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Sample records for east mediterranean region

  1. Epidemiology of burn injuries in the East Mediterranean Region: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendrick Denise

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burn injuries remain one of the leading causes of injury morbidity and mortality in the World Health Organization's East Mediterranean Region. To provide an overview on the epidemiology of burn injuries in this region, a systematic review was undertaken. Methods Medline, Embase and CINAHL were searched for publications on burns in this region published between 01/01/1997 and 16/4/2007. Data were extracted to a standard spreadsheet and synthesised using a narrative synthesis. No attempt has been made to quantitatively synthesise the data due to the large degree of clinical heterogeneity between study populations. Results Seventy one studies were included in the review, from 12 countries. Burn injuries were found to be one of the leading causes of injury morbidity and mortality. The reported incidence of burns ranged from 112 to 518 per 100,000 per year. Burn victims were more frequently young and approximately one third of the victims were children aged 0-5 years. Hospital mortality ranged from 5 to 37%, but was commonly above 20%. Intentional self-harm burns particularly involving women were common in some countries of the region and were associated with a very high mortality of up to 79%. Conclusion Burn injuries remain an important public health issue in the East Mediterranean Region therefore further research is required to investigate the problem and assess the effectiveness of intervention programmes.

  2. Exposure to Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes in the East Mediterranean Region: a Systematic Review

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    Yousef Khader

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The East Mediterranean region suffers from high levels of air pollution which has a negative impact on pregnancy outcomes. This work systematically reviews the epidemiological evidence on maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the region. Relevant papers and reports published between 2000 and 2014 were searched. Combinations of search terms including countries, exposures, and pregnancy outcomes were used to search for the relevant literature. Twelve articles from 6 countries met the inclusion criteria. There was a pattern of an association between outdoor air pollution and preterm birth and spontaneous abortion; indoor wood fuel smoke and birth weight; and second-hand smoke and birth weight, preterm birth, and spontaneous abortion.The quality of evidence on the impact of air pollution on pregnancy outcomes in the EMR is inadequate to form a base for future adaptation strategies and action plans. Therefore, more quality research is needed to portrait the actual situation in the region

  3. Population and development scenarios for EU neighbor countries in the South and East Mediterranean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Beer, J.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents four population and development scenarios for 11 South and East Mediterranean countries (SEMC) for the period 2010-2050. Focus of analysis of scenario results is on working age population prospects, economic consequences, migration pressure in four migrant-sending SEMCs (Algeria,

  4. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimenis, Aristarhos; Tabbaa, Darem

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats) creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective.

  5. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarhos Seimenis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re‑emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective.

  6. Regionalizing East Mediterranean Gas: Energy Security, Stability, and the U.S. Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    principle not as dangerous a target as already travel- ing oil transport freighters in the East Mediterranean, offer a highly symbolic target for...October 11, 2011. 51. For a background to Turkey’s own political turmoil in 2013, see Jim Zanotti, “Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations,” CSR Report...January 9, 2014. 76. Jeremy M. Sharp, “Jordan: Background and U.S. Rela- tions,” CSR Report for Congress, Washington, DC: CRS, January 27, 2014

  7. Premarital screening test results for β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia trait in east Mediterranean region of Turkey.

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    Guler, Ekrem; Garipardic, Mesut; Dalkiran, Tahir; Davutoglu, Mehmet

    2010-11-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are common diseases in Mediterranean region of Turkey. In this study, the results of a 3-year premarital screening program are reported in Kahramanmaras province, which is located in East Mediterranean region. A total of 48,126 persons were screened in this program. Hematological analyses and electrophoresis were done to identify carriers. The prevalence of β-thalassemia trait and of sickle cell anemia trait, which were 2.1% and 0.5% in Turkey, were found to be 2.8% and 0.4%, respectively, in our study. Of the carriers of the β-thalassemia trait, 82% had high hemoglobin A₂, 34% had high hemoglobin F, and 18% had both high hemoglobin F and hemoglobin A₂. β-Thalassemia trait in Kahramanmaras is slightly higher than the average rate in Turkey. However, sickle cell anemia trait is similar to Turkey's averages.

  8. Microcnemum coralloides (Chenopodiaceae- Salicornioideae: an example of intraspecific East-West disjunctions in the Mediterranean region

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    Kadereit, Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Microcnemum is a monotypic genus of Salicornioideae comprising rare, annual, hygrohalophytic herbs growing in hypersaline inland lagoons and salt pans. Microcnemum coralloides shows an East-West disjunction in the Mediterranean region: M. coralloides subsp. coralloides occurs in central and eastern Spain while M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum grows in Turkey, Syria, Armenia and Iran. We studied the phylogeny, biogeography and morphological differentiation of M. coralloides. Molecular analyses, using five western and eight eastern accessions of the species, were based on three different markers (nuclear ITS and plastid atpB-rbcL spacer and trnT/F region analysed with Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood. Estimates of divergence times were calculated using a Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT and the Penalized Likelihood (PL method. The two subspecies can be clearly distinguished by their different seed testa surface. Other diagnostic characters were not found. The molecular data (ITS and ML analysis of the trnT/F region indicate that M. coralloides subsp. coralloides originated from within M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum which implies an East Mediterranean origin and subsequent westward dispersal. Age estimates for the split of the two subspecies range from 2.8–0.5 million years ago. Considering the relatively low genetic differentiation and the low crown group age (0.7–0.1 mya of M. coralloides subsp. coralloides in comparison to M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum we favour the hypothesis that the Iberian part of the species range was established during cold periods of the Early Pleistocene and that the range of the species was fragmented during a warmer period soon after its arrival in Iberia.Microcnemum es un género monotípico de Salicornioideae que consiste en hierbas higrohalófilas, anuales, raras, que crecen en cuencas endorréicas hipersalinas del interior y salares. Microcnemum coralloides muestran una disyunción Este

  9. East Mediterranean region sickle cell disease mortality trial: retrospective multicenter cohort analysis of 735 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacaoglu, Pelin Kardaş; Asma, Suheyl; Korur, Aslı; Solmaz, Soner; Buyukkurt, Nurhilal Turgut; Gereklioglu, Cigdem; Kasar, Mutlu; Ozbalcı, Demircan; Unal, Selma; Kaya, Hasan; Gurkan, Emel; Yeral, Mahmut; Sariturk, Çagla; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2016-05-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), one of the most common genetic disorders worldwide, is characterized by hemolytic anemia and tissue damage from the rigid red blood cells. Although hydroxyurea and transfusion therapy are administered to treat the accompanying tissue injury, whether either one prolongs the lifespan of patients with SCD is unknown. SCD-related mortality data are available, but there are few studies on mortality-related factors based on evaluations of surviving patients. In addition, ethnic variability in patient registries has complicated detailed analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality and mortality-related factors among an ethnically homogeneous population of patients with SCD. The 735 patients (102 children and 633 adults) included in this retrospective cohort study were of Eti-Turk origin and selected from 1367 patients seen at 5 regional hospitals. A central population management system was used to control for records of patient mortality. Data reliability was checked by a data supervision group. Mortality-related factors and predictors were identified in univariate and multivariate analyses using a Cox regression model with stepwise forward selection. The study group included patients with homozygous hemoglobin S (Hgb S) disease (67 %), Hb S-β(0) thalassemia (17 %), Hgb S-β(+) thalassemia (15 %), and Hb S-α thalassemia (1 %). They were followed for a median of 66 ± 44 (3-148) months. Overall mortality at 5 years was 6.1 %. Of the 45 patients who died, 44 (6 %) were adults and 1 (0.1 %) was a child. The mean age at death was 34.1 ± 10 (18-54) years for males, 40.1 ± 15 (17-64) years for females, and 36.6 ± 13 (17-64) years overall. Hydroxyurea was found to have a notable positive effect on mortality (p = 0.009). Mortality was also significantly related to hypertension and renal damage in a univariate analysis (p = 0.015 and p = 0.000, respectively). Acute chest syndrome

  10. Perlites from East Mediterranean region: a comparative study of perlite quality characteristics and their utilization in the construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasatou, Marianthi; Stamatakis, Michael; Ipsilanti, Elena

    2014-05-01

    A comparative study of perlite deposits of the East Mediterranean Region is performed, in order to identify the factors that control their expansion capacity, and hence their suitability for certain industrial and environmental applications. Perlite deposits are methodically studied worldwide because of the unique characteristics each particular deposit has and the impact that perlite has to the global economy of industrial minerals. More than 100 perlite-based products exist in the Market. Perlite is a volcanic glass-rich rock, mainly used in its expanded state. It is characterized as a lightweight aggregate with significant thermal and acoustic insulation properties. For the purposes of our study, perlite bulk samples originated from quarries in Milos Island, Greece, Sardinia Island, Italy, Kardjali region, Bulgaria, and Bergama region, Turkey were characterized and tested. The geological age of the deposits varies from Oligocene (Kardjali and Bergama) through Plio-Pleistocene (Milos). From the locations above, fourteen representative bulk samples of 10kg each were studied: Mineralogically by light microscopy [LM], XRD and SEM analysis, and TG/DTA analysis. Chemically (major and trace elements analysis) by XRF and ICP-MS methods. In addition, moisture, Loss on Ignition [LOI], pH and soluble substances (Na, K, Cl) were measured. The XRD analysis revealed that the main phase in all samples is the volcanic glass, distinguished by the broad hump at 19-26 degrees in the XRD pattern. However, some glasses contain embryonic opal-CT phase. Other mineral phases identified are feldspars, quartz and mafic minerals. LM studies revealed that the Kardjali perlite has de-vitrification texture, whereas Milos perlite is almost fresh. Milos samples are richer in Si, Ca, Na, Li and poorer in Th, U, K, Rb and LOI than the other samples. Furthermore, Sardinia samples are richer in REE than the rest of the samples. Tests on the expansion capacity of perlite grains 0.5-1.2mm in size

  11. An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A

    2009-10-15

    In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

  12. Mediterraneanregionalism"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The concept of the Mediterranean ‘region’ has been contested both theoretically and empirically time and again. But, what are its current meanings if any? What do the never-ending internal divisions between and within countries in this imagined space tell us about the state of the Mediterranean t...

  13. Seamount physiography and biology in the north-east Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

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    T. Morato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (north-east Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (north-east Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea is large with around 557 and 101 seamount-like features, respectively. Similarly, seamounts occupy large areas of about 616 000 km2 in the OSPAR region and of about 89 500 km2 in the Mediterranean Sea. The presence of seamounts in the north-east Atlantic has been known since the late 19th century, but overall knowledge regarding seamount ecology and geology is still relatively poor. Only 37 seamounts in the OSPAR area (3.5% of all seamounts in the region, 22 in the Mediterranean Sea (9.2% of all seamounts in the region and 25 in the north-east Atlantic south of the OSPAR area have in situ information. Seamounts mapped in both areas are in general very heterogeneous, showing diverse geophysical characteristics. These differences will likely affect the biological diversity and production of resident and associated organisms.

  14. Improving sea level simulation in Mediterranean regional climate models

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    Adloff, Fanny; Jordà, Gabriel; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence; Arsouze, Thomas; Meyssignac, Benoit; Li, Laurent; Planton, Serge

    2017-08-01

    For now, the question about future sea level change in the Mediterranean remains a challenge. Previous climate modelling attempts to estimate future sea level change in the Mediterranean did not meet a consensus. The low resolution of CMIP-type models prevents an accurate representation of important small scales processes acting over the Mediterranean region. For this reason among others, the use of high resolution regional ocean modelling has been recommended in literature to address the question of ongoing and future Mediterranean sea level change in response to climate change or greenhouse gases emissions. Also, it has been shown that east Atlantic sea level variability is the dominant driver of the Mediterranean variability at interannual and interdecadal scales. However, up to now, long-term regional simulations of the Mediterranean Sea do not integrate the full sea level information from the Atlantic, which is a substantial shortcoming when analysing Mediterranean sea level response. In the present study we analyse different approaches followed by state-of-the-art regional climate models to simulate Mediterranean sea level variability. Additionally we present a new simulation which incorporates improved information of Atlantic sea level forcing at the lateral boundary. We evaluate the skills of the different simulations in the frame of long-term hindcast simulations spanning from 1980 to 2012 analysing sea level variability from seasonal to multidecadal scales. Results from the new simulation show a substantial improvement in the modelled Mediterranean sea level signal. This confirms that Mediterranean mean sea level is strongly influenced by the Atlantic conditions, and thus suggests that the quality of the information in the lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) is crucial for the good modelling of Mediterranean sea level. We also found that the regional differences inside the basin, that are induced by circulation changes, are model-dependent and thus not

  15. TERENO-MED: Terrestrial Environmental Observatories in the Mediterranean Region

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    Krueger, Elisabeth; Friesen, Jan; Kallioras, Andreas; Bogena, Heye; Devaraju, Anusuriya; Vereecken, Harry; Teutsch, Georg

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the most imperilled regions in the world concerning present and future water scarcity. The region is delicately positioned at the crossroads between East and West, interlinking Europe, Asia and Africa. Societal and economic changes causing population growth, industrialisation and urbanisation lead to significant increases in food, water and energy demand. Hence, natural resources, such as water and soils, as well as ecosystems are put under pressure and water availability and quality will be severely affected in the future. At the same time, climate and extreme event projections from climate models for the Mediterranean are, unlike for most regions worldwide, consistent in their trends based on various scenarios. This consistency in the model predictions shows that the Mediterranean will face some of the most severe increases in dryness worldwide (based on consecutive dry days and soil moisture), and indicate a decrease of up to 50 % in available water resources within the next 50-100 years. These developments are accentuated by the fact that in many of the Mediterranean countries, natural renewable water resources are fully exploited or over-exploited already today, mainly due to agricultural irrigation, but also touristic activities. At the same time, the Mediterranean region is a global hot spot of freshwater biodiversity, with a high proportion of endemic and endangered species. While trend projections for water availability and climate change derived from global studies are consistent, regional patterns and heterogeneities, as well as local adaptation measures will largely determine the functioning of societies and the health of ecosystems. However, a lack of environmental data prohibits the development of sustainable adaptation measures to water scarcity on a scientific basis. Building on the experiences gained in the national TERENO network, a Mediterranean observatory network will be set-up, coordinated by two Helmholtz

  16. Thermal history and petroleum systems of the east Mediterranean realm

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    Daher, Samer Bou; Nader, Fadi H.; Littke, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Mediterranean Levant basin is a frontier basin that has gained a lot of industrial and academic interest in the last decade due to the huge gas discoveries that have been reported in its southern part. The reported gas in Miocene reservoirs has been assumed to be derived from biogenic sources, although little data has been published so far. The thickness of the sedimentary column and the presence of direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHI) observed in the seismic data suggest the presence of promising prospective thermogenic petroleum systems in deeper intervals in the Levant Basin and along its margins. The east Mediterranean contains several structural elements dividing the area into different realms that reacted differently to the successive tectonic events that have shaped the area and thus resulted in different thermal and burial histories. We will present source rock data collected within the last few years from several organic matter rich intervals in the east Mediterranean and discuss their depositional environment and petroleum generation potential, as well as the potential petroleum systems in each compartment of the study area. This is based on numerical thermal and burial history models of several east Mediterranean realms including the Levant basin, its eastern and western margins, and the Eratosthenes Seamount. Additionally, we will present some results of sensitivity analysis in the poorly calibrated parts of the study area.

  17. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  18. The Paleo-Anthropocene in the East Mediterranean

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    Ackermann, Oren; Frumin, Suembikya; Kolska Horwitz, Liora; Maeir, Aren M.; Weiss, Ehud; Zhevelev, Helena M.

    2015-04-01

    The East Mediterranean region is located in a transition zone between the sub-humid Mediterranean climate and the semi-arid and arid climates. During the last few Millennia, this area has witnessed human activities at various levels of intensity that have affected the landscape system evolution. For this reason, the given region is an excellent example of an anthropogenic landscape that has been shaped since the Paleo-Anthropocene and until today. The lecture will present a few milestones that demonstrate the ancient anthropogenic impact on various landscape components including physical structure and vegetation and fauna composition and patterns. Physical structure Site density increased dramatically from prehistoric times through to the Byzantine period, when it reached more than 5 sites/km2. Agricultural terraces cover more than 50% of the slopes in the main ridge slope. Vegetation patterns and composition Ancient activities that altered the physical structure had an impact on vegetation patterns that remain visible today. Human land use over history changed the vegetation composition, as revealed in archaeobotanical finds and pollen analysis. For example, changes in conditions during the Neolithic period, at the beginning of agriculture, can be seen by the appearance of weeds. In later periods, the planting of olive trees changed the vegetation composition which has an effect until today. The area also underwent human transitions, as many cultures appeared and inhabited the area. These cultures at times brought with them plants associated specifically with these cultures (e.g. the Philistines). Fauna extinction and invasion There are a few example of species extinction that occurred in the past as a result of mass hunting and killing; for example, the extinction of the Gazella subgutturosa in North Syria. In addition, there is evidence that ancient cultures brought animal species with them. For example, the Philistines that came to the area during the early

  19. Sprite Climatology in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Rubanenko, Lior; Ben-Ami, Yuval; Arnone, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    We present statistical analysis of 436 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan and summer ones in central Europe. Other shapes such as trees, wishbones, etc. appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.5% of observations, with 83.5% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogeneous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). Our observations suggest winter East Mediterranean thunderstorms to have a vertical structure that is an intermediate type between high tropical convective systems and the lower cloud-top cells in winter thunderstorms over the Sea of Japan. The climatology shows that the Eastern Mediterranean is a major sprite producer during Northern Hemisphere winter, and thus the existing and future optical observation infrastructure in Israel offers ground-based coverage for upcoming space missions that aim to map global sprite activity.

  20. Some new trends in Mediterranean labour migration: the Middle East connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccombe, I J; Lawless, R J

    1985-03-01

    Changes in international labor migration in the Mediterranean region since the European economic recession of the early 1970s are examined. The authors note that labor migration to the oil-producing countries of the Middle East has increased and that this migration has differed from the previous movements to Europe, in that the migrants involved have been employed by contractors from their countries of origin or by other foreign companies. The probable future decline of this migration as infrastructure projects are completed is discussed, and the consequences are examined.

  1. North East Atlantic vs. Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas as Fisheries Management Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Pérez-Ruzafa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of management initiatives implemented in the context of the European Common Fisheries Policy has been questioned, especially with regard to the Mediterranean. Some of the analyses made to compare the fishing activity and management measures carried out in the North East Atlantic and in the Mediterranean do not take into account some of the differentiating peculiarities of each of these regions. At the same time, they resort to traditional fisheries management measures and do not discuss the role of marine protected areas as a complementary management tool. In this respect, the apparent failure of marine protected areas in the North-East Atlantic compared with the same in the Mediterranean is challenging European fishery scientists. Application of the classical holistic view of ecological succession to the functioning of fishery closures and no-use areas highlights the importance of combining both management regimes to fully satisfy both fishery- and biodiversity-oriented goals. We advocate that an optimal management strategy for designing an MPA to protect biodiversity and sustain fishing yields consists of combining a network of no-use areas (close to their mature state with fish boxes (buffer zones maintained by fishing disturbance in a relatively early successional stage, where productivity is higher, under a multi-zoning scheme. In this framework, the importance of no-use areas for fisheries is based on several observations: (1 They preserve biological diversity at regional scale, at all levels—specific, habitat/seascape, and also genetic diversity and the structure of populations, allowing natural selection to operate. (2 They permit the natural variability of the system to be differentiated from the effects of regulation and to be integrated in appropriate sampling schemes as controls. (3 They maintain the natural size and age structure of the populations, hence maximizing potential fecundity, allowing biomass export to

  2. The wind power potential of the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Besir; Bilgili, Mehmet; Akilli, Huseyin [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Arhitecture, & amp; Ccedil; ukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2005-02-01

    The wind energy potential in the eastern Mediterranean region has been investigated using hourly wind data taken from seven stations during 1992-2001 periods by the Turkish Meteorological Service. The present work suggests that in the east Mediterranean Sea coast of Turkey, wind energy sources are convenient for electricity generation. The mean power density was determined as 500W/m{sup 2} in many areas of this region at 25m from the ground level. The most promising locations in terms of wind power generation are identified. The contours of constant wind speed and power potential could lead the private power developers to decide the locations of appropriate wind farms.

  3. Calculating the Middle Ages? The Project "Complexities and Networks in the Medieval Mediterranean and Near East" (COMMED)

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Preiser-Kapeller

    2015-01-01

    The project "Complexities and networks in the Medieval Mediterranean and Near East" (COMMED) at the Division for Byzantine Research of the Institute for Medieval Research (IMAFO) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences focuses on the adaptation and development of concepts and tools of network theory and complexity sciences for the analysis of societies, polities and regions in the medieval world in a comparative perspective. Key elements of its methodological and technological toolkit are applied...

  4. INTRODUCTION: DESERTIFICATION AND SECURITY - PERSPECTIVES FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book focuses on two basic concepts: security and desertification in the Mediterranean Region and their linkages. It emerged from a single meeting of the "Workshop on Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue" held in Valencia, Spain on 2-5 December 2003...

  5. Solar Forcing of climate fluctuations in East Africa recorded in southeastern Mediterranean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Y.; Dulski, P.; Hajdas, I.; Ehrmann, W. U.; Schmiedl, G. H.; Haug, G. H.

    2010-12-01

    The proportions of terrigenous components in Mediterranean sediments derived from the atmosphere and rivers strongly depend on climate conditions in the source areas. The rainfall regimes of the northern and central part of the African continent are controlled by an interplay between global climate patterns and the regional hydrological balance. High-resolution XRF element records of a marine sediment core of the southeastern Levantine Sea (Mediterranean Sea; GeoTü SL112, 32° 44.52 N, 34° 39.02 E, water depth: 892 m) indicate distinctive changes in the sediment supply to the southeastern Mediterranean by the Nile River as well as the influx of aeolian dust from the Saharan desert. We observe minima in the concentration of the element iron (Fe), which we interpret as minima in dust input, during the well-known solar minima Oort, Wolf, Spoerer, Maunder, and Dalton. Wavelet analyses reveals a close correspondence in the periodicity in Fe input with the typical frequencies of solar cycles of about 90 and 210 years during the last 1400 years. Furthermore, the Fe record from the Levantine Sea sediments shows a remarkable similarity with the lake level record of Lake Naivasha in the eastern branch of the East African Rift and the pre-colonial drought history of Lake Malawi in the southern part of the African Rift Valley. Enhanced Saharan dust flux as indicated by high Fe content in the Levantine Sea core coincides with well-known droughts in equatorial east Africa as indicated by Lake Naivasha lowstands.

  6. Handbook for Forecasters in the Mediterranean. Part 2. Regional Forecasting Aids for the Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    D day plus 1. Metaxas, D. A., 1978: Strong cold outbreaks in the east Mediterranean. A synoptic study. Rivista di Meteorologia Aeronautics, Vol...ROOM ?35 DIRECTOR 6010 EXECUTIVE BLVD JFK INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT RIVISTA DI METEOROLOGIA AEPONATUICAROCKVILLE, MO 20852 JAMAICA, NY 1143D PALAZZO DELLA

  7. Index medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shorbaji Najeeb

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study provides the rationale, history and current status of the Index Medicus for the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Index is unique in combining the geographic coverage of peer-reviewed health and biomedical journals (408 titles from the 22 countries of the Region. Compiling and publishing the Index coupled with a document delivery service is an integral part of the WHO Regional Office's knowledge management and sharing programme. In this paper, bibliometric indicators are presented to demonstrate the distribution of journals, articles, languages, subjects and authors as well as availability in printed and electronic formats. Two countries in the Region (Egypt and Pakistan contribute over 50% of the articles in the Index. About 90% of the articles are published in English. Epidemiology articles represent 8% of the entire Index. 15% of the journals in the Index are also indexed in MEDLINE, while 7% are indexed in EMBASE. Future developments of the Index will include covering more journals and adding other types of health and biomedical literature, including reports, theses, books and current research. The challenges and lessons learnt are discussed.

  8. Promoting a Precipitation Database for the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionello, Piero; Llasat, Maria Carmen

    2010-02-01

    MedCLIVAR-HyMeX-MedFriends Workshop; Barcelona, Spain, 7 September 2009; The recovery and extension of precipitation time series in the Mediterranean region was the focus of a workshop held as a side event during the “11th Plinius Conference on Mediterranean Storms.” The workshop was the first occasion for a joint meeting of three projects—Mediterranean Climate Variability and Predictability (MedCLIVAR), Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX), and Mediterranean Flow Regimes From International Experimental and Network Data (MedFriend)—all of which share an interest in the analysis of precipitation at regional scales. Contributions were also presented by the coordinator of the Mediterranean Experiment (MEDEX) project and the chair of the Mediterranean Climate Data Rescue (MEDARE) project. The workshop provided a forum for discussing the present state of data recovery initiatives aimed at improving knowledge of the time-space distribution of precipitation in the Mediterranean region, where rain is simultaneously a crucial resource (rain is scarce over a large fraction of the region) and a risk factor producing floods and resultant loss of life and property.

  9. Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D P

    1970-04-18

    The seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Mediterranean area show that two small rapidly moving plates exist in the Eastern Mediterranean, and such plates may be a common feature of contracting ocean basins. The results show that the concepts of plate tectonics apply to instantaneous motions across continental plate boundaries.

  10. Automated inter-station phase velocity measurements across the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Amr; Weidle, Christian; Christiano, Luigia; Soomro, Riaz; Lebedev, Sergi; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The structure of the lithosphere in northeastern Africa, eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East is highly variable. It ranges from young oceanic lithosphere in the Red Sea to what is considered the oldest oceanic lithosphere on Earth in the Mediterranean Sea north of Libya, and from highly deformed continental lithosphere at the east-Mediterranean margins to more stable continental lithosphere of Phanerozoic origin and to cratonic lithosphere beneath the Arabian Peninsula. Details of the lithospheric structure are, however, poorly known. Surface waves are ideally suited for studies of the lithosphere and the sublithospheric mantle. Our goal is to better define the 3D lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure within this region by surface wave tomography. Using regional to teleseismic Rayleigh and Love waves that traverse the area we can obtain information about its seismic structure by examining phase velocities as a function of frequency. A newly developed algorithm for automated inter-station phase velocity measurements (Soomro et al. 2016) is applied here to obtain both Rayleigh and Love fundamental mode phase velocities. We utilize a database consisting of more than 3800 regional and teleseismic earthquakes recorded by more than 1850 broadband seismic stations within the area, provided by the European Integrated Data Archive (WebDc/EIDA) and IRIS. Moreover, for the first time, data from the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), recorded by up to 25 broad band seismic stations, is also included in the analysis. For each station pair approximately located on the same great circle path, the recorded waveforms are cross correlated and the dispersion curves of fundamental modes are calculated from the phase of the weighted cross correlation functions. Path average dispersion curves are obtained by averaging the smooth parts of single-event dispersion curves. Parameters tests and preliminary results of automatically measured phase velocities are

  11. WEST AND EAST REGIONS OF GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mobilisation and saving as well as records keeping in PMCS in the Upper West and. East Regions. 1. ..... money to meet the maintenance of pump facilities including pump site .... are given some incentives as motivation, the data show that the.

  12. Seamount physiography and biology in North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Morato, T.; K. Ø. Kvile; Taranto, G. H.; F. Tempera; Narayanaswamy, B.E.; Hebbeln, D.; Menezes, G.; Wienberg, C.; SANTOS, R. S.; T. J. Pitcher

    2012-01-01

    This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (North-East Atlantic Ocean) and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in-situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (North-East Atlantic) and in Mediterran...

  13. Seamount physiography and biology in the north-east Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Morato, T.; K. Ø. Kvile; Taranto, G. H.; F. Tempera; Narayanaswamy, B.E.; Hebbeln, D.; Menezes, G. M.; Wienberg, C.; SANTOS, R. S.; T. J. Pitcher

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (north-east Atlantic Ocean) and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (north-east Atlantic)...

  14. Preliminary insights into the chemical composition and emissions of urban VOCs in the East Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, S.; Borbon, A.; Afif, C.; Bechara, J.; Leonardis, T.; Fronval, I.; Waked, A.; Brioude, J.; Locoge, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Mediterranean region is an area where polluted air masses coming from Eastern and Central Europe increase air pollution, particularly during stagnation periods, together with intense solar radiation. It was demonstrated that the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea suffers from this kind of phenomena. Favorable weather conditions, remote sources, high urban and biogenic emissions lead to the formation of secondary pollutants (ozone and secondary organic aerosols, SOA), which may have significant impacts on health and climate. However, data are sparse in this region. The ECOCEM (Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the East Mediterranean - Beirut) project aims to improve our understanding of air pollution in this area by studying the composition of the gaseous and particulate phases in Beirut (Lebanon). Beirut is located on the eastern border of the Mediterranean basin. The goal of the project, which is taking place over two intensive field campaigns (July 2011 and February 2012), is to provide valuable observations on the composition and the temporal evolution of organics (summer versus winter),to identify and quantify the relative importance of sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aerosols (SOA) and to study the role of VOCs in the first oxidation steps of SOA formation. For that purpose, a large suite of primary and secondary VOCs (>60) were measured during the summertime campaign (July 2nd to July 17th 2011) at one suburban site in Beirut. Techniques encompass off-line sampling on carbonaceous sorbent tubes (2-hour time resolution) and liquid coil scrubbing (1-hour time resolution), an on-line GCFID (1-hour time resolution) and a PTR-MS (4-min time resolution). We will discuss here the atmospheric composition of VOCs in relation with their emissions. In particular, these data provide useful constraints to evaluate the first temporally and spatially resolved national emission inventory that was built for the year 2010. Preliminary results

  15. Regional projection of climate impact indices over the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Ana; Frías, M.; Dolores; Herrera, Sixto; Bedia, Joaquín; San Martín, Daniel; Gutiérrez, José Manuel; Zaninovic, Ksenija

    2014-05-01

    Climate Impact Indices (CIIs) are being increasingly used in different socioeconomic sectors to transfer information about climate change impacts and risks to stakeholders. CIIs are typically based on different weather variables such as temperature, wind speed, precipitation or humidity and comprise, in a single index, the relevant meteorological information for the particular impact sector (in this study wildfires and tourism). This dependence on several climate variables poses important limitations to the application of statistical downscaling techniques, since physical consistency among variables is required in most cases to obtain reliable local projections. The present study assesses the suitability of the "direct" downscaling approach, in which the downscaling method is directly applied to the CII. In particular, for illustrative purposes, we consider two popular indices used in the wildfire and tourism sectors, the Fire Weather Index (FWI) and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), respectively. As an example, two case studies are analysed over two representative Mediterranean regions of interest for the EU CLIM-RUN project: continental Spain for the FWI and Croatia for the PET. Results obtained with this "direct" downscaling approach are similar to those found from the application of the statistical downscaling to the individual meteorological drivers prior to the index calculation ("component" downscaling) thus, a wider range of statistical downscaling methods could be used. As an illustration, future changes in both indices are projected by applying two direct statistical downscaling methods, analogs and linear regression, to the ECHAM5 model. Larger differences were found between the two direct statistical downscaling approaches than between the direct and the component approaches with a single downscaling method. While these examples focus on particular indices and Mediterranean regions of interest for CLIM-RUN stakeholders, the same study

  16. Interannual variability of Mediterranean evaporation and its relation to regional climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zveryaev, Igor I. [Moscow State University, P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS and Faculty of Geography, Moscow (Russian Federation); Hannachi, Abdel A. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    Gridded monthly evaporation data for 1958-2006 from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution data set are used to investigate interannual variability of Mediterranean evaporation during cold and hot seasons and its relation to regional atmospheric dynamics, sea surface temperature and atmospheric elements of the hydrological cycle. The first EOF mode of Mediterranean evaporation, explaining more than 50% of its total variance, is characterized by the monopole pattern both in winter and summer. However, despite structural similarity, the EOF-1 of Mediterranean evaporation is affected by different climate signals in cold and hot seasons. During winter the EOF-1 is associated with the East Atlantic teleconnection pattern. In summer, there is indication of tropical influence on the EOF-1 of Mediterranean evaporation (presumably from Asian monsoon). Both in winter and summer, principal components of EOF-1 demonstrate clear interdecadal signals (with a stronger signature in summer) associated with large sea surface temperature anomalies. The results of a sensitivity analysis suggest that in winter both the meridional wind and the vertical gradient of saturation specific humidity (GSSH) near the sea surface contribute to the interdecadal evaporation signal. In summer, however, it is likely that the signal is more related to GSSH. Our analysis did not reveal significant links between the Mediterranean evaporation and the North Atlantic Oscillation in any season. The EOF-2 of evaporation accounts for 20% (11%) of its total variance in winter (in summer). Both in winter and summer the EOF-2 is characterized by a zonal dipole with opposite variations of evaporation in western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea. This mode is associated presumably with smaller scale (i.e., local) effects of atmospheric dynamics. Seasonality of the leading modes of the Mediterranean evaporation is also clearly seen in the character of their links to atmospheric elements of the regional

  17. Zoonotic diseases in the Mediterranean region: a brief introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarhos M. Seimenis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Great concern is being expressed at the international level on the emergence and re-emergence of certain infectious diseases, many of which are zoonoses, e.g. Rift Valley fever, highly pathogenic avian influenza, etc. Many aspects of globalisation, i.e. the movements of populations, increased urbanisation, greater production and trade in animals and animal products, close interaction between humans and animals, environmental degradation, inappropriate waste disposal, etc., are all determining factors in the prevalence of zoonoses. The Mediterranean and Middle East share similar ecological and epidemiological conditions and are affected by almost the same zoonoses (brucellosis, rabies, echinococcosis, leishmaniosis, salmonellosis, etc.. National control programmes have given partial results or have failed due to weak infrastructures, insufficient financial resources, inadequate intersectoral collaboration and coordination, a lack of public health education, etc. There is an urgent need for the firm commitment of all parties involved on regional, national and international levels to ensure the success of zoonoses prevention and control programmes.

  18. Snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountain regions: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Drapeau, Laurent; Page, Michel Le; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Water resources in Mediterranean regions are under increasing pressure due to climate change, economic development, and population growth. Many Mediterranean rivers have their headwaters in mountainous regions where hydrological processes are driven by snowpack dynamics and the specific variability of the Mediterranean climate. A good knowledge of the snow processes in the Mediterranean mountains is therefore a key element of water management strategies in such regions. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountains to identify the existing knowledge, key research questions, and promising technologies. We collected 620 peer-reviewed papers, published between 1913 and 2016, that deal with the Mediterranean-like mountain regions in the western United States, the central Chilean Andes, and the Mediterranean basin. A large amount of studies in the western United States form a strong scientific basis for other Mediterranean mountain regions. We found that: (1) the persistence of snow cover is highly variable in space and time but mainly controlled by elevation and precipitation; (2) the snowmelt is driven by radiative fluxes, but the contribution of heat fluxes is stronger at the end of the snow season and during heat waves and rain-on-snow events; (3) the snow densification rates are higher in these regions when compared to other climate regions; and (4) the snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation, especially in high-elevation regions. Among the pressing issues is the lack of continuous ground observation in high-elevation regions. However, a few years of snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE) data can provide realistic information on snowpack variability. A better spatial characterization of snow cover can be achieved by combining ground observations with remotely sensed snow data. SWE reconstruction using satellite snow cover area and a melt model provides reasonable information that

  19. Decadal climate variability in the Mediterranean region: roles of large-scale forcings and regional processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, Annarita [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Rome (Italy); Dell' Aquila, Alessandro [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Rome (Italy)

    2012-03-15

    We analyze decadal climate variability in the Mediterranean region using observational datasets over the period 1850-2009 and a regional climate model simulation for the period 1960-2000, focusing in particular on the winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) seasons. Our results show that decadal variability associated with the winter and summer manifestations of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and SNAO respectively) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) significantly contribute to decadal climate anomalies over the Mediterranean region during these seasons. Over 30% of decadal variance in DJF and JJA precipitation in parts of the Mediterranean region can be explained by NAO and SNAO variability respectively. During JJA, the AMO explains over 30% of regional surface air temperature anomalies and Mediterranean Sea surface temperature anomalies, with significant influence also in the transition seasons. In DJF, only Mediterranean SST still significantly correlates with the AMO while regional surface air temperature does not. Also, there is no significant NAO influence on decadal Mediterranean surface air temperature anomalies during this season. A simulation with the PROTHEUS regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model is utilized to investigate processes determining regional decadal changes during the 1960-2000 period, specifically the wetter and cooler 1971-1985 conditions versus the drier and warmer 1986-2000 conditions. The simulation successfully captures the essence of observed decadal changes. Model set-up suggests that AMO variability is transmitted to the Mediterranean/European region and the Mediterranean Sea via atmospheric processes. Regional feedbacks involving cloud cover and soil moisture changes also appear to contribute to observed changes. If confirmed, the linkage between Mediterranean temperatures and the AMO may imply a certain degree of regional decadal climate predictability. The AMO and other decadal influences outlined here should be

  20. Local Sustainability and Cooperation Actions in the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio Daddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The populations of the Middle East and Africa are increasing rapidly, contributing to rapid urban growth. This paper describes a two-year action research process involving diverse public, private, and community stakeholders. The actions aimed to develop and strengthen the capabilities of three Mediterranean cities (Marrakech, Morocco; Sin el Fil, Lebanon; and Bodrum, Turkey in managing and promoting local sustainable development. The needs and priorities of each Mediterranean partner were identified and pilot actions were elaborated to promote urban sustainability, the exploitation of local resources, and the enhancement of local tangible and intangible assets. The paper describes the outputs of pilot actions carried out in these cities, highlighting how these experiences contribute to the current debate on urban sustainability. Broad implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  1. Regional assessment of Climate change impacts in the Mediterranean: the CIRCE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, A.

    2011-12-01

    The CIRCE project has developed for the first time an assessment of the climate change impacts in the Mediterranean area. The objectives of the project are: to predict and to quantify physical impacts of climate change in the Mediterranean area; to evaluate the consequences of climate change for the society and the economy of the populations located in the Mediterranean area; to develop an integrated approach to understand combined effects of climate change; and to identify adaptation and mitigation strategies in collaboration with regional stakeholders. The CIRCE Project, coordinated by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisca e Vulcanologia, started on 1st April 2007 and ended in a policy conference in Rome on June 2011. CIRCE involves 64 partners from Europe, Middle East and North Africa working together to evaluate the best strategies of adaptation to the climate change in the Mediterranean basin. CIRCE wants to understand and to explain how climate will change in the Mediterranean area bringing together the natural sciences community and social community in a new integrated and comprehensive way. The project has investigated how global and Mediterranean climates interact, how the radiative properties of the atmosphere and the radiative fluxes vary, the interaction between cloudiness and aerosol, the modifications in the water cycle. Recent observed modifications in the climate variables and detected trends will be compared. The economic and social consequences of climate change are evaluated by analysing direct impacts on migration, tourism and energy markets together with indirect impacts on the economic system. CIRCE has produced results about the consequences on agriculture, forests and ecosystems, human health and air quality. The variability of extreme events in the future scenario and their impacts is also assessed. A rigorous common framework, including a set of quantitative indicators developed specifically for the Mediterranean environment was be developed

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ACTIVATED PROTEIN C RESISTANCE AND FACTOR V LEIDEN MUTATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrez Mehrez M. Jadaon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolic disorders (VTE are serious disorders with high morbidity and mortality rates. Many genetic and acquired risk factors were identified to cause VTE The most common genetic risk factor is Factor V Leiden mutation (FVL. FVL was found in high percentage of populations of Caucasian origin but was almost absent in non-Caucasians. It was also reported in populations living in North Africa and the Middle East.  This review article briefly explains FVL and how it causes VTE, the distribution of FVL worldwide, and then it elaborates on the epidemiology of FVL in the Mediterranean Region and how this brought speculations that FVL might have originated in the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  3. Epidemiology of Activated Protein C Resistance and Factor V Leiden Mutation in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaon, Mehrez M.

    2011-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disorders (VTE) are serious disorders with high morbidity and mortality rates. Many genetic and acquired risk factors were identified to cause VTE. The most common genetic risk factor is Factor V Leiden mutation (FVL). FVL was found in high percentage of populations of Caucasian origin but was almost absent in non-Caucasians. It was also reported in populations living in North Africa and the Middle East. This review article briefly explains FVL and how it causes VTE, the distribution of FVL worldwide, and then it elaborates on the epidemiology of FVL in the Mediterranean Region and how this brought speculations that FVL might have originated in the Eastern Mediterranean area. PMID:22224194

  4. Trace elements records from vermetids aragonite as millennial paleo-oceanographic archives in the South-East Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Yitzhak; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a region under high anthropogenic stress, thus a hotspot for climate change studies. Natural conditions, such as SST, productivity, precipitation and dust fluxes along with human induced activity affect seawater chemistry. We study millennial variability of trace elements in East Mediterranean Sea high-resolution records, in attempt to connect them to environmental factors. The Mediterranean reef builder Vermetid, D. petraeum is a sessile gastropod, secreting its aragonite shells in tidal zones. Cores of Vermetid reefs from the South Eastern Mediterranean (Israel) were previously analyzed by Sisma?Ventura et al. (2014) to reconstruct seawater surface temperature (SST) and δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). In this study we analyzed trace elements of these vermetid cores, and reconstructed millennial records of elements to calcium (el/Ca) molar ratios. Vermetid trace element contents from recent decades are mostly in agreement with known values for marine biogenic aragonites from corals and mollusk. We divide vermetid trace element records into three element groups: 1) Sr and U are related to SST and DIC. These elements correlate with major climatic events of the last millennium, such as the Medieval Warm Period (900-1300 AD) and the Little Ice Age (1450-1850 AD). 2) Pb and Cd are related to anthropogenic pollution and demonstrate industrial sourced trends throughout the anthropocene (since 1750 AD). 3) Terrogenous elements, including Fe, Al, Mn and V. Al in seawater and sediments has been used to trace water masses and land derived sediment source. We observe a major change in average vermetid Al/Fe ratios from 0.5 to 2.5 over the recorded period (n=72). This vermetid Al/Fe change points at a possible shift from Nilotic sediments (0.1-0.5 Al/Fe molar ratio) to Saharan dust ratio (2-4 Al/Fe molar ratio). Mn and V show a similar variability to Fe. Understanding the variability of vermetid TE can help us interpret the relative

  5. Reducing maternal mortality in the eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaini, R; Mahmoud, H

    2005-07-01

    Current efforts in some countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region are still insufficient to achieve the fifth Millennium Development Goal on improving maternal health. Strong commitment, intensive efforts and effective national policies and strategies are now urgently required in order to translate vision into action. Such efforts and plans should target the strengthening of health systems, the expansion in the coverage of effective integrated interventions, and the recognition of the essential role of individuals, families and communities in making pregnancy safer. This article provides a background on the current situation of maternal health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, including underlying causes and contributing factors, and describes strategic directions aimed at accelerating the reduction of maternal mortality in the Region and moving closer to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

  6. Winter precipitation and cyclones in the Mediterranean region: future climate scenarios in a regional simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lionello

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Future climate projections show higher/lower winter (Dec-Jan-Feb precipitation in the northern/southern Mediterranean region than in present climate conditions. This paper analyzes the results of regional model simulations of the A2 and B2 scenarios, which confirm this opposite precipitation change and link it to the change of cyclone activity. The increase of the winter cyclone activity in future climate scenarios over western Europe is responsible for the larger precipitation at the northern coast of the basin, though the bulk of the change is located outside the Mediterranean region. The reduction of cyclone activity inside the Mediterranean region in future scenarios is responsible for the lower precipitation at the southern and eastern Mediterranean coast.

  7. Assessing the performance of satellite-based precipitation products over the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaver, Angelika; Dorigo, Wouter; Brocca, Luca; Ciabatta, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Detailed knowledge about the spatial and temporal patterns and quantities of precipitation is of high importance. This applies especially in the Mediterranean region, where water demand for agricultural, industrial and touristic needs is growing and climate projections foresee a decrease of precipitation amounts and an increase in variability. In this region, ground-based rain gauges are available only limited in number, particularly in northern Africa and the Middle East and lack to capture the high spatio-temporal character of precipitation over large areas. This has motivated the development of a large number of remote sensing products for monitoring rainfall. Satellite-based precipitation products are based on various observation principles and retrieval approaches, i.e. from thermal infra-red and microwaves. Although, many individual validation studies on the performance of these precipitation datasets exist, they mostly examine only one or a few of these rainfall products at the same time and are not targeted at the Mediterranean basin as a whole. Here, we present an extensive comparative study of seven different satellite-based precipitation products, namely CMORPH 30-minutes, CMORPH 3-hourly, GPCP, PERSIANN, SM2Rain CCI, TRMM TMPA 3B42, and TRMM TMPA 3B42RT, focusing on the whole Mediterranean region and on individual Mediterranean catchments. The time frame of investigation is restricted by the common availability of all precipitation products and covers the period 2000-2013. We assess the skill of the satellite products against gridded gauge-based data provided by GPCC and E-OBS. Apart from common characteristics like biases and temporal correlations we evaluate several sophisticated dataset properties that are of particular interest for Mediterranean hydrology, including the capability of the remotely sensed products to capture extreme events and trends. A clear seasonal dependency of the correlation results can be observed for the whole Mediterranean

  8. Metazoan parasites in the head region of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, S; Saber, S; Gómez-Vives, M J; Garippa, G; Alemany, F; Macías, D; Merella, P

    2015-11-01

    The head region of 72 bullet tuna Auxis rochei from the western Mediterranean Sea (south-east Spain and the Strait of Gibraltar) was examined for parasites. Seven metazoan species were found in the fish from south-east Spain: three monogeneans, two trematodes and two copepods, whereas only three species were isolated in the fish from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the levels of infection of the parasites according to fish size in south-east Spain showed that the prevalence of Didymozoon auxis and the mean abundance of Allopseudaxine macrova were higher in the larger hosts (range of fork length = 38-44 cm) than in the smaller ones (33-37 cm). A comparison of the parasite infections according to geographical region showed that the mean abundances of Nematobothriinae gen. sp. and Caligus bonito were higher in fish from south-east Spain than in those from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the parasite fauna of A. rochei from the Mediterranean Sea with the published data on Auxis spp. from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans revealed the closest similarity between the Mediterranean A. rochei and the Atlantic A. thazard.

  9. Mesozoic carbonate-siliciclastic platform to basin systems of a South Tethyan margin (Egypt, East Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassy, Aurélie; Crouzy, Emmanuel; Gorini, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2015-04-01

    The Mesozoïc Egyptian margin is the south margin of a remnant of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, at the African northern plate boundary. East Mediterranean basin developed during the late Triassic-Early Jurassic rifting with a NW-SE opening direction (Frizon de Lamotte et al., 2011). During Mesozoïc, Egypt margin was a transform margin with a NW-SE orientation of transform faults. In the Eastern Mediterranean basin, Mesozoïc margins are characterized by mixed carbonate-siliciclastics platforms where subsidence and eustacy are the main parameters controlling the facies distribution and geometries of the platform-to-basin transition. Geometries and facies on the platform-slope-basin system, today well constrained on the Levant area, where still poorly known on the Egyptian margin. Geometries and stratigraphic architecture of the Egyptian margin are revealed, thanks to a regional seismic and well data-base provided by an industrial-academic group (GRI, Total). The objective is to understand the sismostratigraphic architecture of the platform-slope-basin system in a key area from Western Desert to Nile delta and Levant margin. Mapping of the top Jurassic and top Cretaceous show seismic geomorphology of the margin, with the cartography of the hinge line from Western Desert to Sinaï. During the Jurassic, carbonate platform show a prograding profile and a distally thickening of the external platform, non-abrupt slope profiles, and palaeovalleys incisions. Since the Cretaceous, the aggrading and retrograding mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform show an alternation of steep NW-SE oblique segments and distally steepened segments. These structures of the platform edge are strongly controlled by the inherited tethyan transform directions. Along the hinge line, embayments are interpreted as megaslides. The basin infilling is characterised by an alternation of chaotic seismic facies and high amplitude reflectors onlaping the paleoslopes. MTC deposits can mobilize thick sedimentary

  10. Linking the Mediterranean regional and the global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionello, Piero; Scarascia, Luca

    2017-04-01

    This contribution analyzes 22 CMIP5 global climate projections to show how is the regional climate change in the Mediterranean related to the global climate change. The aim is to use these recent results to revisit evidences suggesting that the Mediterranean region is a climate change hot spot. Results show that future increase of temperature in the Mediterranean region has a strong seasonal connotation, with summer warming at a pace 40% larger than the global mean. This future trend is consistent with the global reduction of the meridional temperature gradient that is produced by climate change. However spatial distribution of changes shows a strong a sub-regional modulation depending of the land-sea contrast, the role of soil moisture feedback and changes of large scale atmospheric circulation leading to increased subsidence conditions. Projections show that precipitation decrease will affect most of the region, but with a strong difference between southern and northern areas, where CMIP5 projections suggest a 7% and 3% decrease of annual precipitation for each degree of global warming, respectively. For both Mediterranean temperature and precipitation, the dependence is substantially linear in the range up to 40C of global warming. Interannual variability and intermodel differences are a substantial source of uncertainty for precipitation (while there is a robust consensus for temperature changes). Therefore, future precipitation changes are still a controversial issue, in terms of intensity and precise location of the transition belt that separates the decrease of precipitation over the MR from areas in central and northern Europe, where precipitation is expected to increase. On this respect, though the overall drying trend appears consolidated in the scientific literature, its precise evaluation remains to some extent controversial.

  11. Sustainable Forest Management in a Mediterranean region: social preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroto, C.; Segura, M.; Ginestar, C.; Uriol, J.; Segura, B.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: There is a lack of empirical research that deals with sustainable forest management in Mediterranean regions, among the most vulnerable ecosystems. The main purpose of this work is to define the strategic criteria and objectives for sustainable forest management and aggregate the preferences of stake holders in a Mediterranean region, using AHP and Goal Programming. Area of study: Valencian Community (Spain). Material and Methods: Firstly, we identified forest stake holders and structured a decision hierarchy. Then a workshop was carried out to test and validate the proposed criteria and objectives, as well as a survey to determine social preferences. Secondly, another survey was conducted amongst experts to prioritize action plans. Main results: Stake holders preferences gave the greatest importance to the environmental criteria (hydrological regulation and erosion, climate change mitigation and biodiversity) with an average weight of 40%. Social criteria (employment, recreational activities and landscape) had a weight of 38% and 22% the economic criteria case (wood, hunting and fishing, livestock, renewable energies, rural tourism and mining). The results showed that new products and services such as tourism, renewable energies, landscape, hydrological regulation and erosion control, biodiversity or climate change mitigation are very relevant objectives. We also prioritized action plans comparing them with the distribution of the administration budget. Research highlights: The environmental and social criteria are much more important than the economic ones in the regional planning of the Mediterranean forest, regardless of the method used to aggregate the social preferences and if the forest is public or private. (Author)

  12. Calculating the Middle Ages? The Project "Complexities and Networks in the Medieval Mediterranean and Near East" (COMMED)

    CERN Document Server

    Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The project "Complexities and networks in the Medieval Mediterranean and Near East" (COMMED) at the Division for Byzantine Research of the Institute for Medieval Research (IMAFO) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences focuses on the adaptation and development of concepts and tools of network theory and complexity sciences for the analysis of societies, polities and regions in the medieval world in a comparative perspective. Key elements of its methodological and technological toolkit are applied, for instance, in the new project "Mapping medieval conflicts: a digital approach towards political dynamics in the pre-modern period" (MEDCON), which analyses political networks and conflict among power elites across medieval Europe with five case studies from the 12th to 15th century. For one of these case studies on 14th century Byzantium, the explanatory value of this approach is presented in greater detail. The presented results are integrated in a wider comparison of five late medieval polities across Afro-Eurasia ...

  13. Metabolic syndrome in the Mediterranean region: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Anagnostis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension and dyslipidemia. It seems to affect about one-fourth to one-fifth of the Mediterranean population, and its prevalence increases with age, being similar for both sexes and depending on the region and the definition used, with the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP-ATPIII definition being the most effective in the identification of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular risk. Except for these, MetS is associated with fatty liver disease, some forms of cancer, hypogonadism, and vascular dementia. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an ideal diet in patients with MetS, being rich in fibre, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and low in animal protein; and decreases the prevalence of MetS and cardiovascular disease risk. Except for weight loss, multifactorial intervention including insulin resistance reduction and normoglycemia, management of dyslipidemia, optimizing blood pressure and administration of low-dose aspirin for patients at high or moderately high cardiovascular disease (CVD risk are additional targets. The present review provides current understanding about MetS in the Mediterranean region, focusing on its prevalence, clinical significance, and therapeutic strategy.

  14. East Java Maritime Connectivity and Its Regional Development Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purboyo, H.; Ibad, M. Z.

    2017-07-01

    The study presents an evolution of maritime connectivity index of East Java which is associated with accessibility and mobility index of regions in East Java. The findings show that East Java increased connectivity more than three times from 1996 to 2011. Initially, the East Java is importer but then become exporter to national territory. For accessibility, the inland regions of East Java in general is higher than the coastal areas. And for mobility, inland regions initially have a small index, but in subsequent years its index is greater than the coastal areas.

  15. Regional and seasonal characteristics of epipelagic mesozooplankton in the Mediterranean Sea based on an artificial neural network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchi, M. G.; Siokou, I.; Tirelli, V.; Bandelj, V.; Fernandez de Puelles, M. L.; Ak Örek, Y.; de Olazabal, A.; Gubanova, A.; Kress, N.; Protopapa, M.; Solidoro, C.; Taglialatela, S.; Terbiyik Kurt, T.

    2014-07-01

    The cruises conducted in the spring and autumn of 2008 in the frame of the European project SESAME represented the first coordinated surveys that allowed acquiring a quasi-synoptic picture of epipelagic mesozooplankton in most regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Seasonal differences were recorded in biomass, total abundance, and community composition and structure. In both seasons, it did not appear a clear west-east decreasing gradient in total standing stock, but rather regional discontinuities. However, west or east preferences were observed in the distribution of some zooplanktonic groups and copepod species. An artificial neural network analysis (SOM) identified, in both seasons, a clear mesozooplankton regionalization, which resembled the autotrophic regimes based on color remote sensing data. The correspondence between the distribution of zooplankton communities and the trophic regimes appeared more precise in spring, when the increased concentration of chlorophyll a makes the Mediterranean Sea a more heterogeneous environment, but it was still visible in the more uniform oligotrophic autumn conditions. Three distinct types of mesozooplankton communities seem to flourish in the investigated regions: the first type is the most widespread and thrives in the "non-blooming" areas, the second type occurs in the "intermittently-blooming" areas, and the third type is a characteristic of areas with recurrent and intense phytoplankton blooms. Overall, the well defined regionalization of mesozooplankton that appears from our results corroborates the view of the Mediterranean Sea as a mosaic environment, as previously emerged from the analyses of different biological compartments.

  16. Aging worlds in contradiction: gerontological observations in the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim von Kondratowitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the existing and developing aging regimes in the Northern and Southern rim countries of the whole Mediterranean region which are all undergoing considerable social and political transformation processes. It is argued that several eye-opening theoretical interventions for such a gerontological project may lead to some methodological problems and pitfalls, which have to be dealt with productively. Central collective concepts of such an analysis (as the change-oriented "modernization effects" of societal aging and the continuity-oriented gaze at the "unity of the region" have to be reconsidered and ought to be more differentiated in order to allow smaller social entities (such as kinship and community systems and their connectivity to be central orientations for analyzing poverty and care management in old age in the Mediterranean region. How to reconnect such a rather micro-political agenda with large processes and big structures of aging policies in the region however still remains an open question.

  17. Was Mediterranean region that dry during the Messinian Salinity Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Iuliana; Mezger, Eveline; Lugli, Stefano; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Manzi, Vinicio; Roveri, Marco

    2016-04-01

    precipitation much different from the present-day Mediterranean Sea hydrologic regime. The values are typical for much drier settings, similar to the Red Sea - Gulf of Aden, region known for extreme evaporation taking place today. The relative contribution of the different alkenones from Eraclea Minoa is similar to that observed in present-day marine settings. This implies that a connection to the open Ocean is likely, even though a connection with the Parathetys might have existed as well. However, the δDalkenones values recorded during deposition of the Upper Evaporites in Eraclea Minoa are similar to those recorded synchronously in the Black Sea area, DSDP 42B Hole 380. The source for the surface water from the Upper Evaporites was similar to the one from the coeval Black Sea suggesting a similar hydrologic regime characterized by extended drought over large areas of the southeastern Europe. Because of the δDalkenones similarity and the alleged Paratethys type of fauna defining the ´Lago Maré of the Mediterranean we further speculate that the surface water from the Upper Evaporites could, at times, be derived from the Black Sea, consistent with Paratethys water inflow into the Mediterranean.

  18. Natural and anthropochorous squirrels and dormice of the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masseti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Mediterranean Region, squirrels and dormice of natural and anthropochorous occurrence are today represented by 7 taxa on each. Palaeontological evidence suggests that Upper Pleistocene dispersal of the representatives of the Gliridae family seems to have occurred only on the islands of the western Mediterranean basin, whereas squirrels are not represented in insular environments. The former and present distribution of some of the extant species is discussed in the light of the human redefinition of the natural equilibrium which has been taking place since very ancient times. Riassunto Scoiattoli e ghiri a diffusione naturale ed antropocora della Regione Mediterranea Attualmente, nella Regione Mediterranea, gli scoiattoli ed i ghiri a diffusione naturale ed antropocora sono rappresentati rispettivamente da 7 taxa. Il dato paleontologico suggerisce che la distribuzione insulare dei Gliridi nel corso del Pleistocene superiore abbia interessato solo il Mediterraneo occidentale, mentre gli scoiattoli non sembrano essere stati rappresentati in nessuno degli ambienti insulari. Si discute la diffusione passata e presente di alcune delle specie attuali nell'ottica della plurimillenaria ridefinizione antropica degli equilibri naturali dell'area mediterranea.

