture of oil and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeet, I.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of stability is discussed as it applies to the Middle East countries and to the international oil market. The differences in how the various players involved (such as the USA, Europe, Iran, and the Arab countries) view stability are noted. With regard to stability and the oil trade, the results of the recent Gulf war indicate that the international security of oil supply and the regional balance of power in the Gulf are inseparable. Over most of the post-1945 period, there has been a reasonable degree of oil price stability and supply security. This stability and security has not come about through management of the oil price by governments, institutions, or groups of companies. The massive discontinuities in this management process in 1973, 1979/80, and 1986 are brought forward to provide evidence that a new management system must be created to avoid such problems in the future. It is suggested that in the past few years, the management function has been slipping away from OPEC and replaced by a Saudi Arabia/USA joint interest alliance

  9. The new great game : international oil markets; Middle East domination or regionalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, P.R.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of international supply and demand for oil and its effect on world oil prices are discussed. The impact of stagnant prices over the past 15 years on the Middle East, Russia, China and OPEC members was described, together with an attempt to explain the reasons for: (1) Middle East domination or regionalisation, (2) the emergence of a regionalized oil industry, (3) the Middle East as the residual supplier, and (4) the future of Middle East oil and of traded markets. 3 tabs., 5 figs

  10. East Africa, an oil geopolitics at high risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2012-11-01

    As the Sub-Saharan African oil production has been concentrated in the Guinea Gulf countries since the 1950's, as this region remains the main African oil producer (Maghreb excluded), and as new discoveries has been made in Uganda in 2006 and exploration has been extended to neighbouring countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique), this report first questions the situation of the exploration of the Albert Lake by proposing an overview of intervening actors, by commenting the political use of the debate about oil, by commenting the situation on the Congolese side of the lake, and by commenting how the lake is shared between Uganda and the Republic of Congo. In the next part, the author discusses the use and future of the Ugandan oil by outlining the role of the Essar company in the regional refining, and by evoking projects of regional pipelines. The last part addresses the status of exploration in other East African countries (Kenya, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Mozambique)

  11. Joint stockpiling and emergency sharing of oil: Arrangements for regional cooperation in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eui-soon; Savage, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The East Asia region includes three of the world's top five oil-importing nations-China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. As a consequence, international oil supply disruptions and oil price spikes, and their effects on the economies of the region, have historically been of significant concern. Each of these three nations, as well as other nations in East Asia, has developed or is developing their own strategic oil stockpiles, but regional coordination in stockpiling arrangements and sharing of oil stocks in an emergency could provide significant benefits. This article describes the overall oil supply security situation in East Asia, reviews the attributes of different stockpiling arrangements to address energy supply security concerns, summarizes ongoing national approaches to stockpiling in East Asia, describes the development of joint oil stockpile initiatives in the region, and suggests the most attractive options for regional cooperation on oil stockpiling issues. - Highlights: → Rising oil consumption will make East Asia more vulnerable to energy insecurity. → There have been various dialogs on the need for a joint regional oil stockpile. → No serious joint oil stockpiling efforts have been made in East Asia to date. → Despite various impediments, diverse benefits justify oil stockpile cooperation.

  12. Review of Palm Kernel Oil Processing And Storage Techniques In South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeke CG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of palm kernel processing and storage in South-Eastern Nigeria was carried out by investigative survey approach. The survey basically ascertained the extent of mechanization applicable in the area to enable the palm kernel processors and agricultural policy makers, device the modalities for improving palm kernel processing in the area. According to the results obtained from the study, in Abia state, 85% of the respondents use mechanical method while 15% use manual method in cracking their kernels. In Imo state, 83% of the processors use mechanical method while 17% use manual method. In Enugu and Ebonyi state, 70% and 50% of the processors respectively use mechanical method. It is only in Anambra state that greater number of the processors (50% use manual method while 45% use mechanical means. It is observable from the results that palm kernel oil extraction has not received much attention in mechanization. The ANOVA of the palm kernel oil extraction technique in South- East Nigeria showed significant difference in both the study area and oil extraction techniques at 5% level of probability. Results further revealed that in Abia State, 70% of the processors use complete fractional process in refining the palm kernel oil; 25% and 5% respectively use incomplete fractional process and zero refining process. In Anambra, 60% of the processors use complete fractional process and 40% use incomplete fractional process. Zero refining method is not applicable in Anambra state. In Enugu sate, 53% use complete fractional process while 25% and 22% respectively use zero refining and incomplete fractional process in refining the palm kernel oil. Imo state, mostly use complete fractional process (85% in refining palm kernel oil. About 10% use zero refining method while 5% of the processors use incomplete fractional process. Plastic containers and metal drums are dominantly used in most areas in south-east Nigeria for the storage of palm kernel oil.

  13. Factors affecting future crude oil production in South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugh, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the face of booming regional demand, crude oil production in the South East Asian region will decline from a 1996 peak of 5.7 million barrels a day to 3.5 million barrels a day in 2005 unless major new exploration investments are undertaken. The current fiscal terms for such investment will not attract continued significant funds to the region given the low crude price outlook, tough competitive global environment for the upstream industry, and the emergence of more attractive fiscal terms in politically and commercially stable countries with proven prospectivity. There is evidence from the emerging trend toward fiscal terms softening and differentiation around risk in some countries, that the commercial reality is becoming accepted. It remains to be seen if the various national political, bureaucratic and industry constituencies guiding these decisions within the region can respond decisively to mitigate the growing crude import dependency. (author). 2 tabs

  14. Quest for Middle East oil: the US versus the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salameh, Mamdouh G.

    2003-01-01

    Two very powerful geopolitical factors will decisively determine whether the quest for Middle East oil (mainly Gulf oil) could enhance the global oil security or could lead to oil supply disruptions and also instability and conflict in the Asia-Pacific region. The two factors are the United States' growing dependence on oil imports from the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region's thirst for oil and the increasingly likely Chinese dependence on oil from the region. The Asia-Pacific countries are increasingly growing concerned about their ability to supply enough oil to fuel future economic growth. The region's phenomenal economic growth up to July 1997 and its economic recovery since then, and its steadily rising energy needs lend urgency to the question of how the region would meet its considerable energy challenges. This paper will endeavour to analyze the impact of this growing dependence on Middle East oil, on global oil supplies, the price of oil and global oil security. It will argue that such dependence on a volatile region like the Middle East and the perception of scarcer energy resources in the Asia-Pacific region, have the potential to lead to conflict in both regions unless these issues are dealt with in geoeconomic rather than geostrategic terms. The paper will strongly express the view that potential conflicts can be resolved not by force but through markets and investment and also through the diversification of energy sources and the promotion of alternative energy development and use across the region

  15. Exploring crude oil production and export capacity of the OPEC Middle East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Voudouris, Vlasios; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Rigby, Robert; Di Maio, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    As the world economy highly depends on crude oil, it is important to understand the dynamics of crude oil production and export capacity of major oil-exporting countries. Since crude oil resources are predominately located in the OPEC Middle East, these countries are expected to have significant leverage in the world crude oil markets by taking into account a range of uncertainties. In this study, we develop a scenario for crude oil export and production using the ACEGES model considering uncertainties in the resource limits, demand growth, production growth, and peak/decline point. The results indicate that the country-specific peak of both crude oil export and production comes in the early this century in the OPEC Middle East countries. On the other hand, they occupy most of the world export and production before and after the peak points. Consequently, these countries are expected to be the key group in the world crude oil markets. We also find that the gap between the world crude oil demand and production broadens over time, meaning that the acceleration of the development of ultra-deep-water oil, oil sands, and extra-heavy oil will be required if the world continuous to heavily rely on oil products. - Highlights: ► We simulate the future scenario of crude oil export and production using ACEGES. ► The simulated results are analyzed using the GAMLSS framework. ► The peak points of oil export and production will come early in this century. ► The OPCE Middle East will produce most of the world crude oil in the near future. ► These countries will continuously be the key players in the crude oil markets.

  16. The Study of Oils Consumption Pattern and Its Related Factors in east Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Jafari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Inappropriate use of fat in diets is a significant risk factor that can cause cardiovascular diseases, morbidity, and mortality in the world. This study was designed to determine the fat consumption pattern in east Tehran habitants. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study 500 east Tehran habitants were evaluated. Data was collected by a questionnaire designed by the authors of the present study. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed in a pilot study. The Data was analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The average of family members was 3.9±1.4. The highest amount ofoil consumed was that of solid candy oil, while The lowest was animal oil. For cooking, 36.8% and 31% of samples were using liquid oil and solid candy oil, respectively. For fraying 33.8%, 20%, 32.4% of samples were using liquid oil, solid candy oil and frying oil, respectively. a relationship was found between higher educational level and mothers working out of the house and higher consumption of liquid oil, fraying oil and olive oil (p<0.001. High age, housekeeper mothers and higher family span were associated with the higher consumption of solid oils, butter and ghee (p<0.02. Conclusion: This study revealed that the significant portion of daily oil consumption of Tehran habitants consist of solid oils. It seems to be necessary to organize proper training programs to increase social awareness about the hazards of solid saturated fats.

  17. Antidermatophytic activities of nine (9) essential oils | Kuiate | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungicidal effect was observed for the C. lusitanica (leaves) oil (2 mg/ml) against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Erigeron floribundus (leaves) oil (1 mg/ml) against Candida albicans and for oil of the flowering ends of C. lusitanica against Trichophyton mentagrophytes at 1 mg/ml. Finally, the essential oils of C. lusitanica ...

  18. Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill Byproduct as Ruminant Feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available By-product produced from plantation and palm oil mill can be utilized for energy and protein source of ruminant feed. Thus, it still has potency for further exploration. The objective of the research was to investigate the nutrient value of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product used to formulate ruminant feed. The research located in 66,118.5 ha of palm oil plantation in Paser regency, East Kalimantan province. The research was carried out in palm oil plantation and mill of PTPN XIII comprising productive plants (TM in +14,000 ha arranged in 9 divisions (afdeling. Measured variables consisted of: 1 dry mass production (mass of midrib every cutting and frond (kg;                        2 Centrosema sp mass production (kg; 3 mass of empty fruit bunches (kg; palm pressed fiber (PPF (kg, palm kernel cake (PKC (kg dan palm oil sludge (POS (kg; 4 nutrient content analyzed under proximate analysis in accordance with the procedure of Ruminant Feed Nutrient Laboratory, Faculty of Livestock, Diponegoro University. The result showed that total dry matter (DM production was 14.82 ton/ha/year, consisting: midrib 29.09% (crude protein (CP 3.16% and crude fiber (CF 37.85%, frond 10.31% (CP 6.53% dan CF 30.39%, Centrosema sp. 2.48% (CP 22.58% and CF 35.12, EFB 24.31% (CP 7.01% and CF 40.22%, PPF 1.23% (CP 5.56% and CF 50.36%, PKC 1.29% (CP 15.49% and CF10.45 and POS 1.20% (CP 17.86% and CF 45.99%. This could be concluded that palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product was recommended for ruminant feed as it had huge amount and appropriate nutrient contentDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60 [How to cite this article: Mayulu, H., Sunarso, C. I. Sutrisno, Sumarsono, M. Christiyanto, K. Isharyudono. (2013.  Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill Byproduct as Ruminant Feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan, 5(2,56-60. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60

  19. The Middle East: Its role in world oil. A survey of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radetski, M.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of the Middle East oil resource base is exceptional, in quantitative as well as economic terms. A review is presented of this resource base, and the economic and political factors associated with it. In 1990 oil from the Middle East accounted for 27% of world output, and accounts for 65% of proven world oil reserves. The viability of OPEC's role in controlling market prices is discussed, and it is proposed that high prices such as those in the early 1980s are unlikely to re-occur, and that control of capacity to keep prices above competitive levels but not high enough to induce large scale expansion outside the region is the rational course of action. Political instability in the Middle East and its destabilizing impact on oil supply is discussed. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  20. A panel cointegration analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar [Deakin University, Melbourne (Australia). Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance; Smyth, Russell [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia). Faculty of Business and Economics, Department of Economics

    2007-12-15

    This article applies recently developed panel unit root and panel cointegration techniques to estimate the long-run income and price elasticities for oil in the Middle East. The results for the panel indicate that demand for oil is highly price inelastic and slightly income elastic in the Middle East. There is considerable variation in the results for the income variable across countries, with the coefficient on the income variable statistically insignificant for several countries. The coefficient on the price variable is statistically significant in all cases with the expected sign and the price elasticity is uniformly low. While the results for the income variable differ across countries, the results for the panel as a whole suggest that the demand for oil in the Middle East is being driven largely by strong economic growth, while consumers are largely insensitive to price changes. (author)

  1. A panel cointegration analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Smyth, Russell

    2007-01-01

    This article applies recently developed panel unit root and panel cointegration techniques to estimate the long-run income and price elasticities for oil in the Middle East. The results for the panel indicate that demand for oil is highly price inelastic and slightly income elastic in the Middle East. There is considerable variation in the results for the income variable across countries, with the coefficient on the income variable statistically insignificant for several countries. The coefficient on the price variable is statistically significant in all cases with the expected sign and the price elasticity is uniformly low. While the results for the income variable differ across countries, the results for the panel as a whole suggest that the demand for oil in the Middle East is being driven largely by strong economic growth, while consumers are largely insensitive to price changes. (author)

  2. Crude petroleum-oil biodegradation efficiency of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from a petroleum-oil contaminated soil from North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kishore; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2007-05-01

    The efficiency of Bacillus subtilis DM-04 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa M and NM strains isolated from a petroleum contaminated soil sample from North-East India was compared for the biodegradation of crude petroleum-oil hydrocarbons in soil and shake flask study. These bacterial strains could utilize crude petroleum-oil hydrocarbons as sole source of carbon and energy. Bioaugmentation of TPH contaminated microcosm with P. aeruginosa M and NM consortia and B. subtilis strain showed a significant reduction of TPH levels in treated soil as compared to control soil at the end of experiment (120 d). P. aeruginosa strains were more efficient than B. subtilis strain in reducing the TPH content from the medium. The plate count technique indicated expressive growth and biosurfactant production by exogenously seeded bacteria in crude petroleum-oil rich soil. The results showed that B. subtilis DM-04 and P. aeruginosa M and NM strains could be effective for in situ bioremediation.

  3. Canada's east coast offshore oil and gas industry: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    1999-06-01

    Another of the backgrounder series published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, this booklet describes Canada's offshore oil and natural gas operations in the North Atlantic Ocean, specifically in the Hibernia (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Terra Nova (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Cohasset-Panuke (off Nova Scotia, crude oil) and Sable Island (off Nova Scotia, natural gas) fields. Together, these project represent an investment of more than 10 billion dollars and constitute a growing portion of Canada's 400,000 cubic metres of crude oil and natural gas liquids per day production. The booklet explains the importance of the offshore oil and natural gas industry to Canada, the benefits accruing to the maritime provinces locally, prospects for future offshore oil and natural gas development and provides a brief summary of each of the four current major projects. The booklet also provides an overview of the facilities required for offshore energy projects, environmental impacts and safeguards, exploration, drilling, production, processing and transportation aspects of offshore oil and gas projects. 9 refs, photos

  4. Oil Shocks and Stock Prices of Airlines - An East Asia Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Pau Boon

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to study and analyse the impact of oil price shock on the share prices of airline companies in East Asia, in particular international air carriers from Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Malaysia by looking at how the companies‘ share prices respond to the news of oil shocks. The companies involved in this study were Japan Airlines ("JAL"), All Nippon Airways ("ANA"), Cathay Pacific Airways ("Cathay"), Korean Air ("KAL"), Malaysian Airlines ("MAS") an...

  5. The price of oil and the future of Middle East Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki Yamani, A.

    1997-01-01

    Most LNG contracts relate the LNG price received by the supplier at the point of delivery to a relevant oil price. Gas and oil are thus closely connected so that when the price of landed oil decreases so dose the price of delivered LNG. With large fixed transportation and liquefaction costs, accounting for around 85% of the supply cost of delivered LNG in the case of Qatari LNG supplied to japan, you can imagine how large falls in the price paid for delivered LNG would squeeze the net back to the producer back in Qatar. However, low oil price can do some damage to the economics of existing LNG projects in the Middle East. More importantly, persistently low oil prices can prevent new LNG projects from leaving the drawing board-which will stifle the exciting export potential of Middle Eastern gas

  6. The global oil industry: Middle east domination or regionalization; L`industrie petroliere mondiale: domination du Moyen Orient ou regionalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, P.R. [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands). Afdeling voor Clinische Endocrinologie

    1997-12-31

    On examining heterogeneity of location of reserves and the prospects of a continuing expansion of oil demand, the near future re-domination of the oil market by the Middle East could be anticipated. However regionalization of the oil market could be an alternative prospect depending on political will. The essential element in such a regionalization will be the adherence of the non-Middle East major oil exporting countries to three oil trading blocs built around the main geographical groupings of the OECD countries: North America, Western Europe and Japan-Australasia. (author)

  7. Middle east and North African oil in international relations (from 1970 to these days)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafie, Hossein

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum is not purely an economical product, its main role in world economy and its concentration in Middle East and North Africa (two third of world reserves) made influence international politics. Knowing the nature of the region, petroleum and politics make one. The politicization of oil in the region starts, first of all, with the efforts of some powers, through their companies, to dominate oil countries, which by reaction incite these countries to eliminate foreign domination and establish their national control on oil matters. The situation is changing progressively. The position of productive states got stronger with the beginning of the 1970's which permitted the use of oil, in a way relatively efficient, as an instrument of power. Consequently, the balance of power shifted deeply in the favor of producers. On this basis, the argument consists of three parts: the first puts theoretic bases - theory of economical arm - and defines geographical and historical environment of the research. The second part studies the period of force of the oil countries, from the fourth Israel-Arab war and oil embargo that followed it, to the end of the second oil slump. The third part explains the shift of power on the international scene and the relative decline of oil power for the states of the region. The analysis of impact of the oil slump in 1986 and the mini impact of the second Persian Gulf war, quickly dominated, lead to clear the actual situation and outline the viewpoint of the future. (author)

  8. Political problems in the Middle-East and the oil barrel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidy, Brahim

    2010-04-01

    After having briefly evoked the evolution of oil prices until April 2010, the author explains these variations in relationship with a market logics, notably by an unbalanced rate between production and consumption as it has been noticed in different countries and by different institutions, and by a slowing down of the supply rate. In the next part, the author addresses and comments the influence of the geopolitical context, or the political logics of oil price, by discussing the prevailing importance of the Middle-East in terms of oil reserves and production, and the impact of geopolitical tensions and events on oil price since the 1970's. The author finally outlines how lower geopolitical tensions would result in a better energy security

  9. Fungal diversity in oil palm leaves showing symptoms of Fatal Yellowing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis Costa, Ohana Yonara; Tupinambá, Daiva Domenech; Bergmann, Jessica Carvalho; Barreto, Cristine Chaves; Quirino, Betania Ferraz

    2018-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an excellent source of vegetable oil for biodiesel production; however, there are still some limitations for its cultivation in Brazil such as Fatal Yellowing (FY) disease. FY has been studied for many years, but its causal agent has never been determined. In Colombia and nearby countries, it was reported that the causal agent of Fatal Yellowing (Pudrición del Cogollo) is the oomycete Phytophthora palmivora, however, several authors claim that Fatal Yellowing and Pudrición del Cogollo (PC) are different diseases. The major aims of this work were to test, using molecular biology tools, Brazilian oil palm trees for the co-occurrence of the oomycete Phytophthora and FY symptoms, and to characterize the fungal diversity in FY diseased and healthy leaves by next generation sequencing. Investigation with specific primers for the genus Phytophthora showed amplification in only one of the samples. Analysis of the fungal ITS region demonstrated that, at the genus level, different groups predominated in all symptomatic samples, while Pyrenochaetopsis and unclassified fungi predominated in all asymptomatic samples. Our results show that fungal communities were not the same between samples at the same stage of the disease or among all the symptomatic samples. This is the first study that describes the evolution of the microbial community in the course of plant disease and also the first work to use high throughput next generation sequencing to evaluate the fungal community associated with leaves of oil palm trees with and without symptoms of FY.

  10. Fungal diversity in oil palm leaves showing symptoms of Fatal Yellowing disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohana Yonara de Assis Costa

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is an excellent source of vegetable oil for biodiesel production; however, there are still some limitations for its cultivation in Brazil such as Fatal Yellowing (FY disease. FY has been studied for many years, but its causal agent has never been determined. In Colombia and nearby countries, it was reported that the causal agent of Fatal Yellowing (Pudrición del Cogollo is the oomycete Phytophthora palmivora, however, several authors claim that Fatal Yellowing and Pudrición del Cogollo (PC are different diseases. The major aims of this work were to test, using molecular biology tools, Brazilian oil palm trees for the co-occurrence of the oomycete Phytophthora and FY symptoms, and to characterize the fungal diversity in FY diseased and healthy leaves by next generation sequencing. Investigation with specific primers for the genus Phytophthora showed amplification in only one of the samples. Analysis of the fungal ITS region demonstrated that, at the genus level, different groups predominated in all symptomatic samples, while Pyrenochaetopsis and unclassified fungi predominated in all asymptomatic samples. Our results show that fungal communities were not the same between samples at the same stage of the disease or among all the symptomatic samples. This is the first study that describes the evolution of the microbial community in the course of plant disease and also the first work to use high throughput next generation sequencing to evaluate the fungal community associated with leaves of oil palm trees with and without symptoms of FY.

  11. The political instability of the Middle East and its impact on oil production and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabro, R.

    1992-01-01

    The political instability characterizing the Middle East is reviewed against and background of the region's recent history. The presence of oil and of Israel, regarded by other countries in the region as an alien implant, are seen as the special causes of particularly unstable political conditions. The impact of unsettling political events on oil supply is then explored, revealing that the causes of political instability continue, and so do the risks and dangers of future oil supply disruptions. Decolonization does not solve the underlying problems that cause instability. Underdevelopment is an ill which persists after achievement of independence. The balance of power in the world is so uneven that large nations are still tempted to interfere in the affairs of smaller ones, causing resentment and frustration. Mature democratic systems are not widespread in most parts of the developing world, and authoritarian regimes tend to be destabilizing

  12. Ozone fluxes over South-East Asian tropical rainforest and oil palm plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jennifer; Coyle, Mhairi; Helfter, Carole; Dorsey, James; Gallagher, Martin; Percival, Carl; Nemitz, Eiko; Fowler, David

    2010-05-01

    Ozone flux measurements were made over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest (April & June/July 2008) and an oil palm plantation (June 2008), as part of the NERC OP3 and ACES projects. Flux measurements over the rainforest were made at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) tower, where ozone fluxes were measured by the gradient approach (concentrations at 30, 45, 60, 75 m) and by eddy-covariance (45 and 75 m). The hourly median flux at the forest site peaked before midday and did not differ greatly between Period 1 (P1, April, end of wet season) and Period 3 (P3, June/July, dry season). The periods were however clearly contrasted by the different levels of ambient ozone and concentrations were larger during P1 by about 50 %, with diurnal hourly medians ranging from 26 - 38 ?g m-3 in P1 versus 15 - 27 ?g m-3 in P3. Ozone deposition velocities were smaller during P1 than P3 and median daytime maxima of deposition velocity in P1 were 5 mm s-1 compared to 11 mm s-1 in P3. The magnitude of fluxes and deposition velocities are similar to those observed over the Amazon rainforest (Rummel et al., 2007), but the diurnal profile differs slightly as ozone concentrations showed a stronger diurnal amplitude in the Amazon. Fluxes from 45 and 75 m are compared and ozone flux divergence with height is investigated. Flux measurements at the oil palm plantation were made using the eddy covariance method for 8 days (4th to 11th June 2008). During this period concentrations were very small with a diurnal range of 0 - 7 ?g m-3, probably due to the combined effect of a low measurement height, low turbulence and O3 destruction by soil NO emissions. However, median deposition velocity was 5 mm s-1 indicating that the oil palms are an effective sink for ozone. The ozone flux will be decomposed into stomatal ozone uptake by the vegetation, estimated from conductance modelling, ozone destruction by VOC chemistry (estimated from the measured VOC concentrations) and ozone destruction

  13. Security concerns in the Middle East for oil supply: Problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Samil; Babali, Tuncay

    2007-01-01

    Comprising 65-70% of the world's oil reserves, the Gulf States (Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE and Qatar) are key countries for the solutions to the energy supply matters of the world. Free flow of oil to the world markets from Gulf region is an indispensable part of the major security issues. The Middle East has had mainly security related problems such as Arab-Israeli wars and conflicts, Arab-Iranian war and conflicts, Arab-Arab war and conflicts, US-Gulf wars and conflicts and more recently radicalism and terrorist attacks. Energy supply security requires the enhancement of the peace and cooperation between countries instead of competition. Preventive policy approaches are more suitable to address energy supply matters. Preventive strategy might be possible with the active participation of NATO within the 'out of area' type operations to the Middle East and quite possibly indirectly to the Asia-Pacific regions. Religious and ethnic radicalism and terrorist attacks has also direct effects over oil supply security matters

  14. Panorama 2012 - The oil and gas producing countries of North Africa and the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueille, Jean-Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Despite the extent of their reserves, oil production in most countries of the Middle East and North Africa is not likely to increase significantly in the years ahead. Exports from the Middle East, 75% of which are to Asia, and those from North Africa, most of which are focused on Europe, should remain stable overall. The increase in gas production will contribute more to meeting fast-growing domestic demand than to boosting exports. Indeed, many Middle Eastern countries are paradoxically experiencing strains on domestic energy supplies due to energy demand stimulated by energy prices that are generally - and artificially - very low, and the adoption of economic development models based on energy-intensive industries. (author)

  15. Hydrologic data for the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Northeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamke, J.N.; Craigg, S.D.; Mendes, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents selected hydrologic data for the East Poplar oil field, located in the south-central part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in northeastern Montana. Data about the occurrence, quantity, and quality of ground and surface water are presented in tabular form. The tables contain records of privately owned wells (active and abandoned), monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey and Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, oil wells, and brine-injection wells; lithologic descriptions of drill cuttings and well-completion data from monitoring wells; data from two aquifer tests conducted in Quaternary alluvial and glacial deposits; chemical quality of ground water; and information on the quantity and chemical quality of surface water. Records of electromagnetic geophysical measurements collected throughout an area of about 20 square miles of the study area are compiled and included on a floppy disk. Illustrations in this report contain information about study area location, site- numbering system, general physical and cultural features, and construction of monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey. plate-sized map presents additional information about privately owned wells, monitoring wells, oil wells, brine-injections wells, surface-water data-collection sites, and area of electromagnetic data collection. The data presented in this report provide a base with which to better define and interpret the occurrence, quantity, and quality of ground and surface water in the vicinity of the Poplar River Valley in the south-central part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. The data can be used to help delineate the occurrence of brine and saline water in Quaternary alluvial and glacial deposits in the East Poplar oil field.

  16. The increasing importance of the oil issue in the Middle East by the 1970's. Oil and development: the trap of oil income in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, Michel

    2015-10-01

    In a first article, after having recalled some aspects of the context of the Middle East during the second half of the 1960's and the first half of the 1970's, notably in terms of GDP and population in the different countries, the author comments how these countries tried to take possession of what they considered as their own oil, how some of them tried to reorganise oil production (notably Iraq and Syria) when others tried to act differently in collaboration with western companies or through specific bodies (OPEC). The author outlines that evolutions which occurred during this period (1960's-1970's) resulted in an unprecedented, brutal and uneven enrichment (particularly at the beginning of the 1970's) of oil producing states. He comments how oil was then used as a weapon against some western countries (first oil crisis), and that Arab countries also had different policies in terms of development, finance or reserve management. In the second article which addresses the fact that high oil incomes could become a trap, the author comments the consequences of the existence of high oil incomes. He discusses the policies adopted by Arab countries except Iraq: creation of a welfare economy, development of activities related to hydrocarbon availability, a minimum redistribution to other countries of the region, lucrative and safe investments, and requirements in terms of peacekeeping. Then, the author briefly comments the situation of countries of the regions. He distinguishes those which are not oil producers but are involved in wealth circulation and can take some profit out of it (Lebanon, Jordan), those which are excluded (Syria and Yemen), and the specific case of Iraq. He finally evokes the perspectives and contradictions of the growth scheme

  17. The Threat of Intentional Oil Spills to Desalination Plants in the Middle East: A U.S. Security Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    salts (the concentrate or brine stream).”17 There are two processes that represent the vast majority of desalination processes in use in the world and...AU/ACSC/171/1998-04 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE THREAT OF INTENTIONAL OIL SPILLS TO DESALINATION PLANTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST A U.S...Intentional Oil Spills to Desalination Plants in the Middle East A U.S. Security Threat Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  18. Field study - Steinle Ranch, an intermediate depth oil field, shows significant benefit from bauxite proppants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlhaas, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Steinle Ranch field initially was developed in the mid-1970s. Wells were drilled, cased, perforated, and treated by chemical injection with lease-crude or condensate carriers to restore oil saturation to the formation, which is suspected to be hydrophobic. Stimulation by hydraulic fracturing of 4 wells was attempted from 1975 through 1977 with mixed results and no particular success. These treatments used sand and glass beads for proppant. A fifth hydraulic fracture treatment, in which sintered bauxite was used as the proppant was very successful. As a result, all wells in the field have been fractured. This program, in a mature field in late stages of depletion, at intermediate depth (10,600 ft), has been very successful; ca 940,000 bbl of additional reserves have resulted for a total cost of ca $2,000,000, a return on investment of 9.4:1. Comparing these reserves to estimated reserves if the wells had been propped with sand shows a 23:1 return by the incremental reserves on the incremental cost of the bauxite.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Papua-New Guinea, Eastern Indonesia, and East Timor, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 5.8 billion barrels of oil and 115 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in five geologic provinces in the areas of Papua New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and East Timor.

  20. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  1. Terpenoid compositions and antioxidant activities of two Indian valerian oils from the Khasi Hills of north-east India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayashankar; Mao, Ashiho A; Handique, Pratap J

    2011-01-01

    The volatile constituents of Valeriana jatamansi Jones and V. hardwickii Wall. (Valerianaceae) collected from the Khasi Hills of north-east India were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Twenty-seven and twenty-one compounds were characterized and identified from V. jatamansi and V. hardwickii samples, representing 90.6% and 82.7% of the total oil, respectively. Sesquiterpenes were shown to be the main constituents in both the oil samples. Maaliol (26.1%), patchouli alcohol (9.3%) and a-gurjunene (8.7%) were the major components of V. jatamansi oil, whereas valeracetate (21.3%), methyl linoleate (14.1%), bornyl acetate (13.8%) and cuparene (7.1%) were the main constituents of V. hardwickii oil. Both Indian valerian essential oils were studied for their antioxidant activities using the free radical-scavanging activity (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. V. hardwickii oil exhibited a higher antioxidant capacity than V. jatamansi in both assays. For both the valerian oil samples, there was a concentration-dependent increase in free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing capacity. Both valerian oils and their ingredients are potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  2. Impact on world oil prices when larger and fewer producers emerge from a political restructuring of the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirl, F.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate how a redistribution of oil reserves among a (probably reduced) set of producers affects OPEC's oil extraction policies and thus international crude oil-prices. The empirical investigation shows that this impact is fairly small, as long as OPEC members do not cooperate. Only cooperation will have a substantial impact. (author)

  3. Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D

  4. Establishing the evidence base for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in the oil palm landscapes of South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William A.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Turner, Edgar C.; Fayle, Tom M.; Cockerill, Timothy D.; Ellwood, M. D. Farnon; Broad, Gavin R.; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Eggleton, Paul; Khen, Chey Vun; Yusah, Kalsum M.

    2011-01-01

    The conversion of natural forest to oil palm plantation is a major current threat to the conservation of biodiversity in South East Asia. Most animal taxa decrease in both species richness and abundance on conversion of forest to oil palm, and there is usually a severe loss of forest species. The extent of loss varies significantly across both different taxa and different microhabitats within the oil palm habitat. The principal driver of this loss in diversity is probably the biological and physical simplification of the habitat, but there is little direct evidence for this. The conservation of forest species requires the preservation of large reserves of intact forest, but we must not lose sight of the importance of conserving biodiversity and ecosystem processes within the oil palm habitat itself. We urgently need to carry out research that will establish whether maintaining diversity supports economically and ecologically important processes. There is some evidence that both landscape and local complexity can have positive impacts on biodiversity in the oil palm habitat. By intelligent manipulation of habitat complexity, it could be possible to enhance not only the number of species that can live in oil palm plantations but also their contribution to the healthy functioning of this exceptionally important and widespread landscape. PMID:22006968

  5. Ash from the Toba supereruption in Lake Malawi shows no volcanic winter in East Africa at 75 ka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Christine S; Chorn, Ben T; Johnson, Thomas C

    2013-05-14

    The most explosive volcanic event of the Quaternary was the eruption of Mt. Toba, Sumatra, 75,000 y ago, which produced voluminous ash deposits found across much of the Indian Ocean, Indian Peninsula, and South China Sea. A major climatic downturn observed within the Greenland ice cores has been attributed to the cooling effects of the ash and aerosols ejected during the eruption of the Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT). These events coincided roughly with a hypothesized human genetic bottleneck, when the number of our species in Africa may have been reduced to near extinction. Some have speculated that the demise of early modern humans at that time was due in part to a dramatic climate shift triggered by the supereruption. Others have argued that environmental conditions would not have been so severe to have such an impact on our ancestors, and furthermore, that modern humans may have already expanded beyond Africa by this time. We report an observation of the YTT in Africa, recovered as a cryptotephra layer in Lake Malawi sediments, >7,000 km west of the source volcano. The YTT isochron provides an accurate and precise age estimate for the Lake Malawi paleoclimate record, which revises the chronology of past climatic events in East Africa. The YTT in Lake Malawi is not accompanied by a major change in sediment composition or evidence for substantial temperature change, implying that the eruption did not significantly impact the climate of East Africa and was not the cause of a human genetic bottleneck at that time.

  6. East Indian Sandalwood Oil (EISO) Alleviates Inflammatory and Proliferative Pathologies of Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manju; Levenson, Corey; Clements, Ian; Castella, Paul; Gebauer, Kurt; Cox, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease marked by hyper proliferation and aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes, affects 2-3% of the world's population. Research into the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been hampered by the lack of models that accurately reflect the biology of the psoriatic phenotype. We have previously reported that East Indian Sandalwood oil (EISO) has significant anti-inflammatory properties in skin models and hypothesized that EISO might provide therapeutic benefit to psoriasis patients due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. Here we present interim results from an on-going proof-of-concept Phase 2 clinical trial in which topically applied EISO is demonstrating to be well tolerated and helpful in alleviating mild to moderate psoriasis symptoms. This led us to evaluate the ability of EISO to affect the psoriatic phenotype using MatTek Corporation reconstituted organotypic psoriatic and normal human skin models. EISO had no impact on the phenotype of the normal skin tissue model, however, EISO treatment of the psoriasis tissue model reverted psoriatic pathology as demonstrated by histologic characterization and expression of keratinocyte proliferation markers, Ki67 and psoriasin. These phenotypic affects correlated with suppressed production of ENA-78, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, GM-CSF, and IL-1β. Demonstration of the ability of EISO to abrogate these psoriasis symptoms in well-characterized in vitro psoriatic tissue models, supports the hypothesis that the clinically observed symptom alleviation is due to suppression of intrinsic tissue inflammation reactions in afflicted lesions. This study presents a systematic approach to further study the underlying mechanisms that cause psoriasis, and presents data supporting the potential of EISO as a new ethnobotanical therapeutic concept to help direct and accelerate the development of more effective therapies.

  7. Comparison of the reorganisations of BP and Shell and possible opportunities for Middle East and North African Oil companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Gilbert

    1999-07-01

    A critical analysis is provided of the recent reorganisations of the downstream and petrochemical activities of BP and Shell. BP (or BP Amoco including Arco) and Shell are preparing for the next decade anticipating the environment and changing the companies to maximise their profitability in that environment. For the oil producing countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), there are lessons to be learned both from the forecasts which BP Amoco and Shell are making and from the way these companies intend to operate. BP Amoco's view of oil refining is that the surplus capacity is endemic; Shell's view is that it is transient. BP Amoco will market oil products selectively across the world; Shell is still intent on a global approach. Both BP Amoco and Shell will minimise their wholesaling activities in the retail market and expand their merchandising with ever better quality sites. In the petrochemicals sector, the companies are taking similar actions, ie concentrating on positions of strength and selling business activities with low market shares or poor profitability. Petrochemical sites will be favoured when they have access to company produced hydrocarbon feedstocks. From the analysis, it is suggested that MENA oil companies will need to consider carefully the timing of any new refinery building. The reorganisation of the major OECD-based oil companies should offer opportunities for MENA companies to secure outlets for LPG and condensates, to form marketing alliances in OECD markets and to become involved in OECD-based petrochemical businesses.

  8. Comparison of the reorganisations of BP and Shell and possible opportunities for Middle East and North African Oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Gilbert

    1999-01-01

    A critical analysis is provided of the recent reorganisations of the downstream and petrochemical activities of BP and Shell. BP (or BP Amoco including Arco) and Shell are preparing for the next decade anticipating the environment and changing the companies to maximise their profitability in that environment. For the oil producing countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), there are lessons to be learned both from the forecasts which BP Amoco and Shell are making and from the way these companies intend to operate. BP Amoco's view of oil refining is that the surplus capacity is endemic; Shell's view is that it is transient. BP Amoco will market oil products selectively across the world; Shell is still intent on a global approach. Both BP Amoco and Shell will minimise their wholesaling activities in the retail market and expand their merchandising with ever better quality sites. In the petrochemicals sector, the companies are taking similar actions, ie concentrating on positions of strength and selling business activities with low market shares or poor profitability. Petrochemical sites will be favoured when they have access to company produced hydrocarbon feedstocks. From the analysis, it is suggested that MENA oil companies will need to consider carefully the timing of any new refinery building. The reorganisation of the major OECD-based oil companies should offer opportunities for MENA companies to secure outlets for LPG and condensates, to form marketing alliances in OECD markets and to become involved in OECD-based petrochemical businesses

  9. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of, and including, part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU ) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study—the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU— encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West GreenlandEast Canada Province are 10.7 billion barrels of oil, 75 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 billion barrels of oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  10. Used-Oil Generation and Its Disposal along East-West Road, Port Harcourt Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitte, LF, E-mail: lefzy@yahoo.com; Awi-Waadu, GDB; Okorodike, CG [Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    2015-12-07

    Environmental Pollution from anthropogenic activities has contributed greatly towards the loss of biodiversity, and some organisms are at the verge of extinction and total extermination. Used oil as one of the wastes from automobile engines have contribute immensely towards the degradation of the environment and the problem of this has been traced to the poor handling of used oil and the ignorance of the major disposers of this used-oil. Out of 20 automobile mechanics interviewed in this study, 60% admitted that they dispose of used-oil on the land, 30% said that they sell it and only 10% acknowledge that they reuse it. On the issue of awareness about recycling, 50% admitted that they are aware, 30% claimed ignorance while 20% do not see the need for recycling. While considering storage method, 55% said that they do not store used oil, 25% store it in a metal drum, and 20% store in plastic drum. The mechanics estimated that about 418 cars are serviced weekly and a total of 1628.50 litres of used-oil are produced. For this result it is worth knowing that indiscriminate disposal of used oil as is commonly observed in our society can be of great environmental concern.

  11. Used-Oil Generation and Its Disposal along East-West Road, Port Harcourt Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitte, LF; Awi-Waadu, GDB; Okorodike, CG

    2015-01-01

    Environmental Pollution from anthropogenic activities has contributed greatly towards the loss of biodiversity, and some organisms are at the verge of extinction and total extermination. Used oil as one of the wastes from automobile engines have contribute immensely towards the degradation of the environment and the problem of this has been traced to the poor handling of used oil and the ignorance of the major disposers of this used-oil. Out of 20 automobile mechanics interviewed in this study, 60% admitted that they dispose of used-oil on the land, 30% said that they sell it and only 10% acknowledge that they reuse it. On the issue of awareness about recycling, 50% admitted that they are aware, 30% claimed ignorance while 20% do not see the need for recycling. While considering storage method, 55% said that they do not store used oil, 25% store it in a metal drum, and 20% store in plastic drum. The mechanics estimated that about 418 cars are serviced weekly and a total of 1628.50 litres of used-oil are produced. For this result it is worth knowing that indiscriminate disposal of used oil as is commonly observed in our society can be of great environmental concern

  12. Hydrogeologic aspects of brine disposal in the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craigg, S.D.; Thamke, J.N. (Geological Survey, Helena, MT (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The East Poplar Oil Field encompasses about 70 square miles in the south-central part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Oil production began in 1952 from the Mississippian Madison Group. Production depths range from about 5,500 to 6,000 feet below land surface. Large quantities of brine (water having a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 35,000 milligrams per liter) have been produced with the oil. The brine has a dissolved-solids concentration of as much as 160,000 milligrams per liter. Most of the brine has been disposed of by injection into shallower subsurface formations (mainly the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone at depths of about 3,300 feet and the Upper Cretaceous Judith River Formation at depths of about 1,000 feet). Smaller quantities of brine have been directed to storage and evaporation pits. Handling, transport, and disposal of the brine have resulted in its movement into and migration through shallow Quaternary alluvial and glacial deposits along the Poplar River valley. Locally, domestic water supplies are obtained from these deposits. The major point, sources of shallow ground-water contamination probably is leakage of brine from corroded disposal-well casing and pipelines. Using electromagnetic geophysical techniques and auger drilling, three saline-water plumes in alluvial deposits and one plum in glacial deposits have been delineated. Dominant constituents in plume areas are sodium and chloride, whereas those in nonplume areas are sodium and bicarbonate.

  13. Oil spill remote sensing : laser fluorosensor demonstration flights off the east coast of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.E.; Fingas, M.F.; Marois, R.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of nine oil spill remote sensing flights which were conducted in the North Atlantic and Newfoundland coastal waters in February and March 2004 with Environment Canada's DC-3, C-GRSB equipped with Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensors (SLEAF). The flights detected more than 200 patches of light oil, most of which were in the Atlantic Ocean south of Cape Race and into Placentia Bay. Geo-referenced infrared, ultraviolet, colour video and digital still imagery was collected with the laser fluorosensor data. The oil patches were very light and could only be detected by the laser fluorosensor. The finding indicates that there is significant (although currently legal) oil discharging activity by ships in the area. There was no trace of oil over the northeastern coastal waters, or near the exploration rigs near Hibernia and Terra Nova. The study emphasized the importance of using specialized instrumentation to detect spills, because even experienced response personnel could not see the lighter oils with routine air surveillance due to difficult viewing conditions. 25 refs., 9 figs

  14. A supply model for crude oil and natural gas in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedid, R.; Kobrosly, M.; Ghajar, R.

