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Sample records for east european subtype

  1. Immunity raised by recent European subtype 1 PRRSV strains allows better replication of East European subtype 3 PRRSV strain Lena than that raised by an older strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trus, Ivan; Frydas, Ilias S.; Reddy, Vishwanatha R. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Stable spatial distribution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV)-1 subtypes in Europe is accompanied by a strong population immunity induced by local PRRSV strains. In the present study, it was examined if the immunity induced by three West European subtype 1 PRRSV strains (20...

  2. Distinct subtype distribution and somatic mutation spectrum of lymphomas in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weicheng; Li, Wei; Ye, Xiaofei; Liu, Hui; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    Here, we give an updated overview of the subtype distribution of lymphomas in East Asia and also present the genome sequencing data on two major subtypes of these tumors. The distribution of lymphoma types/subtypes among East Asian countries is very similar, with a lower proportion of B-cell malignancies and a higher proportion of T/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphomas as compared to Western populations. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma is more frequently observed in East Asia, whereas follicular lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, are proportionally lower. The incidence rate of lymphoma subtypes in Asians living in the US was generally intermediate to the general rate in US and Asia, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors may underlie the geographical variations observed.Key cancer driver mutations have been identified in Asian patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma through genome sequencing. A distinct somatic mutation profile has also been observed in Chinese diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. The incidence and distribution of lymphoma subtypes differed significantly between patients from East Asia and Western countries, suggesting subtype-specific etiologic mechanisms. Further studies on the mechanism underlying these geographical variations may give new insights into our understanding of lymphomagenesis.

  3. EU Energy Policy and Future European Energy Markets: Consequences for the Central and East European States

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita M. Balmaceda

    2002-01-01

    This working paper explores the European Union vector in the Central and East European (CEE) energy situation, in particular in terms of the CEE countries' energy relationship with Russia. Attention is paid not only to concrete EU energy policies but also to the larger question of European energy markets. EU policies impact the CEE states' energy relationship with Russia through specific EU requirements vis-à-vis the candidate countries, through the side-effects of other EU policies, through ...

  4. The Impact of European Democracy Promotion on Party Financing in the East European Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Timus

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the cooperation of European institutions (the EU, the Council of Europe, and the OSCE in democracy promotion affects the success of European conditionality on party financing in the East European Neighbourhood. It examines the two major European-level factors, the determinacy of requirements and the rewards, based on the Ukrainian, Moldovan and Georgian case studies and a cross-case comparative analysis before and during Action Plans’ period. The paper shows that there exists a European-level influence on party financing changes in line with the European standards set by the Venice Commission. Also, the cooperation of European institutions in democracy promotion contributes to the success of the common European leverage in the field of party financing. Although the EU lacks a specific party financing conditionality in Action Plans, the reference to the standards set by the Council of Europe and the OSCE increases indirectly the determinacy of its requirements and offers domestic elites a clearer picture of its demands. At the same time, the EU’s merit in the joint European influence on party financing lies in its increased leverage on aspiring European members, even in the case of low credibility of EU membership.

  5. Homophily in coauthorship networks of East European sociologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hâncean, Marian-Gabriel; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-10-01

    We study to what degree and how homophily and network properties affect individual citation counts of researchers in the sociology departments of three East European countries, namely Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. We built first-order personal coauthorship networks out of the Web of Science publication records. Each sociologist is assigned as a focal node or ego, while her coauthors are alters. We analyze the data using structural measurements methods, hierarchical regression models, and we make visualizations based on the clustered graph technique. For all three populations, our results indicate that the mean score of the citations of alters substantially predicts the citation counts of egos. In particular, citation similarity increases the chances for coauthorship ties. Evidence for the impact of network properties on the citation levels of egos is mixed. For Poland, normalized ego-betweenness shows a negative effect on citation counts, while network density displays a positive one. For Romania and Slovenia, network characteristics have only a minor impact. Even if the visual summarization of the personal networks uncovers a wide palette of coauthorship patterns, homophily appears to be pervasive. These results are relevant for domestic policy makers who aim to improve the aggregated research performance in East European countries.