  19. Incorporating vegetation dynamics in regional climate change projections over the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alo, C. A.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2009-09-01

    Recent projections of climate change over the Mediterranean region based on general circulation models (e.g. IPCC AR4 GCMs) and regional climate models (e.g. PRUDENCE RCMs) generally show strong warming and pronounced decrease in precipitation, especially in the summer. While the role of vegetation in modulating the regional climate is widely recognized, most, if not all, of these GCM and RCM climate change projections do not account for the response of the dynamic biosphere to potential climate changes. Here, we present preliminary results from ongoing 15-year simulations over the Mediterranean region with a regional climate model (RegCM3) asynchronously coupled to a dynamic vegetation model (CLM-DGVM). Three experiments are performed in order to explore the impact of vegetation feedback on simulated changes in mean climate, climate variability and extreme climatic events (i.e., flood-inducing storms, droughts, heat waves, and extreme winds). This includes 1) a present day climate run with dynamic vegetation, 2) a future climate run with dynamic vegetation, and 3) a future climate run with static vegetation (i.e. vegetation fixed at the present day state). RegCM3 and CLM-DGVM are both run at a horizontal grid spacing of 20 km over a region covering the Mediterranean basin and parts of Central Europe and Northern Africa. Results illustrate the importance of including vegetation feedback in predictions of climate change impacts on Mediterranean climate variability, extreme climatic events and storms.

  20. Remote sensing and modelling analysis of the extreme dust storm hitting the Middle East and eastern Mediterranean in September 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomos, Stavros; Ansmann, Albert; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Patlakas, Platon; Marinou, Eleni; Amiridis, Vassilis

    2017-03-01

    The extreme dust storm that affected the Middle East and the eastern Mediterranean in September 2015 resulted in record-breaking dust loads over Cyprus with aerosol optical depth exceeding 5.0 at 550 nm. We analyse this event using profiles from the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), geostationary observations from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), and high-resolution simulations from the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The analysis of modelling and remote sensing data reveals the main mechanisms that resulted in the generation and persistence of the dust cloud over the Middle East and Cyprus. A combination of meteorological and surface processes is found, including (a) the development of a thermal low in the area of Syria that results in unstable atmospheric conditions and dust mobilization in this area, (b) the convective activity over northern Iraq that triggers the formation of westward-moving haboobs that merge with the previously elevated dust layer, and (c) the changes in land use due to war in the areas of northern Iraq and Syria that enhance dust erodibility.

  1. The relevance of the Mediterranean Region to colonial waterbird conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Crivelli, Alain J.; Hafner, Heinz; Fasola, Mauro; Erwin, R. Michael; McCrimmon, Donald A.=

    1996-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is the largest partially enclosed sea in the world and provides habitat to more than 100 species of waterbirds from the Palearctic-North African-Middle Eastern regions. Even though the Mediterranean suffers from pollution, has little tidal influence, and is oligotrophic, more than half of the western Palearctic populations of numerous waterfowl species winter in the region. Thirty-three species of colonial waterbirds breed along the 46,000 km Mediterranean coastline with nine species considered threatened or endangered, mostly because of wetland loss and degradation. The long history of human activity and scientific investigations in the region has taught some valuable lessons. In the area of colonial waterbird biology and conservation, we have learned important lessons about the value of long-term monitoring and research on selected populations. From marking studies of Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta) results have been used to derive useful information about metapopulation dynamics. Involvement of both African and European biologists allowed year-round Studies of these species that yielded valuable spin-offs for training in avian and wetland conservation. We have also learned the value of man-made wetlands as feeding and nesting sites for some colonial waterbirds. Careful evaluations of the habitat quality of different types of wetlands are required, as in contaminant levels such as lead shot and pesticides. Wetland conservationists have also learned from some instructive mistakes. Dam construction and agricultural incentive programs sponsored by the European Community, the World Bank, and others from the past have largely ignored impacts on wetlands and wildlife. In some areas, economic ventures such as aquaculture operations and salt mining have not involved waterbird habitat needs in their planning. Research and conservation needs include: (1) establishing regional monitoring programs and

  2. Climate-aerosol interactions over the Mediterranean region: a regional coupled modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabat, Pierre; Somot, Samuel; Mallet, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is affected by numerous and various aerosols which have a high spatio-temporal variability. These aerosols directly interact with solar and thermal radiation, and indirectly with clouds and atmospheric dynamics. Therefore they can have an important impact on the regional climate. This work, located at the boundary between the ChArMEx and HyMeX programs, considers a coupled regional modeling approach in order to address the questions of the aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions with regards to the climate variability over the Mediterranean. In order to improve the characterization of Mediterranean aerosols, a new interannual monthly climatology of aerosol optical depth has been developed from a blended product based on both satellite-derived and model-simulated datasets. This dataset, available for every regional climate model over the Mediterranean for the 1979-2012 period, has been built to obtain the best possible estimate of the atmospheric aerosol content for the five species at stake (sulfate, black carbon, organic matter, desert dust and sea salt particles). Simulation ensembles, which have been carried out over the 2003-2009 period with and without aerosols, show a major impact on the regional climate. The seasonal cycle and the spatial patterns of the Mediterranean climate are significantly modified, as well as some specific situations such as the heat wave in July 2006 strengthened by the presence of desert dust particles. The essential role of the Mediterranean sea surface temperature is highlighted, and enables to understand the induced changes on air-sea fluxes and the consequences on regional climate. Oceanic convection is also strengthened by aerosols. In addition, the decrease in anthropogenic aerosols observed for more than thirty years is shown to significantly contribute to the observed Euro-Mediterranean climatic trends in terms of surface radiation and temperature. Besides, an interactive aerosol scheme has been developed

  3. Mainstreaming road safety in the regional integration of the East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Road safety, road traffic injuries, regional integration, East African ... regions having the lowest rates of the registered motorised vehicles which were ..... passengers are found to be the most vulnerable groups at risk of RTIs in the ...

  4. Variability in regional background aerosols within the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Querol

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is the identification of major factors controlling levels and chemical composition of aerosols in the regional background (RB along the Mediterranean Basin (MB. To this end, data on PM levels and speciation from Montseny (MSY, Northeastern Spain, Finokalia (FKL, Southern Greece and Erdemli (ERL, Southern Turkey for the period 2001 to 2008 are evaluated. Important differences on PM levels and composition are evident when comparing the Western and Eastern MBs. The results manifest W-E and N-S PM10 and PM2.5 gradients along the MB, attributed to the higher frequency and intensity of African dust outbreaks in the EMB, while for PM1 very similar levels are encountered.

    PM in the EMB is characterized by higher levels of crustal material and sulphate as compared to WMB (and central European sites, however, RB nitrate and OC+EC levels are relatively constant across the Mediterranean and lower than other European sites. Marked seasonal trends are evidenced for PM levels, nitrate (WMB, ammonium and sulphate. Also relatively higher levels of V and Ni (WMB are measured in the Mediterranean basin, probably as a consequence of high emissions from fuel-oil combustion (power generation, industrial and shipping emissions.

    Enhanced sulphate levels in EMB compared to WMB were measured. The high levels of sulphate in the EMB may deplete the available gas-phase NH3 so that little ammonium nitrate can form due to the low NH3 levels.

    This study illustrates the existence of three very important features within the Mediterranean that need to be accounted for when modeling climate effects of aerosols in the area, namely: (a the increasing gradient of dust from WMB to EMB; (b the change of hygroscopic behavior of mineral aerosols (dust via nitration and sulphation; and (c the abundance of highly hygroscopic aerosols during high insolation (low cloud formation

  5. Variability in regional background aerosols within the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koçak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is the identification of major factors controlling levels and chemical composition of aerosols in the regional background (RB along the Mediterranean Basin (MB. To this end, data on PM levels and speciation from Montseny (MSY, NE Spain, Finokalia (FKL, Southern Greece and Erdemli (ERL, Southern Turkey for the period 2001 to 2008 are evaluated. Important differences on PM levels and composition are evident when comparing the Western and Eastern MBs. The results manifest W-E and N-S PM10 and PM2.5 gradients along the MB, attributed to the higher frequency and intensity of African dust outbreaks in the EMB, while for PM1 very similar levels are encountered.

    PM in the EMB is characterized by higher levels of crustal material and sulphate as compared to WMB (and central European sites, however, RB nitrate and OC + EC levels are relatively constant across the Mediterranean and lower than other European sites. Marked seasonal trends are evidenced for PM levels, nitrate (WMB, ammonium and sulphate. Also relatively higher levels of V and Ni (WMB are measured in the Mediterranean basin, probably as a consequence of high emissions from fuel-oil combustion (power generation, industrial and shipping emissions.

    Enhanced sulphate levels in EMB compared to WMB were measured. The high levels of sulphate in the EMB may deplete the available gas-phase NH3 so that little ammonium nitrate can form due to the low NH3 levels.

    This study illustrates the existence of three very important features within the Mediterranean that need to be accounted for when modeling climate effects of aerosols in the area, namely: a the increasing gradient of dust from WMB to EMB; b the change of hygroscopic behavior of mineral aerosols (dust via nitration and sulfation; and c the abundance of highly hygroscopic aerosols during high insolation (low cloud formation periods.

  6. Assessing the state of health research in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S A; McDonald, A; Dubois, E; Aljohani, F G; Coutts, A P; Majeed, A; Rawaf, S

    2013-06-01

    Member states across the Eastern Mediterranean region face unprecedented health challenges, buffeted by demographic change, a dual disease burden, rising health costs, and the effects of ongoing conflict and population movements - exacerbated in the near-term by instability arising from recent political upheaval in the Middle East. However, health actors in the region are not well positioned to respond to these challenges because of a dearth of good quality health research. This review presents an assessment of the current state of health research systems across the Eastern Mediterranean based on publicly available literature and data sources. The review finds that - while there have been important improvements in productivity in the Region since the early 1990s - overall research performance is poor with critical deficits in system stewardship, research training and human resource development, and basic data surveillance. Translation of research into policy and practice is hampered by weak institutional and financial incentives, and concerns over the political sensitivity of findings. These problems are attributable primarily to chronic under-investment - both financial and political - in Research and Development systems. This review identifies key areas for a regional strategy and how to address challenges, including increased funding, research capacity-building, reform of governance arrangements and sustained political investment in research support. A central finding is that the poverty of publicly available data on research systems makes meaningful cross-comparisons of performance within the EMR difficult. We therefore conclude by calling for work to improve understanding of health research systems across the region as a matter of urgency.

  7. HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES IN THE EURO-MEDITERRANEAN REGION: TYPOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline SCOUARNEC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the project “Agora RH”, we would like to propose a framework for theanalysis of Human Resource practices in the Euro-Mediterranean region.This article is theoretical; it is a reflection of the state of the art and thoughtswhich led to the construction of a framework for analysis, used for anempirical investigation currently being carried out in the eight countriesinvolved in this project (France, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Morocco, Algeria,Tunisia, and Slovenia. In this article, we will attempt to define key conceptsabout the evolution of the HR function. We propose in a forthcoming article toexpand on our work, presenting the theoretical foundations with particularemphasis on the possible cultural variables.

  8. East African climate fluctuations over the last 1400 years recorded in southeastern Mediterranean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Y.; Dulski, P.; Ehrmann, W.; Schmiedl, G.; Haug, G.

    2008-12-01

    The southeastern Mediterranean Sea sedimentary history of the late Holocene was influenced by distinctive changes in Nile River sediment discharge and Saharan dust influx. We present high-resolution XRF element data of a marine sediment core of the southeastern Levantine Sea (GeoTü SL112, 32° 44.52´ N, 34° 39.02´ E, water depth: 892 m) spanning the last 1400 years. We suggest a strong relationship between humidity changes in east Africa and the corresponding sedimentological response in the Levantine Sea. The Fe record of our Levantine Sea sediment record shows a remarkable similarity with the lake level record of Lake Naivasha (Kenya) (Verschuren et al., Nature, 2000) and the pre-colonial drought history of Lake Malawi (east Africa). Several intervals of enhanced Saharan dust flux as indicated by high Fe values in the Levantine Sea core coincide with well-known droughts in equatorial east Africa and Lake Naivasha lowstands. Frequency analysis suggests that solar variability has been a major influence in these climate fluctuations. The Fe record of our core, which we interpret as Saharan dust influx to the southeast Levantine Sea, is dominated by cyclicities of approximately 90 and 200 years, known as the Gleissberg and Suess cycles. The most pronounced periods of decreased dust accumulation in the southeast Levantine Sea occurred at about 1.1 kyr BP, 0.7 kyr BP, 0.55 kyr BP, 0.3 kyr BP and 0.1 kyr BP, coincident with the solar minima of Oort, Wolf, Spoerer, Maunder and Dalton.

  9. Old Dogs, New Tricks? The Role of Regional Organizations in the Mediterranean after the Arab Revolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Taking its point of departure in how specific regional organizations function and interact in the Mediterranean, this article attempts to show to what degree this institutional setup has influenced the developments in the Arab Mediterranean states after the Arab revolts. The analysis of the organ......Taking its point of departure in how specific regional organizations function and interact in the Mediterranean, this article attempts to show to what degree this institutional setup has influenced the developments in the Arab Mediterranean states after the Arab revolts. The analysis...... of the organizational and institutional setup in the Mediterranean is theoretically founded in the new institutionalism tradition. Furthermore, a regionalism perspective is applied, touching on discussions related to European normative ambitions. It is demonstrated that the regional organizations only to a limited...

  10. SURVEILLANCE AND CONTROL OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ricciardi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is one of the most relevant problems in the healthcare: the growth of resistant micro-organisms in healthcare settings is a worrisome threat, raising length to stay (LOS, morbidity and mortality in those patients. The importance of the antibiotic resistance and its spread around the world, gave rise to the activation of several surveillance systems, based especially on the collection of laboratory data to local or national level. The objective of this work is to carry out a review of the scientific literature existing on the topic and scientific activities related to surveillance on antibiotic resistance in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Recent Data from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (November 2015 show, for different combinations bacterium-drug, an increase of resistance from North to South and from West to East of Europe; it is particularly worrying the phenomenon of resistance carried out by some gram negative, specifically Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli to third-generation cephalosporin, often combined in opposition to fluoroquinolones and amino glycosides. Is particularly relevant the incidence of resistance to carbapenems by strains of Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella included. The resistance exerted by MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus continues to be relevant, albeit showing some decline in recent years. The incidence of resistance carried on by Streptococcus pneumoniae is stable and is mainly relevant to macrolides. Finally, a significant increase in recording relatively exercised by Enterococcus faecium to Vancomycin. Detecting, preventing, and controlling antibiotic resistance requires strategic, coordinated, and sustained efforts. It also depends on the engagement of governments, academia, industry, healthcare providers, the general public, and the agricultural community, as well as international partners. Committing to combating antibiotic

  11. International Terrorism and East African sub-regionalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-05-23

    May 23, 2006 ... efforts towards sub-regional integration in Africa in general and East. Africa in particular ... through pursuit of policies advanced by the Bretton Woods institu- ..... vice by UK intelligence that the threat to British interests in Kenya.

  12. The East Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Brachyura: Varunidae in the Mediterranean Sea: an independent human-mediated introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph D. Schubart

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A single adult male specimen of the East Asian crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (de Haan, 1835 was collected in August 2001 in the northern Adriatic Sea along the northwest coast of the peninsula of Istra. This is the first record of this genus and species from the Mediterranean Sea. Previously, Hemigrapsus sanguineus had been reported to invade the Atlantic coasts of North America and of western France, while the congeneric East Asian species, Hemigrapsus penicillatus (de Haan, 1835, has established breeding populations along the Atlantic coast of Europe. The current absence of Hemigrapsus sanguineus in southern Europe and the western Mediterranean suggests an independent human-mediated introduction of the Croatian specimen. Preliminary genetic analyses reveal that specimens from Istra, North America, and Japan have identical DNA haplotypes corresponding to the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene (16S mtDNA, while the homologous sequence from a specimen of Taiwan differs in two out of 525 nucleotides.

  13. Travel industry as a focus on regional development: Case study of the Mediterranean France

    OpenAIRE

    Terzić Aleksandra; Petrović Marko; Vuković Darko

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a regionalization of the Mediterranean France with regard to tourism, as well as basic economic sectors present in the region. The study included three administrative regions of this part of France: Provence - Alpes - Cote d'Azur, Languedoc - Roussillon and the Island of Corsica, where the travel industry is defined as dominant. The subject of this research is to study the area of the Mediterranean France, primarily from the aspect of tourism. Special attention is focused ...

  14. Association between Opuntia species invasion and changes in land-cover in the Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Vilà, Montserrat; Pino i Vilalta, Joan

    2003-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions, biological invasions pose a major threat to the conservation of native species and the integrity of ecosystems. In addition, changes in land-cover are a widespread phenomenon in Mediterranean regions, where an increase in urban areas and major changes from agricultural abandonment to shrub encroachment and afforestation are occurring. However, the link between biological invasions and changes in land-cover has scarcely been analyzed. We conducted a regional survey of...

  15. Development of integrative bioethics in the Mediterranean area of South-East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukoč, Mislav

    2012-11-01

    With regards to its origin, foundation and development, bioethics is a relatively new discipline, scientific and theoretical field, where different and even contradicting definition models and methodological patterns of its formation and application meet. In some philosophical orientations, bioethics is considered to be a sub-discipline of applied ethics as a traditional philosophical discipline. Yet in biomedical and other sciences, bioethics is designated as a specialist scientific discipline, or a sort of a new medical ethics. The concept of integrative bioethics as an interdisciplinary scholarly and pluriperspectivistic area goes beyond such one-sided determinations, both philosophical and scientistic, and intends to integrate the philosophical approach to bioethics with its particular scientific contents, as well as different cultural dimensions and perspectives. This concept of integrative bioethics has gradually developed at philosophical and interdisciplinary conferences and institutions on the "bioethical islands" of the Croatian Mediterranean. In this paper, the author follows the formation, development and prospects of integrative bioethics in the wider region of the Mediterranean and Southeast Europe.

  16. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and South-East of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided some insight into the Saharan dust deposition at a few specific locations from observations over long time periods or intensive field campaigns. However, no assessment of the dust deposition temporal variability in connection with its regional spatial distribution has been achieved so far from network observations over more than one year. To investigate dust deposition dynamics at the regional scale, five automatic deposition collectors named CARAGA ("Collecteur Automatique de Retombées Atmosphériques insolubles à Grande Autonomie" in French have been deployed in the western Mediterranean region during one to three years depending on the station. The sites include, from South to North, Lampedusa Isl., Mallorca Isl., Corsica Isl., Frioul Isl. and Le Casset (South of French Alps. Deposition measurements are performed on a common weekly period at the 5 sites. The mean Saharan dust deposition fluxes are higher close to the North African coasts and decrease following a South to North gradient, with values from 7.4 g m−2 yr−1 in Lampedusa (35°31' N–12°37' E to 1 g m−2 yr−1 in Le Casset (44°59' N–6°28' E. The maximum deposition flux recorded is of 3.2 g m−2 wk−1 in Mallorca with only 2 other events showing more than 1 g m−2 wk−1 in Lampedusa, and a maximum of 0.5 g m−2 wk−1 in Corsica. The maximum value of 2.1 g m−2 yr−1 observed in Corsica in 2013 is much lower than existing records in the area over the 3 previous decades (11–14 g m−2 yr−1. From the 537 available samples, ninety eight major Saharan dust deposition events have been identified in the records between 2011 and 2013. Complementary observations provided by both satellite and air mass trajectories are used to identify the dust provenance areas and the transport pathways from the Sahara to the stations. Despite the large size of African dust plumes detected by satellites, more than eighty percent of the major dust

  17. Early winter cold spells over the Euro-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toreti, Andrea; Xoplaki, Elena; Luterbacher, Juerg

    2016-04-01

    In a changing climate context, temperature extremes are expected to heavily impact societies and economies. Projected changes in warm extremes have been extensively investigated, while less efforts are devoted to cold extremes. Despite the projected warming of the climate system, cold extremes could still occur and have an impact on several sectors, such as human health and agriculture. Here, we focus on cold spells that have a potential high impact, i.e. early winter cold spells occurring after a mild-to-warm autumn. Projected changes of these events over the Euro-Mediterranean region are analysed by using the latest Euro-Cordex simulations under the scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. In terms of spatial extension of cold spells, a significant reduction can be seen only at the end of the 21st century and under the RCP8.5 scenario. As for the changes in intensity in the mid-century, no consistency is found among models over large areas. At the end of the century, the north-eastern part of the domain and northern Africa are projected to be early-cold-spell free under the RCP4.5 scenario, while, almost the entire domain is projected to be early-cold-spell free under the RCP8.5 scenario.

  18. Estimation of human heat loss in five Mediterranean regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, M; Simsek, E; Sahin, B; Yasar, A; Ozbek, A

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of seasonal weather differences on the human body's heat losses in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The provinces of Adana, Antakya, Osmaniye, Mersin and Antalya were chosen for the research, and monthly atmospheric temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure data from 2007 were used. In all these provinces, radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body based on skin surface and respiration were analyzed from meteorological data by using the heat balance equation. According to the results, the rate of radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body varies considerably from season to season. In all the provinces, 90% of heat loss was caused by heat transfer from the skin, with the remaining 10% taking place through respiration. Furthermore, radiative and convective heat loss through the skin reached the highest values in the winter months at approximately between 110 and 140W/m(2), with the lowest values coming in the summer months at roughly 30-50W/m(2).

  19. Calculating the Middle Ages? The Project »Complexities and Networks in the Medieval Mediterranean and Near East« (COMMED). Medieval Worlds|Empires: Elements of Cohesion and Signs of Decay medieval worlds Volume 2015.2|

    OpenAIRE

    Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The project »Complexities and networks in the Medieval Mediterranean and Near East« (COMMED) at the Division for Byzantine Research of the Institute for Medieval Research (IMAFO) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences focuses on the adaptation and development of concepts and tools of network theory and complexity sciences for the analysis of societies, polities and regions in the medieval world in a comparative perspective. Key elements of its methodological and technological toolkit are applied...

  20. Regional conflict formations: is the Middle East next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.

    2007-01-01

    As Iraq is plunging into civil war, politics and violence in the Middle East are increasingly perceived to be highly interconnected and entwined. This article offers an attempt to understand the nature and scope of this regional interconnectedness involving three of the region's states—Iraq, Syria

  1. Wind power in the Euro-Mediterranean region: development and prospects; Energia eolica en la region euromediterranea: desarrollo y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Latorre, F. M.; Ventura Fernandez, J.

    2011-07-01

    This work is a first approach to wind development in the Euro-Mediterranean region and identifies the major initiatives underway as well as development conditions. It includes a study case of wind power management in the Strait of Gibraltar area. Wind development is analyzed in the Euro-Mediterranean territories by comparing Spanish regions with different States using various indicators. Key countries are noted for their potential and policies to promote wind based alternatives. (Author)

  2. Policy approaches to renewable energy investment in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, A.; Komendantova, N.; Battaglini, A.; Lilliestam, J.; Williges, K.

    2009-04-01

    Europe's climate policy objective of 20% renewable energy by 2020, and the call by the IPCC to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, pose major challenges for the European Union. Several policy options are available to move towards these objectives. In this paper, we will address the most critical policy and governance issues associated with one particular approach to scaling up renewable energy resources: reliance on large-scale energy generation facilities outside the European continent, such as onshore and offshore wind farms and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities in the Mediterranean region. Several feasibility studies completed over the past three years (German Aerospace Center 2006; German Aerospace Center 2005; Czisch, Elektrotechnik 2005, p. 488; Lorenz, Pinner, Seitz, McKinsey Quarterly 2008, p.10; German Aerospace Center 2005; Knies 2008, The Club of Rome; Khosla, Breaking the Climate Deadlock Briefing Papers, 2008, p.19) have convincingly demonstrated that large-scale wind and CSP projects ought to be very attractive for a number of reasons, including cost, reliability of power supply, and technological maturity. According to these studies it would be technically possible for Europe to rely on large-scale wind and CSP for the majority of its power needs by 2050—indeed enough to completely replace its reliance on fossil fuels for power generation—at competitive cost over its current, carbon intensive system. While it has been shown to be technically feasible to develop renewable resources in North Africa to account for a large share of Europe's energy needs, doing so would require sustained double digit rates of growth in generating and long-distance transmission capacity, and would potentially require a very different high voltage grid architecture within Europe. Doing so at a large scale could require enormous up-front investments in technical capacity, financial instruments and human resources. What are the policy instruments best

  3. South-East Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro- geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  4. North-East Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro-geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  5. The East Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping; He, Jinhua

    2016-10-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia. The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which deals with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. Here we provide an update of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.

  6. Observations of alkylamines at a costal site in the East Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzitzikalaki, Evaggelia; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Hakola, Hannele; Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Amines are reactive volatile base in the atmosphere and play a key role in new particle formation. Due to their height reactivity, concentration measurements are scare and mostly concentrated within short period of time. The present study provided the first long- term measurements of alkylamines in the Eastern Mediterranean. Measurements took place at a remote coastal site on the north east side of the island of Crete at the Finokalia monitoring station of the University of Crete (finokalia.chemistry.uoc.gr; 35°20΄N, 25°40΄E, 250m a.s.l.) from January 2013 to December 2015. The samples were collected in glass fiber filters impregnated with phosphoric acid that trap gas-phase amines as salt. Samples were subsequently transported to the lab where they were stored in refrigeration until the analysis that took place in a Liquid Chromatography Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (TSQ Quantum, Thermo Finnigan). The alkylamines that were detected were ethylamine (EA), dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), propylamine (PA), diethylamine (DEA) and triethylamine (TEA). DMA & EA and TMA & PA were handled as pairs as they couldn't be separated. The most abundant amines were found to be DMA & EA, whereas BA and TMA were under the detection limits. The highest concentrations for DMA & EA and DEA were observed during summer, while for TMA & PA no clear annual cycle was found. The results are analyzed together with observations of new particle formation at the Finokalia station to estimate possible links of alkylamines to the formation of atmospheric particles in the area. This work has been partially supported by the European FP7 collaborative project BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding).

  7. Newly developed paleomagnetic map of the Easternmost Mediterranean joined with tectono-structural analysis unmask geodynamic history of this region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive magnetic-paleomagnetic analysis of physical-geological models developed for the Easternmost Mediterranean (northern part of the Sinai plate) accompanied by gravity and seismic data examination enabled the detection of a zone of inverse magnetization of submeridional strike with a total volume exceeding 120,000 km3. Such a large zone must correspond to the prolonged period of inverse polarity in the Earth's magnetic field history. We suggest that this inversely magnetized thick block of the Earth's crust corresponds to the known Kiama hyperzone. A paleomagnetic map constructed on the basis of abovementioned geophysical data analysis combined with detailed examination of structural, radiometric, petrological, facial, paleogeographical and some other data indicates that to the west of the Kiama zone is situated the Jalal zone, and to the east - Illawarra, Omolon and Gissar zones. Discovery of the Kiama paleomagnetic zone combined with tectonogeodynamical analysis and paleobiographical data examination indicates that the Earth's oceanic crust blocks may have been shifted by transform faults from the eastern part of the Tethys Ocean to their modern position in the Easternmost Mediterranean. Analysis of potential geophysical fields and seismological maps integrated with tectonostructural examination show the isolation of the northern part of Sinai plate from other terranes. For the first time formation-paleogeographical maps of Triassic and Jurassic for the Easternmost Mediterranean have been compiled and their tectono-geodynamical explanation has been given. The obtained data create a basis for reconsidering tectonic zonation, paleogeodynamical reconstructions and searching for economic deposits in this region.

  8. East African Regional Outlook for 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce; Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    IT’S difficult to talk about Southern Sudan in 2011 without bringing up the historic referendum that will determine whether the south of Africa’s largest country will secede from the rest of the country. "The referendum in Southern Sudan is the most important event in the calendar of Africa after the(2010) World Cup(held in South Africa),because it has the consequence of introducing a new member state in Africa,and also has the consequence of returning this region back to war."

  9. Environmental Assessment for Selected Regions in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    shallow sill and travel eastward along the interface between the dissimilar water masses at a speed of 3 to 4 kt. Temperature differences on the order of...the eastern Mediterranean. OceanoL Acta 9(3): 239-248. Arevalo, L. and T. Garcia (1982). Corrientes de la Costa de Malaga, metodos y resultados. Inf

  10. Present Condition, Problems and Prospects of East Asian Regional Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AnYuejun; SongZhengben

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, with the speeding-up of economic globalization and regional integration, countries in East Asia, taking into consideration economic returns and national security, have actively conducted multilateral dialogue and cooperation in such areas as politics, economy and security in a pragmatic manner.

  11. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats.

  12. Inventory and new records of polychaete species from the Cap Bon Peninsula, north-east coast of Tunisia, Western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZAABI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of Polychaete species is recorded from the North east coast of Tunisia with an historic review of the previous literature from Tunisian coasts. Altogether 40 families, 146 genera, and 238 species are currently known from the area in which 86 taxa, 4 families (Chrysopetalidae, Pilargidae, Protodrilidae and Saccocirridae and 40 genera (Saccocirrus, Protodrilus, Parathelepus, Thelepus, Petta, Isolda, Brada, Tharyx, Paraprionospio, Jasmineira, Hypsicomus, Euchone, Pseudobranchiomma, Laonome, Galathowenia, Lugia, Pseudomystides, Protomystides, Pirakia, Mysta, Eurysyllis, Parapionosyllis, Streptosyllis, Paraehlersia, Sigambra, Ancistrosyllis, Kefersteinia, Chrysopetalum, Bhawania, Fimbriosthenelais, Subadyte, Panthalis, Dorvillea, Scalibregma, Paradoneis, Cirrophorus, Metasychis, Websterinereis, Euniphysa and Mastobranchus are new additions to the Polychaete fauna of Tunisia. The list, which provides a synthesis of the regional taxonomica work, including coastal areas from Sidi Daoud to the area of Menzel Hurr (Cap Bon Peninsula, Western Mediterranean Sea, can serve as a baseline survey for future studies.

  13. Inventory and new records of polychaete species from the Cap Bon Peninsula, north-east coast of Tunisia, Western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZAABI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of Polychaete species is recorded from the North east coast of Tunisia with an historic review of the previous literature from Tunisian coasts. Altogether 40 families, 146 genera, and 238 species are currently known from the area in which 86 taxa, 4 families (Chrysopetalidae, Pilargidae, Protodrilidae and Saccocirridae and 40 genera (Saccocirrus, Protodrilus, Parathelepus, Thelepus, Petta, Isolda, Brada, Tharyx, Paraprionospio, Jasmineira, Hypsicomus, Euchone, Pseudobranchiomma, Laonome, Galathowenia, Lugia, Pseudomystides, Protomystides, Pirakia, Mysta, Eurysyllis, Parapionosyllis, Streptosyllis, Paraehlersia, Sigambra, Ancistrosyllis, Kefersteinia, Chrysopetalum, Bhawania, Fimbriosthenelais, Subadyte, Panthalis, Dorvillea, Scalibregma, Paradoneis, Cirrophorus, Metasychis, Websterinereis, Euniphysa and Mastobranchus are new additions to the Polychaete fauna of Tunisia. The list, which provides a synthesis of the regional taxonomica work, including coastal areas from Sidi Daoud to the area of Menzel Hurr (Cap Bon Peninsula, Western Mediterranean Sea, can serve as a baseline survey for future studies.

  14. Involutina farinacciae Bronnimann & Koehn-Zaninetti 1969, a marker for the Middle Liassic in basinal and some platform facies of Mediterranean and near east areas: The discussion concerning the paleogeography of Montenegro-Albania border region (the Scutari-Peć lineament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoičić Rajka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraminiferal species Involutina farinacciae BRONNIMANN & KOEHN-ZANINETTI, is a marker of Middle Liassic basinal and transitional platform bassin facies widely distributed in Mediterranean area (Umbria-Marche, Pindos, Budva, Sicilia and the Inner Dinarides basin, also in Iraqi Kurdistan (“Avroman” Basin. In the Dinaric Carbonate Platform (DCP it indicates intramarginal and intraplatform depressions. Paleogeography of the Montenegro-Albania border area formed by the inherited prealpine paleogeographic scenario that resulted in a different arrangement of the paleogeographic units westward and eastward of the paleostructure (Scutari-Peć Lineament which controlled the geological history of the region. This transverse paleostructure was a coincident with the paleogeographic front of the DCP, and b the westward limit of the overtrusted Mirdita Zone. The difference in the paleogeographic features in the prolongation from the DCP througout Albania, controlled by paleostructure, are the source of seizmicity, rotation and deviation (SE to NW, into NE of the Complex Mirdita Zone.

  15. East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST -AIRC): An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangqing, Li; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S.-C.; Holben, B.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Y.; Shi, G.; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhuang, G.

    2011-01-01

    As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas, Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC), The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF-China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE), The former two are U,S,-China collaborative projects, and the latter is a part of the China's National Basic Research program (or often referred to as "973 project"), Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies, The wealth of general and speCIalized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical, and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation, and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical, and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects; and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system, Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc, In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

  16. Hydrological and Vegetation Variability from Mediterranean Leaf Wax Biomarkers Before and After the Rise of East African C4 Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, C.; deMenocal, P. B.; Tierney, J. E.; Polissar, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial and marine paleoclimate records and changes in African fossil mammal taxa indicate that a transition towards more open, C4-dominated grasslands occurred in East Africa near 2 Ma. In contrast, the Mediterranean sapropel record documents pervasive precession-paced wet/dry cycles in the strength of the African monsoon and Nile runoff since at least the late Miocene. This study investigates whether the East African vegetation shift after 2 Ma was accompanied by a change in the monsoonal wet/dry cycle response to orbital precession forcing. We sampled eastern Mediterranean ODP Site 967 at 2-3 ka resolution in two 200 kyr intervals near 3.0 and 1.7 Ma. Nearly identical orbital configurations in these intervals allow us to compare mean conditions and orbital-paced variations before and after the 2 Ma transition. We used leaf wax biomarker concentrations and δD and δ13C compositions as proxies for monsoonal strength and vegetation type, and the δ18O composition of G. ruber as a proxy for Nile River runoff. Leaf wax biomarker concentrations varied over three orders of magnitude, with much higher concentrations in sapropels. During sapropel intervals, large-amplitude negative excursions occur in δDwax, δ13Cwax, and δ18Oruber, corresponding to a strengthened monsoon and less abundant C4 plants. Carbonate-rich intervals have positive isotope excursions indicating a weakened monsoon and more abundant C4 plants. The mean and variance of δDwax and δ13Cwax values are not significantly different between the 3.0 Ma and 1.7 Ma intervals indicating Northern Africa did not experience the vegetation and climate shifts observed in East Africa. While surprising, our finding suggests that the average monsoonal response to precession forcing, and corresponding vegetation variability, did not substantially change across the 2 Ma transition. This implies that North and East Africa exhibited different climate and vegetation behavior since 3 Ma.

  17. Long term dynamic of real exchange rate, trade liberalization and financial integration: The case of south-east Mediterranean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amor Hadj Thouraya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effects of the trade liberalization and of the international financial integration on the long-term behavior of Real Exchange Rate (RER for the South East Mediterranean countries. So the following question: how does the new trade and financial context affect the Equilibrium RER? We refer to the econometric technique of time series analysis, (the unit root tests of Dickey-Fuller (1979 and we apply the cointegration test of Engle and Granger (1987 of single equation for six South East Mediterranean countries (Algeria, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey over the period of 1979-2004. Our estimates suggest that, for the six countries, long-term RER behavior depends essentially on economic specificity of each country and in particular on their degree of financial integration and trade opening. Our results also show that the evolution of the RER misalignment during our sample period, seem to be for some countries persistant and recurrent, but with decrease.

  18. A review of the Late Cambrian (Furongian) palaeogeography in the western Mediterranean region, NW Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ferretti, Annalisa; González-Gómez, Cristina; Serpagli, Enrico; Tortello, M. Franco; Vecoli, Marco; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    , onchonotinids, and pagodiids), linguliformean brachiopods (acrotretids, obolids, scaphelasmatids, siphonotretids, and zhanatellids), echinoderms (mitrates, glyptocystitid cystoids, and stromatocystoids), and conodonts belonging to the lower Peltura Zone; and (iii) the subsequent input of new trilobites (asaphids, calymenids, catillicephalids, nileids and remopleurids), which marks the base of the Proteuloma geinitzi Zone, associated with pelmatozoan holdfasts ( Oryctoconus), and a distinct input of late Tremadocian conodonts ( Paltodus deltifer Zone). The biogeographic distribution of latest Middle and Late Cambrian trilobites supports brachiopod data indicating strong affinities between the western Mediterranean region, East Gondwana (North China/Korea, South China, Australia, and Antarctica) and Kazakhstania during the late Languedocian, which became significantly stronger during the Late Cambrian. This major shift may suggest modification in oceanic circulation patterns throughout Gondwana across the Middle-Late Cambrian transition.

  19. Regionalism in East Asia: The Role of North East Asian Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fithra F. Hastiadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: For the past few years, regionalism has been progressing in East Asia with the likes of China, Japan and Korea (CJK as the most prominent actors. Unfortunately, with the absence of trade arrangement amongst the CJK, the present regional trade scheme is not sufficient to reach sustainability. Thus, the study aims to give the solution to the problem. This study found the inefficient trade scheme through Engle-Granger Cointegration and Error Correction Mechanism. Two Stage Least Squares in a static panel fixed effect model were also employed to proof the spill-over effect. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study underlines the importance of triangular trade agreement for accelerating the phase of growth in CJK which eventually created a spillover effect to East Asia as a whole. Moreover, the study argued that the spillover effect would function as an impetus for creating region-wide FTA. Furthermore, the study also identified a number of economic and political factors that can support the formation of East Asian Regionalism.

  20. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  1. Regional economic integration in Great East Asia: determinants and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Korol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies both general trends and peculiar characteristics of processes of economic integration in the Great East Asia, which plays the role of one of the major centers of contemporary global development. The basic determinants and barriers for implementation of regional strategies by China, Japan, ASEAN that will influence the geo-economic policy of Ukraine not only in East Asian, but also European and Eurasian areas. Attention is focused on the basic principles of realized and potential future integration models in the "ASEAN+" format with variable composition of member states that correspond to different extents to strategic objectives of both specified key actors in the region and extra-regional states that have global and transnational interests. Extrapolation of dominant trends in the nature and dynamics of transformation processes of East Asian economic regionalization allowed forming a forecast for the longterm conservation of importance of free trade agreements in the absence of preconditions to create customs unions. At the same time it was stressed out that proper assurance of national interests of international economic relations will be based on contractual instruments at the international level, without creating institutional and legal superstructure similar to the European Union or the Eurasian Economic Union as supranational law and supranational bodies.

  2. Travel industry as a focus on regional development: Case study of the Mediterranean France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a regionalization of the Mediterranean France with regard to tourism, as well as basic economic sectors present in the region. The study included three administrative regions of this part of France: Provence - Alpes - Cote d'Azur, Languedoc - Roussillon and the Island of Corsica, where the travel industry is defined as dominant. The subject of this research is to study the area of the Mediterranean France, primarily from the aspect of tourism. Special attention is focused on the identification of economic and socioeconomic importance that tourism has on the overall economic development of the region, in order to enable the implementation of tourism regionalization. In order to tourism regionalization of this area carried out, it is necessary to include research components, such as geographic environment, tourist motives and attractions that are located in this area, as well as other elements relevant to the separation of the region from the neighboring regions of France.

  3. Danish Interests in Regional Security Institutions in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    2013-01-01

    through capacity building projects anchored in different regional security institutions. The report illuminates some of the risks that such capacity building projects might confront. Furthermore the report points out some of the challenges that exist in the cooperation between the Ministry of Foreign......For the past decade, peace and security in East Africa have gained increasing focus internationally. The region has experienced armed conflicts, civil wars, rebellion, drought and famine. Yet, at the same time, there is an emerging ambition among a number of African states to handle security issues...... on the continent independently. Such ambitions have fostered a variety of military capacity building programmes supported by external donors. The present report explores how up until now Denmark has sought to contribute to strengthening political and military security in East Africa. This has mainly been done...

  4. Isotopic values of plants in relation to water availability in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Gideon; Danin, Avinoam

    2010-04-01

    Plant C and N isotope values often correlate with rainfall on global and regional scales. This study examines the relationship between plant isotopic values and rainfall in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The results indicate significant correlations between both C and N isotope values and rainfall in C(3) plant communities. This significant relationship is maintained when plant communities are divided by plant life forms. Furthermore, a seasonal increase in C isotope values is observed during the dry season while N isotope values remain stable across the wet and dry seasons. Finally, the isotopic pattern in plants originating from desert environments differs from those from Mediterranean environments because some desert plants obtain most of their water from secondary sources, namely water channeled by local topographic features rather than direct rainfall. From these results it can be concluded that water availability is the primary factor controlling C and N isotope variability in plant communities in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  5. The genus Hippolyte Leach, 1814 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) in the East Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a checklist of all species in the genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Udekem d'Acoz, C.

    1996-01-01

    The genus Hippolyte Leach in the East Atlantic and the Mediterranean is revised and a list of the world species is given. Eleven species occur in the area studied: H. coerulescens (Fabricius), H. garciarasoi spec. nov., H. inermis Leach, H. lagarderei d'Udekem d'Acoz, H. leptocerus (Heller), H.

  6. Regional climate models' performance in representing precipitation and temperature over selected Mediterranean areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deidda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relative performance of several climate models in providing reliable forcing for hydrological modeling in six representative catchments in the Mediterranean region. We consider 14 Regional Climate Models (RCMs, from the EU-FP6 ENSEMBLES project, run for the A1B emission scenario on a common 0.22° (about 24 km rotated grid over Europe and the Mediterranean region. In the validation period (1951 to 2010 we consider daily precipitation and surface temperatures from the observed data fields (E-OBS data set, available from the ENSEMBLES project and the data providers in the ECA&D project. Our primary objective is to rank the 14 RCMs for each catchment and select the four best-performing ones to use as common forcing for hydrological models in the six Mediterranean basins considered in the EU-FP7 CLIMB project. Using a common suite of four RCMs for all studied catchments reduces the (epistemic uncertainty when evaluating trends and climate change impacts in the 21st century. We present and discuss the validation setting, as well as the obtained results and, in some detail, the difficulties we experienced when processing the data. In doing so we also provide useful information and advice for researchers not directly involved in climate modeling, but interested in the use of climate model outputs for hydrological modeling and, more generally, climate change impact studies in the Mediterranean region.

  7. Valuing the non-timber forest products in the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Lelia [World Bank, Middle East and North Africa Region, 1818 H St., NW Washington DC 20433 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    The potential of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in the Mediterranean region as a source of livelihood and sustainable development has been widely recognized. Yet, surprisingly few efforts have been made to value them comprehensively. Valuation efforts usually focused on selected NTFPs traded on formal markets, at local level. This paper aims to provide comprehensive estimates of NTFPs benefits at national and regional level in the Mediterranean region. Six major groups of NTFPs are identified: firewood, cork, fodder, mushrooms, honey and other NTFPs. Valuation is based on a wide variety of techniques, drawing on official statistics, and supplemented by results of local surveys. It shows that at Mediterranean level, NTFPs provide annual benefits of about EUR39/ha of forests, accounting for about a fourth of the total economic value of forests estimated by this study. The average estimate for southern countries (EUR54/ha) is considerably higher than for northern (EUR41/ha) and eastern countries (EUR20/ha). The paper reveals the degree of importance of the main NTFPs benefits for the country groups and the region as a whole. It also discusses some reasons of concern when drawing policy tools for improving rural income and forest conservation in the Mediterranean. (author)

  8. Primary health care in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: from Alma-Ata to Doha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawky, S

    2012-12-04

    The celebration in Doha of the 30th anniversary of the Alma-Ata Declaration at the International Conference on Primary Health Care renewed the commitment of the Eastern Mediterranean Region to primary health care as the tool for better health. The principles agreed at Alma-Ata in 1978 apply as much now as they did before. The event provided an opportunity for the Eastern Mediterranean countries to define future directions to steer the health systems to integrate primary health care and harness the intersectoral approach.

  9. Regional downscaling of Mediterranean droughts under past and future climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertig, Elke; Tramblay, Yves

    2017-04-01

    The complexity of the Mediterranean climate with its high precipitation variability and its unequal seasonal distribution with a wet season from approximately October to April and a dry season in summer set general conditions for a high vulnerability of the Mediterranean area to droughts. In the last few decades the risk of drought episodes appears to be enhanced in the Mediterranean area due to temperature increases combined with precipitation decreases. This general change towards warmer and dryer conditions is expected to continue in the future. In the present study droughts are represented by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), at 114 stations located across the Mediterranean area. The SPI is a normalized measure of drought severity relative to a specific location, obtained from rainfall totals aggregated over different time periods. This allows a comparison of different locations and the delineation of homogeneous regions with similar SPI variability. 13 regions have been identified. A downscaling approach using circulation types based on geopotential heights and relative humidity as predictors has been set up to downscale the SPI time series in the different regions. The downscaling approach has been validated using running 21 years validation periods, in order to assess the skill of the method during different climatic conditions and to detect possible non-stationarities in the predictors-predictand relationships. Results show that the downscaling method provided satisfactory results, except for the most arid regions. Future projections, provided from a three member ensemble of the MPI-ESM-LR model under scenario RCP 8.5, indicate an increase in the drought severity and occurrence for the whole Mediterranean region for the period 2070-2100.

  10. Flash floods in Mediterranean ephemeral streams in Valencia Region (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarasa-Belmonte, Ana M.

    2016-10-01

    Ephemeral streams are typical Mediterranean fluvial systems with high risk of flash flooding, and few data are available about these systems in most locales. However, the SAIH network (Automatic Hydrological Information Systems) of the Jucar River Water Authority has been providing detailed information about ephemeral streams in Spain every 5 min since 1988. Using these data, we evaluated the processes of rainfall-runoff conversion and flood generation in five Mediterranean ephemeral streams ranging in size from 25 to 450 km2. To provide a general framework for hydrological analysis, the study included 142 flash flood events registered between 1989 and 2007. A more detailed analysis was conducted for the Carraixet Basin under the dry antecedent moisture condition (AMC I) to evaluate the influence of rainfall on the basin's response. A simple index called Momentum of Maximum Intensity (MMI) was developed to describe the influence of rainfall intensity on hydrograph. Correlations between the main indicators of precipitation and flow also were assessed. Results showed that flash floods were generally generated by average accumulated rainfall of around 100 mm at high intensities that could exceed 300 mm/h. Initial abstractions and average water losses during the rainfall-runoff conversion processes were very important (runoff coefficients of 6% and runoff thresholds of 62 mm). No correlation was found between initial abstractions (Ia) calculated from the basin characteristics and runoff thresholds (P0) empirically obtained, which create some doubts about the validity of Ia method for predicting floods in ephemeral streams. Accumulated rainfall was very important for flood volume, peak flow and water balance indicators, whereas intensity indicators were more related to the response times of the basins. Rainfall intensity variables influenced lag time. Accumulated rainfall, in combination with high reduced mean intensity and low persistence, were a good predictor for

  11. Carbon isotopic changes: a stratigraphic tool for the last 350 ka in the East Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glacon, G.; Vergnaud, C.; Grazzini

    1986-12-07

    High resolution biostratigraphy of Late Pleistocene Mediterranean cores allows to identify the disturbed sequences of the sedimentary records. For those sequences of the cores which are not disturbed, changes in the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratios recorded by planktonic foraminifera are stratigraphically correlatable. Combined to the changes in /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratios they allow to date microfaunal events with a precision better than 7,000 years. This precision will be improved in the future.

  12. The Agia Marina Xyliatou Observatory: A remote supersite in Cyprus to monitor changes in the atmospheric composition of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciare, Jean

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME) region has been identified as one of the hot spot region in the world strongly influenced by climate changes impacts. This region is characterized by rapidly growing population with contrasting economic development, strong environmental gradients and climate extremes. However, long-term observations of the atmospheric constituents (gaseous and particulate) of the atmosphere at a remote site representative of EMME is still missing making difficult to assess current and future impacts on air quality, water resources and climate. In collaboration with the Department of Labour Inspection and in the frame of French research programs (ChArMEx and ENVI-Med "CyAr") and the EU H2020 "ACTRIS-2" (2015-2019) project, CyI and CNRS are putting unprecedented efforts to implement at a rural site of Cyprus (Agia Marina Xyliatou) a unique infrastructure to monitor key atmospheric species relevant to air quality and climate. A large set of real-time instrumentations is currently deployed to characterize reactive gases (incl. O3, CO, NOx, SO2, VOC), in-situ aerosol properties (mass, size distribution, light scatt./absorption/extinction coef. and chemistry) and as well as integrated optical properties (sunphotomer, solar flux). Through Transnational access (H2020 ACTRIS2), this station is offering to (non-)EU partners (Research, SMEs) a new atmospheric facility to monitor long range transported clean/polluted air masses from 3 different continents (Europe, Africa, Middle East) and investigate aerosol-cloud interactions through the use of UAV and a mountain site (Troodos, 1900m asl). We will present here an overview of this new research infrastructure and provide a first glance of key features observed from gas/aerosol measurements obtained in 2015

  13. Torrential precipitations on the Spanish east coast: The role of the Mediterranean sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, M.; Estrela, M. J.; Caselles, V.

    Floods constitute one of the most important natural risks on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Although it is very difficult to avoid them, a correct understanding of their principal cause, which is torrential rain, can facilitate their prediction and in this way avoid, at least partially, their catastrophic effects (both loss of human lives and material damage). The work presented here is part of a more extensive study underway in the CEAM (Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo). Its objective is the analysis of the conditions that produce torrential precipitations. These can be explained by the hypothesis of the Back Door Front, a mechanism which on its own permits the development of a potentially unstable mass above the Mediterranean sea. Among the different factors that are valued in this hypothesis, the Sea Surface Temperature is considered to play an important role. It is studied by means of satellite images since this is the only technique that permits a synoptic view of this parameter. NOAH satellite images have been used, applying the split-window operative technique. This work presents initial results that confirm the importance of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) as a moisture source in the Mediterranean cyclogenesis.

  14. Advancing Tobacco Dependence Treatment Services in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: International collaboration for training and capacity-building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras I. Hawari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use negatively affects health and is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Today, tobacco use ranks third among risk factors in North Africa and the Middle East in terms of disease burden. Despite the established need for these services, tobacco dependence treatment (TDT services are still inadequate in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. Among the main challenges hindering their expansion is the current lack of training opportunities. The provision of training and capacity-building—a key enabler of TDT—offers an excellent catalyst to launch TDT services in the region. This review discusses the need for TDT training in the EMR and describes a model for providing regional evidence-based training in line with international standards. The King Hussein Cancer Center in Amman, Jordan, is the regional host for Global Bridges, a worldwide TDT initiative. Using this model, they have trained 1,500 professionals and advocates from the EMR over the past three years.

  15. Strategic approach to control of viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: report from a regional consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M R; El Bushra, H E; Opoka, M; Formenty, P; Velayudhan, R; Eremin, S

    2013-10-01

    The viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a growing public health threat in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Nearly all of them are of zoonotic origin. VHF often cause outbreaks with high fatalities and, except for yellow fever, currently there are no specific treatment or vaccination options available. In response to this growing threat, the Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean of the World Health Organization convened a technical consultation in Tehran on 27-30 November 2011 to review the current gaps in prevention and control of VHF outbreaks in the Region. The meeting recommended a number of strategic public health approaches for prevention and control of VHF outbreaks through synergizing effective collaboration between the human and animal health sectors on areas that involve better preparedness, early detection and rapid response. Implementation of these approaches would require working together with vision, commitment and a sense of purpose involving partnerships and cooperation from all relevant sectors.

  16. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) over the Mediterranean region based on high resolution gridded data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychroni, Iliana; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean water resource system is heavily influenced by changes in climate conditions, which in turns affect significantly the socioeconomic development, specifically over coastal areas. Taking into consideration that the surface temperature is projected to rise over the 21st century and the mean precipitation is likely to decrease in mid-latitude dry regions, according to IPCC 2014, we confronted the challenge to study the drought over the Mediterranean region by means of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), defined as the difference from the mean for a specified time period divided by the standard deviation, where the mean and standard deviation are determined from past records. Drought is a long-range phenomenon that affects the Mediterranean. The drought not only affects food production but also has severe environmental, economic and social impacts. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatio-temporal evolution of the SPI for 3-, 6-, 9-, 12- month timescales, during the period 1950-2015. For this purpose, we processed high resolution gridded daily precipitation datasets (0.25° x 0.25°), based on the E-OBS dataset from ECA&D. Mean SPI patterns and trends for the whole examined period, as well as successive 30-year periods, were assessed by using R-project. Moreover, the influence of the well-known atmospheric circulation index of the wider region of Europe, namely the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI), on the SPI over the Mediterranean was considered necessary to evaluate, because NAOI strongly modulates precipitation over Europe and the Mediterranean.

  17. Updating Rainfall Erosivity Map of the Mediterranean Region in Turkey by RUSLE-R and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, P.; Deviren Saygin, S.; Erpul, G.; Bayramin, I.

    2009-04-01

    To understand and analyze rainfall variability is a need for evaluating the erosive potential of rainfall in terms of space and time. In this study of revising rainfall erosivity index by RUSLE-R equation and recent data set, we focus in particular on the semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean Region, Turkey, where soil erosion is one of the major threats to soil and water resources and where soil erosion is as acute as or more severe than those in other Mediterranean countries. The primary data set included electronically stored daily rainfall records of the Turkish State Meteorological Service for the years from 1993 to 2004 at the 38 climate stations located in the Mediterranean Region. After analyzing the time-depth records of each independent erosive rainfall, RUSLE-R was calculated as the product of average rainfall energy and a 30-min maximum intensity of rainfall. Point RUSLE-R values as long-term averages obtained for each climate station were interpolated using tri-variate functions of longitude, latitude, and elevation to have a map. Summarily, by integrating Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the region and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the rainfall erosivity map of the Mediterranean Region in Turkey was updated. Doubtlessly, this study would provide data not only for climate studies but also opportunities for integration of climate data with properties of soil, topography and land use to understand complicated hydrologic processes at watershed and regional scales and would be effectively employed to take soil and water conservation measures. Key words: rainfall erosivity index, RUSLE prediction technology, soil erosion, GIS. Acknowledgement Authors gratefully acknowledge "The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey", TUBITAK, for support within project of CAYDAG-107Y155.

  18. East and central farming and forest region and Atlantic basin diversified farming region: LRRs N and S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brad D. Lee; John M. Kabrick

    2017-01-01

    The central, unglaciated US east of the Great Plains to the Atlantic coast corresponds to the area covered by LRR N (East and Central Farming and Forest Region) and S (Atlantic Basin Diversified Farming Region). These regions roughly correspond to the Interior Highlands, Interior Plains, Appalachian Highlands, and the Northern Coastal Plains.

  19. Pliocene Basaltic Volcanism in The East Anatolia Region (EAR), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyan, Vural; Özdemir, Yavuz; Keskin, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    East Anatolia Region (EAR) is one of the high Plateau which is occurred with north-south compressional regime formed depending on continent-continent collision between Eurasia and Arabia plates (Şengör and Kidd, 1979). Recent studies have revealed that last oceanic lithosphere in the EAR have completely depleted to 20 million years ago based on fission track ages (Okay et al. 2010). Our initial studies suggest that extensively volcanic activity in the EAR peaked in the Pliocene and continued in the same productivity throughout Quaternary. Voluminous basaltic lava plateaus and basaltic lavas from local eruption centers occurred as a result of high production level of volcanism during the Pliocene time interval. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variations in Pliocene basaltic volcanism and to reveal isotopic composition, age and petrologic evolution of the basaltic volcanism, we have started to study basaltic volcanism in the East Anatolia within the framework of a TUBITAK project (project number:113Y406). Petrologic and geochemical studies carried out on the Pliocene basaltic lavas indicate the presence of subduction component in the mantle source, changing the character of basaltic volcanism from alkaline to subalkaline and increasing the amount of spinel peridotitic melts (contributions of lithospheric mantle?) in the mantle source between 5.5-3.5 Ma. FC, AFC and EC-AFC modelings reveal that the while basaltic lavas were no or slightly influenced by crustal contamination and fractional crystallization, to more evolved lavas such as bazaltictrachyandesite, basalticandesite, trachybasalt might have been important processes. Results of our melting models and isotopic analysis data (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf, 18O) indicate that the Pliocene basaltic rocks were derived from both shallow and deep mantle sources with different melting degrees ranging between 0.1 - 4 %. The percentage of spinel seems to have increased in the mantle source of the basaltic

  20. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970–2010, NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Turco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the recent evolution of fires in Catalonia (north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, a typical Mediterranean region. We examine a homogeneous series of forest fires in the period 1970–2010. During this period, more than 9000 fire events greater than 0.5 ha were recorded, and the total burned area was more than 400 kha. Our analysis shows that both the burned area and number of fire series display a decreasing trend. Superposed onto this general decrease, strong oscillations on shorter time scales are evident. After the large fires of 1986 and 1994, the increased effort in fire prevention and suppression could explain part of the decreasing trend. Although it is often stated that fires have increased in Mediterranean regions, the higher efficiency in fire detection could have led to spurious trends and misleading conclusions.

  1. Nutritional and functional characteristics of Erophaca baetica seeds, a legume endemic to the Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés-Giraldo, I.; Alaiz, M.; Girón-Calle, J.; Megías, C.; Vioque, J.

    2013-01-01

    Erophaca baetica is a legume endemic to the Mediterranean region. Although the fruits and seeds are large, the presence of the “locoism” which produces the alkaloid, swainsonine has prevented its use as animal feed or for human nutrition. Their protein content and chromatographic profile, amino acid composition, fatty acid composition, and polyphenol contents have been determined in order to explore the potential of the E. baetica seeds as a source of dietary protein with functional component...