    2007-01-01

    Crude oil (CO) and natural gas (NG) play an important role in the world economy. The Arab countries (ACs) share 64% of the total oil reserves and 40% of the NG reserves [OPEC, 2003. The Annual Statistical Bulletin]. On the production side, ACs contribute to 30% and 9% of the world production of CO and NG, respectively. Accurate forecast models are needed to do better planning and create less risky business environment. In this paper, an econometric model is built to capture the behavior of CO and NG production in the ESCWA countries. The model is used to forecast future production trends of CO and NG, and thus provide a powerful tool for researchers, planners and investors working in the energy field

  15. Monounsaturated fatty acid ether oligomers formed during heating of virgin olive oil show agglutination activity against human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikios, Ioannis S; Mavromoustakos, Thomas M

    2014-01-29

    The present work focuses on the characterization of molecules formed when virgin olive oil is heated at 130 °C for 24 h open in air, which are found to be strong agglutinins. The hemagglutinating activity of the newly formed molecule isolated from the heated virgin olive oil sample was estimated against human red blood cells (RBCs). Dimers and polymers (high molecular weight molecules) were identified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil mixture. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were the methods used for structural characterization. Among others, oligomerization of at least two monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) by an ether linkage between the hydrocarbon chains is involved. Light microscopy was used to characterize and visualize the agglutination process. Agglutination without fusion or lysis was observed. It was concluded that the heating of virgin olive oil open in air, among other effects, produces oligomerization as well as polymerization of unsaturated FA, possibly of monohydroxy, monounsaturated FA that is associated with strong hemagglutinating activity against human RBCs. The nutritional value and the effects on human health of such oligomers are not discussed in the literature and remain to be investigated.

  16. An assessment of the effects on seabirds of a possible oil exploration at the shelf outside Central Norway out to 1o East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, K.-B.; Bustnes, J.O.; Kroglund, R.T.; Oestnes, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    This report gives the results of an assessment of the effects on seabirds of possible petroleum exploration at the shelf outside Central-Norway out to 1 o East. By combining oil spill simulations with the valued ecosystem components, i.e. seabirds, their distribution, and their vulnerability indexes, the relative index values for the direct effects of oil spills were calculated. For the purpose, the analysis system SIMPACT was used. On the basis of these results and other relevant considerations, recommendations for limiting a possible drilling activity are given. 85 refs., 49 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone Reservoir Characterization for Evaluation of CO2-EOR Potential in the East Canton Oil Field, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Ronald; Wicks, John; Perry, Christopher

    2009-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the East Canton oil field (ECOF). Discovered in 1947, the ECOF in northeastern Ohio has produced approximately 95 million barrels (MMbbl) of oil from the Silurian “Clinton” sandstone. The original oil-in-place (OOIP) for this field was approximately 1.5 billion bbl and this study estimates by modeling known reservoir parameters, that between 76 and 279 MMbbl of additional oil could be produced through secondary recovery in this field, depending on the fluid and formation response to CO2 injection. A CO2 cyclic test (“Huff-n-Puff”) was conducted on a well in Stark County to test the injectivity in a “Clinton”-producing oil well in the ECOF and estimate the dispersion or potential breakthrough of the CO2 to surrounding wells. Eighty-one tons of CO2 (1.39 MMCF) were injected over a 20-hour period, after which the well was shut in for a 32-day “soak” period before production was resumed. Results demonstrated injection rates of 1.67 MMCF of gas per day, which was much higher than anticipated and no CO2 was detected in gas samples taken from eight immediately offsetting observation wells. All data collected during this test was analyzed, interpreted, and incorporated into the reservoir characterization study and used to develop the geologic model. The geologic model was used as input into a reservoir simulation performed by Fekete Associates, Inc., to estimate the behavior of reservoir fluids when large quantities of CO2 are injected into the “Clinton” sandstone. Results strongly suggest that the majority of the injected CO2 entered the matrix porosity of the reservoir pay zones, where it diffused into the oil. Evidence includes: (A) the volume of injected CO2 greatly exceeded the estimated capacity of the hydraulic fracture and natural fractures; (B) there was a gradual injection and pressure rate build-up during the test; (C) there was a subsequent

  18. Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone Reservoir Characterization for Evaluation of CO2-EOR Potential in the East Canton Oil Field, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Riley; John Wicks; Christopher Perry

    2009-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the East Canton oil field (ECOF). Discovered in 1947, the ECOF in northeastern Ohio has produced approximately 95 million barrels (MMbbl) of oil from the Silurian 'Clinton' sandstone. The original oil-in-place (OOIP) for this field was approximately 1.5 billion bbl and this study estimates by modeling known reservoir parameters, that between 76 and 279 MMbbl of additional oil could be produced through secondary recovery in this field, depending on the fluid and formation response to CO2 injection. A CO2 cyclic test ('Huff-n-Puff') was conducted on a well in Stark County to test the injectivity in a 'Clinton'-producing oil well in the ECOF and estimate the dispersion or potential breakthrough of the CO2 to surrounding wells. Eighty-one tons of CO2 (1.39 MMCF) were injected over a 20-hour period, after which the well was shut in for a 32-day 'soak' period before production was resumed. Results demonstrated injection rates of 1.67 MMCF of gas per day, which was much higher than anticipated and no CO2 was detected in gas samples taken from eight immediately offsetting observation wells. All data collected during this test was analyzed, interpreted, and incorporated into the reservoir characterization study and used to develop the geologic model. The geologic model was used as input into a reservoir simulation performed by Fekete Associates, Inc., to estimate the behavior of reservoir fluids when large quantities of CO2 are injected into the 'Clinton' sandstone. Results strongly suggest that the majority of the injected CO2 entered the matrix porosity of the reservoir pay zones, where it diffused into the oil. Evidence includes: (A) the volume of injected CO2 greatly exceeded the estimated capacity of the hydraulic fracture and natural fractures; (B) there was a gradual injection and pressure rate build-up during the test

  19. Direct ecosystem fluxes of volatile organic compounds from oil palms in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first direct eddy covariance fluxes of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs from oil palms to the atmosphere using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS, measured at a plantation in Malaysian Borneo. At midday, net isoprene flux constituted the largest fraction (84 % of all emitted BVOCs measured, at up to 30 mg m−2 h−1 over 12 days. By contrast, the sum of its oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR exhibited clear deposition of 1 mg m−2 h−1, with a small average canopy resistance of 230 s m−1. Approximately 15 % of the resolved BVOC flux from oil palm trees could be attributed to floral emissions, which are thought to be the largest reported biogenic source of estragole and possibly also toluene. Although on average the midday volume mixing ratio of estragole exceeded that of toluene by almost a factor of two, the corresponding fluxes of these two compounds were nearly the same, amounting to 0.81 and 0.76 mg m−2 h−1, respectively. By fitting the canopy temperature and PAR response of the MEGAN emissions algorithm for isoprene and other emitted BVOCs a basal emission rate of isoprene of 7.8 mg m−2 h−1 was derived. We parameterise fluxes of depositing compounds using a resistance approach using direct canopy measurements of deposition. Consistent with Karl et al. (2010, we also propose that it is important to include deposition in flux models, especially for secondary oxidation products, in order to improve flux predictions.

  20. Comparative assessment of geo dynamics processes of oil and gas production areas at the west and east boards of the south-Caspian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhardecki, A.V; Zhukov, V.S; Poloudin, G.A

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Alpine geosynclinals s belt including fold mountains up Carpathian and Crimea Mountainous to Copetdag and Pamirs divided to two unequal parts by the South-Caspian depression.Ashgabadian depression at the east side and Kyrian depression extends and get deeper at the east direction and transforms to South-Caspian depression. Large in number of oil and gas deposits and fields are situated at the areas of this depressions on the west and east boards of the South Caspian. They have a many common characteristics. They are:1.Anticline highs are form tectonic structure like a line. Lines was branching, anticline highs are shingling.2.Red color reservoir of the depression at the east board and production reservoir at the west board of the depression are the main oil and gas containing reservoirs and are stratigraphic analogy of the middle Pliocene age.3.Both side of the depression are areas of the diapiric folding and mud volcanic activity. 4.The intensive seismic activity.5 Marine gryphons, island and sandbank sometime appear and disappear at the littoral area. 6.The Caspian Sea level has quick changes at the geological history and present time.Thus, it is possible to mark two main factors of activation of the geo dynamic processes. First deformation terrestrial surface, and second -induced seismic activity. Comparing above mentioned data on western and east it is visible to boards of the South-Caspian hollow, that for want of availability of the large number identical tectonic of features there are essential distinctions in a character of induced geo dynamic activity. In the long term, in accordance with me development of oil deposits, it is possible to expect manifestation of both factors of activation of geo dynamic processes on both boards of the South-Caspian hollow

  1. Unites States and the oil of the Middle-East; Les Etats-Unis et le petrole du Moyen-Orient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    2005-08-15

    The author discusses different aspects of the United States intervention and behavior in the Middle-East petroleum management. The Iraq and Iran potentials are largely under used. The Saudi Arabia defines its own oil policy, but benefits of the Unites States military help. The United States intervention is in the domain of the security of flux on the world market. (A.L.B.)

  2. East Indian Sandalwood Oil Is a Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor: A New Therapeutic Option in the Treatment of Inflammatory Skin Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Sharma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterases (PDEs regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine production. One isoform, PDE4, is overactive in chronic relapsing inflammatory skin diseases: psoriasis and eczema/atopic dermatitis, and in several cancers. East Indian sandalwood oil (EISO has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we report that 75% of pediatric eczema/atopic dermatitis patients treated with topical EISO formulations achieved a >50% reduction in their Eczema Area and Severity Index score. EISO treatment of a psoriasis model reduced PDE4 expression and reversed histopathology. EISO directly inhibited PDE enzymatic activity in vitro. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human dermal fibroblast, BEAS-2B, A549, and THP-1 cells, EISO suppressed total cellular PDE activity, PDE4, and 7 transcript levels, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB activation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokine production. These results suggest that EISO anti-inflammatory activity is mediated through suppressing PDE activity, thus facilitating cAMP-regulated inhibition of NF-κB and indicate EISO as an attractive natural therapeutic for chronic and acute inflammatory disorders.

  3. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF LIPASE-PRODUCING FUNGI FROM LOCAL OLIVE OIL MANUFACTURE IN EAST OF ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIMA RIHANI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was primary screening and isolation of lipase-producing microorganisms from oil-mill waste. For the screening of fungal strains with lipolytic activity, we employed a sensitive agar plate method, using a medium supplemented with CaCl2 and Tween 80. Another Tributyrin lipase activity was detected from clearing zones due to the hydrolysis of the triacylglycerols. The evolution of biomass and enzyme production has been assayed. A quantitative analysis of lipase activity was performed by the titration method using olive oil as a substrate supplemented with glucose or Tween 80. We have isolated some lipolytic strains from oil-mill effluent. Three of them were found to be excellent lipase producers that were identified as Penicillium sp, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus. Lipolytic activity and biomass were enhanced in the medium supplemented by glucose. Tween 80 is also considered as a best inducer at the concentration of 1 %. In this condition, these isolates showed maximum lipase production within 24 h; achieved (3.91 IU‧mL-1 ± 0.12 for Penicillium sp.

  4. East coast oil and gas prospects : Sable Island and the Northeast markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riga, B.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of the Canada/United Sable Offshore Energy Project and the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline project were reviewed. A graphic review of (1) the Scotian shelf gas reserves, (2) the Northeast projected average daily demand for 1995 to 2005, (3) U.S. energy consumption estimates by source, and (4) customer quantities in US markets for 1999 was presented. Maps showing proposed pipeline facilities were included

  5. An asthma patient with steroid-resistant decrease in peak expiratory flow after the Great East Japan earthquake showing spontaneous recovery after 1 month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Haida, Michiko; Suko, Matsunobu

    2012-01-01

    People living in Japan were affected in various ways after the Great East Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011. A 52-year-old female asthma patient not directly affected by the disaster experienced a decrease in peak expiratory flow (PEF) immediately after the earthquake. Despite increasing the inhaled and oral corticosteroid doses, her PEF did not recover. One month later, her PEF level abruptly returned to normal with minimal medications, which were previously ineffective, and the asthma-related symptoms vanished. The stabilization of her state of mind and actual social state seemed to be a part of the reason for the patient's recovery.

  6. Early life stages of an arctic keystone species (Boreogadus saida) show high sensitivity to a water-soluble fraction of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrgang, Jasmine; Dubourg, Paul; Frantzen, Marianne; Storch, Daniela; Dahlke, Flemming; Meador, James P

    2016-11-01

    Increasing anthropogenic activities in the Arctic represent an enhanced threat for oil pollution in a marine environment that is already at risk from climate warming. In particular, this applies to species with free-living pelagic larvae that aggregate in surface waters and under the sea ice where hydrocarbons are likely to remain for extended periods of time due to low temperatures. We exposed the positively buoyant eggs of polar cod (Boreogadus saida), an arctic keystone species, to realistic concentrations of a crude oil water-soluble fraction (WSF), mimicking exposure of eggs aggregating under the ice to oil WSF leaking from brine channels following encapsulation in ice. Total hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels were in the ng/L range, with most exposure concentrations below the limits of detection throughout the experiment for all treatments. The proportion of viable, free-swimming larvae decreased significantly with dose and showed increases in the incidence and severity of spine curvature, yolk sac alterations and a reduction in spine length. These effects are expected to compromise the motility, feeding capacity, and predator avoidance during critical early life stages for this important species. Our results imply that the viability and fitness of polar cod early life stages is significantly reduced when exposed to extremely low and environmentally realistic levels of aqueous hydrocarbons, which may have important implications for arctic food web dynamics and ecosystem functioning. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation Between Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Fifteen Eucalyptus Species Growing in the Korbous and Jbel Abderrahman Arboreta (North East Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of fifteen Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman and Korbous arboreta (North East Tunisia were screened for their antibacterial activities by the agar disc diffusion method. Eighteen major components as identified by GC/FID and GC/MS were selected for a study of the chemical and biological activity variability. The main one was 1,8-cineole, followed by spathulenol, trans-pinocarveol, α-pinene, p-cymene, globulol, cryptone, β-phellandrene, viridiflorol, borneol, limonene and isospathulenol. The chemical principal component analysis identified five species groups and subgroups, where each group constituted a chemotype, however that of the values of zone diameter of the inhibition (zdi identified six groups of Eucalyptus oils, characterized by their antibacterial inhibition ability. The strongest activity was shown by E. platypus oil against Enterococcus faecalis and by E. lamannii oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A correlation between the levels of some major components and the antibacterial activities was observed.

  8. Delineation of brine contamination in and near the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana, 2004-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamke, Joanna N.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    The extent of brine contamination in the shallow aquifers in and near the East Poplar oil field is as much as 17.9 square miles and appears to be present throughout the entire saturated zone in contaminated areas. The brine contamination affects 15–37 billion gallons of groundwater. Brine contamination in the shallow aquifers east of the Poplar River generally moves to the southwest toward the river and then southward in the Poplar River valley. The likely source of brine contamination in the shallow aquifers is brine that is produced with crude oil in the East Poplar oil field study area. Brine contamination has not only affected the water quality from privately owned wells in and near the East Poplar oil field, but also the city of Poplar’s public water-supply wells. Three water-quality types characterize water in the shallow aquifers; a fourth water-quality type in the study area characterizes the brine. Type 1 is uncontaminated water that is suitable for most domestic purposes and typically contains sodium bicarbonate and sodium/magnesium sulfate as the dominant ions. Type 2 is moderately contaminated water that is suitable for some domestic purposes, but not used for drinking water, and typically contains sodium and chloride as the dominant ions. Type 3 is considerably contaminated water that is unsuitable for any domestic purpose and always contains sodium and chloride as the dominant ions. Type 3 quality of water in the shallow aquifers is similar to Type 4, which is the brine that is produced with crude oil. Electromagnetic apparent conductivity data were collected in the 106 square-mile area and used to determine extent of brine contamination. These data were collected and interpreted in conjunction with water-quality data collected through 2009 to delineate brine plumes in the shallow aquifers. Monitoring wells subsequently were drilled in some areas without existing water wells to confirm most of the delineated brine plumes; however, several possible

  9. Geology and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered petroleum resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province as part of its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. These two provinces are situated northeast of Scandinavia and the northwestern Russian Federation, on the Barents Sea Shelf between Novaya Zemlya to the east and the Barents Platform to the west. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined in the East Barents Basins Province for this study: the Kolguyev Terrace AU, the South Barents and Ludlov Saddle AU, and the North Barents Basin AU. A fourth AU, defined as the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch AU, coincides with the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province. These four AUs, all lying north of the Arctic Circle, were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources, resulting in total estimated mean volumes of ~7.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 318 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  10. Nanoemulsion from essential oil of Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae) shows in vitro efficacy against monogeneans of Colossoma macropomum (Pisces: Serrasalmidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, D S S; Duarte, J L; Oliveira, A E M F M; Cruz, R A S; Carvalho, J C T; Conceição, E C; Fernandes, C P; Tavares-Dias, M

    2018-03-01

    Outbreaks of diseases pose a major threat to sustainable aquaculture development worldwide. Application of herbal products to combat parasitic diseases provides an alternative approach for sustainable aquaculture. This study investigated the in vitro antiparasitic effects of an oil-in-water nanoemulsion prepared using the essential oil from Pterodon emarginatus, against monogeneans infesting Colossoma macropomum. Gill arches from C. macropomum (47.6 ± 14.5 g and 13.5 ± 1.4 cm) that were naturally parasitized by Anacanthorus spathulatus, Notozothecium janauachensis and Mymarothecium boegeri were immersed in different dispersions of the P. emarginatus nanoemulsions (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/L). The major compounds presented in the essential oil of P. emarginatus were β-elemene, β-caryophyllene and α-humulene. Characterization of these nanoemulsions showed that they have a small mean droplet size and low polydispersity index, which is concordant with stable systems. In this in vitro trial, the P. emarginatus nanoemulsion concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/L presented 100% helminthic efficacy against monogeneans of the gills of C. macropomum. The highest two concentrations used (400 and 600 mg/L) were seen to immobilize the parasites after only 15 min. Therefore, it would be worthwhile testing these concentrations in therapeutic baths against monogeneans of C. macropomum. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Towards robust subsidence-based soil carbon emission factors for peat soils in south-east Asia, with special reference to oil palm plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Couwenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm and Acacia pulpwood plantations are being established at a rapid rate on drained peatland in south-east Asia. Accurate measurements of associated carbon losses are still scarce, however, due mainly to difficulties of excluding autotrophic carbon fluxes from chamber-based flux measurements and uncertainties about the extent of waterborne losses. Here, we demonstrate a simple approach to determining total net carbon loss from subsidence records that is applicable to steady state conditions under continuous land use. We studied oil palm and Acacia plantations that had been drained for 5–19 years. Very similar subsidence rates and dry bulk density profiles were obtained, irrespective of crop type or age of the plantation, indicating that the peat profiles were in a steady state. These are conditions that allow for the deduction of net carbon loss by multiplying the rate of subsidence by the carbon density of the peat below the water table. With an average subsidence rate of 4.2 cm y-1 and a carbon density of 0.043 g cm-3, we arrive at a net carbon loss of ~18 t ha-1 y-1 (~66 t CO2-eq ha-1 y-1 for typical oil palm and Acacia plantations more than five years after drainage, without large differences between the plantation types. The proposed method enables calculation of regional or project-specific carbon loss rates to feed into mitigation schemes of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  12. New Prespective Paleogeography of East Java Basin; Implicationrespond to Oil and Gas Eksploration at Kujung Formation Carbonate Reservoar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprilana, C.; Premonowati; S, Hanif I.; Choirotunnisa; Shirly, A.; Utama, M. K.; Sinulingga, Y. R.; Syafitra, F.

    2018-03-01

    Paleogeography is one of critical points that always less considered by explorationist in the world. Almost all of the consideration is focused on trapping mechanism. Paleogeography is guidance in understanding both of physical and chemical of rock characteristic which will correlate with its depositional environment. Integration of various geological and geophysical data such as; tectonic, structural geology, stratigraphy, lithology, and biostratigraphy will lead us to a better understanding of rock characteristics. Six paleogeographic interpretations was made consist of; Early Tertiary (P5-56-55 ma), Middle Eocene (P14-41 ma), Late Oiligocene (P22-25.5 ma), Early Miocene (N7-16.5 ma), Middle Miocene (N9-14.5 ma), and Pleistocene (NN19-1.5 ma). That six paleogeographic interpretations are assumed represent the paleogeographic evolution of East Java Basin time after time. In Middle Eocene time, it would be more than hundred possibilities regarding the location where the formation deposited. This would be controlled by the existence of some local structural paleohighs and horsts which oriented NW-SE followed by their own sedimentary transportation path. With assumption that hydrocarbon generation was occurred in 15 Ma and the depth of maturation window lies on about 2,500 m depth. Therefore, the possibility of source rock maturation is high, due to almost of the clastics sediment of Ngimbang deposited into the series of grabens. The Kujung reef types simplified defines and categorize into; 1) Patch Reef 2) Berrier Reef 3) Pinnacle Reef Over Isolated Reef. Kujung Carbonates were deposited in Early Miocene when regional transgression occurred. The depositional environments were dominated by shallow marine littoral-sublittoral. Generally, the reservoir quality of this Kujung Carbonate shows fair to good quality, in range7-32% porosity, and 1-1400 mD permeability (internal SKK Migas data).

  13. The political economy of oil and gas extraction: imperatives for fiscal and legal regimes in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael Omondi

    2018-01-01

    , cultural and environmental implications of this? This contribution examines the Production Sharing Contracts (PSCs) that result in the models for sharing production as envisaged by the three East African Countries of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Against these models the study unearths the interests...

  14. Optimation Pressure Loss to Oil Production System with Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) at the Well A SW Field Bojonegoro, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmah, A. M.; Hendrajaya, L.

    2017-07-01

    Study about oil and gas well A and SW fields have been conducted in Bojonegoro area, East Java Province. From the research, it is known that one of the constrain in oil and gas production process is a pressure drop, so that is necessary to set Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) as an artificial lift pump at low pressure wells. It is needed to analyze the production well pressure as an effort to optimize the fluid production. It is in describe to relations between IPR (Inflow Performance Relationship ) curve with TPR (Tubing Performance Relationship), are getting down point cut TPR curve with IPR curve, fluid rate its optimal, so need tubing’s diameter variation and the number of stage pump ESP variation to can the most optimal fluid rate. Produced that to tubing variation are 2,441 ID is 876,729 bpd, 2,991 is 961,197 bpd, 3,476 id is 996, 26 Bpd, while on the number of stage pump esp variation The most high is stage 400 with fluid rate 961,197 by comparison stage 338 it has value fluid rate 921,165 bpd, stage 200 it has fluid rate 827,889 bpd, and stage 169 has fluid rate 774,646 bpd. Of some variation tubing and stage pumps that has the most influence to fluid rate optimalize is the change number of stage pump.

  15. Proceedings of the 2006 Newfoundland Ocean Industries Association's 22. annual international petroleum conference : east coast Canada oil and gas : in demand and moving forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual conference is organized each year by the Newfoundland Ocean Industries Association (NOIA) to provide a forum for discussions relating to east coast oil and gas activities. The offshore petroleum industry in Newfoundland and Labrador is experiencing a period of growth. However, personnel shortages and the difficulties associated with conducting operations in a harsh environment continue to present new challenges. Several updates on oil and gas activities in the region were provided by industry leaders at the conference. Technologies and directions for natural gas development were also reviewed. Issues concerning the socio-economic impacts of resource development in the region were discussed, as well as strategies for attracting skilled employees. The conference was divided into the following 8 sessions: (1) ExxonMobil and Husky Energy updates; (2) human resource trends; (3) Petro-Canada update; (4) basins and challenges; (5) basins and challenges part 2; (6) natural gas; (7) moving forward; and (8) a question and answer period about the current state of business in Newfoundland and Labrador. The conference featured 17 presentations of which 6 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Offshore pipeline influence on middle east religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delistoian Dmitri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East is responsible for nearly 30% of world oil production. Oil export is possible just using oil tankers and pipelines. Most developed pipeline network it has Syria. At the same time Syria is a gateway to Europe oil market. Bearing in mind oil price decline, fight on oil markets becomes more pronounced. The consequences of this struggle are creating increasing religious tensions between Shiites and Sunnis. Syria becomes a global battlefield for the influence on Arabian oil.

  17. Viscosity-temperature correlation for crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanshool, J.; Niazi, E. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad (Iraq)

    2004-12-01

    The kinematic viscosities of crude oils were measured over a temperature range 10-50 C and at atmospheric pressure. These data were used to develop a method to predict the viscosity of crude oils, based upon API gravity, pour point and molecular weight. The proposed new correlation has been verified using data base of about twelve Middle East crude oils, showing significantly improved correlation, with an average absolute deviation of 5.3%. The correlation is also applicable to crude oils with a wide range of API gravities, pour points and molecular weights. (orig.)

  18. Transcriptome adaptation of the bovine mammary gland to diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids shows greater impact of linseed oil over safflower oil on gene expression and metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Li, Ran; Ammah, Adolf A; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Benchaar, Chaouki; Zhao, Xin

    2016-02-09

    Nutritional strategies can decrease saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and increase health beneficial fatty acids (FAs) in bovine milk. The pathways/genes involved in these processes are not properly defined. Next-generation RNA-sequencing was used to investigate the bovine mammary gland transcriptome following supplemental feeding with 5% linseed oil (LSO) or 5% safflower oil (SFO). Holstein cows in mid-lactation were fed a control diet for 28 days (control period) followed by supplementation with 5% LSO (12 cows) or 5% SFO (12 cows) for 28 days (treatment period). Milk and mammary gland biopsies were sampled on days-14 (control period), +7 and +28 (treatment period). Milk was used to measure fat(FP)/protein(PP) percentages and individual FAs while RNA was subjected to sequencing. Milk FP was decreased by 30.38% (LSO) or 32.42% (SFO) while PP was unaffected (LSO) or increased (SFO). Several beneficial FAs were increased by LSO (C18:1n11t, CLA:10t12c, CLA:9c11t, C20:3n3, C20:5n3, C22:5n3) and SFO (C18:1n11t, CLA:10t12c, C20:1c11, C20:2, C20:3n3) while several SFAs (C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C24:0) were decreased by both treatments (P metabolism in dairy cows is being reported for the first time. Functional analysis indicated similar and different top enriched functions for DE genes. DE genes were predicted to significantly decrease synthesis of FA/lipid by both treatments and FA metabolism by LSO. Top canonical pathways associated with DE genes of both treatments might be involved in lipid/cholesterol metabolism. This study shows that rich α-linolenic acid LSO has a greater impact on mammary gland transcriptome by affecting more genes, pathways and processes as compared to SFO, rich in linoleic acid. Our study suggest that decrease in milk SFAs was due to down-regulation of genes in the FA/lipid synthesis and lipid metabolism pathways while increase in PUFAs was due to increased availability of ruminal biohydrogenation metabolites that were up taken and

  19. SELECTING THE DIRECTION FOR TECHNICAL RE-EQUIPMENT OF THE TPP OIL-GAS BLOCKS OF 300 MW CAPACITY IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE EAST-EUROPEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Neuimin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author presents analysis of renovation variants for 300 MW oil-gas power blocks: substitution of the steam-power energy blocks by those with gas-steam cycle units, technical re-equipment of the energy blocks by means of reconstruction or modernization of the steam turbine, substitution implementation of the steam turbine with an analogous new one, prolongation of the operation life of the equipment in service. Renovation variants for the power blocks of the specified type in the TPPs of Russia can be chosen based on various engineering solutions concluded on the following grounds: mediumand long-term perspectives of their fuel balance structure (natural gas, synthetic gas fuel-oil residual, pulverized coal fuel including clean-coal and coal-benefication production wastes; the demands laid by JSC the JI UES on the participation of power blocks in frequency regulation and node inter-flow; development in the country of the distributed generation and the perspectives associated with it of the reconstructed TPPs installed capacity utilization in corresponding power-grid nodes; the development of related industries of the country’s economy; the speed of mastering the eco-friendly homegrown steam-gas and coal technologies; creation of the competitive national element base of microelectronics.Introduction of foreign steam-gas generators in this country requires development of the repair-and-service maintenance, provokes elevated risks and tangible costs, conduces to level decrease in the energy and national safety of the state. Orientation of the country’s power engineers to foreign gas-turbines of large single-unit capacity does not contribute to domestic power-plant industry development. With the view of reduction in value of the TPP-equipment by 12–15 %, it is prudent for power engineers to form a perspective manufacturing order for the period after 2016. In light of emerging political and economic situation in the world, technical re

  20. Particulate matter from both heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel shipping emissions show strong biological effects on human lung cells at realistic and comparable in vitro exposure conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Oeder

    Full Text Available Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling.To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols.Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF. Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses.The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon ("soot". Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification.Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the use of HFO and DF we recommend a

  1. Particulate Matter from Both Heavy Fuel Oil and Diesel Fuel Shipping Emissions Show Strong Biological Effects on Human Lung Cells at Realistic and Comparable In Vitro Exposure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Marco; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Schlager, Christoph; Mülhopt, Sonja; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten; Stengel, Benjamin; Rabe, Rom; Harndorf, Horst; Torvela, Tiina; Jokiniemi, Jorma K.; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; BéruBé, Kelly A.; Wlodarczyk, Anna J.; Prytherch, Zoë; Michalke, Bernhard; Krebs, Tobias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kelbg, Michael; Tiggesbäumker, Josef; Karg, Erwin; Jakobi, Gert; Scholtes, Sorana; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Lintelmann, Jutta; Matuschek, Georg; Sklorz, Martin; Klingbeil, Sophie; Orasche, Jürgen; Richthammer, Patrick; Müller, Laarnie; Elsasser, Michael; Reda, Ahmed; Gröger, Thomas; Weggler, Benedikt; Schwemer, Theo; Czech, Hendryk; Rüger, Christopher P.; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Radischat, Christian; Hiller, Karsten; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Dittmar, Gunnar; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling. Objectives To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols. Methods Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO) or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF). Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses. Results The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon (“soot”). Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification. Conclusions Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the

  2. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  3. East Asia basin Analysis Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The United Nations-related Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP), in cooperation with the International Union of Geological Sciences and Circum-Pacific Council, is implementing the East Asia Basin Analysis Project. National and regional organizations, principally members of the ASEAN Council of Petroleum, are compiling maps at a scale of 1:2 million and stratigraphic cross sections of basins, with particular initial emphasis on defining and assessing oil and gas plays and with later analytical focus on other sedimentary minerals (e.g., coal, phosphate, evaporites, and uranium). Completion is anticipated in 1988. Two major elements of the project are being contributed from other agencies. (1) Base maps. - The US Geological Survey (USGS) has partly compiled eight sheets covering east Asia that show bathymetry, shorelines, and drainage systems. One sheet also presents topography and selected cultural features. All sheets are scheduled to be completed in 1987. (2) Geotectonic maps. - The Working Group on Studies of East Asian Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR) is now completing 10 transect studies with crustal profiles and strip maps at a scale of 1:1 million. One map for each transect shows a plate tectonic interpretation. Transect coordinators or others will be encouraged to extrapolate between the strips and complete the geotectonic interpretation (on USGS bases) in 1987. The IGCP Project 220 is also compiling on (USGS bases) the tin and tungsten granites of east Asia, emphasizing geochemical data needed to identify predictive models. Other mapping will probably follow mineral-deposit modeling workshops on ophiolotic chromite and regional symposia on oceanic massive sulfide and subvolcanic gold and base metals. Completion may be possible by 1989

  4. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durousset, M.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents todays economical and strategic realities of the oil market. According to the author, petroleum will remain a vital energy source essentially supplied by the Middle-East with strong increasing and decreasing demand changes. (J.S.)

  5. Chapter 7. The GIS project for the geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak and Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2006-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) focusing on the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group and the Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the northern Gulf Coast region was developed as a visual-analysis tool for the U.S. Geological Survey's 2002 assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural gas resources in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces. The Central Energy Resources Team of the U.S. Geological Survey has also developed an Internet Map Service to deliver the GIS data to the public. This mapping tool utilizes information from a database about the oil and natural gas endowment of the United States-including physical locations of geologic and geographic data-and converts the data into visual layers. Portrayal and analysis of geologic features on an interactive map provide an excellent tool for understanding domestic oil and gas resources for strategic planning, formulating economic and energy policies, evaluating lands under the purview of the Federal Government, and developing sound environmental policies. Assessment results can be viewed and analyzed or downloaded from the internet web site, http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/ .

  6. Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Blake, Andon [CEPMLP, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume. (author)

  7. Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Blake, Andon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume.

  8. Economic model for seaborne oil trade. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kian-Wah, H.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis aims to provide some insights as to how oil prices and oil flows might vary with the carrying capacity of the tanker fleet as affected by political events. It provides an econometric analysis of tanker freight rates in the modern era and proposes a mathematical (quadratic) programming economic model that links the crude oil market to the supply elasticity of the world oil tanker fleet based on a competitive economy. The economic model can be considered as a version of the Walras-Cassel general-equilibrium system which possesses an economically meaningful equilibrium solution in terms of oil prices, freight rates and the pattern of oil distribution. The implementation of the model is completed using the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). The study concludes with a scenario study showing how the model could be used to examine the importance of South East Asia`s sealanes in world seaborne oil trade. The model shows the economic vulnerability of oil importing nations, especially Japan, the United States, and Western Europe, to a possible closure of South East Asian sealanes.

  9. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  10. China's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Fridley, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    The article assesses the future for China's oil industry as the country makes the transition from a command economy to an international market. China has one of the world's biggest oil industries and recent years have seen much growth in exploration and development, refining capacity and trade. China is more and more dependent on oil imports and is now a major international player; it has attracted much outside investment. Diagrams show (i) how coal dominates other sources of energy in China; (ii) crude production 1977-1998; (iii) how Middle East crudes now dominate Chinese crude imports; (iv) the growth of petroleum demand in China; (v) the Chinese demand for petroleum products; (vi) the growth in transport fuels; (vii) Chinese product imports: import ban targeted diesel; (viii) crude imports favoured over product imports and (ix) refinery capacity and throughput. The changes are expected to result in further integration into international markets, increased transparency and a healthier oil business

  11. Corrosion protection performance of palm and mineral oil media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Nik Sani, W.B.; Ani, F.N.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    In European forest, especially Scandinavian, almost all forest machines are filled with biodegradable fluid. The fluid is of synthetic type. The ratio between the lowest cost of mineral oil and the synthetic fluid is about 1:4. The high cost of this biodegradable fluid can be a major obstacle to be used in developing countries. Malaysia and South East Asia are known for its natural beauties. However, a spill of mineral based oils to their land and seas may result in long term water and soil contamination. Thus crop or agricultural based oil product can provide the solution to this problem. However, considering the demand placed on the oil in service, the service performance such as relation to component compatibility with the crop based oil is crucial to be investigated. The ability of crop based oils to protect and reduce corrosion formation is still unexplored. It is important for each oil to preserve its oxidation stability and remain non-corrosive during service. This paper reports the results of copper corrosion tests. The test includes mass change monitoring, oxide scales and microscopic analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Relative Increase of total acid number and weight loss during copper immersion has proved that metal corrosion in contact with oil was caused by oil degradation that produces acidic compounds. Coppers that were immersed in oil temperature of 60 0 C show that increase of temperature in presence of transition metal induces oil degradation. (Author)

  12. Study of long-term spilled Metula oil : degradation and persistence of petroleum biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Sigouin, L.

    2000-01-01

    In 1974, the oil tanker 'Metula' carrying 1.42 million barrels of light Arabian crude ran aground in the Strait of Magellan in Chile, spilling about 50,000 tons of light Arabian crude and 2,000 tons of Bunker C fuel, and polluting 250 km of shoreline. Since no attempt was made to recover or treat the slick, the oil was left to weather naturally. Several field surveys of the distribution of the oil have been conducted since the original spill. In this study, a total oil analysis was conducted on oil samples collected during a 1998 field visit. It was shown that the oil has gone through major alteration in chemical composition after 24 years through natural attenuation. The only location with any significant amounts of residual oil was in Punta Espora area where the oil was concentrated in two marsh areas and one in an asphalt pavement on a sheltered beach. The objective of the 1998 field visit was to obtain the latest information on oiling conditions, any changes in stranded oil and vegetative recovery in the area. All samples except those in the East Marsh showed a significant loss of n-alkanes and PAH compounds. The East Marsh showed the least degradation, while the asphalt pavement weathered most heavily. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  13. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  14. Global oil palm suitability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pirker, J.; Mosnier, A.

    2015-01-01

    The palm oil boom of recent years has brought about both positive - economic development - and negative impacts - deforestation, habitat losses and increased GHG emissions - in the main producer countries in South-East Asia. As global demand for palm oil is still increasing, governments of developing and emerging countries increasingly promote oil palm cultivation as a major contributor to economic development, but there are concerns about the potential negative impacts of oil palm expansion ...

  15. COAL MINING OPERATIONS AND ITS IMPACT ON SECTORAL AND REGIONAL AREA: EVIDENCE OF EAST KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian Hilmawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining sector plays important roles for Indonesian economic performance, especially in East Kalimantan. This study investigates: (a whether economic linkages of the mining sector related with other economic sectors in East Kalimantan, (b who gets benefit from such mining activities; (c how is the impact of mining sector for rural and urban households; and (d what happens if coal mining, oil and gas productions are completely depleted. The quantitative analysis framework using Input-Output and Social Accounting Matrix Tables in period 2009-2010 has been implemented as main data set. The result shows that mining sector was underdeveloped sector in East Kalimantan, including Kutai Kartanegara district. Activities from mining sector tended to give benefit for the owners of capital, which is larger than that benefit for workers employed. Structural Path Analysis (SPA shows that urban households gain the greatest advantages from the activities of this sector. The result also shows that the total output decreased by 65.12% when the mining, oil and gas dissapeared. A drastic reducing income after mining and oil and gas era will have an impact on the decline in the purchasing power in the region. However, the interesting finding of this research shows that the loss of mining and oil or gas sectors actually increases the strength of employment multiplier by 19%.

  16. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Citrus aurantium l. flowers essential oil (Neroli oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, A Haj; Bouajila, J; Lebrihi, A; Mathieu, F; Romdhane, M; Zagrouba, F

    2012-11-01

    Neroli essential oil is extracted from the fragrant blossoms of the bitter orange tree. It is one of the most widely used floral oils in perfumery. In this study chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of neroli oil are investigated. The essential oil of fresh Citrus aurantium L. Flowers (Neroli oil) cultivated in North East of Tunisia (Nabeul) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. About 33 compounds were identified, representing 99% of the total oil. Limonene (27.5%) was the main component followed by (E)-nerolidol (17.5%), alpha-terpineol (14%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (11.7%) and (E, E)-farnesol (8%). Antimicrobial activity was determined by Agar-well-diffusion method against 6 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative), 2 yeasts and 3 fungi. Neroli oil exhibited a marked antibacterial activity especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, Neroli oil exhibited a very strong antifungal activity compared with the standard antibiotic (Nystatin) as evidenced by their inhibition zones. Antioxidant activity determined by ABTS assay showed IC50 values of 672 mg L(-1). Finally, this study may be considered as the first report on the biological properties of this essential oil. The results of this study have provided a starting point for the investigations to exploit new natural substances present in the essential oil of C. aurantium L. flowers.

  17. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  18. The Middle East in the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.

    1996-02-01

    The Middle East in the year 2000 provides all insight into the political and economic changes taking place in the region and explains what they mean for the oil and gas industry. This comprehensive report combines published forecasts with expert comment and analysis, making it a highly practical business guide. With oil and gas at the heart of its discussion it looks in detail at: the likely shape of the Middle East into the next century, with a country-by-country review; the declared aspirations of Middle Eastern countries, with likely economic trends including oil production; the complete political and economic picture and what the future may hold; the long- and short-term future for oil; how oil prices will change over the coming years; the impact of non-Opec production on the region; the opportunities and competitive advantages for companies wanting to do business in the region; fundamentalism versus democracy; and various political scenarios. (author)

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  20. Middle East gas: a brighter outlook?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past year, the prospects for both oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East have greatly improved. Apart from the increase in the price of oil, a long term strategy for better exploitation of gas reserves is enhancing the prospects for growth throughout the Middle East. The effect of the fall in oil prices hit Qatar particularly hard: the knock-on effect was felt throughout the whole of Qatar. The current objectives in Qatar are to develop the export market and make better use of the gas reserves at home: developments toward this aim are discussed. Developments in Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Iran and Egypt are discussed. Some speculative intra-regional and export pipeline projects are discussed. The main markets for middle east gas are mentioned

  1. Research on the spatial structure of crude oil flow and the characteristics of its flow field in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuan; Hao, Li-Sha; Wan, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Crude oil flow is a sort of oil spatial movement, and in China, it is large scale and covers wide area with extensive social-economic effects. This paper analyses the spatial structure of crude oil flow in China, the characters of its flow field and the layout of its flow track. The results show that oil flow in China has a spatial characteristic of centralized output and decentralized input; its spatial structure is composed of Source System in the shape of right-angled triangle, Confluence System in the shape of right-angled trapezium and Multiplex System in the shape of obtuse-angled triangle, which are mutually nested, and on a whole, the presence of Multiplex System balances and optimizes the flow layout; oil flow field in China can be divided into four parts, i.e. the North, North-west, East and South Field, two or three of which overlap with each other, extending the oil flow and making the flow more flexible and maneuverable; oil flow track is a multi-objective decision-making route and in the decision-making process oil transportation cost is one of the essential factors, in China, oil flow track falls into the Northeast, North, East, Northwest and South five cluster regions, which connect with each other, and series-parallel connection between various kinds of transportation channels is widely seen in them, reinforcing the supply security of crude oil

  2. Report of Flood, Oil Sheen, and fish Kill Incidents on East Fork Poplar Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaggs, B.E.