  6. Portfolio Diversification in the South-East European Equity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaimovic Azra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversification potential enables investors to manage their risk and decrease risk exposure. Good diversification policy is a safety net that prevents a portfolio from losing its value. A well-diversified portfolio consists of different categories of property with low correlations, while highly correlated markets have the feature of low possibilities for diversification. The biggest riddle in the world of investments is to find the optimal portfolio within a set of available assets with limited capital. There are numerous studies and mathematical models that deal with portfolio investment strategies. These strategies take advantage of diversification by spreading risk over several financial assets. Modern portfolio theory seeks to find the optimal model with the best results. This paper tries to identify relationships between returns of companies traded in South-East European equity markets. A Markowitz mean-variance (MV portfolio optimization method is used to identify possibilities for diversification among these markets and world leading capital markets. This research also offers insight into to the level of integration of South-East European equity markets. Principal component analysis (PCA is used to determine components that describe the strong patterns and co-movements of the dataset. Finally, we combined MV efficient frontier and equity, which represent PCA components, to draw conclusions. Our findings show that PC analysis substantially simplifies asset selection process in portfolio management. The results of the paper have practical applications for portfolio investors.

  7. The Other Europe which is comming: East Europeans in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Ferrero Turrión

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the aspirations of the founders of the European Union was the unity of the European continent. Following the end of Soviet-type regimes in the late 1980s, the institutional machinery was put into action. However, this process has taken longer than expected,for different reasons: on one hand, because of the debate that commenced over the institutional consolidation and political construction of the existing Union, and on the other, because of the intensification of migration flows from the countries of the south and east. As a result of all of these factors, the incorporation of East European countries into the EU became dragged out over several years. As time passed, scepticism also grew in these countriesas they saw that the inequalities between them and their western neighbours were becoming increasingly marked. Thus, a steady growth took place of economic migration flows from these countries into the EU, while the EU continued its negotiations with the countries oforigin of these migrants. The process of EU enlargement to include Eastern Europe took place in two stages: the first, in May 2004, included Cyprus and Malta, as well as Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, while thesecond included only Romania and Bulgaria. This study deals with two issues that are of fundamental importance in any analysis of the different groups from Eastern and Central Europe that are present in Spain: the two moratoria on the free circulation of people imposedin 2004 and in 2007 (and their disastrous consequences and the characteristics of these flows (when they arrived and why.

  8. Prevalence of molecular subtypes and prognosis of invasive breast cancer in north-east of Morocco: retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennis Sanae

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast carcinoma is known as a heterogeneous disease because gene expression analyses identify several subtypes and the molecular profiles are prognostic and predictive for patients. Our aim, in this study, is to estimate the prevalence of breast cancer subtypes and to determine the relationship between clinico-pathological characteristics, overall survival (OS and disease free survival (DFS for patients coming from north-east of Morocco. Methods We reviewed 366 cases of breast cancer diagnosed between January 2007 to June 2010 at the Department of pathology. Age, size tumor, metastatic profile, node involvement profile, OS and DFS were analyzed on 181 patients. These last parameters were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test to estimate outcome differences among subgroups. Results The average age was 45 years, our patients were diagnosed late (57% stage III, 17.5% stage IV with a high average tumor size. Luminal A subtype was more prevalent (53.6% associated with favorable clinic-pathological characteristics, followed by luminal B (16.4%, Her2-overexpressing (12.6%, basal-like (12.6% and unclassified subtype (4.9%. Survival analysis showed a significant difference between subtypes. The triple negative tumors were associated with poor prognosis (49% OS, 39% DFS, whereas the luminal A were associated with a better prognosis (88% OS, 59% DFS. The luminal B and the Her2-overexpressing subtypes were associated with an intermediate prognosis (77% and 75% OS, and 41% and 38% DFS respectively. Conclusion This study showed that molecular classification by immunohistochemistry was necessary for therapeutic decision and prognosis of breast carcinoma. The luminal A subtype was associated with favorable biological characteristics and a better prognosis than triple negative tumors that were associated with a poor prognosis and unfavorable clinic-pathological characteristics.