  2. Natural and anthropogenic aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East: possible impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallos, G; Solomos, S; Kushta, J; Mitsakou, C; Spyrou, C; Bartsotas, N; Kalogeri, C

    2014-08-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles have significant implications on the microphysical cloud processes. Maritime clouds have different properties than polluted ones and the final amounts and types of precipitation are different. Mixed phase aerosols that contain soluble matter are efficient cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and enhance the liquid condensate spectrum in warm and mixed phase clouds. Insoluble particles such as mineral dust and black carbon are also important because of their ability to act as efficient ice nuclei (IN) through heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. The relative contribution of aerosol concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions on cloud structure and precipitation is discussed in the framework of RAMS/ICLAMS model. Analysis of model results and comparison with measurements reveals the complexity of the above links. Taking into account anthropogenic emissions and all available aerosol-cloud interactions the model precipitation bias was reduced by 50% for a storm simulation over eastern Mediterranean.

  3. Active tectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region: deduced from GPS, neotectonic and seismicity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reilinger

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the main tectonic features of the Eastern Mediterranean region combining the recent information obtained from GPS measurements, seismicity and neotectonic studies. GPS measurements reveal that the Arabian plate moves northward with respect to Eurasia at a rate of 23 ± 1 mm/yr, 10 mm/yr of this rate is taken up by shortening in the Caucasus. The internal deformation in Eastern Anatolia by conjugate strike-slip faulting and E-W trending thrusts, including the Bitlis frontal thrust, accommodates approximately a 15 mm/yr slip rate. The Northeast Anatolian fault, which extends from the Erzincan basin to Caucasus accommodates about 8 ± 5 mm/yr of left-lateral motion. The neotectonic fault pattern in Eastern Anatolia suggests that the NE Anatolian block moves in an E-ENE direction towards the South Caspian Sea. According to the same data, the Anatolian-Aegean block is undergoing a counter-clockwise rotation. However, from the residuals it appears that this solution can only be taken as a preliminary approximation. The Eulerian rotation pole indicates that slip rate along the North Anatolian fault is about 26 ± 3 mm/yr. This value is 10 mm/yr higher than slip rates obtained from geological data and historical earthquake records and it includes westward drift of the Pontides of a few millimetres/year or more. GPS measurements reveal that the East Anatolian fault accommodates an 11 ± 1 mm/yr relative motion. GPS data suggest that Central Anatolia behaves as a rigid block, but from neotectonic studies, it clearly appears that it is sliced by a number of conjugate strike-slip faults. The Isparta Angle area might be considered a major obstacle for the westward motion of the Anatolian block (Central and Eastern Anatolia. The western flank of this geological structure, the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone appears to be a major boundary with a slip rate of 15-20 mm/yr. The Western Anatolian grabens take up a total of 15 mm/yr NE-SW extension

  4. Phylogeny and genetic structure of Erophaca (Leguminosae), a East-West Mediterranean disjunct genus from the Tertiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Ramón; Talavera, María; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; Herrera, Javier; Talavera, Salvador

    2010-07-01

    The genus Erophaca comprises a single herbaceous perennial species with two subspecies distributed at opposite ends of the Mediterranean region. We used nrDNA ITS to investigate the phylogeny of the genus, and AFLP markers (9 primers, 20 populations) to establish the genetic relationship between subspecies, and among populations at each side of the Gibraltar Strait. According to nrDNA ITS, Erophaca is monophyletic, old (Miocene), and sister to the Astragalean clade. Life form attributes and molecular clock estimates suggest that Erophaca is one of the many Tertiary relicts that form part of the present Mediterranean flora. Within the occidental subspecies, European plants are clearly derived from North-African populations (Morocco) which, despite being rare on a regional scale, present the highest genetic diversity (as estimated by private and rare fragment numbers). In general, genetic diversity decreased with increasing distance from Morocco. AFLP and nrDNA ITS markers evidenced that the Eastern and the Western subspecies are genetically distinct. Possible causes for their disjunct distribution are discussed.

  5. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    Rapid assessment of the nutritional quality of diets ingested by grazing animals is pivotal for successful cow-calf management in east Mediterranean rangelands, which receive unpredictable rainfall and are subject to hot-spells. Clipped vegetation samples are seldom representative of diets consumed, as cows locate and graze selectively. In contrast, faeces are easily sampled and their near-IR spectra contain information about nutrients and their utilization. However, a pre-requisite for successful faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS) is that the calibration database encompass the spectral variability of samples to be analyzed. Using confined beef cows in Northern and Southern Israel, we calibrated prediction equations based on individual pairs of known dietary attributes and the NIR spectra of associated faeces (n=125). Diets were composed of fresh-cut green fodder of monocots (wheat and barley), dicots (safflower and garden pea) and natural pasture collected at various phenological states over 2 consecutive years, and, optionally, supplements of barley grain and dried poultry litter. A total of 48 additional pairs of faeces and diets sourced from cows fed six complete mixed rations covering a wide range of energy and CP concentrations. Precision (linearity of calibration, R2cal, and of cross-validation, R2cv) and accuracy (standard error of cross-validation, SEcv) were criteria for calibration quality. The calibrations for dietary ash, CP, NDF and in vitro dry matter digestibility yielded R2cal values >0.87, R2cv of 0.81 to 0.89 and SEcv values of 16, 13, 39 and 31 g/kg dry matter, respectively. Equations for nutrient intake were of low quality, with the exception of CP. Evaluation of FNIRS predictions was carried out with grazing animals supplemented or not with poultry litter, and implementation of the method in one herd over 2 years is presented. The potential usefulness of equations was also established by calculating the Mahalanobis (H

  6. Modeling olive pollen intensity in the Mediterranean region through analysis of emission sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, J; Orlandi, F; Pérez-Badia, R; Aguilera, F; Ben Dhiab, A; Bouziane, H; Díaz de la Guardia, C; Galán, C; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A M; Moreno-Grau, S; Msallem, M; Trigo, M M; Fornaciari, M

    2016-05-01

    Aerobiological monitoring of Olea europaea L. is of great interest in the Mediterranean basin because olive pollen is one of the most represented pollen types of the airborne spectrum for the Mediterranean region, and olive pollen is considered one of the major cause of pollinosis in this region. The main aim of this study was to develop an airborne-pollen map based on the Pollen Index across a 4-year period (2008-2011), to provide a continuous geographic map for pollen intensity that will have practical applications from the agronomical and allergological points of view. For this purpose, the main predictor variable was an index based on the distribution and abundance of potential sources of pollen emission, including intrinsic information about the general atmospheric patterns of pollen dispersal. In addition, meteorological variables were included in the modeling, together with spatial interpolation, to allow the definition of a spatial model of the Pollen Index from the main olive cultivation areas in the Mediterranean region. The results show marked differences with respect to the dispersal patterns associated to the altitudinal gradient. The findings indicate that areas located at an altitude above 300ma.s.l. receive greater amounts of olive pollen from shorter-distance pollen sources (maximum influence, 27km) with respect to areas lower than 300ma.s.l. (maximum influence, 59km).

  7. Ancient wells and their geoarchaeological significance in detecting tectonics of the Israel Mediterranean coastline region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Yaacov; Eldar, Iris

    1987-01-01

    Eight ancient water wells, representing the late Bronze Age to the Crusades period (ca. 3100 700 B.P.), have recently been excavated (six by the authors) and reopened at archaeological sites (tels) along the southern and central Mediterranean coast of Israel. Evidence of ancient freshwater levels directly reflects on possible neotectonics of the region and on eustatic changes of sea level. There is substantial disagreement about the tectonic stability of the Israel Mediterranean coastal region during the past 3500 yr, whether there was a large-magnitude tectonic event (one of the largest known for recent times) during the period in discussion or whether the region was tectonically quiet. We tested the instability hypothesis by using geoarchaeological data from the wells and found no evidence for significant tectonic deformation of the central and southern Israel coast in the past 3100 yr. The “ancient water-well” method can, with appropriate modifications, be used all around the Mediterranean and other coasts elsewhere in the world where ground-water-sea-level relations are alike. Now in the digging of wells we must not disdain reflection, but must devote much acuteness and skill to the consideration of the natural principles of things. Vitruvius Pollio, Architectura, Book VIII, Chapter VI (25 B.C.)

  8. Natural Hazards and the press in the western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Llasat-Botija

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses press articles published between 1982 and 2005 in an attempt to describe the social perception of natural hazards in Catalonia. The articles included in the database have been classified according to different types of risk. In addition, the study examines the evolution of each type of risk in the press coverage during the study period. Finally, the results have been compared to data provided by insurance companies with respect to compensations paid out for damages. Conclusions show that floods are the most important natural hazard in the region, but that the number of headlines for each event is greater in the case of snowfalls and forest fires. Factors such as the season of the year, the proximity of the affected region to the capital, the topical issues at the time, and the presence of other important news must be considered when the impact in the press is analysed.

  9. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration, Volume 2. Technical Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  10. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration (Vol. 1 of 2)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  11. Atmospheric Dispersion of Radioactivity from Nuclear Power Plant Accidents: Global Assessment and Case Study for the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Christoudias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the contamination risks from the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides released by severe nuclear power plant accidents using the ECHAM/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy atmospheric chemistry (EMAC atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model at high resolution (50 km. We present an overview of global risks and also a case study of nuclear power plants that are currently under construction, planned and proposed in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, a region prone to earthquakes. We implemented continuous emissions from each location, making the simplifying assumption that all potential accidents release the same amount of radioactivity. We simulated atmospheric transport and decay, focusing on 137Cs and 131I as proxies for particulate and gaseous radionuclides, respectively. We present risk maps for potential surface layer concentrations, deposition and doses to humans from the inhalation exposure of 131I. The estimated risks exhibit seasonal variability, with the highest surface level concentrations of gaseous radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere during winter.

  12. Revolutionising engineering education in the Middle East region to promote earthquake-disaster mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Naja, Mohamad K.

    2014-09-01

    Due to the high market demands for professional engineers in the Arab oil-producing countries, the appetite of Middle Eastern students for high-paying jobs and challenging careers in engineering has sharply increased. As a result, engineering programmes are providing opportunities for more students to enrol on engineering courses through lenient admission policies that do not compromise academic standards. This strategy has generated an influx of students who must be carefully educated to enhance their professional knowledge and social capital to assist in future earthquake-disaster risk-reduction efforts. However, the majority of Middle Eastern engineering students are unaware of the valuable acquired engineering skills and knowledge in building the resilience of their communities to earthquake disasters. As the majority of the countries in the Middle East are exposed to seismic hazards and are vulnerable to destructive earthquakes, engineers have become indispensable assets and the first line of defence against earthquake threats. This article highlights the contributions of some of the engineering innovations in advancing technologies and techniques for effective disaster mitigation and it calls for the incorporation of earthquake-disaster-mitigation education into academic engineering programmes in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  13. Spatial analysis of rainfall trends in the region of Valencia (east Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luís, M.; Raventós, J.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Sánchez, J. R.; Cortina, J.

    2000-10-01

    This paper examines the spatial and temporal rainfall characteristics of the region of Valencia, Western Mediterranean Basin (east Spain), during the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) normal period 1961-1990. The study used a dense and homogeneous daily precipitation database comprising 97 rain-gauge stations. Total and monthly rainfall concentrations have been studied in the context of their mean values, interannual variability and spatial diversification. Trends have been analysed using both parametric and non-parametric tests. In order to establish the spatial distribution of rainfall patterns and to detect homogeneous areas with similar rainfall evolution, a statistic based on the Cramér-von Mises test is proposed. The kriging interpolation methods for characterizing the magnitude of observed changes is used.Areas with contrasting rainfall evolution are identified. In more humid areas, a significant decrease in annual rainfall associated with significant increases in interannual rainfall variability is observed. In inland zones, decreases in total annual rainfall and increases in interannual variability are less clear, but there are indications of an increase in monthly rainfall concentration. In these inland zones, where more forest and woodland areas are located and forest fires are frequent, the observed trends could greatly affect desertification through changes in the disturbance regime. In more arid areas, local variability in rainfall evolution is higher and no significant changes can be defined.

  14. Barcoding Chrysomelidae: a resource for taxonomy and biodiversity conservation in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoga, Giulia; Sassi, Davide; Daccordi, Mauro; Leonardi, Carlo; Mirzaei, Mostafa; Regalin, Renato; Lozzia, Giuseppe; Montagna, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Mediterranean Region is one of the world’s biodiversity hot-spots, which is also characterized by high level of endemism. Approximately 2100 species of leaf beetle (Coleoptera; Chrysomelidae) are known from this area, a number that increases year after year and represents 5/6% of the known species. These features, associated with the urgent need to develop a DNA-based species identification approach for a broad spectrum of leaf beetle species, prompted us to develop a database of nucleotide sequences, with a solid taxonomic background, for all the Chrysomelidae Latreille, 1802 sensu latu inhabiting the Mediterranean region. The Mediterranean Chrysomelidae Barcoding project, which has started in 2009, involves more than fifty entomologists and molecular biologists from different European countries. Numerous collecting campaigns have been organized during the first seven years of the project, which led to the collection of more than 5000 leaf beetle specimens. In addition, during these collecting campaigns two new allochthonous species for Europe, namely Ophraella communa LeSage, 1986 and Colasposoma dauricum Mannerheim, 1849, were intercepted and some species new to science were discovered (e.g., Pachybrachis sassii Montagna, 2011 and Pachybrachis holerorum Montagna et al., 2013). DNA was extracted from 1006 specimens (~13% of the species inhabiting the Mediterranean region) and a total of 910 cox1 gene sequences were obtained (PCR amplification efficiency of 93.8%). Here we report the list of the barcoded subfamilies, genera and the number of species for which cox1 gene sequences were obtained; the metadata associated with each specimen and a list of problematic species for which marker amplification failed. In addition, the nucleotide divergence within and between species and genera was estimated and values of intraspecific nucleotide divergence greater than the average have been discussed. Cryptocephalus quadripunctatus G. A. Olivier, 1808

  15. Future Evolution of Marine Heat Waves in the Mediterranean: Coupled Regional Climate Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmaraki, Sofia; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence; Nabat, Pierre; Cavicchia, Leone; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Cabos, William; Sein, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    FUTURE EVOLUTION OF MARINE HEAT WAVES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN : COUPLED REGIONAL CLIMATE PROJECTIONS The Mediterranean area is identified as a « Hot Spot » region, vulnerable to future climate change with potentially strong impacts over the sea. By 2100, climate models predict increased warming over the sea surface, with possible implications on the Mediterranean thermohaline and surface circulation,associated also with severe impacts on the ecosystems (e.g. fish habitat loss, species extinction and migration, invasive species). However, a robust assesment of the future evolution of the extreme marine temperatures remains still an open issue of primary importance, under the anthropogenic pressure. In this context, we study here the probability and characteristics of marine heat wave (MHW) occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea in future climate projections. To this end, we use an ensemble of fully coupled regional climate system models (RCSM) from the Med- CORDEX initiative. This multi-model approach includes a high-resolution representation of the atmospheric, land and ocean component, with a free air-sea interface.Specifically, dedicated simulations for the 20th and the 21st century are carried out with respect to the different IPCC-AR5 socioeconomic scenarios (1950-2100, RCP8.5, RCP4.5, RCP2.6). Model evaluation for the historical period is performed using satellite and in situ data. Then, the variety of factors that can cause the MHW (e.g. direct radiative forcing, ocean advection, stratification change) are examined to disentangle the dominant driving force. Finally, the spatial variability and temporal evolution of MHW are analyzed on an annual basis, along with additional integrated indicators, useful for marine ecosystems.

  16. 76 FR 23708 - Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Management Regional Water Exercise, East Passage, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue Exercise in the waters of East Passage..., Washington for a Regional Water Rescue Exercise near Browns Point. A safety zone is necessary to ensure...

  17. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2017-01-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  18. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2016-03-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  19. Late Holocene climate variability in the southwestern Mediterranean region: an integrated marine and terrestrial geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Martín-Puertas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A combination of marine (Alboran Sea cores, ODP 976 and TTR 300 G and terrestrial (Zoñar Lake, Andalucia, Spain geochemical proxies provides a high-resolution reconstruction of climate variability and human influence in the southwestern Mediterranean region for the last 4000 years at inter-centennial resolution. Proxies respond to changes in precipitation rather than temperature alone. Our combined terrestrial and marine archive documents a succession of dry and wet periods coherent with the North Atlantic climate signal. A dry period occurred prior to 2.7 cal ka BP – synchronously to the global aridity crisis of the third-millennium BC – and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (1.4–0.7 cal ka BP. Wetter conditions prevailed from 2.7 to 1.4 cal ka BP. Hydrological signatures during the Little Ice Age are highly variable but consistent with more humidity than the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, Pb anomalies in sediments at the end of the Bronze Age suggest anthropogenic pollution earlier than the Roman Empire development in the Iberian Peninsula. The Late Holocene climate evolution of the in the study area confirms the see-saw pattern between the eastern and western Mediterranean regions and the higher influence of the North Atlantic dynamics in the western Mediterranean.

  20. Regional genetic differentiation among populations of Cladocora caespitosa in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Amezúa, Pilar; Kersting, Diego K.; Templado, José; Machordom, Annie

    2014-12-01

    Cladocora caespitosa is the only reef-forming zooxanthellate scleractinian in the Mediterranean Sea. This endemic coral has suffered severe mortality events at different Mediterranean sites owing to anomalous summer heat waves related to global climate change. In this study, we assessed genetic structure and gene flow among four populations of this species in the Western Mediterranean Sea: Cape Palos (SE Spain), Cala Galdana (Balearic Islands), Columbretes Islands, and L'Ametlla (NE Spain). The results obtained from Bayesian approaches, F ST statistics, and Bayesian analysis of migration rates suggest certain levels of genetic differentiation driven by high levels of self-recruitment, a fact that is supported by egg-retention mechanisms. Conversely, genetic connectivity among distant populations, even if generally low, seems to be related to sporadic dispersal events through regional surface currents linked to the spawning period that occurs at the end of summer-beginning of autumn. These features, together with a certain isolation of the Columbretes Islands, could explain the regional genetic differentiation found among populations. These results help to better understand population structure and connectivity of the species and will serve as an approach for further studies on different aspects of the biology and ecology of C. caespitosa.

  1. Expression of Multiple Sexual Signals by Fathers and Sons in the East-Mediterranean Barn Swallow: Are Advertising Strategies Heritable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vortman, Yoni; Safran, Rebecca J.; Reiner Brodetzki, Tali; Dor, Roi; Lotem, Arnon

    2015-01-01

    The level of expression of sexually selected traits is generally determined by genes, environment and their interaction. In species that use multiple sexual signals which may be costly to produce, investing in the expression of one sexual signal may limit the expression of the other, favoring the evolution of a strategy for resource allocation among signals. As a result, even when the expression of sexual signals is condition dependent, the relative level of expression of each signal may be heritable. We tested this hypothesis in the East-Mediterranean barn swallow (Hirundo rustica transitiva), in which males have been shown to express two uncorrelated sexual signals: red-brown ventral coloration, and long tail streamers. We show that variation in both signals may partially be explained by age, as well as by paternal origin (genetic father-son regressions), but that the strongest similarity between fathers and sons is the relative allocation towards one trait or the other (relative expression index), rather than the expression of the traits themselves. These results suggest that the expression of one signal is not independent of the other, and that genetic strategies for resource allocation among sexual signals may be selected for during the evolution of multiple sexual signals. PMID:25679206

  2. Expression of multiple sexual signals by fathers and sons in the East-Mediterranean barn swallow: are advertising strategies heritable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoni Vortman

    Full Text Available The level of expression of sexually selected traits is generally determined by genes, environment and their interaction. In species that use multiple sexual signals which may be costly to produce, investing in the expression of one sexual signal may limit the expression of the other, favoring the evolution of a strategy for resource allocation among signals. As a result, even when the expression of sexual signals is condition dependent, the relative level of expression of each signal may be heritable. We tested this hypothesis in the East-Mediterranean barn swallow (Hirundo rustica transitiva, in which males have been shown to express two uncorrelated sexual signals: red-brown ventral coloration, and long tail streamers. We show that variation in both signals may partially be explained by age, as well as by paternal origin (genetic father-son regressions, but that the strongest similarity between fathers and sons is the relative allocation towards one trait or the other (relative expression index, rather than the expression of the traits themselves. These results suggest that the expression of one signal is not independent of the other, and that genetic strategies for resource allocation among sexual signals may be selected for during the evolution of multiple sexual signals.

  3. Prokaryotic community structure and diversity in the sediments of an active submarine mud volcano (Kazan mud volcano, East Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachiadaki, Maria G; Lykousis, Vasilios; Stefanou, Euripides G; Kormas, Konstantinos A

    2010-06-01

    We investigated 16S rRNA gene diversity at a high sediment depth resolution (every 5 cm, top 30 cm) in an active site of the Kazan mud volcano, East Mediterranean Sea. A total of 242 archaeal and 374 bacterial clones were analysed, which were attributed to 38 and 205 unique phylotypes, respectively (> or = 98% similarity). Most of the archaeal phylotypes were related to ANME-1, -2 and -3 members originating from habitats where anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurs, although they occurred in sediment layers with no apparent AOM (below the sulphate depletion depth). Proteobacteria were the most abundant and diverse bacterial group, with the Gammaproteobacteria dominating in most sediment layers and these were related to phylotypes involved in methane cycling. The Deltaproteobacteria included several of the sulphate-reducers related to AOM. The rest of the bacterial phylotypes belonged to 15 known phyla and three unaffiliated groups, with representatives from similar habitats. Diversity index H was in the range 0.56-1.73 and 1.47-3.82 for Archaea and Bacteria, respectively, revealing different depth patterns for the two groups. At 15 and 20 cm below the sea floor, the prokaryotic communities were highly similar, hosting AOM-specific Archaea and Bacteria. Our study revealed different dominant phyla in proximate sediment layers.

  4. Outlook for natural gas in the mediterranean region; Perspectives du gaz naturel en mediterranee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elandaloussi, H. [Observatoire Mediterraneen de l' Energie, 06 - Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2006-07-15

    In connection with the 3-year plan for 2003-2006, the international gas unions' committee on developing gas markets (PGC-C) has launched 4 case studies. The Mediterranean energy observatory (OME), in conjunction with 5 of its member companies, has carried out a study focusing on gas markets in the Mediterranean region. The aim was to analyze gas trends in North Africa, paying particular attention to the case of Egypt, which has both a growing level of domestic demand and strong export and transit potential. The results of this study were included in the presentation given to a round-table organized at the time of the 23. World gas congress, which was held in Amsterdam from June 4 to 9, 2006. This article summarizes the data presented at that time.

  5. Situational analysis of tuberculosis control programs in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Gaps and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Samiha

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to highlight the key challenges and the strategic directions to scale-up tuberculosis (TB) care in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); to review TB burden in EMR, and evaluate the progress toward Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) targets by 2015; to identify the main obstacles for optimal TB care toward TB elimination; and to provide strategic directions to address the key challenges. The Eastern Mediterranean Region is composed of 22 countries with 648 million populations. The region has estimated TB incidence of 116 per 100,000. The estimated number of incident TB cases in 2015 was 749000 TB case. The paper is based on the Annual World Health Organization Global TB report on implementation of TB control strategy. The EMR is a middle TB- and MDR-TB-burden region with 22 countries. As for MDGs, the region was able to meet the mortality target and revert TB incidence but could not achieve the prevalence target. The main challenges are limited infrastructure, human capacity, funds, use of new diagnostics tools and new medicines, and involvement of all stakeholders and community in TB care and control in addition to complex emergencies. The year 2015 marks a transition from the MDGs to the Sustainable Development Goals and from the Stop TB Strategy to the End TB Strategy. The region will move into three main directions: complete pending tasks, mitigate the impact of the complex emergencies on TB control, and move toward TB elimination. Copyright © 2016.

  6. WHO EMRO's approach for supporting e-health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N, Al-Shorbaji

    2006-01-01

    "E-health" is a generic term covering the use of computer and communication applications and technologies in health and medical care. This paper outlines WHO's dynamic and diversified approach for supporting e-health by the Regional Office of the Eastern Mediterranean. This includes: policy-setting; human resources development; planning, monitoring and evaluation; networking and communication; infrastructure development; consulting services; electronic publishing; systems development; e-learning; telemedicine; and online library services and support to HINARI It also reviews some of the impediments towards development of e-health in the Region.

  7. Regional Initiatives in Support of Surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC, EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP. The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities.

  8. Anthropization of groundwater resources in the Mediterranean region: processes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Remini, Boualem

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive overview is provided of processes and challenges related to Mediterranean groundwater resources and associated changes in recent decades. While most studies are focused thematically and/or geographically, this paper addresses different stages of groundwater exploitation in the region and their consequences. Examples emphasize the complex interactions between the physical and social dimensions of uses and evolution of groundwater. In natural conditions, Mediterranean groundwater resources represent a wide range of hydrogeological contexts, recharge conditions and rates of exploitation. They have been actively exploited for millennia but their pseudo-natural regimes have been considerably modified in the last 50 years, especially to satisfy agricultural demand (80% of total water consumption in North Africa), as well as for tourism and coastal cities. Climate variability affects groundwater dynamics but the various forms of anthropization are more important drivers of hydrological change, including changes in land use and vegetation, hydraulic works, and intense pumpings. These changes affect both the quantity and quality of groundwater at different scales, and modify the nature of hydrogeological processes, their location, timing, and intensity. The frequent cases of drastic overexploitation illustrate the fragility of Mediterranean groundwater resources and the limits of present forms of management. There is no easy way to maintain or recover sustainability, which is often threatened by short-term interests. To achieve this goal, a significant improvement in hydrogeological knowledge and closer collaboration between the various disciplines of water sciences are indispensable.

  9. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Giantsis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The variable domain 1 (VD1 domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey. A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece, relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels.

  10. Anthropization of groundwater resources in the Mediterranean region: processes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Remini, Boualem

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive overview is provided of processes and challenges related to Mediterranean groundwater resources and associated changes in recent decades. While most studies are focused thematically and/or geographically, this paper addresses different stages of groundwater exploitation in the region and their consequences. Examples emphasize the complex interactions between the physical and social dimensions of uses and evolution of groundwater. In natural conditions, Mediterranean groundwater resources represent a wide range of hydrogeological contexts, recharge conditions and rates of exploitation. They have been actively exploited for millennia but their pseudo-natural regimes have been considerably modified in the last 50 years, especially to satisfy agricultural demand (80% of total water consumption in North Africa), as well as for tourism and coastal cities. Climate variability affects groundwater dynamics but the various forms of anthropization are more important drivers of hydrological change, including changes in land use and vegetation, hydraulic works, and intense pumpings. These changes affect both the quantity and quality of groundwater at different scales, and modify the nature of hydrogeological processes, their location, timing, and intensity. The frequent cases of drastic overexploitation illustrate the fragility of Mediterranean groundwater resources and the limits of present forms of management. There is no easy way to maintain or recover sustainability, which is often threatened by short-term interests. To achieve this goal, a significant improvement in hydrogeological knowledge and closer collaboration between the various disciplines of water sciences are indispensable.

  11. Validation of newly designed regional earth system model (RegESM) for Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuncoglu, Ufuk Utku; Sannino, Gianmaria

    2017-05-01

    We present a validation analysis of a regional earth system model system (RegESM) for the Mediterranean Basin. The used configuration of the modeling system includes two active components: a regional climate model (RegCM4) and an ocean modeling system (ROMS). To assess the performance of the coupled modeling system in representing the climate of the basin, the results of the coupled simulation (C50E) are compared to the results obtained by a standalone atmospheric simulation (R50E) as well as several observation datasets. Although there is persistent cold bias in fall and winter, which is also seen in previous studies, the model reproduces the inter-annual variability and the seasonal cycles of sea surface temperature (SST) in a general good agreement with the available observations. The analysis of the near-surface wind distribution and the main circulation of the sea indicates that the coupled model can reproduce the main characteristics of the Mediterranean Sea surface and intermediate layer circulation as well as the seasonal variability of wind speed and direction when it is compared with the available observational datasets. The results also reveal that the simulated near-surface wind speed and direction have poor performance in the Gulf of Lion and surrounding regions that also affects the large positive SST bias in the region due to the insufficient horizontal resolution of the atmospheric component of the coupled modeling system. The simulated seasonal climatologies of the surface heat flux components are also consistent with the CORE.2 and NOCS datasets along with the overestimation in net long-wave radiation and latent heat flux (or evaporation, E), although a large observational uncertainty is found in these variables. Also, the coupled model tends to improve the latent heat flux by providing a better representation of the air-sea interaction as well as total heat flux budget over the sea. Both models are also able to reproduce the temporal evolution of

  12. Validation of newly designed regional earth system model (RegESM) for Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuncoglu, Ufuk Utku; Sannino, Gianmaria

    2016-06-01

    We present a validation analysis of a regional earth system model system (RegESM) for the Mediterranean Basin. The used configuration of the modeling system includes two active components: a regional climate model (RegCM4) and an ocean modeling system (ROMS). To assess the performance of the coupled modeling system in representing the climate of the basin, the results of the coupled simulation (C50E) are compared to the results obtained by a standalone atmospheric simulation (R50E) as well as several observation datasets. Although there is persistent cold bias in fall and winter, which is also seen in previous studies, the model reproduces the inter-annual variability and the seasonal cycles of sea surface temperature (SST) in a general good agreement with the available observations. The analysis of the near-surface wind distribution and the main circulation of the sea indicates that the coupled model can reproduce the main characteristics of the Mediterranean Sea surface and intermediate layer circulation as well as the seasonal variability of wind speed and direction when it is compared with the available observational datasets. The results also reveal that the simulated near-surface wind speed and direction have poor performance in the Gulf of Lion and surrounding regions that also affects the large positive SST bias in the region due to the insufficient horizontal resolution of the atmospheric component of the coupled modeling system. The simulated seasonal climatologies of the surface heat flux components are also consistent with the CORE.2 and NOCS datasets along with the overestimation in net long-wave radiation and latent heat flux (or evaporation, E), although a large observational uncertainty is found in these variables. Also, the coupled model tends to improve the latent heat flux by providing a better representation of the air-sea interaction as well as total heat flux budget over the sea. Both models are also able to reproduce the temporal evolution of

  13. Geochemistry of Crystalline Rocks from the East of the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Pelig-Ba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Selected rock samples were collected from outcrops from the eastern part of the Upper East Region with the aim of determining their chemical composition and classification. Samples were obtained from granitoids and the Birrimian formation located in Bongo, Talensi-Nabdam, Bawku West and Garu-Tempane Districts. Rocks were identified mineralogically using hand lenses. The composition of the samples was determined using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF after which several quantitative and qualitative techniques were employed to analyse the data. Some of these techniques included physical examination, Chemical Alteration Index (CIA, scatter plots, discrimination diagrams and Aluminium Saturation Index (ASI. The mineralogical analysis showed that the rocks generally contained K-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite, hornblende, quartz and biotite as major minerals. Physical examination revealed that samples had undergone some alteration that was not evident at the time of sampling and this was confirmed by calculations using the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA. The CIA values of the fresh rocks ranged from 70 to 125 suggesting that the samples had undergone intensive alteration. Scatter plots and discrimination diagrams suggested that the samples were not of basaltic origin but were thoeleiitic in character. The Aluminium Saturation Index (ASI revealed that most samples were metaluminus and that the majority of samples were sub-alkaline and therefore basic in character.

  14. Aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties at regional background insular sites in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Michaël; Barragan, Rubén; Dulac, François; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Mallet, Marc

    2016-09-01

    In the framework of the ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) program, the seasonal variability of the aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties derived from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network; http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) is examined in two regional background insular sites in the western Mediterranean Basin: Ersa (Corsica Island, France) and Palma de Mallorca (Mallorca Island, Spain). A third site, Alborán (Alborán Island, Spain), with only a few months of data is considered for examining possible northeast-southwest (NE-SW) gradients of the aforementioned aerosol properties. The AERONET dataset is exclusively composed of level 2.0 inversion products available during the 5-year period 2011-2015. AERONET solar radiative fluxes are compared with ground- and satellite-based flux measurements. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that AERONET fluxes are compared with measurements at the top of the atmosphere. Strong events (with an aerosol optical depth at 440 nm greater than 0.4) of long-range transport aerosols, one of the main drivers of the observed annual cycles and NE-SW gradients, are (1) mineral dust outbreaks predominant in spring and summer in the north and in summer in the south and (2) European pollution episodes predominant in autumn. A NE-SW gradient exists in the western Mediterranean Basin for the aerosol optical depth and especially its coarse-mode fraction, which all together produces a similar gradient for the aerosol direct radiative forcing. The aerosol fine mode is rather homogeneously distributed. Absorption properties are quite variable because of the many and different sources of anthropogenic particles in and around the western Mediterranean Basin: North African and European urban areas, the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, most forest fires and ship emissions. As a result, the aerosol direct forcing efficiency, more dependent to absorption than the absolute

  15. Late-Pleistocene evolution of the East Mediterranean shallow continental shelf of north-central Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtienberg, Gilad; Dix, Justin; Waldmann, Nicolas; Makovsky, Yizhaq; Bookman, Revital; Roskin, Joel; Bialik, Or; Golan, Arik; Sivan, Dorit

    2016-04-01

    Sea-level fluctuations are a dominant and dynamic mechanism that control coastal environmental through time. This is especially the case for the successive regressions and transgressions over the last interglacial cycle, which have shaped the deposition, preservation and erosion patterns of unconsolidated sediments currently submerged on continental shelves. The current study focuses on an integrated high-resolution marine and terrestrial litho-stratigraphic and geophysical framework of the north-central Mediterranean coastal zone of Israel. The interpretation enabled the reconstruction of the coastal evolution over the last ˜130 ka. A multi-disciplinary approach was applied by compiling existing elevation raster grids, bathymetric charts, detailed lithological borehole data-sets, a dense 110 km long sub-bottom geophysical survey and seven continuous boreholes sediment records. Based on seismic stratigraphic analysis, observed geometries, and reflective appearances, six bounding surfaces and seven seismic units were identified and characterized. Meanwhile, the chronostratigraphy of the terrestrial side was constructed through integration of magnetic susceptibility, sedimentological and geochemical analysis with 17 new OSL ages. The seismic units were correlated with the available terrestrial borehole data and then associated to the retrieved terrestrial chronostratigraphy to produce a 4D reconstruction model of the paleo-landscape. The entire unconsolidated sequence overlies a calcareous aeolianite (locally named Kurkar unit) dated from ˜131 - ˜104 ka, which represents the top of the last interglacial cycle dune sediments. The lower unconsolidated unit consists of a red silty loam dated to ˜71 ka. This Red-Paleosol unit is overlaid by a dark brown clayey silty loam This Brown-Paleosol unit dates to ˜58 - ˜36 ka and is overlaid by a dark silty clay wetland deposit dated to ˜21 - ˜10 ka. The wetland unit is topped by a quartz sand dated to ˜6.6 - 0.1 ka

  16. Source contributions to 2012 summertime aerosols in the Euro-Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean area, aerosols may originate from anthropogenic or natural emissions (biogenic, mineral dust, fire and sea salt before undergoing complex chemistry. In case of a huge pollution event, it is important to know if european pollution limits are exceeded and, if yes, if the pollution is due to anthropogenic or natural sources. In this study, the relative contribution of emissions to surface PM10, surface PM2.5 and total aerosol optical depth (AOD is quantified. For Europe and the Mediterranean regions and during the summer of 2012, the WRF and CHIMERE models are used to perform a sensitivity analysis: one simulation with all sources (reference and all others with one source removed. The reference simulation is compared to data from the AirBase and AERONET networks and the MODIS satellite instrument to quantify the ability of the model to reproduce the observations. It is shown that the correlation ranges from 0.38 to 0.49 for surface particulate matter and from 0.35 to 0.75 for AOD. The sensitivity simulations are analysed to quantify the impact of each source. For the summer of 2012, the model shows that the region (from −10° W to 40° E and from 30 to 55° N is mainly influenced by aerosols due to mineral dust and anthropogenic emissions (62 and 19% respectively of total surface PM10 and 17 and 52% of total surface PM2.5. The western part of the Mediterranean is strongly influenced by mineral dust emissions (86% for surface PM10 and 44% for PM2.5, while anthropogenic emissions dominate in the northern Mediterranean basin (up to 75% for PM2.5. Fire emissions are more sporadic but may represent 20% of surface PM2.5 near local sources. Sea salt mainly contribute for coastal sites (up to 29% and biogenic emissions mainly in Central Europe (up to 20%. The same analysis was undertaken for the number of stations in daily exceedances of the European Union limit of 50 μg m−3 for PM10 (over the AirBase stations. This number is

  17. Global change impact on oxidative potential and toxicity of atmospheric particles from the East Mediterranean basin: the ARCHIMEDES initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Laurent; Anthérieu, Sébastien; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Garçon, Guillaume; Lo Guidice, Jean-Marc; Hamonou, Eric; Öztürk, Fatma; Perdrix, Esperanza; Rudich, Yinon; Sciare, Jean; Sauvage, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    Climate change (CC) has important social, economical and health implications, notably in accordance with variation in air pollution or microbiome modification and its related toxicity mechanisms. CC will have a strong influence on meteorology, inducing dryer and warmer conditions in some regions. The Mediterranean basin is foreseen as a hotspot for regional climate warming, favoring larger dust episodes, wild fire events, vegetation emissions and changes in air pollution physic-chemical characteristics due to enhanced photochemical reactivity. Increasing concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone, and radicals will be associated with rising concentrations of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and other oxidized aerosols. These expected changes in aerosol composition are currently studied within the international ChArMEx (Chemistry-aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) program, part of the interdisciplinary MISTRALS metaprogramme (Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales). According to the LIFE/MED-PARTICLES (LIFE) project, this might result in more adverse effects on health. However, toxicologists are far from having a detailed mechanistic knowledge of the quantitative causal relations between particles (PM) and health effects suggested by epidemiological evidences. Detailed toxicological studies looking at contrasted PM origins and chemical compositions are highly needed, particularly on strongly aged SOA suspected to increase the oxidative potential (OP) and to enhance the toxicity of airborne particles. Intensive researches onto the underlying mechanisms of inflammation started to describe the outlines of the intricate relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation. It is therefore, of great importance to better determine the OP of PM from contrasted surroundings, its relationship with CC through PM's physical, chemical and microbial characteristics, and its toxicological consequences within the lungs. Recently

  18. DNA sequence analysis suggests that cytb-nd1 PCR-RFLP may not be applicable to sandfly species identification throughout the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes-Acevedo, Ivonne Pamela; Arcones, Carolina; Gálvez, Rosa; Martin, Oihane; Checa, Rocío; Montoya, Ana; Chicharro, Carmen; Cruz, Susana; Miró, Guadalupe; Cruz, Israel

    2016-03-01

    Molecular methods are increasingly used for both species identification of sandflies and assessment of their population structure. In general, they are based on DNA sequence analysis of targets previously amplified by PCR. However, this approach requires access to DNA sequence facilities, and in some circumstances, it is time-consuming. Though DNA sequencing provides the most reliable information, other downstream PCR applications are explored to assist in species identification. Thus, it has been recently proposed that the amplification of a DNA region encompassing partially both the cytochrome-B (cytb) and the NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nd1) genes followed by RFLP analysis with the restriction enzyme Ase I allows the rapid identification of the most prevalent species of phlebotomine sandflies in the Mediterranean region. In order to confirm the suitability of this method, we collected, processed, and molecularly analyzed a total of 155 sandflies belonging to four species including Phlebotomus ariasi, P. papatasi, P. perniciosus, and Sergentomyia minuta from different regions in Spain. This data set was completed with DNA sequences available at the GenBank for species prevalent in the Mediterranean basin and the Middle East. Additionally, DNA sequences from 13 different phlebotomine species (P. ariasi, P. balcanicus, P. caucasicus, P. chabaudi, P. chadlii, P. longicuspis, P. neglectus, P. papatasi, P. perfiliewi, P. perniciosus, P. riouxi, P. sergenti, and S. minuta), from 19 countries, were added to the data set. Overall, our molecular data revealed that this PCR-RFLP method does not provide a unique and specific profile for each phlebotomine species tested. Intraspecific variability and similar RFLP patterns were frequently observed among the species tested. Our data suggest that this method may not be applicable throughout the Mediterranean region as previously proposed. Other molecular approaches like DNA barcoding or phylogenetic analyses would allow a more

  19. Urban Growth and Land-Use Structure in Two Mediterranean Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study develops an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA with the aim to assess changes over time in the distribution of selected uses of land in two Mediterranean urban regions (Rome and Athens with different morphology and economic functions. The study uses global and local Moran’s indexes of spatial autocorrelation to describe the land-use structure observed in the two cities in mid-1970s and late-2000s, and debates on the divergent contribution of compact growth and scattered urban expansion to changes in land use. The analysis identifies fringe landscapes as a key target for urban containment policies in sprawling cities.

  20. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-01-01

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. A

  1. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-01-01

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. A

  2. Multiscale regression model to infer historical temperatures in a central Mediterranean sub-regional area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Diodato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To reconstruct sub-regional European climate over the past centuries, several efforts have been made using historical datasets. However, only scattered information at low spatial and temporal resolution have been produced to date for the Mediterranean area. This paper has exploited, for Southern and Central Italy (Mediterranean Sub-Regional Area, an unprecedented historical dataset as an attempt to model seasonal (winter and summer air temperatures in pre-instrumental time (back to 1500. Combining information derived from proxy documentary data and large-scale simulation, a statistical methodology in the form of multiscale-temperature regression (MTR-model was developed to adapt larger-scale estimations to the sub-regional temperature pattern. The modelled response lacks essentially of autocorrelations among the residuals (marginal or any significance in the Durbin-Watson statistic, and agrees well with the independent data from the validation sample (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient >0.60. The advantage of the approach is not merely increased accuracy in estimation. Rather, it relies on the ability to extract (and exploit the right information to replicate coherent temperature series in historical times.

  3. Impacts of deforestation and afforestation in the Mediterranean region as simulated by the MPI atmospheric GCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duemenil Gates, L.; Liess, S.

    1999-12-01

    For two reasons it is important to study the sensitivity of the global climate to changes in the vegetation cover over land. First, in the real world, changes in the vegetation cover may have regional and global implications. Second, in numerical simulations the sensitivity of the simulated climate may depend on the specific parameterization schemes employed in the model and on the model's large-scale systematic errors. The Max-Planck-Institute's global general circulation model ECHAM4 has been used to study the sensitivity of the local and global climate during a full annual cycle to deforestation and afforestation in the Mediterranean region. The deforestation represents an extreme desertification scenario for this region. The changes in the afforestation experiment are based on the pattern of the vegetation cover 2000 years before present when the climate in the Mediterranean was more humid. The comparison of the deforestation integration to the control shows a slight cooling at the surface and reduced precipitation during the summer as a result of less evapotranspiration of plants and less evaporation from the assumption of eroded soils. In general the results of the afforestation experiment are opposite to those of the deforestation case. A significant response was found in the vicinity of grid-points where the land surface characteristics were modified. The response in the Sahara in the afforestation experiment is in agreement with the results from another general circulation model study. (orig.)

  4. Mitochondrial DNA reveals regional and interregional importance of the central Mediterranean African shelf for loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide north African continental shelf in the central Mediterranean is known to be one of the few important areas in the basin for loggerhead turtles in the neritic stage. In order to assess the origin of these turtles, sequences of the mtDNA control region were obtained from 70 turtles caught by bottom trawlers in the area, and compared with known sequences from turtles from Mediterranean and Atlantic nesting sites. Five haplotypes were identified (Haplotype diversity = 0.262; nucleotide diversity = 5.4×10-3. Specific haplotypes indicate contributions from distant rookeries such as Turkey and the Atlantic, which shows that Atlantic turtles entering the Mediterranean while in the oceanic phase use at least one Mediterranean continental shelf as a neritic foraging ground. A new haplotype and another one previously found only in foraging areas, highlight the genetic information gaps for nesting sites, which undermine powerful mixed stock analyses. Despite these limitations, the results reveal the regional importance of the study area as a neritic foraging ground for turtles that are probably from most of the Mediterranean nesting aggregates. Therefore, reducing turtle mortality resulting from the high fishing effort in the area should be regarded as key for Mediterranean turtle conservation and is also possibly important for Atlantic populations.

  5. An investigation on the origin of regional springtime ozone episodes in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalabokas, Pavlos; Hjorth, Jens; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Siour, Guillaume; Cuesta, Juan; Beekmann, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    For the identification of regional springtime ozone episodes, rural European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) ozone measurements from countries surrounding the western Mediterranean (Spain, France, Switzerland, Italy, Malta) have been examined with emphasis on periods of high ozone-mixing ratios, according to the variation of the daily afternoon (12:00-18:00) ozone values. For two selected high ozone episodes in April and May 2008, composite NCEP/NCAR reanalysis maps of various meteorological parameters and/or their anomalies (geopotential height, specific humidity, vertical wind velocity omega, vector wind speed and temperature) at various tropospheric pressure levels have been examined together with the corresponding satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) ozone measurements (at 3 and 10 km), CHIMERE simulations, vertical ozone soundings and HYSPLIT back trajectories. The observations show that high ozone values are detected in several countries simultaneously over several days. Also, the examined spring ozone episodes over the western Mediterranean and in central Europe are linked to synoptic meteorological conditions very similar to those recently observed in summertime ozone episodes over the eastern Mediterranean (Kalabokas et al., 2013, 2015; Doche et al., 2014), where the transport of tropospheric ozone-rich air masses through atmospheric subsidence significantly influences the boundary layer and surface ozone-mixing ratios. In particular, the geographic areas with observed tropospheric subsidence seem to be the transition regions between high-pressure and low-pressure systems. During the surface ozone episodes IASI satellite measurements show extended areas of high ozone in the lower- and upper-troposphere over the low-pressure system areas, adjacent to the anticyclones, which influence significantly the boundary layer and surface ozone-mixing ratios within the anticyclones by subsidence and advection in addition to the

  6. Water saving strategies assessment on processing tomato cultivated in Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella M. Giuliani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato grown in Mediterranean region required high irrigation volume throughout growing season. A two-year study was carried out in order to investigate the effects of deficit irrigation (DI and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI on processing tomato cultivated under sub-arid conditions. A comparison between the irrigation management linked to common practice adopted by farmer and the irrigation management based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc demand was also done. The tomato cv. Genius F1 was cultivated under five water regimes: minimal irrigation (I0, as irrigation only at transplanting and during fertilising; DI, to restore 60% ETc; RDI, to restore 60%-80%- 60% ETc across the three main tomato phenological stages; full irrigation (FI, to restore 100% ETc; and farmer irrigation (FaI, as irrigation following the subjective farmer method. Compared to FI, under the FaI regime, the seasonal irrigation volume was 31% and 26% higher in the 2009 and 2010, respectively, with not significant yield increase between the two water regimes. Among the irrigation regimes, only the RDI showed similar yield values over the two years, although 2010 was climatically less favourable. For the water use efficiency related to the marketable yield (WUEy, among the irrigation regimes, RDI showed the higher value together with FI. Finally, the Ky was 0.91, which indicates moderate water stress tolerance for processing tomato cultivated in Mediterranean regions. In conclusion, the data obtained in the present study demonstrate that in Southern Italy the irrigation planning followed by the farmer does not follow the principles of sustainable irrigation. Moreover, with the adoption of the RDI strategy, it is possible to save about 27% of water maintaining high WUEy value with an increase of fruit quality. The adoption of this regime could be suggested in processing tomato cultivated under Mediterranean climate saving water in both the vegetative and ripening

  7. Modern Piracy and Regional Security Cooperation in the Maritime Domain: The Middle East and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Lotfian, “A Regional Security System in the Persian Gulf,” 111–125. 70 Risa Brooks, “Civil Military Relations in the Middle East,” in The Future Security...resources on assuring internal stability. 262 Risa Brooks, “Civil Military Relations in the Middle...December 2004): 480–505. Brooks, Risa . “Civil Military Relations in the Middle East.” In The Future Security Environment in the Middle East: Conflict

  8. Mapping regional forest fire probability using artificial neural network model in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Satir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are one of the most important factors in environmental risk assessment and it is the main cause of forest destruction in the Mediterranean region. Forestlands have a number of known benefits such as decreasing soil erosion, containing wild life habitats, etc. Additionally, forests are also important player in carbon cycle and decreasing the climate change impacts. This paper discusses forest fire probability mapping of a Mediterranean forestland using a multiple data assessment technique. An artificial neural network (ANN method was used to map forest fire probability in Upper Seyhan Basin (USB in Turkey. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP approach based on back propagation algorithm was applied in respect to physical, anthropogenic, climate and fire occurrence datasets. Result was validated using relative operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Coefficient of accuracy of the MLP was 0.83. Landscape features input to the model were assessed statistically to identify the most descriptive factors on forest fire probability mapping using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Landscape features like elevation (R = −0.43, tree cover (R = 0.93 and temperature (R = 0.42 were strongly correlated with forest fire probability in the USB region.

  9. Biogeochemical regions of the Mediterranean Sea: An objective multidimensional and multivariate environmental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Guieu, Cécile; Benedetti, Fabio; Irisson, Jean-Olivier; Ayata, Sakina-Dorothée; Gasparini, Stéphane; Koubbi, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    When dividing the ocean, the aim is generally to summarise a complex system into a representative number of units, each representing a specific environment, a biological community or a socio-economical specificity. Recently, several geographical partitions of the global ocean have been proposed using statistical approaches applied to remote sensing or observations gathered during oceanographic cruises. Such geographical frameworks defined at a macroscale appear hardly applicable to characterise the biogeochemical features of semi-enclosed seas that are driven by smaller-scale chemical and physical processes. Following the Longhurst's biogeochemical partitioning of the pelagic realm, this study investigates the environmental divisions of the Mediterranean Sea using a large set of environmental parameters. These parameters were informed in the horizontal and the vertical dimensions to provide a 3D spatial framework for environmental management (12 regions found for the epipelagic, 12 for the mesopelagic, 13 for the bathypelagic and 26 for the seafloor). We show that: (1) the contribution of the longitudinal environmental gradient to the biogeochemical partitions decreases with depth; (2) the partition of the surface layer cannot be extrapolated to other vertical layers as the partition is driven by a different set of environmental variables. This new partitioning of the Mediterranean Sea has strong implications for conservation as it highlights that management must account for the differences in zoning with depth at a regional scale.

  10. Variations in the power dissipation index in the East Asia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kin Sik; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the variability of the power dissipation index (PDI) for different regions of the East Asia region during the period 1960-2013. The annual PDI (APDI) in the region is calculated as the sum of the PDI, defined as the cube of the maximum sustained wind speed at landfall of each tropical cyclone (TC) making landfall at that region. Upward and downward trends in APDI are found in the northern and southern parts of East Asia respectively, suggesting a possible northward shift in TC landfall locations. Interdecadal variations of the APDI can also be found in some regions. The APDI in various regions show a close relation with the PDI distribution over the western North Pacific (WNP) with three characteristic patterns. The ENSO and basin-wide mode represents the PDI patterns associated with ENSO events and the overall PDI over the WNP. The east-west dipole mode and the north-south dipole mode denote the east-west and north-south shifts of PDI respectively. Based on the steering flow (average winds within the 850-300 hPa layer) near the East Asian coast, a three-cell model for TC landfall in East Asia is proposed, which corresponds to three major modes of the atmospheric circulation in the WNP. Each of these modes shows an anomalous circulation located east of Taiwan, east of Japan and the South China Sea, respectively and each of which has a significant impact on the APDI in some regions along the coast of East Asia. A northward shift in the APDI along the East Asian coast is identified in the period 1997-2013 as a result of the change in steering flow pattern, northward shift in TC genesis location and weaker vertical wind shear over the ocean near the coastal areas.

  11. Using MSG to monitor the evolution of severe convective storms over East Mediterranean Sea and Israel, and its response to aerosol loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Lensky

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Convective storms over East Mediterranean sea and Israel were tracked by METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG. The MSG data was used to retrieve time series of the precipitation formation processes in the clouds, the temperature of onset of precipitation, and an indication to aerosol loading over the sea. Strong correlation was found between the aerosol loading and the depth above cloud base required for the initialization of effective precipitation processes (indicated by the effective radius = 15 µm threshold. It seems from the data presented here that the clouds' response to the aerosol loading is very short.

  12. Rainstorms able to induce flash floods in a Mediterranean-climate region (Calabria, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Terranova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Heavy rainstorms often induce flash flooding, one of the natural disasters most responsible for damage to man-made infrastructure and loss of lives, adversely affecting also the opportunities for socio-economic development of Mediterranean Countries. The frequently dramatic damage of flash floods are often detected with sufficient accuracy by post-event surveys, but rainfall causing them are still only roughly characterized. With the aim of improving the understanding of the temporal structure and spatial distribution of heavy rainstorms in the Mediterranean context, a statistical analysis was carried out in Calabria (southern Italy concerning rainstorms that mainly induced flash floods, but also shallow landslides and debris-flows. Thus a method is proposed – based on the overcoming of heuristically predetermined threshold values of cumulated rainfall, maximum intensity, and kinetic energy of the rainfall event – to select and characterize the rainstorms able to induce flash floods in the Mediterranean-climate Countries. Therefore the obtained (heavy rainstorms were automatically classified and studied according to their structure in time, localization and extension. Rainfall-runoff watershed models can consequently benefit from the enhanced identification of design storms, with a realistic time structure integrated with the results of the spatial analysis. A survey of flash flood events recorded in the last decades provides a preliminary validation of the method proposed to identify the heavy rainstorms and synthetically describe their characteristics. The notable size of the employed sample, including data with a very detailed resolution in time, that relate to several rain gauges well-distributed throughout the region, give robustness to the obtained results.

  13. CLIMATIC SIGNALS FROM INTRA-ANNUAL DENSITY FLUCTUATION FREQUENCY IN MEDITERRANEAN PINES AT A REGIONAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica eZalloni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tree rings provide information about the climatic conditions during the growing season by recording them in different anatomical features, such as Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations (IADFs. IADFs are intra-annual changes of wood density appearing as latewood-like cells within earlywood, or earlywood-like cells within latewood. The occurrence of IADFs is dependent on the age and size of the tree, and it is triggered by climatic drivers. The variations of IADF frequency of different species and their dependence on climate across a wide geographical range have still to be explored. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age, tree-ring width and climate on IADF formation and frequency at a regional scale across the Mediterranean Basin in Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. The analyzed tree-ring network was composed of P. pinea trees growing at 11 sites (2 in Italy, 4 in Spain and 4 in Portugal, P. pinaster from 19 sites (2 in Italy, 13 in Spain and 4 in Portugal, and P. halepensis from 38 sites in Spain. The correlations between IADF frequency and monthly minimum, mean and maximum temperatures, as well as between IADF frequency and total precipitation, were analyzed. A significant negative relationship between IADF frequency and tree-ring age was found for the three Mediterranean pines. Moreover, IADFs were more frequent in wider rings than in narrower ones, although the widest rings showed a reduced IADF frequency. Wet conditions during late summer/early autumn triggered the formation of IADFs in the three species. Our results suggest the existence of a common climatic driver for the formation of IADFs in Mediterranean pines, highlighting the potential use of IADF frequency as a proxy for climate reconstructions with geographical resolution.

  14. Update on polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Patrick Michael; Allison, Robert; Thapa, Arun; Bahl, Sunil; Chunsuittiwat, Supamit; Hasan, Mainul; Khan, Zainul; Sedai, Tika

    2014-11-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of progress toward polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region particularly over the past 4 years. In 1988, there were >25,000 reported cases of wild poliovirus infection in the South-East Asia Region, and because of substantial underreporting the estimated polio burden was probably 10-fold higher. Following the initiation of mass polio immunization campaigns in the mid-1990s and years of intense effort, the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region reported no cases of wild poliovirus infection in 2012. With India reporting the last wild poliovirus case in the region, on 13 January 2011, and its subsequent removal from the list of polio-endemic countries, in February 2012, the South-East Asia Region is firmly on track for polio-free certification in early 2014.

  15. From Gibraltar through Levant and from Maghreb through the Southern Latin European Countries or about culture and management in the Mediterranean Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo ISTOCESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bordering the southern coast of Europe, the eastern part of the Middle East and northern Africa, representing the most appropriate environment for the development of cultural, social and economic of the maritime regions, influencing decisively the culture and the entire life of the inhabitants in a lot of bordering countries, ensuring the achievement of a natural maritime transportation way between eastern Levantine character and western pragmatism of our ancient continent, or between Maghreb, and the Latin world, especially in southern Europe, the Mediterranean Sea has an another treasure, yet poorly known and only partially recovered, with a history of over six thousands of years, with people proud of their history, culture, customs and traditions with unique cities, impressive by the mixture of cultures and races, its islands

  16. The transposability of the Mediterranean-type diet in non-Mediterranean regions: application to the physician/allied health team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, C

    2004-12-01

    Studies are consistently declaring that the Mediterranean-type diet is transposable to non-Mediterranean regions. The nutritional end points of Med-type eating appear to be achievable through foods from a variety of traditions and appear to support predetermined expectations surrounding food preparation, choice, taste and sensory appeal. The broad emphasis on minimally processed plants and their products (vegetables, fruit, legumes, wholegrains, nuts, seeds and oils); low fat dairy, fish, less emphasis on animal products and removal of partially hydrogenated fats has piqued the attention of health professionals who are interested in arresting the incidence of chronic disease. The theoretical underpinnings of Med-type eating have driven new understandings in dietary guidelines, which is especially timely as well-marketed fad diets loom large on the current health horizon.