    1997-09-01

    Water quality and plant opemtion irriiormation provided by the Y-12 Plant strongly suggest that a dechlorinating agent, applied to the raw water released below the North-South Pipes was responsible for the toxicity resulting in the fish kill of July 24. Dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements in upper EFPC indicai e that low oxygen levels (3-5 ppm) occurred for a period of up to 30 min. This slug of low DO water traveling down EFPC to the lake could easily explain the massive fish kill and the resulting observations. Dissolved oxygen levels of 5.2 ppm or lower are documented as causing problems for warmwater fish species (Heath 1995). The presence of other stressors, including a range of petrochemicals, tends to lower resistance to low oxygen conditions. Given the sequence of events in upper EFPC in the few days prior to July 24, where extremely high flows were followed by inputs of a wide range of low concentrations of oils, the sensitivity to low DO conditions might be heightened. The possible toxic impact of ::he oils and other contaminants reaching EFPC as a result of the heavy rainfidl on July 22 doesn't appear significant enough to be the sole cause of the kill on July 24. Even during the height of the kill, a large school of fish remained immediately downstream of the North-South Pipes. If the toxicity of waters flowing through this outlet were the primary cause of the kill, then it would be expected that this school of fish would not have been present immediately below the pipes. Any impact of waters entering from other sources, such as pumping of basements WOUIC1 have produced a staggered pattern of mortality, with fishing dying in different localities at different times and rates. Further, it would be expected that the morta.lhy observed would have continued over several days at least, as more resistant individuals succumbed slowly to the toxic exposure. This would have provided freshly dead or dying fish for the surveys of July 25 and 28. In previous

  3. Vegetation Impact and Recovery from Oil-Induced Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Wetland Sites in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Shapiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available April 20, 2010 marked the start of the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the largest marine oil spill in US history, which contaminated coastal wetland ecosystems across the northern Gulf of Mexico. We used hyperspectral data from 2010 and 2011 to compare the impact of oil contamination and recovery of coastal wetland vegetation across three ecologically diverse sites: Barataria Bay (saltmarsh, East Bird’s Foot (intermediate/freshwater marsh, and Chandeleur Islands (mangrove-cordgrass barrier islands. Oil impact was measured by comparing wetland pixels along oiled and oil-free shorelines using various spectral indices. We show that the Chandeleur Islands were the most vulnerable to oiling, Barataria Bay had a small but widespread and significant impact, and East Bird’s Foot had negligible impact. A year later, the Chandeleur Islands showed the strongest signs of recovery, Barataria Bay had a moderate recovery, and East Bird’s Foot had only a slight increase in vegetation. Our results indicate that the recovery was at least partially related to the magnitude of the impact such that greater recovery occurred at sites that had greater impact.

  4. Oil: Reopening the door

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislaw, J.; Yergin, D.

    1993-01-01

    Oil-exporting nations are seeking the capital, technology, and management skills of the very international oil companies they shut the door on in the 1970s. Driving the changed relationship is broadened competition for market share and needed investments that meet the double criteria of economic and environmental competitiveness. Now flat, oil demand could increase by 20 percent in the next decade, pushed by Asia's economic growth. Even with the opening of Russia, most increased production can be expected from the Middle East, maintaining that troubled region's strategic importance. 5 refs

  5. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A. Chukwudeme

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO2 flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane, model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO2 flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection (< 3 years it is shown that there is almost no difference between the recovered oils by water and CO2, after which (> 3 years oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO2 flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 °C/90 bar and 70 °C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1% compared to 80 °C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO2 flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure.

  6. Perspectives on the Islamic Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Arab -Israeli conflict; and free-market access to oil sources. United States attempts to insure influence in the Persian Gulf area, in particular, has...view of Islam, Arabism and Middle East societal culture. tii BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Colonel Patrick 0. Adams (M.S., Auburn University) has been interested...peaceful means to resolve the Arab -Israeli conflict. Third, America has championed access to oil for itself and the industrialized democracies. With the

  7. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Eshita

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  8. Is Leaving the Middle East a Viable Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    U.S. officials mentored nationalist movements, and America proclaimed the colonies’ right to independence. As a consequence, the Middle East broke...on Saudi Arabian petroleum but also more heavily on Canadian, Mexican, and to a lesser degree, Venezuelan oil exports. The Middle East, nonetheless...it is the country from which his father emigrated to Saudi Arabia. Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the Middle East, with only small deposits

  9. East coast gas - the big picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    The North American conventional gas resource base was reviewed and an explanation of how Canada's East coast fits into the overall picture was given. At 1996 year end, the total conventional ultimate natural gas resource base for North America was estimated to be 2,695 trillion cubic feet. The most important supply areas are Canada and the United States. Mexico and Alaska are expected to play only a minor role in the overall North American supply. Approximately half of the conventional gas estimated to exist in North America remains to be discovered. Only 78 per cent from the half that has been discovered has been produced, and only 22 per cent of it is remaining as reserves. Of the undiscovered natural gas resource, 38 per cent is in the frontier regions of Alaska and Canada. The growing importance of the East coast of North America as markets for natural gas was reviewed. The distribution of ultimate conventional marketable gas resources for Canada was described. The potential of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and selected frontier areas were assessed. The report showed an undiscovered conventional marketable gas estimate of 122 trillion cubic feet for the WCSB and 107 trillion cubic feet for the Frontier areas. The two most significant areas of discovery in eastern Canada were considered to be the Hibernia oil field on the Grand Banks and the Venture gas field of the Scotian Shelf. 2 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Distribution of 210Pb activity concentrations in marine surface sediments within East Coast Peninsula Malaysia Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Zaharudin Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    A sampling expedition into the East Coast Peninsula Malaysia Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was carried in June 2008. Marine surface sediment samples were taken and the activity concentrations of 210 Pb have been determined. Its distribution was plotted and the findings show that the activity concentrations decline from north to south. On the other hand, the activity concentrations are increasing from west to east right to the edge of the EEZ. The highest activity concentrations were found to be near offshore oil platforms. The 210 Pb activity concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.3 - 123.1 Bq/ kg. (author)

  11. International oil and gas finance review 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This first edition covers financing projects in the developing world, mergers and acquisitions; mitigating cross-border risk; basic risk in energy markets; real-time oil and gas pricing issues; oil and gas equity; risk management; project finance. The yearbook also features more regional specific topics such as: gas transportation in the Mercosur; 25 years of growth in the UAE; natural gas in Mexico; LNG in the Far East; legal issues surrounding the Russian oil and gas industry; LNG projects in the Middle East; the North Sea; and financing the oil and gas industry of Southern and South Africa. (UK)

  12. Does Climate Change Mitigation Activity Affect Crude Oil Prices? Evidence from Dynamic Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Dike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates how climate change mitigation affects crude oil prices while using carbon intensity as the indicator for climate change mitigation. The relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity is estimated using an Arellano and Bond GMM dynamic panel model. This study undertakes a regional-level analysis because of the geographical similarities among the countries in a region. Regions considered for the study are Africa, Asia and Oceania, Central and South America, the EU, the Middle East, and North America. Results show that there is a positive relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity, and a 1% change in carbon intensity is expected to cause about 1.6% change in crude oil prices in the short run and 8.4% change in crude oil prices in the long run while the speed of adjustment is 19%.

  13. Geopolitics of oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liscom, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Geopolitics can inject a great deal of uncertainty and cause fundamental shifts in the overall direction of oil markets, which would otherwise act in a fairly predictable and stable manner. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the response of the USA were definitely linked with oil, and the aftermath of the invasion left four geopolitical issues affecting world oil markets. The provision authorizing $1.6 billion in Iraqi oil exports under the United Nations sanctions was imposed with little concern about the potential impact of these exports on the oil market; Iraq could export as much as 1 million bbl/d and it is unlikely that exports would be stopped once the $1.6 billion limit is reached. By making up most of the supply shortfall during the Kuwait crisis, Saudi Arabia suddenly became the producer of over a third of OPEC oil supplies and now dominates OPEC. The Saudis have indicated it will swing production according to world demand, irrespective of what OPEC wants, so that world oil demand will return strongly and remain. Middle East politics in general will determine the stability of oil supplies in the region for many of the countries. A producer-consumer dialogue at the high governmental level has started, with a view to some type of multilateral understanding in the light of mutual interests in secure oil supplies. This is not likely to have a big impact on oil markets without participation and support from the USA. The recent changes in the Soviet Union have potential impacts in regard to the attraction of that market for Western investment, in particular to assist exports. The worldwide environmental movement will also play a geopolitical role in the world oil market due to its influence on oil taxation policies

  14. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) characterization

  15. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…

  16. The geopolitics of $10 oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The market and the geopolitical implications of the possibility of $10 a barrel becoming the norm for oil prices in 1999 are examined. The low price will present budgetary difficulties for all the world's major oil producing countries with the exception of Brunei. In some countries, such as Nigeria and Venezuela, general financial and economic reform will become inevitable with the pressure for political reform to follow. If energy development is to continue in the Caspian region in a low price era, long term political stability will be necessary and a move towards democracy from the present autocracies may be necessary to achieve this. In the Middle East, countries are facing the erosion of their core financial base. Depressed oil prices could force Gulf States, which in the past have depended on their oil revenues alone, to introduce taxation as an alternative source of income. Hitherto, oil has meant power in political as well as in energy terms, but the diminished value of oil in a world where their are alternative energy sources will reduce the importance, even of key regions such as the Middle East. The power of OPEC is threatened by its failure to bring about the massive co-ordinated production cutbacks which alone might turn the market around. The beneficiaries of cheap oil will be the consuming nations, particularly those of East Asia where the pace of economic recovery will be speeded up. (UK)

  17. Antibacterial activity and the variation of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Bip. essential oils from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatoglu, Kaan; Demirci, Fatih; Demirci, Betül; Gören, Nezhun; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2010-01-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from herbal parts of Tanacetum parthenium from two different localities in Turkey were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil of T. parthenium collected from Davutpasa-Istanbul location were characterized with camphor 49%, trans-chrysanthenyl acetate 22.1% and camphene 9.4%. Second plant sample is collected from the remote east end of the country Savşat-Ardahan location. The essential oil from this location was characterized with camphor 60.8% and camphene 6.8%. Unlike the former this sample contains trans-chrysanthenyl acetate in trace amount and cis- chrysanthenyl acetate in very small amount (0.6%) which is not present in the first sample. Antibacterial activity of the oils were evaluated for five Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacteria by using a broth microdilution assay. The highest activity was observed on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S.aureus however when compared with positive control oils showed higher MIC values. The oil of Istanbul-sample showed highest activity on B. subtilis (125 microg/mL) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (125 microg/mL) which is two fold concentration when compared with the positive control chloramphenicol (62.5 microg/mL). The oil of Ardahan sample showed the highest activity on S. aureus (125 microg/mL) which is likewise two fold concentration of the positive control chloramphenicol (62.5 microg/mL). DPPH scavenging activity was 59.3% of the oil from Davutpasa at 15 mg/mL concentration. When compared to positive control alpha-tocopherol (94.6%) Savşat oil (28.2%) showed low and Davutpasa oil showed medium DPPH scavenging activity. All of the oils showed toxicity to Vibrio fischeri in the TLC-bioluminescence assay.

  18. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  19. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  20. Oceanography of East Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiasa, John

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - September 2008) in Southern and Eastern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. A total of 102 CTD stations were conducted along selected hydrographical transects and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, the first section between latitude 25o-26oS showed sea surface temperature values ranging between 25oC to 15oC upper 250m depth. As part of the south-west, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the tip south of the Island coast. In contrast of the west coast, in all transects performed along the south and the east coast, in most cases, the isotherms showed non stratified waters from the coast to offshore. The presence of the upwelling system in the south-east coast modifies drastically the patterns of all measured parameters. Fluorescence had a maximum values (0.25 µg/l) at surface near the coast in 2nd to 5th transects. Inversely, low temperature values were observed along the south and south-east with minimum values in the range of 18. 5oC-11oC at 50-250 m depth. These conditions were consistent along and between the 2nd to 5th transects, with more variation observed at transect 5. The salinity values (5 m depth) decreased from 35.7 psu in the south to 34.5 psu in the east. The horizontal distribution of oxygen showed non homogenous conditions with values between 5 ml/l (south) and 2.5 ml/l (south-east). Also starting from the coast to offshore, surface temperatures and surface salinities, surface

  1. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  2. Chapter 5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources-Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston formations, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation of east Texas and southern Arkansas (and the correlative Hosston Formation of Louisiana and Mississippi) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin from east Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic detritus was derived from two main fluvial-deltaic depocenters, one in northeastern Texas and the other extending from southeastern Mississippi northwestward into northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in east Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are about 2,000 ft thick.

  3. Oil information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Oil Information 1996 is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually since 1989, replacing the publication Annual Oil and Gas Statistics. Part II of Oil Information 1996, 'World Oil Developments' provides summary tables of world oil market developments, with time series back to the early 1970's.Part III, 'Detailed OECD Oil Data' provides, in tabular form, a more detailed and comprehensive picture of oil supply, demand and end-use consumption for the OECD by region and individual countries. PART IV, 'Historical Series' shows time series of major oil flows for all years beginning in either 1970 or 1971 and ending in 1996, where data is available

  4. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  5. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  6. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hackett

    2013-02-01

    additional refineries, both of which are not expected, given the volume of lighter and more valuable crude from the Middle East finding its way to Pacific Basin markets. Consequently, any new refinery capacity is not likely to be dedicated to Canadian crude shipments. This places increasing importance on the need to enter into long-term contracts to supply Pacific Basin refineries, backed up by evidence of adequate transportation capacity. Canadians will have to show first, and quickly, that we are committed to building pipelines that will bring sufficient volumes of oil to the Pacific coast necessary to give the refiners the certainty they need to invest in infrastructure for refining Canadian oil. Access to this crucial market will depend critically on the outcome of the pipeline approval process, and also the cost to ship from Canada. If Canada does not approve of the Pacific coast pipeline expansions, or takes too long in doing so, it could find its crude unable to effectively penetrate the world’s most promising oil export market.

  7. Natural cold pressed oils as cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ligęza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. It seems that patients may ask general practitioners about natural cosmetics applied on the skin regarding their safety and suitability. Objectives. The aim of the study was to analyze natural cold pressed oils as potential cosmetic products. Material and methods. Cold pressed oils obtained from selected seeds and fruit stones were analyzed, including: chokeberry seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, elderberry seed oil, raspberry seed oil, apricot seed oil, tomato seed oil, strawberry seed oil, broccoli seed oil, Nigella sativa seed oil, hemp oil, safflower seed oil, Silybum marianum seed oil and coconut oil. 80 adult volunteers assessed the cosmetic properties of the analyzed oils. Each of the volunteers tested 2 to 4 different oils, by applying them on the skin. In addition, patch tests with all analyzed oils were performed on 23 individuals. Results. The majority of tested oils were positively evaluated by the participants: in the opinion of the participants, oil extracted from safflower had the best appearance (100% positive opinions, coconut oil had the best smell (70% positive opinions, while black currant seed oil showed the best absorbency (85% positive opinions. No irritation was observed within the analyzed product group, albeit one allergic reaction to apricot seed oil was observed with patch testing. Conclusions . Based on the achieved results, it could be suggested that natural cold pressed oils can be applied to the skin as cosmetics. Our observations may be helpful for general practitioners when choosing natural cosmetics.

  8. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  9. Iranian-Oil-Free Zone and international oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Raeisian Parvari, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    One of the main elements of economic sanctions against Iran due to its nuclear and military programs is crude oil exportation restrictions in addition to investment in Iranian energy related projects. Senders of such sanction are interested in understanding the impacts of such embargos on international oil prices. We apply unrestricted vector autoregressive (VAR) model, using impulse response functions (IRF) and variance decomposition analysis (VDA) tools with annual data from 1965 to 2012 to analyze the dynamic response of international oil prices to Iranian oil export sanction. Controlling for the supply of non-Iranian oil, the world GDP per capita, and post-Islamic revolution exogenous dummy variables, we show that international oil prices respond negatively and statistically significant to increasing shock in absolute negative changes of the Iranian oil exports – our proxy of Iran oil sanctions – following the first 2 years after shock. The main reason is the positive response of the non-Iranian oil supply to negative shocks in Iranian oil exports, filling the missing supply of Iranian oil in international markets. - Highlights: • We analyze the interconnections between Iranian oil supply and global oil prices. • We use VAR modeling and annual data from 1965 to 2012 for the case of Iran. • There are no inflationary effects of Iranian oil sanction on world oil prices. • Non-Iranian oil supply offsets the missing Iranian oil in the market

  10. A Realistic View of Long-Term Middle East Production Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsam Bakhtiari, Ali [National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), Tehran (Iran)

    2003-07-01

    The Middle East is a unique landmass bridging the continents of Europe, Africa and Asia. It now consists of fifteen major countries and one neutral zone. Four of these countries (Afghanistan, Israel, Jordan and Lebanon) are practically devoid of commercial oil resources. And the other eleven jointly control oil reserves estimated by Colin Campbell at 805 bnb (42% of world total) -- made up of 758 bnb discovered and 47 bnb yet-to-find. These eleven countries, which produced on average 20.8 mb/d and 19.3 mb/d in 2001 and 2002 respectively, can be subdivided into three categories: (i) the low producers (4 countries); (ii) the mid-size producers (4 countries); and (iii) the three large producers (Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia). In order to investigate the Middle East's long-term production capacity, the forecasts and scenarios developed by the following experts or institutions were reviewed: (a) Dr. Campbell; (b) the major international institutions (IEA, EIA, OPEC); (c) the major oil companies; (d) the major international banks; (e) the specialised press; (f) prominent economists and consultants; (g) the simulations of the 'World Oil Production Capacity' (WOCAP) model. The most significant results were derived from Dr. Campbell's predictions and the WOCAP model. Both of these show Middle Eastern producers going through a long 'bumpy plateau' between 2003 and 2020 with a gradual ramping down during the second decade. WOCAP's simulations for each of the large three producers are presented and analysed. All in all, the Middle Eastern countries, which produce nearly a third of global crude oil, will continue to play a major role on the global oil stage, a role that, with time, can only tend to become more predominant. And although the region's oil represents over 40% of global reserves and roughly two-thirds of proved reserves, there are limits to its output. For those believing that for Middle East oil 'the sky's the limit

  11. Oil spill trajectory analysis for US coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBelle, R.P.; Hegy, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Under Section 4111(b)(7) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), the US Coast Guard must evaluate whether areas of navigable waters and the Exclusive Economic Zone should be designated as zones where the movement of tankers should be limited or prohibited. The legislative history of OPA 90 specifies that the open-quotes tanker-free zoneclose quotes evaluation should particularly include areas where oil and gas leasing, exploration, or development are presently prohibited by legislative action. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) and the Coast Guard have combined efforts to provide offshore oil spill trajectory estimates in support of that evaluation. Multiple runs of the MMS Oil Spill Risk Analysis (OSRA) model were used to characterize potential movements of tanker oil spills in US coastal waters off the east and west coasts and in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The mapped locations of 220 sensitive environmental resources were provided for the analysis by coastal academic institutions under subcontract to the Coast Guard. More than 3 million oil-spill trajectories were simulated in a stochastic analysis over all seasons. The modeled spills were moved in increments of 3 hours for up to 30 days at sea, based on a suite of wind and oceanographic data and models. Trajectory results from multiple spill sites offshore are expressed as mapped open-quotes risk contoursclose quotes showing the chance of seasonal contacts with coastal resources, assuming spill occurrence. Examples of the information used and the results of the simulations are shown

  12. Essential oil of three Uvaria species from Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel, Koffi A; Félix, Tonzibo Z; Figueredo, Gilles; Chalard, Pierre; N'guessan, Yao T

    2011-11-01

    Different parts of Uvaria ovata (Dunals) A, U. anonoides Baker f. and U. tortilis A. Chev were collected from Ivory Coast, in Toumodi (center), Agboville (south-east) and Sikensi (south), respectively. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, were investigated by CG and CG/MS. The proportion of the chromatographed constituents identified varied from 92.5% to 98.5%. For U. ovata, the root bark oil comprised mainly camphene (10.2%), beta-pinene (10.1%), epi-alpha-cadinol (13.2%) and intermedeol (9.7%), while the oil of the stem bark was dominated by epi-alpha-cadinol (27.3%), intermedeol (11.9%) and benzyl benzoate (13.4%). The oil of the leaves showed beta-caryophyllene (15.6%), germacrene D (24.2%) and benzyl benzoate (18.3%) as the most abundant constituents. The leaf oil of U. anonoides was rich in 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (21.3%) and benzyl benzoate (8.7%), while, gamma-terpinene (31.7%), beta-caryophyllene (23.9%) and germacrene D (15.8%) constituted the main components of the stem bark oil of U. tortilis.

  13. CERN on show

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Last week I was in Ankara to discuss Turkish accession to CERN, and to take part in the opening of CERN’s main travelling exhibition at the Middle East Technical University. I was astonished at the crowds of people the exhibition drew in, and I’m told that it’s a similar story wherever it goes. Our smaller exhibition stands are also much in demand across our Member States.   You don’t have to travel to Ankara, however, to experience the same phenomenon – just go to Building 33 any time from Monday to Saturday and you’ll get the idea. But although we’ve worked hard over recent years to increase our capacity for visits to a level approaching 80,000 per year, there’s still a long waiting list. And that’s a problem. The success of the Visits Service rests on the goodwill of all the CERNois who volunteer to be guides, as well as those who graciously allow increasing numbers of visitors into their workplaces...

  14. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  15. Oil scenarios; Escenarios petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros Corradi, Alberto [Oxford Energy Policy Club (United States)

    2003-04-15

    If there is a war in Middle East affecting the Saudi Arabian crude oil production, the crude oil prices will increase at unimaginable levels. This is due to both the current decrease of the production capacity of Venezuela and the Nigeria's political fragility. Therefore, despite the fact that the majority of the reasons why the United States invade Irak are unknown, it is clear that the crude oil is one of them and is playing a major role. [Spanish] Cualesquiera que sean las verdaderas razones de Estados Unidos para invadir Irak, esta claro que el petroleo tiene un papel muy importante. Una guerra en Medio Oriente que afectara la produccion petrolera de Arabia Saudita elevaria los precios del crudo a niveles nunca vistos, debido al actual descenso de la capacidad de produccion de Venezuela y a la fragilidad politica de Nigeria.

  16. Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment: The case of oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisman, Henri; Rozenberg, Julie; Hourcade, Jean Charles

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the compensations that major oil producers have claimed for since the Kyoto Protocol in order to alleviate the adverse impacts of climate policy on their economies. The amount of these adverse impacts is assessed through a general equilibrium model which endogenizes both the reduction of oil exportation revenues under international climate policy and the macroeconomic effect of carbon pricing on Middle-East's economy. We show that compensating the drop of exportation revenues does not offset GDP and welfare losses because of the time profile of the general equilibrium effects. When considering instead compensation based on GDP losses, the effectiveness of monetary transfers proves to be drastically limited by general equilibrium effects in opened economies. The main channels of this efficiency gap are investigated and its magnitude proves to be conditional upon strategic and policy choices of the Middle-East. This leads us to suggest that other means than direct monetary compensating transfers should be discussed to engage the Middle-East in climate policies. - Highlights: • We endogenize the interplay between climate policy, oil markets and the macroeconomy. • We quantify the transfers to compensate climate policy losses in oil-exporting countries. • We assess the general equilibrium effect of monetary transfers in opened economies. • The macroeconomic efficiency of transfers is altered by general equilibrium effects. • Monetary compensation schemes are not efficient for oil exporters in climate policy

  17. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-03-01

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9 - 94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems, and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesylacetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into three groups and two subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6% to -32.4%, and from -2.5% to -64.4%, respectively. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Gaharu oil processing: gaharu oil from conventional extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fajri Osman; Mat Rasol Awang; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abd Wahab; Chow Saw Peng; Shyful Azizi Abd Rahman; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2006-01-01

    Gaharu oil is extracted through water or steam distillation of gaharu wood powder. Gaharu oil can fetch prices ranging from RM 25,000 to RM 50,000 per kg, depending on the quality or grade of gaharu wood used to produce the oil. The oil is commonly exported to the Middle East and customarily used as a perfume base. This paper describes gaharu oil extraction technique from traditional method which is commonly practiced by gaharu entrepreneurs in Malaysia. Gaharu woods are initially chopped, dried and ground into powder form. The gaharu wood powder is then soaked in water for a week. After the soaking process, the fermented powder is distilled with water using a special distiller for 4 to 10 days depending on the quality of gaharu wood used in the extraction process. (Author)

  20. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  1. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  2. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-18

    Producer of Cocoa Stressed 36 Report Issued on Country’s Foreign Reserves 37 Finance Minister on NEP Beyond 1990 37 Projects Approved for...an example the East Java Beancurd and Fermented Beancake Coop- erative (KOPTI), which is no longer receiving a soybean allotment from BULOG...quality fermented bean- cake, he said. 09846 Oil Production-Sharing Contract Signed 42000451a Jakarta BUSINESS NEWS in English 20Jul88p4 [Text

  3. CONTAGIOUS EFFECTS OF OIL PRICES ON ASIAN STOCK MARKETS’ BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jok-Tong Wan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the stock markets’ shock due to the effect of the price of oil in the East Asia Region. Particularly, this study examines if there is stock market interdependence during global oil price shocks (sudden changes for a sample of five total oil importers (the Philippines, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan, four net oil importers (Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, and China, and one net oil exporter (Malaysia between 1999 and 2014. From the result, an oil price change is collectively found to have a small but significant positive impact on the stock markets, in particular where a sudden decrease in oil prices tends to cause a stock market downturn and volatility. The world economy’s spending, financial investments in oil futures and foreign investment by oil rich nations are some underlying motives for inducing this oil-stock positive relation. The same direction of time-varying conditional correlations is found across East Asian stock markets during negative oil price shocks. The integration among East Asian stock markets is inducing the oil shock contagion to be transmitted from direct oil-affected countries (South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore to non-direct oil affected countries’ (Japan and Taiwan stock markets. In spite of a long practiced ASEAN+3 macroeconomics surveillance process and Early Warning System (EWS which can be customized for stock markets to prevent or detect the oil risk, hedging against initial oil-affected stock markets and a stronger influence by the East Asian countries in the global world of oil and capital investment are strongly suggested.

  4. Improving oil classification quality from oil spill fingerprint beyond six sigma approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juahir, Hafizan; Ismail, Azimah; Mohamed, Saiful Bahri; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wah, Wong Kok; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Retnam, Ananthy; Taib, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Mokhtar, Mazlin

    2017-07-15

    This study involves the use of quality engineering in oil spill classification based on oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS employing the six-sigma approach. The oil spills are recovered from various water areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). The study approach used six sigma methodologies that effectively serve as the problem solving in oil classification extracted from the complex mixtures of oil spilled dataset. The analysis of six sigma link with the quality engineering improved the organizational performance to achieve its objectivity of the environmental forensics. The study reveals that oil spills are discriminated into four groups' viz. diesel, hydrocarbon fuel oil (HFO), mixture oil lubricant and fuel oil (MOLFO) and waste oil (WO) according to the similarity of the intrinsic chemical properties. Through the validation, it confirmed that four discriminant component, diesel, hydrocarbon fuel oil (HFO), mixture oil lubricant and fuel oil (MOLFO) and waste oil (WO) dominate the oil types with a total variance of 99.51% with ANOVA giving F stat >F critical at 95% confidence level and a Chi Square goodness test of 74.87. Results obtained from this study reveals that by employing six-sigma approach in a data-driven problem such as in the case of oil spill classification, good decision making can be expedited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes in Plastic Resin Pellets as Markers of Oil Pollution via International Pellet Watch Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Bee Geok; Takada, Hideshige; Hosoda, Junki; Kondo, Atsuko; Yamashita, Rei; Saha, Mahua; Maes, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Oil pollution in the marine environment is an unavoidable problem due to chronic input from local sources, particularly in urban areas and oil spills. Oil pollution not only causes immediate physical damages to surrounding wildlife but also some components, including higher molecular weight PAHs, can persist in the environment for many years and pose insidious threats to the ecosystem. Long-term and nontargeted monitoring of oil pollution is important. This paper examines the ability of International Pellet Watch (IPW) for initial identification and monitoring of oil pollution by analysing PAHs and hopanes in plastic pellet samples collected globally by volunteers. PAH concentrations with the sum of 28 parent and methyl PAHs vary geographically, ranging from 0.035 to 24.4 µg/g-pellet, in line with the presence or absence of local oil pollution sources, such as oil refineries or oil spill sites. This suggests that PAHs can be used to monitor petroleum pollution in IPW. A colour-coded categorization for PAH concentrations within IPW monitoring also is established to facilitate data presentation and understanding. PAH concentrations are generally higher in Western Europe, especially around the North Sea shorelines, moderate in East Asia and North America, and lower in South East Asia, Oceania, South America, and Africa. Hopane concentrations, with a smaller spatial variation (1.7-101 µg/g-pellet), showed no spatial pattern. This result and the poor correlation between hopanes and PAHs suggest that hopane concentrations alone are unsuited to identify petroleum pollution. However, hopane compositions can be used for fingerprinting sources of oil pollution. Thus, both PAHs and hopanes in IPW allow for low cost, remote monitoring of global oil pollution.

  6. AN EQUILIBRIUM AGGREGATE DEMAND AND SUPPLY MODEL TO EXAMINE THE DYNAMIC EFFECT OF OIL PRICE SHOCKS ON OUTPUT AND INFLATION IN IRAN AS AN OIL EXPORTING COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Barkordari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iran is an oil exporting country in Middle East. The high share of the oil revenues in Iran is a serious economic problem. Due to the high dependency of Iran’s economy on oil revenues, oil price shocks have a determinant impact on macroeconomic variables. In this paper, we analyze the dynamic effects of oil price shocks and the aggregate supply and aggregate demand shocks on macroeconomic fluctuations in Iran. According to macroeconomic theory and aggregate demand and supply model in equilibrium, a structural vector autoregressive (VAR model is applied to identify different structural shocks and further assess the relative contributions of different shocks on macroeconomic fluctuations, using a decomposition approach. The results show that oil price shocks have significant and positive effects on both output and inflation. Aggregate supply and aggregate demand shocks are the main causes of fluctuation in output and inflation, and moreover, the effect of aggregate supply shocks on output is permanent in the Iranian economy. On the base of this study results, we suggest the Iranian government should accelerate the economic reforms such as the finance system of state owned enterprises, the tax system, the cash subsidy distribution system, the allocation system of the government budget in national and provincial level, the financial and banking system, and so on. The suggested reforms aim to decrease in the share of oil revenues in the economy and protect the Iranian economy in the face of any exogenous and endogenous shocks.

  7. The effect of oil revenues instability on the oil-based and labor-exporting economies: The case of the Arab region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Abbasi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The changes in the trend of the oil-export earnings in the oil-based economics not only affected the growth of the domestic economics not only affected the growth of the domestic economies but influenced the economic activities in the neighboring labor-exporting economies. This study investigates and tests the hypothesis that uncertainty associated with fluctuations in oil-export earnings affect adversely the economic growth in the oil-based economies of the Middle East. In addition, it seeks to examine the hypothesis that the impact of such fluctuations has been transmitted to the neighboring labor-exporting economies, during the period 1970-1986. Results show that oil-export instability does indeed create a wave of fluctuations in the domestic economic activity of the oil-based economies through the negative effect on investment, government spending, and domestic output. For the labor-exporting economies, results suggest that the flow of workers' remittances have had a positive impact on investment and income growth. Results also indicate that the rate of economic growth in the oil-based economies sets a broad limit on the range of feasible growth in the labor-exporting economies

  8. Antibacterial and Anticandidal Activity of Essential Oils of some Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abed, Kawther F

    2007-01-01

    The antibacterial and anticandidal properties of essential oils obtained from 7 plant species used in traditional medicine in Saudi Arabia and other Middle East countries were evaluated for activity against test bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using an agar dilution method. Our results showed that oils from Azadirachta indica, Ziziphus spine, Matricaria chamomilla, Agrimonia eupatoria and Lupinus albus, even at the highest concentration did not inhibit any of the tested organisms. The essential oil extracted from Juniperus communis and Lavandula hybrida plants did not show any antibacterial activities. However, essential oil extracts from Juniperus communis and Lavandula hybrida exhibited varying degrees of growth inhibition of Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 2.0%( v/v) of Juniper oil and 0.5% (v/v) for Lavender oil against Candida albicans. Our results suggest that the anticandidal properties of Juniper and Lavender oils may be further investigated to explore the possibility of using them in the treatment of candidal infections. (author)

  9. Localization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in surface soil of Asia’s oldest oil and gas drilling site in Assam, north-east India: Implications for the bio-economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemen Sarma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental influx of hazardous contaminants viz PAHs and HMs occurs due to oil and gas drilling, and processing of petroleum products in industrial facilities and refineries. This problem plagues crude oil drilling sites as PAHs are an essential component of and HMs coexist with crude oil. We analyzed the spatial distribution of 16 PAHs and 8 HMs in 10 contaminated sites of Assam, a state in India. These included Digboi, where crude oil was drilled in 1867 and the first oil well in Asia that was drilled. The Ʃ16 PAHs in soil were detected with a minimum of 13.48 and a maximum of 86.3 mgkg−1 and Ʃ 8 heavy metal concentrations in the soil ranged between 69.51 and 336.06 mgkg−1. A negative correlation was detected between the relative concentrations of PAHs and HMs. The results confirmed that the non-biodegradable nature of HMs made them stay in the soil for longer periods of time. In our study, we found that the levels of lead, copper, nickel, and chromium (total in soil were 73.62, 11.86, 58.97 and 158.66 mgkg−1. The recovery percentage for PAHs and HMs were in the range of 67–97% and 90–95% respectively. Spatial distribution indices for Phenanthrene/Anthracene, Naphthalene/Acenapthhylene, Chyrsene/Benzo (g, h, i perylene and Fluranthene/Pyrene calculated for soil samples indicated that the spatial distribution of PAHs in soil is uneven which might be due to variations in contaminates disseminated in soil. Such regionalized concentration has serious implications on the bio-economy both in terms of health and economy, especially since the proximity of crude oil sites to paddy fields and/or tea plantations uniquely marks the landscape of upper Assam.

  10. Effect of x-rays on edible vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agba, E.H.; Chile, S.T.; Sombo, T.

    2009-01-01

    X-irradiated and non-irradiated vegetable oil sample were investigated by assessing the effect of the radiation on peroxide and fatty acid values on Turkey oil, Groundnut oil and Soya bean oil samples. The result of the investigation showed a rise in peroxide value by 99% for Turkey oil, 61% for Groundnut oil and 52% for Soya bean oil, while the acid value increased by as much as 58% for Turkey oil, 21% for Groundnut oil and 50% for Soya bean oil. These results show that X-irradiation has an adverse effect on the quality of edible vegetable oils

  11. Russian Far East's future hinges on political fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that according to recent geological surveys, the Russian Far East (RFE), encompassing former Soviet territories east of Eastern Siberia and Transbaikalia, is endowed with impressive fossil fuel resources, However, up to now, this energy resource potential has been rather modestly explored and developed. In particular, explored (proved and probable) reserves of liquid hydrocarbons (crude and condensate) in 40 known oil and gas accumulations are estimated at only 2.2 billion bbl, corresponding to one-seventh of RFE potential, recoverable oil resources. Putting these reserves data into the frame of national comparisons, one can conclude that, on the whole, explored RFE oil potential constitutes a negligible fraction (less than 1%) of Russia's oil reserves, while the region's gas endowment, though modest compared with that of northwestern Siberia, contributes nearly 60% of the Russian Federation's offshore gas reserves

  12. Antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of palmarosa and citronella essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sonali; Biswas, Dhrubojyoti; Mukherjee, Anita

    2011-10-11

    Essential oils of palmarosa and citronella have been extensively used in ancient Indian and South-east Asian traditional medicines. These essential oils have been reported to exhibit antimicrobial, anti parasitic effects against bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, and viruses. In the present study the oils were tested for their potential antigenotoxic and antioxidant properties in human lymphocyte cells. The antigenotoxic effect on human lymphocyte cells (measurement of cell viability, DNA damage) was studied using trypan blue dye exclusion test, plasmid pBR322 DNA strand scission, and comet assay. Anti-oxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH(+) free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation assay. The essential oils showed a good antigenotoxic activity against methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) and hydrogen peroxide. In addition, a significant dose dependent antioxidant activity was observed. Our data provide evidence that support the usage of palmarosa and citronella essential oils in traditional herbal preparations. They can constitute a natural source of a new and safe antioxidant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  14. Tank Model Application for Runoff and Infiltration Analysis on Sub-Watersheds in Lalindu River in South East Sulawesi Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirdhana Ahmad, Sitti

    2017-05-01

    Improper land management often causes flood, this is due to uncontrolled runoff. Runoff is affected by the management of the land cover. The phenomena also occurred in South East Sulawesi, Indonesia. This study aims to analyze the flow rate of water in watershed of Lalindu River in North Konawe, South East Sulawesi by using a Tank Model. The model determined the magnitude of the hydrologic runoff, infiltration capacity and soil water content several land uses were evaluated in the study area. The experimental and calculation results show that the runoff in the forest is 2,639.21 mm/year, in the reed is 2,517.05 mm/year, in the oil palm with a slope more than 45% is 2,715.36 mm/year, and in the oil palm with slopes less than 45% is 2,709.59 mm/year. Infiltration in the forest is 30.70 mm/year, in the reed is 7.51 mm/year, in the palm oil with a slope more than 45% is 24.13 mm/year and in the palm oil with slopes less than 45% is 29.67 mm/year. Runoff contributes to stream flow for water availability.

  15. China's Expansion into the Middle East and Its Effects on U.S. Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saito, Henry T

    2007-01-01

    ...% of the world's proven oil reserves located in the Middle East, and China realizes that Middle Eastern states will play a vital role in Beijing's ability to meet its energy demands in the future...

  16. Middle East natural gas - getting it to markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, R.

    1996-01-01

    Middle East gas reserves, production, and consumption were presented graphically, along with the demand for 'piped' or liquefied natural gas in the Middle East itself, in Asia and in Europe. The European gas market outlook was examined, taking into account economic growth, EEC restructuring, crude oil prices and their effects on net-backs, deregulation and competitive grid-based energy, upstream and midstream investments under conditions of price uncertainty, and environmental and social influences. Middle East pipeline proposals (17 projects) for a total of 34,943 kilometres of pipeline, were reviewed. The general conclusion was that (1) the Middle East has lots of gas, (2) both Asia and Europe will be substantial markets for Middle East LNG despite the 'tyranny of distance', and (3) pipelines to these markets will be built in the longer-term. tabs., figs

  17. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled water. Keywords: Neem oil ...

  18. Physics Reality Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukhimova, Tatiana

    The attention span of K-12 students is very short; they are used to digesting information in short snippets through social media and TV. To get the students interested in physics, we created the Physics Reality Show: a series of staged short videos with duration no longer than a few minutes. Each video explains and illustrates one physics concept or law through a fast-paced sequence of physics demonstrations and experiments. The cast consists entirely of physics undergraduate students with artistic abilities and substantial experience in showing physics demonstrations at current outreach events run by the department: Physics Shows and Physics & Engineering Festival. Undergraduate students are of almost the same age as their high-school audience. They are in the best position to connect with kids and convey their fascination with physics. The PI and other faculty members who are involved in the outreach advise and coach the cast. They help students in staging the episodes and choosing the most exciting and relevant demonstrations. Supported by the APS mini-outreach Grant.

  19. Economics Aspects of Increasing the Oil Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grendel Peter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In paper I describe mainly high price of oil, which has influence on many circumstances. The important effect on growing up the price of oil has situation in Mid-east, and everyday rising consumption of oil in China. Meaningful position have USA, which using 45% of word energy. The problem is particularly in daily mining of lode. In next part i describing aspect of this situation on stock-exchange, mainly behaviour of speculators, and OPEC, and also presure on inflation in Euro-zone. In the last chapter I discuss about reaction of the big world oil concern like CONOCO, SHELL, BP, OMV and MOL.

  20. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  1. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  2. Agricultural waste derived fuel from oil meal and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Ko, Chun-Han

    2018-02-01

    Oil meal is a by-product of the oil industry (peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal). Oil is extracted from seeds, and the leftover meal is then pelletized, and this process generates a large amount of waste oil meal in Taiwan. In this study, peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal derived fuels were prepared from the waste oil meal with waste cooking oil. The combustion behaviors of the oil meal derived fuels were also investigated. The characteristics of the derived fuel made from oil meal with waste cooking oil showed that the ash content is less than 10% and its calorific value reached 5000 kcal/kg. Additionally, the activation energy of the oil meal and waste cooking oil was analyzed by the Kissinger method. The results show that the fuel prepared in this work from the oil meal mixed with waste cooking oil is suitable for use as an alternative fuel and also avoids food safety issues.

  3. A Study on the Determination of the World Crude Oil Price and Methods for Its Forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.K. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to provide the groundwork to develop the methods to forecast the world crude oil price. The methodology is used by both literature survey and empirical study. For this purpose, first of all, this report reviewed the present situation and the outlook of the world oil market based on oil demand, supply and prices. This analysis attempted to provide a deeper understanding to support the development of oil forecasting methods. The result of this review, in general, showed that the oil demand will be maintained annually at an average rate of around 2.4% under assumption that oil supply has no problem until 2020. The review showed that crude oil price will be a 3% increasing rate annually in the 1999 real term. This report used the contents of the summary review as reference data in order to link the KEEIOF model. In an effort to further investigate the contents of oil political economy, this report reviewed the articles of political economy about oil industry. It pointed out that the world oil industry is experiencing the change of restructuring oil industry after the Gulf War in 1990. The contents of restructuring oil industry are characterized by the 'open access' to resources not only in the Persian Gulf, but elsewhere in the world as well - especially the Caspian Sea Basin. In addition, the contents showed that the oil industries are shifted from government control to government and industry cooperation after the Gulf War. In order to examine the characters and the problems surrounding oil producing countries, this report described the model of OPEC behavior and strategy of oil management with political and military factors. Among examining the models of OPEC behavior, this report focused on hybrid model to explain OPEC behavior. In reviewing political and religious power structure in the Middle East, the report revealed that US emphasizes the importance of the Middle East for guaranteeing oil security. However, three

  4. An Estimate of Recoverable Heavy Oil Resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2009-01-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the La Luna-Quercual Total Petroleum System encompasses approximately 50,000 km2 of the East Venezuela Basin Province that is underlain by more than 1 trillion barrels of heavy oil-in-place. As part of a program directed at estimating the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of priority petroleum basins worldwide, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the recoverable oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit. This estimate relied mainly on published geologic and engineering data for reservoirs (net oil-saturated sandstone thickness and extent), petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, and formation volume factors), recovery factors determined by pilot projects, and estimates of volumes of oil-in-place. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of 513 billion barrels of technically recoverable heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the East Venezuela Basin Province; the range is 380 to 652 billion barrels. The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit thus contains one of the largest recoverable oil accumulations in the world.

  5. JPRS Report, East Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: East Europe, Party Activities, Socialist Party, Freedom Fighters, Education, Youth Training, Historian, Death Penalty, Peace Making Duties, Socialism, Communism, Economics, Restructuring...

  6. Experimental investigation of wettability alteration on residual oil saturation using nonionic surfactants: Capillary pressure measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Amirpour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the novel technique for enhancing oil recovery from available petroleum reservoirs is one of the important issues in future energy demands. Among of all operative factors, wettability may be the foremost parameter affecting residual oil saturation in all stage of oil recovery. Although wettability alteration is one of the methods which enhance oil recovery from the petroleum reservoir. Recently, the studies which focused on this subject were more than the past and many contributions have been made on this area. The main objective of the current study is experimentally investigation of the two nonionic surfactants effects on altering wettability of reservoir rocks. Purpose of this work is to change the wettability to preferentially the water-wet condition. Also reducing the residual oil saturation (Sor is the other purpose of this work. The wettability alteration of reservoir rock is measured by two main quantitative methods namely contact angle and the USBM methods. Results of this study showed that surfactant flooding is more effective in oil-wet rocks to change their wettability and consequently reducing Sor to a low value. Cedar (Zizyphus Spina Christi is low priced, absolutely natural, and abundantly accessible in the Middle East and Central Asia. Based on the results, this material can be used as a chemical surfactant in field for enhancing oil recovery.