  9. Lifetime cost of stroke subtypes in Australia: findings from the North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study (NEMESIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Helen M; Thrift, Amanda G; Mihalopoulos, Cathy; Carter, Robert; Macdonell, Richard A L; McNeil, John J; Donnan, Geoffrey A

    2003-10-01

    Little is known about any variations in resource use and costs of care between stroke subtypes, especially nonhospital costs. The purpose of this study was to describe the patterns of resource use and to estimate the first-year and lifetime costs for stroke subtypes. A cost-of-illness model was used to estimate the total first-year costs and lifetime costs of stroke subtypes for all strokes (subarachnoid hemorrhages excluded) that occurred in Australia during 1997. For each subtype, average cost per case during the first year and the present value of average cost per case over a lifetime were calculated. Resource use data obtained in the North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study (NEMESIS) were used. The present value of total lifetime costs for all strokes was Aus 1.3 billion dollars (US 985 million dollars). Total lifetime costs were greatest for ischemic stroke (72%; Aus 936.8 million dollars; US 709.7 million dollars), followed by intracerebral hemorrhage (26%; Aus 334.5 million dollars; US 253.4 million dollars) and unclassified stroke (2%; Aus 30 million dollars; US 22.7 million dollars). The average cost per case during the first year was greatest for total anterior circulation infarction (Aus 28 266 dollars). Over a lifetime, the present value of average costs was greatest for intracerebral hemorrhage (Aus 73 542 dollars), followed by total anterior circulation infarction (Aus 53 020 dollars), partial anterior circulation infarction (Aus 50 692 dollars), posterior circulation infarction (Aus 37 270 dollars), lacunar infarction (Aus 34 470 dollars), and unclassified stroke (Aus 12 031 dollars). First-year and lifetime costs vary considerably between stroke subtypes. Variation in average length of total hospital stay is the main explanation for differences in first-year costs.

  10. Herrscherschaft and herrschersuffix in Central-East European languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Paliga

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper resumes a topic the author approached in severa[ instances beginning with 1987: some specific terms referring to the semantic sphere Herrscherschafi. In Romanian, ban, jupîn, stăpîn and probably also cioban reflect the indigenous Thracian substratum; these forms also reflect the archaic Indo-European Herrschersujfzx -n-. In Slavic, their equivalent forms ban, župan and stopan reflect either a Late Thracian or (Proto-Romanian influence. Equally Rom. vătaf reflects the substratum influence, whereas Slavic vatah, vatak, vataš reflects the same borrowing. On the other hand, Slavic gospodƄ, belongs to the archaic Proto-Slavic core elements, while cěsaŕƄ, reflect a Germanic influence. Finally, Rom. boier is an East-Romance innovation derived from bou 'ox' and initially meant 'owner of cattle = rich man', a traditional association between cattle-owners and richness. The word had a large distribution from the early Middle Ages until late in the 20th century. In a paper written some 15 years ago (Paliga 1987, in Linguistica, Ljubljana 1 dared suggest that a series of Romanian and Slavic terms referring to social and political organisation, specifically ban (1 'master, local leader' and (2 'coin, money' (2nd sense derived from the lst one,jupîn (formerly giupîn 'a master', 'a master, a lord', cioban 'a shepherd', rather reflect a compact etymological group of Pre-Romance and Pre-Slavic origin (including cioban, incorrectly considered a Turkish influence, seemingly starting from the erroneous, but largely spread hypothesis that intervocalic -b- in Romanian would rather suggest a newer origin 1 . To these, on another occasion, I added the form vătaf,vătah (also with parallels in some Slavic languages, Paliga 1996: 34-36 and on another occasion 1 analysed the form boier, also spread in many neighbouring languages, which has often been considered either of unknown origin or again of Turkic (not Turkish, i.e. Ottoman origin (Paliga 1990

  11. 11th Congress of South-East European Studies. Sofia 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mirella Korzeniewska-Wiszniewska

    2015-01-01

    11th Congress of South-East European Studies. Sofia 2015 The 11th Congress of South-East European Studies took place in Sofia, Bulgaria, between 31 August and 4 September 2015. It was organised by the International Association for Southeast European Studies (orig. in French: AIESEE – Associacion Internationale d’ Études du Sud-Est Européen). South-Eastern Europe is an area looked upon by world powers with a large amount of ambivalence. As the region’s states are not considered to be k...