  17. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The EU and 12 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engaged in 1995 in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in political, economic and cultural matters with the aim to foster cooperation, stability and prosperity around the Mediterranean Basin. The Economic and Financial...... Partnership (EFP) plays a central role in the EMP design and implementation, which is centered on economic and trade integration as a starting point for and an anchor of socio-economic development in the MENA region. Against this background, this paper reviews the situation in the MENA partner countries...... and the past performance of the EFP. It analyses the association agreements, economic cooperation and financial assistance, discusses the major obstacles, and outlines the potential of the EFP to shape the European Neighborhood Policy....

  18. Is rainfall erosivity influenced by climate change?. A case study in a Mediterranean Climate area of North East Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Maria C.

    2014-05-01

    One of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean climate is the high intensity rainfall events usually recorded in autumn and spring. Those events usually concentrate a high percentage of annual rainfall. Different studies carried out in the Mediterranean countries suggest that notable changes in seasonal precipitation regimes have occurred during the second half of the 20th century. In addition, precipitation extremes seem to increase in association with global warming, which may favour erosion processes. Under this hypothesis one question arise: is the rainfall erosivity increasing influenced by climate change? In this work rainfall erosivity and its variability in the last two decades was analysed in an area located NE Spain, where erosion processes of high magnitude are recorded. The main land use in that area is grape vines, which due to the scarce soil cover is usually associated with the highest erosion rates. The study area was located in the Penedès depression (North East Spain). Hourly data from four observatories Els Hostalets de Pierola (UTM X: 400664, Y: 4598608m, elv: 326m ), La Granada ( X:393758; Y:4580393), Sant Martí Sarroca (X: 385556; Y:4581486, elv: 257m) and Font_Rubi (X: 385118, Y:4587935. elev: 415 m ) belonging to the period 1997-2013 were used in the analysis together with a tipping bucket rainfall series recorded at one minute intervals (10 years within the period 1996-2012). Rainfall erosivity was quantified by the index rainfall kinetic energy multiplied by the maximum intensity in 30minute periods (E*Imax30). The Imax30 was estimated from the relationship between hourly and 30 minute data obtained for the tipping bucket series using the Marquard algoritme. In order to analsye changes in rainfall erosivity, the annual and monthly number of erosive events were analysed for each observatory and in each year, the events were classified into intervals according to their erosivity. The intervals used were: 0-100; 100-200; 200-300; 300

  19. Legal priorities for prevention of non-communicable diseases: innovations from WHO's Eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, L O; Abou-Taleb, H; Roache, S A; Alwan, A

    2017-03-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death globally and in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). This paper reports on a research collaboration between the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Office (EMRO) and the O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University that aims to identify (1) regionally relevant, cost-effective and affordable legal interventions to prevent NCDs, and (2) methods to strengthen implementation and enforcement. Comparative analysis of >200 international, regional and domestic interventions addressing key NCD risk factors, including tobacco, alcohol, diet and physical inactivity. Researchers searched legal and policy databases including the WHO Nutrition, Obesity and Physical Activity Database and drew upon academic commentary and 'grey' literature. Measures included evidence of impact; evidence of cost-effectiveness; and monitoring and enforcement mechanisms. Researchers identified many examples of legal interventions effectively reducing NCD risk factors. Key enabling factors for effective NCD-related laws include regulatory capacity; governance mechanisms promoting multisectoral collaboration and accountability; and tailoring interventions to local legal, economic and social contexts. In the EMR, and globally, law can be a cost-effective and affordable means of curbing underlying drivers of the NCD pandemic, such as rampant junk food marketing. Building upon this research, together with international and regional experts, EMRO has identified 10 priority interventions in the areas of tobacco control, unhealthy diets and NCD governance. The EMRO/O'Neill Institute partnership will develop guidance tools and capacity building initiatives to support Member States to harness the power of law to achieve population health improvements. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: The Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    venomous snakes are represented in the Middle East; these are the Atractaspididae, Viperidae, Crotalidae, Colubridae, Elapidae , and Hydrophiidae... Elapidae contains one species of krait (the blue krait, Bungarus caeruleus) and six species of cobras. The venom of snakes of this family is...COLUBRIDAE Malpolon monspessulanus + + + + + + + CROTALIDAE Agkistrodon spp. + ELAPIDAE

  1. Optical characteristics of desert dust over the East Mediterranean during summer: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Balis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available High aerosol optical depth (AOD values, larger than 0.6, are systematically observed in the Ultraviolet (UV region both by sunphotometers and lidar systems over Greece during summertime. To study in more detail the characteristics and the origin of these high AOD values, a campaign took place in Greece in the frame of the PHOENICS (Particles of Human Origin Extinguishing Natural solar radiation In Climate Systems and EARLINET (European Aerosol Lidar Network projects during August–September of 2003, which included simultaneous sunphotometric and lidar measurements at three sites covering the north-south axis of Greece: Thessaloniki, Athens and Finokalia, Crete. Several events with high AOD values have been observed over the measuring sites during the campaign period, many of them corresponding to Saharan dust. In this paper we focused on the event of 30 and 31 August 2003, when a dust layer in the height range of 2000-5000 m, progressively affected all three stations. This layer showed a complex behavior concerning its spatial evolution and allowed us to study the changes in the optical properties of the desert dust particles along their transport due to aging and mixing with other types of aerosol. The extinction-to-backscatter ratio determined on the 30 August 2003 at Thessaloniki was approximately 50 sr, characteristic for rather spherical mineral particles, and the measured color index of 0.4 was within the typical range of values for desert dust. Mixing of the desert dust with other sources of aerosols resulted the next day in overall smaller and less absorbing population of particles with a lidar ratio of 20 sr. Mixing of polluted air-masses originating from Northern Greece and Crete and Saharan dust result in very high aerosol backscatter values reaching 7 Mm-1 sr-1 over Finokalia. The Saharan dust observed over Athens followed a different spatial evolution and was not mixed with the boundary layer aerosols mainly

  2. Vitamin D and Psoriasis Pathology in the Mediterranean Region, Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Morales Suárez-Varela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has important immunomodulatory effects on psoriasis in the Mediterranean region. To measure vitamin D intake in subjects with and without psoriasis, and to find an association with relevant clinical features, a case-control study was performed using cases (n = 50, 50% participation rate clinically diagnosed with psoriasis and 200 healthy subjects (39.5% participation rate, leaving a final sample of 104 people. A survey was conducted using a food frequency questionnaire and clinical histories. Cases and controls were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. We observed insufficient intake of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 or ergocalciferol (vitamin D2 for both cases and controls. Patients with psoriasis were at greater risk of associated pathologies: dyslipidaemia (OR: 3.6, 95% CI: 0.8–15.2; metabolic syndrome (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 0.2–53.9; hypertension (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.4–7.2. Insufficient vitamin D intake in both psoriasis patients and controls in the Mediterranean population, and cardiovascular comorbility is more frequent in patients with psoriasis.

  3. Quantitative Assessment of Agricultural Runoff and Soil Erosion Using Mathematical Modeling: Applications in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhonditsis, G.; Giourga, C.; Loumou, A.; Koulouri, M.

    2002-09-01

    Three mathematical models, the runoff curve number equation, the universal soil loss equation, and the mass response functions, were evaluated for predicting nonpoint source nutrient loading from agricultural watersheds of the Mediterranean region. These methodologies were applied to a catchment, the gulf of Gera Basin, that is a typical terrestrial ecosystem of the islands of the Aegean archipelago. The calibration of the model parameters was based on data from experimental plots from which edge-of-field losses of sediment, water runoff, and nutrients were measured. Special emphasis was given to the transport of dissolved and solid-phase nutrients from their sources in the farmers' fields to the outlet of the watershed in order to estimate respective attenuation rates. It was found that nonpoint nutrient loading due to surface losses was high during winter, the contribution being between 50% and 80% of the total annual nutrient losses from the terrestrial ecosystem. The good fit between simulated and experimental data supports the view that these modeling procedures should be considered as reliable and effective methodological tools in Mediterranean areas for evaluating potential control measures, such as management practices for soil and water conservation and changes in land uses, aimed at diminishing soil loss and nutrient delivery to surface waters. Furthermore, the modifications of the general mathematical formulations and the experimental values of the model parameters provided by the study can be used in further application of these methodologies in watersheds with similar characteristics.

  4. Evidence of ozone-induced adverse effects on crops in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Ivano; Gimeno, Benjamin S.; Velissariou, Dimitris; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Mills, Gina

    The impacts of ambient ozone pollution on crops in the Mediterranean countries have been recorded regularly in the so-called "grey literature" of UN/ECE Workshop Reports for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, and less frequently in the peer-reviewed literature. This short communication reviews such records and shows that ambient ozone episodes have been reported to cause visible injury on 24 agricultural and horticultural crops grown in commercial fields including three of the most important crops in the region (wheat, maize, and grapevine). On one occasion, the damage was so extensive that complete crop loss occurred in commercial glasshouses of Butterhead lettuce in one area of Greece. Experiments with open-top chambers have indicated that ambient ozone caused 17-39% yield loss in crops such as wheat, bean, watermelon and tomato. The applicability of the long-term critical level of ozone described by Fuhrer et al. (Environ. Pollut. 97 (1997) 91) for the Mediterranean areas is also considered.

  5. Forecasting database for the tsunami warning center for the western Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, A.; Hebert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hernandez, B.

    2011-12-01

    Improvements in the availability of sea-level observations and advances in numerical modeling techniques are increasing the potential for tsunami warnings to be based on numerical model forecasts. Numerical tsunami propagation and inundation models are well developed, but they present a challenge to run in real-time, partly due to computational limitations and also to a lack of detailed knowledge on the earthquake rupture parameters. A first generation model-based tsunami prediction system is being developed as part of the French Tsunami Warning Center that will be operational by mid 2012. It involves a pre-computed unit source functions database (i.e., a number of tsunami model runs that are calculated ahead of time and stored) corresponding to tsunami scenarios generated by a source of seismic moment 1.75E+19 N.m with a rectangular fault 25 km by 20 km in size and 1 m in slip. The faults of the unit functions are placed adjacent to each other, following the discretization of the main seismogenic faults bounding the western Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic basins. An authomatized composite scenarios calculation tool is implemented to allow the simulation of any tsunami propagation scenario (i.e., of any seismic moment). The strategy is based on linear combinations and scaling of a finite number of pre-computed unit source functions. The number of unit functions involved varies with the magnitude of the wanted composite solution and the combined wave heights are multiplied by a given scaling factor to produce the new arbitrary scenario. Uncertainty on the magnitude of the detected event and inaccuracy on the epicenter location are taken into account in the composite scenarios calculation. For one tsunamigenic event, the tool produces finally 3 warning maps (i.e., most likely, minimum and maximum scenarios) together with the rough decision matrix representation. A no-dimension code representation is chosen to show zones in the main axis of energy at the basin

  6. The New Coordinates of Globalization and Regional Integration: Resizing the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Moldoveanu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly strong process of interdependence between globalization and regionalization - in the context of the end of the bipolar power at world level - has engendered a new philosophy regarding the evolution of the world, a reconsideration of the strategy of political and diplomatic, economic and also cultural and human relationships. In my opinion, in a multipolar world, that will bring into the first line of international relations new big actors of regional and universal vocation (China, Rusia, Brasil, India, the European Union will play an extensive role in participating at the geostrategic, regional and global equilibrium, through promotion of an „open diplomacy” that will allow – by dialogue and cooperation – the resolving more rapidly and efficiently the great challenges of the beginning of the century and millenium: the reduction of the great development gaps, the regional and global security, in a very solid economic background. A new dimension of the EU enlargement policy at regional scale is represented by the cooperation relations and the attraction into the European circuit of material and spiritual values of the countries in the Central and Eastern Europe. In the context of deepening the interdependence and complementarities at regional and global level, more focus should be put on the viable ways and modalities to intensify the cooperation in the Danube-Black Sea and Euro-Mediterranean geo-economic and strategic areas. The two big geo-strategic regions of the world belong to the same civilization and are subject to similar changes as the other regions of the world, despite some specific features of history and culture. The intensification and diversification of the cooperation at the Central and South-Eastern European level, as well as the Euro-Mediterranean and Danube-Black Sea region, does not represent an alternative to the general objective process of integration into the Euro-Atlantic structures, but a

  7. Scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romem

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is one of the most cyclogenetic regions in the world. The cyclones are concentrated along its northern coasts and their tracks are oriented more or less west-east, with several secondary tracks connecting them to Europe and to North Africa. The aim of this study is to examine scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones, based on five selected winter seasons (October–March. We detected the cyclones subjectively using 6-hourly Sea-Level Pressure maps, based on the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis archive.

    HMSO (1962 has shown that most Mediterranean cyclones (58% enter the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean (through Biscay and Gibraltar, and from the south-west, the Sahara Desert, while the rest are formed in the Mediterranean Basin itself. Our study revealed that only 13% of the cyclones entered the Mediterranean, while 87% were generated in the Mediterranean Basin. The entering cyclones originate in three different regions: the Sahara Desert (6%, the Atlantic Ocean (4%, and Western Europe (3%.

    The cyclones formed within the Mediterranean Basin were found to generate under the influence of external cyclonic systems, i.e. as "daughter cyclones" to "parent cyclones" or troughs. These parent systems are located in three regions: Europe (61%, North Africa and the Red Sea (34.5% and the Mediterranean Basin itself (4.5%. The study presents scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones during the winter season, emphasizing the cyclogenesis under the influence of various external forcing.

    The large difference with respect to the findings of HMSO (1962 is partly explained by the dominance of spring cyclones generating in the Sahara Desert, especially in April and May that were not included in our study period.

  8. Educational Tourism in Protected Natural Areas in South-East of the Baikal Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vera Chizhova; Sergey Kirillov; Mikchail Slipenchuk

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the implementation of the strategy of development of tourism in the south-east of the Baikal region on the territory of the Baikal Biosphere reserve and its subordinate federal sanctuaries...

  9. East Asian Seas Regional Climatology Version 2.0 from 1804 to 2014 (NODC Accession 0123300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The East Asian Seas Regional Climatology Version 2.0 is an update to the preliminary version released in May 2012. This update includes new temperature and salinity...

  10. Progress toward measles elimination--Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleb, Nadia; Lebo, Emmaculate; Ahmed, Hinda; Hossam, Abdel Rahman; El Sayed, El Tayeb; Dabbagh, Alya; Strebel, Peter; Rota, Paul; Alexander, James

    2014-06-13

    In 1997, the 22 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) adopted a goal of measles elimination by 2010. To achieve this goal, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO) developed a four-pronged strategy: 1) achieve ≥ 95% vaccination coverage of children with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) in every district of each country through routine immunization services, 2) achieve ≥ 95% vaccination coverage with the second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) in every district of each country either through a routine 2-dose vaccination schedule or through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), 3) conduct high-quality, case-based surveillance in all countries, and 4) provide optimal clinical case management, including supplementing diets with vitamin A. Although significant progress was made toward measles elimination in the EMR during 1997-2007, the measles elimination goal was not reached by the target date of 2010, and the date was revised to 2015. This report updates previous reports and summarizes the progress made toward measles elimination in EMR during 2008-2012. From 2008 to 2012, large outbreaks occurred in countries with a high incidence of measles, and reported annual measles cases in EMR increased from 12,186 to 36,456. To achieve measles elimination in EMR, efforts are needed to increase 2-dose vaccination coverage, especially in countries with high incidence of measles and in conflict-affected countries, and to implement innovative strategies to reach populations at high risk in areas with poor access to vaccination services or with civil strife.

  11. International trade, regional integration and food security in the Middle East:

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Against the background of increasing interest in closer economic relations in the Middle East, the contribution that greater integration of markets might make to improving food security in the region is investigated, using a quantitative framework for gauging the reduction in instability of market supplies for cereal, meat, and dairy commodities under regional cooperation schemes versus more general policies to increase the integration of Middle East markets with markets in Western Europe and...

  12. POTENTIAL AND LIMITS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN THE CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EAST EUROPE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    CIRLEA Filip; Iancu, Iulian

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy sources (solar power, wind power, hydroenergy, biomass, biofuels) with energy efficiency contribute to increasing security of electricity supply, competitiveness and sustainable development. The countries of the Central and South-East Europe region must to develop a focus on alternative energy sources and on energy efficiency and energy saving. Developing the renewable energy sector in a sustainable manner in the Central and South-East Europe region would enhance security of ...

  13. Lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the Mediterranean region in the framework of polarized plate tectonics

    CERN Document Server

    Raykova, Reneta Blagoeva; Doglioni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Velocity structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system, to the depth of about 350 km, is obtained for almost 400 cells, sized 1 degree by 1 degree in the Mediterranean region. The models are obtained by the following sequence of methods and tools: surface-wave dispersion measurements and collection; 2D tomography of dispersion relations; non-linear inversion of cellular dispersion relations; smoothing optimization method to select a preferred model for each cell. The 3D velocity model, that satisfies Occam razor principle, is obtained as a juxtaposition of selected cellular models. The reconstructed picture of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system evidences the, globally well known, asymmetry between the W- and E-directed subduction zones, attributed to the westward drift of the lithosphere relative to the mantle. Different relationship between slabs and mantle dynamics cause strong compositional differences in the upper mantle, as shown by large variations of seismic waves velocity, consistent with Polari...

  14. NEOLITHIC PLANT USE IN THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN REGION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE AGRIWESTMED PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Peña-Chocarro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the preliminary results of the AGRIWESTMED project which focuses on the archaeobotanical analyses of early Neolithic sites in the western Mediterranean region (both in Iberia and in northern Morocco. A large number of sites has been studied producing an interesting dataset of plant remains which places the earliest examples of domesticated plants in the second half of the 6th millennium cal BC. Plant diversity is high as it is shown by the large number of species represented: hulled and naked wheats, barley, peas, fava beans, vetches, lentils and grass peas. To more crops, poppy and flax, are also part of the first agricultural crops of the area. Although agriculture seems to occupy a first place in the production of food, gathering is well represented in the Moroccan sites where a large number of species has been identified. 

  15. Deuterium excess in the atmospheric water vapour of a Mediterranean coastal wetland: regional vs. local signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, H.; Vallet-Coulomb, C.; Sonzogni, C.

    2015-09-01

    Stable isotopes of water vapour represent a powerful tool for tracing atmospheric vapour origin and mixing processes. Laser spectrometry recently allowed high time-resolution measurements, but despite an increasing number of experimental studies, there is still a need for a better understanding of the isotopic signal variability at different time scales. We present results of in situ measurements of δ18O and δD during 36 consecutive days in summer 2011 in atmospheric vapour of a Mediterranean coastal wetland exposed to high evaporation (Camargue, Rhône River delta, France). The mean composition of atmospheric vapour (δv) is δ18O = -14.66 ‰ and δD = - 95.4 ‰, with data plotting clearly above the local meteoric water line on a δ18O-δD plot, and an average deuterium excess (d) of 21.9 ‰. Important diurnal d variations are observed, and an hourly time scale analysis is necessary to interpret the main processes involved in its variability. After having classified the data according to air mass back trajectories, we analyse the average daily cycles relating to the two main meteorological situations, i.e. air masses originating from North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. In both situations, we show that diurnal fluctuations are driven by (1) the influence of local evaporation, culminating during daytime, and leading to an increase in absolute water vapour concentration associated to a δv enrichment and d increase; (2) vertical air mass redistribution when the Planetary Boundary Layer collapses in the evening, leading to a d decrease, and (3) dew formation during the night, producing a δv depletion with d remaining stable. Using a two-component mixing model, we calculate the average composition of the locally evaporated vapour (δE). We find higher d(E) under North Atlantic air mass conditions, which is consistent with lower humidity conditions. We also suggest that δv measured when the PBL collapses is the most representative of a regional signal

  16. Fog water collection and reforestation at mountain locations in a western Mediterranean basin region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Ja; Estrela, Mj; Corell, D.; Fuentes, D.; Valdecantos, A.

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies carried out by the authors have shown the potential of fog water collection at several mountain locations in the Valencia region (western Mediterranean basin). This coastal region features typical conditions for a dry Mediterranean climate characterized by a pluviometric regime ranging from 400 to 600 mm with a strong annual dependence. Dry conditions together with land degradation that frequently results after recurrent fires occurred in the past make a difficult self-recovery for native forest vegetation so that some kind of human intervention is always recommended. In plots reforested with Mediterranean woody species, periods of more than 120 days without significant precipitation (>5 mm) result in mortality rates above 80% during the first summer in the field. The good potential of fog-water collection at certain mountain locations is considered in this study as an easily available water resource for the reforestation of remote areas where native vegetation cannot be reestablished by itself. A large flat panel made of UV-resistant HD-polyethylene monofilament mesh was deployed at a mountain location for bulk fog water harvesting. Water was stored in high-capacity tanks for the whole length of the experimental campaign and small timely water pulses localized deep in the planting holes were conducted during the summer dry periods. Survival rates and seedling performance of two forest tree species, Pinus pinaster and Quercus ilex, were quantified and correlated to irrigation pulses in a reforestation plot that took an area of about 2500 m2 and contained 620 1-year-old plants. Before and concurrently to the flat panel deployment, a passive omnidirectional fog-water collector of cylindrical shape was set in the area in combination to other environmental instruments such as a rain gauge, a wind direction and velocity sensor and a temperature and humidity probe. Proper orientation of the large flat panel was possible once the direction of local winds

  17. Re-assessing the last 3,000 years of archaeological and biological sea-level data from Israel and Greece to identify East Mediterranean trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Dorit; Dean, Silas; Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Bechor, Benny; Evelpidou, Niki; Baika, Kalliopi; Theodoulou, Theotokis A.

    2016-04-01

    The last 3,000 years of relative sea level (RSL) in Israel are derived primarily from archaeological indicators with additional bio-construction indicators (Dendropoma petraeum reefs at the edge of the abrasion platform along the Israeli coast). The current study examines whether sea-level fluctuations (above and mainly below present-day MSL) observed along the coast of Israel can also be observed in other East Mediterranean areas like Greece so that better evaluations can be made of local and regional driving mechanisms. There are three objectives for achieving this goal: 1) Identify new and already published archaeological and biological RSL indicators from this period in Israel and Greece; 2) Assess the reliability of both existing and new indicators using consistent standards to determine which types most accurately indicate ancient RSL and with what degree of uncertainty; 3) Correct the data for isostatic and tectonic effects. The survey collected nearly 140 archaeological indicators from Israel and about 120 from Greece. Of the Israeli indicators, some 120 were deemed reliable enough for reconstructions, whereas in Greece only 40 were, and not all of these from tectonically stable areas. The Israeli data includes 31 dates obtained from Dendropoma reefs in Israel. The higher reliability of the Israeli dataset may stem from a smaller coastline and more focused SL research over the past few decades. In Greece, many measurements were taken before precise surveying methods were available, and published without sufficient metadata. The two regional datasets reveal chronological gaps and disparities: Israel has a strong set of many indicators from the Roman Period (~2000BP) to present, but fewer from 3000-2000BP, while Greek indicators are strongly clustered in the Classical to Hellenistic Periods (2500-2000BP). On-going research is focusing now also on the last Millennial Greek sea levels (mainly the 'Venetian' period). Results however suggest some correspondence

  18. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus

  19. Region specific challenges of a CO2 pipeline infrastructure in the West Mediterranean area. Model results versus stakeholder views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, M.A.; Mesquita, P.; Carneiro, J.; Silva, J.; Berghout, N.A.; Ramirez, C.A.; Gouveia, J.; Seixas, J.; Cabal, H.; Martinez, R.; Rimi, A.; Zarhloule, Y.; Sardinha, M.; Boavida, D.; Tosato, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of potential CCS infrastructures in the West Mediterranean region including trajectories for CO2 pipelines. The preliminary results are generated with a combination of geographical (GIS) and partial equilibrium optimization modelling (MARKAL/TIMES-COMET). Furthermore, as

  20. Statistical Confrontation of the Evolution of Tourism in the North East Region in Comparison with the other Regions of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Arionesei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the analysis of the tourist activity in the North East region, compared to the other development regions of Romania, throughout the period 1990-2014.. The research was performed through a system of tourism indicators applied in the Romanian regions, obtained from the National Institute of Statistics. This comparative analysis was carried out using the statistical method called ANOVA and the Post Hoc – Games-Howell test. In order to achieve the objective, our study implied the analysis of several relevant indicators for tourism: the accommodation capacity, the number of arrivals, the number of overnight stays, the length of stay and the net use of accommodation capacity index. Processing the data related to a period of twenty-five years, the analysis allowed to draw conclusions about the existence of differences between the values of indicators across regions. The comparative analysis of the available data reflected a number of differences between the North East region and the other regions of Romania, the North East region recording lower values for the analyzed indicators, while South East and Central regions hold significantly higher values than the other regions, for the majority of indicators.

  1. Regional survey of radionuclides in the marine environment of the French Mediterranean coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve; Arnaud, Mireille; Duffa, Celine; Charmasson, Sabine; Dimeglio, Yves [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM/ARM c/o Ifremer, CS 20330 Zone Portuaire de Bregaillon, 83507 La Seyne sur Mer Cedex (France)

    2014-07-01

    The French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) runs a continuous monitoring program of the marine environment as a mandatory task. For the French Mediterranean coast, this monitoring activity focuses on two bio-indicators species: the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and the red mullet (Mullus sp.) sampled on a regular basis from natural populations at ten locations along the coast. Radionuclides are measured using direct low-level gamma spectrometry as a routine technique. In addition to this long-lasting monitoring, a broad survey of radionuclide baseline levels is conducted on all compartments of the coastal zone: water, sediments and a large selection of fish species among those most currently fished and marketed. This extended data collection is necessary to fulfill the information requirements of the UE Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and its implementation by member states. This information is also essential for impact assessment of any incident or accident, included from a remote source. Levels of less commonly measured radionuclides like {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Po and U, Pu isotopes are investigated. Fish sampling relies mostly on scientific stock assessment campaigns. Mussel sampling is complemented by transplanted mussels on 40 specific sites. This regional survey also focuses on two possibly impacted areas: the Rhone river mouth coastal zone, with inputs from nuclear power plants along the river and the Bay of Toulon sheltering Navy harbor of nuclear-powered sub-marines and aircraft-carrier. First results show that the activity levels of artificial radionuclides are very low for most bio-indicator species, in accordance with previous monitoring trends. {sup 137}Cs is the only artificial radionuclide regularly detected by gamma spectrometry in mussel and fish samples at a level below 1 Bg.kg{sup -1} of dry weight. Values of {sup 3}H (organically bound Tritium) in the same samples lies under

  2. Impacts of climate change on erosion in humid and dry Mediterranean regions of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Sampaio, Elsa; Corte-Real, João; Moreira, Madalena; Jacinto, Rita; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard

    2014-05-01

    Soils in the Mediterranean regions of Europe are often vulnerable to soil erosion, due to a combination of annual plant cover cycles, centuries of human use, the concentration of rainstorms in a short period of the year, and other factors. Climate change could bring about a warmer and drier climate, limiting vegetation growth while bringing heavier storms during winter. This could eventually lead to higher risks of soil losses and the consequential problems of land degradation and desertification. Project ERLAND, which began in 2009, is assessing these risks for two Mediterranean research catchments in Portugal, with four main goals: (i) collect data to understand hydrological and erosion processes in representative catchments; (ii) use this data to parameterize the SWAT eco-hydrological and erosion model as accurately as possible; (iii) use future socio-economic scenarios to estimate both impacts on climate change and on future land-use practices; and (iv) apply the SWAT model for these scenarios and estimate the consequences for soil erosion rates. The Macieira catchment is in a wet Mediterranean climate region, with high rainfall (c. 1300 mm.y-1) but a distinct summer dry season; erosion processes are associated with periods of sparse cover in autumn in fields with a pasture-corn rotation, but also with forest plantations after clear-cutting and especially after forest fires. The occurrence of a forest fire inside the catchment in 2011 allowed an analysis of the role played by this kind of disturbances on soil erosion. Climate change could bring less erosive rainfall events, but an increase in fire frequency, and therefore a potential shift of erosion from agriculture to forest land-uses. The Guadalupe catchment has a dry Mediterranean climate (rainfall of c. 550 mm.y-1); erosion processes occur mostly in permanent crops (olive trees) and winter cereal fields. Climate change could bring a concentration of rainfall in winter, as well as an increase in the area

  3. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  4. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-08-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3-arcseconds shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in Italy and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted of the local terrain slope which was computed in a square 3 × 3-cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15-cell moving window. We tested three different models to classify the "non-susceptible" landslide areas, including a linear model (LNR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile, non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information presented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a geographic information system (GIS) with geographical census data for Italy. The result determined that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results showed that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the validation areas in Spain. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  5. Lithospheric architecture of the Levant Basin (Eastern Mediterranean region): A 2D modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inati, Lama; Zeyen, Hermann; Nader, Fadi Henri; Adelinet, Mathilde; Sursock, Alexandre; Rahhal, Muhsin Elie; Roure, François

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses the deep structure of the lithosphere underlying the easternmost Mediterranean region, in particular the Levant Basin and its margins, where the nature of the crust, continental versus oceanic, remains debated. Crustal thickness and the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) as well as the crustal density distribution were calculated by integrating surface heat flow data, free-air gravity anomaly, geoid and topography. Accordingly, two-dimensional, lithospheric models of the study area are discussed, demonstrating the presence of a progressively attenuated crystalline crust from E to W (average thickness from 35 to 8 km). The crystalline crust is best interpreted as a strongly thinned continental crust under the Levant Basin, represented by two distinct components, an upper and a lower crust. Further to the west, the Herodotus Basin is believed to be underlain by an oceanic crust, with a thickness between 6 and 10 km. The Moho under the Arabian Plate is 35-40 km deep and becomes shallower towards the Mediterranean coast. It appears to be situated at depths ranging between 20 and 23 km below the Levant Basin and 26 km beneath the Herodotus Basin, based on our proposed models. At the Levantine margin, the thinning of the crust in the transitional domain between the onshore and the offshore is gradual, indicating successive extensional regimes that did not reach the beak up stage. In addition, the depth to LAB is around 120 km under the Arabian and the Eurasian Plates, 150 km under the Levant Basin, and it plunges to 180 km under the Herodotus Basin. This study shows that detailed 2D lithosphere modeling using integrated geophysical data can help understand the mechanisms responsible for the modelled lithospheric architecture when constrained with geological findings.

  6. Travel time source-specific station corrections related to lithospheric structures in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, A.; Materni, V.; Console, R.; Chiappini, S.; Chiappini, M.

    2017-01-01

    We compare the locations obtained from arrival times collected by the International Seismological Centre from a network of regional and teleseismic stations for a cluster of Italian earthquakes with the locations of the same events obtained by the dense national seismic network operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. We find mislocations on the order of 15 km for epicentral coordinates and on the order of 25 km for depths calculated from the regional and teleseismic network and using the standard IASP91 travel times. These mislocations are generally larger than the sizes of the respective error ellipse semi-axes. We then show that systematic shifts of hypocentral coordinates can be substantially reduced by applying source-specific station corrections. Moreover, we find that the size of error ellipses characterizing the teleseismic locations is significantly reduced by the application of such corrections. Our travel time corrections are compared and found fairly consistent with information available in the literature on tomographic studies on the crust and upper mantle in the European-Mediterranean region.

  7. Overweight and Obesity in Eastern Mediterranean Region: Prevalence and Possible Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity among various age groups as well as discuss the possible factors that associated with obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR. A systematic review of published papers between 1990 and 2011 was carried out. Obesity reached an alarming level in all age groups of the EMR countries. The prevalence of overweight among preschool children(<5 years ranged from 1.9% to 21.9%, while the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children ranged from 7% to 45%. Among adults the prevalence of overweight and obesity ranged from 25% to 81.9%. Possible factors determining obesity in this region include: nutrition transition, inactivity, urbanization, marital status, a shorter duration of breastfeeding, frequent snacking, skipping breakfast, a high intake of sugary beverages, an increase in the incidence of eating outside the home, long periods of time spent viewing television, massive marketing promotion of high fat foods, stunting, perceived body image, cultural elements and food subsidize policy. A national plan of action to overcome obesity is urgently needed to reduce the economic and health burden of obesity in this region.

  8. Climate information for the wind energy industry in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmanti, Sandro; Davis, Melanie; Schmidt, Peter; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean Region as a tool for assessing the impact of changes in climate patterns on the energy output of wind power plants. Subsequently, we will give here a brief overview of these techniques as well as first results related to wind projections for different sites across the Mediterranean Region. We will highlight that regional climate models have a large potential for enhancing the quality of climate projections in the presence of complex orography and in the proximity of coastal areas.

  9. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-11-26

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse.

  10. Water-conscious development and the prevention of water misuse and wastage in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosh-Chashm, K

    2000-07-01

    Many countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region suffer from severe water shortage, primarily as a result of population growth. The problem will undoubtedly worsen in the future with possibly drastic consequences. This paper outlines the current situation in the Region and the possible impact of water scarcity on health and the environment. Water conservation in agricultural, commercial and domestic areas is discussed from the perspective of water-conscious development and possible strategies are proposed.

  11. East Asian Regionalisms and Korea in the 1940’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Kwon Song

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to consider the various types of regionalisms in East Asia during the 1940’s, and Korea’s position in the United States’ “Great China Policy” and demilitarization and democratization plans for Japan. After World War II, although aspects of regionalism were formed by the Cold War in East Asia, the regional structure of Northeast Asia was originally formed from the ‘turn of the century’ through the Asian Pacific War. From the beginning of the 1940’s, Japan promoted the idea of a “Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere” in order to justify its hegemonic position in the East Asian regional order. In addition, the United States and Japan’s readjustment plans appeared to be related to strategies regarding the regional order of East Asia. During World War II, the victorious U.S. had already become one of the world’s superpowers and by principle, collaboration between the superpowers (United States, Great Britain, China, and the Soviet Union revealed an initiative for a four country police state. Japan devised a survival strategy in the case of its defeat. During the war in the early 1940’s, these policies and plans were used to recognize Großraum around the East Asian region. This paper points out the significance of the 1940’s and the continuity between the awareness of the wartime situation and the prospective situation during the postwar period. During the 1940’s, three forms of regionalism in East Asia appeared. The first was Japan’s regional hegemony over the East Asian regional order. In order to preserve regional hegemony, Imperial Japan gave specific meaning to Korea as an extension of its own economy. The second is based on the United States as an offshore hegemonic power, which chose China as a subordinate partner within East Asia and used the division of labor through sub-horizontal industry based on an initiative to suppress Japan. In order to weaken the economic dominance of Japanese Empire

  12. Electrifying Integration: Electricity Production And The South-East Europe Regional Energy Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, E; Medvedev, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the generation of electricity in 10 countries in South East Europe during 1995-2004. Using the latest available statistics the potential of the nascent integration of the electricity markets in South East Europe is explored. We conduct a cross-country analysis of electricity production based on different types of fuel used. The region has a low level of gasification combined with few nuclear power generation facilities, while some countries heavily rely on hy...

  13. Moment Magnitude Calibration for the Eastern Mediterranean Region from Broadband Regional Coda Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayeda, K; Eken, T; Hofstetter, A; Turkelli, N; O' Boyle, J; Orgulu, G; Gok, R

    2003-07-17

    The following is an overview of results from ROA01-32 that focuses on an empirical method of calibrating stable seismic source moment-rate spectra derived from regional coda envelopes using broadband stations. The main goal was to develop a regional magnitude methodology that had the following properties: (1) it is tied to an absolute scale and is thus unbiased and transportable; (2) it can be tied seamlessly to the well-established teleseismic and regional catalogs; (3) it is applicable to small events using a sparse network of regional stations; (4) it is flexible enough to utilize S{sub n}-coda, L{sub g}-coda, or P-coda, whichever phase has the best signal-to-noise ratio. The results of this calibration yield source spectra and derived magnitudes that were more stable than any other direct-phase measure to date. Our empirical procedure accounted for all propagation, site, and S-to-coda transfer function effects. The resultant coda-derived moment-rate spectra were used to provide traditional band-limited magnitude (e.g., M{sub L}, m{sub b} etc.) as well as an unbiased, unsaturated magnitude (moment magnitude, M{sub w}) that is tied to a physical measure of earthquake size (i.e., seismic moment). We validated our results by comparing our coda-derived moment estimates with those obtained from long-period waveform modeling. We first tested and validated the method using events distributed along the Dead Sea Rift (e.g., Mayeda et al., 2003). Next, we tested the transportability of the method to earthquakes distributed across the entire country of Turkey and validated our results using seismic moments of over 50 events that had been previously waveform modeled using the method of Dreger and Helmberger, (1993). In both regions we demonstrated that the interstation magnitude scatter was significantly reduced when using the coda-based magnitudes (i.e., M{sub w}(coda) and m{sub b}(coda)). Once calibrated, the coda-derived source spectra provided stable, unbiased magnitude

  14. New techniques to control salinity-wastewater reuse interactions in golf courses of the Mediterranean regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrao, J.; Costa, M.; Rosado, V.; Gamito, P.; Santos, R.; Khaydarova, V.

    2003-04-01

    Due to the lack water around the Mediterranean regions, potable water luxurious uses - as in golf courses - are increasingly contested. In order to solve this problem, non conventional water resources (effluent, gray, recycled, reclaimed, brackish), like treated wastewater, for irrigation gained increasing role in the planning and development of additional water supplies in golf courses. In most cases, the intense use of effluent for irrigation attracted public awareness in respect of contaminating pathogens and heavy metals. The contaminating effect of salinity in soil and underground water is very often neglected. The objective of this work is to present the conventional techniques to control salinity of treated wastewater and to present some results on new clean techniques to solve this problem, in the framework of the INCO-COPERNICUS project (no. IC-15CT98-0105) "Adaptation of Efficient Water Use Criteria in Marginal Regions of Europe and Middle Asia with Scarce Sources Subject to Environmental Control, Climate Change and Socio-Economic Development" and of the INCO-DC project (no. IC18-CT98-0266) "Control of Salination and Combating Desertification Effects in the Mediterranean Region. Phase II". Saline water is the most common irrigation water in arid climates. Moreover, for each region treated wastewater is always more saline than tap water, and therefore, when treated wastewater is reused in golf courses, more salinity problems occur. Conventional techniques to combat the salination process in golf courses can be characterized by four generations: 1) Problem of root zone salination by soil leaching - two options can occur - when there is an impermeable layer, salts will be concentrated above this layer; on the other hand, when there is no impermeable layer, aquifers contamination can be observed; 2) Use of subsurface trickle irrigation - economy of water, and therefore less additional salts; however the problem of groundwater contamination due to natural rain

  15. Applying regional planning schemes in East Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunfelder, Julien; Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    landscapes. A common regional planning scheme is discussed for a while, but nothing is agreed on yet. Our objective is to apply three interesting spatial schemes to our case study region. The three planning schemes are well known for their simple and clear approach: The Fingerplan of Copenhagen urban region......In the eastern part of Jutland, Denmark, a polycentric urban region is emerging. Besides Århus, the second biggest city of Denmark, several medium-sized cities are located in the area. The region is expected to experience further urbanisation which might result in urban sprawl and threaten valuable...... a development aligned along mass-transport corridors. In the Montpellier case, the planning scheme has the particularity of having a “sight inversion”. Thus, the landscape is presented as an integrated part of the reflection on regional development. In other words, it protects natural and agricultural areas...

  16. Lithospheric architecture of the Levant Basin (Eastern Mediterranean region): A 2D modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inati, Lama; Zeyen, Hermann; Nader, Fadi-Henri; Adelinet, Mathilde; Sursock, Alexandre; Rahhal, Muhsin Elie; Roure, Francois

    2016-04-01

    One of the major uncertainties regarding the Levant Basin, known to be the site of rifting in the Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic, concerns its deep crustal configuration despite numerous old and recent geophysical studies in this region. The aim of this study is to deduce the deep structure of the lithosphere underlying the easternmost Mediterranean region, in particular the Levant Basin and its margins, where the nature of the crust, continental versus oceanic, remains debated and has major implications on understanding the regional tectonic and thermal evolution, and on constraining potential petroleum systems. The algorithm used is a trial and error method that delivers the crustal thickness and the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) as well as the crustal density distribution by integrating surface heat flow data, free-air gravity anomaly, Geoid and topography data. Moho depth and crustal thickness were locally constrained by refraction data where available. The models representing two EW sections show a progressively attenuated crystalline crust in an EW direction (35 to 8 km). The SN section represents a 12 km thick crust to the south, thins to 9-7 km towards the Lebanese coast and reaches 20 km in the north. The crystalline crust is best interpreted as a strongly thinned continental crust under the Levant Basin, represented by two distinct components, an upper and a lower crust. Nevertheless, the Herodotus Basin shows a thin crust, likely oceanic, with a thickness between 6 and 10 kms. West of the Eratosthenes Seamount, a local crustal anomaly is interpreted to be the result of an underlying continental crust with a thickness of 13 kms. The Moho under the Arabian plate is 35-40 km deep and becomes shallower towards the Mediterranean coast. Within the Levant Basin, the Moho appears to be situated between 20 and 23 km, reaching 26 km in the Herodotus Basin. While depth to LAB is around 110 km under the Arabian and the Eurasian plates, it

  17. Observed and simulated impacts of the summer NAO in Europe: implications for projected drying in the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blade, Ileana; Fortuny, Didac [Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Fisica, Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Barcelona (Spain); Liebmann, Brant [CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center, NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO (United States); Oldenborgh, Geert Jan van [Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute, De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    Climate models predict substantial summer precipitation reductions in Europe and the Mediterranean region in the twenty-first century, but the extent to which these models correctly represent the mechanisms of summertime precipitation in this region is uncertain. Here an analysis is conducted to compare the observed and simulated impacts of the dominant large-scale driver of summer rainfall variability in Europe and the Mediterranean, the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO). The SNAO is defined as the leading mode of July-August sea level pressure variability in the North Atlantic sector. Although the SNAO is weaker and confined to northern latitudes compared to its winter counterpart, with a southern lobe located over the UK, it significantly affects precipitation in the Mediterranean, particularly Italy and the Balkans (correlations of up to 0.6). During high SNAO summers, when strong anticyclonic conditions and suppressed precipitation prevail over the UK, the Mediterranean region instead is anomalously wet. This enhanced precipitation is related to the presence of a strong upper-level trough over the Balkans - part of a hemispheric pattern of anomalies that develops in association with the SNAO - that leads to mid-level cooling and increased potential instability. Neither this downstream extension nor the surface influence of the SNAO is captured in the two CMIP3 models examined (HadCM3 and GFDL-CM2.1), with weak or non-existent correlations between the SNAO and Mediterranean precipitation. Because these models also predict a strong upward SNAO trend in the future, the error in their representation of the SNAO surface signature impacts the projected precipitation trends. In particular, the attendant increase in precipitation that, based on observations, should occur in the Mediterranean and offset some of the non-SNAO related drying does not occur. Furthermore, the fact that neither the observed SNAO nor summer precipitation in Europe/Mediterranean region

  18. The east-west-north colonization history of the Mediterranean and Europe by the coastal plant Carex extensa (Cyperaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudero, M.; Vargas, P.; Arens, P.; Ouborg, N.J.; Luceno, M.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal plants are ideal models for studying the colonization routes of species because of the simple linear distributions of these species. Carex extensa occurs mainly in salt marshes along the Mediterranean and European coasts. Variation in cpDNA sequences, amplified fragment length polymorphisms

  19. River terrace development in the NE Mediterranean region (Syria and Turkey): Patterns in relation to crustal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgland, David R.; Demir, Tuncer; Seyrek, Ali; Daoud, Mohamad; Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob

    2017-06-01

    It is widely recognized that the optimal development of river terraces globally has been in the temperate latitudes, with NW and Central Europe being areas of particular importance for the preservation of such archives of Quaternary environmental change. There is also a growing consensus that the principal drivers of terrace formation have been climatic fluctuation against a background of progressive (but variable) uplift. Nonetheless river terraces are widely preserved in the Mediterranean region, where they have often been attributed to the effects of neotectonic activity, with a continuing debate about the relative significance of fluctuating temperature (glacials-interglacials) and precipitation (pluvials-interpluvials). Research in Syria and southern-central Turkey (specifically in the valleys of the Tigris and Ceyhan in Turkey, the Kebir in Syria and the trans-border rivers Orontes and Euphrates) has underlined the importance of uplift rates in dictating the preservation pattern of fluvial archives and has revealed different patterns that can be related to crustal type. The NE Mediterranean coastal region has experienced unusually rapid uplift in the Late Quaternary. The relation between the Kebir terraces and the staircase of interglacial raised beaches preserved along the Mediterranean coastline of NW Syria reinforces previous conclusions that the emplacement of the fluvial terrace deposits in the Mediterranean has occurred during colder climatic episodes.

  20. The Central Valencian region in the context of the Neolithisation of the North-Western Mediterranean facade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Atiénzar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of neolithisation of the Mediterranean facade of the Iberian Peninsula has traditionally been associated with the cardial paradigm of the french-iberian region. However, better knowledge of the material record from the north-western Mediterranean arc, the revision of various archaeological sites of the central Valencian region and observation of the patterns of occupation and exploitation of territory in the western Mediterranean allow us to propose a process of Neolithic introduction that is more complex than previously thought and be linked with the world of the Mediterranean impressed pottery.

    El proceso de neolitización de la fachada mediterránea peninsular se ha asociado tradicionalmente al paradigma cardial del ámbito franco-ibérico. No obstante, el mejor conocimiento del registro material del arco noroccidental mediterráneo, la revisión de diversos conjuntos arqueológicos de las comarcas centromeridionales valencianas y la observación de los patrones de ocupación y explotación del territorio en el Mediterráneo occidental permiten proponer un proceso de implantación neolítica más complejo del considerado hasta ahora que se puede enlazar con el mundo de la ceramica impressa mediterránea.

  1. African regional integration and European involvement: external agents in the East African Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, V.; Sidaway, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    The EU's role as a model for regional integration is widely discussed in scholarship and policy circles. The promotion of regional integration is central to the EU's external relations and is frequently expected by the EU's partners. This paper examines European involvement with the East African

  2. The determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East North Africa region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogmans, T.J.; Ebbers, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Although, there has been increasing interest in the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in emerging markets, FDI into the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region has so far received little attention among academics. The MENA region provides a useful ground for the testing of traditional

  3. Dust aerosol radiative effects during summer 2012 simulated with a coupled regional aerosol–atmosphere–ocean model over the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nabat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of aerosols on the Mediterranean climate daily variability during summer 2012. Simulations have been carried out using the coupled regional climate system model CNRM-RCSM5 which includes prognostic aerosols, namely desert dust, sea salt, organic, black-carbon and sulfate particles, in addition to the atmosphere, land surface and ocean components. An evaluation of the dust aerosol scheme of CNRM-RCSM5 has been performed against in-situ and satellite measurements. This scheme shows its ability to reproduce the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD over the Mediterranean region in summer 2012. Observations from the TRAQA/ChArMEx campaign also show that the model correctly represents dust vertical and size distributions. Thus CNRM-RCSM5 can be used for aerosol–climate studies over the Mediterranean. Here we focus on the effects of dust particles on surface temperature and radiation daily variability. Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing variability is found to be more than twice higher over regions affected by dust aerosols, when using a prognostic aerosol scheme instead of a monthly climatology. In this case downward surface solar radiation is also found to be better reproduced according to a comparison with several stations across the Mediterranean. Moreover, the radiative forcing due to the dust outbreaks also causes an extra cooling in land and sea surface temperatures. A composite study has been carried out for 14 stations across the Mediterranean to identify more precisely the differences between dusty days and the set of all the days. Observations show that dusty days receive less radiation at the surface and are warmer than average because of southwesterly fluxes often generating dust outbreaks. Only the simulation using the prognostic aerosol scheme is found to reproduce the observed intensity of the dimming and warming on dusty days. Otherwise, the dimming is

  4. Active tectonics around the Mediterranean region: site studies and application of new methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 25 years have passed since the definition of Active Tectonics as "tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society", formulated in a milestone book by the National Research Council on this topic (Studies in Geophysics, Active Tectonics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1986, and those words have still to be considered the most suitable and exhaustive way to explain this branch of the Earth Sciences. Indeed only bridging together basic studies ("tectonic movements", rates of occurrence ("time span" and hazard assessment ("society" can we fully evaluate ongoing tectonic activity and its associated hazards. The broad Mediterranean Sea region is a paradigmatic area from this point of view, as on one hand this region displays in a relatively limited geographic extent a great variety of tectonic processes such as plate collision, subduction, volcanic activity, large-magnitude earthquakes, active folding and faulting, vertical uplift and/or subsidence. On the other hand, all the above mentioned tectonic processes can potentially affect a total population of about 450 million, mostly concentrated in fast-growing urban areas and/or close to industrial compounds and critical facilities often located nearby hazard sources. […

  5. From the Levant to Gibraltar: a regional perspective for marine conservation in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Michelle E; Nathan, Daniel; Levin, Noam

    2012-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are critical to the well-being of threatened ecosystems and thus can be highly beneficial to humans, especially to those residing nearby. We explore the qualities of 117 MPAs in the Mediterranean basin and develop a taxonomy of their characteristics. We relate the spatial distribution of the MPAs to the various characteristics of the taxonomy (size, distance from shore, protection levels, management regimes, etc.) and to areas of high human impact and influence levels. To do this we use information on biogeographic regions and information from two different human influence models; one model developed for the marine environment and one covering the littoral terrestrial environment. Our analysis provides insights to planners and managers working in a regional capacity and trying to build MPA networks. Generally, current MPAs have not been established in high impact areas despite their being close to shores containing intense human activity. Decision-makers wishing to design and establish new MPAs may seek out areas of high cumulative human impacts (near the marine-terrestrial interface) or avoid them depending on marine conservation objectives, including the desire to vary types of MPAs within a network. Limitations of our analysis and methodology indicate areas for further research.

  6. Climate change impacts on crop yield in the Euro-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toreti, Andrea; Ceglar, Andrej; Dentener, Frank; Niemeyer, Stefan; Dosio, Alessandro; Fumagalli, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture is strongly influenced by climate variability, climate extremes and climate changes. Recent studies on past decades have identified and analysed the effects of climate variability and extremes on crop yields in the Euro-Mediterranean region. As these effects could be amplified in a changing climate context, it is essential to analyse available climate projections and investigate the possible impacts on European agriculture in terms of crop yield. In this study, five model runs from the Euro-CORDEX initiative under two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) have been used. Climate model data have been bias corrected and then used to feed a mechanistic crop growth model. The crop model has been run under different settings to better sample the intrinsic uncertainties. Among the main results, it is worth to report a weak but significant and spatially homogeneous increase in potential wheat yield at mid-century (under a CO2 fertilisation effect scenario). While more complex changes seem to characterise potential maize yield, with large areas in the region showing a weak-to-moderate decrease.

  7. Zika virus: no cases in the Eastern Mediterranean Region but concerns remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, N N Tran; Huda, Q; Asghar, H; Samhouri, D; Abubakar, A; Barwa, C; Shaikh, I; Buliva, E; Mala, P; Malik, M

    2016-08-18

    Following the WHO declaration on 1 February 2016 of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) with regard to clusters of microcephaly and neurological disorders potentially associated with Zika virus, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean conducted three rounds of emergency meetings to address enhancing preparedness actions in the Region. The meetings provided up-to-date information on the current situation and agreed on a set of actions for the countries to undertake to enhance their preparedness and response capacities to Zika virus infection and its complications. The most urgent action is to enhance both epidemiological and entomological surveillance between now and the coming rainy seasons in countries with known presence of Aedes mosquitoes. Zika virus like other vector-borne diseases poses a particular challenge to the countries because of their complex nature which requires multidisciplinary competencies and strong rapid interaction among committed sectors. WHO is working closely with partners and countries to ensure the optimum support is provided to the countries to reduce the risk of this newly emerged health threat.

  8. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  9. Assessment of desertification risk in semi-arid Mediterranean environments: the case study of Apulia region (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladisa, Gaetano; Todorovic, Mladen; Trisorio Liuzzi, Giuliana

    2010-05-01

    This work focuses on the risk assessment of the areas threatened with desertification in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. The presented approach uses as a reference the ESAs model (Environmental Sensitive Areas to Desertification; Kosmas et al., 1999) which is modified through a set of new indicators which take into account the region-specific environmental characteristics as well as identifiable parameters relevant for planning control measures. These supplementary indicators, comprehending socio-economic and environmental factors, are integrated in the ESAs model and, by using a GIS, applied to Apulia region (Southern Italy). This area represents a typical Mediterranean landscape affected by land degradation and desertification risks. The analyses include the elaboration of the whole set of indices on both the regional and the administrative scales which constitute the principal territorial units for the management of natural resources. The results have demonstrated that the introduction of the new indices has improved substantially the overall evaluation of the desertification risk in the Apulia region. The proposed approach permits not only the identification and refinement of different degrees of sensibility of an area to land degradation, but also the analyses of the factors affecting desertification and their evaluation in terms of spatial and temporal distribution. Moreover, the presented method is conceptually very simple and easy to implement from local to regional and national scale, and can be proposed as a methodology for the definition of priorities in adoption of strategies to mitigate desertification in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Key words: desertification risk, sensitivity areas, Apulia region, Mediterranean environment.

  10. Islamic Tourism as a Factor of the Middle East Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kovjanic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For long time tourism, except pilgrimage travels, has been considered as culturally inappropriate and economically unnecessary phenomenon by Arab governments. At the beginning of 21st century, many Arab states developed their tourism industries in order to diversify their economies (in the case of GCC states = Gulf Cooperation Council or to earn foreign currency (in the case of Arab Mediterranean states. Middle East importance for global stability derives from its immense oil reserves and its status as the epicentre of Muslim culture. The majority of their demand for tourism originates from neighbouring countries. The time of unrest in this part of the world has brought a need for local travellers to stay within the same cultural environment when making holiday destination choices.

  11. Harnessing genomics to improve health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region - an executive course in genomics policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Tara; Rab, Mohammed Abdur; Singer, Peter A; Daar, Abdallah S

    2005-01-21

    BACKGROUND: While innovations in medicine, science and technology have resulted in improved health and quality of life for many people, the benefits of modern medicine continue to elude millions of people in many parts of the world. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in EMR, the World Health Organization's Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics jointly organized a Genomics and Public Health Policy Executive Course, held September 20th-23rd, 2003, in Muscat, Oman. The 4-day course was sponsored by WHO-EMRO with additional support from the Canadian Program in Genomics and Global Health. The overall objective of the course was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in the region. This article presents the course findings and recommendations for genomics policy in EMR. METHODS: The course brought together senior representatives from academia, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics covered included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. RESULTS: A set of recommendations, summarized below, was formulated for the Regional Office, the Member States and for individuals.* Advocacy for genomics and biotechnology for political leadership;* Networking between member states to share information, expertise, training, and regional cooperation in biotechnology; coordination of national surveys for assessment of health biotechnology innovation systems, science capacity, government policies, legislation and regulations, intellectual property policies, private sector activity;* Creation in each member country of an effective National Body on genomics, biotechnology and health to:- formulate national biotechnology strategies- raise biotechnology awareness- encourage teaching and

  12. Applying regional planning schemes in East Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunfelder, Julien; Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    a development aligned along mass-transport corridors. In the Montpellier case, the planning scheme has the particularity of having a “sight inversion”. Thus, the landscape is presented as an integrated part of the reflection on regional development. In other words, it protects natural and agricultural areas......In the eastern part of Jutland, Denmark, a polycentric urban region is emerging. Besides Århus, the second biggest city of Denmark, several medium-sized cities are located in the area. The region is expected to experience further urbanisation which might result in urban sprawl and threaten valuable...... 2000 and 2006, documented by CORINE. The Fingerplan was elaborated in 1947 but became first in 2007 a legal planning document. However, its simple principles of development along the commuter rail lines and the protection of green wedges in between them guided spatial development in Copenhagen since...

  13. An assessment of landscape changes in Mediterranean region. A case study of Algarve, southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Helena; Martins, Fernando; Valín, Maria Isabel; Moreno, Ângela; Pedras, Celestina

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the application of remote sensing techniques is a key factor for the planning and land management to ensure a sustainable development of the regions. Algarve, the most southern region of Portugal is characterized by its Mediterranean climate. This climate is described by irregular precipitation throughout the year with drought during summer months. The regional climate has a profound influence on its particular vegetation and wildlife turning it in a unique habitat for many species. Since the 1970s, increases in tourism have greatly affected the coastal region. This has led to great landscape pressure and urban growth, resulting in population increases due to local economic prosperity. Across Algarve, in recent decades, lawns areas have grown dramatically. Landscape water use has increased mainly because homeowners seldom pay the 'true' cost of water. Continued expansion of water supply is not, therefore, a viable management option in the future, particularly given the anticipated increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in Portugal. There's a need to change the perception of landscape relative to water consumption. Algarve needs a sustainable, 'demand-led' approach to water resource management, focusing on conserving water and using it more efficiently. The water resources available in the Algarve are limited, and decisions regarding sustainability must consider the environment. The aim of this study is to apply the remote sensing techniques to analyse the landscape changes in three municipalities of Algarve (Portugal): Albufeira, Loulé and Faro. The three Landsat images, from April 9th 1973 (Landsat1), March 23th 1989 (Landsat5) and April 26th 2013 (Landsat8) were used. The images were classified based on the radiometric information and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). These range of dates of the Landsat images used allowed for the differentiation between classes of the landscape. Land use and water resources are closely

  14. Respiratory health outcomes and air pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Nour; Khader, Yousef S; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Graboski-Bauer, Ashley; Malkawi, Mazen; Al-Sharif, Munjed; Elbetieha, Ahmad M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to air pollution can cause detrimental health and be an economic burden. With newly developed equipment, monitoring of different air pollutants, identifying the sources, types of air pollutants and their corresponding concentrations, and applying mitigation intervention techniques became a crucial step in public health protection. Countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) are highly exposed to dust storms, have high levels of particulate matter (PM) concentrations, and have a unique climatic as well as topographic and socio-economic structure. This is the first study conducted to systemically and qualitatively assess the health impacts of air pollution in the EMR, identify susceptible populations, and ascertain research and knowledge gaps in the literature to better inform decisions by policy makers. We screened relevant papers and reports published between 2000 and 2014 in research databases. A total of 36 published studies met the inclusion criteria. A variety of indoor and outdoor exposures associated with various acute and chronic respiratory health outcomes were included. Respiratory health outcomes ranged in severity, from allergies and general respiratory complaints to lung cancer and mortality. Several adverse health outcomes were positively associated with various indoor/outdoor air pollutants throughout the EMR. However, epidemiological literature concerning the EMR is limited to a few studies in a few countries. More research is needed to elucidate the health outcomes of air pollution. Standardized reliable assessments on the national level for various air pollutants in different regions should be implemented and made publically available for researchers to utilize in their research. Moreover, advancing and utilizing more sound epidemiological designs and studies on the effect of air pollution on the respiratory health outcomes is needed to portray the actual situation in the region.