  7. Civil Liability for Marine Oil Pollution Damage: A comparative and economic study of the international, US and the Chinese compensation regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wang (Hui)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOil resources are unevenly distributed on the earth and most oil needs to be transported by sea. Therefore, ocean transport of oil is largely a one-way trade from the principal supply areas to the oil consuming states. The main routes of crude oil shipping are from the Middle East

  8. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  9. Hydrocarbon distributions in sediments of the open area of the Arabian Gulf following the 1991 Gulf War oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Lihaibi, S.S.; Ghazi, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Surface sediments collected from the open area of the Arabian Gulf were analysed for total petroleum hydrocarbons and specific aliphatic hydrocarbon components in order to provide information on the extent of oil contamination and the degree of weathering of the spilled oil following the Gulf War. The surface distribution of the petroleum hydrocarbons showed an increasing trend towards the north-east, and among the individual transects there was a pronounced increasing trend towards the north-west direction. Despite off-shore oil-related activities as well as a potential impact from the 1991 oil spill, the concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the study area were relatively low. This finding may be attributed to the effectiveness of weathering processes. (author)

  10. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  11. C15083. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-02-10

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9-94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1.7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into 3 groups and 2 subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6 to -32.4%, and from -2.5 to -64.4%, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Deceased Slabs Drive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The application of Re-Os isotope geochemistry to dating single oils is a nascent field [1,2]. Challenges include dissection of oils into asphaltene-maltene (ASPH-MALT) components in a way that preserves meaningful chronologic and source information. Significantly, oil-water mixing rapidly transfers Os to the oil, while Re exchange is sluggish [3]. The Os initial ratio of the oil is shifted in the direction of Os carried in the aqueous fluid, whereas the Re-Os isotopic age is preserved. We show that this phenomenon is operative in natural systems. Further, we show that deserpentinization of old oceanic slabs [4], may be linked to expulsion of Os-enriched waters into overlying sedimentary sections - a process that may be of fundamental importance for oil generation. This conclusion does not diminish the role of traditional organic-rich shales as source rocks for the hydrocarbon, but shows that external fluids are essential to petroleum generation. Moreover, the external fluids may be an important driver for expulsion and migration of oils. We have taken apart several petroleum systems from source rock, to residual oil, to tar mat development, to in situ live oil, through to produced oil. In many cases, a fluid with low 187Os/188Os - unlike that of normal basinal brines - provides a critical component to the oil-water mixture. Funding - CHRONOS project supported by Norwegian petroleum industry (Eni-Norge, Lundin, Aker BP) Acknowledgement - Christine Fichler [4], who first queried us on old slabs and oil, and stimulated ideas. [1] Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., Hannah, J.L., Galimberti, R., Nali, M., Yang, G., and Zimmerman, A. (2016) Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 179: 53-75. [doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.01.016] [2] DiMarzio, J., Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., and Hannah, J.L. (in press) Residency of rhenium and osmium in a heavy crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. [3] Hurtig, N.C., Georgiev, S

  13. Seed oil from Harmal (Rhazya stricta Decne grown in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia: A potential source of δ-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imededdine Arbi Nehdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhazya stricta (R. stricta known as Harmal is widely distributed in Saudi Arabia and throughout the Middle East. It is used as a medicinal plant in traditional cultures and the seeds are a source of unsaturated oil. In the present study, tocol (tocopherol and tocotrienol, triacylglycerol, and fatty acid compositions, pigment content, thermal behavior, and various physicochemical properties of R. stricta oil were characterized to determine the potential uses of this seed oil. Our results indicate that the oil is a rich source of bioactive molecules, including δ-tocopherol (896 mg/100 g, γ-tocopherol (148 mg/100 g and carotenoids (15.67 mg/kg. The oil content of the seeds was 13.68% and the triacylglycerols mainly consisted of linoleic acid (59.03%, and oleic acid (27.01%. The major triacylglycerols were trilinoleate, dilinoleate and monolinoleate. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA in the oil was high (9.20. Additionally, the oil showed a high degree of thermal stability and a low melting point of approximately −25 °C. These data indicate that R. stricta seed oil, which is low in saturated fats and rich in bioactive compounds, is potentially useful in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  14. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  15. Compositional modification of crude oil during oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yangming; Weng, Huanxin [Department of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Zulin; Chen, Qi [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, Hubei (China)

    2003-05-01

    Ten crude oils from two recovery stages spanning 5-10-year interval of five productive wells in the Tarim Basin, northwest China were analyzed for their compositional modification during production process. Significant compositional changes in polar and nonpolar fractions between the previous oil samples and the latter ones were noted at both bulk and molecular level. The latter oil samples appear to contain more aromatic fraction and less asphaltenes and resin, and their gas chromatography (GC) data for whole oil show reduced alkanes with low molecular weight and enhanced high homologue relative to the previous oil samples. Compared with the oils collected from the previous recovery stage, the concentration of basic type of nitrogen-containing compounds and organic acids in oils from the latter recovery stage have a reducing trend, suggesting the occurrence of interaction between crude oil and reservoir rock.

  16. Crude oil pricing in Asia and future problems; Asia no gen`yu pricing to kongo no kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper describes pricing factors of crude oil for Asia and future problems. Price of the Middle East crude oil for Asia is determined by linking the spot price of Dubayy crude oil using as a marker. Factors affecting the pricing of marker crude oil include the information dispatching functions for prices of spot market and paper market of marker crude oil, the presence of competitive crude oil, and the correlation between market of oil products and price of crude oil. The paper market of Dubayy crude oil with a small scale of trading provides poor impact and transparency. In Asia, there is no strong competitive crude oil except the Middle East crude oil. There is only a weak price linking between crude oil and products. These are the background that the price of Middle East crude oil stays at the high level and the price adjusting functions are hard to work. The marker crude oil should be changed to another except Dubayy crude oil, and information should be dispatched from purchasers based on the stable standard crude oil. The real paper market should be created, and the force of speaking to oil producing countries should be enhanced by concentrating forces of major oil consuming countries in Asia. It is necessary to find out competitive crude oils. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  18. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The East African Medical Journal is intended for publication of papers on original work and reviews of all aspects of medicine. Communications bearing on clinical and basic research on problems relevant to East Africa and other African countries will receive special attention. The EAMJ has a 3 ...

  19. Middle East and North Africa | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This has resulted in uneven growth, economic vulnerability, a fragile democracy, and high unemployment — especially among women and young people. Across the Middle East and North Africa, local economies are under strain, often relying too heavily on the oil industry. Many countries deplete their natural resources at ...

  20. Networks model of the East Turkistan terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ben-xian; Zhu, Jun-fang; Wang, Shun-guo

    2015-02-01

    The presence of the East Turkistan terrorist network in China can be traced back to the rebellions on the BAREN region in Xinjiang in April 1990. This article intends to research the East Turkistan networks in China and offer a panoramic view. The events, terrorists and their relationship are described using matrices. Then social network analysis is adopted to reveal the network type and the network structure characteristics. We also find the crucial terrorist leader. Ultimately, some results show that the East Turkistan network has big hub nodes and small shortest path, and that the network follows a pattern of small world network with hierarchical structure.

  1. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  2. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  3. Impact of savanna conversion to oil palm plantations on C stocks dynamics and soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Guillaume, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Ruegg, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale expansion of oil palm cultivation on forested land in South-East Asia during the last decades lead to high negative environmental impacts. Because rainforests store high amount of C, their conversion to oil palm plantations results in large net CO2 emissions. Oil palm cultivation in tropical ecosystems such as savanna that store less C than forests is seen as an alternative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of future oil palm development. While this option is more and more frequently mentioned, few data are available on the effective gain in C storage. Furthermore negative impact on soil organic carbon and soil fertility could offset gains of C storage in oil palm biomass. Here, we present results on aboveground and belowground C stocks and soil nutrient dynamics over a full rotation cycle of oil palm plantations established on tropical savanna grasslands. Three natural savanna grasslands as reference sites and 9 oil palm plantations ranging from two to twenty-seven years old were selected in the Llanos in Colombia. Oxisols were sampled down to 70 cm in each management zones of oil palm plantations (weeded circle, interrow, frond piles and harvesting path). Taking advantages of a shift from C4 to C3 vegetation, we quantified savanna-derived soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates and how they were affected by management practices (mineral fertilization, organic amendments, etc.). Results show that, in opposite to forest conversion, C storage increases when savannas are converted to oil palm plantations. Because soil C storage was very low in natural conditions, SOC changes had little effects on overall C storage. Substitution of savanna-derived SOC by oil palm-derived SOC was very fast in the topsoil and highest under frond pile and weeded circle where C and nutrients inputs are highest. However, stabilization of oil palm-derived SOC compensated loss of savanna-derived SOC rather than increased SOC stocks

  4. Oil quotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Prices quoted during the last few weeks for fuel oil and gas oil - on the ARA market, on the New York future market, by the Berlin price supervision authority - fob TW from Germany storage or refinery, and - on the German commodity markets for fuel oil are listed.

  5. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  6. Energy privatization in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetreault, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The issue of energy privatization in the Middle East was discussed with particular examples from Kuwait. The development of Kuwait's domestic political institutions is unique in the Arab Gulf which makes privatization more complicated than in other Middle Eastern countries. The major issue in Kuwait is whether foreign investors and domestic private investors will be allowed equity participation in oil and gas production projects. It was suggested that the answer depends on general assessments of national financial and state security interests and on individual case judgements respecting each potential partnership. Historically, one of the main reasons for nationalization of private investment in oil and gas in the Middle East was the desire of governments to increase state revenues. Nationalization permitted states to set prices and production levels themselves and to keep the difference between costs and prices instead of sharing it with corporate owners. However, nationalization is not without its problems as indicated by the difficulties encountered by governments in trying to make the the OPEC-managed hydrocarbon regime work. The three main reasons for the current willingness of Middle Eastern governments to consider re-admitting private companies as equity participants in their energy industries, namely market share and terms of access, interstate disputes, and desire to minimize corruption, were also discussed. It was suggested that these are strong arguments that support taking another look at privatization as a strategy that is in the long-term interest of Middle Eastern oil producing states. 19 refs

  7. Primary domestication and early uses of the emblematic olive tree: palaeobotanical, historical and molecular evidence from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Boiy, Tom; Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Khadari, Bouchaïb; Besnard, Guillaume

    2012-11-01

    Our knowledge of the origins of olive tree domestication in the Middle East and on the processes governing its extension and persistence in different vegetation types from prehistory through antiquity to modern times derives from diverse sources, spanning the biological sciences to the humanities. Nonetheless, it lacks a robust overview that may lead to floating interpretations. This is especially true in the Middle East, considered as the cradle of agriculture, and where the evolutionary history of this emblematic tree is intertwined with that of civilizations. Olive fruit, oil and wood have been, since Prehistoric times, characteristic products of the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea. In the domestic economy of these countries, the olive tree gradually became a traditional tree crop since the first oil extraction, through the emergence of regional commerce that accompanied the rise and fall of early Near-Middle Eastern urbanism, until the development of modern trade, with an oil production estimated at circa 3000000 tons per year. The rising importance of the olive tree in human life has turned the tree into an endless source of fascination in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean, a symbol and a sacred tree, widely cited in the Bibles, the Koran, and in ancient literature. Here we argue that advances in radiocarbon chronology, palaeobotany, genetics, and archaeology-history have profoundly refined the history of olive trees in the Middle East. This review shows that the heartland of primary olive domestication must be enlarged to the Levant and not only focus on the Jordan Valley. The domestication of the olive tree is a long and ongoing process, linked to the early production of oil and the development of the olive trade. We also suggest that the olive tree became a particular icon, a sacred tree, during the Biblical period in the Levant. © 2012 The Author. Biological Reviews © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Dynamic international oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Linde, C.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic International Oil Market Developments and Structure 1860-1990 discusses the logic of changing market structures of the international oil industry. The market structures have, in the course of time, oscillated between competition and oligopoly, as the oil market expanded, matured, stagnated, and expanded again. This book provides a dynamic interpretation of the intensifying struggle among producer, and consumer governments, and oil companies, over the distribution of economic rents and profits. In particular, it shows the shifting fortunes of the governments and companies as they try to control the recurring capacity constraints between the upstream and downstream sectors, generated by the instability of the oil market. The first part of the book examines market conditions and developments between 1860 and 1990; the second part analyzes market structures after 1945

  9. A comparison of cold flow properties of biodiesel produced from virgin and used frying oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shanableh, Filiz [Food Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Evcil, Ali; Govsa, Cemal [Mechanical Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Savasdylmac, Mahmut A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Booazici University (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    Bio-diesel can be produced from different kinds of feedstock. The purpose of this paper is to research and make the comparison of the cold flow properties of bio-diesel produced from refined-virgin frying vegetable oil (RVFVO) and waste frying vegetable oil (WFVO). As is known, bio-diesel fuel will have higher cloud points (CP), cold filter plugging points (CFPP) and pour points (PP) if it is derived from fat or oil which consists of significant amounts of saturated fatty compounds. Both RVFVO and WFVO were derived from the same cafeteria on a Near East University campus and converted to biodiesel fuel through base catalyzed transesterification reaction. As the current results show, there is no considerable difference in cold flow properties of the bio-diesel produced from RVFVO and WFVO. So WFVO seems be better positioned to serve as raw material in biodiesel production because of its lower cost and its environmental benefits.

  10. Oil Content and Oil Quality Properties of Some Grape Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    BAYDAR, Nilgün GÖKTÜRK

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the oil contents and some oil quality properties of seeds taken from 18 grape cultivars were examined. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 11.6 to 19.6%. Grape seeds were rich in oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 17.8 to 26.5% and 60.1 to 70.1%, respectively. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 86%, and the average concentration of total tocopherol in oil was around 454 mg/kg. The results indicate that grape seed...

  11. Utilization of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Binder in Lightweight Oil Palm Shell Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Yong Jing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally fly ash (FA has been used to replace cement as binder in the geopolymer concrete. The utilization of palm oil industrial waste materials known as palm oil fuel ash (POFA and oil palm shell (OPS that are abundantly available in South East Asia as binder and coarse aggregate in geopolymer concrete would give an added advantage in both the environmental and economic aspects. The mechanical properties of the OPS geopolymer concrete (OPSGC through the use of POFA, FA, and OPS are investigated and reported. A total of ten OPSGC mixtures were prepared with varying percentages of POFA and FA such as 0, 10, 20, 40, and 100%. The specimens prepared with two alkaline solution to binder (AK/B ratios of 0.35 and 0.55 were oven cured at 65°C for 48 hours. The experimental results showed that the highest compressive strength of 30 MPa was obtained for the mix with 20% replacement of FA by POFA and AK/B ratio of 0.55, which underwent oven curing. Further, the mix of up to 20% POFA (with AK/B ratio of 0.55 can be categorized as structural lightweight concrete. An increase of the POFA content beyond 20% decreases the mechanical properties, and hence this mix is recommended to be used.

  12. The post-war Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempest, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Middle East remains today the global energy fulcrum. One year after the Persian Gulf war, the region is in greater turmoil and political uncertainty than it has known in modern times. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent external military intervention forced neighboring states to question the need for a foreign military presence in the future. The rift between the secular revolutionary states in the region led by Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria and the traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia and the emirates of the gulf has widened. Egypt provides, at present, an uncomfortable bridge. The balance of political forces may be shifting. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Where will we see the new leadership in the Middle East? Will it again play a role through the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and determination of the oil price in shaping the structure of global energy supply and demand?

  13. The post-war Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempest, P.

    1992-03-09

    The Middle East remains today the global energy fulcrum. One year after the Persian Gulf war, the region is in greater turmoil and political uncertainty than it has known in modern times. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent external military intervention forced neighboring states to question the need for a foreign military presence in the future. The rift between the secular revolutionary states in the region led by Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria and the traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia and the emirates of the gulf has widened. Egypt provides, at present, an uncomfortable bridge. The balance of political forces may be shifting. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Where will we see the new leadership in the Middle East Will it again play a role through the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and determination of the oil price in shaping the structure of global energy supply and demand

  14. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-03

    JPRS-SEA-90-023 3 AUGUST 1990 !■■■■■ !■■■■■ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS 91$ East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 139...DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 4 East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-90-023 CONTENTS 3 A UGUST1990 INDONESIA East Timor Governor Describes Province’s...percent thought the cadres were taking bribes from the men; and 19.5 percent thought the cadres were decadent in quality and life style. Clearly, the

  15. Dante in Alberta: chronicle of an oil addicted civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Belkaid

    2010-01-01

    According to the author, Alberta, an heavenly province of Western Canada, is the theater of the biggest ecological crime of the moment in the form of oil exploitation. Alberta gathers all the aberrations and dramas that have been seen before in other oil producing countries, in particular in Africa, Middle-East and Asia: corruption, defiance of minority rights, terror threats, environment destruction etc

  16. North sea: a quarter of total's reserves (excluding the Middle East)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, for the fifth successive year, Total increased its proven reserves of hydrocarbons which reach 4.3 Gboe (+ 6% compared to 1993). Outside the Middle East, the reserves show a development of 9% and reach the threshold of 2 Gboe. In 1994, Total's production of hydrocarbons reached 633,000 boe/d (+ 4%), despite a fall of 3% in oil production in the Middle East. Excluding the Middle East, production was increased to 345,000 boe/d (+ 12%), including 212,000 boe/d for gas (+ 20%). Exploration/production investments were 5.8 GF in 1994 (excluding labour) and the development program for reserves and production for the coming years is based on yearly investments of some 6 GF. Total's production in Europe, essentially in the North Sea, was 154,000 boe/d in 1994 (+ 12%). This zone has potential for significant growth for the group which has undertaken exploration surveys in the Western Shetlands and in Haltenbanken. In the British zone, the Dunbar field and its neighbour Ellon were brought into production in December 1994. In the Norwegian zone, the Froy field, was brought into production last June. In the Lille-Frigg field, whose production started in May, initial reserves are estimated at 6,7 Bcm of gas. Total Norge AS also has interests in the producing fields of Ekofisk, Frigg, East-Frigg, Heimdal, Sleipner East, Veslefrikk, Oseberg, Brage, in those of Sleipner West and Huldra (start-up scheduled for 1997) and in Troll (phase 1) which should be producing in 1996. In the Dutch zone, the K4b and K5a blocks brought into production last November hold reserves estimated at 20 Bcm; their production could reach 2 Bcm/year as from 1995. (authors). 1 tab., 1 photo

  17. Oxidative stability of fish oil blended with butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, M; Konishi, H; Tatsumi, K

    1999-09-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil blended with milk products was evaluated. Oxidation of the oil blend was determined by peroxide value and rancimat test. Improved oxidative stability was observed for fish oil blended with butter. Unsalted and salted butters showed no difference in improvement of effect on oxidative stability of fish oil. No influence on oxidative stability for the fish oil was observed with butter oil, which was the oil fraction of butter. These studies suggested that the improved oxidative stability of fish oil-butter blend was due to the hydrophilic fraction of butter and that butter could improve the oxidative stability of polyunsaturated oils such as fish oil.

  18. Oil market in Asia. Now and future up to year 2000 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Yu

    1995-01-01

    Asia's growing oil demand will be met by imports from the Middle East to an overwhelmingly extent. Therefore, more refining capacity will be needed to cope with the oil demand. New refineries will require the increasingly sophisticated technology to produce higher yields of transportation fuels and older ones will have to be upgrated, which will reshape the integration of downstream activities in this region. Further, East Asia, including China, as a net importer of oil, is vulnerable because of low oil sufficiency and inadequate stockpiling, while oil demand is increasing at remarkable rates. (author)

  19. Oil dependence. Myths and realities of a strategic stake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaliand, G.; Jafalian, A.

    2005-04-01

    Using a series of regional studies, this collective book proposes to evaluate the strategic dimensions of the oil dependence and to determine its geopolitical impacts in the Middle East, Russia, China, USA and Europe. Content: the oil stakes at the beginning of the 21. century; in the center of the oil scene: the Middle East; oil dependence and US foreign policy: beyond myths; the Russian oil, instrument of influence and of alliances re-knitting; China and oil: security feelings and strategic approach; towards a European supply strategy; beyond petroleum: what alternatives; 150 years of petroleum history; the energy dependence; energy economy; automotive fuels and pollution abatement; limitation of greenhouse gas emissions; glossary; bibliography; index; Web links. (J.S.)

  20. Fluxus East / Petra Stegmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stegmann, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Näitusest "Fluxus East" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis. Fluxuse liikumisest leedu kunstniku George Maciunase (1931-1978) eestvedamisel. Liikumise ilmingutest Eestis (happeningid, muusikaaktsioonid, visuaalne poeesia, mail art). Kuraator Petra Stegmann, kujundaja Andrea Pichl

  1. Maps showing thermal maturity of Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range, Owl Creek, and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, the Granite Mountains on the south, and the Wind River Range on the west. Important conventional and unconventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Mississippian through Tertiary. It has been suggested that various Upper Cretaceous marine shales are the principal hydrocarbon source rocks for many of these accumulations. Numerous source rock studies of various Upper Cretaceous marine shales throughout the Rocky Mountain region have led to the conclusion that these rocks have generated, or are capable of generating, oil and (or) gas. With recent advances and success in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation there has been an increase in exploration and completion of wells in these marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were traditionally thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks. Important parameters that control hydrocarbon production from shales include: reservoir thickness, amount and type of organic matter, and thermal maturity. The purpose of this report is to present maps and a structural cross section showing levels of thermal maturity, based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro), for Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin.

  2. Distribution and quantitative assessment of world crude oil reserves and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Root, David H.; Dietzman, William D.

    1983-01-01

    World Demonstrated Reserves of crude oil are approximately 723 billion barrels of oil (BBO). Cumulative production is 445 BBO and annual production is 20 BBO. Demonstrated Reserves of crude-oil have declined over the past 10 years consistent with discoveries lagging production over the same period. The assessment of Undiscovered Resources shows a 90 percent probability that the amount discoverable lies between 321 and 1,417 BBO, 550 BBO being the most likely value. The most likely value for Ultimate recoverable resources is 1,718 BBO. The distribution of Ultimate Resources of crude oil will remain highly skewed toward the Middle East; no frontier areas that have potentials large enough to significantly affect present distribution are recognized. Rates of discovery have continued to decline over the past 20 years even though exploration activity has increased in recent years. Prudence dictates, therefore, that the low side of the assessment of Undiscovered Resources be responsibly considered and that alternate energy sources be a part of future planning. Extra-heavy oil and bitumen are assessed separately, with Reserves being figured as the annual productive capacity of installed facilities times 25 years. The annual production of extra-heavy oil is about 8 million barrels and of bitumen about 60 million barrels.

  3. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  4. East Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-17

    East issue a "permanent visa" to the author previously ostracized in the East. Asked today how Franz Kafka is faring in the CSSR, Frantisek Kautman...meeting of the research group "Planned Utilization of Product-Money Relationships" at the Franz Mehring Institute of the Karl-Marx University...Bucharest, 1984. 2. Andrew Dick Wood, "Plywoods of the World," Edinburgh and London, 1963. 3. Franz Kollmann, "Furnire," Lagenholzer und

  5. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-25

    JPRS-SEA-90-022 25 JULY 1990 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 141 REPRODUCED BY U.S...Uxitaaitod DTIC QUALITY arsPBCTESD, East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-90-022 CONTENTS 25 JULY 1990 BURMA Karen Guerrillas Threaten To Kill Foreign...Crossborder Smuggling in Minh Hai Continues [KINH TE DOI NGOAI 5 May] 18 Report on Timber Export Corruption Case, Vice Minister’s Involvement [NHAN

  6. Leukaemia in East Suffolk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, M.F.H.

    1983-09-01

    An investigation was conducted by the East Suffolk Health Authority to determine whether there were any geographical variations in the incidence of leukaemia over the last fifteen years in East Suffolk suggesting an environmental hazard, e.g. Sizewell Power Station. No areas were found to have a statistically significant increased incidence of leukaemia cases although there did appear to be a cluster of cases in the Leiston area. (U.K.)

  7. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at

  8. Automatic Data Collection Design for Real-Time Detection of Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such disasters can occur at any point within the entire oil-pipeline topology, which is geographically dispersed across the country spanning from the extreme south-south through south-east and south-west to the north central. A major cause of oil spillage disaster is oil-pipeline vandalism, which has recently become one of ...

  9. Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity of the Volatiles of Five Artemisia Species from Far East Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulmira Özek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia argyi , A. feddei, A. gmelinii, A. manshurica, and A. olgensis (Asteraceae were collected in Far East Russia. Oils were hydrodistilled and simultaneously analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Main constituents were found as follows in Artemisia oils: selin-11-en-4 a -ol (18.0%, 1,8-cineole (14.2.0%, artemisia alcohol (12.9%, borneol (9.7% in A. argyi; camphor (31.2%, 1,8-cineole (17.6%, a -thujone (5.7% in A. feddei; longiverbenone (12.0%, isopinocamphone (8.9%, 1,8-cineole (6.7%, camphor (5.8%, trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (5.3% in A. gmelinii; germacrene D (11.2%, rosifoliol (10.1%, caryophyllene oxide (6.8%, eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (5.6% in A. manshurica; eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (6.9%, caryophyllene oxide (5.6%, guaia-6,10(14-dien-4 b -ol (5.1% and hexadecanoic acid (5.0% in A. olgensis. Oils were subsequently submitted for antifungal and antimosquito evaluations. Artemisia species oils showed biting deterrent effects in Aedes aegypti and Artemisia gmelinii oil with the most active biting deterrence index values of 0.82 ± 0.1 at 10 m g/mL. Larval bioassay of A. gmelinii and A. olgensis oils showed higher larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti larvae with LD50 values of 83.8 (72.6 – 95.7 ppm and 91.0 (73.8 – 114.5 ppm, respectively. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using direct overlay bioautography assay and all showed non-selective weak antifungal activity. Antioxidant evaluations of the oils were performed by using b -carotene bleaching, Trolox equivalent and DPPH tests. The tested Artemisia oils demonstrated moderate antioxidant activity.

  10. MOTOR LUBRICANT OIL DURATION RATE MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Abbas Laz*, Mohamed Gomma Elnour

    2016-01-01

    The paper is trying to give information about motor lubricant oil its grades according to relatively international standard. The paper suggested that due to poor oil personnel experience in Sudan lubricant oil choosing and change shows less effectiveness. The objectives of this study are to give the condition of maintaining correct time for the motor oil changing and the suitable oil type that helps to optimize lubricant cost and performance for motor engine. For that the process of fixing m...

  11. The nexus of oil consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in China, Japan and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboori, Behnaz; Rasoulinezhad, Ehsan; Sung, Jinsok

    2017-03-01

    This article attempts to explore the nexus between oil consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in three East Asian oil importing countries (i.e. China, South Korea and Japan) over the period 1980-2013, by using the Granger causality, Johansen cointegration test, Generalised Impulse Response functions (GIRF) and variance decompositions. The empirical findings provide evidence for the existence of a long-run relationship between oil consumption and economic growth in China and Japan. The results also point to a uni-directional causality from running from oil consumption to economic growth in China and Japan, and from oil consumption to CO 2 emissions in South Korea. The overall results of GIRF reveal that while economic growth in China and South Korea shows a positive response to oil consumption, this variable responses negatively to the same shock in Japan. In addition, oil consumption spikes cause a negative response of CO 2 emissions in Japan and China, as well as a U-shape response in South Korea.

  12. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  13. Heavy oil markets and investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Jackie [CERA North America (United States)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, the exploitation of heavy oil resources is increasing. The aim of this paper is to present the heavy oil sector and to show which are the factors influencing heavy oil growth and production. A large part of heavy oil reserves lies in the Americas, with about 45% of the world's reserves in Latin America and over 35% in North America. The development of the heavy oil sector is dependent on economic, technological and environmental factors; greenhouse gas policies have important impacts on the development of the heavy oil industry as well as downstream market access. This presentation highlighted the great potential that North and South America have in terms of heavy oil but that the development of this sector will depend on several factors.

  14. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, John; Serletis, Apostolos

    2009-01-01

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  15. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of seven Eucalyptus species essential oils leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebei, Khaled; Sakouhi, Fawzi; Herchi, Wahid; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2015-01-19

    In this paper, we have studied the essential oils chemical composition of the leaves of seven Eucalyptus species developed in Tunisia. Eucalyptus leaves were picked from trees growing in different arboretums in Tunisia. Choucha and Mrifeg arboretums located in Sedjnene, region of Bizerte (Choucha: E. maideni, E. astrengens et E. cinerea; Mrifeg : E. leucoxylon), Korbous arboretums located in the region of Nabeul, North East Tunisia with sub-humid bioclimate, (E. lehmani), Souiniet-Ain Drahem arboretum located in region of Jendouba (E. sideroxylon, E. bicostata). Essential oils were individually tested against a large panel of microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6539), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Listeria ivanovii (RBL 30), Bacillus cereus (ATCC11778). The yield of essential oils ranged from 1.2% to 3% (w/w) for the different Eucalyptus species. All essential oils contain α-pinene, 1,8-cineol and pinocarveol-trans for all Eucalyptus species studied. The 1,8-cineol was the major compound in all species (49.07 to 83.59%). Diameter of inhibition zone of essential oils of Eucalyptus species varied from 10 to 29 mm. The largest zone of inhibition was obtained for Bacillus cereus (E. astrengens) and the lowest for Staphylococcus aureus (E. cinerea). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea (arboretum of Bizerte), E. bicostata (arboretum of Aindraham) showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus. The major constituents of Eucalyptus leaves essential oils are 1,8-cineol (49.07 to 83.59%) and α-pinene (1.27 to 26.35%). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea, E. bicostata showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus, they may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.

  16. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  17. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  18. Vertcal integration: origins of oil industry integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the structure of the US oil industry in relation to the history of the industry, capital market assumptions, and advice on the enhancement of 'shareholder value'. The driving forces behind the attempts to establish cartels and vertical integration are considered, and the emergence of US companies resulting from the break-up of the Standard Oil Trust cartel, the influence of costs and logistics on the structure of the industry outside the USA , and the structure of the natural gas industry are discussed along with the discovery of large Middle East oil reserves, the enormous growth in demand for oil products in Europe and Japan, and the formation of the OPEC cartel. Details are given of the breaking down of vertical integration in the big oil companies, the theory of conglomerates, the success of big companies, the importance of scale to balance exploration risks, and the need to adjust in time to shifts in the business environment

  19. Oil and entrepreneurship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majbouri, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Economic theory predicts that rents produced from natural resources, especially oil and gas, can increase opportunities for entrepreneurship, but they may also reduce engagement in entrepreneurial activities as they change incentives towards rent-seeking. Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) annual surveys, this study provides empirical evidence that more per capita profit from oil and gas reduces entrepreneurship only in corrupt environments. The more the corruption is, the larger is the impact. The results have important implications for policy makers, especially in resource rich developing countries. - Highlights: •Profits from oil and gas have positive and negative impacts on entrepreneurship. •This study explains these impacts and provides empirical evidence on them. •It uses Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and WB Subsoil and Forest rents datasets. •It employs a dynamic panel data estimation with country fixed effects. •It shows that the negative impact dominates as corruption and oil and gas rents increase.

  20. Comparison of thermal stability of grape seed oil with virgin sesame oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heating causes extensive physical and chemical changes in oil and fats, which can change all physical and chemical characteristics and quality of oil during frying is so critical. This study was aimed to compare the thermal stability of virgin sesame oil and grape seed oil. Methods: The grape seed oil and virgin sesame oil were heated at 180 ° C for 8 hours. Every hour, a sample of the heated oils was taken to determine the changes in acid value, peroxide, anisidine and Totox. Results: Heating the oil caused extensive chemical variations both oils. The acidity index increased over time (p<0.05, there were fluctuations inperoxide value, and anisidine and Totox values also increased during thermal processes (p<0.05. Conclusion: Grape seed oil showed more resistance to heat than sesame oil.

  1. Comparative Effect of Dietary Soybean Oil, Fish Oil, and Coconut Oil on Performance, Egg Quality and Some Blood Parameters in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X F; Liu, S; Tong, J M

    2018-04-14

    Two hundred and sixteen 28-wk-old Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to three dietary treatments and fed 1of 3 diets containing 8% soybean oil, fish oil, or coconut oil from 28 to 47 wk of age to investigate comparative effect of dietary soybean oil, fish oil, and coconut oil on the performance, egg quality and blood malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and uric acid (UA). Hens fed fish oil showed poor performance compared with soybean oil or coconut oil, and especially egg weight throughout the trial was significantly and consistently decreased (P oil. Unexpectedly, shell reflectivity throughout the majority of the trial was consistently and significantly higher (P oil than that when fed soybean oil or coconut oil. Dietary treatments affected (P oil treatment was higher (P coconut oil group. Albumen height, Haugh unit and yolk color were influenced by dietary treatments only at 1 or 2 time points. However, average albumen height and Haugh unit in fish oil treatment were higher (P oil or coconut oil treatments and average yolk color in coconut oil treatment was higher (P oil group. Serum MDA, AST and UA concentrations were increased (P oil during the majority of the first 2 mo of the trial. These data suggested that the inclusion of fish oil into feed may reduce the performance of laying hens, especially the egg weight, decrease the intensity of egg brown color and increase blood MDA, AST and UA levels compared with soybean oil or coconut oil. As a result, hens fed fish oil may lay smaller, longer and lighter-brown eggs whereas those fed coconut oil produce blunter and darker-brown eggs relative to soybean oil.

  2. Modification of Oil Palm Plantation Wastes as Oil Adsorbent for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraisah Jahi; Ling, E.S.; Rizafizah Othaman; Suria Ramli

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to modify oil palm solid wastes chemically to become oil adsorbent for palm oil mill effluent (POME). The purpose of modification on oil palm leaves (OPL) and oil palm frond (OPF) was to change the hydrophilic nature to a more hydrophobic character. This study also exploited the production of sorbent materials with high efficiency in the oil uptake for POME from OPL and OPF. Chemical modification was carried out using 200 mL of 1.0 M lauric acid solution for 6 hrs at room temperature. The modified OPL and OPF were preceded to adsorption test for POME and the capacity of oil adsorbed was compared between them. FTIR analysis supported the modification to occur with the increase in a peak of C-H group and the presence of C=O originated from lauric acid structure chain. The hydrophobicity of modified OPL and OPF samples was supported by XRD and contact angle analysis with modified OPL became more hydrophobic than the modified OPF, which had been 38.15 % and 24.67 % respectively. Both the analyses proved that the result from the oil adsorption test on POME showed the presence of a new peak attribute at C=C stretching of aromatics for the oil in POME proved that it was attached on the sorbent materials. Based on SEM analysis, the perforated and rough surface had been observed on modified OPL and OPF samples because oil layers on OPL and OPF surfaces were observed on the modified samples after the adsorption test. All the analyses in the study agreed that the results from oil adsorption test showed that the modified OPL had higher adsorption capacity than the modified OPF with the percentage of oil uptake at 83.74 % and 39.84 % respectively. The prepared adsorbent showed the potential to be used as a low-cost adsorbent in oil for POME. (author)

  3. East Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-07

    111030 JPRS-EER-87-003 7 JANUARY 1987 East Europe Report < ’Approved for public i’«sio*£se; . ttetrifavtion Unlimited »niiim .... n »I...1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-EER-87-003 7 JANUARY 1987 EAST EUROPE REPORT CONTENTS AGRICULTURE HUNGARY Success of...that is, as long as the one who offers and pays a bribe remains liable to punishment. [Sentence as published] What is your opinion? [Krupauer] I do

  4. CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATION AND PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Terek, Olga; Laphyna, Olga; Velychko, Oksana; Bunyo, Lyubov; Dovgaiuk-Semeniuk, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the physiological mechanisms of plant adaptation under crude oil contamination of soil. Different plant species used in the study sedge (Carex hirta L.), bean (Faba bona Medic.), alfalfa (Medicago lupulina L.) and clover (Trifolium pratense L.) showed various biochemical and morphological reactions under oil pollution. The effect of crude oil on root elongation, shoot growth and dry matter accumulation of the four species was evaluated. All invest...

  5. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of seven Eucalyptus species essential oils leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Sebei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this paper, we have studied the essential oils chemical composition of the leaves of seven Eucalyptus species developed in Tunisia. Eucalyptus leaves were picked from trees growing in different arboretums in Tunisia. Choucha and Mrifeg arboretums located in Sedjnene, region of Bizerte (Choucha: E. maideni, E. astrengens et E. cinerea; Mrifeg : E. leucoxylon, Korbous arboretums located in the region of Nabeul, North East Tunisia with sub-humid bioclimate, (E. lehmani, Souiniet-Ain Drahem arboretum located in region of Jendouba (E. sideroxylon, E. bicostata. Essential oils were individually tested against a large panel of microorganisms includingStaphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6539, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212, Listeria ivanovii (RBL 30, Bacillus cereus (ATCC11778. RESULTS: The yield of essential oils ranged from 1.2% to 3% (w/w for the different Eucalyptus species. All essential oils contain α-pinene, 1,8-cineol and pinocarveol-trans for all Eucalyptus species studied. The 1,8-cineol was the major compound in all species (49.07 to 83.59%. Diameter of inhibition zone of essential oils of Eucalyptus species varied from 10 to 29 mm. The largest zone of inhibition was obtained for Bacillus cereus (E. astrengens and the lowest for Staphylococcus aureus (E. cinerea. The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea (arboretum of Bizerte, E. bicostata(arboretum of Aindraham showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus. CONCLUSION: The major constituents of Eucalyptus leaves essential oils are 1,8-cineol (49.07 to 83.59% and α-pinene (1.27 to 26.35%. The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea, E. bicostatashowed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus, they may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.

  6. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, consumptive water use and levelized costs of unconventional oil in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan

    . Given current information, it is inconclusive whether unconventional oil would require more or less consumptive fresh water use than U.S. domestic crude oil production. It depends on the water conservative strategy applied in each process. Increasing import of SCO derived from Canadian oil sands and U.S. oil shale would slightly increase life cycle GHG emissions of the U.S. petroleum status quo. The expected additional 2 million bpd of Canadian SCO from oil sands and U.S. oil shale would increase life cycle GHG emissions of the U.S. petroleum status quo on average only 10 and 40 kg CO2 equiv/bbl, or about 7.5 and 29 million tons CO2 equiv/year. However this increase represents less than 1 and 5% of U.S. transportation emissions in 2007. Because U.S. oil shale resources are located in areas experiencing water scarcity, methods to manage the issue were explored. The result also shows that trading water rights between Upper and Lower Colorado River basin and transporting synthetic crude shale oil to refinery elsewhere is the best scenario for life cycle GHG emissions and consumptive water use of U.S. oil shale production. GHG emissions and costs of water supply system contribute only 1-2% of life cycle GHG emissions and 1-6% of total levelized costs. The levelized costs of using SCO from oil shale as feedstock are greater than SCO from oil sands, and CTL. The levelized costs of producing liquid fuel (gasoline and diesel) using SCO derived from Canadian oil sands as feedstock are approximately 0.80-1.00/gal of liquid fuel. The levelized costs of SCO derived from oil shale are 1.6-4.5/gal of liquid fuel (oil shale surface mining process) and 1.6-5.2/gal of liquid fuel (oil shale in-situ process). From an energy security perspective, increasing the use of Canadian oil sands, U.S. oil shale, and CTL may be preferable to increasing Middle East imports. However, oil shale and CTL has the advantage security wise over Canadian oil sands because oil shale and coal are abundant U

  7. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects

  8. Analysis of EAST tokamak cryostat anti-seismic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wei; Kong Xiaoling; Liu Sumei; Ni Xiaojun; Wang Zhongwei

    2014-01-01

    A 3-D finite element model for EAST tokamak cryostat is established by using ANSYS. On the basis of the modal analysis, the seismic response of the EAST tokamak cryostat structure is calculated according to an input of the design seismic response spectrum referring to code for seismic design of nuclear power plants. Calculation results show that EAST cryostat displacement and stress response is small under the action of earthquake. According to the standards, EAST tokamak cryostat structure under the action of design seismic can meet the requirements of anti-seismic design intensity, and ensure the anti-seismic safety of equipment. (authors)

  9. Tribological Characteristics Evaluation of Mustard Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hassan Jabal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A progressive increase in the desire for environmentally friendly lubricants by users and strict government regulations for the use of these lubricants has provided an opportunity to use plant oils as biodegradable lubricants, therefore vegetable oils have been investigated to replace oil lubricants because of their maintaining the conditions of nature (environment properties. In this paper, the influences of the blending ratio of mustard seeds oil with commercial mineral oil (SAE40 on the tribological characteristics were investigated and compared with mineral oil using the four-ball tribotester. Mustard seeds oil was blended with mineral oil at a volumetric ratio ranging from 22.5 to 90%. All experimental works were confirmed to ASTM D4172-B standard. The results exhibit that some blends of mustard seeds oil with mineral oil have lower wear scar diameter, friction torque, Friction coefficient and a higher parameter of flash temperature value compared to mineral oil and neat mustard seed oil. In conclusion, the mustard seed oil blend (MU22.5 shows a better anti-wear and anti-friction performance compared to oil samples. Therefore, mustard seeds oil has the potential to be used as a lubricant of mating surfaces.

  10. Oil prices and long-run risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Robert Clayton

    I show that relative levels of aggregate consumption and personal oil consumption provide an excellent proxy for oil prices, and that high oil prices predict low future aggregate consumption growth. Motivated by these facts, I add an oil consumption good to the long-run risk model of Bansal and Yaron [2004] to study the asset pricing implications of observed changes in the dynamic interaction of consumption and oil prices. Empirically I observe that, compared to the first half of my 1987--2010 sample, oil consumption growth in the last 10 years is unresponsive to levels of oil prices, creating an decrease in the mean-reversion of oil prices, and an increase in the persistence of oil price shocks. The model implies that the change in the dynamics of oil consumption generates increased systematic risk from oil price shocks due to their increased persistence. However, persistent oil prices also act as a counterweight for shocks to expected consumption growth, with high expected growth creating high expectations of future oil prices which in turn slow down growth. The combined effect is to reduce overall consumption risk and lower the equity premium. The model also predicts that these changes affect the riskiness of of oil futures contracts, and combine to create a hump shaped term structure of oil futures, consistent with recent data.

  11. Alternate hosts of African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Ogbe, Francis O; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Lava Kumar, P; Dixon, Alfred G O; Hughes, Jaqueline d'A; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2008-01-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV) is the major constraint to cassava production in Nigeria. Sequences of the DNA-A component of ACMV and EACMCV isolates from leguminous plant species (Senna occidentalis, Leucana leucocephala and Glycine max), castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), a weed host (Combretum confertum) and a wild species of cassava (Manihot glaziovii) were determined. All ACMV isolates from these hosts showed 96-98% nucleotide sequence identity with cassava isolates from West Africa. EACMCV was found only in four hosts (S. occidentalis, L. leucocephala, C. confertum, M. glaziovii), and sequences of these isolates showed 96-99% identity with cassava isolates from West Africa. These results provide definitive evidence for the natural occurrence of ACMV and EACMCV in plant species besides cassava.