  12. The influence of European pollution on ozone in the Near East and northern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Duncan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern Africa and the Near East. European emissions cause 50–150 additional violations per year (i.e. above those that would occur without European pollution of the European health standard for ozone (8-h average >120 μg/m3 or ~60 ppbv in northern Africa and the Near East. We estimate that European ozone pollution is responsible for 50 000 premature mortalities globally each year, of which the majority occurs outside of Europe itself, including 37% (19 000 in northern Africa and the Near East. Much of the pollution from Europe is exported southward at low altitudes in summer to the Mediterranean Sea, northern Africa and the Near East, regions with favorable photochemical environments for ozone production. Our results suggest that assessments of the human health benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions in Europe should include effects outside of Europe, and that comprehensive planning to improve air quality in northern Africa and the Near East likely needs to address European emissions.

  13. The Influence of European Pollution on Ozone in the Near East and Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, B. N.; West, J. J.; Yoshida, Y.; Fiore, A. M.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern Africa and the Near East. European emissions cause 50-150 additional violations per year (i.e. above those that would occur without European pollution) of the European health standard for ozone (8-h average greater than 120 micrograms per cubic meters or approximately 60 ppbv) in northern Africa and the Near East. We estimate that European ozone pollution is responsible for 50 000 premature mortalities globally each year, of which the majority occurs outside of Europe itself, including 37% (19 000) in northern Africa and the Near East. Much of the pollution from Europe is exported southward at low altitudes in summer to the Mediterranean Sea, northern Africa and the Near East, regions with favorable photochemical environments for ozone production. Our results suggest that assessments of the human health benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions in Europe should include effects outside of Europe, and that comprehensive planning to improve air quality in northern Africa and the Near East likely needs to address European emissions.

  14. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Simon

    Full Text Available Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013 aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%, human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13% and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%, as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm virus (10.3%. Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  15. European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Van Reeth, Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010–2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections. PMID:25542013

  16. European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Gaelle; Larsen, Lars Erik; Duerrwald, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs......, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs......: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence...

  17. Incidence of stroke subtypes in the North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study (NEMESIS): differences between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, Amanda G; Dewey, Helen M; Sturm, Jonathan W; Srikanth, Velandai K; Gilligan, Amanda K; Gall, Seana L; Macdonell, Richard A L; McNeil, John J; Donnan, Geoffrey A

    2009-01-01

    Incidence rates of stroke subtypes may be imprecise when samples are small. We aimed to determine the incidence of stroke subtypes in a large geographically defined population. Multiple overlapping sources were used to ascertain all strokes occurring in 22 postcodes (population of 306,631) of Melbourne, Australia, between 1997 and 1999. Stroke subtypes were defined by CT, MRI and autopsy. The Mantel-Haenszel age-adjusted rate ratio (MH RR) was used to compare incidence rates between men and women. We identified 1,421 strokes among 1,337 residents, 1,035 (72.8%) being first-ever strokes. Incidence (number/100,000 population/year), adjusted to the European population 45-84 years, was 197 (95% confidence interval, CI, 169-224) for ischemic stroke (IS), 47 (95% CI 33-60) for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and 19 (95% CI 10-27) for subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Compared with women, men in this age group had a greater incidence of IS (MH RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.39-1.96, p < 0.0001) and ICH (MH RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.10, p = 0.0420), but lesser rates of SAH (MH RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.16-0.69, p = 0.0031). In this population-based study, the incidence of IS and ICH was greater among men than women, while women had a greater incidence of SAH. More effort may need to be directed at modifying risk factors for IS and ICH in men. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. INTERGEO - Central/East European Collaboration Network on direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovski, K. [Central/East European Collaboration Network on Direct Application of Geothermal Energy, Bitola (Yugoslavia); Arpasi, M. [International Geothermal Association - European Branch, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-01

    A proposal for organisation of a Network to be known as INTERGEO is presented, which should extend and reinforce the cooperation for the development of the direct application of geothermal energy between the developed EC countries and the ones of the so called Central/East European region. Unter the term `developed countries` for this particular energy source utilisation mainly Italy, France and Germany should be understood. The Central/East European region consists the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lituania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Roumania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. The idea itself, the need and possibilities for organisation, possible plan of action and expected benefits for the EC and Central/East European countries are elaborated in order to come to the conclusions for the proposal justifiableness and feasibility for realisation. (orig.)