  15. Efficiency of a Protected-Area Network in a Mediterranean Region: A Multispecies Assessment with Raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, María D.; Martínez, José E.; Palazón, José A.; Esteve, Miguel Á.; Calvo, José F.

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km2), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel ( Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  16. The East Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Brachyura: Varunidae) in the Mediterranean Sea: an independent human-mediated introduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schubart, Christoph D

    2003-01-01

    A single adult male specimen of the East Asian crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (de Haan, 1835) was collected in August 2001 in the northern Adriatic Sea along the northwest coast of the peninsula of Istra...

  17. South-East Region in Bulgaria: Economic Performance and Key Sectors Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Golemanova, Antoaneta

    2008-01-01

    The present paper attempts to provide insight into the economic performance of the South-east region (SER) of Bulgaria by presenting quantitative relationships between sectors in the regional economy. Methodologically it is based on the construction of the regional Input–Output model. It was carried out trough applying the non-servey GRIT technique, based on Flegg & Webber location quotient (2000). The dirived Rasmussen & Hirschman backward linkages and Mattas & Shrestha input-output elastici...

  18. East Asia’s energy needs: The impact on security and guidelines for regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pareja Alcaraz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The last three decades have witnessed a spectacular (and not easily sustainable increase in the global demand for energy. This trend has a particular significance in East Asia owing to its heavy industrialisation, which is promoting intense regional growth, on top of the already delicate balance of security in the region and the traditional refusal by the region’s states to delegate power and management to supranational bodies. The aim of this article is to analyse the impact of East Asia’s energy needs on security and on the instruments of order and governance that have been developed in the region up until the present time. Thus, the article is divided into two parts; the first analyses East Asia’s energy programme and its most significant features: 1 a high dependence on oil imports from other regions, especially the Middle East; 2 a persistence of high dependency on pollutant fossil fuels; and 3 a high degree of energy insecurity. Meanwhile, the second part assesses the impact of energy on regional relations in different areas of security and guidelines for regional government: 1 the securitisation of energy and of the environment; 2 the reactivation of certain maritime conflicts; 3 the transformation of certain threats, and conventional and non-conventional challenges to regional security; 4 the rise of non-state actors (mainly environmental businesses and NGOs in East Asia’s international relations; 5 the maintaining of bilateralism and the promotion of multilateral initiatives; and 6 the emergence of new extra-regional geopolitical links and balances.

  19. Mauritania and the European regional system of post-colonialism to Euro-Mediterranean Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Uruburu Colsa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available During the five decades that have elapsed since it gained independence, Mauritania – a country that is lacking in natural resources and highly dependent on exterior aid – has prioritised its relations with the European regional system. These relations have been a reflection of the evolution of the principles of EU external action. Thus, during the period prior to the Maastricht Treaty, relations with Mauritania were framed within a collection of agreements based on development cooperation and fishing licences. However, with the introduction (in the 1990s of a European Common Foreign and Security Policy, provided with new principles, a new political dimension was introduced into these relations; a dimension that would demonstrate its importance in Mauritania’s recent political evolution. In this context, the aim of this article is: to analyse the main elements that have determined the evolution of this process of relations between the European Union and Mauritania; to examine the effects of the introduction of political criteria into this cooperation, and its impact on Mauritania’s increasing closeness to the Euro-Mediterranean space; and to highlight, particularly, Spain’s role with respect to designing EU strategies in areas of particular importance for our country’s interests, such as political dialogue, controlling migration flows and fishing.

  20. Huitlacoche yield in some maize varieties in the Mediterranean region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Aydoğdu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Huitlacoche is the Aztecs name given to the smut galls on ears of maize caused by the pathogenic plant fungus Ustilago maydis [(DC Corda.]. It is known as maize mushroom, and it has been considered a delicacy and in Mesoamerica. The aim of the present study was to determine the responses of some maize varieties to the growth of the fungus in order to evaluate the prospect production of these smutty ears as a maize mushroom. A 2-year study was conducted in the Mediterranean region of Turkey in 2010 and 2011. Inoculations were performed by injecting inoculum into the ear through the silk channel of plants in plots. Each treatment had control plots. Average ear-gall (huitlacoche severity and incidence of all the varieties were at the rates of 4.0 and 41.6%, respectively. However, the highest severity of ear-gall (6.5 and incidence (60.6% were found in Karadeniz Yıldızı flint maize variety; colossal smutty ears were formed in the maize cultivars. This study showed that certain maize cultivars (flint corn and dent corn can be used efficiently in the production of huitlacoche.

  1. 18th international symposium on environmental pollution and its impact on life in the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-08-01

    The 18th International Symposium on environmental pollution and its impact on life in the Mediterranean region was held on September 26-30, 2015 in Crete. Its main theme was sustainable resource use and impact on health and well-being. This is the theme of the current special issue, which is based on the scientific works of the Symposium. This overarching theme was further developed in thematic sessions focusing on the following: - Sustainable natural resource and waste management; - Environmental health and well-being; - Climate change mitigation and adaptation; - Indoor and outdoor air pollution; - Water and soil pollution and control; - Ecotoxicity and biodiversity; - Energy, environment and sustainability; - Environmental aspects of nutrition; - Environmental economics, policy and education. The quality of the presentations was high and several colleagues expressed their interest in publishing their work presented in the symposium into this Special Issue. After a thorough peer review process, where each manuscript was evaluated by two independent reviewers, 70 high quality manuscripts were finally selected for publication.

  2. Women and waterpipe tobacco smoking in the eastern mediterranean region: allure or offensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Joanna; Afifi, Rima; Fouad, Fouad M; Hammal, Fadi; Jarallah, Yara; Mohamed, Mostafa; Nakkash, Rima

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing worldwide, despite evidence indicating its adverse health effects. Women and young people seem more likely to be choosing waterpipe tobacco smoking over cigarettes. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand better whether and why waterpipe smoking is a more acceptable form of tobacco use than cigarettes for women in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and to understand whether the strategies used by multi-national corporations to attract women to cigarette smoking were perceived to be relevant in the context of waterpipe tobacco use. Focus groups (n = 81) and in-depth interviews (n = 38) were conducted with adults in Lebanon, Egypt, Palestine, and Syria. Discussions were thematically analyzed and recurrent themes identified. One of the themes which emerged was the negative image of women smoking waterpipes. Moreover, the sexual allure conveyed through waterpipe smoking as well as waterpipe tobacco smoking as a symbol of emancipation was illustrated. The latter was mainly expressed in Lebanon, in contrast with Egypt where traditional gender roles depict women smoking waterpipes as disrespectful to society. Understanding the social aspects of waterpipe tobacco smoking is crucial to planning future interventions to control waterpipe tobacco smoking among women and in society at large.

  3. Reference ranges for serum and salivary testosterone in young men of Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Víctor; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; García de Guadiana, Luis; Sánchez-Pellicer, Pedro; Alfayate, Rocío; Mauri, Montserrat; Sánchez-Payá, José; Picó, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The interassay variability found in the measurement of testosterone (T) levels warrants the need for laboratories to validate their methods to establish trustworthy cut-off points for diagnosis of male hypogonadism. The aims of this study were to validate measurement of total T (TT) at our laboratory in order to obtain reference ranges for TT, calculated free T (CFT), calculated bioavailable T (CBT), and salivary T (ST) in healthy young men from the Mediterranean region, and to evaluate the potential clinical value of ST by establishing its correlation with serum T. An observational, cross-sectional study with sequential sampling. men aged 18-30 years with body mass index (BMI)9.7 nmol/L, CFT>0.22 nmol/L, and/or CBT>4.9 nmol/L make the presence of biochemical hypogonadism unlikely. According to the correlation between serum and ST, the clinical value of ST remains to be established. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Critique of medicinal conspicuousness of Parsley(Petroselinum crispum): a culinary herb of Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz

    2014-01-01

    WHO estimates, around 80% of the especially developing world is indigent on complementary and alternative medicines which are prodigiously derived from herbal material. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is an important culinary herb originated from the Mediterranean region. It possesses small and dark seeds with volatile oil content. Petroselinum crispum is now planted throughout the world due to its usage in food industry, perfume manufacturing, soaps, and creams. Its main constituents subsume coumarins, furanocoumarins (bergapten, imperatori), ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids, apiole, various terpenoic compounds, phenyl propanoids, phathalides, and tocopherol. Due to these constituents, it has been annunciated to possess a number of possible medicinal emblematics including, antimicrobial, antianemic, menorrhagic, anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic, antihepatotoxic, antihypertensive, diuretic effects, hypoglycaemic, hypouricemic, anti oxidative and estrogenic activities. In Morocco, Parsley is mostly used as an elixir to treat arterial hypertension, diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of parsley, made it propitious in food systems. Its ELI17 gene has been corroborated as a particularly fast-responding gene. There is a requisite for extensive research to avail the maximal benefits of this significant medicinal plant. The aim of this review paper is to divulge the chemical constituents of parsley that are explicitly related to substantial medicinal facets.

  5. Winter weather regimes over the Mediterranean region: their role for the regional climate and projected changes in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M.; Li, L. Z.; Kanakidou, M.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Seze, G.; Le Treut, H.

    2013-08-01

    The winter time weather variability over the Mediterranean is studied in relation to the prevailing weather regimes (WRs) over the region. Using daily geopotential heights at 700 hPa from the ECMWF ERA40 Reanalysis Project and Cluster Analysis, four WRs are identified, in increasing order of frequency of occurrence, as cyclonic (22.0 %), zonal (24.8 %), meridional (25.2 %) and anticyclonic (28.0 %). The surface climate, cloud distribution and radiation patterns associated with these winter WRs are deduced from satellite (ISCCP) and other observational (E-OBS, ERA40) datasets. The LMDz atmosphere-ocean regional climate model is able to simulate successfully the same four Mediterranean weather regimes and reproduce the associated surface and atmospheric conditions for the present climate (1961-1990). Both observational- and LMDz-based computations show that the four Mediterranean weather regimes control the region's weather and climate conditions during winter, exhibiting significant differences between them as for temperature, precipitation, cloudiness and radiation distributions within the region. Projections (2021-2050) of the winter Mediterranean weather and climate are obtained using the LMDz model and analysed in relation to the simulated changes in the four WRs. According to the SRES A1B emission scenario, a significant warming (between 2 and 4 °C) is projected to occur in the region, along with a precipitation decrease by 10-20 % in southern Europe, Mediterranean Sea and North Africa, against a 10 % precipitation increase in northern European areas. The projected changes in temperature and precipitation in the Mediterranean are explained by the model-predicted changes in the frequency of occurrence as well as in the intra-seasonal variability of the regional weather regimes. The anticyclonic configuration is projected to become more recurrent, contributing to the decreased precipitation over most of the basin, while the cyclonic and zonal ones become more

  6. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns across the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Christos; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Kempeneers, Pieter; Sedano, Fernando; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is highly susceptible to wildfires. On average, about 60,000 fires take place in this region every year, burning on average half a million hectares of forests and natural vegetation. Wildfires cause environmental degradation and affect the lives of thousands of people in the region. In order to minimize the consequences of these catastrophic events, fire managers and national authorities need to have in their disposal accurate and updated spatial information concerning the size of the burned area as well as the burn severity patterns. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns is necessary to effectively support the decision-making process in what concerns strategic (long-term) planning with the definition of post-fire actions at European and national scales. Although a comprehensive archive of burnt areas exists at the European Forest Fire Information System, the analysis of the severity of the areas affected by forest fires in the region is not yet available. Fire severity is influenced by many variables, including fuel type, topography and meteorological conditions before and during the fire. The analysis of fire severity is essential to determine the socio-economic impact of forest fires, to assess fire impacts, and to determine the need of post-fire rehabilitation measures. Moreover, fire severity is linked to forest fire emissions and determines the rate of recovery of the vegetation after the fire. Satellite imagery can give important insights about the conditions of the live fuel moisture content and can be used to assess changes on vegetation structure and vitality after forest fires. Fire events occurred in Greece, Portugal and Spain during the fire season of 2009 were recorded and analyzed in a GIS environment. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) were calculated from 8-days composites MODIS/TERRA imagery from March to October 2009. In

  7. Modelling subsurface hydrology in Mediterranean regions to investigate spatial and temporal trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cristina M.; Singer, Michael B.; Dritschel, David G.

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean environments have highly variable hydrologic regimes characterised by two distinct seasons: cold/wet and warm/dry. Understanding how this climate is expressed in subsurface hydrology is a basis for the effective management of water as a resource. Riparian systems are particularly complex due to the contribution of both infiltrating precipitation and subsurface hyporheic flows. Therefore a more in-depth investigation of subsurface hydrology is required to understand riparian corridors. Numerical models can be used to simulate soil-water distribution and exchange. We have built-on existing theory of flow through porous media to create a physically-based, river- and climate-driven numerical model of hyporheic flow and infiltration/evaporation that predicts the water content at any depth in a soil column and at any distance from the river channel. The model incorporates the Richards equation - describing the vertical infiltration and diffusion of water in porous media - and the Boussinesq equation, which simulates the horizontal evolution of the water-table (hyporheic flow). These equations have been fully coupled to reflect the interplay between the saturated and unsaturated zones. The model produces a daily time-series of water table elevations and vertical soil moisture patterns in the vadose zones to allow us to study the hydrological partitioning and soil-moisture distribution in a given soil profile. We apply this tool to Mediterranean regions over a number of years to explore seasonal and inter-annual hydrological patterns. Two sites along the Rhône River in France with distinct climates allow us to investigate the impact of riverine and climate functioning. In particular we assess the impact of distance from the river channel and exposure to warmer and dryer conditions. Finally, the temporal legacy of extreme events such as floods and droughts is considered within the context of the impact to riparian vegetation. These comparisons will resolve

  8. The POSEIDON multi-platform observatory of the Eastern Mediterranean: from regional to global long-term sustained ocean observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, C.; Nittis, K.; Perivoliotis, L.; Ballas, D.; Kassis, D.; Petihakis, G.; Lykousis, V.; Chronis, G.; Papathanassiou, V.; Georgopoulos, D.; Pagonis, P.

    2011-12-01

    The POSEIDON integrated ocean monitoring and forecasting system for the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (www.poseidon.hcmr.gr) operates since 2000 and delivers information products and services for a variety of users and applications, ranging from maritime safety to marine environmental assessment. Originally designed for upper-layer metocean observations, the backbone of the system is the network of oceanographic buoys that deliver NRT data every 3 hours; a set of meteo-waves-hydrodynamics models produces 5 days forecasts on a daily basis. Through a series of RTD projects the system has been gradually upgraded with new monitoring (coastal radar, complex moorings, seabed platforms, profiling floats) and modeling components (ecosystem models, oil-spill and object drifts) representing today a major research infrastructure that offers observation and simulation capabilities for a variety of oceanic processes from the air-sea interface to the deep seabed. The system operates two multisensory deep sea observatories: the Poseidon-E1M3A station of the south Aegean Sea (1400m) and the Poseidon-PYLOS station of the south-east Ionian (1700m). E1M3A is designed for the delivery of physical data (T, S, currents) in the upper 1000m of the ocean, bio-optical data (chl-a, D.O., light attenuation, PAR, nutrients) in the euphotic zone (0-100m) as well as air-sea interaction parameters (T, P, wind, RH, precipitation, radiation). It also includes a pCO2 system that is currently under pre-operational testing and is expected to deliver soon the first routine measurements of CO2 in this area. The Poseidon-PYLOS observatory puts emphasis on deep water column physical parameters and near seabed multiparametric measurements. The mooring line hosts 9 CTDs in the upper 1000m as well as a Passive Aquatic Listener (PAL) at 500m depth. The later is used for the first time in the Mediterranean sea for rainfall and wind estimates as well as for marine mammal detection. A standalone seabed platform is

  9. Mediterranean region`s LNG industry. Algeria and Libya to Spain, France, Italy and Turkey; Chichukai chiiki no LNG sangyo. Arujeria, Ribia kara Supein, Furansu, Itaria, Toruko e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-10

    Since LNG is used along with gas supply in mediterranean region, the amount of LNG use in that region is very small in comparison with total demand. However imported LNG for peak use during winter and use as industrial raw materials occupies very important part in Spain, France etc., and other importing countries. From this, further increase of LNG trade is expected. Information regarding operating conditions of plants and liquefaction ability, present conditions of base plant construction and its special features, history of oil/gas fields and LNG supply contracts with importing countries is provided for LNG exporting countries like Libya and Algeria in mediterranean region. Storage base`s scale (site area, tank capacity and ship logging`s load capacity) and period until operation starts are reported along with information before import for importing countries like Spain, France, Italy and Turkey. Further trend of base storage for Greece and Turkey will be surveyed here after.

  10. Wild forest fire regime following land abandonment in the Mediterranean region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursino, Nadia; Romano, Nunzio

    2014-01-01

    Land use, climate, and fire have markedly shaped Mediterranean ecosystems. While climate and land use are external forcing, wildfire is an integral component of ecosystem functioning which inevitably poses a threat to humans...

  11. Storminess and environmental change climate forcing and responses in the Mediterranean region

    CERN Document Server

    Diodato, Nazzareno

    2014-01-01

    Bringing together a wide range of disciplines, including climatology, hydrology, geomorphology and ecology, this book offers a thorough review of contemporary developments in the modelling of Mediterranean hydro-climatological processes in time and space.

  12. Direct and semi-direct aerosol radiative effect on the Mediterranean climate variability using a coupled regional climate system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabat, Pierre; Somot, Samuel; Mallet, Marc; Sevault, Florence; Chiacchio, Marc; Wild, Martin

    2015-02-01

    A fully coupled regional climate system model (CNRM-RCSM4) has been used over the Mediterranean region to investigate the direct and semi-direct effects of aerosols, but also their role in the radiation-atmosphere-ocean interactions through multi-annual ensemble simulations (2003-2009) with and without aerosols and ocean-atmosphere coupling. Aerosols have been taken into account in CNRM-RCSM4 through realistic interannual monthly AOD climatologies. An evaluation of the model has been achieved, against various observations for meteorological parameters, and has shown the ability of CNRM-RCSM4 to reproduce the main patterns of the Mediterranean climate despite some biases in sea surface temperature (SST), radiation and cloud cover. The results concerning the aerosol radiative effects show a negative surface forcing on average because of the absorption and scattering of the incident radiation. The SW surface direct effect is on average -20.9 Wm-2 over the Mediterranean Sea, -14.7 Wm-2 over Europe and -19.7 Wm-2 over northern Africa. The LW surface direct effect is weaker as only dust aerosols contribute (+4.8 Wm-2 over northern Africa). This direct effect is partly counterbalanced by a positive semi-direct radiative effect over the Mediterranean Sea (+5.7 Wm-2 on average) and Europe (+5.0 Wm-2) due to changes in cloud cover and atmospheric circulation. The total aerosol effect is consequently negative at the surface and responsible for a decrease in land (on average -0.4 °C over Europe, and -0.5 °C over northern Africa) and sea surface temperature (on average -0.5 °C for the Mediterranean SST). In addition, the latent heat loss is shown to be weaker (-11.0 Wm-2) in the presence of aerosols, resulting in a decrease in specific humidity in the lower troposphere, and a reduction in cloud cover and precipitation. Simulations also indicate that dust aerosols warm the troposphere by absorbing solar radiation, and prevent radiation from reaching the surface, thus

  13. Features of Salt—Affected Soils and Salinization Hazard in East Asia and Its Neighboring Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGJING-SONG; MATSUMOTO; 等

    1995-01-01

    Asia is the largest distribution area of salt-affected soils in the world,Very few countries in Asia could escape from hazard of salinization.This paper deals with various salt-affected soils spreading in East Asia and its neighboring regions (including China,Japan,Kampuchea,Democratic Peolpe's Republic of Kores,Republic of Korea,Laos,Mongolia,Burma,Thailand and Vietnam),Principles of occurrence of salinization,and features of salt-affected soils in these regions have been studied in the present paper,Based on studies on types,features and distribution patterns of salt-affected soils.a salt-affected soil map of East Asia and its neighboring regions has been complied.Mechanism and manifestation of the salinization hazard on the regional agriculture and ecological environment,measures of preventing salinization hazard and exploiting salt-affected soils in these regions are also discussed.

  14. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

  15. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-07-17

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

  16. Optimization of the genomic DNA extraction method of silverleaf nightshade/ (Solanum elaeagnifolium /Cav.), an invasive plant in the cultivated areas within the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    The geographical origin of an invasive in the cultivated area within the Mediterranean region, silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav, (Solanaceae) should be identified through the analysis of genetic similarities between native and introduced populations using microsatellite markers. Bef...

  17. Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas: Analyzing Turkey's Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Tanriverdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale natural gas discoveries in East Mediterranean have drawn attention to the region. The discoveries caused both hope and tension in the region. As stated, the new resources may serve as a new hope for all relevant parties as well as the region if managed in a collaborative and conciliatory way. Energy may be a remedy to Cyprus' financial predicament, initiate a process for resolving differences between Turkey and Cyprus, normalize Israel-Turkey relations and so on. On the contrary, adopting unilateral and uncooperative approach may aggravate the tension and undermine regional stability and security. In this sense, the role of energy in generating hope or tension is dependent on the approaches of related parties. The article will analyze Turkey's attitude in East Mediterranean case in terms of possible negative and positive implications for Turkey in the energy field. The article examines Turkey's position and the reasons behind its stance in the East Mediterranean case. Considering Turkey's energy profile and energy policy goals, the article argues that the newly found hydrocarbons may bring in more stakes for Turkey if Turkey adopts a cooperative approach in this case.

  18. The environmental, archaeological and historical evidence for regional climatic changes and their societal impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean in Late Antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Adam; Pickett, Jordan; Roberts, Neil; Waliszewski, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the evidence for climatic changes in the Eastern Mediterranean for the period 200-800 AD and offers hypotheses on the role of climatic fluctuations in the societal developments that occurred in this region at the end of Antiquity. The geographical focus of the paper includes Anatolia and the Levant, two major regions of the Eastern Roman Empire that are rich in environmental, historical and archaeological data. The paper starts with the review of current research on the economic, settlement and vegetation history of the Eastern Mediterranean in Late Antiquity, which provides the necessary framework for the study of potential climate impacts. The core of the article is devoted to the analysis of the palaeoclimatic evidence, which is divided in two groups. The first one encompasses the direct evidence, that is palaeoclimate proxies and the textual record of extreme weather events, while the second includes indirect information on climate, in particular multi-proxy studies that include pollen analysis, archaeological evidence, and the historical evidence of subsistence crises. We conclude that during our study period there occurred three periods of substantially different climatic conditions. A late Roman drought ∼350-470 AD was followed by a dramatic shift to much wetter climatic conditions. These in turn changed into increasing dryness after ∼730 AD in Anatolia and ∼670 AD in the Levant. The lack of chronological precision in the dating of the archaeological evidence and of some climatic records makes it impossible at present to make conclusive observations regarding the societal responses to these climatic fluctuations. Nonetheless in all probability, the extended and - in some areas - severe late Roman drought did not cause any major social upheaval or economic decline in Anatolia or the Levant, although it appears to have contributed to a change in patterns of water use in the cities. In contrast, the increased availability of moisture

  19. The Roots and Implications of East Asian Regionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    world in the 1940s and 1950s. In the case of Asia, the new regional scheme was in some ways a repackaging of the old, just purged of its Eurocentric... egoism , and contentiousness.10 Critics found it easy to poke holes in Asian Values.11 Some pointed to the implausibility of dichotomiz- ing Asia and...dynastic management, even if these dynas- ties were non-Chinese as in the case of the Manchus. Southeast Asia was less isolated and more open to outside

  20. An automatic approach for rice mapping in temperate region using time series of MODIS imagery: first results for Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, M.; Nelson, A.; Manfrom, G.; Brivio, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    Timely and accurate information on crop typology and status are required to support suitable action to better manage agriculture production and reduce food insecurity. More specifically, regional crop masking and phenological information are important inputs for spatialized crop growth models for yield forecasting systems. Digital cartographic data available at global/regional scale, such as GLC2000, GLOBCOVER or MODIS land cover products (MOD12), are often not adequate for this crop modeling application. For this reason, there is a need to develop and test methods that can provide such information for specific cropsusing automated classification techniques.. In this framework we focused our analysis on the rice cultivation area detection due to the importance of this crop. Rice is a staple food for half of the world's population (FAO 2004). Over 90% of the world's rice is produced and consumed in Asia and the region is home to 70% of the world's poor, most of whom depend on rice for their livelihoods andor food security. Several initiatives are being promoted at the international level to provide maps of rice cultivated areas in South and South East Asia using different approaches available in literature for rice mapping in tropical regions. We contribute to these efforts by proposing an automatic method to detect rice cultivated areas in temperate regions exploiting MODIS 8-Day composite of Surface Reflectance at 500m spatial resolution (MOD09A1product). Temperate rice is cultivated worldwide in more than 20 countries covering around 16M ha for a total production of about 65M tons of paddy per year. The proposed method is based on a common approach available in literature that first identifies flood condition that can be related to rice agronomic practice and then checks for vegetation growth. The method presents innovative aspects related both to the flood detection, exploiting Short Wave Infrared spectral information, and to the crop grow monitoring analyzing

  1. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  2. Enhancing Services for Students with Mild Disabilities in the Middle East Gulf Region: A Kuwait Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Koch, Kourtland R.; Braaten, Sheldon R.

    2008-01-01

    At a conference, titled: "Childhood Disabilities: Assessment and Early Intervention" held between March 20-22, 2006, at Kuwait University, a range of discussion topics were considered that would enhance and design specific best practices in special education for the Middle East Arab Gulf region. Governmental representatives,…

  3. Low planktic foraminiferal diversity and abundance observed in a spring 2013 west-east Mediterranean Sea plankton tow transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallo, Miguel; Ziveri, Patrizia; Mortyn, P. Graham; Schiebel, Ralf; Grelaud, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Planktic foraminifera were collected with 150 µm BONGO nets from the upper 200 m water depth at 20 stations across the Mediterranean Sea between 2 May and 2 June 2013. The main aim is to characterize the species distribution and test the covariance between foraminiferal area density (ρA) and seawater carbonate chemistry in a biogeochemical gradient including ultraoligotrophic conditions. Average foraminifera abundances are 1.42 ± 1.43 ind. 10 m-3 (ranging from 0.11 to 5.20 ind. 10 m-3), including 12 morphospecies. Large differences in species assemblages and total abundances are observed between the different Mediterranean sub-basins, with an overall dominance of spinose, symbiont-bearing species indicating oligotrophic conditions. The highest values in absolute abundance are found in the Strait of Gibraltar and the Alboran Sea. The western basin is dominated by Globorotalia inflata and Globigerina bulloides at slightly lower standing stocks than in the eastern basin. In contrast, the planktic foraminiferal assemblage in the warmer, saltier, and more nutrient-limited eastern basin is dominated by Globigerinoides ruber (white). These new results, when combined with previous findings, suggest that temperature-induced surface water stratification and food availability are the main factors controlling foraminiferal distribution. In the oligotrophic and highly alkaline and supersaturated with respect to calcite and aragonite Mediterranean surface water, standing stocks and ρA of G. ruber (white) and G. bulloides are affected by both food availability and seawater carbonate chemistry. Rapid warming increased surface ocean stratification impacting food availability and changes in trophic conditions could be the causes of reduced foraminiferal abundance, diversity, and species-specific changes in planktic foraminiferal calcification.

  4. Evaluating tourism development of South East Macedonia: a micro region perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Trajkov, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    The paper evaluates the current level of tourism development in a micro region consisted of the municipalities of Gevgelija, Bogdanci and Dojran, as part of the South East planning region of Macedonia. It analyses the tourism sector dynamics by evaluating the market, the core value chain as well as the enabling environment for tourism development. Moreover, it elaborates the supporting functions, services, rules and regulations that facilitate tourism growth. For that purpose, the paper under...

  5. Regional initiatives to promote economic development in North-east Asia.

    OpenAIRE

    Nijkamp, P.; Wiegmans, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the economic development potential of the Asian Pacific Rim, with a particular view on north East Asia. It is argued that growth triangles are likely to be a proper way of organizing regional development forces. Next, the attention is focused on the Tumen River Area Development Programme as a potentially interesting region for joint transnational development initiatives. The opportunities and threats of this area are explored by means of scenario analysis. It is conc1uded...

  6. East African Community (EAC) as Regionalism : The Exclusion and Inclusion of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Butanaziba, Yunus Lubega

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine and recommend possible prescriptions against problems that regionalism has since occasioned for the last 110 years, and the ones we might face in the short and long term future. It brings forward the East African Community (EAC) as a regional grouping under the ‘exclusive’ and ‘inclusive’ damages of controls by western dominant states, particularly Britain and the United States of America (USA). The problem is that official reasoning and incompetence ...

  7. Food Security - Global Trends and Region Perspective with Reference to East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ching-Cheng; Hsu, Shih-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    The sharp increase in global food prices during 2007‐2008 has triggered the awareness of food insecurity problems and their impacts on the low income, food‐deficit countries many of which are located in the East Asian countries. The food‐security situation was good in relative terms given that the percentage of carbohydrates consumed is slightly lower than the world average while proteins and fats consumption are higher than that of other regions. The food security in East Asia is largely dri...

  8. Cultivation and Characterization of Cynara Cardunculus for Solid Biofuels Production in the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas G. Danalatos

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Technical specifications of solid biofuels are continuously improved towards the development and promotion of their market. Efforts in the Greek market are limited, mainly due to the climate particularity of the region, which hinders the growth of suitable biofuels. Taking also into account the increased oil prices and the high inputs required to grow most annual crops in Greece, cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. is now considered the most important and promising sources for solid biofuel production in Greece in the immediate future. The reason is that cardoon is a perennial crop of Mediterranean origin, well adapted to the xerothermic conditions of southern Europe, which can be utilized particularly for solid biofuel production. This is due to its minimum production cost, as this perennial weed may perform high biomass productivity on most soils with modest or without any inputs of irrigation and agrochemicals. Within this framework, the present research work is focused on the planning and analysis of different land use scenarios involving this specific energy crop and the combustion behaviour characterization for the solid products. Such land use scenarios are based on quantitative estimates of the crop’s production potential under specific soil-climatic conditions as well as the inputs required for its realization in comparison to existing conventional crops. Concerning its decomposition behaviour, devolatilisation and char combustion tests were performed in a non-isothermal thermogravimetric analyser (TA Q600. A kinetic analysis was applied and accrued results were compared with data already available for other lignocellulosic materials. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the decomposition process of cardoon follows the degradation of other lignocellulosic fuels, meeting high burnout rates. This research work concludes that Cynara cardunculus, under certain circumstances, can be used as a solid biofuel of acceptable quality.

  9. Determination of Genetic Diversity of Some Sage Species Collected From Eastern Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Çardaklı

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sage (Salvia spp. is the most important and largest genus of the Lamiaceae family, and the popularity among medical plants is increasing. Sage plant is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and spice industries and as tea by many people. The fact that the plant may be marketed after being collected uncontrollably from the nature threatens its future. Therefore, it is necessary to put these species under protection and to start breeding projects as well to do genetic characterization of them. For this purpose, in the study, 11 different sage species from the Eastern Mediterranean region were collected and genetic differences among species were determined using SRAP (Sequence dependent replicated polymorphism markers. As the result of our experiments, average polymorphism content, allele number and polymorphism information content (PIC of the species were calculated as 90.91%, 4.2 and 0.91, respectively. The PIC values ranged from 0.04 to 0.99. While the average genetic difference among species was determined as 43.15%, the highest genetic difference, which was between Salvia aucheri spp. aucheri and Salvia aramiensis, was found to be 61.46%. The least genetic difference, on the other hand, was detected between Salvia tomentosa and Salvia hypergeia species with 22.62% similarity. Additionally, according to the observations made through the study, the SRAP markers we used were thought to be reliable for the genetic characterization of sage species. In breeding programs where interspecies dissimilarities are considered, selecting parental species with high genetic differences will increase the success.

  10. Plant distribution-altitude and landform relationships in karstic sinkholes of Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Kürsad; Gulsoy, Serkan; Mert, Ahmet; Ozturk, Munir; Muys, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the plant distribution and the altitude-shape-size characteristics of sinkholes, and the landform characteristics inside sinkholes in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Block kriging, Factor analysis, Cluster Analysis and Detrended Correspondence Analysis were performed. The sinkhole type and altitudinal zone were found to be the significant factors affecting the plant distribution. However, the sinkhole type was more important than the altitudinal zone. Hence, the sinkholes were first subdivided into groups according to types and then the groups were divided into subgroups according to the altitudinal zones. Consequently, 4 groups were defined; A-type sinkholes [1400-1550 m (A1), 1550-1700 m (A2)] and B-type sinkholes [1400-1550 (B1), 1550-1700 m (B2)]. The B-type was wider vertically and shorter horizontally than A-type sinkholes. Significant differences were found between the plant distribution and slope position inside the sinkholes. Plant distribution in the lower slopes was different from that in the flats and ridges in the B1 sub-type of B-type. Plant distribution in B2 subtype was different among the slope positions (ridge, middle slope, lower slope, and flat). Although distribution of plants is different in different parts (ridges, upper slope, middle slope, lower slope and basal flats) of A sinkhole, the differences between the parts of intermediate slope position are not significant. A high plant variability along short distances in the sinkholes was observed in the study area. That is why the site of sinkholes have a big potential for the distribution of many species. Hence, the area must be separated as strictly protected zone.

  11. Catastrophic drought in East Asian monsoon region during Heinrich event 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Sun, Liguang; Chu, Yangxi; Xia, Zehui; Zhou, Xinying; Li, Xiangzhong; Chu, Zhuding; Liu, Xiangjun; Shao, Da; Wang, Yuhong

    2016-06-01

    Heinrich event 1 (H1) is an important millennial climate event during the last deglaciation. The substantial decreasing of monsoon strength in the East Asian monsoon region during the H1, as shown by stalagmite δ18O records, has been attributed to the southward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), which is caused by the slowdown/collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, records from different Asian monsoon regions show various trends in precipitation changes during the H1, and these trends cannot be solely interpreted by the southward shift of the ITCZ. In the present study, we reconstructed time-series of East Asian monsoon precipitation between 25,000 and 10,000 a BP from floodplain sediments in the Huai River Basin. A white sediment layer, distinct from other layers in the profile, contains significantly low TOC, tree pollen and fern spore contents, and more positive δ13Corg, and it is deposited during the H1 event. The determined TOC, pollen and δ13Corg time-series, together with previously reported stalagmite δ18O, indicate a catastrophic (severe) drought in Jianghuai Region, one of the East Asian monsoon regions, during the H1. The La Niña condition in tropical Pacific likely also contributes to the catastrophic drought in Jianghuai Region and the precipitation variations in the Asian monsoon region during the H1.

  12. Sustainable Land Management's potential for climate change adaptation in Mediterranean environments: a regional scale assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eekhout, Joris P. C.; de Vente, Joris

    2017-04-01

    Climate change has strong implications for many essential ecosystem services, such as provision of drinking and irrigation water, soil erosion and flood control. Especially large impacts are expected in the Mediterranean, already characterised by frequent floods and droughts. The projected higher frequency of extreme weather events under climate change will lead to an increase of plant water stress, reservoir inflow and sediment yield. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) practices are increasingly promoted as climate change adaptation strategy and to increase resilience against extreme events. However, there is surprisingly little known about their impacts and trade-offs on ecosystem services at regional scales. The aim of this research is to provide insight in the potential of SLM for climate change adaptation, focusing on catchment-scale impacts on soil and water resources. We applied a spatially distributed hydrological model (SPHY), coupled with an erosion model (MUSLE) to the Segura River catchment (15,978 km2) in SE Spain. We run the model for three periods: one reference (1981-2000) and two future scenarios (2031-2050 and 2081-2100). Climate input data for the future scenarios were based on output from 9 Regional Climate Models and for different emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Realistic scenarios of SLM practices were developed based on a local stakeholder consultation process. The evaluated SLM scenarios focussed on reduced tillage and organic amendments under tree and cereal crops, covering 24% and 15% of the catchment, respectively. In the reference scenario, implementation of SLM at the field-scale led to an increase of the infiltration capacity of the soil and a reduction of surface runoff up to 29%, eventually reducing catchment-scale reservoir inflow by 6%. This led to a reduction of field-scale sediment yield of more than 50% and a reduced catchment-scale sediment flux to reservoirs of 5%. SLM was able to fully mitigate the effect of climate

  13. The Burden of Mental Disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charara, Raghid; Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Naghavi, Mohsen; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Afshin, Ashkan; Vos, Theo; Daoud, Farah; Wang, Haidong; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Khalil, Ibrahim; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Khader, Yousef; Al-Hamad, Nawal; Makhlouf Obermeyer, Carla; Rafay, Anwar; Asghar, Rana; Rana, Saleem M.; Shaheen, Amira; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Khoja, Tawfik; Al Rayess, Zulfa A.; AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Ali, Raghib; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Hamidi, Samer; Refaat, Amany H.; Westerman, Ronny; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali S.; Ali, Syed Danish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Faghmous, Imad A. D.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Jonas, Jost B.; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Mehari, Alem; Omer, Saad B.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Mokdad, Ali A.; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Akseer, Nadia; Arya, Dinesh; Borschmann, Rohan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Brugha, Traolach S.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Degenhardt, Louisa; Ferrari, Alize; Haro, Josep Maria; Horino, Masako; Hornberger, John C.; Huang, Hsiang; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yunjin; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Mitchell, Philip B.; Patton, George; Sagar, Rajesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savuon, Kim; Seedat, Soraya; Shiue, Ivy; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Stein, Dan J.; Tabb, Karen M.; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is witnessing an increase in chronic disorders, including mental illness. With ongoing unrest, this is expected to rise. This is the first study to quantify the burden of mental disorders in the EMR. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) 2013. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) allow assessment of both premature mortality (years of life lost–YLLs) and nonfatal outcomes (years lived with disability–YLDs). DALYs are computed by adding YLLs and YLDs for each age-sex-country group. In 2013, mental disorders contributed to 5.6% of the total disease burden in the EMR (1894 DALYS/100,000 population): 2519 DALYS/100,000 (2590/100,000 males, 2426/100,000 females) in high-income countries, 1884 DALYS/100,000 (1618/100,000 males, 2157/100,000 females) in middle-income countries, 1607 DALYS/100,000 (1500/100,000 males, 1717/100,000 females) in low-income countries. Females had a greater proportion of burden due to mental disorders than did males of equivalent ages, except for those under 15 years of age. The highest proportion of DALYs occurred in the 25–49 age group, with a peak in the 35–39 years age group (5344 DALYs/100,000). The burden of mental disorders in EMR increased from 1726 DALYs/100,000 in 1990 to 1912 DALYs/100,000 in 2013 (10.8% increase). Within the mental disorders group in EMR, depressive disorders accounted for most DALYs, followed by anxiety disorders. Among EMR countries, Palestine had the largest burden of mental disorders. Nearly all EMR countries had a higher mental disorder burden compared to the global level. Our findings call for EMR ministries of health to increase provision of mental health services and to address the stigma of mental illness. Moreover, our results showing the accelerating burden of mental health are alarming as the region is seeing an increased level of instability. Indeed, mental health problems, if not properly addressed, will lead to an increased burden of

  14. The Burden of Mental Disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charara, Raghid; Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Naghavi, Mohsen; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Afshin, Ashkan; Vos, Theo; Daoud, Farah; Wang, Haidong; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Khalil, Ibrahim; Hamadeh, Randah R; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Khader, Yousef; Al-Hamad, Nawal; Makhlouf Obermeyer, Carla; Rafay, Anwar; Asghar, Rana; Rana, Saleem M; Shaheen, Amira; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Husseini, Abdullatif; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Khoja, Tawfik; Al Rayess, Zulfa A; AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Hsairi, Mohamed; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Ali, Raghib; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Hamidi, Samer; Refaat, Amany H; Westerman, Ronny; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali S; Ali, Syed Danish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Faghmous, Imad A D; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Jonas, Jost B; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Mehari, Alem; Omer, Saad B; Pourmalek, Farshad; Uthman, Olalekan A; Mokdad, Ali A; Maalouf, Fadi T; Abd-Allah, Foad; Akseer, Nadia; Arya, Dinesh; Borschmann, Rohan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Brugha, Traolach S; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Degenhardt, Louisa; Ferrari, Alize; Haro, Josep Maria; Horino, Masako; Hornberger, John C; Huang, Hsiang; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yunjin; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Mitchell, Philip B; Patton, George; Sagar, Rajesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savuon, Kim; Seedat, Soraya; Shiue, Ivy; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Stein, Dan J; Tabb, Karen M; Whiteford, Harvey A; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Murray, Christopher J L; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is witnessing an increase in chronic disorders, including mental illness. With ongoing unrest, this is expected to rise. This is the first study to quantify the burden of mental disorders in the EMR. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) 2013. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) allow assessment of both premature mortality (years of life lost-YLLs) and nonfatal outcomes (years lived with disability-YLDs). DALYs are computed by adding YLLs and YLDs for each age-sex-country group. In 2013, mental disorders contributed to 5.6% of the total disease burden in the EMR (1894 DALYS/100,000 population): 2519 DALYS/100,000 (2590/100,000 males, 2426/100,000 females) in high-income countries, 1884 DALYS/100,000 (1618/100,000 males, 2157/100,000 females) in middle-income countries, 1607 DALYS/100,000 (1500/100,000 males, 1717/100,000 females) in low-income countries. Females had a greater proportion of burden due to mental disorders than did males of equivalent ages, except for those under 15 years of age. The highest proportion of DALYs occurred in the 25-49 age group, with a peak in the 35-39 years age group (5344 DALYs/100,000). The burden of mental disorders in EMR increased from 1726 DALYs/100,000 in 1990 to 1912 DALYs/100,000 in 2013 (10.8% increase). Within the mental disorders group in EMR, depressive disorders accounted for most DALYs, followed by anxiety disorders. Among EMR countries, Palestine had the largest burden of mental disorders. Nearly all EMR countries had a higher mental disorder burden compared to the global level. Our findings call for EMR ministries of health to increase provision of mental health services and to address the stigma of mental illness. Moreover, our results showing the accelerating burden of mental health are alarming as the region is seeing an increased level of instability. Indeed, mental health problems, if not properly addressed, will lead to an increased burden of

  15. Unconventional Pn wave tomography of the Western Mediterranean region and the Gulf of Cadiz. Constraints on plausible locations of major future and past historical earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghoul, Noureddine; Mezioud-Saich, Amira; Said Oucherif, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    remarkable tectonic feature, trending roughly East-West and extending from off-the Apennines coast, in the Tyrrhenian Sea, up to the Gulf of Cadiz. A continuous increase in Pn velocity from 7.6 km/s up to 8.3 km/s is observed. At the Gulf of Cadiz a very well delineated arc of high velocity of 8.3 km/s, represents the cold shadow of the underthrusted oceanic slab beneath the Gibraltar Arc. This imaged regional tectonic feature strongly supports the delamination of an underthrusted East dipping oceanic slab, beneath the Mediterranean Sea (Thiebot and Gutscher; Gutscher et al., 2006). (b) all 228 crustal earthquakes of magnitudes larger or equal to 5.5 which occurred since 1964, are not randomly distributed, but are located above cold mantle lid ( 7.9 km/s), and associated to large variations in Pn velocities at their immediate vicinities (heterogeneities, patches etc.). The 1755 Lisbon earthquake (Mag8.5-9.0), as well as future large earthquakes, could be further constrained using the results obtained by this mantle lid mapping.

  16. How much does Clausius-Clapeyron law predict humidity and precipitation change under global warming in the Mediterranean region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobinski, Philippe; Da Silva, Nicolas; Bastin, Sophie; Muller, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Extreme precipitation has been proposed to scale with the precipitable water content in the atmosphere. Assuming constant relative humidity, this implies an increase of precipitation extremes at a rate of about 7/degC globally as indicated by the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. In this study, we examine the projected change and scaling of atmospheric humidity and precipitation in the Mediterranean region with respect to temperature using HyMeX/MED-CORDEX regional climate simulations, and give physical reasons causing departure from Clausius-Clapeyron scaling.

  17. SIMULATION OF PRESENT CLIMATE OVER EAST ASIA BY A REGIONAL CLIMATE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong-feng; GAO Xue-jie; OUYANG Li-cheng; DONG Wen-jie

    2008-01-01

    A 15-year simulation of climate over East Asia is conducted with the latest version of a regional climate model RegCM3 nested in one-way mode to the ERA40 Re-analysis data. The performance of themodel in simulating present climate over East Asia and China is investigated. Results show that RegCM3 can reproduce well the atmospheric circulation over East Asia. The simulation of the main distribution patterns of surface air temperature and precipitation over China and their seasonal cycle/evolution, are basically agree with that of the observation. Meanwhile a general cold bias is found in the simulation. AS for the precipitation, the model tends to overestimate the precipitation in northern China while underestimate it in southern China, particularly in winter. In general, the model has better performance in simulating temperature than precipitation.

  18. Structural and chemical variations in phlogopite from lamproitic rocks of the Central Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Giovanni O.; Bindi, Luca; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Conticelli, Sandro; Bonazzi, Paola

    2017-08-01

    Micas from mafic ultrapotassic rocks with lamproitic affinity from several localities of the Central Mediterranean region were studied through single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS); Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MöS), when feasible, was also applied to minimise the number of unknown variables and uncertainties. Analysed lamproitic samples cover the most important Central Mediterranean type localities, from Plan d'Albard (Western Alps) to Sisco (Corsica), Montecatini Val di Cecina and Orciatico (Tuscany, Italy) and Torre Alfina (Northern Latium, Italy). The studied crystals show distinctive chemical and structural features; all of them belong to the phlogopite-annite join and crystallise in the 1M polytype, except for micas from Torre Alfina, where both 1M and 2M1 polytypes were found. Studied micas have variable but generally high F and Ti contents, with Mg/(Mg + Fe) ranging from 0.5 to 0.9; 2M1 crystals from Torre Alfina radically differ in chemical composition, showing high contents of Ti and Fe as well as of Al in both tetrahedra and octahedra, leading to distinctive structural distortions, especially in tetrahedral sites. SIMS data indicate that studied micas are generally dehydrogenated with OH contents ranging from 0.2 apfu (atoms per formula unit) for Orciatico and Torre Alfina to 1.4 for Plan d'Albard crystals; this feature is also testified by the length of the c parameter, which decreases with the loss of hydrogen and/or the increase of the F → OH substitution. Chemical and structural data suggest that the entry of high charge octahedral cations is mainly balanced by an oxy mechanism and, to a lesser extent, by a M3 +,4 +-Tschermak substitution. Our data confirm that Ti preferentially partitions into the M2 site and that different Ti and F contents, as well as different K/Al values, are both dependant upon fH2O and the composition of magma rather than controlled by P and T

  19. Offshore Wind Mapping Mediterranean area using SAR. A case study of retrieval around peninsular regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2013-04-01

    Satellite observations like Scatterometers e.g. QuickScat, and Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) of the ocean surface provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable, for mapping offshore wind resources for offshore wind farm installation, where the most suitable locations within a given region must be identified using at least 5 year wind data over the whole domain. This is a special issue in the Mediterranean, where spatial information is not readily available because buoys or masts are sparse, with long periods of missing data, and measurements represent only one point. Here, we focus on the SAR images that have the advantage of high spatial resolution (down to 100m) allowing to derive information close to the coast but with the disadvantage of low time resolution causing lack of information on regimes with low time scale. We retrieved SAR (ENVISAT ASAR scenes acquired in Wide Swath Mode-WSM-) wind speed in the Mediterranean from March 2002 to April 2012 using the Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) software APL/NOAA SAR Wind Retrieval System (ANSWRS version 2.0) (Monaldo 2000; Monaldo et al. 2006). The ANSWRS software produces per default wind speed fields initialized using wind directions determined by the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) models interpolated in time and space to match the satellite data. NOGAPS data are available at 6-hour intervals mapped to a 1° latitude/longitude grid. Here, we present a case study in Calabria, a long, narrow and mountainous peninsula in South Italy that causes a significant wind conditions variability from one coast to the other. We considered a 10m mast, measuring hourly wind speed and direction located at the coastline at the harbor of the town Crotone, belonging to the marine network of sensors of ISPRA (Institute for Environmental Protection and Research). Three points of the SAR images were chosen at offshore

  20. Spatial analysis of future East Asian seasonal temperature using two regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yura; Jun, Mikyoung; Min, Seung-Ki; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2016-05-01

    CORDEX-East Asia, a branch of the coordinated regional climate downscaling experiment (CORDEX) initiative, provides high-resolution climate simulations for the domain covering East Asia. This study analyzes temperature data from regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the CORDEX - East Asia region, accounting for the spatial dependence structure of the data. In particular, we assess similarities and dissimilarities of the outputs from two RCMs, HadGEM3-RA and RegCM4, over the region and over time. A Bayesian functional analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach is used to simultaneously model the temperature patterns from the two RCMs for the current and future climate. We exploit nonstationary spatial models to handle the spatial dependence structure of the temperature variable, which depends heavily on latitude and altitude. For a seasonal comparison, we examine changes in the winter temperature in addition to the summer temperature data. We find that the temperature increase projected by RegCM4 tends to be smaller than the projection of HadGEM3-RA for summers, and that the future warming projected by HadGEM3-RA tends to be weaker for winters. Also, the results show that there will be a warming of 1-3°C over the region in 45 years. More specifically, the warming pattern clearly depends on the latitude, with greater temperature increases in higher latitude areas, which implies that warming may be more severe in the northern part of the domain.

  1. TRENDS AND ACTUAL ISSUES CONCERNING SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA, STUDY CASE: THE NORTH EAST REGION OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu BECIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Regions of Development are characterized by substantial social, economic, and territorial disparities. There also recorded large economic disparities between rural and urban areas. The Romanian rural areas includes: 2860 communes, 12,956 villages, representing around 90% of the Romanian territory and 45 % of its population. It has the main agricultural and forestry resources and over 9.6 million inhabitants. Of these, 506 communes and 2414 villages are located in the 6 counties of The North East Region of Development, one of the poorest regions of development within European Union. This paper is focused on the regional development issues in the rural areas of this region and is aimed to evaluate the resources that haven’t been enough capitalized in this region and to indentify solutions to improve the socio- economic situation in the next years, through a balanced development strategy.

  2. Impact of East Asian summer monsoon circulation on the regional aerosol distribution in observations and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongli; Xie, Xiaoning; Yan, Libin; Liu, Xiaodong

    2017-06-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) can change the spatio-temporal distribution of aerosols by influencing the aerosol horizontal and vertical transports and the wet deposition of aerosols over East Asia. In this paper, we examined the aerosol optical depth (AOD) during summer together with the intensity of the EASM based on moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer products on board the Terra satellite and the modeling results from the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model 5.1 in the mid-latitude monsoonal East Asia (20-45° N, 105-130° E). Our results from both observations and simulations show positive correlations of AOD with the monsoon intensity over the Northeast Asia sub-region (32.5-45° N, 105-130° E), and negative correlations with that over the southeast Asia sub-region (20-32.5° N, 105-130° E). The observed and simulated AODs were much larger over the northern sub-region and much smaller over the southern sub-region in the strongest monsoon years compared with those in the weakest monsoon years. The model results suggest that the mechanism responsible for the north-south difference in the aerosol distribution was mainly caused by lower-tropospheric meridional wind anomalies related to EASM. Compared with the weakest monsoon years, the strongest monsoon years experienced southerly wind anomalies, which enabled more aerosols to be transported northward and resulted in a convergence of aerosols over the northern sub-region. In addition, the wet deposition of aerosols reduced (enhanced) the aerosol concentrations in the northern (southern) sub-region during the strongest monsoon years compared with the weakest monsoon years, which partly offset the impact of the lower southerly winds on the aerosol distribution over East Asia.

  3. A comparison of moment magnitude estimates for the European-Mediterranean and Italian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Paolo; Lolli, Barbara; Vannucci, Gianfranco; Boschi, Enzo

    2012-09-01

    With the goal of constructing a homogeneous data set of moment magnitudes (Mw) to be used for seismic hazard assessment, we compared Mw estimates from moment tensor catalogues available online. We found an apparent scaling disagreement between Mw estimates from the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the US Geological Survey and from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) project. We suspect that this is the effect of an underestimation of Mw > 7.0 (M0 > 4.0 × 1019 Nm) computed by NEIC owing to the limitations of their computational approach. We also found an apparent scaling disagreement between GCMT and two regional moment tensor catalogues provided by the 'Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich' (ETHZ) and by the European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) project of the Italian 'Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia' (INGV). This is probably the effect of the overestimation of Mw < 5.5 (M0 < 2.2 × 1017 Nm), up to year 2002, and of Mw < 5.0 (M0 < 4.0 × 1016 Nm), since year 2003, owing to the physical limitations of the standard CMT inversion method used by GCMT for the earthquakes of relatively low magnitude. If the discrepant data are excluded from the comparisons, the scaling disagreements become insignificant in all cases. We observed instead small absolute offsets (≤0.1 units) for NEIC and ETHZ catalogues with respect to GCMT whereas there is an almost perfect correspondence between RCMT and GCMT. Finally, we found a clear underestimation of about 0.2 units of Mw magnitudes computed at the INGV using the time-domain moment tensor (TDMT) method with respect to those reported by GCMT and RCMT. According to our results, we suggest appropriate offset corrections to be applied to Mw estimates from NEIC, ETHZ and TDMT catalogues before merging their data with GCMT and RCMT catalogues. We suggest as well to discard the probably discrepant data from NEIC and GCMT if other Mw estimates from different sources are

  4. The fine and coarse particulate matter at four major Mediterranean cities: local and regional sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2013-11-01

    , the results were weaker in Marseille and particularly in Rome, probably due to their greater distance from Northwest Africa, in comparison to Madrid and Lisbon. Dust intrusions from the Sahara desert and transportation of Mediterranean/Atlantic sea spray, were characterized as primary regional sources of exogenous PM10 in all four cities. Continental trajectories from the industrialized northern Italy affected PM10 levels particularly in Marseille and Rome, due to their more eastern geographical position.

  5. Association between dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease among adults in the Middle East and North Africa region: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa Aljefree

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper reviews the evidence related to the association of dietary pattern with coronary heart disease (CHD, strokes, and the associated risk factors among adults in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. Methods: A systematic review of published articles between January 1990 and March 2015 was conducted using Pro-Quest Public Health, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. The term ‘dietary pattern’ refers to data derived from dietary pattern analyses and individual food component analyses. Results: The search identified 15 studies. The available data in the MENA region showed that Western dietary pattern has been predominant among adults with fewer adherences to the traditional diet, such as the Mediterranean diet. The Western dietary pattern was found to be associated with an increased risk of dyslipidaemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS, body mass index (BMI, and hypertension. The Mediterranean diet, labelled in two studies as ‘the traditional Lebanese diet’, was negatively associated with BMI, waist circumference (WC, and the risk of diabetes, while one study found no association between the Mediterranean diet and MetS. Two randomised controlled trials conducted in Iran demonstrated the effect of the dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH in reducing metabolic risk among patients with diabetes and MetS. Likewise, the consumption of dairy products was associated with decreased blood pressure and WC, while the intake of whole grains was associated with reduced WC. In addition, the high consumption of black tea was found to be associated with decreased serum lipids. The intake of fish, vegetable oils, and tea had a protective effect on CHD, whereas the intake of full-fat yoghurt and hydrogenated fats was associated with an increased risk of CHD. Conclusion: There appears to be a significant association of Western dietary pattern with the increased risk of CHD, strokes, and associated risk factors among adults in

  6. Association between dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease among adults in the Middle East and North Africa region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljefree, Najlaa; Ahmed, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence related to the association of dietary pattern with coronary heart disease (CHD), strokes, and the associated risk factors among adults in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. A systematic review of published articles between January 1990 and March 2015 was conducted using Pro-Quest Public Health, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. The term 'dietary pattern' refers to data derived from dietary pattern analyses and individual food component analyses. The search identified 15 studies. The available data in the MENA region showed that Western dietary pattern has been predominant among adults with fewer adherences to the traditional diet, such as the Mediterranean diet. The Western dietary pattern was found to be associated with an increased risk of dyslipidaemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), body mass index (BMI), and hypertension. The Mediterranean diet, labelled in two studies as 'the traditional Lebanese diet', was negatively associated with BMI, waist circumference (WC), and the risk of diabetes, while one study found no association between the Mediterranean diet and MetS. Two randomised controlled trials conducted in Iran demonstrated the effect of the dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) in reducing metabolic risk among patients with diabetes and MetS. Likewise, the consumption of dairy products was associated with decreased blood pressure and WC, while the intake of whole grains was associated with reduced WC. In addition, the high consumption of black tea was found to be associated with decreased serum lipids. The intake of fish, vegetable oils, and tea had a protective effect on CHD, whereas the intake of full-fat yoghurt and hydrogenated fats was associated with an increased risk of CHD. There appears to be a significant association of Western dietary pattern with the increased risk of CHD, strokes, and associated risk factors among adults in the MENA region. Conversely, increased adherence to Mediterranean

  7. Bioclimatic requirements for olive flowering in two Mediterranean regions located at the same latitude (Andalucia, Spain and Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Fabio; Vazquez, Luis Manuel; Ruga, Luigia; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Fornaciari, Marco; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez, Eugenio; Romano, Bruno; Galan, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    The Mediterranean Region is the major area devoted to olive tree crop, and therefore a study of olive flowering is of great interest for the European Community. On the other hand, olive pollen is one of the main causes of pollen allergy in the Mediterranean area. Olive flowering is affected by climatic factors such as temperature and photoperiod, which vary geographically in latitude and altitude. Temperature has been used to study those processes that lead to flowering in the olive tree. The aim of the present paper is firstly the comparison of the flowering full bloom dates in two Mediterranean areas, Sicily (Italy) and Cordoba (Spain), located in the same latitudinal band (37-38 degrees N) and to calculate the heat requirement until flowering by determination of different threshold temperatures and methods of heat accumulation. A delay of the full flowering dates in the Spanish compared with the Italian olive groves was observed. The most suitable threshold temperatures were carried out in a 7 degrees -15 degrees C range by considering the heat accumulation start on 1 January in each olive grove. In particular, some causes were indicated as responsible for the different threshold temperatures recorded in the 2 study areas: First, the different climatic conditions (continental and insular climate) secondly the different cultivars present in the olive groves.