  12. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 79 No. 5 May 2002. CIGARETTE SMOKING AND KHA'I' CHEWING AMONG UNIVERSITY INSTRUCTORS IN ETHIOPIA. Y. Kebede. MD, MPH, Gondar College of Medical Sciences, PO. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia. CIGARETTE SMOKING AND KHAT CHEWING AMONG UNIVERSITY ...

  13. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  14. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol: 93 No. 10 (Supplement) October 2016. UPTAKE OF ISONIAZID PREVENTIVE THERAPY AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG HIV POSITIVE. PATIENTS IN AN URBAN HEALTH CENTRE, KENYA. E.N. Omesa, MBChB, MPH, Resident, Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training ...

  15. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol: 93 No. 10 (Supplement) October 2016. AN ASSESSMENT OF WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE (WASH) PRACTICES AND QUALITY OF ROUTINELY. COLLECTED DATA IN MACHAKOS COUNTY KENYA. D. M. Kavoo, MSc, HND-CHN, RM, RN, S. H. Ali, MBChB, MPH, Ministry of ...

  16. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-17

    TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 , VmR ...U..ON 3TA.... A East Europe JPRS-EER-90-105 CONTENTS 17 July 1990 POLITICAL INTRABLOC PNUC...achieve, to [MTI [Hungarian Telegraph Agency] report: "In Japan use the language of sports , a track on which each com- They Picked Esztergom"] petitor

  17. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated ...

  18. Empirical studies on changes in oil governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Mohammad

    Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.

  19. Doing Business 2014 Regional Profile : Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation; World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This regional profile presents the Doing Business indicators for economies in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). It also shows the regional average, the best performance globally for each indicator and data for the following comparator regions: Latin America, East Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, South Asia, and OECD High Income. The data in this report are current as of June ...

  20. Rhazya stricta Decne seed oil as an alternative, non-conventional feedstock for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First report of Rhazia stricta seed oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. • Biodiesel is prepared by alkaline transesterification. • Biodiesel from R. stricta oil meets specifications in biodiesel standards. - Abstract: Rhazya stricta Decne (R. stricta) is a hardy, drought-resistant, and arid land plant that is widely distributed from the Middle East to South Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of R. stricta seed oil as an alternative source of triacylglycerols that may be suitable for the synthesis of biodiesel. The oil content of the seeds was approximately 14% and was mainly composed of the fatty acids linoleic (60.95%) and oleic (25.48%) acid. R. stricta methyl esters (RSME) were prepared by a base-catalyzed transesterification reaction. The conversion rate of the triacylglycerols to the corresponding methyl esters was determined by 1 H-NMR to be approximately 97%. This study showed that the fuel properties of the RSMEs are comparable to other vegetable oil methyl esters that are commonly used as biodiesels. R. stricta plantations will therefore be suitable for promoting sustainable agriculture and for producing biodiesel with viable prices in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world

  1. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping.

  2. Oil Slick Characterization with UAVSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Holt, B.

    2017-12-01

    Although radar has long been used for mapping the spatial extent of oil slicks, its capability for characterizing oil, e.g., to discriminate thicker from thinner oil or mineral slicks from look-alikes, is far less well defined. In fact, the capability of SAR to quantify the oil-to-water ratio of emulsions within slicks on the open water was first demonstrated using UAVSAR data acquired over the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico [Minchew et al., 2012]. UAVSAR's capability was made possible by the airborne instrument's high signal-to-noise ratio, which enabled it to measure low backscatter signals from oil-smoothed water that are often near or below the noise floor of satellite SAR instruments. Since 2010, UAVSAR has been used to study oil slicks through experiments in Norway (2015) and the Gulf of Mexico. In November 2016, UAVSAR took part in a NOAA-led experiment to study remote sensing of oil slicks, which took place at the site of a persistent seep in the Gulf of Mexico. The goal was to use remote sensing to identify zones of thicker oil, which is the type of information that could direct emergency responders for more effective clean-up. The objectives of the experiment were to validate and compare different remote sensing methods' capabilities for measuring the thickness of oil within a slick on open water under environmental conditions typical of oil spills. In this presentation, we show the results from UAVSAR for determining oil thickness within a slick, and relate them to the standard method of oil slick classification, the Bonn Agreement oil appearance code used by trained observers in the field. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts with the California Dept. of Water Resources and with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Refrigerating machine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, K.

    1981-03-17

    Refrigerating machine oil to be filled in a sealed motorcompressor unit constituting a refrigerating cycle system including an electric refrigerator, an electric cold-storage box, a small-scaled electric refrigerating show-case, a small-scaled electric cold-storage show-case and the like, is arranged to have a specifically enhanced property, in which smaller initial driving power consumption of the sealed motor-compressor and easier supply of the predetermined amount of the refrigerating machine oil to the refrigerating system are both guaranteed even in a rather low environmental temperature condition.

  4. Sulfonation of phenols extracted from the pyrolysis oil of oil palm shells for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Mariyamni; Seng, Goh Meng

    2008-01-01

    The cost of chemicals prohibits many technically feasible enhanced oil recovery methods to be applied in oil fields. It is shown that by-products from oil palm processing can be a source of valuable chemicals. Analysis of the pyrolysis oil from oil palm shells, a by-product of the palm oil industry, reveals a complex mixture of mainly phenolic compounds, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. The phenolic compounds were extracted from the pyrolysis oil by liquid-liquid extraction using alkali and an organic solvent and analyzed, indicating the presence of over 93% phenols and phenolic compounds. Simultaneous sulfonation and alkylation of the pyrolysis oil was carried out to produce surfactants for application in oil fields. The lowest measured surface tension and critical micelle concentration was 30.2 mNm(-1) and 0.22 wt%, respectively. Displacement tests showed that 7-14% of the original oil in place was recovered by using a combination of surfactants and xanthan (polymer) as additives.

  5. OIL BOND®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  6. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talley NJ, Spiegel BM, et al. Effect of fibre, antispasmodics, and peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ . 2008;337:a2313. Kligler B, Chaudhary S. Peppermint ...

  7. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  8. Increased 5-HT Levels Following Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Saleem, Sadia; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed or black cumin, and its extracts are used in folk medicine in the Middle East and in Asian countries for the promotion of good health and as a remedy for many ailments. These seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as broncho-dilatory, immunopotentiating, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive. In the present study, the antidepressant activity following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil has been monitored using the forced swim test. Rats treated with Nigella sativa L. oil exhibited a significant increase in struggling time after oral administration of Nigella sativa L. oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) for four weeks. Nigella sativa L. oil increased brain 5-HT levels and decreased 5-HT turnover (5-HT/5-HIAA ratio). Levels of tryptophan increased significantly in the brain and plasma following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil. Nigella sativa L. oil showed a potential antidepressant-like effect. PMID:24634848

  9. Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from an optimist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li Jia

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of 'running out' of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources

  10. What remains of the Arrow oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergy, G.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    In February 1970, the tanker Arrow became grounded 6.5 km off the north shore of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, and nearly 72,000 bbl of Bunker C fuel oil were released from the vessel during its subsequent breakup and sinking. The oil was washed ashore in various degrees over an estimated 305 km of the bay's 604-km shoreline, of which only 48 km were cleaned. In addition, the tanker Kurdistan broke in two in pack ice in March 1979 in the Cabot Strait area, spilling ca 54,000 bbl of Bunker C, some of which was later found at 16 locations along the northeast and east shorelines of Chedabucto Bay. In summer 1992, a systematic ground survey of the bay's shorelines was conducted using Environment Canada Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) procedures. Standard observations were made of oil distribution and width, thickness, and character of the oil residues in 419 coastal segments. Results from the survey are summarized. Oil was found to be present on 13.3 km of the shoreline, with heavy oiling restricted to 1.3 km primarily in the areas of Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage. Some of this residual oil was identified as coming from the Arrow. Natural weathering processes account for removal of most of the spilled oil from the bay. Oil remaining on the shore was found in areas outside of the zone of physical wave action, in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes, or in crusts formed by oil weathered on the surface. The systematic description of oiled shorelines using the SCAT methodology proved very successful, even for such an old spill. 6 refs

  11. Asian interests in Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, D.; Laureshen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The growing Asian interest in Alberta's oil sands and import opportunities was discussed along with the feasibility of marketing bitumen to Asia. Asia is an obvious new market for Canadian heavy oil and bitumen due to an increasing demand for petroleum products in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China. This paper examined the following three criteria that will determine the success of any initiative to move Canadian crude oil to Asian-Pacific markets: (1) a sustainable supply from Alberta; a pipeline to transport the crude to a deepwater port on the west coast; and, a guaranteed market at the other end. The basis for Asian interest in Alberta's oil sands is the sustainable secure supply of oil for growing Asian markets; heavy dependence on supplies from the Middle East; the desire to diversify supply sources; and, opportunities to invest in oil sands developments. Examples of Asian (Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China) missions to Alberta were presented along with the challenges of getting products to market with reference to Enbridge's new market access plan, Terasen's staged capacity expansion for heavy crudes and refined products, and sea transport from Prince Rupert. The paper also included graphs depicting world GDP; incremental increase in world primary energy demand by fuel for 2000 to 2020; world oil demand by region; oil demand by region in Asia; oil demand and supply in northeast Asia (Japan, China, Korea) and dependence level on Middle Eastern oil; oil demand and supply in China; China's petroleum production and consumption; refined products market forecast for 2000 to 2020; 2002 crude oil imports to Asia; 2004 refining capacity; product quality comparisons; cost competitive study; and energy policy objectives for China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. 19 figs

  12. Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

    2014-07-15

    A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100 g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1 g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Crude Oil Families in the Euphrates Graben Petroleum System

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Aldahik;  

    2010-01-01

    Located in the northern part of Arabian Peninsula, Syria is one of the Middle East oil countries. The most petroliferous province in Syria is the Euphrates Graben system in the eastern part of the country. Oil and gas have been discovered in this graben in the mid 1980's by Shell E&P and its partners. Since then no comprehensive study has been performed to investigate the origin of crude oils produced from more than 60 oil fields in the area. This study deals with this issue from a petroleum ...

  14. US oil companies ready to take the high ground again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, P.

    1994-01-01

    In the 1930s, the petroleum industry, which essentially started in the United States of America (USA), was prevented from expanding its influence to Middle East petroleum producing countries because of the colonial control exercised by Britain, France and the Netherlands. However, with the Second World War, these relationships changed, and gradually the oil traded internationally became the principle source of energy on the world market. A well-known oil industry commentator and critic describes these developments and notes that since the Gulf War, the USA has drawn closer to Saudi Arabia, a major oil producer, and hence permitted U S. oil companies to dominate the world scene. (UK)

  15. Forecasting of Currency Crises in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Young Song

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have developed a forecasting system for currency crisis in East Asia based on a signaling approach. Our system uses 15 monthly indicators of five East Asian countries including Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand that were severely hit by the currency crisis in 1997. We investigate the performance of the system through deploying out-of-sample forecasting for the periods both before and after the 1997 East Asian currency crisis. Unlike the existing research based on the signaling approach, our out-of-sample forecasting does not fix the in-sample period. The out-of-sample forecasting between July 1995 and June 1997 shows that prior to breakout of the crisis, several indicators including real exchange rates and exports sent frequent warnings to all crisis-hit East Asian countries except the Philippines. This may indicate that a signaling-based early warning system for currency crisis could have been an useful method of forecasting the East Asian crisis. On the other hand, we also find that our forecasting system often generates warning signals during the out-of-sample period between July 1999 and June 2001. Since we have not observed any currency crisis in this region after 1998, these are all false alarms, indicating that our system may be seriously exposed to the type II error. We can, however, mitigate this problem if we adjust the optimal critical values of indicators depending on the preferences of forecasting system manager.

  16. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    -, HPO42-, and HCO3- (anions), were studied through gas chromatographic analysis. Crude oil from the North Sea was doped with various fractions of organic acids to mimic different polar behavior. Increased brine concentration showed up to 15% upsurge of polar fractions on the oil-water emulsion formation...... in enhancing oil emulsion formation by increasing interactions between polar acids and brine solutions. The results propose the potential use of HPO42- ions in reservoirs having inactive mineral surfaces. The relative oil affinity of different ions including K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ (cations), and Cl-, SO42....... During emulsion formation the relative interactions at the oil-water interface are proved to follow the Hofmeister series: K+emulsion formation was observed. Among anions, SO42- and HPO42- showed optimum...

  17. Bahia Las Minas, Panama Oil Spill Assessment 1986-1991, (NODC Accession 9400033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In April 1986 a major oil spill from a ruptured storage tank at a local refinery just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal polluted an area of coral...

  18. Bahia Las Minas, Panama Oil Spill Assessment, 1986-1991 (NODC Accession 9400033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In April 1986 a major oil spill from a ruptured storage tank at a local refinery just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal polluted an area of coral...

  19. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teti, Ermy; Hutabarat, Sakti; Nofionna, Asriati

    2011-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  20. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teti, Ermy; Hutabarat, Sakti; Nofionna, Asriati

    2009-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  1. Chinese-Middle East Relations and Their Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    MIDDLE EAST CHINA U.S./OTHER 1962 Iranian Agrarian Mao sees a trend to Reform Law revive capitalism within PRC/CCP Syrian military coup PRC oil and...an extensive millenial westward migration from the Middle East and Persia through to and including Greece, Rome, Europe and finally into the New...to 80% of PRC males may be smokers by 2000 if present trends continue. Hence the PRC on the one hand is encouraging the program, but the deficit

  2. Economic crisis and oil market balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duquesnoy, S.; Rozenberg, J.; Hourcade, J.Ch.

    2011-01-01

    One might intuitively think that an economic crisis would at least relieve the pressure on oil supply since it slows energy demand. From the model of the oil market DYSMO, we show that an economic crisis may on the contrary increase tension, as it postpones investment in oil supply. (authors)

  3. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-07

    off as of 7 p.m. The flickering light penetrates dark thoughts—of a small haul on the black market, the bribe money for corrupt officials. "That is...INFORMATIONSERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 tO no East Europe JPRS-EER-88-019 CONTENTS 7 MARCH 1988 POLITICAL BULGARIA Territory, Population of New...Meeting Reported [GAZETA POMORSKA, 29 Oct 87] 28 Free University Society Meeting [TRYBUNA LUDU, 19 Nov 87] 28 ROMANIA Hunger, Corruption Drive

  4. Luxury consumption moves East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... novel insights to transformations in global supply chain strategy as luxury consumption is moving towards the east, which creates new challenges and demands for European manufacturers to respond, to sustaining a competitive advantage....

  5. Exploring Japanese olive oil consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mtimet, Nadhem; Kashiwagi, Kenichi; Zaibet, Lokman; Masakazu, N.

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades, olive oil consumption in Japan is showing an increasing trend due to dietary and health concerns. Traditional olive oil producer and exporter countries such as Italy, Spain and Tunisia have interest to reinforce and to increase their penetration in the Japanese market. This study examines Japanese olive oil consumer behaviour by the use of the conjoint analysis technique. Five attributes have been chosen to design the experiment: region of origin, price, olive oil...

  6. Oil patch pariah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforuk, A.

    1999-01-01

    Problems that can arise when Western oil companies invest in developing countries suffering under political instability are described using Calgary-based Talisman Energy Inc.'s recent experiences in the Sudan as example. In 1998 Talisman acquired a 25 per cent interest in an oil project by cash-poor Arakis Energy Corporation, thus acquiring a foothold in the Middle East , and more importantly, access to one of the world's largest oil reserves at a bargain-basement price. A UN report accusing the Sudanese government of gross human rights violations , the chagrin expressed by the US Secretary of State that a Canadian company would do business with a country that the US officially regards as 'a state sponsor of terrorism', a warning by the Canadian Minister of Foreign Affairs of economic sanctions unless Talisman demonstrates active promotion of human rights in the Sudan, led the Ontario Teachers Federation to threaten to withdraw its $ 184-million stake in Talisman if reports of human rights abuses in the country can be corroborated. A fact finding mission has been dispatched by the Minister of Foreign Affairs to establish by next month who is killing whom in the Sudan and whether oil revenue from Talisman is being used to fund a campaign of terror and killing that have claimed the lives of some two million Sudanese citizens in the past 16 years. As a result of the turmoil caused by these actions Talisman lost nearly $ 700 million in value in the last week of October, and several institutional investors are actively considering selling their shares in Talisman. The company has hired a top public relations firm to defend itself against the 'coordinated attack' by human rights groups, Sudanese refugees, and Christian fundamentalists whose aim is said to be to shut down oil production in the Sudan. Talisman management is confident that given the company's reputation and its large asset base, it can weather the storm that its Sudanese assets have generated, however

  7. Electrospun porous structure fibrous film with high oil adsorption capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Nü; Wang, Li; Dong, Hua; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-06-27

    A low-cost, high-oil-adsorption film consisting of polystyrene (PS) fibers is fabricated by a facile electrospinning method. Different fiber diameter and porous fiber's surface morphology play roles in oil adsorption capacity and oil/water selectivity. The results showed that oil adsorption capacity of PS oil sorbent film with small diameter and porous surface structure for diesel oil, silicon oil, peanut oil and motor oil were approximate to 7.13, 81.40, 112.30, and 131.63 g/g, respectively. It was higher than normal fibrous sorbent without any porous structure. The thinner porous PS oil sorbent also had excellent oil/water selectivity in the cleanup of oil from water.

  8. Oil shale (in memoriam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Marek

    2000-01-01

    Plans for the continued use of oil shale may lead the development of this country into an impasse. To this day no plans have been made for transition from the use of energy based on fossil fuels to that based on renewable resources. Without having any clear strategic plan politicians have been comforting both themselves and the population with promises to tackle the problem when the right time comes. Today the only enterprise whose cash flows and capital would really make it possible to reform the power industry is the firm Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy). However, its sole present shareholder - the state - prefers the sale of the firm's shares to carrying out a radical reform. At the same time, local consumers are likely to rather be willing to pay for the expensive electric energy produced from renewable resources than for that produced from fossil fuels, the price of which will also remain high due to the pollution tax. Practically it is impossible to buy a globally balanced environment for money - pollution taxes are but punitive mechanisms. The investments made into the oil-shale industry will also reinforce the cultural distance of North-East Estonia from the rest of Estonia - the uniform and prevalently Russian-speaking industrial area will be preserved as long as capital will continue to flow into the oil shale industry concentrated there. The way out would be for industries to make wider use of ecological and ecosystemic technologies and for the state to enforce ecologically balanced economic and social policies. (author)

  9. Isolation and application of hydrocarbon degradation of indigenous microbial from oil contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadang Sudrajat; Nana Mulyana; Tri Retno DL

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research are to obtain indigenous potential microbes from bacterial and fungal groups which have capable of degrading hydrocarbon from crude oil contaminated soil. The research carried out were isolation, selection, and identification potential microbial isolates capable of degrading hydrocarbon from oil contaminated soil located at Cepu East Java. The isolates were tested for their growth and ability to degrades crude oil. Each isolate was inoculated unto minimum mineral salt medium (MSM) contained 1% crude oil. Viability and stability test of selected isolates were carried out on irradiated compost carrier materials contained 5% crude oil. The fours series microbial s consortium consists of microbial consortium I, II, III, and IV were tested for the in vitro biodegradability of hydrocarbon. The results shows there sixty two (62) isolates are obtained, among them 42 bacteria and 20 molds. From 42 bacterial isolates, only 8 strains were potent hydrocarbon degraders. Three of these isolates are identified Bacillus cereus (BMC2), Bacillus sp (BMC4), and Pseudomonas sp (BMC6). Whereas from 20 fungal isolates, only 4 strains were potent hydrocarbon degraders. Two of these isolates are identified Aspergillus fumigatus (FMC2) and Aspergillus niger (FMC6). All isolates show good growth in mineral salt medium contained crude oil with decrease in pH. The ability of decrease of TPH content by the bacterial and fungal isolates were 54, 61, 67, 74, and 78% respectively at day 30. The viability and stability of microbial isolates show considerable good viability on irradiated compost carrier materials after 14 days storage. From the fours series microbial consortium, the highest TPH degradation rates is found in microbial consortium III (BMC6, BMC2, and FMC6) with 89,1% in 5 weeks. (author)

  10. on oil palm seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The ab- dominal sternite is cream-white. The femur of the hind leg is thick. The compound eyes are black. This study showed that the larvae developed within the shells, on surface of the seeds, rotten. Infestation by Megaselia rufipes Meigen on germinated oil palm seeds ... 29. Fig. 5: Cracked seeds infested with maggots.

  11. oils on storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... storage process (Figure 3). Joseph (1979) and Magnus. (1992) have reported similar observation for the oils from damaged soya bean and cotton seeds. The pattern of change in saponification value (SV) showed little increase over the period of study, with sto- rage time. This behaviour is parallel to other ...

  12. After the Wall: Parental Attitudes to Child Rearing in East and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlendorff, Harald

    2004-01-01

    In the years following German reunification, East and West German parents (282 mothers and 207 fathers) were interviewed about attitudes to the rearing of their 7- to 13-year-old children and about their social networks. Path analyses show that East German parents engage in more protective and less permissive parenting, and that East German…

  13. Thermal stability of the aromatic fraction of Safaniya crude oil (Middle East): experimental study, kinetic scheme by molecular classes and geochemical implications; Stabilite thermique de la fraction aromatique de l'huile brute safaniya (Moyen-Orient): etude experimentale, schema cinetique par classes moleculaires et implications geochimiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Darouich, T.

    2005-07-15

    The thermal evolution of reservoir oils is controlled by the kinetics of cracking reactions. The present work is concerned with the study of the thermal stability of the light aromatic components (C{sub 6}-C{sub 14}) of crude oils under geological conditions. The aim is to predict this stability through a mode l derived from laboratory pyrolyses. The light cut < 250 deg. C of Safaniya crude oil, corresponding to the C{sub 15} components, was obtained by fractionated distillation; pure aromatic fraction was then separated by liquid chromatography. Detailed molecular characterisation of the aromatic fraction was acquired using HPLC, GC and GC/MS. Then, quantified individual aromatic compounds were lumped into six molecular classes: BTXN, methyl-aromatics, alkyl-aromatics, naphthenic-aromatics, indene and sulphur - containing aromatics. Pyrolyses of the aromatic fraction were performed in gold tubes at 100 bars and different temperature/time conditions in a wide range (1 to 93%) of global conversion. Pyrolysis effluents were analysed and lumped into classes. The pyrolysis data were used to elaborate a semi - empirical kinetic scheme of 13 stoichiometric reactions for the primary and secondary cracking of the unstable classes. The scheme kinetic parameters were first estimated, and then numerically optimised, with the constraints of mass balance and hydrogen conservation. A set of pyrolysis experiments was performed at 375 deg.C under high pressures: 400, 800 and 1200 bars. Increasing slowing down in conversion rate with increasing pressure was thus observed compared to experiments at 100 bars. A slight selective effect of pressure on the different aromatic classes of the charge and on the product distribution was evidenced. The extrapolation of the kinetic model to the conditions of Elgin Field (North Sea) showed that pressure effect should shift the thermal cracking of light aromatics to higher temperatures by almost 8 deg. C. (author)

  14. Contaminants in tracked seabirds showing regional patterns of marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Atsuo; Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige; Yamamoto, Takashi; Shiomi, Kozue; Zavalaga, Carlos; Abe, Tomoya; Watanabe, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Maki; Sato, Katsufumi; Kohno, Hiroyoshi; Yoda, Ken; Iida, Tomohiko; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2013-07-16

    Ocean-scale monitoring of pollution is challenging. Seabirds are useful indicators because they travel over a broad foraging range. Nevertheless, this coarse spatial resolution is not fine enough to discriminate pollution in a finer scale. Previous studies have demonstrated that pollution levels are higher in the Sea of Japan and South and East China Seas than the Northen Pacific Ocean. To test these findings in a wide-ranging animal, we tracked streaked shearwaters (Calonectris leucomelas) from four islands in Japan using global positioning system (GPS) and measured persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the oil of their preen glands. The POPs did not change during 6 to 21 days when birds from Awashima were foraging only in the Sea of Japan, while it increased when they crossed to the Pacific through the Tsugaru Strait and foraged along the eastern coast of Hokkaido where industrial cities occur. These results indicate that POPs in the oil reflect relatively short-term exposure. Concentrations of POPs displayed greater variation among regions. Total polychlorinated biphenyls were highest in birds foraging in a small area of the semiclosed Seto Inland Sea surrounded by urbanized coast, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was highest in birds foraging in the East China Sea, and total hexachlorocyclohexanes were highest in birds foraging in the Sea of Japan. All were lowest in birds foraging in the Pacific. This distribution of POPs concentration partly agrees with previous findings based on mussels, fish, and seawater and possibly reflects the mobility and emission sources of each type of POP. These results highlight the importance of information on the foraging area of highly mobile top predators to make them more effective monitors of regional marine pollution.

  15. Concentrations of viable oil-degrading microorganisms are increased in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in petroleum oil dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-09-15

    Zooplankton are suggested to be biotic contributors to the transport and weathering of oil in marine environments due to their ingestion of oil. In the present experiment, feeding activity and microbial communities in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in oil dispersions were characterized. Feeding activity was significantly reduced in oil dispersions. The microbial communities in clean and oil-containing copepod feces were dominated by Rhodobacteraceae family bacteria (Lesingera, Phaeobacter, Rugeria, and Sulfitobacter), which were suggested to be indigenous to copepod feces. The results also indicated that these bacteria were metabolizing oil compounds, as a significant increase in the concentrations of viable oil degrading microorganisms was observed in oil-containing feces. This study shows that bacteria in feces from copepods feeding in dilute oil dispersions have capacity for degradation of oil. Zooplankton may therefore contribute to weathering of oil by excreting feces with microbial communities already adapted to degradation of oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Middle East assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahran, M

    1984-06-01

    All governments of the Arab world are aware of the population issue, and there has been increasing interest in policies designed to bring about a lower rate of natural increase and older population age structure. Overpopulation is believed to be a major obstacle to economic development. The population activities of the Arab countries can be divided into 3 categories: national policy to reduce population growth; nongovernmental efforts to reduce population growth; and countries with pronatalist policies. The countries with a national policy to reduce population growth include Egypt, Tunisia, and Morocco. All suffer severe problems of high density, young age structure, and lack of balance between the population and the economy. In these countries an active national family planning program operates alongside many active nongovernmental family planning associations. Reduction of the growth rate is regarded as urgent, and emigration is encouraged. In egypt contraceptives are readily available through commerical outlets, and village level social and economic activities are promoted in conjunction with family planning services. Tunisia is the only country to offer voluntary sterilization and 1st trimester abortion on request. Morocco includes family planning in its health and welfare services and there is an active voluntary family planning association. Countries in the group who have made nongovernmental efforts to reduce population growth include Algeria, Bahrain, Iarq, Jordan, Lebanon, Sudan, Syria, and Democratic Yemen. all have major population problems and generally support reduced growth rated but as yet have no national family planning. In this group the highest rate of population increase is in Syria, 3.8% a year; the highest total fertility rate is in Bahrain with almost 8 children per women. Saudi Arabia, Kewait, Qwatar, Libya, and Oman have pronatalist policies. Methods of contraception are available in the private sector. The outstanding feature of these oil

  17. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  18. Oil price and the dollar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudert, V.; Mignon, V.; Penot, A.

    2007-01-01

    Oil prices and the United States (US) dollar exchange rate are driving the evolution of the world economy. This paper investigated long-term relationships between oil prices and the US effective exchange rate. An empirical study was performed on oil prices and the dollar real effective exchange rate between 1974 to 2004. The impact of the dollar exchange rate was also explored, and the effects of oil prices on supply and demand were considered. A dynamic partial equilibrium framework study was evaluated in order to compare how other countries used revenues from oil exports in dollars. The study showed that both variables had similar evolutions when price fluctuations were low. Strong increases in the dollar were associated with lower oil prices. However, adjustment speeds of the dollar real effective exchange rate was slow. Co-integration and causality tests showed that oil prices influenced the exchange rate, and that the link between the 2 variables was transmitted through the country's net foreign asset position. It was concluded that higher oil prices improved US net foreign asset position in relation to other countries, and had a positive impact on dollar appreciation. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Estimation on oil demand and oil saving potential of China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Xie, Chunping

    2013-01-01

    China is currently in the stage of industrialization and urbanization, which is characterized by rigid energy demand and rapid growth of energy consumption. Therefore, energy conservation will become a major strategy for China in a transition to low-carbon economy. China's transport industry is of high energy consumption. In 2010, oil consumption in transport industry takes up 38.2% of the country's total oil demand, of which 23.6% is taken up by road transport sector. As a result, oil saving in China's road transport sector is vital to the whole nation. The co-integration method is developed to find a long-run relationship between oil consumption and affecting factors such as GDP, road condition, labor productivity and oil price, to estimate oil demand and to predict future oil saving potential in China's transport sector under different oil-saving scenarios. Monte Carlo simulation is further used for risk analysis. Results show that under BAU condition, oil demand of China's road transport sector will reach 278.5 million ton of oil equivalents (MTOE) in 2020. Oil saving potential will be 86 MTOE and 131 MTOE under moderate oil-saving scenario and advanced oil-saving scenario, respectively. This paper provides a reference to establishing oil saving policy for China's road transport sector. - Highlights: • We adopt the co-integration model to estimate oil demand and oil saving potential of China's road transport sector. • Monte Carlo simulation is further used for risk analysis. • GDP, ratio of classified highway, labor productivity and oil price are main factors affecting oil consumption. • Scenario analysis approach is applied to calculate oil saving potential under different energy saving scenarios. • Future policy for oil conservation in China's road transport sector is suggested

  20. Limits to oil pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, O.G.

    1992-01-01

    The bad record of oil price forecasting indicates that conventional oil market models should be critically reassessed. Scenario planning may be one alternative approach. This approach does not contradict other theories of the market. But it claims that no single discipline is able to tell the whole truth about the market. The SP approach stresses and clarifies the role of uncertainty. It argues that without a cross-disciplinary approach, with an adequate choice of parameters, at the right level of in depth discussion, the analysis may either lose essential input or drown in detail. As an example of the methodology, an analysis of the oil market in the 1990s is presented. This shows how upper and lower limits for the price can be constructed, and which actual price development can be expected, in a combination of economic and political reasoning. (author)

  1. Venezuela: oil and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, R.

    1978-01-01

    Venezuela's struggle to develop its economic and political independence separate from the colonialism of foreign oil companies and free from the authoritarian dictatorships of other developing countries is described by one who has been intimately involved in the nation's political life and is knowledgeable in the relationships of oil, economics, and politics during the bid for democracy and economic egalitarianism. First published in 1956, the treatise has been revised and updated to show how strong party organization was responsible for developing demoncratic programs and how this new strength allowed Venezuela to domesticate much of the foreign involvement in oil production. Historical facts, though acknowledged to have a bias, are documented. 88 references. (DCK)

  2. Physical Simulation of Colayer Water Flooding in Low Permeability Carbonate Reservoir in Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwang Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the flow mechanism under different displacement modes of low permeability carbonate reservoir in the Middle East and to improve the utilization of various types of reservoirs, the physical simulation experiments of water flooding by different displacement methods were carried out. Selecting two types of rock samples with different permeability levels, two-layer coinjection and separated production experiments by samples I and III and conventional water flooding experiments by samples II and IV were carried out. In addition, by using low magnetic field nuclear magnetic resonance, the development effect of microscopic pore structure under the different injection-production models was analyzed. Results show that, compared with the coinjection, the recovery rate of sample I was higher than II, 19.30%; sample III was lower than IV, 23.22%; and the comprehensive recovery degree reduced by 3.92%. NMR data also show that the crude oil is mainly distributed in the large pore throat; after water flooding, the displacement is also within the large pore throat, whereas the small pore throat is mainly obtained by the effect of infiltration absorption. The above studies provide a laboratory basis and foundation for the further development of low permeability carbonate reservoir in different Middle East strata.

  3. Maps showing thermal maturity of Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    The Bighorn Basin is one of many structural and sedimentary basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain foreland during the Laramide orogeny, a period of crustal instability and compressional tectonics that began in latest Cretaceous time and ended in the Eocene. The basin is nearly 180 mi long, 100 mi wide, and encompasses about 10,400 mi2 in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana. The basin is bounded on the northeast by the Pryor Mountains, on the east by the Bighorn Mountains, and on the south by the Owl Creek Mountains). The north boundary includes a zone of faulting and folding referred to as the Nye-Bowler lineament. The northwest and west margins are formed by the Beartooth Mountains and Absaroka Range, respectively. Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian through Tertiary. In addition, a potential unconventional basin-centered gas accumulation may be present in Cretaceous reservoirs in the deeper parts of the basin. It has been suggested by numerous authors that various Cretaceous marine shales are the principal source rock for these accumulations. Numerous studies of various Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Rocky Mountain region have led to the general conclusion that these rocks have generated or are capable of generating oil and (or) gas. In recent years, advances in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation have resulted in increased exploration and completion of wells in Cretaceous marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were previously thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks. Important parameters controlling hydrocarbon production from these shale reservoirs include: reservoir thickness, amount and type of organic matter, and thermal maturity. The purpose of this report is to present maps and a cross section showing levels of thermal maturity, based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro), for selected Upper Cretaceous marine

  4. Chemical composition of 8 eucalyptus species' essential oils and the evaluation of their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 1957, Tunisia introduced 117 species of Eucalyptus; they have been used as fire wood, for the production of mine wood and to fight erosion. Actually, Eucalyptus essential oil is traditionally used to treat respiratory tract disorders such as pharyngitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis. A few investigations were reported on the biological activities of Eucalyptus oils worldwide. In Tunisia, our previous works conducted in 2010 and 2011 had been the first reports to study the antibacterial activities against reference strains. At that time it was not possible to evaluate their antimicrobial activities against clinical bacterial strains and other pathogens such as virus and fungi. Methods The essential oils of eight Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman, Korbous (North East Tunisia) and Souinet arboreta (North of Tunisia) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and microbroth dilution methods against seven bacterial isolates: Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. In addition, the bactericidal, fungicidal and the antiviral activities of the tested oils were carried out. Results Twenty five components were identified by GC/FID and GC/MS. These components were used to correlate with the biological activities of the tested oils. The chemical principal component analysis identified three groups, each of them constituted a chemotype. According to the values of zone diameter and percentage of the inhibition (zdi, % I, respectively), four groups and subgroups of bacterial strains and three groups of fungal strains were characterized by their sensitivity levels to Eucalyptus oils. The cytotoxic effect and the antiviral activity varied significantly within Eucalyptus species oils. Conclusions E. odorata showed the strongest activity against S. aureus, H. influenzae, S. agalactiae, S. pyogenes

  5. Chemical composition of 8 eucalyptus species' essential oils and the evaluation of their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaissi Ameur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1957, Tunisia introduced 117 species of Eucalyptus; they have been used as fire wood, for the production of mine wood and to fight erosion. Actually, Eucalyptus essential oil is traditionally used to treat respiratory tract disorders such as pharyngitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis. A few investigations were reported on the biological activities of Eucalyptus oils worldwide. In Tunisia, our previous works conducted in 2010 and 2011 had been the first reports to study the antibacterial activities against reference strains. At that time it was not possible to evaluate their antimicrobial activities against clinical bacterial strains and other pathogens such as virus and fungi. Methods The essential oils of eight Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman, Korbous (North East Tunisia and Souinet arboreta (North of Tunisia were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and microbroth dilution methods against seven bacterial isolates: Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. In addition, the bactericidal, fungicidal and the antiviral activities of the tested oils were carried out. Results Twenty five components were identified by GC/FID and GC/MS. These components were used to correlate with the biological activities of the tested oils. The chemical principal component analysis identified three groups, each of them constituted a chemotype. According to the values of zone diameter and percentage of the inhibition (zdi, % I, respectively, four groups and subgroups of bacterial strains and three groups of fungal strains were characterized by their sensitivity levels to Eucalyptus oils. The cytotoxic effect and the antiviral activity varied significantly within Eucalyptus species oils. Conclusions E. odorata showed the strongest activity against S. aureus, H. influenzae

  6. The oil crisis: China, the perfect scapegoat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Western economies have been confronted with rising oil prices for the past five years. Political instability in the Middle East, social unrest in Nigeria and Hugo Chavez nationalizations all reinforce our dread of a shortage. This oil crisis is often presented as the consequence of the rapid industrialization of India and China. As so often in Europe, we try to explain our own difficulties by transforming China (and to a lesser extent, India) into the perfect scapegoat; but what is the reality? (author)

  7. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  8. Panorama 2015 - New conventional oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Vially, Roland

    2014-12-01

    Exploration expenditure rose sharply in 2013, as in the previous year. The overall results for 2014 are likely to show more modest growth at around 5%. In ten years, exploration budgets have increased fivefold, which has led to some major discoveries; but since 2010, the volumes discovered have fallen every year despite the continuing increase in spending. In 2013, 17 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Gboe) were discovered. This is less than both the amount for the previous year and the ten-year average. The initial estimates for 2014 suggest a stabilization of volumes discovered at the same level as 2013. The continuing decline in offshore discoveries in Brazil and East Africa, where operators have cut back on their exploration programmes, appears to have been partly offset by the increase in border areas, such as the pre-salt reservoirs in West Africa and the Russian Arctic. (authors)

  9. The Role Of The Natural Resource Sector And Government Spending For Education Towards Poverty Reduction In East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarlan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available East Kalimantan Province is one of the rich provinces in natural resources such as coal mining oil and gas. Utilization of the natural resources is expected to be used optimally to improve the welfare of the community. The purpose of this research is to find out how big the influence of natural resources sector which the consist of mining and quarrying sector and processing industry sector and government expenditure for education against poverty alleviation in East Kalimantan Province. This research uses explanatory method with time-series and cross-section data and applying multiple regression model with Ordinary Least Square OLS method. The results of this study show that a the natural resource sector and government spending on education have no effect on per capita income growth b economic growth as measured by per capita income growth positively affects on poverty and government spending on education is not significantly influential to poverty reduction and c the natural resource sector has no significant effect on the poverty headcount in East Kalimantan.

  10. Environmental effect of rapeseed oil ethyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makareviciene, V.; Janulis, P.

    2003-01-01

    Exhaust emission tests were conducted on rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil diesel fuel as well as on their mixtures. Results showed that when considering emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke density, rapeseed oil ethyl ester had less negative effect on the environment in comparison with that of rapeseed oil methyl ester. When fuelled with rapeseed oil ethyl ester, the emissions of NO x showed an increase of 8.3% over those of fossil diesel fuel. When operated on 25-50% bio-ester mixed with fossil diesel fuel, NO x emissions marginally decreased. When fuelled with pure rapeseed oil ethyl ester, HC emissions decreased by 53%, CO emissions by 7.2% and smoke density 72.6% when compared with emissions when fossil diesel fuel was used. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which cause greenhouse effect, decreased by 782.87 g/kWh when rapeseed oil ethyl ester was used and by 782.26 g/kWh when rapeseed oil methyl ester was used instead of fossil diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil ethyl ester was more rapidly biodegradable in aqua environment when compared with rapeseed oil methyl ester and especially with fossil diesel fuel. During a standard 21 day period, 97.7% of rapeseed oil methyl ester, 98% of rapeseed oil ethyl ester and only 61.3% of fossil diesel fuel were biologically decomposed. (author)

  11. Privatization in East Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Althammer, Jörg

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of east German privatization policy. It is argued that the restitution of old property rights has been a major obstacle to investment and that the attempt to sell two thirds of an economy in the market place is bound to be a failure. Such an attempt implies serious macro and microeconomic stock-flow problems which erode the sales prices of Treuhand assets, induce the Treuhand to slow down its sales, and reduce private investment. By combining a participation mo...

  12. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-19

    22161 East Europe JPRS-EER-92-160 CONTENTS 19 November 1992 BULGARIA Commodity Markets Trade With Albania [168 CHASA 13 OctJ 1 Personality...93CH0068A Prague CESKY DENIK in Czech 24 0ct92p 1 [Commentary by Milan Caha: "Consent as a Bribe "] [Text] The crisis around the Gabcikovo-Nagymarosz hydro...solution based on using the Danube’s original riverbed, the Czech representation underesti- mated the situation. Consent to variant C became a bribe to

  13. East Asia: Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-18

    243113 JPRS-KAR-88-015 18 JULY 1988 -JPRS Repor East Asia Korea \\s #^ \\fl """telST^BXrtiOl^ blArEMENT Appro^6^ foi pub Distribution... Asia Korea JPRS-KAR-88-015 CONTENTS 18 July 1988 OLYMPICS TONG-A ILBO Discusses Co-Hosting Possibility SOUTH KOREA POLITICAL PPD Requests...tries should be thoroughly investigated. The main opposition party also called for an investiga- tion into whether an alleged bribe worth 6.25

  14. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  15. Ethics and the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquin, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    In many countries public opinions are more and more sensitive to ethical issues linked to the manner in which industries and particularly oil companies behave. Oil companies are frequently unpopular, among the public both in producing and consuming countries. After a brief analysis of the reasons for this unpopularity, the author attempts to show both the ambiguities surrounding the question of ethics, and its complexity. This is especially true when oil companies have to work in countries which are destabilized, and in which disturbances - or even civil wars - may be fuelled by the important revenue streams resulting from the oil production. The various ethical issues are reviewed, from human rights to political interference, without omitting global or local environmental problems. Despite the very deep roots of the various issues the author believe some progress is achievable and advocates that the oil industry lead the way in this difficult domain. (author)

  16. Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats--compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2012-11-01

    Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on lipid levels and regulation of lipid metabolism compared with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SFO) has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with synthetic diet. Results showed that VCO feeding significantly lowered (P lipogenesis was also down regulated in VCO fed rats, which was evident from the decreased activities of enzymes viz., HMG CoA reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. In addition, VCO significantly (P < 0.05) increased the activities of lipoprotein lipase, lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase and enhanced formation of bile acids. Results demonstrated hypolipidemic effect of VCO by regulating the synthesis and degradation of lipids.

  17. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  18. Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Plants Growing in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the oils showed anti-candida activity, with oils from Ocimum species being the most active compared to the others. Thus, Ocimum suave oils merit further investigation towards the development of safe and biodegradable larvicides. Furthermore, oils from Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum kilimandscharicum could offer ...

  19. The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius was extracted using the hydrodistillation method. The oil yield obtained was 0.65%. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil showed that the major constituents of the essential oil were sabinene, ...

  20. Degradation of Palm Oil Induced By Ionizing Radiation | Egbe | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-irradiated Palm Oil of the Elaeis guineensis specie was studied by assessing the effect of the radiation on the Peroxide, Iodine and Fatty acid values of the oil. These were compared with values of fresh and thermoxidized palm oil. Results showed a rise in the peroxide value by as much as 52.5% for thermoxidized oil and ...