  19. Comparative perspectives on East and West European defence industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Coupled with the continuing threat of reduced defence expenditures and increasing competition, European defence companies have reacted with a number of strategic manoeuvres involving mergers, acquisitions and other forms of alliance. Moves towards a single European defence industry have been a focus for discussion among major EU member countries for some time and the integration of defence aerospace organisations seems well placed to succeed with the advent of EADS. Defence industry firms and...

  20. East European Military Establishments: The Warsaw Pact Northern Tier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    1975, pp. 10la-103a. 34. Heinz Hoffmann interview, Neues Deutachtand, 17 October 1970. 35. East Berlin, ADN Domestic Service, October 14, 1970, FBIS...October 15, 1970. 36. Heinz Hoffmann, ADN Domestic Service, May 14, 1970. 37. It is a regular theme in GDR military publications that be- cause the...year-end meeting to discuss WP accomplishments during the year seems to have become a tradition. Finally, the Technical Connittee of the Joint Arned

  1. The Tableau Vivant as a “Figure of Return” in Contemporary East European Cinema

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ágnes Pethő

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses the re-conceptualization of the intermedial trope of the tableau vivant in recent East European cinema through several examples from Hungarian and Russian films directed by György Pálfi, Kornél Mundruczó...

  2. 25 October 2017 - Meeting on a South-East European International Institute for Sustainable Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    Meeting on a South-East European International Institute for Sustainable Technologies at CERN, organised by the Ministry of Science of Montenegro, followed by a lunch hosted by CERN Director-General F. Gianotti and a site visit to CMS counting room and S'Cool LAB.

  3. History of sports medicine in East European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazovč, Biljana; Mazič, Sanja; Delič, Marina; Suzič Lazič, Jelena; Sparič, Radmila; Stajič, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a historical background of medicine, science and sports with the focus on the development of modern sports medicine in European countries, with an accent on Eastern European countries that have a long sports medicine tradition. The development of modern sports medicine began at the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th century, and it has been associated with social and cultural changes in the world of medicine, science and sports. Advanced medical knowledge, skills and practices, and the progress of scientific achievements enabled sports people to improve their performance level. Increased popularisation and commercialisation of sports have resulted from urbanization and city lifestyle, leading to the lack of physical activity and increased psychological pressure. In addition, the growing need and interest in sports and successes in professional sports have become a symbol of international recognition and

  4. Characteristics and spread to the native population of HIV-1 non-B subtypes in two European countries with high migration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwe, Kenny; Mortier, Virginie; Schauvliege, Marlies; Van Den Heuvel, Annelies; Fransen, Katrien; Servais, Jean-Yves; Bercoff, Danielle Perez; Seguin-Devaux, Carole; Verhofstede, Chris

    2015-11-16

    Non-B subtypes account for at least 50 % of HIV-1 infections diagnosed in Belgium and Luxembourg. They are considered to be acquired through heterosexual contacts and infect primarily individuals of foreign origin. Information on the extent to which non-B subtypes spread to the local population is incomplete. Pol and env gene sequences were collected from 410 non-subtype B infections. Profound subtyping was performed using 5 subtyping tools and sequences of both pol and env. Demographic information, disease markers (viral load, CD4 count) and viral characteristics (co-receptor tropism) were compared between subtypes. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed and examined for clustering. The majority of non-B infections were diagnosed in patients originating from Africa (55.8 %), individuals born in Western Europe represented 30.5 %. Heterosexual transmission was the most frequently reported transmission route (79.9 %), MSM transmission accounted for 12.2 % and was significantly more frequently reported for Western Europeans (25.7 % versus 4.3 % for individuals originating from other regions; p spread in the native Belgian-Luxembourg population is higher than expected, with 30.5 % of the non-B infections diagnosed in native Western Europeans. These infections resulted from hetero- as well as homosexual transmission. Introduction of non-B variants in the local high at risk population of MSM may lead to new sub-epidemics and/or increased genetic variability and is an evolution that needs to be closely monitored.