  8. Preface to special section on East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Chen, H.; Cribb, M.; Dickerson, R.; Holben, B.; Li, C.; Lu, D.; Luo, Y.; Maring, H.; Shi, G.; Tsay, S.-C.; Wang, P.; Wang, Y.; Xia, X.; Zheng, Y.; Yuan, T.; Zhao, F.

    2007-11-01

    Papers published in this special section report findings from the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE). They are concerned with (1) the temporal and spatial distributions of aerosol loading and precursor gases, (2) aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), (3) aerosol direct radiative effects, (4) validation of satellite products, (5) transport mechanisms, and (6) the effects of air pollution on ecosystems. Aerosol loading is heaviest in mideastern China with a mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.5 and increasing to 0.7 around major cities that reduced daily mean surface solar radiation by ˜30-40 W m-2, but barely changed solar reflection at the top of the atmosphere. Aerosol loading, particle size and composition vary considerably with location and season. The MODIS AOD data from Collection 5 (C5) agree much better with ground data than earlier releases, but considerable discrepancies still exist because of treatments of aerosol SSA and surface albedo. Four methods are proposed/adopted to derive the SSA by means of remote sensing and in situ observation, which varies drastically with time and space. The nationwide means of AOD, Ångström exponent, and SSA (0.5 μm) in China are 0.69 ± 0.17, 1.06 ± 0.26, and 0.89 ± 0.04, respectively. Measurements of trace gases reveal substantial uncertainties in emission inventories. An analysis of aircraft measurements revealed that dry convection is an important mechanism uplifting pollutants over northern China. Model simulations of nitrogen deposition and impact of ozone pollution on net primary productivity indicate an increasing threat of air pollution on the ecosystem.

  9. Study of Distinctive Regional Features of Surface Solar Radiation in North and East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关福来; 郑有飞; 蔡子颖; 于长文; 张楠

    2011-01-01

    Solar radiation is an important energy source for plants on the earth and also a major component of the global energy balance.Variations in solar radiation incident at the earth's surface profoundly affect the human and terrestrial environment,including the climate change.To provide useful information for predicting the future climate change in China,distinctive regional features in spatial and temporal variations of the surface solar radiation (SSR) and corresponding attributions (such as cloud and aerosol) are analyzed based on SSR observations and other meteorological measurements in North and East China from 1961 to 2007.Multiple models,such as the plane-parallel radiative transfer model,empirical and statistical models,and corrclation and regrcssion analysis methods are used in the study.The results are given as follows.(1) During 1961-2007,the total SSR in North China went through a process from quickly “dimming” to slowly “dimming”,while in East China,a significant transition from “dimming” to “brightening” occurred.Although there are some differences between thc two regional variation trends,long-term variations in SSR in the two regions are basically consistent with the observation worldwide.(2) Between the 1960s and 1980s,in both North and East China,aerosols played a critical rolc in the radiation dimming.However,after 1989,different variation trends of SSR occurred in North and East China,indicating that aerosols were not the dominant factor.(3) Cloud cover contributed less to the variation of SSR in North China,but was thc major attribution in East China and played a promoting role in the reversal of SSR from dimming to brightening,especially in the “remarkable brightening” period,with its contribution as high as 70%.

  10. Does economic growth has an impact on east java regional revenue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faishal Fadli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of regional autonomy resulted in each region to be able to manage their finances independently. This is one way the central government to remove the dependency of local governments to the central government. Thus requiring local governments to explore the sources of local revenue in order to finance regional development. In an effort to increase local revenues derived from the PAD is determined by economic factors or economic potential which has the prospect to be developed for each area. While the economic progress of a region heavily dependent on the development efforts undertaken by the government in providing public facilities to support economic activity. so it needs to be studied further economic growth in East Java, which increased from year to year, is also accompanied by an increase in revenue (PAD as one source of income in financing regional development. The result indicates the role of the revenue (PAD in the Regional Budget (APBD of East Java Province indicates that there is still very small, with an average of 15.47% of the total revenue budget. This means that the level of dependence of local governments on the central government is still high. Although the results of regional revenue projections indicate that component has been great in their contribution of the reception area, which amounted to 69.52%. Using the ordinary least squre method, the result of regression correlation are insignificant. This means that the regional gross domestic product does not have an effect on revenue of East Java Province. If an increase or decrease in regional gross domestic product will not increase or decrease revenue amount. This means that there is no significant relationship between economic growths towards the reception of the revenue.

  11. Productivity changes in the Mediterranean Sea for the 21st century in response to changes in the regional atmospheric forcing

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    Diego M Macias

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is considered as a hotspot for climate change because of its location in the temperate region and because it is a semi-enclosed basin surrounded by highly populated and developed countries. Some expected changes include an increase in air temperature and changes in the periodicity and spatial distribution of rainfall. Alongside, demographic and politics changes will alter freshwater quantity and quality. All these changes will have an impact on the ecological status of marine ecosystems in the basin. We use a 3D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical coupled model of the entire Mediterranean Sea to explore potential changes in primary productivity (mean values and spatial distribution under two emission scenarios (rcp4.5 and rcp8.5.To isolate the effects of changes in atmospheric conditions alone, in this ensemble of simulations rivers conditions (water flow and nutrient concentrations are kept unchanged and equal to its climatological values for the last 10 years. Despite the significant warming trend, the mean integrated primary production rate in the entire basin remains almost unchanged. However characteristic spatial differences are consistently found in the different simulations. The western basin becomes more oligotrophic associated to a surface density decrease (increase stratification because of the influence of the Atlantic waters which prevents surface salinity to increase. In the eastern basin, on the contrary, all model runs simulates an increase in surface production linked to a density increase (less stratification because of the increasing evaporation rate. The simulations presented here demonstrate the basic response patterns of the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem to changing climatological conditions. Although unlikely, they could be considered as a ‘baseline’ of expected consequences of climatic changes on marine conditions in the Mediterranean.

  12. Objective climatology of cyclones in the Mediterranean region: a consensus view among methods with different system identification and tracking criteria

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    Piero Lionello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean storm track constitutes a well-defined branch of the North Hemisphere storm track and is characterised by small but intense features and frequent cyclogenesis. The goal of this study is to assess the level of consensus among cyclone detection and tracking methods (CDTMs, to identify robust features and to explore sources of disagreement. A set of 14 CDTMs has been applied for computing the climatology of cyclones crossing the Mediterranean region using the ERA-Interim dataset for the period 1979–2008 as common testbed. Results show large differences in actual cyclone numbers identified by different methods, but a good level of consensus on the interpretation of results regarding location, annual cycle and trends of cyclone tracks. Cyclogenesis areas such as the north-western Mediterranean, North Africa, north shore of the Levantine basin, as well as the seasonality of their maxima are robust features on which methods show a substantial agreement. Differences among methods are greatly reduced if cyclone numbers are transformed to a dimensionless index, which, in spite of disagreement on mean values and interannual variances of cyclone numbers, reveals a consensus on variability, sign and significance of trends. Further, excluding ‘weak’ and ‘slow’ cyclones from the computation of cyclone statistics improves the agreement among CDTMs. Results show significant negative trends of cyclone frequency in spring and positive trends in summer, whose contrasting effects compensate each other at annual scale, so that there is no significant long-term trend in total cyclone numbers in the Mediterranean basin in the 1979–2008 period.

  13. The relative importance of various source regions on East Asian surface ozone

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    T. Nagashima

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Source-Receptor (S-R relationship for surface O3 in East Asia is estimated for recent years in this study utilizing the tagged tracer method with a global chemical transport model. The estimation shows the importance of intra-continental transport of O3 inside East Asia as well as the transport of O3 from distant source regions. The model well simulated the absolute concentration and seasonal variation of surface O3 in the East Asian region, and demonstrated significant seasonal difference in the origin of surface O3. More than half of surface O3 is attributable to the O3 transported from distant sources outside of East Asia in the cold season (October to March. In the warm season (April to September, most of the surface O3 is attributed to O3 created within East Asia in most areas of East Asia. The contribution of domestically-created O3 accounts for 20% of surface O3 in Japan and the Korean Peninsula, 40% in North China Plain and around 50% in the southern part of China in spring, which increase greatly in summer. The contribution of China and the Korean Peninsula to Japan are estimated at about 10% and 5%, respectively. A large contribution (20% of China to the Korean Peninsula is also demonstrated. In the northern and southern part of China, large contribution of over 10% from East Siberia and the Indochina Peninsula are identified, respectively. The contribution of intercontinental transport increases with latitude; it is 21% in Northeast China and 13% in Japan and the Korean Peninsula in spring. As for one-hourly mean surface O3, domestically-created O3 is the main contributor in most areas of East Asia, except for the low O3 class (<30 ppbv, and accounts for more than 50% in very high O3 class (>90 ppbv. The mean relative contribution of China to central Japan was about 10

  14. Patterns of diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species--those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species--those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape

  15. The Mediterranean Sea as a barrier to gene flow: evidence from variation in and around the F7 and F12 genomic regions

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    Stoneking Mark

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mediterranean has a long history of interactions among different peoples. In this study, we investigate the genetic relationships among thirteen population samples from the broader Mediterranean region together with three other groups from the Ivory Coast and Bolivia with a particular focus on the genetic structure between North Africa and South Europe. Analyses were carried out on a diverse set of neutral and functional polymorphisms located in and around the coagulation factor VII and XII genomic regions (F7 and F12. Results Principal component analysis revealed a significant clustering of the Mediterranean samples into North African and South European groups consistent with the results from the hierarchical AMOVA, which showed a low but significant differentiation between groups from the two shores. For the same range of geographic distances, populations from each side of the Mediterranean were found to differ genetically more than populations within the same side. To further investigate this differentiation, we carried out haplotype analyses, which provided partial evidence that sub-Saharan gene flow was higher towards North Africa than South Europe. Conclusions As there is no consensus between the two genomic regions regarding gene flow through the Sahara, it is hard to reach a solid conclusion about its role in the differentiation between the two Mediterranean shores and more data are necessary to reach a definite conclusion. However our data suggest that the Mediterranean Sea was at least partially a barrier to gene flow between the two shores.

  16. The Mediterranean Sea as a barrier to gene flow: evidence from variation in and around the F7 and F12 genomic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; González-Pérez, Emili; Esteban, Esther; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Stoneking, Mark; Moral, Pedro

    2010-03-27

    The Mediterranean has a long history of interactions among different peoples. In this study, we investigate the genetic relationships among thirteen population samples from the broader Mediterranean region together with three other groups from the Ivory Coast and Bolivia with a particular focus on the genetic structure between North Africa and South Europe. Analyses were carried out on a diverse set of neutral and functional polymorphisms located in and around the coagulation factor VII and XII genomic regions (F7 and F12). Principal component analysis revealed a significant clustering of the Mediterranean samples into North African and South European groups consistent with the results from the hierarchical AMOVA, which showed a low but significant differentiation between groups from the two shores. For the same range of geographic distances, populations from each side of the Mediterranean were found to differ genetically more than populations within the same side. To further investigate this differentiation, we carried out haplotype analyses, which provided partial evidence that sub-Saharan gene flow was higher towards North Africa than South Europe. As there is no consensus between the two genomic regions regarding gene flow through the Sahara, it is hard to reach a solid conclusion about its role in the differentiation between the two Mediterranean shores and more data are necessary to reach a definite conclusion. However our data suggest that the Mediterranean Sea was at least partially a barrier to gene flow between the two shores.

  17. Nutritional and functional characteristics of Erophaca baetica seeds, a legume endemic to the Mediterranean region

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    Cortés-Giraldo, I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Erophaca baetica is a legume endemic to the Mediterranean region. Although the fruits and seeds are large, the presence of the “locoism” which produces the alkaloid, swainsonine has prevented its use as animal feed or for human nutrition. Their protein content and chromatographic profile, amino acid composition, fatty acid composition, and polyphenol contents have been determined in order to explore the potential of the E. baetica seeds as a source of dietary protein with functional components. The protein content was found to be 36% (w/w, and an amino acid analysis revealed a deficiency in sulphur amino acids, tryptophane, and lysine. The low lysine content is probably due to the abundance of alkaloids metabolically derived from this amino acid. Oleic and linoleic acids are the major fatty acids in the seeds. The antioxidant activity of polyphenol extracts was higher than the activity of the polyphenols extracted from most edible legume seeds. Hence, E. baetica seeds represent a promising source of functional and nutritional components on the condition that the anti-nutritional alkaloids are previously removed.Erophaca baetica es una leguminosa endémica de la región mediterránea. Aunque los frutos y las semillas son grandes, la presencia del alcaloide swainsonina causante de locoismo, ha impedido su uso como alimento para animales o para nutrición humana. El contenido proteico y su perfil cromatográfico, la composición de aminoácidos, de ácidos grasos, y contenido de polifenoles se han determinado con el fin de explorar el potencial de las semillas de E. baetica como una fuente de proteínas y de componentes funcionales de la dieta. El contenido de proteínas es del 36% (w / w, y el análisis de aminoácidos reveló deficiencia en aminoácidos azufrados, triptófano y lisina. El contenido de lisina bajo es probablemente debido a la abundancia de alcaloides metabólicamente derivados de este aminoácido. Los ácidos oleicos y

  18. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  19. Trends in flash flood events versus convective precipitation in the Mediterranean region: The case of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Marcos, Raul; Turco, Marco; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the potential relationship between flash flood events and convective precipitation in Catalonia, as well as any related trends. The paper starts with an overview of flash floods and their trends in the Mediterranean region, along with their associated factors, followed by the definition of, identification of, and trends in convective precipitation. After this introduction the paper focuses on the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, for which there is a long-term precipitation series (since 1928) of 1-min precipitation from the Fabra Observatory, as well as a shorter (1996-2011) but more extensive precipitation series (43 rain gauges) of 5-min precipitation. Both series have been used to characterise the degree of convective contribution to rainfall, introducing the β parameter as the ratio between convective precipitation versus total precipitation in any period. Information about flood events was obtained from the INUNGAMA database (a flood database created by the GAMA team), with the aim of finding any potential links to convective precipitation. These flood data were gathered using information on damage where flood is treated as a multifactorial risk, and where any trend or anomaly might have been caused by one or more factors affecting hazard, vulnerability or exposure. Trend analysis has shown an increase in flash flood events. The fact that no trends were detected in terms of extreme values of precipitation on a daily scale, nor on the associated ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices) extreme index, could point to an increase in vulnerability, an increase in exposure, or changes in land use. However, the summer increase in convective precipitation was concentrated in less torrential events, which could partially explain this positive trend in flash flood events. The β parameter has been also used to characterise the type of flood event according to the features of the precipitation. The highest values

  20. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  1. MPOWER and the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control implementation in the South-East Asia region

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    P K Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 11 member states of WHO′s South-East Asia Region share common factors of high prevalence of tobacco use, practice of several forms of tobacco use, increasing prevalence of tobacco use among the youth and women, link of tobacco use with poverty, and influence of tobacco advertisements in propagating the use of tobacco, especially among young girls and women. The effects of tobacco use are many-fold, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates as well as loss of gross domestic product (GDP to respective countries. The WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia has been actively involved in curbing this menace essentially by way of assisting member states in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC. This paper gives an overview of these activities and discusses the opportunities and challenges in implementing the FCTC and possible practical solutions.

  2. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

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    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  3. Are South East Europe stock markets integrated with regional and global stock markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Guidi, Francesco; Ugur, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses whether stock markets of South East Europe (SEE) have become more integrated with regional and global stock markets during 2000s. Using a variety of co integration methodologies we show that SEE stock markets have no long-run relationship with their mature counterparts. This means that SEE markets might be immunized to external shocks. We also model time varying correlations among these markets by using Multivariate Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroschedastic (...

  4. Turkey and the Arab Revolutions: Boundaries of Regional Power Influence in a Turbulent Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Öniş, Ziya

    2014-01-01

    The recent Turkish involvement in the Middle East constitutes an important test case for establishing the boundaries of regional power influence in a changing global context. The AKP government in Turkey has become a major supporter of political change and democratization in the era of the Arab revolutions. Accumulating empirical evidence suggests, however, that the highly assertive and pro-active foreign policy of the AKP government in recent years has not been effective in terms of facilita...

  5. Territorial Factors of Strategic Development of the Regions of the Far East

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Anatolyevna Kozlova; Tatyana Valeryevna Terentyeva; Mariya Nikitichna Makarova; Do Huong Lan

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the issues of the territorial organization of social and economic space in the context of the development strategies implementation on the example of the Far East regions. This problem is associated with the growing unevenness of economic development under the conditions of the outflow of population. This leads to the growing shortage of labour, deteriorating age and educational structure of population. The population outflow results in the destruction of the existing pat...

  6. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    OpenAIRE

    Fahed, Akl C.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Farhat, Theresa I.; Georges M. Nemer

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in t...

  7. The ability to manipulate plant glucosinolates and nutrients explains the better performance of Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 than Mediterranean on cabbage plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongying; Guo, Litao; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2017-08-01

    The performance of herbivorous insects is greatly affected by host chemical defenses and nutritional quality. Some herbivores have developed the ability to manipulate plant defenses via signaling pathways. It is currently unclear, however, whether a herbivore can benefit by simultaneously reducing plant defenses and enhancing plant nutritional quality. Here, we show that the better performance of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1; formerly the "B" biotype) than Mediterranean (MED; formerly the "Q" biotype) on cabbage is associated with a suppression of glucosinolate (GS) content and an increase in amino acid supply in MEAM1-infested cabbage compared with MED-infested cabbage. MEAM1 had higher survival, higher fecundity, higher intrinsic rate of increase (rm), a longer life span, and a shorter developmental time than MED on cabbage plants. Amino acid content was higher in cabbage infested with MEAM1 than MED. Although infestation by either biotype decreased the levels of total GS, aliphatic GS, glucoiberin, sinigrin, glucobrassicin, and 4OH-glucobrassicin, and the expression of related genes in cabbage, MED infestation increased the levels of 4ME-glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, progoitrin, and glucoraphanin. The GS content and expression of GS-related genes were higher in cabbage infested with MED than with MEAM1. Our results suggest that MEAM1 performs better than MED on cabbage by manipulating host defenses and nutritional quality.

  8. Ecophysiological responses of some maquis (Ceratonia siliqua L., Olea oleaster Hoffm. & Link, Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus coccifera L.) plant species to drought in the east Mediterranean ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Munir; Dogan, Yunus; Sakcali, M Serdal; Doulis, Andreas; Karam, Fadi

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to examine the adaptation strategies of four maquis species to drought prone environments; typical of the east Mediterranean area in degraded and healthy sites in Turkey. A comparison made between sites for Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus coccifera shows higher net daily photosynthesis in the degraded site, when compared with the healthy site; but Ceratonia siliqua and Olea oleaster exhibited no difference in their photosynthetic activity in environmentally contrasting conditions. The pattern of daily transpiration shows higher values in the degraded site in the case of P. lentiscus and Q. coccifera, while no site effect was observed for C. siliqua and O. oleaster. In the case of Q. coccifera, a behavior similar to C. siliqua was observed. A comparison made between C. siliqua and O. oleaster to observe seasonal differences in daily patterns of net photosynthesis and transpiration reveals that Q. coccifera had the highest water use efficiency (slope= 2.88; r2 = 0.61), followed by C. siliqua (slope = 2.74; r2 = 0.7), P. lentiscus (slope = 2.56; r2 = 0.52) and O. oleaster (slope = 2.40; r2 = 0.78). Olea oleaster and P. lentiscus performed as a drought tolerant species, being more resistant to aridity and thus indicative of the degradation state of the site. Ceratonia siliqua and Q. coccifera were found avoiding drought by adopting first a water-spending strategy, and then a water-saving strategy.

  9. Remote Sensing of Shrubland Drying in the South-East Mediterranean, 1995–2010: Water-Use-Efficiency-Based Mapping of Biomass Change

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    Maxim Shoshany

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent climate studies of the South-Eastern Mediterranean indicate an increase in drought frequencies and decreasing water resources since the turn of the century. A four-phase methodology was developed for assessing above-ground biomass changes in shrublands caused by these recent trends. Firstly, we generalized the function SB = 0.008MAP1.54 describing the shrublands above-ground biomass (SB dependence on mean annual precipitation (MAP for areas of full shrub cover. Secondly, relationships between MAP and NDVI were formalized, allowing an estimation of precipitation levels from observed NDVI values (MAPNDVI. Thirdly, relative water-use efficiency (RWUE was defined as the ratio between MAPNDVI and MAP. Finally, the function SBRWUE = 0.008MAP0.54 + RWUE was formalized, utilizing RWUE in estimating shrublands biomass. This methodology was implemented using Landsat TM images (1994 to 2011 for an area between the Judean Mountains and the deserts bordering them to the east and south. More than 50% of the study area revealed low biomass change (±0.2 kg/m2, compared with 30% of the woodlands of the Jerusalem Mountains, where biomass increased between 0.2 and 1.4 kg/m2 and with 50% of the semi-arid shrublands, where it decreased between 0.2 and 1.4 kg/m2. These results suggest that aridity lines in southern Israel are migrating northwards.

  10. The Importance of Environment for the Tourism Sector Of Trnc Within The Context of Environmental Issues of the Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Okan SAFAKLI

    2001-01-01

    The basic aim of this study is to emphasize the importance and necessity of the environment for the tourism sector of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) within the context of environmental. issues of the Mediterranean region. There are many types of tourism such as sea tourism (sea-sand-sun), ‘congress tourism‘, ‘health tourism‘, ‘yacht tourism‘, ‘cave tourism‘, ‘mountain tourism‘, ‘farm touris’, ‘hunting touris’, ‘golf touris’, ‘caravan touris’, ‘religion tourism’ and ‘history to...

  11. The Importance of Environment for the Tourism Sector Of Trnc Within The Context of Environmental Issues of the Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The basic aim of this study is to emphasize the importance and necessity of the environment for the tourism sector of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) within the context of environmental. issues of the Mediterranean region. There are many types of tourism such as sea tourism (sea-sand-sun), ‘congress tourism‘, ‘health tourism‘, ‘yacht tourism‘, ‘cave tourism‘, ‘mountain tourism‘, ‘farm touris’, ‘hunting touris’, ‘golf touris’, ‘caravan touris’, ‘religion tourism’ and ‘history to...

  12. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

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    B. Mijling

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia change rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight in the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a~mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°. The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for 2007–2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007–2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and Beijing province, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  13. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia are changing rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight into the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for the period 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and the Beijing municipality, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  14. Surface signature of Mediterranean water eddies in the North-East Atlantic: effect of the upper ocean stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bashmachnikov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meddies, intra-thermocline eddies of Mediterranean water, are often visible at the sea surface as positive sea-level anomalies. Here we study the surface signature of several meddies tracked with RAFOS floats and AVISO altimetry. Then, theoretical estimates of the surface signature of a meddy are derived, based on geostrophy and potential vorticity balance. The intensity of the surface signature is proportional to the meddy core radius and to the Coriolis parameter, and inversely proportional to the core depth and buoyancy frequency. This indicates that surface signature of a meddy may be strongly reduced by the upper ocean stratification. Estimates suggest that the southernmost limit for detection in altimetry of small meddies (with radii on the order of 15 km should lie in the northern subtropics, while large meddies (with radii of 25–30 km could be detected as far south as the northern tropics. During the initial period of meddy acceleration after meddy formation or a stagnation stage, a cyclonic signal also is generated at the sea-surface, but mostly the anticyclonic surface signal follows the meddy.

  15. [MEFV gene mutation spectrum in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) : a single center study in the Aegean region of Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, I; Colak, A; Yolcu, I; Türkön, H; Nalbantoglu, S M

    2011-08-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disorder, is characterized by recurrent, self-limiting fever and serositis which is frequently seen in Mediterranean populations. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the MEFV gene mutation distribution of 883 citizens of the Aegean region with preliminary diagnosis of FMF who were referred to the Tepecik Research and Education Hospital's Tissue Typing and Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory (Izmir, Turkey) between 2006 and 2009. The FMF Strip Assay® (ViennaLab Diagnostics, Vienna, Austria) was used to determine the 12 most common MEFV gene mutations in patients prediagnosed with FMF. Allelic frequencies of the major mutations in the mutation positive groups, including M694V, E148Q, M680I(G>C), and V726A, accounted for 48.4, 16.5, 13.5, and 9.7%, respectively. The M694V mutation was found to be the most common mutation among FMF patients in the Aegean region, which is in accordance with mutation studies reported from other regions of the country and different ethnic populations. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  16. Combining farm and regional level modelling for Integrated Resource Management in East and South-east Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetter, R.P.; Berg, van den M.M.; Laborte, A.G.; Hengsdijk, H.; Wolf, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Keulen, van H.; Agustin, E.O.; Son, T.T.; Lai, N.X.; Guanghuo, W.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, in many of the highly productive lowland areas of East and South-east Asia a trend to further intensification and diversification of agricultural land use can be observed. Growing economies and urbanization also increase the claims on land and water by non-agricultural uses. As a result,

  17. High genetic diversity detected in olives beyond the boundaries of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hosseini-Mazinani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Olive trees (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea naturally grow in areas spanning the Mediterranean basin and towards the East, including the Middle East. In the Iranian plateau, the presence of olives has been documented since very ancient times, though the early history of the crop in this area is shrouded in uncertainty. METHODS: The varieties presently cultivated in Iran and trees of an unknown cultivation status, surviving under extreme climate and soil conditions, were sampled from different provinces and compared with a set of Mediterranean cultivars. All samples were analyzed using SSR and chloroplast markers to establish the relationships between Iranian olives and Mediterranean varieties, to shed light on the origins of Iranian olives and to verify their contribution to the development of the current global olive variation. RESULTS: Iranian cultivars and ecotypes, when analyzed using SSR markers, clustered separately from Mediterranean cultivars and showed a high number of private alleles, on the contrary, they shared the same single chlorotype with the most widespread varieties cultivated in the Mediterranean. CONCLUSION: We hypothesized that Iranian and Mediterranean olive trees may have had a common origin from a unique center in the Near East region, possibly including the western Iranian area. The present pattern of variation may have derived from different environmental conditions, distinct levels and selection criteria, and divergent breeding opportunities found by Mediterranean and Iranian olives.These unexpected findings emphasize the importance of studying the Iranian olive germplasm as a promising but endangered source of variation.

  18. Crustal model for the Middle East and North Africa region: implications for the isostatic compensation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seber, Dogan; Sandvol, Eric; Sandvol, Christine; Brindisi, Carrie; Barazangi, Muawia

    2001-12-01

    We present a new 3-D crustal model for the Middle East and North Africa region that includes detailed topography, sediment thickness, and Moho depth values. The model is obtained by collecting, integrating, and interpolating reliable, published sedimentary rock thickness and Moho depth measurements in the Middle East and North Africa region. To evaluate the accuracy of the model, the 3-D gravity response of the model is calculated and compared with available observed Bouguer gravity anomalies in the region. The gravity modelling shows that the new crustal model predicts large portions of the observed Bouguer anomalies. However, in some regions, such as the Red Sea and Caspian Sea regions, where crustal structure is relatively well-determined, the residual anomalies are of the order of a few hundred milligals. Since the new crustal model results in large residual anomalies in regions where reasonably good constraints exist for the model, these large residuals cannot simply be explained by inaccuracies in the model. To analyse the cause of these residuals further we developed an isostatically compensated (Airy-type) Moho-depth model and calculated its gravity response. Isostatic gravity anomalies are in nearly perfect agreement with the observed gravity values. However, the isostatic model differs significantly from the new (3-D) crustal model. If isostasy is to be maintained, crustal and/or upper mantle lateral density variations are needed to explain the large observed gravity residuals.

  19. Cross sectoral impacts on water availability at +2 °C and +3 °C for east Mediterranean island states: The case of Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, A. G.; Grillakis, M. G.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Jacob, D.

    2016-01-01

    Ensemble pan-European projections under a 2 °C global warming relative to the preindustrial period reveal a more intense warming in south Eastern Europe by up to +3 °C, thus indicating that impacts of climate change will be disproportionately high for certain regions. The Mediterranean is projected as one of the most vulnerable areas to climatic and anthropogenic changes with decreasing rainfall trends and a continuous gradual warming causing a progressive decline of average stream flow. Many Mediterranean regions are currently experiencing high to severe water stress induced by human and climate drivers. Changes in average climate conditions will increase this stress notably because of a 10-30% decline in freshwater resources. For small island states, where accessibility to freshwater resources is limited the impact will be more pronounced. Here we use a generalized cross-sectoral framework to assess the impact of climatic and socioeconomic futures on the water resources of an Eastern Mediterranean island. A set of representative regional climate models simulations from the EURO-CORDEX initiative driven by different RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 GCMs are used to form a comparable set of results and a useful basis for the assessment of uncertainties related to impacts of 2° warming and above. A generalized framework of a cross-sectoral water resources analysis was developed in collaboration with the local water authority exploring and costing adaptation measures associated with a set of socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Transient hydrological modeling was performed to describe the projected hydro-climatological regime and water availability for each warming level. The robust signal of less precipitation and higher temperatures that is projected by climate simulations results to a severe decrease of local water resources which can be mitigated by a number of actions. Awareness of the practical implications of plausible hydro-climatic and socio-economic scenarios in the

  20. Ecology and spatiotemporal dynamics of sandflies in the Mediterranean Languedoc region (Roquedur area, Gard, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Prudhomme, Jorian; Rahola, Nil; Toty, Céline; Cassan, Cécile; Roiz, David; Vergnes, Baptiste; Thierry, Magali; Rioux, Jean-Antoine; Alten, Bulent; Sereno, Denis; Bañuls, Anne-Laure

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phlebotomine sandflies are hematophagous insects widely present in Western Mediterranean countries and known for their role as Leishmania vectors. During the last ten years, the risk of leishmaniasis re-emergence has increased in France. However, sandfly biology and ecology in the South of France remain poorly known because the last detailed study on their spatiotemporal dynamics was performed over 30 years ago. The aim of the present study was to update our knowledge on sandfly e...

  1. A simple modeling approach to study the regional impact of a Mediterranean forest isoprene emission on anthropogenic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cortinovis

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Research over the past year has outlined the importance of biogenic isoprene emission in tropospheric chemistry, and notably in the context of regional ozone photo-oxidant pollution. The first part of this article deals with the development of a simple isoprene emission scheme based upon the classical Guenther's algorithm coupled with a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model. The resulting emission scheme is tested in a "stand-alone" version at the canopy scale. Experimental data sets coming from Boreal, Tropical, Temperate and Mediterranean ecosystems are used to estimate the robustness of the scheme over contrasted climatic and ecological conditions. Considering the simple hypothesis used, simulated isoprene fluxes are generally consistent with field measurements and the emission scheme is thus deemed suitable for regional application. Limitations of the model are outlined as well as further improvements. In the second part of the article, the emission scheme is used on line in the broader context of a meso-scale atmospheric chemistry scheme. Dynamically idealized simulations are carried out to study the chemical interactions of pollutant plumes with realistic isoprene emissions coming from a Mediterranean oak forest. Two chemical scenarios are considered with anthropogenic emissions, respectively representative of the Marseille (urban and Martigues (industrial French Mediterranean areas. For the Marseille scenario, the impact of biogenic emission on ozone production is larger when the forest is situated in a sub-urban configuration (i.e. downwind distance TOWN-FOREST <30 km and decrease quite rapidly as the distance increases. For the Martigues scenario, the biogenic impact on the plume is detectable even at a longer TOWN-FOREST distance of 100 km. For both cases, the importance of the VOC/NOx ratio, which characterizes the aging of advected pollutant plumes over the day, is outlined. Finally, possible applications of this

  2. South-East Region in Bulgaria: Economic Performance and Key Sectors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta GOLEMANOVA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to provide insight into the economicperformance of the South-east region (SER of Bulgaria by presenting quantitativerelationships between sectors in the regional economy. Methodologically it is basedon the construction of the regional Input–Output model. It was carried out troughapplying the non-servey GRIT technique, based on Flegg & Webber locationquotient (2000. The dirived Rasmussen & Hirschman backward linkages andMattas & Shrestha input-output elasticities from the model enable to identify thekey economic sectors within the region. This could be considered as a starting pointfor the future impact assesment of different EU policies, as well as designing ofbetter regional development strategies, assuring better economic performance.

  3. Testing the ability of RIEMS2.0 (Regional Integrated Environment Modeling System) on regional climate simulation in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.; Fu, C.; Yan, X.

    2010-12-01

    RIEMS1.0 (Regional Integrated Environmental Modeling System version 1.0) was developed by researchers from the START (Global change System for Analysis, Research, and Training) Regional Center for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS in 1998. The model was built on the thermodynamic frame of PSU/NCAR MM5V2, into which a land surface scheme (BATS1e) and radiative transfer scheme (the revised CCM3) are integrated. The model has been widely used in regional climate studies in the East Asia monsoon system and expresses excellent performance from RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project). RIEMS2.0 is now being developed starting from RIEMS1.0 by the Key Laboratory of Regional Climate Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS, and Nanjing University. The new version is built on the thermodynamic framework of nonhydrostatic approximation from MM5V3 with the same land surface model and radiation scheme as RIEMS1.0. To make it an integrated modeling system, the Princeton ocean mode (POM), Atmosphere-Vegetation interaction model (AVIM) and a chemical model are now being integrated. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate short-term climate, we perform ensemble simulations with different physics process schemes. The model will be used to perform ensemble simulations on two continuous extreme climate events, which is serve drought with high temperature in north China in the summer (June, July and August) of 1997 and serve flood in the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 1998. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of the precipitation and SAT from two continuous extreme climate events in the summer of 1997/1998, and disclose sub-regional characteristics. Though difference can be found among ensemble members, ensembles can decrease the model’s uncertainty and improve the simulation decision in a certain degree. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate long-term climate and climate change, we compare

  4. Coupling of regional atmospheric-ocean models for climate applications in the Mediterranean basin by using CORDEX-compliant simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Montávez, Juan P.; Lorente-Plazas, Raquel

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, most regional climate models (RCMs) are essentially composed of an atmospheric component coupled to a land surface scheme and driven over ocean areas by prescribed sea surface temperature (SST). Although such a RCM can be sufficient for many applications, there are cases (like in the Mediterranean basin) in which fine scale feedbacks associated with air-sea interactions can substantially influence the spatial and temporal structure of regional climates. Therefore, in this work we present the first testing phase of the application of a coupled atmospheric-ocean regional climate model (AORCM) for the Mediterranean basin under the framework of the CORWES project. CORWES is a Spanish consortium of research groups using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to contribute to the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). We use WRF and ROMS models as the atmospheric and oceanic component, respectively. Coupling between WRF and ROMS is achieved in the following way: on a prescribed interval of 2 h, WRF sends wind stress, surface heat and water fluxes to ROMS time-averaged over the previous two hours. One hour later, and also with a prescribed interval of 2 h, ROMS sends time-averaged SST to WRF. Here, we mainly focus on the performance of the coupled system in reproducing the ocean surface temperatures. To separate effects of the coupling on SST, additional uncoupled atmospheric simulations are also done in parallel. The case study covers the years 2001-2005 and is described below. The resolution of the domain used is 12 km. The number of vertical levels is 30 for WRF. The ROMS domain, with 32 vertical levels, is slightly smaller than WRF innermost nest and has a higher resolution of 4 km. The lateral atmospheric boundary conditions for WRF are taken from ERA-Interim reanalysis. The lateral oceanic boundary conditions for ROMS come from the downscaling of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation analysis (SODA) by an uncoupled nested ROMS

  5. The Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Vandana

    2017-04-01

    Learning is always a joyful experience for any human being and must always remain so. Children are happiest when they learn through play. The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to be a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing and participating with other children and adults. Education is not about moulding children the way you think they should be. It is about organizing the natural longing in a human being to know. From birth children are active participants in building their own understanding. I always prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid become excited and curious to know when we teach them. Std 8 Geography the students are very excited to learn about this continent, with the help of Videos and a wall map the Political map of Europe with its countries shown I introduced the topic by asking 'If given a chance which place they would like to visit in Europe' , students are familiar with the countries of their favourite football players and happily pointed out their destination. The Mediterranean Region is a paradise the scenic beauty, the climate, the food along with a variety of fruits which are totally different from Asia increased the curiosity among the students. With the help of case study of the Mediterranean Sea the students were able to research and present the history, the adventure sports the aquatic life and the twenty three beautiful islands located in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos and videos helped me to explain the Mediterranean Sea The Formation of the Mediterranean Sea ( Youtube Video) which is otherwise completely enclosed by land. (The evaporating Mediterranean Sea - BBC (Video) Gibraltar Breach.mov . The

  6. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-East Asia Region, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey

    2015-06-12

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-East Asia Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles.

  7. Zoonoses in South-East Asia: a regional burden, a global threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordier, Marion; Roger, François

    2013-06-01

    Zoonoses are an issue of growing interest in South-East Asia, where environmental factors and socio-economic context favor the endemization of well-known diseases and the emergence of new pathogens at the human-wildlife interface. However, the health status of the region with respect to many zoonotic diseases remains poorly defined, despite the high overall burden of zoonoses on the countries of the area, and the global risk of new biological threats in the region. The first objective of this paper was to provide an update of data on the zoonoses commonly described by the scientific community and reported by governmental institutions and international organizations in continental South-East Asia. The analysis of the available data led to the identification of some trends in the evolution of the diseases, as well as some gaps in knowledge and in the current surveillance and control networks. In light of these findings, we discuss measures for effectively addressing zoonotic disease issues in South-East Asia, such as the allocation of funds for research and for surveillance and control programs, and a multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary approach at various levels.

  8. Health risks of climate change in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2017-09-01

    Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate. Changes in extreme weather events, undernutrition and the spread of infectious diseases are projected to increase the number of deaths due to climate change by 2030, indicating the need to strengthen activities for adaptation and mitigation. With support from the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia and others, countries have started to include climate change as a key consideration in their national public health policies. Further efforts are needed to develop evidence-based responses; garner the necessary support from partner ministries; and access funding for activities related to health and climate change. National action plans for climate change generally identify health as one of their priorities; however, limited information is available on implementation processes, including which ministries and departments would be involved; the time frame; stakeholder responsibilities; and how the projects would be financed. While progress is being made, efforts are needed to increase the capacity of health systems to manage the health risks of climate change in South-East Asia, if population health is to be protected and strengthened while addressing changing weather and climate patterns. Enhancing the resilience of health systems is key to ensuring a sustainable path to improved planetary and population health.

  9. GRB follow-up observations in the East-Asian region

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Ip, W H; Qiu, Y; Hu, J Y; Zhou, X; Tamagawa, T; Onda, K; Makishima, K; Zhou, Xn.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, we established a Japan-Taiwan-China collaboration for GRB study in the East-Asian region. This serves as a valuable addition to the world-wide optical and infrared follow-up network, because the East-Asia region would otherwise be blank. We have been carrying out imaging and spectroscopic follow-up observations at Lulin (Taiwan), Kiso (Japan), WIDGET (Japan) and Xinglong (China). From Xinglong and Kiso, we can locate candidates and obtain early time spectra for afterglows. While WIDGET provides early time observations before the burst, the high-time resolution for multi-band light curves can be obtained at Lulin. With the data from these sites, we can obtain detailed information about the light curve and redshift of GRBs, which are important to understand the mechanism of the afterglows. Up to March 2005, ten follow-up observations have been provided by this East-Asia cooperation. Two optical afterglows were detected, GRB 040924 and GRB 041006. The results of the two detected afterglows are reported ...

  10. Evaluation of Mediterranean Sea water and heat budgets simulated by an ensemble of high resolution regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Gomez, E. [CERFACS/CNRS, SUC URA1875, Toulouse Cedex (France); Somot, S.; Dubois, C.; Deque, M. [CNRM/GAME, Meteo-France/CNRS, Toulouse (France); Josey, S.A. [National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom); Elguindi, N. [LA, CNRS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-11-15

    Air-sea heat and freshwater water fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea play a crucial role in dense water formation. Here, we compare estimates of Mediterranean Sea heat and water budgets from a range of observational datasets and discuss the main differences between them. Taking into account the closure hypothesis at the Gibraltar Strait, we have built several observational estimates of water and heat budgets by combination of their different observational components. We provide then three estimates for water budget and one for heat budget that satisfy the closure hypothesis. We then use these observational estimates to assess the ability of an ensemble of ERA40-driven high resolution (25 km) Regional Climate Models (RCMs) from the FP6-EU ENSEMBLES database, to simulate the various components, and net values, of the water and heat budgets. Most of the RCM Mediterranean basin means are within the range spanned by the observational estimates of the different budget components, though in some cases the RCMs have a tendency to overestimate the latent heat flux (or evaporation) with respect to observations. The RCMs do not show significant improvements of the total water budget estimates comparing to ERA40. Moreover, given the large spread found in observational estimates of precipitation over the sea, it is difficult to draw conclusions on the performance of RCM for the freshwater budget and this underlines the need for better precipitation observations. The original ERA40 value for the basin mean net heat flux is -15 W/m{sup 2} which is 10 W/m{sup 2} less than the value of -5 W/m{sup 2} inferred from the transport measurements at Gibraltar Strait. The ensemble of heat budget values estimated from the models show that most of RCMs do not achieve heat budget closure. However, the ensemble mean value for the net heat flux is -7 {+-} 21 W/m{sup 2}, which is close to the Gibraltar value, although the spread between the RCMs is large. Since the RCMs are forced by the same

  11. Tectonic stability of the Farakka dam and its adjoining regions in east India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C. L.; Singh, V. P.

    1989-11-01

    The results of gravity, magnetic and seismic surveys carried out in the neighbourhood of the Farakka dam in east India are presented. A major deep-seated fault, extending from Kishanganj to south of Malda, has been inferred from gravity data. This fault runs ˜ 20 km east of the Farakka dam, with a north-south trend. Magnetic anomalies over this region are strong and show tight closures. This could indicate the presence of basaltic lava at shallow depths. P-wave velocities vary from 4.6 to 5.6 km s -1 at depths from 35 to 250 m. Borehole data support these findings. Magnetic and seismic observations do not support the fault inferred from gravity data.

  12. Monitoring soil erosion in terraced catchments in Mediterranean regions: a field experiment in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Corrado; Djuma, Hakan; Zoumides, Christos; Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Abate, Dante; Faka, Marina; Hermon, Sorin

    2016-04-01

    Terraces retained by dry-stone walls are very common features in mountainous Mediterranean environments. These structures provide accessible agricultural land on steep slopes, favoring water infiltration and reducing water runoff and soil erosion. However, during the last decades, an increasing trend of agricultural land abandonment has resulted in a lack of maintenance of the terrace walls and the onset of a general process of land degradation. The objective of this study is the quantification of soil erosion in a small terraced catchment (10,000 m2), located on the north-eastern slope of the Troodos Mountains (Cyprus), at an elevation of 1,300 m a.s.l. The catchment is cultivated with vineyards and it is representative of the main agricultural land use in the Troodos region. Soil erosion is measured by sediment traps and laser scans are made to assess changes in terrace geometry. In addition, a weather station measuring rainfall, temperature and relative humidity has been installed in the catchment, along with 18 soil moisture sensors, to relate soil erosion processes with climate and (sub)surface hydrology. A total of 10 sediment traps, five pairs, have been installed in the study site, catching five well-maintained sections of a dry-stone wall and five degraded (collapsed) sections. Each trap is 1 m wide. In detail, two terraces, 11 and 14 m long, located at the same elevation and separated by a strip of natural vegetation, are monitored with four and six traps, respectively. To get a complete picture of the erosion processes occurring on the selected area, the trap pairs collect sediment from both the collapsed and the well maintained wall sections of the two terraces. In addition, terrace area of two traps is delineated by metal borders (1x4 m2) to relate erosion rates to a known drainage area. The sediment traps are emptied after all rainfall events. At the beginning and end of the rainy season, a laser scanning survey of a terrace located uphill of the ones

  13. Feasibility Analysis of Establishing Multilateral Nuclear Approaches (MNAs in the Asian Region and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Tazaki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To establish frameworks for multilateral nuclear approaches (MNAs, we identified challenges and their possible solutions through case studies proposing to establish three different MNAs, comprising existing states in the Asian region and the Middle East, in accordance with twelve features deemed necessary for establishing MNAs. In all case studies, political instability of MNA member states and the region, as well as political conflicts between MNA member states and other states were seen as challenges hindering the establishment of MNAs. There are no simple measures to overcome such challenges, but additional case-by-case measures, including the direct involvement of international organizations, supplier states and nuclear weapon states, in MNAs, as well as the application of regional safeguards and regional systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material (RSAC within MNAs, may contribute toward mitigating the political challenges.

  14. Compilation of the GSHAP regional seismic hazard for Europe, Africa and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mayer-Rosa

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic hazard map of the larger Europe-Africa-Middle East region has been generated as part of the global GSHAP hazard map. The hazard, expressing Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA expected at 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, is obtained by combining the results of 16 independent regional and national projects; among these is the hazard assessment for Libya and for the wide sub-Saharan Western African region, specifically produced for this regional compilation and here discussed to some length. Features of enhanced seismic hazard are observed along the African rift zone and in the Alpine-Himalayan belt, where there is a general eastward increase in hazard with peak levels in Greece, Turkey, Caucasus and Iran.

  15. The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis, CENALT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelé, F.; Bossu, R.; Alabrune, N.; Arnoul, P.; Duperray, P.; Gailler, A.; Guilbert, J.; Hébert, H.; Hernandez, B.; Loevenbruck, A.; Roudil, P.

    2012-04-01

    ready to act as Candidate Watch Provider covering Western Mediterranean by July 2012.

  16. The relative importance of various source regions on East Asian surface ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nagashima

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the source-receptor relationship for surface O3 in East Asia during the early 2000s using a method that tags O3 tracers according to their region of chemical production (tagged tracer method with a global chemical transport model. The estimation demonstrated the importance of intracontinental transport of O3 inside East Asia as well as of the transport of O3 from distant source regions. The model well simulated the absolute concentration and seasonal variation of surface O3 in East Asia and demonstrated significant seasonal differences in the origin of surface O3. In the cold season (October to March, more than half of surface O3 in East Asia is attributable to the O3 transported from distant sources outside of East Asia. In the warm season (April to September, most of the surface O3 is attributable to O3 created within East Asia in most areas of East Asia. In spring the contribution of domestically created O3 accounted for 20% of the surface O3 in Japan and the Korean Peninsula, 40% in the North China Plain, and around 50% in the southern part of China, and the domestic contribution increased greatly in summer. The contributions of O3 created in China and the Korean Peninsula to O3 in Japan were estimated at about 10% and 5%, respectively. We also demonstrated a large contribution (20% from China to the Korean Peninsula. In the northern and southern parts of China, large contributions of over 10% from East Siberia and the Indochina Peninsula, respectively, were identified. The contribution from intercontinental transport increased with latitude; it was 21% in Northeast China and 13% in Japan and the Korean Peninsula in spring. As for the hourly mean of surface O3, domestically created O3 was the main contributor in most areas of East Asia, except for the low

  17. Iran's Relations to the East: Nonproliferation and Regional Security in a Changing Southwest Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehsin, Muhammad [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-01

    This study attempts to answer the following questions: would a successful JPOA result in nuclear nonproliferation and regional security in Southwest Asia; and could the Middle East and South Asia work together to contain the threat of Salafi jihadism?

  18. Perceptions of Present and Future Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability for Agricultural Systems in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Phuoc Lai Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many Mediterranean countries have experienced water shortages during the last 20 years and future climate change projections foresee further pressure on water resources. This will have significant implications for irrigation water management in agricultural systems in the future. Through qualitative and quantitative empirical research methods carried out on a case study on four Mediterranean farming systems located in Oristano, Italy, we sought to understand the relationship between farmers’ perceptions of climate change (i.e., increased temperature and decreased precipitation and of present and future water availability for agriculture as forecasted by climatic and crop models. We also explored asymmetries between farmers’ perceptions and present and future climate change and water scenarios as well as factors influencing perceptions. Our hypotheses were that farmers’ perceptions are the main drivers of actual water management practices and that sustainable practices can emerge from learning spaces designed from the understanding of the gaps between perceptions and scientific evidences. Results showed that most farmers perceived that climate change is occurring or will occur in their area. They also perceived that there has been an increased temperature trend, but also increased precipitation. Therefore, they are convinced that they have and will have enough irrigation water for agriculture in the near future, while climate change projections foresee an increasing pressure on water resources in the Mediterranean region. Such results suggest the need for (i irrigation management policies that take into account farmers’ perceptions in order to promote virtuous behaviors and improve irrigation water use efficiency; (ii new, well-designed learning spaces to improve the understanding on climate change expectations in the near future in order to support effective adaptive responses at the farm and catchment scales.

  19. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Human Resource Development for Tohoku Region after Great East Japan Earthquake: Remarks of the Chairperson].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    In order to promote further advances of medical systems in the Tohoku region where the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred, the requirement of human resources in clinical laboratory medicine has increased. Therefore, the symposium entitled "Human resource development for Tohoku region after Great East Japan Earthquake" was held in The 47th Tohoku Regional Congress of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine. In Fukushima Prefecture, the Thyroid Ultrasound Examination program has been conducted since Oct. 2011. Educational courses and certification programs for thyroid ultrasound examiners were established for medical doctors and technologists in Fukushima. The need for certified sonographers has also increased because deep venous thrombosis is also one of the health problems in the earthquake-hit area. Human resource development of sonographers was discussed in this symposium. In addition, further advances in clinical laboratory medicine are dependent on the development of specified medical technologists and certified physicians. Projects of human resource development currently performed in the Tohoku region were introduced and future actions were discussed.

  1. The Tourism Development Strategy of the North-East Region of Romania. Myth or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE GAMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development strategies play an increasingly important role, representing parts of those documents that aim to socio-economic development, undertaken at local, zonal, county, regional or national level. Frequently, tourism is viewed as one the best solutions for economic recovery, but without a detalied and realistic analysis of what territory offers from this point of view, this new trend for resolving the economic dysfunctions remains at a mirage level. The North-East Region of Romania, the fifth less developed region of the European Union, with a GDP per capita (in purchasing power standard that amounted to only 34% of the EU-28 average in 2013, rushes to come with a development strategy for tourism, relying on “relief and environmental factors, diversity and beauty of landscape, cultural heritage”, strengthening the specific offers relying especially on mountain, cultural, and religious tourism. The present study uses multiple research methods (quantitative and qualitative analysis, graphical and cartographical representation of data, comparison in order to establish the reliability of the concerned document and to provide solid arguments for the type of tourism that has the largest premises of affirmation in each county of the North-East Region of Romania.

  2. Tracing the temporal and spatial origins of island endemics in the Mediterranean region: a case study from the citrus family (Ruta L., Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Gabriele; Ho, Simon Y W; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Ree, Richard; Conti, Elena

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the origin of island endemics is a central task of historical biogeography. Recent methodological advances provide a rigorous framework to determine the relative contribution of different biogeographic processes (e.g., vicariance, land migration, long-distance dispersal) to the origin of island endemics. With its complex but well-known history of microplate movements and climatic oscillations, the Mediterranean region (including the Mediterranean basin and Macaronesia) provides the geographic backdrop for the diversification of Ruta L., the type genus of Rutaceae (citrus family). Phylogenetic, molecular dating, and ancestral range reconstruction analyses were carried out to investigate the extent to which past geological connections and climatic history of the Mediterranean region explain the current distribution of species in Ruta, with emphasis on its island endemics. The analyses showed that Ruta invaded the region from the north well before the onset of the Mediterranean climate and diversified in situ as the climate became Mediterranean. The continental fragment island endemics of the genus originated via processes of land migration/vicariance driven by connections/disconnections between microplates, whereas the oceanic island endemics were the product of a single colonization event from the mainland followed by in situ diversification. This study emphasizes the need for an integrative, hypothesis-based approach to historical biogeography and stresses the importance of temporary land connections and colonization opportunity in the biotic assembly of continental fragment and oceanic islands, respectively.

  3. Non-Susceptible Landslide Areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Ardizzone, Francesca; Guzzetti, Fausto; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in a given area. Over the past three decades, researchers, and planning and environmental organisations have worked to assess landslide susceptibility at different geographical scales, and to produce maps portraying landslide susceptibility zonation. Little effort was made to determine where landslides are not expected, where susceptibility is null, or negligible. This is surprising because planners and decision makers are also interesting in knowing where landslides are not foreseen, or cannot occur in an area. We propose a method for the definition of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale. We applied the method in Italy and to the territory surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and we produced two synoptic-scale maps showing areas where landslides are not expected in Italy and in the Mediterranean area. To construct the method we used digital terrain elevation and landslide information. The digital terrain consisted in the 3-arc-second SRTM DEM, the landslide information was obtained for 13 areas in Italy where landslide inventory maps were available to us. We tested three different models to determine the non-susceptible landslide areas, including a linear model (LR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile non-linear model (QNL). Model performances have been evaluated using independent landslide information represented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non- susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a GIS with geographical census data for Italy. The results show that the 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility was expected to be null or negligible, while the remaining 42.5% in areas where some landslide susceptibility was significant or not negligible. We applied the QNL model to the

  4. The report of sequence analysis on familial Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV) in South-eastern Mediterranean region (Kahramanmaraş) of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Metin; Ganiyusufoglu, Eda; Sager, Hatice; Celik, Ahmet; Olgar, Seref; Cetin, Gozde Yildirim; Davutoglu, Mehmet; Altunoren, Orcun

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is defined as an inherited and autosomal recessive disease. Many researches have been done about this subject, and we believe that it should be necessary to focus on phenotype-genotype correlation, especially novel mutation types. We aim to announce the results of FMF sequence analysis in Kahramanmaras/Turkey. The number of participants is 380 males and 451 females who clinically diagnosed as FMF subjects of different age groups. Genomic sequences of exons 2 and 10 and in some cases exon 3 of the MEFV gene were scanned for mutations by sequence analyzer. The most common mutation identified in 230 (57.07 %) patients is heterozygous. The frequencies of mutation types in heterozygous subjects are R202Q (39.13 %), E148Q (18.70 %), M680I (16.52 %), M694V (13.91 %), and V726A (4.78 %), respectively. The most striking point among the compound heterozygous subjects is R202Q/M694V mutation type found at the highest rate (32 subjects). Fever and peritonitis are the most frequent signs of homozygous M694V and combine heterozygous mutations. Interestingly, the rate of homozygous mutation types (M694V/M694V+ R202Q/R202Q) is 96.70 % among all compound homozygous mutation types. The most frequent rate of homozygous patients is M680I mutation types (68.42 % in all homozygous mutation types). Two novel mutations were found in this study: N206K (p.Asn206Lys) and S208T (p.Ser208Tyr). Our findings in this study on the FMF sequence analysis are different from the results obtained from the other regions of Turkey.

  5. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O' Boyle, J.