  1. The Influence and Compatibility of Vegetable Oils and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABC_2

    castor oil, sunflower oil, coconut oil and cottonseed oil respectively in different concentrations (10%, 20% and 30% w/w of drug) as permeation enhancers. The films were prepared by incorporating them along with plasticizer [2]. In all cases, 30% w/w concentration of permeation enhancer showed good release and this ...

  2. Governors, Oligarchs, and Siloviki: Oil and Power in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdi, Ahmed; Yenikeyeff, Shamil

    2013-01-01

    The contest for control of Russia's oil industry has been an integral feature of the country's politics ever since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Therefore, an assessment of political elite dynamics and the competition for control over Russia's oil sector can explain why this industry has been subject to such rapid management changes, including the rise and demise of Russia's private oil corporations and the emergence of Rosneft as a national oil company (NOC). Whilst the 1990's and 2000's saw different management styles evolve in the industry, much of that competition took place during a time when Russia could exploit its Soviet-era legacy fields. The rise of Rosneft as Russia's super National Oil Company (NOC) has been driven just as much by internal political elite dynamics as it has by the challenges which Russia's oil industry faces, as it attempts to tap more remote fields in East Siberia and the Arctic

  3. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  4. Oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies.

  5. Cracking oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelgemann, W.

    1933-12-19

    A volatile spirit suitable for use as petrol and containing aromatic and aliphatic constituents is obtained by cracking crude oils, asphalts, and creosotes, in presence of catalysts comprising a halogenated oxygen compound of nitrogen, e.g. nitrosyl chloride, and calcium oxide. The method of carrying out the process and the apparatus used are the same as described in Specification 430,748.

  6. Cracking oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelgemann, W.

    1933-12-19

    A volatile spirit suitable for use as petrol and containing aromatic and aliphatic constituents is obtained by cracking crude oils, asphalts, and creosotes, in presence of catalysts comprising a halogenated oxygen compound of nitrogen and a mixture of iron and aluminum chlorides. The method of carrying out the process and the apparatus used are the same as described in Specification 430,748.

  7. Climatic variability of east Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camerlengo, A.L.; Saadon, M.N.; Awang, M.; Somchit, H.; Rang, L.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to learn the variability of atmospheric pressure, relative humidity and insolation in East Malaysia. The main results of our study are: (1) a gentle pressure gradient is observed at the east coast in the boreal winter, (2) smaller atmospheric pressure values are noted during the first inter-monsoon period all across East Malaysia, (3) lesser insolation values are observed in Sarawak and at the east coast during the boreal winter as compared to the boreal summer, and (4) a poleward increase of insolation is registered. (author)

  8. Black gold - The great history of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzanneau, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    The author proposes a history of the 20. century through that of oil. Oil was first a product for militarised societies based of a mechanised war (from the Secession war to the Vietnam war). The oil industry is also presented as a monopolistic, coercive and corrupted system, created by the Rockefeller who also influenced a change in capitalism. Other major actors emerged by the end of the century (J.P. Morgan, Citigroup). The author also outlines the role of some opponents to the Big Oil lobby (from Stalin to Kennedy). Thus, the author analyses and discusses the recent history of international relationships under the influence of oil: construction of the Suez canal, Sykes-Picot agreement, invasion of Ethiopia, creation of international organisations after 1945, overthrow of Mossadegh in Iran, death of Mattei, Biafra war, and so on. He also discusses and outlines the central role of the US-Saudi Arabia alliance which is based on fiscal tricks of majors, denial of democracy, and reinvestment of petrodollars. More recent events are discussed under the light of the influence of the oil industry: Iranian revolution, war in Afghanistan, war between Iraq and Iran, the reverse oil shock, US influence in the Middle-East

  9. Oleaster oil positively modulates plasma lipids in humans

    OpenAIRE

    BELARBI, Meriem; BENDIMERAD, Soraya; SOUR, Souad; SOUALEM, Zoubida; BAGHDAD, Choukri; HMIMED, Sara; CHEMAT, Farid; VISIOLI, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The olive tree had been domesticated during the early Neolithic in the Near East, and more than 1000 different cultivars have been identified to date. However, examples of wild olive trees (Olea europaea oleaster) can still be found in the Mediterranean basin. Evidence of oleaster use for oil production can be found in historical and sacred texts, such as the Odyssey, the Holey Koran, and the Holey Bible. While the nutritional and healthful properties of olive oil are actively being explored,...

  10. Assessment of the relationship between oil prices and US oil stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif Ghouri, Salman

    2006-01-01

    This paper qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes the relationship between US monthly ending oil stocks position with that of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil prices from February 1995 to July 2004. The paper concludes if other things are held constant, WTI is inversely related to the petroleum products (PPP), combined petroleum products and crude oil (CPPP), crude oil alone (Crude), total oil stocks including petroleum products, crude oil and strategic petroleum reserves SPR (Total), total gasoline (TGO), total distillate (TDO). It could not establish a statistically significant and negative relationship with SPR when run alone. One percent increase (decrease) in CPPP, PPP, Crude, Total, TGO and TDO leads to decrease (increase) in WTI, respectively, by 0.70, 0.43, 0.37, 0.97, 0.26 and 0.21 percent. Oil prices are largely influenced by total crude and Crude and PPP inventories levels while modestly with variations in gasoline and distillate stocks levels. Despite a healthy increase of over 22 percent in SPR from January 2001 to April 2004, it did not result in easing of oil prices. Primarily because SPR are meant for security of supply concern and are only released under extreme conditions by the President of United States, they are neither meant for the purposes of balancing supply-demand gap nor for the stability of oil prices. The aggressive SPR buildup in recent years is related to international terrorism, geopolitical situation in the Middle East, particularly in Iraq, that encourages US government to enhance its SPR to meet any short-term eventuality. The analyst must keep a close eye on CPPP and the total oil stocks variation to forecast WTI in the short run whilst gasoline and distillate influence oil prices modestly in the short run. SPR, on the other hand, are expected to play a pivotal role in balancing oil prices and in providing a critical resource for the economy in case of any major shortfall in the long run

  11. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games...

  12. Conversion factors and oil statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbuz, Sohbet

    2004-01-01

    World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers

  13. Essential oils from two Eucalyptus from Tunisia and their insecticidal action on Orgyia trigotephras (Lepidotera, Lymantriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreddine Ben Slimane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Essential oils extracted from aromatic and medicinal plants have many biological properties and are therefore an alternative to the use of synthetic products. The chemical composition of essential oils from two medicinal plants (Eucalyptus globulus and E. lehmannii was determined and, their insecticidal effects on the third and fourth larval stages of Orgyia trigotephras were assessed. RESULTS: Larvae were collected from Jebel Abderrahmane (North-East of Tunisia, conserved in groups of 50/box (21 × 10 × 10 cm at a temperature of 25°C. Larvae were tested for larvicidal activities of essential oils. Each oil was diluted in ethanol (96% to prepare 3 test solutions (S1 = 0.05%, S2 = 0.10% and S3 = 0.50%. Essential oils were used for contact, ingestion and Olfactory actions and compared to reference products (Bacillus thuringiensis and Decis. Olfactory action of essential oils shows that larvae mortality is higher than contact action, lower than ingestion action. MTM and FTM of S3 of E. lehmannii were respectively 1 h 32 min and 1 h 39 min are higher than those of E. globulus (MTM = 51 min and FTM = 1 h 22 min 34 sec. Contact action of E. lehmannii oil shows low insecticidal activity compared to E. globulus. MTM are respectively (1 min 52 sec and 1 min 7 sec, FTM are (2 min 38 sec, 1 min 39 sec, are the shortest recorded for S3, on the third stage of larvae. The fourth stage of larvae, MTM are (2 min 20 sec and 2 min 9 sec, FTM are (3 min 25 sec, 3 min 19 sec. Ingestion action of essential oils is longer than the contact action, since the time of death exceeds 60 minutes for all species. CONCLUSION: Results shows that essential oils have a toxic action on nerves leading to a disruption of vital system of insects. High toxic properties make these plant-derived compounds suitable for incorporation in integrated pest management programs.

  14. Prospects for non-OPEC oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, S.

    1994-01-01

    An International Energy Agency forecast is provided of non-OPEC oil production over a 15-year horizon. Reference-case forecasts are derived from Hubbert-type resource models, official industry announcements about such matters as oil discoveries and development projects, and an oil industry consensus. Separate regional profiles are provided for North America, Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the rest of non-OPEC countries (South America, Asia, non-OPEC Middle East). Under a flat-price scenario ($18/bbl), total non-OPEC oil supply rises slightly from 41.4 million bbl/d (MBD) in 1995 to 41.9 MBD in 2010. Under a scenario in which prices rise to $28/bbl, oil supply rises to 47.5 MBD in 2010. The latter results depend on specific assumptions concerning economic growth, energy prices, the geological potential of some areas which are not yet well understood, technological advances, and the nature of political developments. Uncertainties regarding these assumptions are discussed, with reference to reserves, price responsiveness, world oil industry investment, technology, and costs. A major uncertainty is the issue of investment in the OPEC countries, since the rising-price scenario assumes that OPEC invests only reluctantly. If major OPEC producers choose to open their upstream sectors to international oil companies, the situation will change completely. Otherwise, oil markets are expected to continue to behave in the manner of the past 20 years, with highest-cost oil being developed first while cheaper oil remains in the ground. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Do Oil and Education Mix? The Middle East Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkoff, Ronald

    1977-01-01

    The politics of petrodollars stands high on the list of academic concerns as universities wrestle with the ethics of accepting profitable Middle Eastern research and teaching contracts. Implications of the issues involved--political repression, discrimination, student selection, curriculum control--are addressed. (LBH)

  16. Oil outlook to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shihab-Eldin, A.; Lounnas, R.; Brennand, G.

    2001-01-01

    The OPEC Conference in 2000 developed a price band target of 22-28 US dollars per barrel for the Basket of OPEC crudes, in a bid to stabilise prices. This decision was made in the wake of a 12-month period that had seen tremendous fluctuations, with prices ranging from below 10/b US dollars to above 30/b US dollars. It was expected that the identification of the new price band would play a major role in stabilising oil prices, to the benefit of both producer and consumer. The assessment of potential medium-to-long-term prospects for the oil market, contained herein, are intimately related to these important developments in international oil markets, as well as our understanding of evolving fundamentals. Part 1 of this article, developed using OPEC's World Energy Model (OWEM), describes the reference case. From the demand side, a detailed analysis of both economic growth and intensity movements is used to project the growth of oil demand that can reasonably be expected over the next two decades. A resource-based approach is used to determine feasible longer-term production, utilising the latest data made available last year by the US Geological Survey. The rest of the article deals with various scenarios. The price scenario section considers the impact of high prices, beyond 30/b US dollars, and questions their sustainability. The next section deals with tax scenarios, and shows the extent to which oil demand has been reduced by historical developments in oil product taxation. Finally, a slow growth scenario explores the implications of a pessimistic view of economic growth over the coming years. (author)

  17. Conceptual design and techno-economic evaluation of efficient oil shale refinery processes ingratiated with oil and gas products upgradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu; Zhou, Huairong; Yang, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three integrated oil shale refinery processes are proposed. • Techno-economic performance of three proposed processes is conducted and compared. • Competitiveness of the three proposed processes is investigated at different scenarios. • A development direction for oil shale refinery industry is suggested. - Abstract: Compared with the petrochemical industry, oil shale refinery industry is still relatively backward and has many shortcomings, such as poor quality of shale oil, inefficient utilization of retorting gas, and the unsatisfactory economic performance. In the situation of the low oil price, many oil shale refinery plants are forced to stop or cut production. Thus, oil shale industry is facing a severe problem. How to relieve monetary loss or turn it into profits? This paper proposes three integrated oil shale refinery processes: an integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas, an integrated with hydrogenation of shale oil, and an integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation. The techno-economic performance of the three different processes is conducted and compared with that of a conventional oil shale process. Results show the exergy destruction ratio of the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is the least, 41.6%, followed by the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation, 45.9%. Furthermore, these two proposed processes have the best economic performance. Especially they can turn losses of the conventional oil shale process into profits at the situation of low oil price. The oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is recommended to the oil shale plants which use the oil shale with oil content lower than 12.9%, while the plants using oil shale with oil content higher than 12.9% are better to select the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation.

  18. Vegetable, Fish and Mineral Oils Control Grapevine Powdery Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Martín

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory, greenhouse and field experiments were performed on vegetable, fish and mineral oils to evaluate their phytotoxic effects on grapevine and their effectiveness in the control of grapevine powdery mildew. None of the oils tested showed detectable phytotoxic effects at concentrations of 2% or less applied up to 4 times per week. In greenhouse trials, the efficacy of paraffin oil, refined rapeseed oil and partially refined fish oil against powdery mildew was similar to that obtained with the standard fungicides (tebuconazole or colloidal sulphur. In field trials, the three oils tested (paraffin oil, crude soya oil, and fish oil: 1% in aqueous emulsion were at least as effective as the standard fungicide Quinoxifen, with crude soya oil being the most effective. The oils used in the field trials were also effective for controlling eriophyd mites such as Calepitrimerus vitis.

  19. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  1. Africa\\'s oil and gas sector: Implications for U.S. Policy | Cohen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa\\'s oil and gas sector: Implications for U.S. Policy. A Cohen, R Alasa. Abstract. In this thought provoking paper, the author opines that Africa's oil producing nations are more at a geographical advantage to attract capital investments to the region to develop their energy resources than their Middle East counterparts; ...

  2. Flammability properties of typical aviation functional oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianlong; Zhou, Tiannian; Wang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    A sequence of experiments were conducted in a cone calorimeter to measure the flammability properties of 4050# lubricating oil and 15# hydraulic oil. Meanwhile, the heat release rate, mass loss rate and ignition time were used to investigate the combustion characteristics of the two kinds of oil with varying external radiant heat fluxes. The results show that the 15# oil is easier to be ignited than the 4050# oil and -0.55 power of the ignition time is linear with the external radiant heat flux, which agrees with the previous studies.

  3. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  4. SBAS Analysis of Induced Ground Surface Deformation from Wastewater Injection in East Central Oklahoma, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Loesch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The state of Oklahoma has experienced a dramatic increase in the amount of measurable seismic activities over the last decade. The needs of a petroleum-driven world have led to increased production utilizing various technologies to reach energy reserves locked in tight formations and stimulate end-of-life wells, creating significant amounts of undesirable wastewater ultimately injected underground for disposal. Using Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR data, we performed a differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR technique referred to as the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS-based analysis over east central Oklahoma to identify ground surface deformation with respect to the location of wastewater injection wells for the period of December 2006 to January 2011. Our results show broad spatial correlation between SBAS-derived deformation and the locations of injection wells. We also observed significant uplift over Cushing, Oklahoma, the largest above ground crude oil storage facility in the world, and a key hub of the Keystone Pipeline. This finding has significant implications for the oil and gas industry due to its close proximity to the zones of increased seismicity attributed to wastewater injection. Results southeast of Drumright, Oklahoma represent an excellent example of the potential of InSAR, identifying a fault bordered by an area of subduction to the west and uplift to the east. This differentiated movement along the fault may help explain the lack of any seismic activity in this area, despite the large number of wells and high volume of fluid injected.

  5. BREAD SPREADS PREPARED FROM VEGETABLE OIL BLENDS HAVING BALANCED FATTY ACID PROFILE

    OpenAIRE

    SAGARIKA BHATTACHARYYA

    2013-01-01

    Palm oil and mowrah oil are semi solid at room temperature in tropical countries. The oils are blended separately with til oil and rice bran oil respectively in formulation of bread spreads. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of the experimental oil blends are more balanced compared to that of butter or margarine. The experiment shows that the margarines prepared from the blend of palm oil and til oil and mowrah oil and rice bran oil in different proportion like 85:15 and 80:20 respectively are...

  6. Social anxiety among East Asians in North America: East Asian socialization or the challenge of acculturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lorena; Woody, Sheila R; Lee, Hoon-Jin; Peng, Yunshi; Zhou, Xiaolu; Ryder, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    North American research has consistently reported higher social anxiety among people of Asian heritage compared to people of Western heritage. The present study used a cross-national sample of 692 university students to explore explanatory hypotheses using planned contrasts of group differences in social anxiety and related variables. The East Asian socialization hypothesis proposed social anxiety would show a linear relation corresponding to the degree of exposure to East Asian cultural norms. This hypothesis was not supported. The cultural discrepancy hypothesis examined whether bicultural East Asian participants (residing in Canada) would endorse higher social anxiety in comparison to unicultural participants (Western-heritage Canadians and native Koreans and Chinese). Compared to unicultural participants, bicultural East Asian participants reported higher social anxiety and depression, a relation that was partially mediated by bicultural participants' reports of lower self-efficacy about initiating social relationships and lower perceived social status. Overall, the results suggest higher reports of social anxiety among bicultural East Asians may be conceptualized within the context of cultural discrepancy with the mainstream culture. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Cenozoic tectonic jumping and implications for hydrocarbon accumulation in basins in the East Asia Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Yanhui; Li, Sanzhong; Yu, Shan; Somerville, Ian D.; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Shujuan; Dai, Liming

    2014-07-01

    Tectonic migration is a common geological process of basin formation and evolution. However, little is known about tectonic migration in the western Pacific margins. This paper focuses on the representative Cenozoic basins of East China and its surrounding seas in the western Pacific domain to discuss the phenomenon of tectonic jumping in Cenozoic basins, based on structural data from the Bohai Bay Basin, the South Yellow Sea Basin, the East China Sea Shelf Basin, and the South China Sea Continental Shelf Basin. The western Pacific active continental margin is the eastern margin of a global convergent system involving the Eurasian Plate, the Pacific Plate, and the Indian Plate. Under the combined effects of the India-Eurasia collision and retrogressive or roll-back subduction of the Pacific Plate, the western Pacific active continental margin had a wide basin-arc-trench system which migrated or ‘jumped’ eastward and further oceanward. This migration and jumping is characterized by progressive eastward younging of faulting, sedimentation, and subsidence within the basins. Owing to the tectonic migration, the geological conditions associated with hydrocarbon and gashydrate accumulation in the Cenozoic basins of East China and its adjacent seas also become progressively younger from west to east, showing eastward younging in the generation time of reservoirs, seals, traps, accumulations and preservation of hydrocarbon and gashydrate. Such a spatio-temporal distribution of Cenozoic hydrocarbon and gashydrate is significant for the oil, gas and gashydrate exploration in the East Asian Continental Margin. Finally, this study discusses the mechanism of Cenozoic intrabasinal and interbasinal tectonic migration in terms of interplate, intraplate and underplating processes. The migration or jumping regimes of three separate or interrelated events: (1) tectonism-magmatism, (2) basin formation, and (3) hydrocarbon-gashydrate accumulation are the combined effects of the

  8. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  9. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  10. Russia and the U.S. in the Middle East: a New Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbanov Murad Adilgeraevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the system of modern international relations the Muslim world plays an increasingly prominent role due to several factors of economic, political, social and religious nature. The Middle East is a region that has always aroused the keen interest and attention of the great powers – in this large, populous and resource-rich territory there are many “pain points” related to global problems of mankind. The Middle East accounts for about 2/3 of reliable oil supplies. Oil-producing Arab monarchies have always been an arena of intense competition, not only between oil interests, but also between different States in their struggle for political influence, economic benefits, and strategic base. Russia has always had different from the rest of Europe view on this region, but one thing was certain – the USSR and the new Russia were distinguished with great interest and concern for the situation in the Middle East. The article is devoted to the analysis of the Middle East policy of Russia and the USA; it analyzes the position and role of Russia and the U.S. in the context of recent events in the Arab world; it examines the efforts of the two countries aimed at normalizing interelations. The author evaluates the problems and prospects for further cooperation between Russia and countries of the Arab East in the economic and political spheres.

  11. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  12. Screening of some Malay medicated oils for antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Khalisanni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oils from six Malay medicated oils, used traditionally in the treatment of infectious and septic diseases in humans, were tested for their antimicrobial property. The aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of six Malay medicated oils against certain microbial isolates. Locally available Malay medicated oils were checked for their antimicrobial activities using six species of bacteria: E. coli, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Bacillus subtilis and 2 fungi with 1 yeast (Aspergillus niger, Penicillum spp. and Candida albicans. Clove oil showed the highest antibacterial activity followed, respectively, by 'bunga merah', cajaput, nutmeg, lemon grass and 'gamat' oil. Clove oil and lemon grass showed anticandidal activity. The Malay medicated oil studies did not show any antifungal activity. The study shows that Malay medicated oils, like antibiotics, have antimicrobial activities against some microorganisms.

  13. Promoting Trade in Services in the Middle East and North Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While some developing regions have managed to insert themselves into global production chains, the Middle East and North Africa remains linked to the world economy through simple resource-based activities: oil, minerals, tourism and labour migration. Restrictive regulations and low levels of efficiency undermine ...

  14. Near East and North Africa: A Selected Functional and Country Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This selected bibliography focuses on the Near East and North Africa. Among the topics covered are: Documentary Collections, History, Politics, and International Relations, Islam and the Islamic World, the Arabs, Geography, Art, Literature, Education and Sociocultural Patterns, and Economics, Labor and Oil. An introduction to the series is in SO…

  15. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  16. Quality control of mixtures consisting of engine oil and rapeseed oil by means of online oil sensors; Qualitaetsueberwachung von Motoroel-Rapsoelmischungen mit Online-Oelsensoren. Labortests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuneke, Klaus; Schreiber, Katja [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    It was the goal of the work to investigate interactions between motor oils and rapeseed oil fuel and to test oil sensors for monitoring the quality of aged mixtures of motor oil and rapeseed oil. At first oil samples were aged in the laboratory, whereby motor oil type, share of rapeseed oil and aeration was varied. Depending on type of engine oil different ageing effects were noticed. Higher shares of rapeseed and aeration stimulate increase of viscosity and acid value. In a further step online oil sensors were tested in both, a model of a lubrication system and a test engine. The signals of the sensors plausibly described the oil ageing process by the indicators dynamic or acoustic viscosity, permittivity number, specific electric conductivity. In particular viscosity and permittivity are suitable for showing changes in different motor oil rapeseed oil mixtures during oil ageing. However, for a reliable control system detecting critical rapeseed oil enrichment in the motor oil onboard, further work has to be done. (orig.)

  17. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, S.

    2017-01-01

    Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF) proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV) visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2) curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively. [es

  18. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  19. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  20. Polygenetic Aspect of Unit Theory Oil Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galant, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of a unified theory Oil Generation one of important moments is the consideration of the distribution of oil in the Earth's Crust. Analysis of the distribution of oil deposits in the Earth's Crust showed that oil distributed throughout the stratigraphic section from ancient to modern sediments and from a depth of 12 kilometers to the Earth's surface. The distribution of oil almost meets all stages of metamorphism of rocks. Correlation of the section of oil distribution to genetic types of ore deposits showed that each genetic type ore deposits has its analogue oil field . So it is possible to classify oil fields on 1) endogenous: the actual magmatic, post-magmatic, contact-metasomatic (skarn), hydrothermal, exhalation, carbonatite, pegmatite, 2) exogenous: weathering, oxidation, sedimentary,3) metamorphogenic: metamorphosed, metamorphic. Model of such distribution of oil deposits can be a process of successive formation of oil deposits of mantle degassing tube. Thus oil is polygenic by way of formation of deposits, but their source is united.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF POSSIBLE CONTAMINATION ON THE RADIOCARBON DATING OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS II : EMPIRICAL METHODS TO REMOVE CASTOR OIL AND SUGGESTIONS FOR REDATING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; van der Plicht, Johannes; Doudna, Gregory; Nielsen, Frederik; Hojrup, Peter; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Pedersen, Carl Th; Højrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    While kept at the Rockefeller Museum in East Jerusalem, many Dead Sea Scroll fragments were exposed to castor oil by the original team of editors in the course of cleaning the parchments. Castor oil must be regarded as a serious contaminant in relation to radiocarbon dating. If modern castor oil is

  2. Organic Geochemistry and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis of Eocene fine Sediments, East Ketungau Basin, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i2.119Indonesia contains many Paleogene and Neogene basins which some of them have been proven to be a very prolific producer of oil and gas. A study on the result of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and biomarker undertaken on the Eocene Mandai Group was able to assess hydrocarbon potential of the Paleogene fine sediments in the frontier basin, especially West Kalimantan area. East Ketungau Basin is located in the western Kalimantan, bounded with Melawi Basin by the Semitau High in the south and West Ketungau Basin in the west. The Mandai Group was deposited in the East Ketungau Basin during Eocene, consisting of sandstone and mudstone facies. Mudstone facies comprises shale, claystone, and coal. Seven samples of Eocene fine sediments collected from East Ketungau Basin were analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolisis and three samples for biomarker to evaluate their hydrocarbon potential. The Rock-Eval pyrolisis result of Mandai Group shows that TOC value of this facies ranges from 0.34 % to 5.16 %, Potential Yield (PY between 0.06 and 4.78 mg HC/g rock, and Hydrogen Index (HI from 12 to 89. Based on that result, the fine sediments of Mandai Group are included into a gas prone source rock potential with poor to fair categories. Moreover Tmax values vary from 426o C to 451o C. The Eocene fine sediments of Mandai Group fall under kerogen type III. Based on Tmax and biomarker analyses, the maturity of the sediments is situated within immature to mature level. The fine sediments of Mandai Group were deposited in a terrestrial to marine environment under anoxic to sub-oxic condition.

  3. Oil flow in deep waters: comparative study between light oils and heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreolli, Ivanilto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Ultra deeper waters fields are being exploited due to technological development. Under this scenario, the flow design is accomplished through pipelines subjected to low temperature and high pressure. Moreover, these flow lines are usually long causing a fast fluid cooling, which may affect flow assurance in some cases. Problems during topsides production plant's restart might occur if the oil is viscous and even in steady state a significant different behavior can be noticed, if compared to a less viscous oil. A comparison between light and heavy oil through a case study with the objective to show some heavy oil flow particularities is the purpose of this paper. Permanent and transient analyses for a specific geometry are presented. The results showed that thermal and proper viscosity modeling are required for heavy oil flow, differently from that of light oil flow, due to the exponential viscosity dependence to temperature and because the predominant laminar regime. In addition, on heavier and heavier oil flow systems, it is essential to consider exportation system's restart. (author)

  4. Minimal incorporation of Deepwater Horizon oil by estuarine filter feeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, Brian; Anderson, Laurie C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill entered Louisiana bays in mid-2010. • Oil was used minimally (<1%) in diets of mussels and barnacles. • Also, oil did not enhance planktonic respiration rates. • Use of oil carbon was relatively small in these productive estuarine food webs. - Abstract: Natural abundance carbon isotope analyses are sensitive tracers for fates and use of oil in aquatic environments. Use of oil carbon in estuarine food webs should lead to isotope values approaching those of oil itself, −27‰ for stable carbon isotopes reflecting oil origins and −1000‰ for carbon-14 reflecting oil age. To test for transfer of oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill into estuarine food webs, filter-feeding barnacles (Balanus sp.) and marsh mussels (Geukensia demissa) were collected from Louisiana estuaries near the site of the oil spill. Carbon-14 analyses of these animals from open waters and oiled marshes showed that oil use was <1% and near detection limits estimated at 0.3% oil incorporation. Respiration studies showed no evidence for enhanced microbial activity in bay waters. Results are consistent with low dietary impacts of oil for filter feeders and little overall impact on respiration in the productive Louisiana estuarine systems

  5. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented only by small thin patches insufficient for proper characterization and could be only determined to genus. The new species may not be necessarily endemic to the island, as several show similarities ...

  6. Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns

  7. Oil Prices and the Iraq War: Market Interpretations of Military Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Long?," Dow Jones Newswire, March 20, 2003 Cummins, Chip and Bhushan Bahree, "Oil Prices May Face More Volatility," Wall Street Journal , March 19...2003. Cummins, Chip, Bhushan Bahree and Thaddeus Herrick, "Oil Markets Have Less Margin of Error than in Last Iraq War," Wall Street Journal , March 11...on Futuire Marts," Wall Street Journal , March 24, 2003. Siddiqi, Moin A. "The Threat of War Underpins World Oil Markets," The Middle East December

  8. Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil: Assessment of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Essential oils (EO, also called volatile odoriferous oil, are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of plants. In general, the constituents in EOs are terpenes, aromatic compounds (aldehyde, alcohol, phenol, methoxy derivatives, and so on, and terpenoids (isoprenoids. Essential Oils have been known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, thereby serving as natural additives in foods and food products. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of compounds, with active chemical and antioxidant properties, of Artemisia spicigera essential oil (EO due to the effect of geographic location and season of harvest on the phenolic compounds of the plant. The plant was collected from east Azarbayjan province, Iran (both before and after the flowering stage. Materials and Methods A. spicigera EO was analyzed by gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content before and after flowering were evaluated by the Folin Ciocalteu method. Also, the yields of essential oil as a percentage based on the level of dry plant and the volume of extracted oil was determined. Results Analysis of A. spicigera EO by gas chromatogram-mass spectrometry showed that spachulenol 1 H cycloprop (18.39% and bicyclo hexan-3-en, 4-met (26.16%, were the prominent EOs of Artemisia before and after the flowering stage; the total phenolic EO before and after the flowering stage was 23.61 ± 1.08 µg/mL and 17.71 ± 0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Also level of flavonoid content before and after the flowering stage was 37.27 ± 1.70 µg/mL and 29.04 ± 1.30 µg/mL, respectively. This EO was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenol,1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH with an IC50 of 86.14 ± 2.23 and 96.18 ± 2.61 µg/mL, before and after flowering, respectively. Yield of EO before and after flowering was 0.5% and 0.6%, respectively. Conclusions Results have shown that A. spicigera EO

  9. OPEC Middle East plans for rising world demand amid uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.A.H.

    1996-01-01

    The Middle Eastern members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries must plan for huge increases in oil production capacity yet wonder whether markets for the new output will develop as expected. With worldwide oil consumption rising and non-OPEC output likely to reach its resource limits soon, OPEC member countries face major gains in demand for their crude oil. To meet the demand growth, those with untapped resources will have to invest heavily in production capacity. Most OPEC members with such resources are in the Middle East. But financing the capacity investments remains a challenge. Some OPEC members have opened up to foreign equity participation in production projects, and others may eventually do so as financial pressures grow. That means additions to the opportunities now available to international companies in the Middle East. Uncertainties, however, hamper planning and worry OPEC. Chief among them are taxation and environmental policies of consuming-nation governments. This paper reviews these concerns and provides data on production, pricing, capital investment histories and revenues

  10. Efficacy of Olive oil, Groundnut oil, Soybean oil and Palm kernel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the potentials of four different vegetable oils (olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil) for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus. Ife-brown seeds (a susceptible variety) used for the experiment were subjected to the different ...

  11. Politics and economics to shape international oil and gas activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that political and economic events play unusually strong roles in shaping worldwide oil and gas activity levels this year. Developments in the former U.S.S.R. will be critical. As the now-independent republics adopt new economic systems, production and demand patterns will change, as will exports from what has been the world's leading oil producer. Changing conditions in the Middle East among members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries also will affect the industry in the year following the brief Persian Gulf war. Unless worldwide demand surges unexpectedly, these substantial additions to supply will tend to weaken oil prices in 1992

  12. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  13. The Foreign Policy of Saudi Arabia in the Near East at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Kryuchkov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the formation of a new foreign policy strategy of Saudi Arabia in conditions of the changing situation in the Middle East after the “Arab spring” and the “nuclear deal” with Iran. It is shown in the article that the instability of domestic policy and economic problems connected with oil price drop have influence on the foreign policy of Saudi Arabia. Struggle with Iran for domination in the region becomes the basis of its policy in the Middle East. The author notes that the complication of relations with the USA also greatly influences the foreign policy of Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom condemned the nuclear program agreement of Iran. Riyadh didn’t manage to neutralize the growth of influence of Iran in Iraq, Lebanon, Syria and Yemen. Riyadh places a bet on B. Asad opponents support in the Syrian conflict aiming to strengthen its positions in the country and to dislodge Iran and Russia from it. Confrontation with Iran forced Saudi Arabia to interfere with the civil war in Yemen and to carry out a successful operation in Bahrein. The article shows the aspiration of Saudi Arabia to withhold Egypt, Jordan and a number of other countries of the region in the sphere of its foreign policy through financial aid to these countries. It is proved that the reasons of the conflict of Saudi Arabia with Iran were of economic, geopolitical and religious nature, and that Saudi Arabia aspired to strengthen its positions in the Middle East and East Africa. A great breakthrough was acquisition of two islands in the Red Sea from Egypt by Riyadh.

  14. Spilled oil and infaunal activity - Modification of burrowing behavior and redistribution of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, H.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, indicates the degree to which the presence of spilled oil modifies the burrowing behavior of infauna and the extent to which the animals redistribute oil into intertidal sediment. Small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings (mostly made by the crustacean Callianassa) resulted in a limited and temporary reduction in the number of burrow openings. In contrast, a layer of oil-saturated sand 1 cm thick buried about 5 cm below the sediment surface sharply reduced the number of burrow openings. After a year, the few new burrows penetrated only the margins of the experimental plot, and bioturbation below the buried oil-saturated sand layer declined dramatically. The experiments suggest that small amounts of oil temporarily stranded by tides in themselves have no long-range effect on burrowing behavior. The fauna, however, are capable of introducing measurable amounts of oil into the subsurface, where it is retained long after the rest of the stranded oil had washed away. A buried layer of oil-saturated sand greatly reduces infaunal activity; the oil presents an effective barrier that can persist for years. The oil incorporated into the sediment from burrow openings showed evidence of degradation after 7 months. In contrast the layer of buried oil remained essentially undergraded after a period of two years, even though oil in lower concentrations above the layer was degraded after a period of one year. This variation in degree of degradation of the buried oil, as well as the heterogeneity of oil distribution wherever the oil has been incorporated from the surface, emphasises the importance of careful sampling in any attempt to locate or monitor the presence of spilled oil in the substrate.In a series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings resulted in a limited and temporary

  15. Oil type and cross-linking influence growth of Aureobasidium melanogenum on vegetable oils as a single carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Loes H M; Huinink, Hendrik P; Voogt, Benjamin; Adan, Olaf C G

    2018-03-12

    Aureobasidium melanogenum is the main fungus found in a spontaneously formed biofilm on a oil-treated wood. This dark colored biofilm functions as a protective coating. To better understand biofilm formation, in this study A. melanogenum was cultured on olive oil and raw linseed oil. Metabolic activity and oil conversion were measured. The results show that A. melanogenum is able to grow on linseed oil and olive oil as a single carbon source. The fungus produces the enzyme lipase to convert the oil into fatty acids and glycerol. Metabolic activity and oil conversion were equal on linseed oil and olive oil. The fungus was not able to grow on severe cross-linked linseed oil, meaning that the degree of cross-linking of the oil is important for growth of A. melanogenum. Dark coloring of the colony was seen on linseed oil, which might be a stress response on the presence of autoxidation products in linseed oil. The colony on olive oil showed delayed melanin production indicating an inhibitory effect of olive oil on melanin production. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  17. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  18. Asymmetric Effect of Oil Price on the Terms of Trade: Evidence from Oil Exporting and Importing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Mahmoudzadeh; Somaye Sadeghi; Soraya Sadeghi

    2012-01-01

    The oil price shocks are an important source that affect on TOT in both oil exporting and importing countries. Hence, this paper compares the effects of real oil price shock on TOT in both oil importing and exporting countries, using Panel Data technique and during 1980-2010. To the best of our knowledge, we applied the nonlinear approach in order to assess the asymmetric impact of the oil price shocks on TOT. The results show that the oil price shocks influenced the TOT in the oil exporting ...

  19. Adsorption Mechanism of Oil by Resilient Graphene Aerogels from Oil-Water Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiankun; Yan, Zifeng

    2018-02-06

    A facile synthesis strategy was adopted to prepare resilient graphene aerogel (GA) with properties of high emulsified oil adsorption capacities, excellent rebounding performance, oil-water selectivity, and recycling abilities. The maximum adsorption capacity of GA for emulsified diesel oil was 2.5 × 10 4 mg g -1 . The microscopic kinetic and thermodynamic mutual reaction models of diesel oil emulsion adsorption onto GA were investigated to describe the adsorption mechanism. The emulsified diesel oil was able to be separated efficiently from the oil-water emulsion by GA because of their high oil selectivity. Interestingly, both kinetics and thermodynamic experiments show that emulsified oil adsorption on GA is a physical adsorption and spontaneous process. Besides, GA can be reused with prominent repeatability for at least 10 cycles, demonstrating feasibility in practical applications of GA-based oily water treatment.

  20. Biotransformation of natural gas and oil compounds associated with marine oil discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd Gunnar; Almås, Inger K; Krause, Daniel Franklin

    2017-09-01

    Field data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) suggested that oxidation of gas compounds stimulated biodegradation of oil compounds in the deep sea plume. We performed experiments with local seawater from a Norwegian fjord to examine if the presence of dissolved gas compounds (methane, ethane and propane) affected biodegradation of volatile oil compounds, and if oil compounds likewise affected gas compound oxidation. The results from the experiment showed comparable oil compound biotransformation rates in seawater at 5 °C between seawater with and without soluble gases. Gas oxidation was not affected by the presence of volatile oil compounds. Contrary to DWH deep sea plume data, propane oxidation was not faster than methane oxidation. These data may reflect variations between biodegradation of oil and gas in seawater environments with different history of oil and gas exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Suggestions for an East Asian Monetary Union: Focusing on the Effects of Monetary Integration on Bilateral Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chang Ko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores alternative ways toward the East Asian monetary union, focusing on the effect of monetary integration on bilateral trade. For this purpose, we analyze with gravity model changes of the bilateral trade among countries of EU, NAFTA, and East Asia. A distinctive feature of this model is that it includes the dummy variables that show the cultural intimacy among North-East Asian countries, Asian NIEs countries, and East Asian countries (North-East Asian and ASEAN countries. We discovered that bilateral trade increased at a highest level among East Asian countries than the other two cases. This result suggests that the once-and-for-all strategy to develop an East Asian monetary union including North-East Asian and ASEAN countries would be more efficient than the multitrack strategy that forms the monetary union of North-East Asian countries in the first place and then tries to extend it to ASEAN countries.

  2. Heavy Oil Detection (Prototypes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    marine life in addition to causing closure of water intakes at water treatment facilities and power plants . Regardless of whether the heavy oil is near...especially useful for municipalities and power plants that use the water for cooling. The use of this equipment by a Federal On-scene Coordinator (FOSC) is...28. CodaOctopus sample results. (a) shaded mosaic showing bathymetry (color palette wraps around so red to red spans 20 cm elevation); (b) raw data

  3. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  4. Explaining crude oil prices using fundamental measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Les

    2012-01-01

    Oil is the world's most important commodity, and improving the understanding of drivers of its price is a longstanding research objective. This article analyses real oil prices during 1984–2007 using a monthly dataset of fundamental and market parameters that cover financial markets, global economic growth, demand and supply of oil, and geopolitical measures. The innovation is to incorporate proxies for speculative and terrorist activity and dummies for major industry events, and quantify price impacts of each. New findings are positive links between oil prices and speculative activity, bond yields, an interaction term incorporating OPEC market share and OECD import dependence, and the number of US troops and frequency of terrorist attacks in the Middle East. Shocks also prove significant with a $6–18 per barrel impact on price for several months. - Highlights: ► Article introduces new variables to the study of oil prices. ► New variables are terrorist incidents and military activity, and oil futures market size. ► Shocks prove important affecting prices by $6–18 per barrel for several months. ► OPEC market influence rises with OECD import dependence.

  5. Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churkin, M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade

  6. Religious Aesthetics of Wedding Invitation Cards in East Java Community

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanto

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to describe: (1) the aesthetics of style, packaging, shapes, colors, images, photographs, cultural objects, language diversity and typography, trinkets, and (2) religious aesthetics of wedding invitation card based on the perspective of community in East Java. This is descriptive study with the subjects of wedding invitation card documents in East Java, and they were analyzed based on the principles of fine art. The results showed that: (1) the existence of the wedding invitati...

  7. Pediatric Age Palm Oil Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Genova, Lorenza; Cerquiglini, Laura; Penta, Laura; Biscarini, Anna; Esposito, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Palm oil is widely used in the food industry for its chemical/physical properties, low cost and wide availability. Its widespread use has provoked an intense debate about whether it is a potential danger to human health. In a careful review of the scientific literature, we focused on nutritional characteristics and health effects of the use of palm oil with regards to children, seeking to determine whether there is evidence that justifies fears about the health effects of palm oil. Our review showed that palm oil represents a significant source of saturated fatty acids, to which scientific evidence attributes negative health effects when used in excess, especially with regards to cardiovascular diseases. However, to date, there is no evidence about the harmful effects of palm oil on the health of children. Nevertheless, palm oil has possible ill health effects linked to its composition of fatty acids: its consumption is not correlated to risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in young people with a normal weight and cholesterol level; the elderly and patients with dyslipidaemia or previous cardiovascular events or hypertension are at a greater risk. Therefore, the matter is not palm oil itself but the fatty-acid-rich food group to which it belongs. The most important thing is to consume no more than 10% of saturated fatty acids, regardless of their origin and regardless of one's age. Correct information based on a careful analysis of the scientific evidence, rather than a focus on a singular presumed culprit substance, should encourage better lifestyles.