  5. Regional High Resolution Reanalysis Covered European North East Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Benkiran, M.; Chanut, J.; Drillet, Y.; Reffray, G.

    2011-12-01

    Mercator-Ocean has developed a regional forecasting system at 1/12° resolution over the North East Atlantic (IBI: Iberia, Biscay and Irish), taking advantage of the recent developments in NEMO. This regional forecasting system uses boundary conditions from the Mercator-Ocean global reanalysis (GLORYS: Global Ocean ReanalYses and Simulations). The assimilation component of the Mercator Ocean system, is based on a reduced-order Kalman filter (the SEEK or Singular Extended Evolutive Kalman filter). An IAU method (Incremental Analysis Updates) is used to apply the increments in the system. The error statistics are represented in a sub-space spanned by a small number of dominant 3D error directions. The data assimilation system allows to constrain the model in a multivariate way with Sea Surface Temperature (AVHRR + Multi-satellite High resolution), together with all available satellite Sea Level Anomalies, and with in situ observations from the CORA-03 data base, including ARGO floats temperature and salinity measurements. This reanalysis covers the period from January 2002 to December 2009. In this presentation, the results obtained with this reanalysis system (1/12°) are compared to the GLORYS ones. A special focus will be made on the gain thanks to the higher resolution of the model and higher resolution of the SST assimilated in this reanalysis.

  6. East-West European farm investment behaviour - The role of financial constraints and public support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertő, I.; Bakucs, Z.; Bojnec, S.; Latruffe, L.

    2017-09-01

    The article investigated farm investment behaviour among East (Hungarian and Slovenian) and West (French) European Union farms using individual farm accountancy panel data for the 2003-2008 period. Despite differences in farm structures, except for the presence of capital market imperfections evidenced in the East, farms’ investment behaviour was not substantially different. Farm gross investment was positively associated with real sales’ growth. In addition, it was positively associated with public investment subsidies which can mitigate capital market imperfections in the short-term. On the long run, the farm’s ability to successfully compete in the output market by selling produce and securing a sufficient cash flow for investment is crucial.

  7. Phenotypic modulation and cytokine profiles of antigen presenting cells by European subtype 1 and 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weesendorp, E.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Popma-de Graaf, D.J.; Fijten, H.P.D.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes continuous problems in the pig industry, due to high costs of outbreaks and reduced welfare of diseased pigs. The severity of infection is, partly, dependent on the virus strain. Recently isolated Eastern-European subtype 3 strains

  8. Humic substances elemental composition of selected taiga and tundra soils from Russian European North-East

    OpenAIRE

    Lodygin Evgeny; Beznosikov Vasily; Abakumov Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Soils of Russian European North were investigated in terms of stability and quality of organic matter as well as in terms of soils organic matter elemental composi­tion. Therefore, soil humic acids (HAs), extracted from soils of different natural zones of Russian North-East were studied to characterize the degree of soil organic matter stabilization along a zonal gradient. HAs were extracted from soil of different zonal environments of the Komi Republic: south, middle and north taiga as well ...

  9. KinoCuban: the significance of Soviet and East European cinemas for the Cuban moving image

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Mesa, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Kinocuban: the significance of Soviet and East European cinemas for the Cuban moving image examines a piece of evidence that has been misunderstood in the existing body of Cuban film studies. The first revolutionary legislation concerning the arts was the creation of the ICAIC in 1959, a fact that demonstrates the importance of cinema for the new cultural project. This thesis argues that the moving image was radically affected by the proclamation of the socialist character of the Revolution o...