    2000-03-01

    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

  6. A simple modeling approach to study the regional impact of a Mediterranean forest isoprene emission on anthropogenic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cortinovis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research during the past decades has outlined the importance of biogenic isoprene emission in tropospheric chemistry and regional ozone photo-oxidant pollution. The first part of this article focuses on the development and validation of a simple biogenic emission scheme designed for regional studies. Experimental data sets relative to Boreal, Tropical, Temperate and Mediterranean ecosystems are used to estimate the robustness of the scheme at the canopy scale, and over contrasted climatic and ecological conditions. A good agreement is generally found when comparing field measurements and simulated emission fluxes, encouraging us to consider the model suitable for regional application. Limitations of the scheme are nevertheless outlined as well as further on-going improvements. In the second part of the article, the emission scheme is used on line in the broader context of a meso-scale atmospheric chemistry model. Dynamically idealized simulations are carried out to study the chemical interactions of pollutant plumes with realistic isoprene emissions coming from a Mediterranean oak forest. Two types of anthropogenic sources, respectively representative of the Marseille (urban and Martigues (industrial French Mediterranean sites, and both characterized by different VOC/NOx are considered. For the Marseille scenario, the impact of biogenic emission on ozone production is larger when the forest is situated in a sub-urban configuration (i.e. downwind distance TOWN-FOREST -1. In this case the enhancement of ozone production due to isoprene can reach +37% in term of maximum surface concentrations and +11% in term of total ozone production. The impact of biogenic emission decreases quite rapidly when the TOWN-FOREST distance increases. For the Martigues scenario, the biogenic impact on the plume is significant up to TOWN-FOREST distance of 90km where the ozone maximum surface concentration enhancement can still reach +30%. For both cases, the

  7. MODIS Collection 6 aerosol patterns and trends over the greater Mediterranean region; evaluation and differences with Collection 5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Alexandri, Georgia; Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Lelieveld, Jos; Zanis, Prodromos; Amiridis, Vassilis

    2017-04-01

    The most recent release of the MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol product is Collection 6 which replaced Collection 5.1. The core parameter of the MODIS aerosol product is the aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550). AOD550 retrievals from the two MODIS sensors aboard the EOS Terra and Aqua satellites have been extensively used the last fifteen years to examine the sources, the variability of aerosols and the effect they exert on air quality and climate. Collection 6 is currently used in studies focusing on the greater Mediterranean region; however, an evaluation of the Collection 6 AOD550 dataset against ground-based observations and an assessment of its differences and similarities to the previous widely used Collection 5.1 is missing. In this work, we present a first comparison of the MODIS/Terra and Aqua Collection 6 and Collection 5.1 AOD550 data for the greater Mediterranean region (Georgoulias et al., 2016). It is shown here that Collection 6 AODs are either higher or lower than Collection 5.1 AODs over different continental areas. On the contrary, over the sea, Collection 6 AODs are higher almost everywhere (11% for MODIS/Terra and 8% for MODIS/Aqua). Collection 6 generally retrieves higher AODs than Collection 5.1, especially for MODIS/Terra. Collection 6 and 5.1 AOD550 data were evaluated against sunphotometric observations from 23 AERONET stations in the region. It is shown that Collection 6 exhibits a better agreement with the ground-based data than Collection 5.1. Our trend analysis shows that the Collection 6 AOD550 data exhibit a statistically significant negative trend of ˜-0.001/year (˜-0.5%/year) for MODIS/Terra and ˜-0.002/year (˜-1.0%/year) for MODIS/Aqua. Collection 6 AOD550 trends are largely reduced compared to Collection 5.1 trends by ˜0.003/year for MODIS/Terra. On the contrary, for MODIS/Aqua the trends have not changed significantly (only by ˜0.0003/year). *Georgoulias, A.K., Alexandri, G., Kourtidis, K

  8. The formation of lacustrine dolomites: an example from the Tortonian-Messinian sequence at the East Mediterranean margins (northern Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked Gelband, Dotan; Starinsky, Abraham; Stein, Mordechai

    2017-04-01

    precipitations. 2. Calcite minerals precipitated due to evaporation, forming carbonate sediment at the bottom of the lake. 3. Precipitation of calcite raised the Mg/Ca ratio in the lake's waters. 4. High Mg/Ca ratio initiated dolomitization. The process terminated when replacement of the original carbonate sediments was complete. Thus, dolomites of the studied sequence are climate indicators. The alternate appearance of limestones and dolomites indicates climate changes through time. An additional dolomitization mechanism is suggested for the upper part of the sequence. This part is synchronous to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), in which evaporate sediments were deposited in the Mediterranean basin as a result of the sea desiccation. As mentioned above, there is a decrease of δ13C in both dolomites and limestones, explained by organic activity in a swampy environment (Bacterial Sulfate Reduction (BSR): 2CH2O + SO4 → 2HCO3- + H2S). During BSR, biogenic HCO3- ions are supplied and SO42- ions, which considered as inhibitores for dolomite growth, are consumes, enabling dolomite precipitatation.

  9. Imaging active faulting in a region of distributed deformation from the joint clustering of focal mechanisms and hypocentres: Application to the Azores-western Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Susana; Lima, Vânia; Vales, Dina; Cesca, Simone; Carrilho, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The matching between linear trends of hypocentres and fault planes indicated by focal mechanisms (FMs) is frequently used to infer the location and geometry of active faults. This practice works well in regions of fast lithospheric deformation, where earthquake patterns are clear and major structures accommodate the bulk of deformation, but typically fails in regions of slow and distributed deformation. We present a new joint FM and hypocentre cluster algorithm that is able to detect systematically the consistency between hypocentre lineations and FMs, even in regions of distributed deformation. We apply the method to the Azores-western Mediterranean region, with particular emphasis on western Iberia. The analysis relies on a compilation of hypocentres and FMs taken from regional and global earthquake catalogues, academic theses and technical reports, complemented by new FMs for western Iberia. The joint clustering algorithm images both well-known and new seismo-tectonic features. The Azores triple junction is characterised by FMs with vertical pressure (P) axes, in good agreement with the divergent setting, and the Iberian domain is characterised by NW-SE oriented P axes, indicating a response of the lithosphere to the ongoing oblique convergence between Nubia and Eurasia. Several earthquakes remain unclustered in the western Mediterranean domain, which may indicate a response to local stresses. The major regions of consistent faulting that we identify are the mid-Atlantic ridge, the Terceira rift, the Trans-Alboran shear zone and the north coast of Algeria. In addition, other smaller earthquake clusters present a good match between epicentre lineations and FM fault planes. These clusters may signal single active faults or wide zones of distributed but consistent faulting. Mainland Portugal is dominated by strike-slip earthquakes with fault planes coincident with the predominant NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE oriented earthquake lineations. Clusters offshore SW Iberia are

  10. COAL MINING OPERATIONS AND ITS IMPACT ON SECTORAL AND REGIONAL AREA: EVIDENCE OF EAST KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian Hilmawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining sector plays important roles for Indonesian economic performance, especially in East Kalimantan. This study investigates: (a whether economic linkages of the mining sector related with other economic sectors in East Kalimantan, (b who gets benefit from such mining activities; (c how is the impact of mining sector for rural and urban households; and (d what happens if coal mining, oil and gas productions are completely depleted. The quantitative analysis framework using Input-Output and Social Accounting Matrix Tables in period 2009-2010 has been implemented as main data set. The result shows that mining sector was underdeveloped sector in East Kalimantan, including Kutai Kartanegara district. Activities from mining sector tended to give benefit for the owners of capital, which is larger than that benefit for workers employed. Structural Path Analysis (SPA shows that urban households gain the greatest advantages from the activities of this sector. The result also shows that the total output decreased by 65.12% when the mining, oil and gas dissapeared. A drastic reducing income after mining and oil and gas era will have an impact on the decline in the purchasing power in the region. However, the interesting finding of this research shows that the loss of mining and oil or gas sectors actually increases the strength of employment multiplier by 19%.

  11. Region-Specific Indicators for Assessing the Sustainability of Biomass Utilisation in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kudoh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an expert working group of researchers from East Asian countries. The group was tasked with developing a theoretically sound and practically implementable methodology for assessing the sustainability of biomass utilisation in East Asian countries based on the needs and potential of biomass resources in this region. Building on six years of research conducted between 2007 and 2013, the working group formulated a set of main and secondary indicators for biomass utilisation under three pillars of sustainability. For the environmental pillar, the main indicator was life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and secondary indicators were water consumption and soil quality. For the economic pillar, the main indicator was total value added and secondary indicators were net profit, productivity, and net energy balance. For the social pillar, the main indicators were employment generation and access to modern energy, and the secondary indicator was the human development index. The application of the working group methodology and indicators in sustainability assessments of biomass utilisation will enable decision makers in East Asian countries to compare the sustainability of biomass utilisation options and to make decisions on whether or not to launch or sustain biomass utilisation initiatives.

  12. Unexpected East-West effect in mesopause region SABER temperatures over El Leoncito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisin, Esteban R.; Scheer, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    We find that mesopause region temperatures determined by the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite during nocturnal overpasses at El Leoncito (31.8°S, 69.3°W) are several kelvins higher when SABER observes from the East than when it observes from the West. We distinguish between altitudes corresponding to the nominal emission heights of the OH and O2 airglow layers. The East-West temperature differences of 4.5 K obtained for OH-equivalent height, and of 3.5 K for O2-equivalent height are surprising, because an effect of the South Atlantic Anomaly on SABER temperature is unexpected. However, the ground-based data obtained with our airglow spectrometer at El Leoncito show that such a SABER artifact can be ruled out. Rather, the phenomenon is explained as a consequence of the temporal sampling of the nocturnal variation, which is mostly due to the semidiurnal tide. The monthly mean tide is strongest from April to September with a mean amplitude of 6.9 K for OH, and of 10.5 K for O2 rotational temperature, but the contribution to the East-West effect varies strongly from month to month because of differences in the temporal sampling. This mechanism should be active at other sites, as well.

  13. Cd, Pb and Hg Biomonitoring in Fish of the Mediterranean Region and Risk Estimations on Fish Consumption

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    Elisavet A. Renieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and mercury (Hg are toxic metals with increasing interest due to their tendency to bioaccumulate in fish tissue which may pose a threat to human health via fish consumption. This review of the recent literature on Cd, Pb, Hg levels summarizes data of fish biomonitoring studies in the Mediterranean Sea in order to determine potential risks due to dietary intake of metals. The analytical methods applied are described, with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy being the most popular. Most of the literature reviewed is focused on the Eastern Mediterranean. Results from the studies indicate that metals mostly accumulate in liver, followed by muscle. Although there are few studies reporting metal levels in fish exceeding the maximum residue levels (MRLs, the bulk of the studies cite levels below the MRLs. The hazard index (HI of fish consumption, namely the ratio of estimated weekly intake to provisional tolerable weekly intake (EWI/PTWI was estimated for adult consumers and no risk emerged. The EWI/PTWI ratios of lead and mercury for Italy (0.14 and 0.22 respectively represent the highest HI levels estimated. In view of maximizing the benefits while minimizing the risks of fish consumption, a more detailed fish-specific database on intakes for consumers is required and extended bimonitoring in as many regions as possible.

  14. Adjustment of the tree-ring response of Juniperus thurifera to climate in the Western Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varino, Filipa; DeSoto, Lucia; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Gouveia, Célia; Andrade, José; campelo, Filipe; Nabais, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Juniperus thurifera L. is a long-lived conifer tree endemic to western Mediterranean region. It is well adapted to continental Mediterranean weather conditions such as negative winter temperatures or summer drought and is capable to maintain the photosynthetic activity all year round, making it a suitable species to study tree-ring sensitivity to climate change. In this work we have used tree-ring width data of J. thurifera trees from six stands located in northern Spain (Soria, Barrios de Luna and Desert of Monegros) and High Atlas in Morocco (Armd, Oukaimeden and Ourika) and correlated with climatic information (temperature and precipitation) from the Climate Research Unity (CRU) database. We have evaluated separately the growth patterns and climatic response of the populations from Spain and Morocco as they showed distinct seasonal dependence to temperature and precipitation. Afterwards, according to the length of both databases (ring-width and surface climate variables), we evaluated the role played by the climatic variables on the species growth pattern through time. We observed an increase of growth sensitivity to summer drought in Spain, whereas such sensitivity was not verify in Morocco"

  15. Rethinking Professional Study Programs and Continuing Education in the Euro-Mediterranean Region: Action Agenda and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Moustaghfir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available the newcompetitive and changing dynamics made knowledge resources the most strategic assets to create and sustain competitive advantage in today’s business landscape. Businesses and public organizations alike need knowledge workers to streamline their processes, differentiate their product and service offerings, and generate value for their stakeholders. The discrepancy between the demand for such distinctive profiles and the current supply of human resources is causing higher education institutions to rethink their learning practices and the process whereby knowledge resources are developed, applied, and renewed. This article analyzes these dynamics and sheds more light on the changes that are affecting the learning processes with regards to professional study programs and continuing education, particularly in the Euro-Mediterranean region. The article draws up an action agenda to make such programs more valuable emphasizing the role of innovative pedagogical approaches, the importance of instructional design, the adding-value of information technologies, and the required structural and human resource changes at the level of universities’ organizational design. Building on the participants’ input gathered during the Emuni’s 2013 HR&R Conference, the article suggests specific recommendations on how the Euro-Mediterranean universities can play a catalyst role in reshaping, leading, and implementing competitive and targeted professional study programs based on network-based structures and on mapping and leveraging different partners’ distinctive capabilities and core competences.

  16. High genetic diversity with moderate differentiation in Juniperus excelsa from Lebanon and the eastern Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douaihy, Bouchra; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; Boratyński, Adam; Machon, Nathalie; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Juniperus excelsa is an important woody species in the high mountain ecosystems of the eastern Mediterranean Basin where it constitutes the only coniferous species found at the tree line. The genetic diversity within and among J. excelsa populations of the eastern Mediterranean Basin is studied in the light of their historical fragmentation. Methodology Nuclear microsatellites originally developed for Juniperus communis and J. przewalskii were tested on 320 individuals from 12 different populations originating from Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece and the Ukraine. Principal results Among the 31 nuclear microsatellite primers tested, only three produced specific amplification products, with orthology confirmed by sequence analysis. They were then used for genetic diversity studies. The mean number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity means were Na=8.78 and He=0.76, respectively. The fixation index showed a significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and an excess of homozygotes (FIS=0.27–0.56). A moderate level of genetic differentiation was observed among the populations (FST=0.075, P2000 m) in Lebanon. These populations were differentiated from the other populations that are grouped into three sub-clusters. Conclusions High levels of genetic diversity were observed at species and population levels. The high level of differentiation in the high-mountain Lebanese populations reflects a long period of isolation or possibly a different origin. The admixture observed in other populations from Lebanon suggests a more recent separation from the Turkish–southeastern European populations. PMID:22476474

  17. High genetic diversity with moderate differentiation in Juniperus excelsa from Lebanon and the eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douaihy, Bouchra; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Boratyński, Adam; Machon, Nathalie; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda

    2011-01-01

    Juniperus excelsa is an important woody species in the high mountain ecosystems of the eastern Mediterranean Basin where it constitutes the only coniferous species found at the tree line. The genetic diversity within and among J. excelsa populations of the eastern Mediterranean Basin is studied in the light of their historical fragmentation. Nuclear microsatellites originally developed for Juniperus communis and J. przewalskii were tested on 320 individuals from 12 different populations originating from Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece and the Ukraine. Among the 31 nuclear microsatellite primers tested, only three produced specific amplification products, with orthology confirmed by sequence analysis. They were then used for genetic diversity studies. The mean number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity means were N(a)=8.78 and H(e)=0.76, respectively. The fixation index showed a significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and an excess of homozygotes (F(IS)=0.27-0.56). A moderate level of genetic differentiation was observed among the populations (F(ST)=0.075, P2000 m) in Lebanon. These populations were differentiated from the other populations that are grouped into three sub-clusters. High levels of genetic diversity were observed at species and population levels. The high level of differentiation in the high-mountain Lebanese populations reflects a long period of isolation or possibly a different origin. The admixture observed in other populations from Lebanon suggests a more recent separation from the Turkish-southeastern European populations.

  18. ENTREPRENEURIAL CONSULTING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR YOUTH WITHIN RURAL AREAS - A CASE STUDY FOR DEVELOPING NORTH EAST, CENTRAL AND SOUTH EAST REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin BURCEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show the connection between consulting and entrepreneurial approach, emphasizing the normality of including assistance within the entrepreneurs’ activity. The theoretical component deals with the elements that define the consulting activity in business and the specific approach to initiate and develop business by young rural entrepreneurs. The applicative component is represented by the presentation of the specific consulting needs for business initiating and development in the rural areas within developing regions of North East, Central and South East. The undertaken sociological research is representative for the study group and was held within the SOP HRD strategic project “Rural Manager”.

  19. Calculations of the Ion Orbit Loss Region at the Plasma Edge of EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国将; 张晓东

    2012-01-01

    In divertor tokamak plasma, the energetic ion losses of edge plasma are considered to be responsible for the negative radial electric field. In the present paper, a guiding center approximation orbit equation is found by assuming the conservation of three integrals of motion, i.e. the total ion energy E, the magnetic moment # and toroidal angular momentum Pc, and it is used to calculate expediently the ion orbit loss region. The direct ion orbit losses in the initial velocity space near the plasma edge of EAST with SN (single null) divertor configuration are analyzed systematically. The ion loss regions are obtained by solving the guiding center approximation orbit equation of critical ions with the effect of the radial electric field taken into account. Under the influence of plasma current Ip, the type of ions, the toroidal field Bt and the changes of the loss regions are analyzed and calculated accordingly.

  20. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  1. Characteristics of Anthropogenic Sulfate and Carbonaceous Aerosols over East Asia: Regional Modeling and Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan HUANG; William L. CHAMEIDES; Qian TAN; Robert E. DICKINSON

    2008-01-01

    The authors present spatial and temporal characteristics of anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols over East Asia using a 3-D coupled regional climate-chemistry-aerosol model, and compare the simulation with the limited aerosol observations over the region. The aerosol module consists of SO2, SO42-, hydrophobic and hydrophilic black carbon (BC) and organic carbon compounds (OC), including emission, advections, dry and wet deposition, and chemical production and conversion. The simulated patterns of SO2 are closely tied to its emission rate, with sharp gradients between the highly polluted regions and more rural areas. Chemical conversion (especially in the aqueous phase) and dry deposition remove 60% and 30% of the total SO2 emission, respectively. The SO42- shows less horizontal gradient and seasonality than SO2, with wet deposition (60%) and export (27%) being two major sinks. Carbonaceous aerosols are spatially smoother than sulfur species. The aging process transforms more than 80% of hydrophobic BC and OC to hydrophilic components, which are removed by wet deposition (60%) and export (30%). The simulated spatial and seasonal SO42-, BC and OC aerosol concentrations and total aerosol optical depth are generally consistent with the observations in rural areas over East Asia, with lower bias in simulated OC aerosols, likely due to the underestimation of anthropogenic OC emissions and missing treatment of secondary organic carbon. The results suggest that our model is a useful tool for characterizing the anthropogenic aerosol cycle and for assessing its potential climatic and environmental effects in future studies.

  2. NORM in the East Midlands' oil and gas producing region of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Joel; Cairns, James; Read, David

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is a common feature in North Sea oil and gas production offshore but, to date, has been reported from only one production site onshore in the United Kingdom. The latter, Wytch Farm on the Dorset coast, revealed high activity concentrations of (210)Pb in metallic form but little evidence of radium accumulation. NORM has now been discovered at two further onshore sites in the East Midlands region of the UK. The material has been characterized in terms of its mineralogy, bulk composition and disequilibrium in the natural uranium and thorium series decay chains. In contrast to Wytch Farm, scale and sludge samples from the East Midlands were found to contain elevated levels of radium and radioactive progeny associated with crystalline strontiobarite. The highest (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations found in scale samples were 132 and 60 Bq/g, with mean values of 86 and 40 Bq/g respectively; somewhat higher than the mean for the North Sea and well above national exemption levels for landfill disposal. The two East Midlands sites exhibited similar levels of radioactivity. Scanning electron microscope imaging shows the presence of tabular, idiomorphic and acicular strontiobarite crystals with elemental mapping confirming that barium and strontium are co-located throughout the scale. Bulk compositional data show a corresponding correlation between barium-strontium concentrations and radium activity. Scales and sludge were dated using the (226)Ra/(210)Pb method giving mean ages of 2.2 and 3.7 years, respectively. The results demonstrate clearly that these NORM deposits, with significant radium activity, can form over a very short period of time. Although the production sites studied here are involved in conventional oil recovery, the findings have direct relevance should hydraulic fracturing for shale gas be pursued in the East Midlands oilfield.

  3. GIS for the industrial park Kechnec in the East Slovak Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pukačová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents GIS (Geographical Information Systems task. Tasks of theory also practical properties of GIS in generalibus and their advantages and realisation practices are analyzed. Systems engineering of GIS for the industrial park Kechnec at Košice in the East Slovak Region are a contribution of the paper. Presented GIS for the industrial park Kechnec are created by means of using software ArcView GIS and serve for the local self-government in village Kechnec as an easy usable information system for process control of building-up in the industrial park Kechnec.

  4. Enhanced Surveillance for Detection and Management of Infectious Diseases: Regional Collaboration in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Leventhal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Formed before international negotiations of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR, the Middle East Consortium for Infectious Disease Surveillance (MECIDS is a regional collaboration aimed at facilitating implementation of the revised IHR and, more broadly, improving the detection and control of infectious disease outbreaks among neighboring countries in an area of continuous dispute. Initially focused on enhancing foodborne disease surveillance, MECIDS has expanded the scope of its work to also include avian and pandemic influenza and other emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Here, we describe the history and governance of MECIDS, highlighting key achievements over the consortium's seven-year history, and discuss the future of MECIDS.

  5. Source regions and transport pathways of PM2.5 at a regional background site in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hongliang; Deng, Junjun; Du, Wenjiao; Hong, Youwei; Xu, Lingling; Qiu, Yuqing; Hong, Zhenyu; Wu, Xin; Ma, Qianli; Yao, Jie; Chen, Jinsheng

    2017-10-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected daily at the Lin'an regional background station (LA) in Zhejiang, China during 2014-2015 and the major chemical components including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII) were determined. Backward trajectory clustering and potential source contribution function (PSCF) were adopted for identifying the transport pathways and potential source regions of PM2.5 at LA. The annual mean concentration was 68.9 ± 28.3 μg m-3, indicating severe pollution in East China. Obvious seasonal variations were found, with highest level in winter and lowest in summer. Carbonaceous aerosols and WSII were the predominant compositions, accounting for 30.7% and 53.5% of PM2.5, respectively. Secondary inorganic ions (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) made a total contribution of 45.2% to PM2.5. Heterogeneous formation played a dominant role in SO42- formation and NH4+ formation promoted NO3- formation. Stationary sources played a more important role than mobile sources based on NO3-/SO42- ratio of 0.53. Aerosol environment at LA was ammonium-poor and SO42- was only neutralized sufficiently by NH4+ with the predominant production of (NH4)2SO4 in winter. Four major transport pathways of air masses at LA were found based on trajectory clustering. Air masses from the northwest Gobi areas passing over the heavily polluted regions in North and Central China had the highest levels of PM2.5, followed by the air masses from Central China. PSCF results suggested that surrounding areas in the Yangtze River Delta region were major regional origins of PM2.5 and its major components. Northern region was an important origin for carbonaceous components, and southwestern region was significant for secondary inorganic ions. This study helps understand PM2.5 characteristics, identify potential source regions and effectively control PM2.5 in East China.

  6. THE ACCESSIBILITY ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL TRANSPORT NETWORK IN THE SOUTH EAST EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Šimecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of transport infrastructure and establishment of effective transport systems is a prerequisite for the achievement of broad based economic growth which is one of the European and Southeast European major development goals. Due to the lack of intraregional connectivity within the South East Europe (SEE, certain parts of the region have limited access to regional, European and global markets. Mentioned imbalance of accessibility to services, markets and opportunities for further social and economic progress is an obstacle for overall development of the SEE region. The research is thematically oriented on the assessment of road, rail and air passenger transport accessibility in the SEE with the aim of providing scientific overview of current regional transport network connectivity serving as basis for further identification of potential improvement measures. The research is conducted on the SEETO Comprehensive Network that was established as a main output of joint cooperation between seven Regional Participants and the European Commission as a result of signing of the Memorandum of Understanding for the Development of the Core Regional Transport Network (MoU in 2004. The multimodal Core Regional Transport Network defined under the MoU represents a commonly agreed main and ancillary transport infrastructure in the SEE, which is the base for the implementation of transport related investments programmes.

  7. Dusty cloud radiative forcing derived from satellite data for middle latitude regions of East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jianping; WANG Yujie; WANG Tianhe; YI Yuhong

    2006-01-01

    The dusty cloud radiative forcing over the middle latitude regions of East Asia was estimated by using the 2-year (July 2002-June 2004) data of collocated clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) scanner and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MOD1S) from Aqua Edition 1B SSF (single scanner footprint). The dusty cloud is defined as the cloud in dust storm environment or dust contaminated clouds. For clouds growing in the presence of dust, the instantaneous short-wave (SW) forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is about - 275.7 W/m2 for cloud over dust (COD) region. The clouds developing in no-dust cloud (CLD) regions yield the most negative short-wave (SW) forcing ( - 311.0 W/m2), which is about 12.8 % stronger than those in COD regions.For long-wave (LW) radiative forcing, the no-dust cloud (CLD) is around 102.8 W/m2, which is 20% less than the LW forcing from COD regions. The instantaneous TOA net radiative forcing for the CLD region is about - 208.2 W/m2, which is 42.1% larger than the values of COD regions. The existence of dust aerosols under clouds significantly reduces the cooling effect of clouds.

  8. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  9. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyo Nyo Kyaing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to

  10. Tobacco use: A major risk factor for non communicable diseases in South-East Asia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is a serious public health problem in the South East Asia Region where use of both smoking and smokeless form of tobacco is widely prevalent. The region has almost one quarter of the global population and about one quarter of all smokers in the world. Smoking among men is high in the Region and women usually take to chewing tobacco. The prevalence across countries varies significantly with smoking among adult men ranges from 24.3% (India to 63.1% (Indonesia and among adult women from 0.4% (Sri Lanka to 15% (Myanmar and Nepal. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men varies from 1.3% (Thailand to 31.8% (Myanmar, while for women it is from 4.6% (Nepal to 27.9% (Bangladesh. About 55% of total deaths are due to Non communicable diseases (NCDs with 53.4% among females with highest in Maldives (79.4% and low in Timor-Leste (34.4%. Premature mortality due to NCDs in young age is high in the region with 60.7% deaths in Timor Leste and 60.6% deaths in Bangladesh occurring below the age of 70 years. Age standardized death rate per 100,000 populations due to NCDs ranges from 793 (Bhutan and 612 (Maldives among males and 654 (Bhutan and 461 (Sri Lanka among females respectively. Out of 5.1 millions tobacco attributable deaths in the world, more than 1 million are in South East Asia Region (SEAR countries. Reducing tobacco use is one of the best buys along with harmful use of alcohol, salt reduction and promotion of physical activity for preventing NCDs. Integrating tobacco control with broader population services in the health system framework is crucial to achieve control of NCDs and sustain development in SEAR countries.

  11. Molecular analysis of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes in the Central-East region of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharbi Jawhar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tunisia, country of intermediate endemicity for Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, most molecular studies on the virus have been carried out in the North of the country and little is known about other regions. The aim of this study was to determine HBV genotype and subgenotypes in Central-East Tunisia. A total of 217 HBs antigen positive patients were enrolled and determination of genotype was investigated in 130 patients with detectable HBV DNA. HBV genotyping methods were: PCR-RFLP on the pre-S region, a PCR using type-specific primers in the S region (TSP-PCR and partial sequencing in the pre-S region. Results Three genotypes (D, B and A were detected by the PCR-RFLP method and two (D and A with the TSP-PCR method, the concordance between the two methods was 93%. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 strains, retrieved the same genotype (D and A for samples with concordant results and genotype D for samples with discordant results. The sequences of discordant genotypes had a restriction site in the pre-S gene which led to erroneous result by the PCR-RFLP method. Thus, prevalence of genotype D and A was 96% and 4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the predominance of two subgenotypes D1 (55% and D7 (41%. Only one strain clustered with D3 subgenotype (3%. Conclusions Predominance of subgenotype D7 appears to occur in northern regions of Africa with transition to subgenotype D1 in the East of the continent. HBV genetic variability may lead to wrong results in rapid genotyping methods and sequence analysis is needed to clarify atypical results.

  12. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  13. Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Verónica; Pala, Maria; Salas, Antonio; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Amorim, António; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Carracedo, Ángel; Clarke, Douglas J; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Dunne, David W; Pereira, Rui; Pereira, Vânia; Prata, Maria João; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rito, Teresa; Soares, Pedro; Gusmão, Leonor; Richards, Martin B

    2015-09-01

    The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago.

  14. Sedimentology and geochemistry of mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountain Region from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Ezgi; Duman, Muhammet; Küçüksezgin, Filiz; Brennan, Michael L; Raineault, Nicole A

    2015-06-15

    Investigations carried out on surface sediments collected from the Anaximander mud volcanoes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea to determine sedimentary and geochemical properties. The sediment grain size distribution and geochemical contents were determined by grain size analysis, organic carbon, carbonate contents and element analysis. The results of element contents were compared to background levels of Earth's crust. The factors that affect element distribution in sediments were calculated by the nine push core samples taken from the surface of mud volcanoes by the E/V Nautilus. The grain size of the samples varies from sand to sandy silt. Enrichment and Contamination factor analysis showed that these analyses can also be used to evaluate of deep sea environmental and source parameters. It is concluded that the biological and cold seep effects are the main drivers of surface sediment characteristics from the Anaximander mud volcanoes.

  15. Environmental security of the coastal seafloor in the sea ports and waterways of the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obhodas, Jasmina, E-mail: jobhodas@irb.h [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sudac, Davorin [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, Dario [Institute for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Ilica 256b, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pavic, Ivica [Ministry of Defense, Croatian Navy, Dubrovacka 49, 21000 Split (Croatia); Kollar, Robert [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    The Mediterranean coastal seafloor is littered with man-made objects and materials, including a variety of ammunition in many areas. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas are contaminated with elevated concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in antifouling paints. In order to reach a satisfactory level of environmental security of the coastal sea areas, fast neutron activation analysis with detection of associated alpha particles and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, both in laboratory and inside an autonomous underwater vehicle for in-situ measurements, has been used for the characterization of the objects on the seafloor. Measurements have shown that gamma ray spectra are able to distinguish threat material from the surrounding material. Analysis of more than 700 coastal sea sediment samples has resulted in concentration distribution maps indicating the locations of 'hot spots', which might interfere with threat material identification.

  16. Trends and challenges in global arms control regimes: Implications for the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-06-01

    In another sense, however, the nuclear age and ballistic missiles long ago created a much smaller world in which the distinctions between global and regional security have been lessened. In an age of weapons of mass destruction, any point on the earth can find itself suddenly at the center of world attention. This makes it all the more important that we understand all of the arms control tools available, including global approaches. In discussing global arms control regimes, I will focus primarily on those that are open to universal membership such as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or which have global reach, such as certain export control and supplier regimes. It is important to remember, however, that certain regional, bilateral, and even unilateral arms control measures can have a global impact as well. One need only witness the impact of the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE). Despite its mere {open_quotes}Atlantic to the Urals{close_quotes} focus, the CFE treaty helped change the political and strategic calculations of the entire world. Likewise, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), with its headquarters in Vienna, is centered on Europe but spreads from Vancouver to Vladivostok (or perhaps we should say from Amchitka to Kamchatka), circumnavigating much of the northern hemisphere when measured the long way around via North America. The political significance of its successes and failures outdistance CSCE`s geographical spread.

  17. Non-communicable diseases in the South-East Asia region: burden, strategies and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Jai P; Garg, Renu; Fric, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a global health and developmental emergency, as they cause premature deaths,exacerbate poverty and threaten national economies. In 2008, they were the top killers in the South-East Asia region, causing 7.9 million deaths; the number of deaths is expected to increase by 21% over the next decade. One-third of the 7.9 million deaths (34%) occurred in those strategies for the prevention and control of NCDs include (i) reducing exposure to risk factors through health promotion and primary prevention, (ii) early diagnosis and management of people with NCDs, and (iii) surveillance to monitor trends in risk factors and diseases. Tackling NCDs calls for a paradigm shift: from addressing each NCD separately to collectively addressing a cluster of diseases in an integrated manner, and from using a biomedical approach to a public health approach guided by the principles of universal access and social justice. High levels of commitment and multisectoral actions are needed to reverse the growing burden of NCDs in the South-East Asia region.

  18. Regional integrated environmental model system and its simulation of East Asia summer monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhe; FU CongBin; YAN XiaoDong

    2009-01-01

    A continuous 22-year simulation in Asia for the period of 1 January 1979 to 31 December 2000 was conducted using the Regional Integrated Environmental Model System (RIEMS 2.0) with NCEP Reanalysis Ⅱ data as the driving fields.The model processes include surface physics state package (BATS le),a Grell cumulus parameterization,and a modified radiation package (CCM3) with the focus on the ability of the model to simulate the summer monsoon over East Asia.The analysis results show that (1)RIEMS reproduces well the spatial pattern and the seasonal cycle of surface temperature.When regionally averaged,the summer mean temperature biases are within 1-2℃.(2) For precipitation,the model reproduces well the spatial pattern,and temporal evolution of the East Asia summer monsoon rain belt,with steady phases separated by more rapid transitions,is reproduced.The rain belt simulated by RIEMS 2.0 is closer to observation than by RIEMS 1.0.(3) RIEMS 2.0 can reasonably reproduce the large-scale circulation.

  19. Trace Metal Levels in Lichen Samples From Roadsides in East Black Sea Region, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OZGUR DOGAN ULUOZLU; KADIR KINALIOGLU; MUSTAFA TUZEN; MUSTAFA SOYLAK

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the metal contents of lichen species from East Black Sea region of Turkey for investigation of trace metal pollution sourced traffic.Methods The levels of copper,cadmium,lead,zinc,manganese,iron,chromium,nickel,cobalt,palladium in lichen samples collected from East Black Sea region of Turkey were determined by flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion method.The accuracy of the method was corrected by standard reference material(NIST SRM IAEA-336 Lichen). Results The contents of investigated trace metals in lichen samples were 7.19-22.4 μg/g for copper,0.10-0.64 μg/g for cadmium,4.03-44.6 μg/g for lead,14.5-41.8 1.μg/g for zinc,25.8-208 μg/g for manganese,331-436 μg/g for iron,1.20-3.01 μg/g for chromium,1.48-3.90 μg/g for nickel,0.20-3.55 μg/g for cobalt.0.11-0.64 μg/g for palladium.The results were compared with the literature values.Conclusion Some lichen species such as Xanthoparmelia conspersa,Xanthoria calcicola,Peltigera membranacea,and Physcia adscendens are accumulated trace metals at a high ratio.

  20. [A multicenter trial of regional medical cooperation for cancer chemotherapy after the great East Japan earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Shoko; Seya, Yukiko; Murayama, Motoko; Ogasawara, Kimiyo; Kisara, Shigeki; Ishii, Tadashi; Sugawara, Michie; Chida, Yasunori; Kanbe, Mariko; Kakudo, Yuichi; Mano, Nariyasu; Ishioka, Chikashi

    2013-03-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake was the first disaster we experienced after the administration of oncology care had mostly shifted from hospitals to outpatient departments in Japan. Disaster medical assistance teams(DMATs)were deployed immediately after the disaster, and actively assisted during the acute phase of the catastrophe. After experiencing the earthquake, we realized the necessity of medical support teams, even for chronic disease. Here we report a multicenter trial of regional medical cooperation for cancer chemotherapy. First, soon after the earthquake, representatives from the regional hospitals discussed the proper roles for each institution. As agreed to in the discussion, cancer patients were redistributed from a disaster base hospital to a local general hospital, and oncologists supported the other regional hospitals on a regular basis. This broad regional network functioned well and patients resumed their treatment as soon as the situation allowed. Second, we performed a survey of the patients and found that the most important problem was patients' lack of understanding of their own illnesses. Third, we conducted an opinion survey of medical professionals on regional medical cooperation. Based on the trial, we found it important in disasters to establish regional cooperation and solid communication systems, and to promote patient education.

  1. A quantitative assessment of groundwater resources in the Middle East and North Africa region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzaik, Khalil; Milewski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the world's most water-stressed region, with its countries constituting 12 of the 15 most water-stressed countries globally. Because of data paucity, comprehensive regional-scale assessments of groundwater resources in the MENA region have been lacking. The presented study addresses this issue by using a distributed ArcGIS model, parametrized with gridded data sets, to estimate groundwater storage reserves in the region based on generated aquifer saturated thickness and effective porosity estimates. Furthermore, monthly gravimetric datasets (GRACE) and land surface parameters (GLDAS) were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage between 2003 and 2014. Total groundwater reserves in the region were estimated at 1.28 × 106 cubic kilometers (km3) with an uncertainty range between 816,000 and 1.93 × 106 km3. Most of the reserves are located within large sedimentary basins in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia accounting for approximately 75% of the region's total freshwater reserves. Alternatively, small groundwater reserves were found in fractured Precambrian basement exposures. As for groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014, all MENA countries except for Morocco exhibited declines in groundwater storage. However, given the region's large groundwater reserves, groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014 are minimal and represent no immediate short-term threat to the MENA region, with some exceptions. Notwithstanding this, the study recommends the development of sustainable and efficient groundwater management policies to optimally utilize the region's groundwater resources, especially in the face of climate change, demographic expansion, and socio-economic development.

  2. Quantifying the evidence of climate change in the light of uncertainty exemplified by the Mediterranean hot spot region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeth, Heiko; Vogt, Gernot; Paxian, Andreas; Hertig, Elke; Seubert, Stefanie; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2017-04-01

    Climate change projections are subject to uncertainty arising from climate model deficiencies, unknown initial conditions and scenario assumptions. In the IPCC reports and many other publications climate changes and uncertainty ranges are usually displayed in terms of multi-model ensemble means and confidence intervals, respectively. In this study, we present a more quantitative assessment and statistical testing of climate change signals in the light of uncertainty. The approach is based on a two-way analysis of variance, referring to 24 climate models from the CMIP3 multi-model ensemble, and extents over the 21st century. The method also distinguishes between different climate variables, time scales and emission scenarios and is combined with a simple bias correction algorithm. The Mediterranean region has been chosen as a case study because it represents an assumed hot spot of future climate change, where temperature is projected to rise substantially and precipitation may decrease dramatically by the end of the 21st century. It is found that future temperature variations are mainly determined by radiative forcing, accounting for up to 60% of total variability, especially in the western Mediterranean Basin. In contrast, future precipitation variability is almost completely attributable to model uncertainty and model internal variability, both being important in more or less equal shares. This general finding is slightly depending on the prescribed emission scenario and strictly sensitive to the considered time scale. In contrast to precipitation, the temperature signal can be enhanced noticeably when bias-correcting the models' climatology during the 20th century: the greenhouse signal then accounts for up to 75% of total temperature variability in the regional mean.

  3. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region.

  4. Modeling concentrations and fluxes of atmospheric CO2 in the North East Atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J.H.; Hansen, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish NEAREX project a three-dimensional Eulerian hemispheric air pollution model is used to study the transport and concentrations of atmospheric CO2 in the North East Atlantic region. The model domain covers the major part of the Northern Hemisphere and currently the model...... source types. Here the model setup and the used parameterizations will be described. The model is validated by comparing the results with atmospheric measurements from four monitoring stations in or close to the northern part of the North Atlantic. Some preliminary model results will be shown and shortly...... includes simple parameterizations of the main sinks and sources for atmospheric CO2. One of the objectives of the project is to study and maybe quantify the relative importance of the various sinks and source types and areas for this region. In order to do so the model has been run with differentiated...

  5. Best practices in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B C Zolty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tobacco epidemic is an increasing threat to public health with the tobacco burden particularly high in WHO′s South-East Asia Region (SEAR. The Region has many obstacles to tobacco control, but despite these challenges, significant progress has been made in many countries. Although much work still needs to be done, SEAR countries have nevertheless implemented strong and often innovative tobacco control measures that can be classified as "best practices," with some setting global precedents. The best practice measures implemented in SEAR include bans on gutka, reducing tobacco imagery in movies, and warning about the dangers of tobacco. In a time of scarce resources, countries in SEAR and elsewhere must ensure that the most effective and cost-efficient measures are implemented. It is hoped that countries can learn from these examples and as appropriate, adapt these measures to their own specific cultural, social and political realities.

  6. Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas: Analyzing Turkey’s Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Tanrıverdi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale natural gas discoveries in East Mediterranean have drawn attention to the region. The discoveries caused both hope and tension in the region. As stated, the new resources may serve as a new hope for all relevant parties as well as the region if managed in a collaborative and conciliatory way. Energy may be a remedy to Cyprus’ financial predicament, initiate a process for resolving differences between Turkey and Cyprus, normalize Israel-Turkey relations and so on. On the contrary, adopting unilateral and uncooperative approach may aggravate the tension and undermine regional stability and security. In this sense, the role of energy in generating hope or tension is dependent on the approaches of related parties. The article will analyze Turkey’s attitude in East Mediterranean case in terms of possible negative and positive implications for Turkey in the energy field. The article examines Turkey’s position and the reasons behind its stance in the East Mediterranean case. Considering Turkey’s energy profile and energy policy goals, the article argues that the newly found hydrocarbons may bring in more stakes for Turkey if Turkey adopts a cooperative approach in this case.

  7. Internal Migration, Regional Labour Market Dynamics and Implications for German East-West Disparities – Results from a Panel VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Mitze, Timo; Untiedt, Gerhard

    :That is, along with a second wave of East-West movements around 2001 net flows out of East Germany were much higher than expected after controlling for its weak labour market and macroeconomic performance. Since this second wave is also accompanied by a gradual fading out of economic distortions......This paper analyses the causal linkages between regional labour market variables and internal migration flows among German states between 1991–2006. We adopt a Panel VAR approach to identify the feedback effects among the variables and analyse the dynamic properties of the system through...... impulseresponse functions.We also use the model to track the evolution of the particular East-West migration since re-unification aiming to shed more light on the East German “empirical puzzle”, characterized by lower migration responses than expected from the regional labour market position relative to the West...

  8. WHO Collaborating Centre for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome for the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altawalah, Haya; Al-Nakib, Widad

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the World Health Organization (WHO) designated the Virology Unit of the Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Centre, Kuwait University, Kuwait, a collaborating centre for AIDS for the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO), recognizing it to be in compliance with WHO guidelines. In this centre, research integral to the efforts of WHO to combat AIDS is conducted. In addition to annual workshops and symposia, the centre is constantly updating and renewing its facilities and capabilities in keeping with current and latest advances in virology. As an example of the activities of the centre, the HIV-1 RNA viral load in plasma samples of HIV-1 patients is determined by real-time PCR using the AmpliPrep TaqMan HIV-1 test v2.0. HIV-1 drug resistance is determined by sequencing the reverse transcriptase and protease regions on the HIV-1 pol gene, using the TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Assay on the OpenGene® DNA Sequencing System. HIV-1 subtypes are determined by sequencing the reverse transcriptase and protease regions on the HIV-1 pol gene using the genotyping assays described above. A fundamental program of Kuwait's WHO AIDS collaboration centre is the national project on the surveillance of drug resistance in human deficiency virus in Kuwait, which illustrates how the centre and its activities in Kuwait can serve the EMRO region of WHO.

  9. Future Indonesia-East Timor Relations: An Analysis of the Regional Security Practices in the Cold War and After

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Indonesia In the fourteenth century, long before the arrival of Dutch and Portuguese colonizers, the era of Majapahit rule the old Javanese Hindu...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR...from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR RELATIONS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SECURITY PRACTICES IN THE COLD WAR

  10. Regional Geothermal Characterisation of East Anatolia from Aeromagnetic, Heat Flow and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektaş, Özcan; Ravat, Dhananjay; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Bilim, Funda; Ateş, Abdullah

    2007-05-01

    East Anatolia is a region of high topography made up of a 2-km high plateau and Neogene and Quaternary volcanics overlying the subduction-accretion complex formed by the process of collision. The aeromagnetic and gravity data surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey have been used to interpret qualitatively the characteristics of the near-surface geology of the region. The residual aeromagnetic data were low-pass filtered and analyzed to produce the estimates of magnetic bottom using the centroid method and by forward modelling of spectra to evaluate the uncertainties in such estimates. The magnetic bottom estimates can be indicative of temperatures in the crust because magnetic minerals lose their spontaneous magnetization at the Curie temperature of the dominant magnetic minerals in the rocks and, thus, also are called Curie point depths (CPDs). The Curie point depths over the region of Eastern Anatolia vary from 12.9 to 22.6 km. Depths computed from forward modelling of spectra with 200 600 km window sizes suggest that the bottom depths from East Anatolia from the magnetic data may have errors exceeding 5 km; however, most of the obtained depths appear to lie in the above range and indicate that the lower crust is either demagnetized or non-magnetic. In the interpretation of the magnetic map, we also used reduction-to-pole (RTP) and amplitude of total gradient of high-pass filtered anomalies, which reduced dipolar orientation effects of induced aeromagnetic anomalies. However, the features of the RTP and the total gradient of the high-pass filtered aeromagnetic anomalies are not highly correlated to the hot spring water locations. On the other hand, many high-amplitude features seen on the total gradient map can be correlated with the ophiolitic rocks observed on the surface. This interpretation is supported by Bouguer gravity data. In this paper, we recommend that the sources of the widespread thermal activity seen in East Anatolia must

  11. Regional Differences in Pathogen Prevalence and Defensive Reactions to the “Swine Flu” Outbreak among East Asians and Westerners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hamamura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the “swine flu” outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas; rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.

  12. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  13. Between Archaeology and Text: The Origins of Rice Consumption and Cultivation in the Middle East and the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureshkumar Muthukumaran

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Asiatic Rice 'Oryza sativa' L. (Poaceae is a domesticated grain crop native to the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, which presently ranks among the most important grains in a global diet. 'Oryza sativa' is comprised of two distinct phylogenetic subspecies, namely 'japonica' and 'indica', for which genetic evidence indicates at least two centres of domestication: the Lower Yangtze valley for the broad thick-grained japonica (c. 4000 BC and the Gangetic basin for the thin elongated indica variety (c. 2500 BC (Fuller et al 2010; idem 2011; Nesbitt et al 2010: 325–7. Modern genetics of landraces from northeast India may indicate a third distinct origin for the so-called 'aus' rice varieties (Londo et al 2006: 9581–2. The genetic history of this taxon is further complicated by post-domestication hybridisation between domesticates and their wild ancestors as well as the presence of rarer forms like the aromatic rice varieties ('basmati' in South Asia and 'sadri' from Iran which may be of independent origin (Nesbitt et al 2010: 324–5. In South Asia domesticated rice is attested at various archaeological sites in the Ganges basin from the mid-3rd millennium BC onwards. It subsequently appears at mature and late Harappan levels in north-western India (c. 2000 BC before arriving at the edge of the eastern Iranian plateau at Pirak on the north Kachi plain in the early 2nd millennium BC (Costantini 1981; Fuller 2006: 36; Sato 2005. The presence of rice at Pirak heralds its gradual westward movement along the Iranian plateau via overland and perhaps even coastal routes into western Iran and Mesopotamia.

  14. A fully coupled Mediterranean regional climate system model: design and evaluation of the ocean component for the 1980–2012 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Sevault

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A fully coupled regional climate system model (CNRM-RCSM4 dedicated to the Mediterranean region is described and evaluated using a multidecadal hindcast simulation (1980–2012 driven by global atmosphere and ocean reanalysis. CNRM-RCSM4 includes the regional representation of the atmosphere (ALADIN-Climate model, land surface (ISBA model, rivers (TRIP model and the ocean (NEMOMED8 model, with a daily coupling by the OASIS coupler. This model aims to reproduce the regional climate system with as few constraints as possible: there is no surface salinity, temperature relaxation, or flux correction; the Black Sea budget is parameterised and river runoffs (except for the Nile are fully coupled. The atmospheric component of CNRM-RCSM4 is evaluated in a companion paper; here, we focus on the air–sea fluxes, river discharges, surface ocean characteristics, deep water formation phenomena and the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. Long-term stability, mean seasonal cycle, interannual variability and decadal trends are evaluated using basin-scale climatologies and in-situ measurements when available. We demonstrate that the simulation shows overall good behaviour in agreement with state-of-the-art Mediterranean RCSMs. An overestimation of the shortwave radiation and latent heat loss as well as a cold Sea Surface Temperature (SST bias and a slight trend in the bottom layers are the primary current deficiencies. Further, CNRM-RCSM4 shows high skill in reproducing the interannual to decadal variability for air–sea fluxes, river runoffs, sea surface temperature and salinity as well as open-sea deep convection, including a realistic simulation of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient. We conclude that CNRM-RCSM4 is a mature modelling tool allowing the climate variability of the Mediterranean regional climate system to be studied and understood. It is used in hindcast and scenario modes in the HyMeX and Med-CORDEX programs.

  15. Black cloud and transport of anthropogenic pollution across the Mediterranean Sea over Nile Delta region in Egypt during Fall season

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Prasad, A. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Nile River Delta is the most populous region of Egypt with major agricultural and industrial activities. The region suffers from intense episodes of natural and anthropogenic pollution especially during Spring (March-April-May), Summer (June-July-August), Fall (September-October-November), and Winter (December-January-February) seasons. Previous studies found that the summer season shows long range transport of pollutants from Europe which is widely accepted. Recent studies attribute the local biomass burning in open fields to be the major culprit behind increased levels of pollution over major cities of the Delta region (such as Cairo) especially during the Fall season. Such episodes result in dense fog and haze which is locally known as "Black Cloud". We have analyzed multiple satellite datasets such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) higher resolution aerosol parameters, vertical profiles from AIRS (meteorological and other parameters), Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) Model, and ground collected data (AOD, PM10, SO2 and NO2) to study the cause of Fall-time pollution over the Delta region. We show that the major episodes of pollution, even during Fall season, is attributed to the inter-continental transport of pollution especially across the Mediterranean. The back-trajectories from HYSPLIT model and satellite data clearly show the source of the plume visible in the MODIS data. We have computed month-to-month mean of the back-trajectories during Fall season (2004-2009) and classified the back trajectories using available ground data to identify major sources of pollution during Fall. The vertical profile of the atmosphere from AIRS shows arrival of plume from northern regions affecting the air quality over all the major cities of the Delta region. Similar analysis can be applied to major population centers in the Indo-Gangetic region in

  16. Land desertification and restoration in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan M.El Shaer

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is characterized by high population growth, degraded and fragile nat-ural ecosystems, and a limited amount of arable lands. It is one of the most water-scarce regions in the world. The region is heterogeneous in terms of the countries' economies, but because it includes some of the richest and some of the poorest countries in the world, regional average economic performance statistics are misleading. The region is mostly semi-arid and arid, with significant areas of extreme aridity. These areas are further challenged by extreme temperatures, frequent drought, land degradation, and desertification. Recent changes in climate patterns, such as prolonged droughts, record temperatures, and increased rainfall irregularity, intensity and distribution, have all further negatively impacted the natural and agro-ecosystems in the region. Such changes have led to increased vulnerability of the people dependent on such re-sources for their livelihood. This article focuses on the impact of land desertification due to climate changes on the pre-vailing natural resources, and discusses several approaches for mitigating or alleviating desertification. It is clear that water shortage is a problem in many countries of this predominantly arid region, and is unlikely to be reduced and may be exacerbated by climate change. Proposed adaptation strategies might include more efficient organization of water supplies, treatment, and delivery systems, and increased use of groundwater. It is necessary to develop alternative production and management systems appropriate to the socioeconomic and environmental conditions in order to prevent further degradation of the prevailing agro-ecosystems and sustain the livelihoods of farmers living in marginal conditions. Grasslands, livestock, and water resources are likely to be most vulnerable to climate change in the region because they are located mostly in marginal areas. Changes in cropping practices

  17. Internationalization "vs" Regionalization of Higher Education in East Africa and the Challenges of Quality Assurance and Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogachi, Oanda

    2009-01-01

    Internationalization of higher education in East Africa raises various questions related to its magnitude and intensity, its capacity to address issues of access, equity and regional research and developmental needs. Internationalization and regionalization as processes in higher education can synergize each other but can also limit the success of…

  18. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Gregory; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

     The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall

  19. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993-2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall is

  20. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shukla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI, an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012. We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early

  1. Guidelines for acute management of hyperammonemia in the Middle East region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadhel, Majid; Mutairi, Fuad Al; Makhseed, Nawal; Jasmi, Fatma Al; Al-Thihli, Khalid; Al-Jishi, Emtithal; AlSayed, Moeenaldeen; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Häberle, Johannes; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperammonemia is a life-threatening event that can occur at any age. If treated, the early symptoms in all age groups could be reversible. If untreated, hyperammonemia could be toxic and cause irreversible brain damage to the developing brain. Objective There are major challenges that worsen the outcome of hyperammonemic individuals in the Middle East. These include: lack of awareness among emergency department physicians about proper management of hyperammonemia, strained communication between physicians at primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals, and shortage of the medications used in the acute management of hyperammonemia. Therefore, the urge to develop regional guidelines is extremely obvious. Method We searched PubMed and Embase databases to include published materials from 2011 to 2014 that were not covered by the European guidelines, which was published in 2012. We followed the process of a Delphi conference and involved one preliminary meeting and two follow-up meetings with email exchanges between the Middle East Hyperammonemia and Urea Cycle Disorders Scientific Group regarding each draft of the manuscript. Results and discussion We have developed consensus guidelines based on the highest available level of evidence. The aim of these guidelines is to homogenize and harmonize the treatment protocols used for patients with acute hyperammonemia, and to provide a resource to not only metabolic physicians, but also physicians who may come in contact with individuals with acute hyperammonemia. Conclusion These suggested guidelines aim to ease the challenges faced by physicians dealing with acute hyperammonemia in the region. In addition, guidelines have demonstrated useful collaboration between experts in the region, and provides information that will hopefully improve the outcomes of patients with acute hyperammonemia. PMID:27099506

  2. Quantification of potential lignocellulosic biomass in fruit trees grown in Mediterranean regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Fernández-Puratich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was based on three species: Citrus sinensis (orange, Olea europaea (olive, and Prunus amygdalus (almond. The biomass was determined for a complete tree without roots, but including stem, branches, and canopy or crown. The obtained results demonstrate that the stem volume is slightly higher for almond trees (0.035 m3/tree than for olive trees (0.027 m3/tree. In comparison, the average stem volume of orange trees is lower (0.006 m3/tree. On the other hand, the total biomass volume including canopy branches is similar in all three species: 0.043 m3/tree for orange tree, 0.066 m3/tree for olive tree, and 0.040 m3/tree for almond tree. The new practical quantification model for these Mediterranean agricultural crops is based on total biomass calculations normally used in forestry stands. So, the obtained values were used to develop models for biomass of the stem, branches, and canopy, relating them with the diameter and volume stem. The regression analysis shows a significant correlation with minimized estimation errors. This allows a practical use of this model in biomass calculation in standing trees, both for total tree biomass and also for pruning material.

  3. Probabilistic assessments of climate change impacts on durum wheat in the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ferrise

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the availability of multi-model ensemble prediction methods has permitted a shift from a scenario-based approach to a risk-based approach in assessing the effects of climate change. This provides more useful information to decision-makers who need probability estimates to assess the seriousness of the projected impacts.

    In this study, a probabilistic framework for evaluating the risk of durum wheat yield shortfall over the Mediterranean Basin has been exploited. An artificial neural network, trained to emulate the outputs of a process-based crop growth model, has been adopted to create yield response surfaces which are then overlaid with probabilistic projections of future temperature and precipitation changes in order to estimate probabilistic projections of future yields. The risk is calculated as the relative frequency of projected yields below a selected threshold.

    In contrast to previous studies, which suggest that the beneficial effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration over the next few decades would outweigh the detrimental effects of the early stages of climatic warming and drying, the results of this study are of greater concern.

  4. Sampling of an STT event over the Eastern Mediterranean region by lidar and electrochemical sonde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papayannis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A two-wavelength ultraviolet (289–316nm ozone Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL system is used to perform ozone measurements in the free troposphere in the Eastern Mediterranean (Northern Greece. The ozone DIAL profiles obtained during a Stratosphere-to-Troposphere Transport (STT event are compared to that acquired by an electrochemical ozonesonde, in the altitude range between 2 and 10 km. The measurement accuracy of these two instruments is also discussed. The mean difference between the ozone profiles obtained by the two techniques is of the order of 1.11 ppbv (1.86%, while the corresponding standard deviation is 4.69 ppbv (8.16%. A case study of an STT event which occurred on 29 November 2000 is presented and analyzed, using ozone lidar, satellite and meteorological data, as well as air mass back-trajectory analysis. During this STT event ozone mixing ratios of 55–65 ppbv were observed between 5 and 7 km height above sea level (a.s.l.. Stratospheric air was mixed with tropospheric air masses, leading to potential vorticity (PV losses due to diabatic processes. The ozone DIAL system can be used for following STT events and small-scale mixing phenomena in the free troposphere, and for providing sequences of vertical ozone profiles in the free troposphere.

    Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (Evolution of the atmosphere; Instruments and techniques – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Middle atmosphere dynamics; Turbulence

  5. The competitive advantage of the Tunisian palm date sector in the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Amor, R.; Aguayo, E.; Miguel-Gómez, M. D. de

    2015-07-01

    In Tunisia, date-palm cultivation and production are of clear strategic importance in terms of economic, social and environmental development. However, the globalization of markets has had a huge impact on the traditional concept of the comparative advantage enjoyed by Tunisia in date exports, highlighting the necessary determinants for competitiveness in the international scenario. In fact, an analysis of the competitive advantage of the Tunisian date industry in the Mediterranean area and Iran over the last 20 years shows that Tunisia is still the main supplier of dates to the EU. The Deglet-Nour variety, in particular, puts Tunisia ahead of traditional competitors such as Algeria and Iran, with average of competitiveness indices as BIS 6405.99, DI 17.38, CMS 41.04 and TBI 99.50 are more stable than those countries during the studied period. But it is currently facing new competitors like Israel and re-exporting countries like France. New business strategies (conditioning, new non-chemical treatments, packing, opening new markets, new distribution channels) would be positive responses to tackle current market limitations, the emergence of new producers and restrictive EU policies. (Author)

  6. The competitive advantage of the Tunisian palm date sector in the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Ben-Amor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, date-palm cultivation and production are of clear strategic importance in terms of economic, social and environmental development. However, the globalization of markets has had a huge impact on the traditional concept of the comparative advantage enjoyed by Tunisia in date exports, highlighting the necessary determinants for competitiveness in the international scenario. In fact, an analysis of the competitive advantage of the Tunisian date industry in the Mediterranean area and Iran over the last 20 years shows that Tunisia is still the main supplier of dates to the EU. The Deglet-Nour variety, in particular, puts Tunisia ahead of traditional competitors such as Algeria and Iran, with average of competitiveness indices as BIS 6405.99, DI 17.38, CMS 41.04 and TBI 99.50 are more stable than those countries during the studied period. But it is currently facing new competitors like Israel and re-exporting countries like France. New business strategies (conditioning, new non-chemical treatments, packing, opening new markets, new distribution channels would be positive responses to tackle current market limitations, the emergence of new producers and restrictive EU policies.