  8. Effects on bread and oil quality after functionalization with microencapsulated chia oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Agustín; Martínez, Marcela L; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2018-03-23

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids-rich oils suffer oxidation reactions that alter their chemical and organoleptic quality. However, microencapsulation can be a powerful tool for its protection against ambient conditions. The addition of microencapsulated chia oil as an ingredient in bread preparation and its effect on the technological and chemical quality of breads was studied in this work. Microencapsulation of chia oil was carried out by freeze-drying with soy proteins as wall material and the oil release was determined in in-vitro gastric and intestinal conditions. Encapsulated oil-containing bread showed no differences in specific volume, average cell area, firmness and chewiness with respect to control bread. Unencapsulated oil-containing bread showed a marked increase in hydroperoxide values respect to control, while encapsulated oil-containing bread values were not affected by baking and bread storage. The fatty acid profiles showed a decrease of 13% and 16% in α-linolenic acid in the encapsulated and unencapsulated oils with respect to bulk chia oil. Sensory analysis showed no significant differences between bread samples. The addition of encapsulated chia oil did not alter the technological quality of breads and prevented the formation of hydroperoxide radicals. A ration of encapsulated oil-containing bread contributes 60% of the recommended dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Micro-distribution and mechanical characteristics analysis of remaining oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the water drive reservoir enters extra high water cut stage (greater than 80%, remaining oil distribution becomes increasingly dispersed. Research on micro residual oil in pore appears particularly important for reservoir development at extra high water cut stage. Oil occurrence characteristics recognition helps to understand the distribution of remaining oil and the mechanical characteristics of oil is the guide for tapping the remaining oil. On the basis of pore scale oil–water two phase flow experiments, micro distribution of remaining oil is divided into four occurrence states in accordance with oil features at different stage of water flooding, the flake of remaining oil, oil column, oil droplet and oil film. A quantitative characterization method of remaining oil occurrence states is established. By using micro numerical simulation method, change rules of four occurrence states of remaining oil during the process of water displacement and the mechanical characteristics of different occurrence state of remaining oil are analyzed. Results show that the continuous oil phase gradually transforms to discontinuous phase and even to dispersed phases during the water flooding process. At extra high water cut stage, most of remaining oil are dispersed oil columns, oil droplets and oil films, which are the main target of remaining oil to be tapped. By changing water flow direction or increasing the displacement pressure gradient, the surface adsorption force acting on oil columns are overcome, and then the oil columns begin to move and finally to be produced out. Oil droplets in pore-throat center are scoured and carried out by water as the increase of the injection volume, while the oil droplets in blind ends and the oil films are extracted out by adding chemicals to reduce the interfacial tension, so as to enhance oil recovery. For water flooding reservoir, the corresponding tapping measures for four types of oil occurrence states brought

  10. Unrealistic Optimism: East and West?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mary Sissons; Carter, Wakefield

    2013-01-01

    Following Weinstein’s (1980) pioneering work many studies established that people have an optimistic bias concerning future life events. At first, the bulk of research was conducted using populations in North America and Northern Europe, the optimistic bias was thought of as universal, and little attention was paid to cultural context. However, construing unrealistic optimism as a form of self-enhancement, some researchers noted that it was far less common in East Asian cultures. The current study extends enquiry to a different non-Western culture. Two hundred and eighty seven middle aged and middle income participants (200 in India, 87 in England) rated 11 positive and 11 negative events in terms of the chances of each event occurring in “their own life,” and the chances of each event occurring in the lives of “people like them.” Comparative optimism was shown for bad events, with Indian participants showing higher levels of optimism than English participants. The position regarding comparative optimism for good events was more complex. In India those of higher socioeconomic status (SES) were optimistic, while those of lower SES were on average pessimistic. Overall, English participants showed neither optimism nor pessimism for good events. The results, whose clinical relevance is discussed, suggest that the expression of unrealistic optimism is shaped by an interplay of culture and socioeconomic circumstance. PMID:23407689

  11. Protection Ability Comparison of Several Mosquito Repellent Lotion Incorporated with Essential Oils of Mosquito Repellent Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramono Putro Utomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most mosquito repellent lotions available on the market today contain the active ingredient diethyltoluamide (DEET which is very harmful to the skin. Natural mosquito repellent research using various essential oils (geranium oil, lemon oil, citronella oil and lavender oil as the active ingredient and the addition of aloe vera gel as a moisturizer has been done on a laboratory scale. The purpose of this study was to compare the protection ability of the mosquito repellent plants in Indonesia. The results showed that geranium oil, lemongrass oil, lavender oil and lemon oil could act as mosquito repellent. Best lotion formula all containing 15% essential oils have the effectiveness above 50% until the sixth hour were geranium oil, citronella oil and lavender oil while lemon oil only giving effectiveness above 50% until the second hour.

  12. Mopping of crude oil and some refined petroleum products from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oil (crude oil, diesel and kerosene) sorption capacity, sorbed oil recoverability and retainability by sawdust was determined under the same experimental condition and compared with that of a standard. The result of the study shows that the sawdust has lesser oil sorption capacity and sorbed oil recoverability than the ...

  13. Governance of Oil in Africa: Unfinished Business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.; Ramsay, W.C.; Guichaoua, Y.; Shaxson, N.; Magrin, G.; Geert van, Vliet; Auge, B.

    2009-01-01

    A closer inspection of the world's oil and gas resources, tempered by a critical assessment of their accessibility, would lead many investors now focused on Russia and the Middle East to turn their attention to the Caspian Basin. But many of these oil and gas provinces are largely off limits for international investors, or the investment conditions have become so unpredictable that investors are forced to look elsewhere for the oil and gas to meet the world's increasing demand. Even if today's economic crisis has taken the urgency out of today's supply and demand balances, economic recovery will soon reveal the need for ever-increasing investment upstream. Other parts of the world may not hold the huge hydrocarbon resources of the Middle East, but there is considerable opportunity elsewhere. This study is dedicated to sub-Saharan Africa where considerable resources have been found and more is no doubt yet to be discovered. Specifically, the countries of the Gulf of Guinea have long been in the oil business and some are now in the gas business. What have the experiences in the oil and gas sectors of these countries been? How has governance evolved over the years and why have some of these countries been unable to realize the full benefits of their resource endowments? The Gulf of Guinea holds considerable promise for more oil and gas for world markets, but the experiences of the past decades suggest a need for substantial reform. Income distribution,welfare, development are not generally the business of energy companies, but if governments do not see to these basic requirements of their populations, energy companies will not be able to bring those energy commodities to the market. This book includes four chapters that examine how energy, governance, corruption, income distribution, and corporate issues are linked. The IFRI program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy hopes this publication will shed light on the role of hydrocarbon production in Africa

  14. Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. essential oil: Chemical composition and antimicrobial,insect-repellent and anticholinesterase activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils from Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (Asteraceae) was investigated for its repellent, antimicrobial and acetyl- and butyrylcholine esterase inhibitory activities. The oil showed good repellent activity while oils demonstrated weak in antimicrobial and cholinesterase inhibitions. Terpenoids...

  15. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability and Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asnaashari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high–performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well-balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation–sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  16. Behavior of different mash oils during coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholze, S.; Schmiers, H.; Rast, A.; Teubel, J. (Bergakademie, Freiberg (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Chemie)

    1989-01-01

    Studies application of brown coal oil, brown coal tar, black coal anthracene oil, heating oil and petroleum residue tar as coal mixing liquid in brown coal liquefaction. Chemical properties of liquids are listed; oil yield, carbon conversion and gasification degree obtained during experiments in laboratory reactors are given. Differences are outlined between single application and multiple application by recirculation. Highest liquefaction oil yield of 57% was clearly obtained using anthracene oil. However, use of brown coal oil was further studied, which showed that the several times recycled fraction of 250 to 350 C performed as well as anthracene oil. Performance test results of this fraction, recovery degree and chemical characterization are given. It contains 25 to 30% creosotes, which act as an efficient dispersing agent, maintaining polar coal in the oil phase. Further technological advantages of this brown coal oil quality are outlined. 15 refs.

  17. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  18. Trade Liberalization between Russia and East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Izotov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the international statistics data the author estimates effects of trade liberalization between Russia and East Asian countries. The prospective niche markets in mutual trade and the impact of trade liberalization on the national economies were identified. Using a partial equilibrium model the author indicates the following positive trade effects for Russia and East Asia: trade creation effect prevails over trade diversion effect; general welfare and mutual trade of the countries tend to increase. The Russian economy has positive trade effects with all the East Asian countries, with the highest scale in the case of Sino-Russian trade. At the same time trade liberalization has following some costs for the Russian economy: a the growing role of imports, mostly from China, compared to Russian exports; b reduction of tariff revenues, which are four times higher for Russia, compared to East Asian countries; c continued negative trade balance with the East Asian countries. The evaluation shows that the increase of Russian exports to East Asian countries is feasible only for certain commodity groups which determine marketable niches of specific East Asian countries; at the same time, Russia can import from East Asia a huge range of commodity groups. The study reveals that reduction in tariff measures and non- tariff restrictions will not lead to a massive increase in Russian exports and changing in its trade and geographical structure. On the basis of prolongation of short-term trends the author identifies long-term challenges and opportunities for the Russian economy from trade liberalization with East Asian countries. According to the estimation results, the author suggests that in the current environment of global trade liberalization the tariff measures become less significant as a tool for redistribution of commodity flows

  19. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  20. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  1. Sandalwood Album Oil as a Botanical Therapeutic in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Ronald L; Levenson, Corey

    2017-10-01

    Many skin conditions and diseases are characterized by inflammation, infection, and hyperplasia. Safe and effective topical treatment options that can be used long-term are needed. Traditional botanical medicines, which are often complex mixtures that exert their biological activities via multiple mechanisms of action, are being studied as potential new active ingredients in dermatology. Sandalwood album oil (SAO), also known as East Indian sandalwood oil (EISO), is an essential oil distilled from the Santalum album tree and has demonstrated biological activity as an anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-proliferative agent. Sandalwood album oil has also shown promise in clinical trials for treatment of acne, psoriasis, eczema, common warts, and molluscum contagiosum. The favorable safety profile, ease of topical use, and recent availability of pharmaceutical-grade sandalwood album oil support its broader use as the basis of novel therapies in dermatology.

  2. Biodegradation of petroleum oil by certain bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, A.E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Balaeam base oil was chosen as a model oil in the present study through which some abiotic treatments were implemented aiming at attenuating its naphthenic and aromatic contents; such as the adsorptive technique and the gamma-irradiation technique . In an attempt to apply the biodegrading bacteria as oil pollutant bio indicators upon coastal water samples, a correlation between hydrocarbon concentration and the relative enumeration of the bacterial oil degraders was detected for some litter locations along the mediterranean Sea shore west and east Delta, Suez canal. and suez gulf. 24 petroleum utilizing bacterial isolates were isolated from El-Zayteia port (suez) and identified by morphological, physiological and environmental examination . the biodegradation capacity of the isolates towards the chosen model oil and its separate components was studied in comparison with the standard isolate pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further, the role of the bacterial plasmids taking part in the biodegradation process was investigated as well

  3. Pore-Scale Investigation of Crude Oil/CO2 Compositional Effects on Oil Recovery by Carbonated Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyyedi, Mojtaba; Sohrabi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    Through coreflood and micromodel studies, it has been shown that carbonated water injection (CWI) can improve oil recovery compared to conventional waterflood. However, in most early studies, either a refined oil or dead crude oil had been used, which is not representative of a real oil reservoir...... where the oil has significant dissolved gases. In such studies, oil swelling and oil viscosity reduction had been introduced as the main mechanisms of additional oil recovery by CWI. However, in our direct flow visualization (micro model) studies reported here, we have used live crude oil, and we have......-temperature direct flow visualization (micromodel) experiments which have been performed using a live crude oil sample. These include a tertiary (post-waterflood) and a secondary (pre-waterflood) CWI experiment performed at 2500 psia and 100 degrees F. The results of our secondary and tertiary CWI showed that CWI...

  4. Variability of essential oil content of Mentha L. taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Neugebauerová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of genus Mentha L. can be described like herbs with many possibilities to use in industry and pharmacology. The most important product is essential oil. For commercially cultivating of species Mentha L. is variability of essential oil content very important characteristic. Variability of essential oil yield of twelve different taxa were monitored for four years. Essential oils were obtained via hydro-distillation and expressed as ml/kg. The highest variability of essential oil content during monitored period showed sample Pulegium vulgare and the lowest variability of essential oil content showed Mentha spicata.

  5. Petroleum products in East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillaud, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a study about petroleum and natural gas reserves in East countries (former USSR, Middle Europe). Statistical data about petroleum production and petroleum products consumption are also given. 10 figs

  6. East India Company Logbooks - Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of images of 1,235 ship logbooks created during British East India Company voyages. Period of record 1786-1834, peaking in 1804. The...

  7. East of Eden / M. A.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Palmses toimub sel nädalal rahvusvahelise stsenaariumikoolituse East of Eden seminar. Koolituse koordinatsioonikeskus tegutseb alates 2005.aastast Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse juures, Eesti--poolseks koordinaatoriks Anu Ernits

  8. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of a North Sea crude oil to silica and calcium carbonate surfaces were studied by a quartz crystal microbalance, while the bare surfaces and adsorbed oil layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Water contact angles were measured...... on the bare surfaces, surfaces with an adsorbed oil layer, and surfaces after being exposed to aqueous salt solutions. This showed that the silica surface became more hydrophobic after oil adsorption, while the wettability of the calcium carbonate surface was not significantly changed by adsorption of an oil...... layer. A surface energy component analysis based on the acid base theory showed that oil adsorption on the surfaces depends upon apolar, acidic, and basic oil components of the crude oil and that the adsorbed oil components differ for adsorption to silica and calcium carbonate. Desorption of the crude...

  9. East Greenland and Barents Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Sonne, Christian; Wiig, Øystein

    2012-01-01

    A morphometric study was conducted on four skull traits of 37 male and 18 female adult East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) collected 18921968, and on 54 male and 44 female adult Barents Sea polar bears collected 19501969. The aim was to compare differences in size and shape of the bear...... and three clusters for Barents Sea females. East Greenland consisted of one female and one male cluster. A principal component analysis (PCA) conducted on the clusters defined by the mixture analysis, showed that East Greenland and Barents Sea polar bear populations overlapped to a large degree, especially...... and genetic factors seem to have contributed to the observed skull differences between the two populations. Overall, results indicate that many Barents Sea polar bears are morphometrically similar to the East Greenland ones, suggesting an exchange of individuals between the two populations. Furthermore...

  10. The Implementation of Computer Data Processing Software for EAST NBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hu, Chundong; Sheng, Peng; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Wu, Deyun; Cui, Qinglong

    2014-10-01

    One of the most important project missions of neutral beam injectors is the implementation of 100 s neutral beam injection (NBI) with high power energy to the plasma of the EAST superconducting tokamak. Correspondingly, it's necessary to construct a high-speed and reliable computer data processing system for processing experimental data, such as data acquisition, data compression and storage, data decompression and query, as well as data analysis. The implementation of computer data processing application software (CDPS) for EAST NBI is presented in this paper in terms of its functional structure and system realization. The set of software is programmed in C language and runs on Linux operating system based on TCP network protocol and multi-threading technology. The hardware mainly includes industrial control computer (IPC), data server, PXI DAQ cards and so on. Now this software has been applied to EAST NBI system, and experimental results show that the CDPS can serve EAST NBI very well.

  11. Can reserve additions in mature crude oil provinces attenuate supply-side peak oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okullo, Samuel; Reynes, Frederic

    2010-09-15

    More often, oil supply has been modeled on the basis of resource availability and demand. The impact of strategy between oil producers has largely been ignored or overly simplified. In this paper, we formulate a model that embodies a weak and strong OPEC for varied rates of reserve additions. With this economic equilibrium model which has the capability to generate a supply side peak in oil production, we show that although reserves of conventional crude oil may seem abundant. OPEC has the ability to lead to substantial crude oil reserve depletion in non-OPEC countries by 2050 given likely depletion rates.

  12. Tracking an oil slick from multiple natural sources, Coal Oil Point, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, Ira [Marine Sciences Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Luyendyk, Bruce [Department of Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Broderick, Kris [Exxon/Mobil Exploration Company, 13401 N. Freeway, Houston, TX 77060 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Oil slicks on the ocean surface emitted from natural marine hydrocarbon seeps offshore from Coal Oil Point in the Santa Barbara Channel, California were tracked and sampled over a 2-h period. The objectives were to characterize the seep oil and to track its composition over time using a new sampling device, a catamaran drum sampler (CATDRUMS). The sampler was designed and developed at UCSB. Chromatograms showed that oil originating from an informally named, very active seep area, Shane Seep, primarily evolved during the first hour due to mixing with oil originating from a convergence zone slick surrounding Shane Seep. (author)

  13. Comparisons Between Asphaltenes from the Dead and Live-Oil Samples of the Same Crude Oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aquino-Olivos, M.A.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.

    2003-01-01

    extracted and analyzed. These pressure-driven asphaltenes found on the filter were found to make up in the range between 50 and 100 ppm of the whole crude oil. Opening of the cell did not reveal asphaltenes retained due to wall adhesion. Size exclusion chromatography tests performed on both the live......-oil-derived asphaltenes and the standard asphaltenes as precipitated by atmospheric titration on the same crude oil, revealed that the live-oil asphaltenes had apparent smaller hydrodynamic volume and narrower distributions than the standard asphaltenes for two oils. Further FTIR tests also showed large differences...

  14. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  15. Demand elasticity of oil in Barbados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Alvon

    2011-01-01

    The importation of oil is a significant component of Barbados' imports, rising from 7% of imports in 1998 to over 20% in 2009. This increase has impacted greatly on the level of foreign reserves. As a price-taker, relying entirely on imported oil for our energy needs could prove a continuous drain on the economy. With a view to formulating an appropriate energy policy for Barbados, this paper analyses the demand for oil using monthly data from 1998 to 2009. The paper estimates the elasticities of demand for oil by employing single equation cointegration approach and comparing the results with countries that rely heavily on imported oil and whose policy objective are to alter their energy structure to rely less on imported oil. The results show that the demand for oil imports is price inelastic in the long run. The consumption of oil is responsive to past consumption, prices, income, electricity consumption and the number of appliances imported in the short-run. A policy framework to reduce the use of oil for electricity consumption via alternative energy sources should be considered and the taxation of oil imports given its elasticity is a good source of revenue. - Highlights: → Demand for oil is price inelastic in the long-run (-0.552). → The relationship between oil demand and income is insignificant in the long run. → As electricity consumption increases by 1%, the demand for oil rises by 1.43%. → Need to determine if investments in alternative sources can offset demand for oil. → Investment in alternative resources may be required before gains are realised.

  16. Structural features and oil-and-gas bearing of the Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabanbark, A.; Lobkovsky, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    The structure of the Caribbean region testifies to the extremely unstable condition of the terrestrial crust of this intercontinental and simultaneously interoceanic area. In the recent geological epoch, the Caribbean region is represented by a series of structural elements, the main of which are the Venezuelan and Colombian deep-sea suboceanic depressions, the Nicaraguan Rise, and the Greater and Lesser Antilles bordering the Caribbean Sea in the north and east. There are 63 sedimentary basins in the entire Caribbean region. However, only the Venezuelan and Colombian basins, the Miskito Basin in Nicaragua, and the northern and eastern shelves of the Antilles, Paria Bay, Barbodos-Tobago, and Grenada basins are promising in terms of oil-and-gas bearig. In the Colombian Basin, the southwestern part, located in the rift zone of the Gulf of Uraba, is the most promising. In the Venezuelan Basin, possible oil-and-gas-bearing basins showing little promise are assumed to be in the northern and eastern margins. The main potential of the eastern Caribbean region is attributed to the southern margin, at the shelf zone of which are the Tokuyo-Bonaire, Tuy-Cariaco, Margarita, Paria Bay, Barbados-Tobago, and Grenada oil-and-gas-bearing basins. The rest of the deepwater depressions of the Caribbean Sea show little promise for hydrocarbon research due to the small thickness of the deposits, their flat bedding, and probably a lack of fluid seals.

  17. International participation in Russia's oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vowinckel, G.

    1997-01-01

    The active role of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in the oil and gas sector of the former Soviet Union was discussed. The EBRD was formed in 1991 with a mandate to help Central and Eastern European countries, particularly countries of the former Soviet Union, to make a transition from the command economy to a market economy. To date, the EBRD has made 15 investments in oil and gas projects with total project costs of nearly $2 billion US. The first projects were joint venture projects with western oil companies. Some of these were the Chernogorskoye project in the Nizhnevortovsk oil region, the Polar Lights project in the Russian Timan-Pechora region, the KomiArctic Oil project in the Komi region of the Russian Federation, two Fracmaster projects and the Geoilbent project. The first years of the projects were difficult, due to the strains of trying to adapt to new challenges and changes. The fiscal regime has changed with time and new taxes have been added and others changed. Many of the legal issues with past projects have been solved. One area of concern with the joint ventures is the export of the produced oil to western markets to achieve international market prices. At present, the joint ventures export between 30 to 50 per cent of their production, but the the Russian Federation would like to increase its export capacity. Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) have been found to be particularly suitable for the development of large oil fields such as the offshore Sakhalin Island project in the far east of the Russian Federation. Western companies such as Shell, Marathon, Mitsui and Mitsubishi are involved in the first of these developments. Azerbaijan and the Caspian Sea area are other regions outside the Russian Federation which have important potential for international participation in the development of oil fields. Efforts are being made to rehabilitate the fields and to partially rebuild existing pipelines and to construct new

  18. Adaptive evolution of seed oil content in angiosperms: accounting for the global patterns of seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Anushree; Decocq, Guillaume

    2016-09-09

    Studies of the biogeographic distribution of seed oil content in plants are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in plants as seed oil is the primary energy source needed for germination and establishment of plants. However, seed oil content as an adaptive trait in plants is poorly understood. Here, we examine the adaptive nature of seed oil content in 168 angiosperm families occurring in different biomes across the world. We also explore the role of multiple seed traits like seed oil content and composition in plant adaptation in a phylogenetic and nonphylogenetic context. It was observed that the seed oil content in tropical plants (28.4 %) was significantly higher than the temperate plants (24.6 %). A significant relationship between oil content and latitude was observed in three families Papaveraceae, Sapindaceae and Sapotaceae indicating that selective forces correlated with latitude influence seed oil content. Evaluation of the response of seed oil content and composition to latitude and the correlation between seed oil content and composition showed that multiple seed traits, seed oil content and composition contribute towards plant adaptation. Investigation of the presence or absence of phylogenetic signals across 168 angiosperm families in 62 clades revealed that members of seven clades evolved to have high or low seed oil content independently as they did not share a common evolutionary path. The study provides us an insight into the biogeographical distribution and the adaptive role of seed oil content in plants. The study indicates that multiple seed traits like seed oil content and the fatty acid composition of the seed oils determine the fitness of the plants and validate the adaptive hypothesis that seed oil quantity and quality are crucial to plant adaptation.

  19. Coconut oil has less satiating properties than medium chain triglyceride oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, R; Maher, T; Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Many media articles promote the use of coconut oil for weight loss advocating similar health benefits to that of MCT. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MCT oil compared to coconut oil and control oil on food intake and satiety. Following an overnight fast, participants consumed a test breakfast smoothie containing 205kcal of either (i) MCT oil (ii) coconut oil or (iii) vegetable oil (control) on three separate test days. Participants recorded appetite ratings on visual analogue scales and were presented with an ad libitum lunch meal of preselected sandwiches 180min after consumption of the breakfast. The results showed a significant difference in energy and macronutrient intakes at the ad libitum meal between the three oils with the MCT oil reducing food intake compared to the coconut and control oil. Differences in food intake throughout the day were found for energy and fat, with the control having increased food intake compared to the MCT and coconut. The MCT also increased fullness over the three hours after breakfast compared to the control and coconut oils. The coconut oil was also reported as being less palatable than the MCT oil. The results of this study confirm the differences that exist between MCT and coconut oil such that coconut oil cannot be promoted as having similar effects to MCT oil on food intake and satiety. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m⁻¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L⁻¹), acids (693 mg L⁻¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C₈-C₃₀ range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypolipidemic effect of oils with balanced amounts of fatty acids obtained by blending and interesterification of coconut oil with rice bran oil or sesame oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena, Malongil B; Lokesh, Belur R

    2007-12-12

    Blended oils comprising coconut oil (CNO) and rice bran oil (RBO) or sesame oil (SESO) with saturated fatty acid/monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid at a ratio of 1:1:1 and polyunsaturated/saturated ratio of 0.8-1 enriched with nutraceuticals were prepared. Blended oils (B) were subjected to interesterification reaction using sn-1,3 specific Lipase from Rhizomucor miehei. Fatty acid composition and nutraceutical contents of the blended oil were not affected by interesterification reaction. Male Wistar rats were fed with AIN-76 diet containing 10% fat from CNO, RBO, SESO, CNO+RBO blend (B), CNO+SESO(B), CNO+RBO interesterified (I), or CNO+SESO(I) for 60 days. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols (TAGs) were reduced by 23.8, 32.4, and 13.9%, respectively, in rats fed CNO+RBO(B) and by 20.5, 34.1, and 12.9%, respectively, in rats fed CNO+SESO(B) compared to rats given CNO. Rats fed interesterified oils showed a decrease in serum TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and TAGs in CNO+RBO(I) by 35, 49.1, and 23.2 and by 33.3, 47, and 19.8% in CNO+SESO(I), respectively, compared to rats given CNO. Compared to rats fed CNO+RBO blended oils, rats on CNO+RBO interesterified oil showed a further decrease of 14.6, 24.7, and 10% in TC, LDL-C, and TAG. Rats fed CNO+SESO interesterified oils showed a decrease in serum TC, LDL-C, and TAG by 16.2, 19.6, and 7.8%, respectively, compared to rats given blended oils of CNO+SESO (B). Liver lipid analysis also showed significant change in the TC and TAG concentration in rats fed blended and interesterified oils of CNO+RBO and CNO+SESO compared to the rats given CNO. The present study suggests that feeding fats containing blended oils with balanced fatty acids lowers serum and liver lipids. Interesterified oils prepared using Lipase have a further lowering effect on serum and liver lipids even though the fatty acid composition of blended and interesterified

  2. Characterization of a New α-Linolenic Acid-Rich Oil: Eucommia ulmoides Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Shan; Liu, Yu-Lan; Che, Li-Ming

    2018-03-01

    Eucommia ulmoides seed oil is the main byproduct of E. ulmoides cultivation. To better understand its functions, E. ulmoides seed oil is characterized comprehensively in this work. The composition of E. ulmoides seed, physicochemical properties, thermal properties, fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and Vitamin E composition of E. ulmoides seed oil were determined. The results show that the E. ulmoides seed contained about 34.63% oil. The excellent physicochemical properties of E. ulmoides seed oil ensured it has a potential to be developed as an edible oil. The main fatty acids in E. ulmoides seed oil were linolenic acid (61.36%), oleic acid (17.02%), and linoleic acid (12.04%). HPLC-ELSD method determined that LnLnLn (37.99%), LnLnO (22.62%), LnLnL (14.5%), and LnLnP (8.78%) were the oil's major TAG components. The oil exhibited a unique thermal curve which contained 2 melting peaks at -38.45 and -22.22 °C, respectively. The total content of vitamin E in E. ulmoides seed oil was 190.96 mg/100g, which exist mainly in γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol isomer. Overall, the results indicated that E. ulmoides seed oil is a promising oil in food, pharmaceutics, cosmetics and other nonfood industries. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Frying stability of rapeseed Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil in comparison with canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Kui; Zhang, Han; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Yoshinobu; Chen, Jie-Yu

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the frying performance of Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil during deep-fat frying of frozen French fries with/without replenishment. Commercial regular canola oil was used for comparison. The frying oils were used during intermittent frying of frozen French fries at 180, 200, and 220 ℃ for 7 h daily over four consecutive days. The Kizakinonatane oil exhibited lower levels of total polar compounds, carbonyl value, and viscosity as well as comparable color (optical density) values to that of the canola oil. The monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios were lower than that of canola oil, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios are higher than that of canola oil after heating. Results showed that fresh Kizakinonatane oil contains higher levels of acid value, viscosity, optical density values, tocopherols, and total phenolics contents than that of canola oil. Replenishment with fresh oil had significant effects on all chemical and physical parameters, except the acid value of the Kizakinonatane oil during frying processes. Based on the results, the Kizakinonatane oil is inherently suitable for preparing deep-fried foods at high temperatures. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tyler

    By employing interpretive policy analysis this thesis aims to assess, measure, and explain policy capacity for government and non-government organizations involved in reclaiming Alberta's oil sands. Using this type of analysis to assess policy capacity is a novel approach for understanding reclamation policy; and therefore, this research will provide a unique contribution to the literature surrounding reclamation policy. The oil sands region in northeast Alberta, Canada is an area of interest for a few reasons; primarily because of the vast reserves of bitumen and the environmental cost associated with developing this resource. An increase in global oil demand has established incentive for industry to seek out and develop new reserves. Alberta's oil sands are one of the largest remaining reserves in the world, and there is significant interest in increasing production in this region. Furthermore, tensions in several oil exporting nations in the Middle East remain unresolved, and this has garnered additional support for a supply side solution to North American oil demands. This solution relies upon the development of reserves in both the United States and Canada. These compounding factors have contributed to the increased development in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta. Essentially, a rapid expansion of oil sands operations is ongoing, and is the source of significant disturbance across the region. This disturbance, and the promises of reclamation, is a source of contentious debates amongst stakeholders and continues to be highly visible in the media. If oil sands operations are to retain their social license to operate, it is critical that reclamation efforts be effective. One concern non-governmental organizations (NGOs) expressed criticizes the current monitoring and enforcement of regulatory programs in the oil sands. Alberta's NGOs have suggested the data made available to them originates from industrial sources, and is generally unchecked by government

  5. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  6. Chemical stability of extra-virgin olive oil added with oregano essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2011-09-01

    . Extra virgin olive oil is widely consumed because of its nutritional benefits and sensory properties which are very important to be preserved in the product. In this study, the oregano essential oil showed remarkable antioxidant activity in olive oil. Therefore, this essential oil could be considered for the industry as natural antioxidant not only to be used in olive oil but also in other fatty food products to substitute synthetic ones. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Acoustic Energy: An Innovative Technology for Stimulating Oil Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, Dorland E.; Peters, Robert W.; Johnson, Donald O.; Paulsen, P. David; Roberts, Wayne

    2006-04-30

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the effectiveness of sonication in reducing the viscosity of heavy crude oils. Sonication is the use of acoustic or sound energy to produce physical and/or chemical changes in materials, usually fluids. The goal of the first project phase was to demonstrate a proof of concept for the project objective. Batch tests of three commercially available, single-weight oils (30-, 90-, and 120-wt) were performed in the laboratory. Several observations and conclusions were made from this series of experiments. These include the following: (1) In general, the lower the acoustic frequency, the greater the efficiency in reducing the viscosity of the oils; (2) Sonication treatment of the three oils resulted in reductions in viscosity that ranged from a low of 31% to a high of 75%; and (3) The results of the first phase of the project successfully demonstrated that sonication could reduce the viscosity of oils of differing viscosity. The goal of the second project phase was to demonstrate the ability of sonication to reduce the viscosity of three crude oils ranging from a light crude to a heavy crude. The experiments also were designed to examine the benefits of two proprietary chemical additives used in conjunction with sonication. Acoustic frequencies ranging from 800 Hz to 1.6 kHz were used in these tests, and a reactor chamber was designed for flow-through operation with a capacity of one gallon (3.8 liters). The three crude oils selected for use in the testing program were: (1) a heavy crude from California with a viscosity of approximately 65,000 cP (API gravity about 12{sup o}), (2) a crude from Alabama with a significant water content and a viscosity of approximately 6,000 cP (API gravity about 22 {sup o}), and (3) a light crude from the Middle East with a viscosity of approximately 700 cP (API gravity about 32{sup o}). The principal conclusions derived from the second project phase include the following: (1) The

  8. Potency of Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zairin Zain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Mahakam Delta is not only utilized for fishery activities but also for several industrial purposes such as coal and oil mining, shipping and timber. The objective of this paper is to provide information in term of the potency of Mahakam Delta located in East Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The study was conducted in Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Participatory rural appraisal is a group of methods to collect information in a participatory fashion from rural communities. The method employed in this research was descriptive analysis describing the environmental potency found in Mahakam Delta. Massive conversion of mangrove forest particularly Nypa (Nypa fruticans area into pond has driven conflict among related stakeholders on the utilization of natural resource and land which subsequently impacts on the fish and shrimp source regeneration, loss of ecological functions of mangrove forest for feeding, nursery and spawning ground of fish and other organisms. Besides of fisheries, oil and gas activity also exists in Mahakam Delta. Mahakam Delta is regarded as important area due to the largest producer of oil and gas mining. Thus, oil and gas industry is the most reliable sector that contributes to the economic development of Kutai Kartanegara district. As a resource provider, Mahakam Delta ecosystem provides various resources for livelihoods. As a life-support service provider, Mahakam Delta ecosystem provides habitat and ideal environment to support variety of living kinds. As a convenience provider, Mahakam Delta ecosystem provides unique and interesting recreation site. As a protector from natural disaster, Mahakam Delta ecosystem is able to protect human kinds from natural disaster threatening coastal area.

  9. Relative Travel Time Tomography for East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S. J.; CHO, S.

    2016-12-01

    Japan island region is one of the most seismically active region in the world. As a large number of earthquakes have recently occurred along circum-Pacific belt called the ring of fire, concern over earthquakes is increasing in South Korea close to Japan. In this study, we perform seismic imaging based on relative S-wave travel-times to examine S-wave velocity upper mantle structure of East Asia. We used teleseismic events recorded at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) network and F-net network operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). Relative travel-time residuals were obtained by a multi-channel cross-correlation method designed to automatically determine accurate relative phase arrival times. The resulting images show high-velocity anomalies along East and South side of Japan island region. These anomalies may indicate subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates, respectively. The velocity structure beneath southwest Japan is revealed very complex because the two slabs interact with each other there. Velocity structure of East Asia is useful to understand the tectonic evolution and the mechanism of earthquakes that occur in this region.

  10. The future world oil market: state of nature or social contract?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    1999-10-01

    Mary Ann Tetreault develops a very interesting interpretation of the emerging new relationship between international oil companies and Middle East producing countries. The original intellectual tools she handles-concepts drawn from the European political philosophy tradition-allow her to argue as follows: (1) the oil market left to itself- whether participants are states or firms-behaves like a Hobbesian ''state of nature'' often resulting in a situation damaging to each participant; (2) to deal with it, the international oil community has historically relied on different types of organisations, but these social contracts or ''republics'' were inherently unstable since they rested on too narrowly defined interests; (3) the rationale behind the possible return of oil companies to the richest Middle East countries is the search for new ''international oil republics'' able to ''offer greater security and higher profits for all the good republicans among them''. (author)

  11. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, Recep; Cetinkaya, Selim; Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  12. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, Recep [Ministry of Education, Projects Coordination Unit, Ankara (Turkey); Cetinkaya, Selim [Gazi Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar [Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  13. Oil geochemistry of the Putumayo basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramon, J.C

    1996-01-01

    Bio marker fingerprinting of 2O crude oils from Putumayo Basin, Colombia, shows a vertical segregation of oil families. The Lower Cretaceous reservoirs (Caballos and 'U' Villeta sands) contain oils that come from a mixture of marine and terrestrial organic matter, deposited in a marginal, 'oxic' marine setting. The Upper Cretaceous ('T' and N ' sands) and Tertiary reservoirs contain oils with marine algal input deposited in a reducing, carbonate-rich environment. Lithology, environmental conditions and organic matter type of source rocks as predicted from oil bio marker differences correspond to organic composition of two Cretaceous source rocks. Vertical heterogeneity in the oils, even those from single wells, suggests the presence of two isolated petroleum systems. Hydrocarbons from Lower Cretaceous source rocks charged Lower Cretaceous reservoirs whereas oils from Upper Cretaceous source rocks charged Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs. Oil migration from mature source rocks into multiple reservoirs has been stratigraphically up dip along the regional sandstone units and vertical migration through faults has been limited. Bio marker maturity parameters indicate that all oils were generated from early thermal maturity oil window

  14. Bacterial communities in petroleum oil in stockpiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Yagi, Kazuhiro; Sato, Daisuke; Watanabe, Noriko; Kuroishi, Takeshi; Nishimoto, Kana; Yanagida, Akira; Katsuragi, Tohoru; Kanagawa, Takahiro; Kurane, Ryuichiro; Tani, Yoshiki

    2005-02-01

    Bacterial communities in crude-oil samples from Japanese oil stockpiles were investigated by 16S rRNA gene cloning, followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. 16S rRNA genes were successfully amplified by PCR after isooctane treatment from three kinds of crude-oil sample collected at four oil stockpiles in Japan. DGGE profiles showed that bacteria related to Ochrobactrum anthropi, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Propionibacterium acnes, and Brevundimonas diminuta were frequently detected in most crude-oil samples. The bacterial communities differed in the sampling time and layer. Among the predominant bacteria detected in the crude oil, only three species were found for bacteria isolated on agar plates and were related to Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas, and Propionibacterium, while Ochrobactrum sp. could not be isolated although this species seemed to be the most abundant bacterium in crude oil from the DGGE profiles. Using an archaea-specific primer set, methanogens were found in crude-oil sludge but not in crude-oil samples, indicating that methanogens might be involved in sludge formation in oil stockpiles.

  15. Fish oil for use as hydraulic oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, T.E. [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Bio-Resource Engineering; Bimbo, A.P. [Zapata Protein, Inc., Reedville, VA (United States). Menhaden Oil Refinery

    1996-04-01

    A study initiated to find a non-toxic environmentally friendly fluid suitable for use in hydraulic systems, such as in marine and food processing operations, has resulted in a fish-oil-based fluid that appears promising. This paper describes the fluid testing and laboratory and field system tests used to evaluate the fish oil with additive packages. The fish oil with non-toxic additives was endurance tested for durability in complete hydraulic systems in the laboratory and introduced into a commercial system. The results indicate that the oil functioned very well in the systems and the components were compatible with the oil, giving no degradation, wear or performance problems. (author)

  16. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oman: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that for the sixth consecutive year, Oman should retain its title as the biggest driller in the Middle East in 1991. An accelerated program in 1990 pushed production to an all-time record 700,000 bpd late in the year. Although not a member of Opec, Oman has cooperated with the group in restraining output as needed to support oil prices. Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), a partnership of the government (60%), Royal Dutch Shell (34%), Total (4%) and Partex (2%), remains by far the biggest producer. This year, PDO will begin work on its $500-million effort to boost production from its Lekhwair field from a current 24,000 bpd to 110,000 bpd by 1994. Last year, PDO also drilled 15 horizontal wells, most of which were successful in increasing per well production compared to conventional vertical holes. The horizontal program has been continued this year with two rings

  18. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  19. The Party's Over: Oil, War And The Fate Of Industrial Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinberg, R.

    2008-01-01

    The world is about to run out of cheap oil and change dramatically. Within the next few years, global production will peak. Thereafter, even if industrial societies begin to switch to alternative energy sources, they will have less net energy each year to do all the work essential to the survival of complex societies. We are entering a new era, as different from the industrial era as the latter was from medieval times. In 'The Party's Over', Richard Heinberg places this momentous transition in historical context, showing how industrialism arose from the harnessing of fossil fuels, how competition to control access to oil shaped the geopolitics of the twentieth century and how contention for dwindling energy resources in the twenty-first century will lead to resource wars in the Middle East, Central Asia and South America. He describes the likely impacts of oil depletion and all of the energy alternatives. Predicting chaos unless the United States-the world's foremost oil consumer-is willing to join with other countries to implement a global program of resource conservation and sharing, he also recommends a 'managed collapse' that might make way for a slower-paced, low-energy, sustainable society in the future. More readable than other accounts of this issue, with fuller discussion of the context, social implications and recommendations for personal, community, national and global action, Heinberg's updated book is a riveting wake-up call for human-kind as the oil era winds down, and a critical tool for understanding and influencing current US foreign policy

  20. Kazakhstan big oil transportation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakipov, K.E.; Mazhkenov, S.A.; Kunaev, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    $1.18 per each barrel. Japan and South East Asia are now seeking for new energy sources which are not connected to the Persian Gulf or Mediterrian. The route via Afganistan, in the developer view, is shortest way to the Asian market and cheapest as to transportation cost. This conclusion was confirmed by the World Bank Data. New pipeline will also allow transporting the Russian oil to China using in same time the Pavlodar and Shymkent oil refinery capacities. These refineries are located on the Omsk-Chardzhou pipeline route and their equipment is disigned just for Siberian oil. RAMIS Projet ensures energy and human resources. There are Zhambyl Thermal Power Plant of 2.400 MW capacity and South Kazakhstan Thermal Power Plant under construction. The latter, if transferred to the gas and fuel oil feed will be enable of producing 4.000 MW. This is extremly important for the country's South experiencing lack of power and deficit of energy resources. Construction and operation of the new oil pipeline and futher gas pipeline will assist in resolution of the unemployment issue for the Southern region of Republic having 60 % of the total Kazakhstan population. Main pipeline will provide jobs to engineeres, welders and constractors for at least 5 years. For the Russian and Kazakhstan oil and gas equipment manufactures this means a market for their products. this new pipeline operation it will annually filled with 25-30 million tonnes of the Sebirian oil to ensure its profitability during first year and viability of rhe entire project. Subsequently, when the Karachgank condensate and oil from Caspian shelf are transported at full capacity Kazakhstan will be able to become a fully-fledget international oil exporter. West Kazakhstan and Siberian oil transportation via Central Asian countries to the Indian Ocean may become practicable based on establishment of new design and construction Consortium involving Russian, Kazakh, Central Asian, Western and Chinese companies and enable

  1. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers. The event is scheduled to...

  2. Subconjunctival and Orbital Silicone Oil Granuloma (Siliconoma Complicating Intravitreal Silicone Oil Tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hye Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old male, who underwent previous pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade due to endogenous endophthalmitis originated from Klebsiella liver abscess, was referred for evisceration. At 2 months after vitrectomy with silicon oil tamponade, conjunctival chemosis and ocular pain were aggravated. Diffuse eyelid swelling and large subconjunctival mass with lipid droplets were noted. On MRI examination, subconjunctival mass and intra- and extraconal orbital mass around superior rectus muscle were observed. Excision of subconjunctival and orbital mass was performed. Histopathologic examination showed multiple silicone oil vacuoles surrounded by foreign body giant cells and fibrosis, which confirmed silicone oil granuloma. In a patient with suspicious melting sclera in diseases such as endophthalmitis, large silicone oil granuloma may be complicated in a rapid fashion after intravitreal silicone oil tamponade due to silicone oil leakage.

  3. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, K.A.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L.; Garrity, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahia las Minas (Panama) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills. (author)

  4. Recovery studies for plutonium machining oil coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Baldwin, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Lathe coolant oil, contaminated with plutonium and having a carbon tetrachloride diluent, is generated in plutonium machining areas at Rocky Flats. A research program was initiated to determine the nature of plutonium in this mixture of oil and carbon tetrachloride. Appropriate methods then could be developed to remove the plutonium and to recycle the oil and carbon tetrachloride. Studies showed that the mixtures of spent oil and carbon tetrachloride contained particulate plutonium and plutonium species that are soluble in water or in oil and carbon tetrachloride. The particulate plutonium was removed by filtration; the nonfilterable plutonium was removed by adsorption on various materials. Laboratory-scale tests indicated the lathe-coolant oil mixture could be separated by distilling the carbon tetrachloride to yield recyclable products

  5. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on phytopathogenic strains isolated from soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M de las M; Carezzano, M E; Giuliano, M; Daghero, J; Zygadlo, J; Bogino, P; Giordano, W; Demo, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species isolated from soybean. Strains with characteristics of P. syringae were isolated from leaves of soybean plants with blight symptoms. Ten of these could be identified in Group Ia of LOPAT as P. syringae. Six of these were confirmed as P. syringae using 16S rRNA, indicating the presence of these phytopathogenic bacteria in east and central Argentina. All the phytopathogenic bacteria were re-isolated and identified from the infected plants. MIC values for thyme were 11.5 and 5.7 mg·ml(-1) on P. syringae strains, while oregano showed variability in the inhibitory activity. Both essential oils inhibited all P. syringae strains, with better inhibitory activity than the antibiotic streptomycin. The oils were not bactericidal for all pseudomonads. Both oils contained high carvacrol (29.5% and 19.7%, respectively) and low thymol (1.5%). Natural products obtained from aromatic plants represent potential sources of molecules with biological activity that could be used as new alternatives for the treatment of phytopathogenic bacteria infections. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Marine oil degrading bacteria related to oil inputs and surface currents in the western Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizarraga-Partida, M.L.; Vicuna, F.B.I.; Chang, I.W.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of oil degrading bacteria (ODB) and its ratios to viable heterotrophic bacteria (CFU) and direct counts (AODC) were examined in relation to the surface currents of the western Caribbean Sea. High ODB/CFU and ODB/AODC ratios were found, suggesting that chronic sources of hydrocarbons in the region may have a larger impact than those in the southern Gulf of Mexico, where previous studies have been performed. It was concluded that, in western Caribbean waters, the distribution of oil degrading bacteria, or its ratios to CFU or AODC, could be useful indicators of chronic oil inputs originating at the east of the Caribbean Sea, as well as their motions afterwards. (author)

  7. Far East and Middle East: An Investigation of Strategic Linkages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hassig, Kongdan

    2002-01-01

    .... Key factors linking the two regions include Muslim populations in China, China and the DPRK's need for Middle Eastern oil, the pursuit of several Middle Eastern states for weapons of mass destruction...