  7. Recent changes in continentality and aridity conditions over the Middle East and North Africa region, and their association with circulation patterns

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2016-05-30

    A long-term (1960-2013) assessment of the variability of continentality and aridity conditions over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region was undertaken. Monthly gridded temperature and precipitation data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) (TS3.22 version) were used to compute the Johansson Continentality Index (JCI) and the Marsz Oceanity Index (MOI). In addition, the De Martonne index and the Pinna index were employed to assess recent changes in aridity conditions. All indices revealed a statistically significant increase in continental influences over the region, particularly in the Nile Basin and the Fertile Crescent. For aridity, the results suggested a generally statistically insignificant increase, with the most rapid changes occurring over the most humid regions (i.e. the Ethiopian Highlands and the Fertile Crescent). In order to explain the observed changes in the continentality and aridity conditions, we assessed the relationship between aridity and continentality indices and a wide range of large-scale circulation patterns. Results indicate that the spatial variability of continentality (as well as aridity) was closely coupled with the Atlantic modes of variability, e.g. the Eastern Atlantic pattern and the Atlantic Meridional Mode, compared to those of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. The results of this work highlight change processes in 2 important climate features in one of the hottest regions on Earth. Improving our understanding of the spatio-temporal characteristics of climate continentality and aridity has implications for a diversity of socio-political, economic, hydrological, and ecological activities in the MENA region.

  8. First External Quality Assessment of Molecular and Serological Detection of Rift Valley Fever in the Western Mediterranean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Monaco

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis which affects humans and a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants. The large spread of RVF in Africa and its potential to emerge beyond its geographic range requires the development of surveillance strategies to promptly detect the disease outbreaks in order to implement efficient control measures, which could prevent the widespread of the virus to humans. The Animal Health Mediterranean Network (REMESA linking some Northern African countries as Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia with Southern European ones as France, Italy, Portugal and Spain aims at improving the animal health in the Western Mediterranean Region since 2009. In this context, a first assessment of the diagnostic capacities of the laboratories involved in the RVF surveillance was performed. The first proficiency testing (external quality assessment--EQA for the detection of the viral genome and antibodies of RVF virus (RVFV was carried out from October 2013 to February 2014. Ten laboratories participated from 6 different countries (4 from North Africa and 2 from Europe. Six laboratories participated in the ring trial for both viral RNA and antibodies detection methods, while four laboratories participated exclusively in the antibodies detection ring trial. For the EQA targeting the viral RNA detection methods 5 out of 6 laboratories reported 100% of correct results. One laboratory misidentified 2 positive samples as negative and 3 positive samples as doubtful indicating a need for corrective actions. For the EQA targeting IgG and IgM antibodies methods 9 out of the 10 laboratories reported 100% of correct results, whilst one laboratory reported all correct results except one false-positive. These two ring trials provide evidence that most of the participating laboratories are capable to detect RVF antibodies and viral RNA thus recognizing RVF infection in affected ruminants with the diagnostic methods

  9. Compositing climate change vulnerability of a Mediterranean region using spatiotemporally dynamic proxies for ecological and socioeconomic impacts and stabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkesen, Ali Can; Evrendilek, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    The study presents a new methodology to quantify spatiotemporal dynamics of climate change vulnerability at a regional scale adopting a new conceptual model of vulnerability as a function of climate change impacts, ecological stability, and socioeconomic stability. Spatiotemporal trends of equally weighted proxy variables for the three vulnerability components were generated to develop a composite climate change vulnerability index (CCVI) for a Mediterranean region of Turkey combining Landsat time series data, digital elevation model (DEM)-derived data, ordinary kriging, and geographical information system. Climate change impact was based on spatiotemporal trends of August land surface temperature (LST) between 1987 and 2016. Ecological stability was based on DEM, slope, aspect, and spatiotemporal trends of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), while socioeconomic stability was quantified as a function of spatiotemporal trends of land cover, population density, per capita gross domestic product, and illiteracy. The zones ranked on the five classes of no-to-extreme vulnerability were identified where highly and moderately vulnerable lands covered 0.02% (12 km(2)) and 11.8% (6374 km(2)) of the study region, respectively, mostly occurring in the interior central part. The adoption of this composite CCVI approach is expected to lead to spatiotemporally dynamic policy recommendations towards sustainability and tailor preventive and mitigative measures to locally specific characteristics of coupled ecological-socioeconomic systems.

  10. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Regional Obstetrical Care in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Junichi; Hoshiai, Tetsuro; Sato, Kazuyo; Tokunaga, Hideki; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Arai, Takanari; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    The authors report the results of surveys on the emergency transport or evacuation status of obstetric patients conducted in Miyagi prefecture, one of the major disaster areas of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami. The surveys examined the damages to maternity institutions, evacuation status and transport of pregnant women, and prehospital childbirths and were conducted in 50 maternity institutions and 12 fire departments in Miyagi. Two coastal institutions were destroyed completely, and four institutions were destroyed partially by the tsunami, forcing them to stop medical services. In the two-month period after the disaster, 217 pregnant women received hospital transport or gave birth after evacuation. Satisfactory perinatal outcomes were maintained. Emergency obstetric transport increased to approximately 1.4 fold the number before the disaster. Twenty-three women had prehospital childbirths, indicating a marked increase to approximately three times the number of the previous year. In the acute phase of the tsunami disaster, maternity institutions were damaged severely and perinatal transport was not possible; as a result, pregnant women inevitably gave birth in unplanned institutions, and the number of prehospital births was increased extremely. To obtain satisfactory obstetric outcomes, it is necessary to construct a future disaster management system and to re-recognize pregnant women as people with special needs in disaster situations. Sugawara J , Hoshiai T , Sato K , Tokunaga H , Nishigori H , Arai T , Okamura K , Yaegashi N . Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on regional obstetrical care in Miyagi Prefecture. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):255- 258.

  11. Simulations of LGM climate of East Asia by regional climate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑益群; 于革; 王苏民; 薛滨; 刘华强; 曾新民

    2003-01-01

    Climate conditions in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were remarkably different from the present ones. Adopting a regional climate model (RCM) which has included a detailed land surface scheme, LGM climate of East Asia has been simulated. The effects of vegetation changes on LGM climate have been diagnosed by adding forces of LGM paleovegetation reconstructed from the geological records. The results of the simulations by RCM indicate that large decreases in whole year temperature of East Asia continent caused strongly enhanced winter monsoon and weakened summer monsoon. The strengthening and westward-stretching of the Subtropical High of West-Pacific are the key reasons of decreases of LGM summer precipitation in eastern China. Precipitation and effective precipitation were increased in the Tibetan Plateau and Middle-Asia, while the humid condition in the Tibetan Plateau was mainly caused by increase of precipitation. Accumulated snow of LGM was also increased in the Tibetan Plateau, which was helpful to developing glacier and permafrost. This experiment has simulated that the frozen soil areas extend southward to 30°N. In LGM climate simulation, climate effects caused by external forces were amplified by added paleovegetation, therefore, decreases of temperature, changes of precipitation and snowfall, and other climatic parameters were further strengthened, making the simulation results more approach to geological evidences.

  12. Modelling the topsoil carbon stock of agricultural lands with the Stochastic Gradient Treeboost in a semi-arid Mediterranean region

    KAUST Repository

    Schillaci, Calogero

    2016-10-29

    Efficient modelling methods to assess soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks have a pivotal importance as inputs for global carbon cycle studies and decision-making processes. However, laboratory analyses of SOC field samples are costly and time consuming. Global-scale estimates of SOC were recently made according to categorical variables, including land use and soil texture. Remote sensing (RS) data can contribute to the better modelling of the spatial distribution of SOC stock at a regional scale. In the present study, we used Stochastic Gradient Treeboost (SGT) to estimate the topsoil (0–30 cm) SOC stock of a Mediterranean semiarid area (Sicily, Italy, 25,286 km2). In particular, our study examined agricultural lands, which represent approximately 64% of the entire region. An extensive soil dataset (2202 samples, 1 profile/7.31 km2 on average) was acquired from the soil database of Sicily. The georeferenced field observations were intersected with remotely sensed environmental data and other spatial data, including climatic data from WORLDCLIM, land cover from CORINE, soil texture, topography and derived indices. Finally, the SGT was compared to published global estimates (GSOC) and data from the International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC) Soil Grids by comparing the pseudo-regressions of the SGT, GSOC and ISRIC with soil observations. The mean SOC stock across the entire region that was estimated by GSOC and ISRIC was 3.9% lower and 46.2% higher compared to the SGT. The SGT efficiently predicted SOC stocks that were < 70 t ha− 1 (corresponding to the 90th percentile of the observed values). On average, the coefficient of variation of the SGT model was 3.6% when computed on the whole dataset and remained lower than 23% when computed on a distribution basis. The SGT mean absolute error was 14.84 t ha− 1, 18.4% and 36.3% lower than GSOC and ISRIC, respectively. The mean annual rainfall, soil texture, land use, mean annual temperature and Landsat 7

  13. Preliminary definition of geophysical regions for the Middle East and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J J; Walter, B

    1998-12-01

    The ability to calibrate seismic stations to improve the monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is partially limited by the availability of seismic events with known locations and source properties. To confidently extrapolate from these events to aseismic regions, and to properly account for discontinuities in seismic properties requires accurate geophysical models. This paper lays out a preliminary, first-order, regionalization of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The model specifies boundaries and velocity structures based on the geology and tectonics of the region, previously published studies, and empirical data observations by the LLNL group. This model is a starting point and is expected to be improved and refined by comparisons with ongoing tomography efforts and the collection of new data. We anticipate that this model and its successors will prove useful as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps based on intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging. We also hope the model, as it improves and demonstrates some predictive power, will provide a reference model for broader CTBT research efforts in detection, location and discrimination as well as other aspects of earth science.

  14. Regional scale hydrodynamic modelling of offshore wind farm development areas off the east coast of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara Murray, Rory; Gallego, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable interest in Scotland, supported by the Scottish Government, in the expansion of renewable energy production. In particular, significant offshore wind energy developments are already planned in coastal waters to the east of the Forth and Tay estuaries. It is important to understand the local and cumulative environmental impact of such developments within this region, to aid licensing decisions but also to inform marine spatial planning in general. Substantial wind farm developments may affect physical processes within the region, such as tidal-, wind-, and wave-driven circulation, as well as coastal sediment transport and more complex estuarine dynamics. Such physical impacts could have ecological and, ultimately, socio-economic consequences. The Firth of Forth and Tay areas both exhibit complex estuarine characteristics due to fresh water input, complex bathymetry and coastline, and tidal mixing. Our goal is to construct an unstructured grid hydrodynamic model of the wider Firth of Forth and Tay region using the Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), resolving the complex estuarine hydrography of the area and representing offshore wind developments. Hydrodynamic modelling will provide an accurate baseline of the hydrography in this region but also allow the assessment of the effect on the physical environment of multiple wind farm development scenarios.

  15. Simulating Dust Regional Impact on the Middle East Climate and the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Sergey; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2017-04-01

    Dust is one of the most abundant aerosols, however, currently only a few regional climate downscalings account for dust. This study focuses on the Middle East and the Red Sea regional climate response to the dust aerosol radiative forcing. The Red Sea is located between North Africa and Arabian Peninsula, which are first and third largest source regions of dust, respectively. MODIS and SEVIRI satellite observations show extremely high dust optical depths in the region, especially over the southern Red Sea during the summer season. The significant north-to-south gradient of the dust optical depth over the Red Sea persists throughout the entire year. Modeled atmospheric radiative forcing at the surface, top of the atmosphere and absorption in the atmospheric column indicate that dust significantly perturbs radiative balance. Top of the atmosphere modeled forcing is validated against independently derived GERB satellite product. Due to strong radiative forcing at the sea surface (daily mean forcing during summer reaches -32 Wm-2 and 10 Wm-2 in SW and LW, respectively), using uncoupled ocean model with prescribed atmospheric boundary conditions would result in an unrealistic ocean response. Therefore, here we employ the Regional Ocean Modeling system (ROMS) fully coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to study the impact of dust on the Red Sea thermal regime and circulation. The WRF was modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of dust. Daily spectral optical properties of dust are computed using Mie, T-matrix, and geometric optics approaches, and are based on the SEVIRI climatological optical depth. The WRF model parent and nested domains are configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and over the Red Sea with 30 and 10 km resolution, respectively. The ROMS model over the Red Sea has 2 km grid spacing. The simulations show that, in the equilibrium response, dust causes 0.3-0.5 K cooling of the Red Sea surface

  16. Assessing Computer Knowledge in Senior High School: A Case Study of the Upper East Region in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Oladejo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study contracted with assessing the knowledge of computer in Senior High Schools of the Upper East Region in Ghana. Approach: Data collected by means of administration of questionnaire brings out the level of computer knowledge expected from a student completing a Senior High School in the Upper East Region in Ghana. 140 sample students from 8 districts were selected for the study. Results: Hypotheses were tested at α = 0.05 while the analyses of data were presented through SAS and SPSS. General Linear Model (GLM, post ANOVA and Least Significant Difference (LSD were also used. Conclusion: The study revealed that an average student in Senior High School of the Upper East Region can not pass in computer subject. The research further revealed that gender has no influence on the level of computer knowledge of a student. This indicates that the level of computer knowledge of males and females is not significantly different.

  17. Spatial heterogeneity of aerosol optical and radiative properties obtained from multiple satellite retrievals over the Sub-Himalayan region of North-East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Binita; Bhuyan, Pradip; Biswas, Jhuma; Dahutia, Papori

    North East India, nestled between the southeastern Tibetan Plateau on the north, the Indo Myanmar range of hills to the east, plains of Bangladesh to the south and the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) to the west has a unique topography and population inhabitation pattern. In recent decades, along with other parts of south Asia NE India has undergone rapid industrial and economic development. Lifestyle changes have increasingly added to the anthropogenic burden on the atmosphere in the plains while biomass burning due to shifting cultivation in the hills is a major source of particulate and gaseous pollution. Studies have suggested that during the Asian summer monsoon, boundary layer pollution from India, Southeast Asia and south China are lifted to the upper tropospheric region by convection followed by westward transport over the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The spatio-temporal variation of aerosol optical (viz. AOD, AAI, AAOD, AE, FMF, columnar mass concentration (CMC)) and radiative properties are studied using data from multiple satellite sensors: MODIS, OMI, TOMS, CERES at various locations within the NE India (22-30°N, 86-98°E) for the period 2000-2012. Significant spatio-temporal variation of aerosol optical and radiative properties is observed within the region. For example, Guwahati, the metropolitan city, shows maximum value of AOD, followed by Dhubri the location situated at the western corridor of north-east India. Minimum AOD is observed at the high altitude locations Thimphu and Tawang. Temporally AOD is overriding in March, April, May (MAM) at almost all the observation locations. The minimum AOD over the region in October-November (ON) is associated with the topography and local meteorology. AAI >0.5 at all the locations indicates presence of significant amount of absorbing aerosols. The peak AAI and AAOD in MAM at all the location is associated with the peak biomass burning activity and long range transportation from other locations of India and

  18. [Emerging viral infections in South East Asia and the Pacific region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P; Tarantola, A; Lassel, L; Mollet, T; Quatresous, I; Paquet, C

    2008-10-01

    The epidemiology of several viral diseases underwent profound changes in South-East Asia and Oceania over the past decades. This was due to several factors, including the geographical distribution of vectors and the viruses they transmit; increasing traveling and trade; increasing ecological and demographic pressure. We reviewed the current state of knowledge based on published sources and available epidemiological data. The review was limited to potentially emerging viruses in Southeast Asia and the Pacific reported in human cases. Dengue, Chikungunya, and Japanese Encephalitis viruses have recurred on a yearly basis with a steady increase in these regions. Ross River and Barmah viruses now appear regularly in Australia, in an increasing number of cases. Nipah virus strikes regularly with limited but deadly epidemics in Southeast Asia. Finally, infections by lyssaviruses, Kunjin, Murray Valley, or Zika viruses were also reviewed.

  19. MODELING OF WEATHER DATA FOR THE EAST ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akpinar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly average daily data of climatic conditions over the period 1994-2003 of cities in the east Anatolia region of Turkey is presented. Regression methods are used to fit polynomial and trigonometric functions to the monthly averages for nine parameters. The parameters namely temperature, maximum-minimum temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed, rainfall, solar radiation and sunshine duration are useful for renewable energy applications. The functions presented for the parameters should enable determination of specific parameter values and prediction of missing values. They also provide some insight into the variation of these parameters. The models developed can be used in any study related to climatic and its effect on the environment and energy.

  20. South Primorye, Far East Russia—A key region for global Permian correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Galina V.; Belyansky, Gennady C.; Burago, Valentina I.; Nikitina, Antonina P.; Zakharov, Yuri D.; Zhuravlev, Andrey V.

    2006-03-01

    Significant differences between faunal and floral associations existing in different paleogeographic realms in the Kungurian-Late Permian interval make it difficult to correlate the Permian deposits of the world. Resolving this problem is one of the main tasks of Permian stratigraphy. The global significance of Permian strata of the Primorye region of Far East Russia is enhanced by the specific Middle Permian mixed Tethyan, Boreal and Gondwanan-type brachiopod fauna, mixed Angara-Euromerican-Cathaysian flora, and their close spatial and stratigraphical association with fusulinids, bryozoans, ammonoids, conodonts. These facts permit tracing of global correlational levels of some Permian sequences within the different paleobiogeographical realms: for example, the Monodiexodina sutschanica- Metadoliolina dutkevichi fusulinid zone of the Wordian age and Parafusulina stricta fusulinid zone of the Capitanian age. The Late Permian fauna of the Primorye is mainly Tethyan in origin and provides correlation with similar aged sequences from South China.

  1. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akl C. Fahed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East and North Africa (MENA region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships.

  2. THE TOURISTIC ACTIVITY OF THE NORT-EAST REGION IN THE PERIOD 1990-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia HARJA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fallowing analysis has started from our location from a geographical point of view in the North-East Region. In the first part I have made a brief presentation of the tourism potential, after which I have analyzed the main statistic indicators for the period 1990-2007. Many results have been presented through suggestive statistical diagrams, leaving the possibility for the readers to draw other conclusions than the ones found in the text. The analysis was detailed for all the counties that have registered tourists in 2007. At the end it was applied the study of touristy activity concentration with the help of the Onicescu concentration indicators, and have been drawn the main conclusions.

  3. Regional Confl icts in East Asia – a Role for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rise of China occurs in an adaptive and reactive regional system, giving impetus to the development of inclusive and expansive security architecture. This attempts to offset the statistical likelihood of confl ict with the rise of a major power as capability outweighs confl ict costs. China, in an effort to be a central player within this forming security architecture, contributes to its formation and participates in strategic narrative framing to defer from open confl ict and sabre rattling, while maintaining an increase in capabilities. This functionalist system of “open regionalism” incorporates external powers, furthering integrating the security concerns of the East Asian system with the security concerns of the world.

  4. Outbreak of scrub typhus in the North East Himalayan region-Sikkim: An emerging threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gurung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness that is known to be endemic in the South East Asian countries and the Western Pacific region. We here report an outbreak in the tiny Himalayan state of Sikkim. Patients with pyrexia of unknown origin were evaluated. They were screened by Weil-Felix test and the rapid immunochromatographic method. Samples that were positive by either Weil-Felix agglutination test or by rapid immunochromatography were confirmed by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A total 204 samples were screened. Sixty-three patients were confirmed positive among which 42 were male and 21 were female. Effective management and early administration of antibiotics will help prevent the complications and mortality associated with scrub typhus.

  5. Soil health in the Mediterranean region: Development and consolidation of a multifactor index to characterize the health of agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Eshel; Guy, Levy; Oshri, Rinot; Michael, Borisover; Uri, Yermiyahu; Leah, Tsror; Hanan, Eizenberg; Tal, Svoray; Alex, Furman; Yael, Mishael; Yosef, Steinberger

    2017-04-01

    The link among between soil health, soil conservation, and food security, resilience, and function under a wide range of agricultural uses and different environmental systems, is at the heart of many ecofriendly research studies worldwide. We consider the health of soil as a function of its ability to provide ecosystem services, including agricultural production (provisional services); regulating natural cycles (regulation services) and as a habitat for plants (support services). Soil health is affected by a wide range of soil properties (biotic and abiotic) that maintain complex interactions among themselves. The decline in soil health includes degradation in its physical properties (e.g., deterioration of soil structure, compaction and sealing, water-repellency, soil erosion by water and wind), chemical properties (e.g., salinization, depletion of nutrients and organic matter content, accumulation of pollutants and reduction of the soils' ion exchange capacity) and biological properties (e.g., vulnerable populations of microflora, microfauna, and mesofauna, leading to a breach of ecological balance and biodiversity and, as a result, destruction of beneficial populations and pathogen outbreaks). Numerous studies show that agricultural practices have a major impact on soil functioning. Substituting longstanding tillage with no-till cropping and the amalgamation of cover crops in crop rotations were found to improve soil properties. Such changes contributed to the enhancement of the agronomical performance of the soil. On the other hand, these practices may result in lessened effectiveness of controlling perennial weeds. The evaluation of soil-health status in the Mediterranean region is very limited. Moreover, existing approaches for evaluation that have been used (such as the Cornell and Hany tests) do not give sufficient weight to important agronomic processes, such as soil erosion, salinization, sodification, spread of weeds in the fields (in particular, weeds

  6. Phylogeographic patterns of Merodon hoverflies in the Eastern Mediterranean region: revealing connections and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhls, Gunilla; Vujić, Ante; Petanidou, Theodora; Cardoso, Pedro; Radenković, Snezana; Ačanski, Jelena; Pérez Bañón, Celeste; Rojo, Santos

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the phylogeographic patterns of Merodon species (Diptera, Syrphidae) in the Eastern Mediterranean. Ten species were sampled on five different islands and mainland sites as a minimum. All samples were screened for their mtDNA COI barcode haplotype diversity, and for some samples, we additionally generated genomic fingerprints. The recently established zoogeographic distribution categories classify these species as having (1) Balkan distribution; (2) Anatolian distribution; (3) continental areas and large islands distribution; and (4) with wide distribution. The ancestral haplotypes and their geographical localities were estimated with statistical parsimony (TCS). TCS networks identified as the ancestral haplotype samples that originated from localities situated within the distributional category of the species in question. Strong geographical haplotype structuring was detected for many Merodon species. We were particularly interested to test the relative importance of current (Aegean Sea) and past Mid-Aegean Trench) barriers to dispersal for Merodon flies in the Aegean. We employed phylogenetic β-diversity (Pβ total) and its partition in replacement (Pβ repl) and richness difference (Pβ rich) to test the importance of each explanatory variable (interisland distance, MAT, and island area) in interisland differences using partial Mantel tests and hierarchical partitioning of variation. β-Analyses confirmed the importance of both current and past barriers to dispersal on the evolution of group. Current interisland distance was particularly important to explain the replacement of haplotypes, while the MAT was driving differences in richness of haplotypes, revealing the MAT as a strong past barrier whose effects are still visible today in the phylogenetic history of the clade in the Aegean. These results support the hypothesis of a highly restricted dispersal and gene flow among Merodon populations between islands since late Pleistocene. Additionally

  7. Particular Mal de Meleda Phenotypes in Tunisia and Mutations Founder Effect in the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbarka Bchetnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mal de Meleda (MDM is a rare, autosomal recessive form of palmoplantar keratoderma. It is characterized by erythema and hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles that progressively extend to the dorsal surface of the hands and feet. It is caused by mutations in SLURP-1 gene encoding for secreted mammalian Ly-6/uPAR-related protein 1 (SLURP-1. We performed mutational analysis by direct sequencing of SLURP-1 gene in order to identify the genetic defect in three unrelated families (families MDM-12, MDM-13, and MDM-14 variably affected with transgressive palmoplantar keratoderma. A spectrum of clinical presentations with variable features has been observed from the pronounced to the transparent hyperkeratosis. We identified the 82delT frame shift mutation in the SLURP-1 gene in both families MDM-12 and MDM-13 and the missense variation p.Cys99Tyr in family MDM-14. To date, the 82delT variation is the most frequent cause of MDM in the world which is in favour of a recurrent molecular defect. The p.Cys99Tyr variation is only described in Tunisian families making evidence of founder effect mutation of likely Tunisian origin. Our patients presented with very severe to relatively mild phenotypes, including multiple keratolytic pits observed for one patient in the hyperkeratotic area which was not previously reported. The phenotypic variability may reflect the influence of additional factors on disease characteristics. This report further expands the spectrum of clinical phenotypes associated with mutations in SLURP1 in the Mediterranean population.

  8. Investigation of hydrological drought using Cumulative Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI 30) in the eastern Mediterranean region (Damascus, Syria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhem, Boulos Abou; Kattaa, Bassam

    2016-07-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has been exposed to drought episodes, which have been occurring more frequently during the last decades. The objective of the present paper is to study the precipitation regime of the Damascus (Mazzeh) meteoric station by analysing drought characteristics using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and comparing this with the drought in Cyprus. The cumulative drought conceptis proposed to characterize long-term hydrologic drought, which affects the shallow groundwater productivity in terms of quantity and quality. Gamma probability distribution was fitted to the long-term annual precipitation in Damascus from 1918-1919 to 2007-2008 ( n = 90 years). Generally, a decreasing trend of 17% to the mean annual rainfall of Damascus and 13% to the mean annual rainfall of Cyprus was estimated between 1970 and 2000. The SPI identifies three major extended drought periods: (1) 9 years of severe drought (1954-1963) with an average 20% precipitation deficit per year compared to the mean. (2) 8 years of severe drought (1983-1991) with a 27% deficit per year on average. (3) 9 years of extreme drought (1993-2002) with a 31% deficit per year on average. The cumulative standardized precipitation index (SPI 30) demonstrates positive values for the first period and is indicative of having no effect on the global water balance. SPI 30 exhibits sensitive equilibrium with near zero values / a near zero value (±1.5) for the second period. For the third period, however, the SPI 30 decreases below -10 indicating an extreme hydrological drought that has negative consequences on the recent groundwater recharge. It is required to develop and implement a sustainable groundwater management strategy to reduce long-terms drought risks. Generally, the SPI 30 in Cyprus is parallel to that in Damascus with a 3-5 year delay. Thus, the central zone of the Eastern Mediterranean region is facing big challenges and has been suffering from three decades of moderate to

  9. Investigation of hydrological drought using Cumulative Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI 30) in the eastern Mediterranean region (Damascus, Syria)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boulos Abou Zakhem; Bassam Kattaa

    2016-07-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has been exposed to drought episodes, which have been occurring morefrequently during the last decades. The objective of the present paper is to study the precipitation regimeof the Damascus (Mazzeh) meteoric station by analysing drought characteristics using the StandardizedPrecipitation Index (SPI) and comparing this with the drought in Cyprus. The cumulative droughtconcept is proposed to characterize long-term hydrologic drought, which affects the shallow groundwaterproductivity in terms of quantity and quality. Gamma probability distribution was fitted to the long-termannual precipitation in Damascus from 1918–1919 to 2007–2008 (n = 90 years). Generally, a decreasingtrend of 17% to the mean annual rainfall of Damascus and 13% to the mean annual rainfall of Cypruswas estimated between 1970 and 2000. The SPI identifies three major extended drought periods: (1)9 years of severe drought (1954–1963) with an average 20% precipitation deficit per year compared tothe mean. (2) 8 years of severe drought (1983–1991) with a 27% deficit per year on average. (3) 9 yearsof extreme drought (1993–2002) with a 31% deficit per year on average. The cumulative standardizedprecipitation index (SPI 30) demonstrates positive values for the first period and is indicative of havingno effect on the global water balance. SPI 30 exhibits sensitive equilibrium with near zero values / a nearzero value (±1.5) for the second period. For the third period, however, the SPI 30 decreases below −10indicating an extreme hydrological drought that has negative consequences on the recent groundwaterrecharge. It is required to develop and implement a sustainable groundwater management strategy toreduce long-terms drought risks. Generally, the SPI 30 in Cyprus is parallel to that in Damascus witha 3–5 year delay. Thus, the central zone of the Eastern Mediterranean region is facing big challengesand has been suffering from three decades of moderate to

  10. R and D and maintenance on graphite tile of divertor region at EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, X., E-mail: jixiang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. BOX 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Song, Y.T.; Wu, S.T.; Hao, J.; Du, S.; Peng, Y.; Cao, L.; Wang, S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. BOX 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Find out the reason of damage of graphite tile. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulation the halo current. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stress analysis of graphite tile by ANSYS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Do the experiments to test the strength of graphite tile. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Do the optimization and maintenance of graphite tile. - Abstract: EAST, with full superconducting magnetic coils, had been designed and constructed to address the scientific and engineering issues under steady state operation. The in-vessel components are full graphite tiles as first wall had been operated successfully. In the experiment campaign of 2010, the H mode operation and 1 MA operation have been gotten on EAST. However, in some case, some of the graphite tiles of divertor region are damaged with the plasma parameter enhanced. As most of the damaged graphite tiles are in the divertor region, they are probably damaged by the electro-magnetic force of the halo current when the VDEs occur. The force of the halo current is re-estimated. The structure analysis has been done by the ANSYS software. From the analysis result. It can be obtained that the stress is larger than the allowable stress when the halo current on the graphite tile is larger than 2.7 kA. The tensile testing of the graphite also has been done. As the result, the graphite tiles are damaged when the forces are up to 2400 N. To deal with the problem, two proposes are accepted. In the one hand, the new type graphite material is used, whose tensile strength is up to 45 MPa. In the other hand, the structure of the graphite tiles is optimized.

  11. The Influence of Regional SSTs on the Interdecadal Shift of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jianjian; LI Shuanglin

    2013-01-01

    East Asia has experienced a significant interdecadal climate shift since the late 1970s.This shift was accompanied by a decadal change of global SST.Previous studies have suggested that the decadal shift of global SST background status played a substantial role in such a climatic shift.However,the individual roles of different regional SSTs remain unclear.In this study,we investigated these roles using ensemble experiments of an atmospheric general circulation model,GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory) AM2.Two kinds of ensembles were performed.The first was a control ensemble in which the model was driven with the observed climatological SSTs.The second was an experimental ensemble in which the model was driven with the observed climatological SSTs plus interdecadal SST background shifts in separate ocean regions.The results suggest that the SST shift in the tropics exerted more important influence than those in the extratropics,although the latter contribute to the shift modestly.The variations of summer monsoonal circulation systems,including the South Asian High,the West Pacific Subtropical High,and the lower-level air flow,were analyzed.The results show that,in comparison with those induced by extratropical SSTs,the shifts induced by tropical SSTs bear more similarity to the observations and to the simulations with global SSTs prescribed.In particular,the observed SST shift in the tropical Pacific Ocean,rather than the Indian Ocean,contributed significantly to the shift of East Asian summer monsoon since the 1970s.

  12. Synthesis of Late Cretaceous-Quaternary tectonic, sedimentary and magmatic processes and basin formation related to episodic subduction-collision in the easternmost Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair; Kinnaird, Timothy; McCay, Gillian; Palamakumbura, Romesh; Taslı, Kemal

    2015-04-01

    subaerial lineament; 8. Mid-Late Quaternary: gradual tectonic uplift giving rise to a flight of shallow marine to non-marine terrace deposits, that were also influenced by eustatic sea-level fluctuations and climatic change. The stages of basin development were punctuated by four main episodes of compression/uplift. A. Late Miocene underthrusting/metamorphism/exhumation; B. Mid-Eocene southwards thrusting; C. Late Miocene southward thrusting/left-lateral transpression; D. Late Pliocene-Mid Quaternary tectonic uplift. In a setting of continuing plate convergence why did the nature of sedimentation change so dramatically through time? The deformation front between the Kyrenia Range and the Troodos Massif is delineated by the Ovgos Fault which shows an episodic development including Late Miocene compression (transpression) and Quaternary left-lateral strike slip. The Late Cretaceous volcanogenic rocks relate to a phase of regional arc magmatism also documented in SE Turkey. Subduction appears to have slowed or ceased during the Maastrichtian-Palaeocene while the active margin experienced extension or transtension. Following final closure of a Tethyan oceanic basin further north ('northern Neotethys') subduction appears to have relocated southwards and re-activated/accelerated during the Early Eocene triggering large-scale collapse of the over-riding plate and olistostrome formation. Diachronous continental collision was in progress during Early Miocene causing strong uplift of the over-riding plate, intense erosion and voluminous siliciclastic sediment supply to a fore-arc type basin in the N Cyprus-Misis area (becoming foreland basin further east, in SE Turkey). The Pliocene was characterised by eastward 'tectonic escape' of the Anatolian plate towards the Aegean and this allowed relatively fine-grained deposition to accumulate along the former convergent continental margin in northern Cyprus and adjacent areas (e.g. Mesaoria basin). The dramatic late Pliocene to mid

  13. Internal Migration, Regional Labour Market Dynamics and Implications for German East-West Disparities – Results from a Panel VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Mitze, Timo; Untiedt, Gerhard

    This paper analyses the causal linkages between regional labour market variables and internal migration flows among German states between 1991–2006. We adopt a Panel VAR approach to identify the feedback effects among the variables and analyse the dynamic properties of the system through...... impulseresponse functions.We also use the model to track the evolution of the particular East-West migration since re-unification aiming to shed more light on the East German “empirical puzzle”, characterized by lower migration responses than expected from the regional labour market position relative to the West......, this supports the view of “repressed” migration flows for that period....

  14. Spatio-temporal variability of the snow cover in different Mediterranean mountain regions from in situ and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, Simon; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Herrero, Javier; Sproles, Eric; Hanich, Lahoucine; Boudhar, Abdelghani; Pons, Marc; Alonso-González, Esteban; Musselman, Keith

    2016-04-01

    The snow cover is an essential water resource in many regions with a Mediterranean climate. In the mountainous areas of these regions, in situ snow measurements are often too sparse to cover the range of spatial variability due to the topography. In contrast, satellite snow products are not sufficient to understand the processes governing the snowpack evolution. The combination of both data sources is useful to understand the effects of climate variability on the snow cover. Here we gathered the data of several high-elevation, snow-observing stations in the Pyrenees (Spain, Andorra), High-Atlas (Morocco), Sierra Nevada (Spain), Sierra Nevada (USA) and the Andes of Norte Chico (Chile) to run a point-scale snowpack energy-balance model. We extracted and gapfilled the MODIS snow product over 2000-2015 around each station to determine the mean snow cover duration as a function of elevation. The results of the energy-balance model highlight the importance of the snow sublimation, which amounts from 10% to 30% of the mean annual solid precipitation in these sites. The MODIS data indicate that the relationship between the snow cover duration and the elevation is almost entirely explained by the distance from of each site to the equator, which further indicates that radiation and humidity are important drivers of the snowpack dynamics. These factors should not be overlooked in the projections of the melt water contribution to runoff under future climate conditions.

  15. Sensitivity of the regional climate in the Middle East and North Africa to volcanic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Osipov, Sergey; Wyman, Bruce; Zhao, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon, and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  16. Guidelines for acute management of hyperammonemia in the Middle East region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfadhel M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1,2 Fuad Al Mutairi,1,2 Nawal Makhseed,3 Fatma Al Jasmi,4 Khalid Al-Thihli,5 Emtithal Al-Jishi,6 Moeenaldeen AlSayed,7 Zuhair N Al-Hassnan,7,8 Fathiya Al-Murshedi,5 Johannes Häberle,9 Tawfeg Ben-Omran10 Middle East Hyperammonemia and Urea Cycle Disorders Scientific Group (MHUSG 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetics, 2King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pediatrics, Jahra Hospital, Ministry of Health, Jahra City, Kuwait; 4Department of Pediatric, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 5Genetic and Developmental Medicine Clinic, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman; 6Salmaniya Medical Complex, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 7Department of Medical Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, 8The National Newborn Screening Program, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 9Department of Pediatrics, Division of Metabolism and Children’s Research Center, University Children’s Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 10Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Background: Hyperammonemia is a life-threatening event that can occur at any age. If treated, the early symptoms in all age groups could be reversible. If untreated, hyperammonemia could be toxic and cause irreversible brain damage to the developing brain.Objective: There are major challenges that worsen the outcome of hyperammonemic individuals in the Middle East. These include: lack of awareness among emergency department physicians about proper management of hyperammonemia, strained communication between physicians at primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals, and shortage of the medications used in the acute management of hyperammonemia. Therefore, the urge to develop regional guidelines is

  17. Analysis of two Saharan dust events of North Africa in the Mediterranean region by Using SKIRON/Eta model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaouda, D.; Kallos, G.; Azzi, A.; Louka, P.; Benlefki, A.

    2009-04-01

    As it is well known established that significant ecosystems effects can be produced by pollutants generated many hundreds of kilometres away. Desert is natural laboratories containing valuable mineral deposits that were formed in the arid environment or that were exposed by erosion. Dust is a key species of many biogeochemical. One important effect of the dust cycle is triggering of various biochemical reactions between dust ingredients and the environment. The biogeochemical impact of desert dust also remains a matter of discussion regarding its contribution for different major and minor elements to terrestrial and marine systems and especially its potential fertilising role for remote oceanic areas by supplying micronutrients such as phosphorus and iron. Saharan dust is responsible for the supply of nutrients resulting in the increase of the production of the pelagic system, but competitively may remove phosphorus, through the adsorption on dust particles, contributing to the oligotrophy of the system, in addition, the presence of Si and Fe in the dust deposition may change the phytoplankton communities resulting in fast growth rates leading to blooms. In addition to direct radiative forcing, dust participates in indirect climate forcing through its role as a cloud-condensation nucleus and potential atmospheric CO2 regulator via biospheric nutrient delivery. Scattering and absorption of radiation by dust have impacts on the Earth's radiation budget, the thermal structure of the troposphere, and actinic fluxes, altering dynamical and photochemical processes. Coating of dust particles under polluted conditions can change microphysical properties and promote surface chemical. The Mediterranean Sea is a semi-enclosed basin, which receives substances sporadically from the arid regions of the Sahara desert. In such processes, dust modifies biochemistry of the Mediterranean water, changes features of the terrestrial ecosystems, and neutralises acid rains. Mineral dust

  18. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus management is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to supply-demand management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. On the other hand, climate adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated, and resource sensitive regions like Mediterranean provide ample opportunities towards that end. While the water sector plays a key role in climate adaptation, mitigation focuses on the energy and agriculture sector. Recent studies on the so-called WEL nexus confirm the potential synergies to be derived from mainstreaming climate adaptation in the water sector, while simultaneously addressing opportunities for co-management with energy (and also land use). Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water & energy supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Catalonia) and to test the scenario based climate adaptation & mitigation strategy for WEL management policies. Resource sensitive area of Catalonia presents an interesting nexus problem to study highly stressed water demand scenario (representing all major demand sectors), very heterogeneous land use including intensive agriculture to diversified urban and industrial uses, and mixed energy supply including hydro, wind, gas turbine to nuclear energy. Different energy sectors have different water and land requirements. Inter-river basin water transfer is another factor which is considered for this area. The water-energy link is multifaceted. Energy production can affect water quality, while energy is used in water treatment and to reduce pollution. Similarly, hydropower - producing energy from water - and desalination - producing freshwater using energy - both play important role in economic growth by supplying large and secure amounts of 'green' energy or

  19. Home Stay Accommodation for Tourism Development in East Coast Economic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anowar Hossain Bhuiyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Home stay program provided tourists multi ethnic life condition with cultural experiences and economic well beings for the local people. Malaysian home stay program differed from the other commercial home stay in the world. Home stay accommodation can create a scope to the local communities for active participation in tourism activities. Home stay accommodation might be a potential economic activity in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER. The study examined the potentialities of home stay accommodation for tourism development in ECER. The aim of the study was to analyze the overall situations of home stay accommodation in ECER from the perception of operators. Approach: The data of this study perceived from both the primary and secondary sources. A structured questionnaire had been used for data collection. In 2006, home stay accommodation was remaining 31 villages and in the year 2008 it spreads in 38 villages of ECER. Within this period, there were 482 and 648 home stay operators in this region. The necessary requirements for home stay operations are located; basic facilities; hygiene; safety and security. Results: There were some potentialities are remaining in ECER for establishing home stay in this region. These were low charging, hospitality, motivation for young generation, women entrepreneurship, profitable investment, easy access and satisfactory income. Some initiatives such as government support, capacity building, develop facilities, appropriate act, Community involvement, loan facilities and infrastructure development might be taken for the home stay accommodations in ECER. Conclusion: Research initiatives, various services for customer satisfaction, sustainable marketing and proper policy in management had been considered for home stay development in ECER. Home stay accommodations would be ensured the economic advancement in this region as well as sustainable regional development.

  20. Taxonomic revision of the genus Logfia (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae in the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés-Sánchez, Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Logfia Cass. was described by Cassini in 1819 and has always been considered closely related to Filago L. The species of Logfia have been frequently included within Filago but, recently, based on morphological characters and DNA sequence analysis it has been demostrated that Logfia is more closely related to the American representatives of the tribe Filagininae than to the genus Filago and the idea that Filago and Logfia should be considered independent genera has been resurrected. In this work, the first complete taxonomic account for the western Mediterranean taxa belonging to Logfia is presented, based on the revision of more than 3400 sheets lodged at 32 herbaria. A detailed description of the genus and a key for the four species present in the study area are proposed. Descriptions of all species together with a complete nomenclatural treatment, as well as indications about habitat preferences, phenology, and geographic distribution are also provided. Additionally nine nomenclatural types are designated, among them, the lectotypes for the accepted names Logfia clementei (Willk. Holub and Logfia minima (Sm. Dumort. and the neotype of Logfia heterantha (Raf. Holub.El género Logfia Cass. fue descrito por Cassini en 1819 y siempre se ha considerado muy relacionado con el género Filago L., incluso en ocasiones ha sido incluido en este género. Recientemente se ha demostrado, sobre la base de caracteres morfológicos y secuencias de ADN, que Logfia es un género independiente, más relacionado con los representantes americanos de la subtribu Filagininae que con el género Filago. Se ha llevado a cabo el primer estudio taxonómico completo del género Logfia en la región mediterránea, basado en la revisión de más de 3400 pliegos conservados en 32 herbarios. En este trabajo se presenta una descripción detallada del género y una clave de identificación de las cuatro especies presentes en el área de estudio. Se proporciona, adem

  1. Soil quality and bacterial community structure: a case study from the mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita-Maeso, Manuel; Miralles*, Isabel; Soriano**, Miguel; Ortega, Raúl; García-Salcedo, José Antonio; Sánchez-Marañon, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Bacterial communities play a central role in innumerable processes and functions of soils such as decomposition of organic residues, nutrient cycling, aggregation, and formation of humic substances. We investigated the relationships between bacterial communities, soil profiles, and quality parameters in eight benchmark soils of the Mediterranean calcareous mountain sampled on a local scale. The diversity and composition of prokaryotic community was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of DNA from samples of topsoil (10 x 10 x 0.2 m). The bacterial profile content resulted in the identification of groups belonging to 16 phyla and 75 genera. Two-dimensional models using multidimensional scaling (Stress 71%), and principal component analysis (Variance > 60%) showed a decrease in the abundance of acidobacteria Gp4 and Gp3 while actinobacteria flourished with increasing soil profile development (from Leptosol to Luvisol). This can be attributed to inherent changes in soil quality along pedogenesis such as pH (8.3 to 7.8), organic C (20.0 to 45.2 Mg ha-1), macropososity (0.11 to 0.32 cm3 cm-3), and water stable aggregates (365.8 to 963.4 Mg ha-1). Actinobacteria genera like Aciditerrimonas, Nocardioides, and Solirubrobacter also displayed positive correlations (r > 0.90) with the content of clay and free Ferric forms. Other factors like Re-carbonation, loss of organic matter, and soil compaction probably caused by land use and management, led to a decline in the Chao1 richness and Shannon diversity indices (3625 and 6.3) with respect to native soils (7852 and 7.4). Likewise, Firmicutes and Gemmatimonadetes were tripled and the genera of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. Our data indicate that bacterial community structure depends largely on the soil quality status, both inherent and managed and suggest the bacterial group composition also follows the course of soil genesis. (*) Financial support by Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship (FP7

  2. Assessment of cloud cover in climate models and reanalysis databases with ISCCP over the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, Aaron; Calbo, Josep; Gonzalez, Josep-Abel

    2013-04-01

    Clouds are an important regulator of climate due to their influence on the water balance of the atmosphere and their interaction with solar and infrared radiation. At any time, clouds cover a great percentage of the Earth's surface but their distribution is very irregular along time and space, which makes the evaluation of their influence on climate a difficult task. At present there are few studies related to cloud cover comparing current climate models with observational data. In this study, the database of monthly cloud cover provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) has been chosen as a reference against which we compare the output of CMIP5 climate models and reanalysis databases, on the domain South-Europe-Mediterranean (SEM) established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [1]. The study covers the period between 1984 and 2009, and the performance of cloud cover estimations for seasons has also been studied. To quantify the agreement between the databases we use two types of statistics: bias and SkillScore, which is based on the probability density functions (PDFs) of the databases [2]. We also use Taylor diagrams to visualize the statistics. Results indicate that there are areas where the models accurately describe what it is observed by ISCCP, for some periods of the year (e.g. Northern Africa, for autumn), compared to other areas and periods for which the agreement is lower (Iberian Peninsula in winter and the Black Sea for the summer months). However these differences should be attributed not only to the limitations of climate models, but possibly also to the data provided by ISCCP. References [1] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007: Working Group I Report: The Physical Science Basis. [2] Ranking the AR4 climate models over the Murray Darling Basin using simulated maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation. Int J Climatol 28

  3. On the atmospheric dynamical responses to land-use change in East Asian monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huqiang; Gao, Xuejie

    2009-08-01

    This study aims at (1) exploring dominant atmospheric dynamical processes which are responsible for climate model-simulated land-use impacts on Asian monsoon; and (2) assessing uncertainty in such model simulations due to their skills in simulating detailed monsoon circulations in the region. Firstly, results from a series of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) global model simulations of land-use vegetation changes (LUC) in China are analysed. The model showed consistent signals of changes in atmospheric low-level vertical profile and regional circulations responding to LUC. In northern winter, the model-simulated rainfall reduction and surface cooling are associated with an enhanced southward penetration of dry and cold air mass, which impedes warm and humid air reaching the region for generating cold-front rainfall. In its summer, an enhanced cyclonic circulation responding to LUC further blocks the northeast penetration of southwestly summer monsoon flow into the region and results in rainfall decreases and a surface warming. Secondly, we have explored uncertainties in the proposed mechanism operating in the global model. By comparing its results with a set of high-resolution regional model simulations using the same vegetation datasets, it reveals similar changes in winter rainfall but opposite features in summer rainfall responses. In the global model, there is a cyclonic low-level circulation pattern over the South China Sea and adjacent region, an unsatisfactory feature commonly seen in other global climate models. With the reduction in surface roughness following LUC, such a deficiency becomes more prominent which further results in a weakened south/southwestly summer monsoon flow and rainfall reduction. In contrast, in the regional model, its southwestly summer monsoon flow is further enhanced due to the same process as reduced surface roughness. The enhanced monsoon flow further pushes the East Asian monsoon rainfall belt more

  4. Harnessing genomics to improve health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region – an executive course in genomics policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While innovations in medicine, science and technology have resulted in improved health and quality of life for many people, the benefits of modern medicine continue to elude millions of people in many parts of the world. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in EMR, the World Health Organization's Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics jointly organized a Genomics and Public Health Policy Executive Course, held September 20th–23rd, 2003, in Muscat, Oman. The 4-day course was sponsored by WHO-EMRO with additional support from the Canadian Program in Genomics and Global Health. The overall objective of the course was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in the region. This article presents the course findings and recommendations for genomics policy in EMR. Methods The course brought together senior representatives from academia, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics covered included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. Results A set of recommendations, summarized below, was formulated for the Regional Office, the Member States and for individuals. • Advocacy for genomics and biotechnology for political leadership; • Networking between member states to share information, expertise, training, and regional cooperation in biotechnology; coordination of national surveys for assessment of health biotechnology innovation systems, science capacity, government policies, legislation and regulations, intellectual property policies, private sector activity; • Creation in each member country of an effective National Body on genomics, biotechnology and health to: - formulate national biotechnology strategies - raise

  5. Climate risk management information, sources and responses in a pastoral region in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Egeru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastoralists in East Africa face a range of stressors, climate variability and change being one of them. Effective climate risk management involves managing the full range of variability and balancing hazard management with efforts to capitalise on opportunity; climate risk management information is central in this process. In this study, pastoralists’ perceptions of climate change, climate risk management information types, sources and attendant responses in a pastoral region in East Africa are examined. Through a multi-stage sampling process, a total of 198 heads of households in three districts were selected and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, 29 focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews were conducted to generate qualitative information to supplement survey data. Descriptive and thematic analysis were utilised in summarizing the data. Ninety-nine percent of the pastoralists noted that the climate had changed evidenced by high but erratic rainfall, occurrence of floods and variation in rainfall onset and cessation among other indicators. This change in climate had led to emergence of ‘new’ livestock and crop diseases, crop failure and low yields leading to frequent food shortages, water shortages, poor market access, and variation in pasture availability among other effects. Climate risk management information was received from multiple sources including; radio, diviners, community meetings, shrine elders, humanitarian agencies, and Uganda People’s defence forces (UPDF. Community meetings were however perceived as most accessible, reliable and dependable sources of information. Shifting livestock to dry season grazing and watering areas, selling firewood and charcoal, seeking for military escorts to grazing areas, purchasing veterinary drugs, shifting livestock to disease ‘free’ areas, and performing rituals (depending on the perceived risk constituted a set of responses undertaken in

  6. Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

  7. The effect of regional changes in anthropogenic aerosols on rainfall of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The response of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM precipitation to long term changes in regional anthropogenic aerosols (sulphate and black carbon is explored in an atmospheric general circulation model, the atmospheric component of the UK High-Resolution Global Environment Model v1.2 (HiGAM. Separately, sulphur dioxide (SO2 and black carbon (BC emissions in 1950 and 2000 over East Asia are used to drive model simulations, while emissions are kept constant at year 2000 level outside this region. The response of the EASM is examined by comparing simulations driven by aerosol emissions representative of 1950 and 2000. The aerosol radiative effects are also determined using an off-line radiative transfer model. During June, July and August, the EASM was not significantly changed as either SO2 or BC emissions increased from 1950 to 2000 levels. However, in September, precipitation is significantly decreased by 26.4% for sulphate aerosol and 14.6% for black carbon when emissions are at the 2000 level. Over 80% of the decrease is attributed to changes in convective precipitation. The cooler land surface temperature over China in September (0.8 °C for sulphate and 0.5 °C for black carbon due to increased aerosols reduces the surface thermal contrast that supports the EASM circulation. However, mechanisms causing the surface temperature decrease in September are different between sulphate and BC experiments. In the sulphate experiment, the sulphate direct and the 1st indirect radiative effects contribute to the surface cooling. In the BC experiment, the BC direct effect is the main driver of the surface cooling, however, a decrease in low cloud cover due to the increased heating by BC absorption partially counteracts the direct effect. This results in a weaker land surface temperature response to BC changes than to sulphate changes. The resulting precipitation response is also weaker, and the responses of the monsoon circulation

  8. Massive Star Formation of the SGR a East H (sub II) Regions Near the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Lacy, J. H.; Wardle, M.; Whitney, B.; Bushouse, H.; Roberts, D. A.; Arendt, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    A group of four compact H II regions associated with the well-known 50 km/s molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of approximately 6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [Ne II] (12.8 micron) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, Hubble Space Telescope Pa alpha, and Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations of the most compact member of the H II group, Sgr A East H II D. The radio continuum image at 6 cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The spectral energy distribution of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25 =/- 3 solar mass star with a luminosity of 8 +/- 3 x 10(exp 4) Solar luminosity . The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source, and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3x (exp 4) years giving a mass flux approximately 3 x 10(exp -5) Solar Mass / year and producing the ionized material in D1 and D2 expanding in an inhomogeneous medium. The ionized gas kinematics, as traced by the [Ne II] emission, is difficult to interpret, but it could be explained by the interaction of a bipolar jet with surrounding gas along with what appears to be a conical wall of lower velocity gas. The other H II regions, Sgr A East A-C, have morphologies and kinematics that more closely resemble cometary flows seen in other compact H II regions, where gas moves along a paraboloidal surface formed by the interaction of a stellar wind with a molecular cloud.

  9. Hepatitis A virus in the Middle East and North Africa region: a new challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, N M; Talhouk, R; Rachidi, H; Ramia, S

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, a gradual shift in the age of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) from early childhood to adulthood has been observed. There is a general lack of updated data on HAV burden of disease, incidence and age-specific seroprevalence in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The aim of this article is to review the published data on anti-HAV seroprevalence, an important tool to monitor infections rates, in countries of the MENA region and associated risk factors including water and socioeconomic data when available. Data on anti-HAV seroprevalence were found for 12 of 25 MENA countries. We show that MENA countries, similar to other areas in the world, have a clear shift in HAV incidence with a decline among young age groups and an increase among adults and older individuals. This would likely be associated with increased morbidity and increased risks of outbreaks among younger age groups. Consequently, the continuous surveillance of hepatitis A cases and the inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in the expanded immunization programmes are needed in countries of the MENA.

  10. Earthquake sequence in East Vrancea crustal region (Romania): source characteristics and seismotectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Emilia; Borleanu, Felix; Otilia Placinta, Anica; Popa, Mihaela; Radulian, Mircea; Moldovan, Iren Adelina

    2016-04-01

    The goal of the paper is to investigate the crustal earthquake sequence generated in the East Vrancea crustal zone at the end of 2014 (22 November 2014). The main shock, occurred on 22 November 2014, 19:14 (45.860N, 27.160E, h = 39 km, ML = 5.7), is the greatest instrumentally recorded earthquake produced in this region. The aftershocks are unusually small for the sequences characterizing the Vrancea foredeep area (around 200 events with magnitude below 2). The largest aftershocks were recorded on 7 December 2015 (ML = 4.4) and 19 January 2015 (ML = 3.8). We apply cross-correlation analysis together with empirical Green's function (EGF) deconvolution and spectral ratios techniques to optimise the source parameters determination. At the same time we applied inversion techniques to retrieve the moment tensor solution for the largest shocks. For EGF and spectral ratios applications, we associated to the main event many co-located aftershocks (2.0 ≤ ML ≤ 4.4), selected according to the requirements for empirical Green's functions. The source parameters are estimated as mean values for all the available earthquake pairs. Source scaling properties and focal mechanism are investigated and discussed in terms of the regional seismotectonics and comparatively with the source scaling relationships for the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes.

  11. Tracking WHO MPOWER in South East Asian region: An opportunity to promote global tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco use is a major public health challenge worldwide and to counter the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organization (WHO developed the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC to provide new legal dimensions for international health cooperation. Further WHO introduced the MPOWER package to monitor the tobacco control programs among the countries to accomplish the FCTC objective. Aim: The aim is to quantify the implementation of MPOWER tobacco control policies in South East Asia Region (SEAR from the year 2008 to 2015. Materials and Methods: Information was collected from the WHO report on the Global Tobacco epidemic program SEAR from 2008 to 2015 using MPOWER. This assessment was based on the checklist which was designed previously by Iranian and International tobacco control specialists in their study on tobacco control. Results: Various countries of SEAR were ranked by scores and these scores were obtained from each indicator for each activity. Among SEAR region, Thailand got the highest scores and significant positive change was seen from a score of 8 in 2008 to 32 in 2015 where certain countries like Korea and Timore-Leste showed no significant positive change. Conclusion: Tobacco control policies have reduced the tobacco consumption, but still multisectoral efforts are needed toward effective enforcement of the law to bring about a significant decline in the prevalence of tobacco use.

  12. Women Entrepreneurship in Romania: the Case of North East Development Region

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    Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurship benefit from a process of expansion all over the world. Business established and developed by women are an important source of wealth and improved living standards in many countries. Even though women represent 46% of Europe's working population, which means in theory that trend of this type entrepreneurship can only go upward, however entrepreneurship is still considered an activity for men. Entrepreneurship has an active role in employment, economic development and quality of life, constituting a dynamic part of any developed economy. Supporting women in their involvement in setting up new start-ups and small business and unlock their potential is an important part of government actions to foster entrepreneurial activities. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM study found out that economies of Eastern European countries are in poor condition in terms of women's participation in entrepreneurial activity. Romania is no exception. This paper analyze women entrepreneurship in the poorest region of Romania, North East region, through an empirical survey but provide also some insights on overall Romanian situation based on National Trade Register Office data.

  13. Determinants of Oral Diseases in the African and Middle East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidzonga, M M; Carneiro, L C; Kalyanyama, B M; Kwamin, F; Oginni, F O

    2015-07-01

    Oral health policies must be developed that emphasize the role of social determinants in health and oral diseases. The aim of this report is to review literature on determinants of oral diseases and apply the concepts to promoting oral health in the African countries in the African and Middle East region (AMER). Structural and proximal determinants of oral diseases are common to those affected by other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Oral diseases are also heavily affected by issues of politics, poor health behaviors, underdeveloped health systems, and low oral health literacy. Wide-scale poverty exists in populations in the AMER. Oral health promotion and preventive oral health programs should therefore be integrated with those for general health and use the common risk factor approach (CRFA). Attempts should be made to improve the daily living conditions and reduce the incline of the social gradient. Oral health practitioners should use the CRFA when dealing with determinants of oral diseases and in the design of preventive oral health programs. The detrimental effects of the social determinants of health may be ameliorated by involving both the individual and community. Interventions in health promotion programs in the AMER need more research on the epidemiology of oral diseases and the role played by the social determinants of oral diseases, especially with regard to poverty. The high levels of poverty and low gross domestic product in most countries in the African region make it difficult to fund high-quality, affordable, accessible oral health services. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.