  8. Carbon Democracy: Political Power in the Age of Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Timothy; Jaquet, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    How oil undermines democracy, and our ability to address the environmental crisis. This book is a French translation of 'Carbon Democracy: Political Power in the Age of Oil' originally published by Verso Edition (New York, US, ISBN 978-1781681169). Oil is a curse, it is often said, that condemns the countries producing it to an existence defined by war, corruption and enormous inequality. Carbon Democracy tells a more complex story, arguing that no nation escapes the political consequences of our collective dependence on oil. It shapes the body politic both in regions such as the Middle East, which rely upon revenues from oil production, and in the places that have the greatest demand for energy. Timothy Mitchell begins with the history of coal power to tell a radical new story about the rise of democracy. Coal was a source of energy so open to disruption that oligarchies in the West became vulnerable for the first time to mass demands for democracy. In the mid-twentieth century, however, the development of cheap and abundant energy from oil, most notably from the Middle East, offered a means to reduce this vulnerability to democratic pressures. The abundance of oil made it possible for the first time in history to reorganize political life around the management of something now called 'the economy' and the promise of its infinite growth. The politics of the West became dependent on an undemocratic Middle East. In the twenty-first century, the oil-based forms of modern democratic politics have become unsustainable. Foreign intervention and military rule are faltering in the Middle East, while governments everywhere appear incapable of addressing the crises that threaten to end the age of carbon democracy-the disappearance of cheap energy and the carbon-fuelled collapse of the ecological order. In making the production of energy the central force shaping the democratic age, Carbon Democracy rethinks the history of energy, the politics of nature, the theory of

  9. Deterioration of edible oils during food processing by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, F; Grondin, I; Shum Cheong Sing, A; Smadja, J

    2004-01-01

    During food emulsification and processing of sunflower oil (most used edible oil), a metallic and rancid odour has been detected only for insonated oil and foods. Some off-flavour compounds (hexanal and hept-2-enal) resulting from the sono-degradation of sunflower oil have been identified. A wide variety of analytical techniques (GC determination of fatty acids, UV spectroscopy, free fatty acids and GC/MS) were used to follow the quality of insonated sunflower oil and emulsion. Different edible oils (olive, sunflower, soybean, em leader ) show significant changes in their composition (chemical and flavour) due to ultrasound treatment.

  10. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  11. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  12. Potential for storage of carbon dioxide in the rocks beneath the East Irish Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    This report considers the potential for storing CO2 in the East Irish Sea Basin, which lies between the Isle of Man and the west coast of Cumbria, Lancashire and North Wales. The East Irish Sea Basin has good potential to store CO2 in the Ormskirk Sandstone (upper Sherwood Sandstone Group), which contains oil and gas fields that prove its ability to store buoyant fluids for millions of years. The Mercia Mudstone Group forms an effective cap rock above the Ormskirk Sandstone. The best potentia...

  13. Lubrication Properties of Bio-Oil and Its Emulsions with Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chu Yang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a low-grade liquid fuel, which can be upgraded through the emulsification with diesel oil. In this study, we prepared two rice husk bio-oil samples with different solid char contents and three bio-oil/diesel-oil emulsion samples with the bio-oil content of 10 wt%, 30 wt% and 50 wt%, respectively. The lubrication properties of these oil samples were evaluated by a four-ball tester. The morphologies of the worn ball surface were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The chemical states of the elements on the worn surface and non-worn surface were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS. The results showed that the bio-oil possessed better extreme-pressure, anti-wear and friction-reducing properties than the commercial diesel oil (number zero. The solid char particles in the bio-oil could improve its lubrication performance. Moreover, the lubrication ability of the emulsions would be enhanced with the increasing of the bio-oil content in the emulsions.

  14. ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF PEAK OIL FOR THE MAJOR MULTINATIONAL OIL AND GAS COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Amate

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to analyze the financial statements of the five major multinational oil and gas companies, for the 2011-2015 period, in the framework of the peak oil phenomenon. Peak oil can affect key financial indicators (e.g., earnings volatility, leverage that are used by managers, investors, and stockholders and which may potentially lead to changes in the decision making by management. Our results show that the decline in oil production affects the decisions about investment in new oil wells, leverage, dividends paid, shares purchased and net income involving the five major companies. In addition, we study the evolution of oil prices, and its influence in several items of the financial statements. Even though oil prices were at high levels during 2011-2014, however, the net income of the five companies actually declined due to the impact of peak oil. Finally, data for the last year studied (2015 indicate a general deterioration in return ratios and other accounting variables. Although the new investments should have been profitable, they have been influenced by peak oil, compromising the economic position of the companies. The advice to these companies would be to relax their investments, especially during a period of falling oil prices. Company managers need to recognize the prolonged duration of peak oil and price trends to promote profitability recovery decisions.

  15. Combined heating and chemical treatment for oil recovery from aging crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chunjuan; Jiang, Qingzhe; Song, Zhaozheng; Tan, Guorong; Shi, Zhan

    2016-07-01

    With increasing use of chemical oil displacement agents in tertiary recovery and the application of various demulsifiers for crude oil dehydration, a large amount of aging crude oil containing a high ratio of water is produced, and it is very difficult for processing and utilisation. In this article, we chose aging crude oil samples from a union station in an oilfield in China. Sample composition was analysed to demonstrate that the key of aging crude oil dehydration is the removal of solid impurities. Thus, an efficient method of combining heating and chemical treatments was developed to treat aging crude oil. It includes two steps: The first step is washing of aging crude oil with hot water with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; the second step is chemical demulsification of the above mixture with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution. The result showed that 2.9% of solid impurities and 29.2% of water were removed in the first step; 27.2% of oil, 24.3% of water, and 3.47% of solid impurities in the aging crude oil were recycled in the second step. A total 87.07% of aging crude oil could be solved with this method. The present two-step treatment method can ensure that the dehydration process runs normally and efficiently in the union station, making it a promising method in the recycling of aging crude oil. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990: a decade later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketkar, K.W.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of oil spills data confirms that accidental oil spills are natural phenomenon and that there is a relationship between accidental oil spills and variables like vessel size, vessel type, time and region of spill. The volume of oil spilled bears relationship with the volume of petroleum imports and domestic movement of petroleum and proportion of large oil spills. Finally, navigational risk increases with increase in marine traffic and is also determined by variables like hydrographic and meteorological conditions, water configuration, manoeuvring space, obstructions and nuisance vessels. The Oil Pollution Act, 1990 (OPA 90) was passed by the US Congress in the aftermath of 11 million gallon spill of crude oil in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The objective of OPA 90 was to minimize marine casualties and oil spills by addressing preventive, protective, deterrent and performance aspects of accidental oil spills. The arm of various regulations like double-hull tankers and vessel response plans extended to both US flagged and foreign-flagged tank vessels. The cost-benefit analysis of major regulations shows that the estimated costs exceed estimated benefits. We observe from USCG data on oil spills by size, by vessel type, Coast guard district and type of petroleum product that there have been significant reductions in the number and the quantity of oil spills. Our regression results show that the quantity of oil spilled increases with increase in oil imports but increases at a decreasing rate. The quantity of oil spilled decreases with increases in the domestic oil movements. Furthermore, percent of oil spills larger than 10,000 gallons also increases the potential quantity of oil spilled. OPA 90 has been a deterrent to accidental oil spills but the finding is not conclusive. (author)

  17. Eastern Europe major opportunity for oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlmorgen, T.

    1991-01-01

    The joint effort to overcome the political, technical, and commercial obstacles to adequate energy supply in Eastern Europe may pose one of the biggest entrepreneurial challenges of the decades to come. This article focuses on the former East Germany and Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. They are the markets most likely to be developed in the near future. The best data are available on East Germany. Therefore, the forecast material will concentrate on that region. But the trends seen there will apply to the other countries, keeping in mind though, that East Germany was regarded as the most advanced member of the Former East Bloc in industrial development. A look at some key economic data reveals the potential of the oil markets. Looking at per capita energy consumption, these countries were real world champions. In view of the low standard of living, this is the yardstick of living, this is the yardstick for an unbelievable waste of scarce resources and indicates a total lack of respect for the environment

  18. Politeness: West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Джеффри Лич

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper was planned for this issue of our journal, which Geoffrey Leech and I intended to devote to Politeness phenomena across cultures. It is based on his article titled “Politeness: Is there an East-West Divide?” (2005 which he suggested as a theoretical framework and includes results of our discussions held during our personal meetings and our epistolary exchange. Unfortunately the final version of the paper was never read by Geoffrey Leech for the reasons we all sadly know. Nevertheless I decided to publish it as a tribute to him in the knowledge that the result was not going to have the degree of excellence it would have had if he were still with us today. I therefore apologise for any mistakes or misinterpretations of his thoughts that might be found in the paper. The aim of this article is to sum up the main ideas of Politeness Theory presented earlier in Leech 1983, 2003, 2005, and other publications and discuss how that theory applies (or fails to apply to other languages, with the main emphasis on the Russian language and culture. The term ‘maxim’ used in Principles of Pragmatics (Leech 1983 is avoided here as much as possible, as it implies some kind of moral imperative, rather than a pragmatic constraint. Instead, a single constraint, which comprehends all the maxims (the Maxims of Tact, Generosity, Approbation, Modesty, Agreement, Sympathy, and is called the Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP, is used. The GSP says: In order to be polite, S expresses or implies meanings which place a high value on what pertains to O- his/her wants, qualities, obligation, opinion, feelings (O = other person[s], [mainly the addressee, i.e. H = hearer] or place a low value on what pertains to S (S = self, speaker. The essential point is that these are not separate, independent constraints or maxims: they are instances of the operation of the GSP as ‘super-maxim’ which is an overarching framework for studying linguistic politeness

  19. The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

  20. Rotation Breaking Induced by ELMs on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, H.; Xu, G.; Sun, Y.

    Spontaneous rotation has been observed in LHCD H-mode plasmas with type III ELMs (edge localized modes) on EAST, and it revealed that type III ELMs can induce the loss of both core and edge toroidal rotation. Here we work on the breaking mechanism during the ELMs. Several large tokamaks have...... of magnetic surface, thus generate NTV (neoclassical toroidal viscosity) torque that affects toroidal rotation. We adopt 1cm maximum edge magnetic surface displacement from experimental observation, and our calculation shows that the edge torque is about 0.35 N/m2, and the core very small. The expected...

  1. Natural and Unnatural Oil Layers on the Surface of the Gulf of Mexico Detected and Quantified in Synthetic Aperture RADAR Images with Texture Classifying Neural Network Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; Morey, S. L.; Huffer, F.

    2011-12-01

    similar estimate using 5x5 km grid cells, we observed discharged oil over an area of 1.20x10^5 km^2; 91% of this area was east of 90° W. The average area oil covered water observed in the SAR images was 4.41x104^ km^2, 98% of which was observed in the eastern Gulf. Numerical oil spill model experiments are used to clarify the distinction between the area impacted by the BP oil spill and the surface slicks due to known natural seeps. Natural oil seepage has been cited as a background source of hydrocarbon contamination in the Gulf of Mexico. Our direct comparison shows that during the blowout, the discharged oil impacted an average area two orders of magnitude greater than the entire Gulf total and three orders of magnitude greater than the usual dose received in the northeastern region. Because the layers of discharged oil were often many times thicker than natural seep oil, additional scale factors are required to show the true difference in doses. These differences should be weighed when evaluating the relative impact of natural and unnatural oil in a large marine ecosystem.

  2. Oil and international security: old and new issues; Petrole et securite internationale: de nouveaux enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    1998-09-01

    This paper questions the effectiveness of the link between international oil and (inter)national security. First, it explains an acknowledge the rise and decline of the traditional case of this link: the threat that so called ''oil dependence'' inflicts upon the national economy, hence the problem it raises for government. The reason for that decline is looked for in the emergence of multiple forms of competition in oil and energy markets, making the ''oil weapon'' less credible and its use less desirable and less possible. In oil like in any other commodity, the normal situation is the competition between suppliers for access to markets. For all basic economics tells us and experience has confirmed, analyses and policies (at least in France) are still strongly influenced by the ''oil security'' thinking shaped in the eve of the 1970 crises. Yet, those fallacies may be the strongest obstacle to the acknowledgment of the real oil security issues we face. The main one is the possible political destabilization of the Middle East due to oil competition between its members in an increasingly competitive world market. The consequences on regional antagonisms of the come back of Iraqi oil to the market on one hand, the internal stability of Iran and Saudi Arabia in a situation of lasting low oil revenues on the other hand, are reviewed as the main possible factors of regional destabilization in a context of strong competition in the world oil market. A large scale political burst with major oil producers concerned would certainly hurt developed and developing economy. That leads us to this paradoxical situation: the very cause of the decline of the traditional oil dependence issue is, due to Middle East situation, the main cause of possible destabilization of world oil market today. (author)

  3. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30 min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. A critical review of IEA's oil demand forecast for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nel, Willem P.; Cooper, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    China has a rapidly growing economy with a rapidly increasing demand for oil. The International Energy Agency (IEA) investigated possible future oil demand scenarios for China in the 2006 World Energy Outlook. The debate on whether oil supplies will be constrained in the near future, because of limited new discoveries, raises the concern that the oil industry may not be able to produce sufficient oil to meet this demand. This paper examines the historical relationship between economic growth and oil consumption in a number of countries. Logistic curve characteristics are observed in the relationship between per capita economic activity and oil consumption. This research has determined that the minimum statistical (lower-bound) annual oil consumption for developed countries is 11 barrels per capita. Despite the increase reported in total energy efficiency, no developed country has been able to reduce oil consumption below this lower limit. Indeed, the IEA projections to 2030 for the OECD countries show no reduction in oil demand on a per capita basis. If this lower limit is applied to China, it is clear that the IEA projections for China are under-estimating the growth in demand for oil. This research has determined that this under-estimation could be as high as 10 million barrels per day by 2025. If proponents of Peak Oil such as Laherrere, Campbell and Deffeyes are correct about the predicted peak in oil production before 2020 then the implications of this reassessment of China's oil demand will have profound implications for mankind

  5. Novel reusable porous polyimide fibers for hot-oil adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lidong; Zhang, Chongyin; He, Xiaowei; Guo, Yongqiang; Qiao, Mingtao; Gu, Junwei; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2017-10-15

    The development of oil sorbents with high thermal stability, adsorption capacity, reusability and recoverability is of great significance for hot oil leakage protection, especially for oil spillage of oil refinery, petrochemical industry and cars. In our work, highly efficient hot oil adsorption of polyimide (PI) fibers with excellent thermal stability was successfully prepared by a facile electrospinning method followed by post-treatment. The corresponding morphologies, structures and oil adsorption properties of as-prepared PI fibers at different temperatures were analyzed and characterized. Results showed that PI fibers presented a stable morphology and pore structure at 200°C. The oil adsorption capacity of porous PI fibers for hot motor oil (200°C) was about 57.4gg -1 , higher than that of PI fibers (32.7gg -1 ) with non-porous structure for the motor oil at room temperature. Even after ten adsorption cycles, porous PI fibers still maintained a comparable oil sorption capacity (oil retention of 4.2%). The obtained porous PI fibers exhibited excellent hot oil adsorption capacity, reusability and recoverability, which would broaden the application of electrospun fibers in oil spill cleanup and further provide a versatile platform for exploring the technologies of nanofibers in hot oil adsorption field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and γ-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT.

  7. Identification of components contents of oil extracts and its aromatic fractions. Extracted from oil-polluted soils of Surakhany oilfield of Apsheron peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasova, D.R.; Kerimov, M.K.; Cafarova, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work have been studied components content of oil extracts and its aromatic fraction of Surakhany oilfield by DSC and TGA in follow temperature interval 20-500 degrees Celsium. Have been identified that low paraffinicity of oil fraction and oil extract and its aromatic fraction in this investigation show to young geological age (low transformation) of this oil.

  8. Clay-Oil Droplet Suspensions in Electric Field

    OpenAIRE

    Kjerstad, Knut Brøndbo

    2012-01-01

    Silicone oil droplets containing synthetic smectite clay submerged in another immiscible organic oil have been studied by observing clay particle movement, oil circulation and drop deformation when an electric field is applied. Results show how electric field strength, electrohydrodynamics, dielectric and conductive properties determines the fluid flow, clay particle formation and drop deformation.

  9. Comparative analysis of the essential oils from normal and hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils were extracted with steam distillation from normal and hairy roots of Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer. The constituents of essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that 40 and 46 kinds of compounds were identified from the essential oils of normal ...

  10. Chemical properties of tomato (Lycopersicon escluntum) seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solvent extraction of oil from tomato seeds was carried out. The extracted oil was analyzed for extract yield, quality and fatty acid composition. The results showed that the oil yield was quite appreciable (27.95%) while the results of peroxide value was 0.133O mgg , acid value of 3.3518mgKOH/g , while iodine value was ...

  11. easonal variation in the essential oil composition of origanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil of Origanum syriacum L. subsp. sinaicum Greuter and Burdet obtained by hydrodistillation during four seasons was analyzed by GC-MS. The composition of the oil showed qualitative and quantitative variation. Carvacrol was the major component (64.71%, 36.50%) in summer and spring oils, respectively.

  12. Comparative Effect of Fresh, Thermoxidized and Irradiated Oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test diet made of rat chow mixed with fresh palm oil (FPO), thermoxidized palm oil (TPO) or irradiated palm oil (IPO) were used to feed rats. The control was fed on rat chow only. Feeding was for 8 weeks. They were all allowed water adlibitum. The results showed that there was no significant difference in weight gain among ...

  13. development of a motorized kneader for groundnut oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Preliminary studies showed that groundnut seeds contain 42% to 52% oil, and most of the world groundnut processing is done for that oil. It is a desirable cooking and salad oil, because of its quality, containing about 80% unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoneic acids and so much protein [2]. The traditional use of ...

  14. The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... In the present study, the essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius was extracted using the hydrodistillation method. The oil yield obtained was 0.65%. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil showed that the major constituents of the essential.

  15. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-05

    slander Prime Minister Datuk Sri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad despite the recogni- tion of the prime minister’s capabilities by other coun- tries. Earlier...taken by these PAS members in leaving the party and joining UMNO shows that UMNO under the leadership of Datuk Sri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad has the...Minister Datuk Sri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, in promoting reli- gion, race, and country. Mohd. Isa said also that PAS actions clearly show that the

  16. Modeling Peak Oil and the Geological Constraints on Oil Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  17. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  18. Thickness characterisation of oil spills using active microwave sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Michael; Shuchman, Robert A.; Kletzli, D. W., Jr.; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Digranes, Gunar; Berg, Sverre; Dalland, Kjell

    1994-12-01

    Oil thickness is a crucial parameter in the characterization of oil spills for environmental impact. The feasibility of using active microwave sensors to measure thickness was addressed in a series of microwave scatterometer experiments performed by Simrad Marine A/S in a wave tank at the Nansen Environmental Remote Sensing Center. The thickness of the oil layer was maintained at levels similar to the thick part of an oil spill (0.1 - 1 mm). The measurements showed the capability of active microwave sensors to measure oil spill thickness when the oil type is known. In addition to thickness characterization, the experiment studied the effects of oil viscosity, incidence angle, wind speed, wind angle, microwave frequency, and polarization. The backscatter contrast was observed to be greater for lower incidence angles which indicates that the ERS-1 viewing geometry is optimum for the detection and measurement of thick oil slicks. A thickness-dependent backscatter model was developed which included the effects of oil viscosity, composite surface effects, and oil-water reflectivities. The model viscous effects saturated when the oil thickness was greater than the viscous boundary layer thickness. This explained the observed C-VV backscatter contrast saturation for low viscosity diesel oil at thicknesses greater than 0.15 mm. The model predicted contrast saturation at greater thicknesses for the higher viscosity oils. The data showed this trend but the measurements did not extend to thicknesses which tested the model completely.

  19. Effect of frying conditions on the physico-chemical properties of rice bran oil and its blended oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, H K

    2014-06-01

    The changes occurring in rice bran oil and its blend with sunflower oil during repeated frying cycles of dried and moist potato chips were monitored. The parameters assessed were: Colour, Refractive Index, SpecificGravity, Oryzanol Value, Free fatty acid, Iodine Value, Peroxide value, anisidine value, Saponification Value, trans fats and fatty acid composition. No significant changes (p≤0.05) were observed in the refractive index and specific gravity of rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blend. The colour of blended oil was lesser than RBO and the intensity of color increased after each frying cycle during the deep fat frying of moistened and dried potato chips. The oryzanol content and iodine value decreased with the frying cycles. The decrease in oryzanol value during the frying operation was more prominent in rice bran oil as compared to the blended oils. The increase in p-anisidine value was more in rice bran oil as compared to blended oil. No significant changes (Pfrying cycles in both the rice bran oil and blended oils samples. The amount of unsaturated fatty acid decreased gradually during repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the oils. The trans fat increased with repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran and blended oils, when used to fry moistened and dried potato chips. Both the oil samples showed greater formation of trans fatty acids when the moistened potato chips were used during frying.

  20. Viewpoint On the Climate Change Effects of High Oil Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vielle, M. [CEA-LERNA, University of Social Sciences, Toulouse (France); Viguier, L. [REME-EPFL, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2005-11-01

    Some commentators claim that the oil market has achieved within a few months what international bureaucrats have struggled to obtain in a decade of international climate negotiations. The fallacy of the oil price argument is that substitutions and income effects that would result from higher oil prices are not considered. Using a computable general equilibrium model, we show that high oil prices cannot serve as substitutes for effective climate policies.

  1. On the climate change effects of high oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vielle, Marc [CEA-LERNA, University of Social Sciences, Toulouse (France)]. E-mail: mvielle@cict.fr; Viguier, Laurent [REME-EPFL, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland) and MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge MA (United States)]. E-mail: laurent.viguier@epfl.ch

    2007-02-15

    Some commentators claim that the oil market has achieved within a few months what international bureaucrats have struggled to obtain in a decade of international climate negotiations. The fallacy of the oil price argument is that substitutions and income effects that would result from higher oil prices are not considered. Using a computable general equilibrium model, we show that high oil prices cannot serve as substitutes for effective climate policies.

  2. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra, R.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO: sunflower oil (SnF and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil.

    Se analizaron diversos parámetros físico-químicos para la evaluación de mezclas de aceites en diferentes proporciones que incluyen: aceite de salvado de arroz físícamente refinado (PRBO: aceite de girasol (SNF y las mezclas PRBO: aceite de cártamo (SAF en diferentes proporciones. La cuantificación de la presencia del aceite de salvado de arroz en las mezclas se llevó a cabo por diferentes métodos, como cromatografía de gases (GC, cromatografía líquida (HPLC, ultrasonidos y métodos basados en otros parámetros f

  3. Biodiesel in Belgium. From rapeseed oil to used vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelkmans, L.

    1997-01-01

    There are two motives for the search for alternative motor fuels: reducing the growing pressure of traffic on environment, and looking for a replacement for petrol and diesel oil that are bound to be worn-out in a few decades. A promising alternative motor fuel is biodiesel. The author's institute is involved in its second biodiesel demonstration project. In the first project RME (rapeseed methyl ester) was used undiluted in five passenger cars for two years. There were no technical problems and a clear environmental advantage was noticed. However, the price remains a problem. The use of waste vegetable oils for the production of biodiesel could help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a second biodiesel demonstration project was started in which UVOME (used vegetable oil methyl ester) is used. The preliminary results show a great similarity with the RME results and no technical problems in real life use. 1 fig., 1 tab., 5 refs

  4. Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in developing countries: role of dietary fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Singhal, Neha; Khurana, Lokesh

    2010-06-01

    Developing countries are undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increases in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a healthy traditional high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, a shift is occurring toward increasing consumption of calorie-dense foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, red meats, and low fiber. Data show an increase in the supply of animal fats and increased intake of saturated fatty acid (SFAs) (obtained from coconut oil, palm oil, and ghee [clarified butter]) in many developing countries, particularly in South Asia and South-East Asia. In some South Asian populations, particularly among vegetarians, intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (obtained from flaxseed, mustard, and canola oils) and long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs (obtained from fish and fish oils) is low. Further, the effect of supplementation of n-3 PUFAs on metabolic risk factors and insulin resistance, except for demonstrated benefit in terms of decreased triglycerides, needs further investigation among South Asians. Data also show that intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ranged from 4.7% to 16.4%en in developing countries, and supplementing it from olive, canola, mustard, groundnut, and rice bran oils may reduce metabolic risk. In addition, in some developing countries, intake of n-6 PUFAs (obtained from sunflower, safflower, corn, soybean, and sesame oils) and trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is increasing. These data show imbalanced consumption of fats and oils in developing countries, which may have potentially deleterious metabolic and glycemic consequences, although more research is needed. In view of the rapid rise of T2DM in developing countries, more aggressive public health awareness programs coupled with governmental action and clear country-specific guidelines are required, so as to promote widespread use of healthy oils, thus curbing intake of SFAs and TFAs, and increasing intake of n-3 PUFAs and MUFAs. Such

  5. Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orewa, S. I.

    The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha) and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65%) of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

  6. Relationships between oil price shocks and stock market: An empirical analysis from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong Ronggang; Wei Yiming; Jiao Jianlin; Fan Ying

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships between oil price shocks and Chinese stock market using multivariate vector auto-regression. Oil price shocks do not show statistically significant impact on the real stock returns of most Chinese stock market indices, except for manufacturing index and some oil companies. Some 'important' oil price shocks depress oil company stock prices. Increase in oil volatility may increase the speculations in mining index and petrochemicals index, which raise their stock returns. Both the world oil price shocks and China oil price shocks can explain much more than interest rates for manufacturing index

  7. EPR and Fluorescence Spectroscopy in the Photodegradation Study of Arabian and Colombian Crude Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. B. Guedes

    2006-01-01

    W/m2. The reduction in the linewidth of the free radical of 9.8% in Arabian oil and 18.5% in Colombian oil, as well as the decrease in radical numbers, indicated photochemical degradation, especially in Colombian oil. The linewidth narrowing corresponding to free radicals in the irradiated oils occurred due to the rearrangement among radicals and aromatic carbon consumption. The irradiated oils showed a reduction in the relative intensity of fluorescence of the aromatics with high molecular mass, polar aromatics, and asphaltene. The fluorescent fraction was reduced by 61% in Arabian oil and 72% in Colombian oil, corresponding to photochemical degradation of crude oil aromatic compounds.

  8. East bay fire chiefs' consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Bradley

    1995-01-01

    The traditional approach to planning for public fire protection has been based on independent actions by each fire department or district. The county fire chiefs’ associations, while providing interagency communication, were not adequate to deal with the regional nature of the wildland urban interface problem. The formation of the East Bay Fire Chiefs’ Consortium grew...

  9. Forests of East Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas derived from an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. These estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are...

  10. Forests of east Texas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J.W. Dooley; T.J. Brandeis

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. Forest resource estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  11. Forests of east Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Dooley

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS) in cooperation with Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—Southeast (unit 1),...

  12. Service Learning in East Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reclaiming Children and Youth: The Journal of Strength-based Interventions, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Five days in East Timor visiting orphanages changed the lives of five young men from Youth Off The Streets. The children in these orphanages run by the Salesian order of the Catholic church are products of the Indonesian invasion, which began in 1975 and continued until 1999. Massive destruction occurred throughout the country. Buildings at the…

  13. East African Medical Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The East African Medical Journal (EAMJ) aims to improve the practice of all aspects of medicine and health care in general. To achieve these objectives, the journal publishes original scientific articles, reviews, clinical case reports and letters dealing with any factor impacting on health. EAMJ in published ...

  14. East African Journal of Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Journal of Sciences (EAJS) publishes original scientific papers and disseminates scientific and technological information to the users in Eastern Africa and elsewhere in the world; the Journal also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research and development activities; and accepts ...

  15. East African Journal of Statistics: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Journal of Statistics: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > East African Journal of Statistics: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Archives: Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 14 of 14 ... Archives: Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home > Archives: Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Archives: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 9 of 9 ... Archives: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. Journal Home > Archives: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-19

    frosts during the latter half of May either caused great harm or completely destroyed the tomato seedlings that had been planted. Flowering was...green beans, garlic, radishes, lettuce , and chives, as prices show. Fruit Fruit trees blossomed three to four weeks earlier than usual this year

  20. Rise of oil prices and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document reprints the talk of the press conference given by D. de Villepin, French prime minister, on August 16, 2005 about the alarming rise of oil prices. In his talk, the prime minister explains the reasons of the crisis (increase of worldwide consumption, political tensions in the Middle East..) and presents the strategy and main trends of the French energy policy: re-launching of energy investments in petroleum refining capacities and in the nuclear domain (new generation of power plants), development of renewable energy sources and in particular biofuels, re-launching of the energy saving policy thanks to financial incentives and to the development of clean vehicles and mass transportation systems. In a second part, the prime minister presents his policy of retro-cession of petroleum tax profits to low income workers, and of charge abatement to professionals having an occupation strongly penalized by the rise of oil prices (truckers, farmers, fishermen, taxi drivers). (J.S.)

  1. Imaging of upper crustal structure beneath East Java-Bali, Indonesia with ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Cummins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc; Sri Widiyantoro; Masturyono

    2017-12-01

    The complex geological structures in East Java and Bali provide important opportunities for natural resource exploitation, but also harbor perils associated with natural disasters. Such a condition makes the East Java region an important area for exploration of the subsurface seismic wave velocity structure, especially in its upper crust. We employed the ambient noise tomography method to image the upper crustal structure under this study area. We used seismic data recorded at 24 seismographs of BMKG spread over East Java and Bali. In addition, we installed 28 portable seismographs in East Java from April 2013 to January 2014 for 2-8 weeks, and we installed an additional 28 seismographs simultaneously throughout East Java from August 2015 to April 2016. We constructed inter-station Rayleigh wave Green's functions through cross-correlations of the vertical component of seismic noise recordings at 1500 pairs of stations. We used the Neighborhood Algorithm to construct depth profiles of shear wave velocity (Vs). The main result obtained from this study is the thickness of sediment cover. East Java's southern mountain zone is dominated by higher Vs, the Kendeng basin in the center is dominated by very low Vs, and the Rembang zone (to the North of Kendeng zone) is associated with medium Vs. The existence of structures with oil and gas potential in the Kendeng and Rembang zones can be identified by low Vs.

  2. The U.S.A. and the energy safety in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmat, K.

    2006-01-01

    In the contribution under consideration the author reports on the impact of the United States of America (U.S.A.) in East Asia. The American policy in East Asia is based on two fundamental principles: providing, that no regional authority may provoke the position of the U.S.A., as well as protection of the access to regional markets for the American economy. The U.S.A. fulfill their protective function of their Asiatic partners by means of their maritime superiority with the pacific fleet. Strong-points and safety contracts with Japan and the Republic of Korea form the support of the presence of the U.S. American military. The According to energy security, the interests of the U.S.A. in East Asia are: (a) Secure supply of the national economies in East Asia; (b) Security of the maritime supply systems; (c) Stability and liberalization of the international oil markets; (d) Responsible handling of nuclear energy; (e) Environmental protection. Furthermore, the author describes the conflict potentials between the U.S.A. and the energy safety in East Asia as well as the long-term significance of the energy safety in East Asia

  3. Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Richard A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Originating from Africa, India, and the Middle East, frankincense oil has been important both socially and economically as an ingredient in incense and perfumes for thousands of years. Frankincense oil is prepared from aromatic hardened gum resins obtained by tapping Boswellia trees. One of the main components of frankincense oil is boswellic acid, a component known to have anti-neoplastic properties. The goal of this study was to evaluate frankincense oil for its anti-tumor activity and signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells. Methods Frankincense oil-induced cell viability was investigated in human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal bladder urothelial UROtsa cells. Temporal regulation of frankincense oil-activated gene expression in bladder cancer cells was identified by microarray and bioinformatics analysis. Results Within a range of concentration, frankincense oil suppressed cell viability in bladder transitional carcinoma J82 cells but not in UROtsa cells. Comprehensive gene expression analysis confirmed that frankincense oil activates genes that are responsible for cell cycle arrest, cell growth suppression, and apoptosis in J82 cells. However, frankincense oil-induced cell death in J82 cells did not result in DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis. Conclusion Frankincense oil appears to distinguish cancerous from normal bladder cells and suppress cancer cell viability. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis proposed multiple pathways that can be activated by frankincense oil to induce bladder cancer cell death. Frankincense oil might represent an alternative intravesical agent for bladder cancer treatment.

  4. The oil markets: A vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miras Salamanca, P.

    2007-01-01

    Although oil markets show high levels of volatility, governments and institutions are much more concern with the problem of security of supply. Fundamental drivers of these markets vary from global questions (such as the balance between world supply and demand or the geopolitical situation), to national and local issues (regulation, industry structure and the cost chain in a given market). Global factors account for the lions share of the final price. Therefore, price variations of oil products tend to be similar in different environment. However, regulators and competition watchdogs should put special attention to supervise smaller areas, where specific problems could occur. (Author)

  5. Interaction between rancidity and organoleptic parameters of anchovy marinade (Engraulis encrasicolus L. 1758) include essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Hülya; Kocatepe, Demet; Keskin, İrfan; Altan, Can Okan; Köstekli, Bayram; Candan, Canan; Ceylan, Asuman

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the lipid oxidation and sensory attributes of anchovy marinated with 10% NaCl+4% alcohol vinegar+0.2% citric acid solution and 0.1% different essential oils. Group A Control: only sunflower seed oil, Group B: sunflower seed oil+0.1% rosemary oil, Group C: sunflower seed oil+0.1% coriander oil, Group D: sunflower seed oil+0.1% laurel oil and Group E: sunflower seed oil+0.1% garlic oil. During storage, lipid oxidation as indicated by the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) values of the control group were significantly higher than the other groups containing essential oils. The results showed that the essential oils have retarding effect on lipids oxidation. This effect was the highest in laurel oil during initial 3 months; and it was similar to laurel oil and rosemary oil in the fourth month; in all the essential oil added groups in 6 month. L*(brightness) values were similar for all groups in first fourth months but, at the last 2 months, group using laurel oil was found better. Yellowness (b*) was similar in all groups during the intial 3 months whereas, after that lower values in the groups that used laurel and rosemary oils were detected. The study concluded that marination with 0.1% laurel oil of anchovy can retard lipid oxidation and improve the sensory attributes of the product during refrigerated storage.

  6. Voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and its combination with chemometrics for the detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Fotios; Konstantopoulos, Dimitris; Kakoulidou, Anna Tsantili

    2018-07-26

    In the present work, two approaches for the voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and their combination with chemometrics were investigated in order to detect the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with olive pomace oil as well as the most common seed oils, namely sunflower, soybean and corn oil. In particular, cyclic voltammograms of diluted extra virgin olive oils, regular (pure) olive oils (blends of refined olive oils with virgin olive oils), olive pomace oils and seed oils in presence of dichloromethane and 0.1 M of LiClO 4 in EtOH as electrolyte were recorded at a glassy carbon working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry was also employed in methanolic extracts of olive and seed oils. Datapoints of cyclic voltammograms were exported and submitted to Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square- Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). In diluted oils, PLS-DA provided a clear discrimination between olive oils (extra virgin and regular) and olive pomace/seed oils, while SIMCA showed a clear discrimination of extra virgin olive oil in regard to all other samples. Using methanolic extracts and considering datapoints recorded between 0.6 and 1.3 V, PLS-DA provided more information, resulting in three clusters-extra virgin olive oils, regular olive oils and seed/olive pomace oils-while SIMCA showed inferior performance. For the quantification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with olive pomace oil or seed oils, a model based on Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis was developed. Detection limit of adulteration in olive oil was found to be 2% (v/v) and the linearity range up to 33% (v/v). Validation and applicability of all models was proved using a suitable test set. In the case of PLS, synthetic oil mixtures with 4 known adulteration levels in the range of 4-26% were also employed as a blind test set. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oil and gas field database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Han, Jung Kuy [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As agreed by the Second Meeting of the Expert Group of Minerals and Energy Exploration and Development in Seoul, Korea, 'The Construction of Database on the Oil and Gas Fields in the APEC Region' is now under way as a GEMEED database project for 1998. This project is supported by Korean government funds and the cooperation of GEMEED colleagues and experts. During this year, we have constructed the home page menu (topics) and added the data items on the oil and gas field. These items include name of field, discovery year, depth, the number of wells, average production (b/d), cumulative production, and API gravity. The web site shows the total number of oil and gas fields in the APEC region is 47,201. The number of oil and gas fields by member economics are shown in the table. World oil and gas statistics including reserve, production consumption, and trade information were added to the database for the users convenience. (author). 13 refs., tabs., figs.

  8. China's Oil Rush in Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hurst, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    ... now being forced to search for oil elsewhere. Africa has become a key oil exporter to China. In 2005 China imported nearly 701,000 bpd of oil from Africa, approximately 30 percent of its total oil imports...

  9. Detection of Oil in Ice and Snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merv Fingas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The response to a major oil spill can be challenging in temperate climates and with good weather conditions. By contrast, a major spill in or under ice and snow, presents a whole new series of challenges. This paper reviews detection technologies for these challenging situations. A number of acoustic techniques have been tried in test tank situations and it was found that acoustic detection of oil was possible because oil behaves as a solid in acoustic terms and transmits shear waves. Laboratory tests have been carried out and a prototype was built and tested in the field. Radio frequency methods, such as ground penetrating radar (GPR, have been tested for both oil-under-ice and oil-under-snow. The GPR method does not provide sufficient discrimination for positive oil detection in actual spills. Preliminary tests on the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for detecting oil, in and under ice, shows promise and further work on this is being done at this time. A number of other oil-in-ice detection technologies have been tried and evaluated, including standard acoustic thickness probes, fluorosensor techniques, and augmented infrared detection. Each of these showed potential in theory during tank tests. Further testing on these proposed methods is required.

  10. Geologic and Engineering Characterization of East Ford Field, Reeves County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Guzman, Jose I.; Zirczy, Helena

    1999-08-16

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. The project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit: it contained an estimated 18.4 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place.

  11. PROSPECTS OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN THE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES AND CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Zanna V. Petrunina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Policy management of modern China aims to achieve a high level of welfare state. One of the important components that contributes to the achievement of this goal is the expansion of China's cooperation with the Middle East countries in all fields. At present, China is interested in obtaining energy from the Middle East oil fields. Of great importance is the transport infrastructure expansion between the regions. Construction and operation of oil pipelines, gas pipelines and land transport routes will reduce the risks of transporting raw materials and other goods from one region to another. The paper discusses the features of the development of rail and sea links as part of the strategy of «economic belt of the Silk Road» and «Marine Silk Road of XXI century».

  12. 75 FR 66149 - East Main Street Pharmacy; Affirmance of Suspension Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration [Docket No. 09-48] East Main Street Pharmacy... Control, Drug Enforcement Administration, issued an Order to Show Cause to East Main Street Pharmacy... Certificate of Registration, BE5902615, as a retail pharmacy, as well as the denial of any pending...

  13. Some Characteristics of East Asian Mathematics Classrooms Based on Data from the Timss 1999 Video Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, characteristics of mathematics classrooms in the East Asian countries of Hong Kong and Japan are discussed based on an analysis of the data of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. The data shows that although students in these East Asian countries did not talk a lot in the classroom, they were exposed to more instructional content. The…

  14. Trace elements in near-shore sediments along the east and west coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L; Shirodkar, P.V.; Alagarsamy, R.; Kaisary, S.; Mesquita, A.

    the riverine mouths. The analyses showed significant differences in the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, Mn, Al and TOC between the east and west coasts. Their average bulk concentrations along the east coast are: Cu (59.6 ppm), Zn (103.45 ppm), Ni (115.5 ppm...

  15. East Europe Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-10

    good varieties of sheep, hogs and broiler chickens have been obtained with very good useful traits. Many more examples of this kind may be given...take into account that the current picture has been colored by two extremely good harvests. In any case, its effects can be judged as positive for...provisions already in effect , in the light of past experience with their application. The discussion will show how applicable these proposals are, along

  16. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-08

    additional as to make them profitable. By overprotecting them you outlays. Accordingly, if 100 loaves are purchased, they only encourage laxity, and...chance with such a policy, some units show that a greater price increase than the Overprotection would only perpetuate these pathological announced one...will doubt in the same situation as a child that does not want to that this is true, but will not want to make an issue of the grow up. It is a fear of

  17. East Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-25

    fermented ) on all of their grasslands. Results not only show the high action of the ingredients but also their positive effect on reviving the...be prevented by using cow manure, fermented , diluted solid and liquid farm-animal wastes, or possibly by seeding. These measures are used...may be abolished next year. _ We are preparing additional funds for imports of cocoa beans in order to increase production of these items. Then we

  18. East Europe Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-13

    differentiation by buildings), we must assume that the real construction output per capita is virtually the same. In our r-aimia-Hnnfi of the GDR...exportation departments capable of competing on foreign markets; Build showrooms that can be used both in prenegotiation stages, and to create stocks of...The type of public showing of videocassettes that has spread in Hungary is virtually unknown abroad. Therefore the for- eign partner looks at us

  19. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), β-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and α-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil.

  20. Quality assessment of biodiesels obtained from pure cooking oils of some feedstocks and their waste oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Ansari, T.M.; Manzoor, S.

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel being a renewable energy resource possesses compositional variability based on the type of feedstock. Biodiesel is considered a cleaner burning fuel and can be used as pure B100 or blended with petro-diesel. In this study, biodiesel was prepared from pure cooking oils (soybean oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, corn oil) and their waste frying oils by base-catalyzed transesterification with methanol in presence of sodium hydroxide. The optimized experimental parameters were applied to achieve the maximum yield of biodiesel. Various fuel properties like kinematic viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, total acid number, specific gravity, water and sediments, conradson carbon residue, sulfur contents, phosphorous contents, sulphated ash, cetane and copper corrosion were determined and found comparable to ASTM standards. Pure cooking oils, their waste frying oils and prepared biodiesels were characterized by FT-IR. The study showed that the biodiesel derived from waste frying oils can be a promising alternative of the biodiesel from pure cooking oils. (author)