  10. Selection and reduced population size cannot explain higher amounts of Neandertal ancestry in East Asian than in European human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bernard Y; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2015-03-05

    It has been hypothesized that the greater proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans is due to the fact that purifying selection is less effective at removing weakly deleterious Neandertal alleles from East Asian populations. Using simulations of a broad range of models of selection and demography, we have shown that this hypothesis cannot account for the higher proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans. Instead, more complex demographic scenarios, most likely involving multiple pulses of Neandertal admixture, are required to explain the data. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Migration Crisis from the East-Central European Perspective: Challenges for Regional Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Podgórzańska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the common denominator of involvement of the EastCentral Europe in the international arena, and above all, the premise determining community of interest expressed in the European Union is the migration crisis. Despite the different circumstances of activity in the context of the migration crisis, states in the region express similar opinions on the consequences of immigration for security in the region. Above all, they emphasise the implications of immigration for the internal security of states. Given the complex nature of migration, this article focuses on the phenomenon of immigration in the EU, determining the causes of the escalation of the influx of immigrants and, above all, identifying the consequences for the security of states of East-Central Europe.

  12. Higher Levels of Neanderthal Ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jeffrey D.; Yang, Melinda A.; Jay, Flora; Kim, Sung K.; Durand, Eric Y.; Stevison, Laurie S.; Gignoux, Christopher; Woerner, August; Hammer, Michael F.; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    Neanderthals were a group of archaic hominins that occupied most of Europe and parts of Western Asia from ∼30,000 to 300,000 years ago (KYA). They coexisted with modern humans during part of this time. Previous genetic analyses that compared a draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome with genomes of several modern humans concluded that Neanderthals made a small (1–4%) contribution to the gene pools of all non-African populations. This observation was consistent with a single episode of admixture from Neanderthals into the ancestors of all non-Africans when the two groups coexisted in the Middle East 50–80 KYA. We examined the relationship between Neanderthals and modern humans in greater detail by applying two complementary methods to the published draft Neanderthal genome and an expanded set of high-coverage modern human genome sequences. We find that, consistent with the recent finding of Meyer et al. (2012), Neanderthals contributed more DNA to modern East Asians than to modern Europeans. Furthermore we find that the Maasai of East Africa have a small but significant fraction of Neanderthal DNA. Because our analysis is of several genomic samples from each modern human population considered, we are able to document the extent of variation in Neanderthal ancestry within and among populations. Our results combined with those previously published show that a more complex model of admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans is necessary to account for the different levels of Neanderthal ancestry among human populations. In particular, at least some Neanderthal–modern human admixture must postdate the separation of the ancestors of modern European and modern East Asian populations. PMID:23410836

  13. Higher levels of neanderthal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Yang, Melinda A; Jay, Flora; Kim, Sung K; Durand, Eric Y; Stevison, Laurie S; Gignoux, Christopher; Woerner, August; Hammer, Michael F; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-05-01

    Neanderthals were a group of archaic hominins that occupied most of Europe and parts of Western Asia from ∼30,000 to 300,000 years ago (KYA). They coexisted with modern humans during part of this time. Previous genetic analyses that compared a draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome with genomes of several modern humans concluded that Neanderthals made a small (1-4%) contribution to the gene pools of all non-African populations. This observation was consistent with a single episode of admixture from Neanderthals into the ancestors of all non-Africans when the two groups coexisted in the Middle East 50-80 KYA. We examined the relationship between Neanderthals and modern humans in greater detail by applying two complementary methods to the published draft Neanderthal genome and an expanded set of high-coverage modern human genome sequences. We find that, consistent with the recent finding of Meyer et al. (2012), Neanderthals contributed more DNA to modern East Asians than to modern Europeans. Furthermore we find that the Maasai of East Africa have a small but significant fraction of Neanderthal DNA. Because our analysis is of several genomic samples from each modern human population considered, we are able to document the extent of variation in Neanderthal ancestry within and among populations. Our results combined with those previously published show that a more complex model of admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans is necessary to account for the different levels of Neanderthal ancestry among human populations. In particular, at least some Neanderthal-modern human admixture must postdate the separation of the ancestors of modern European and modern East Asian populations.

  14. European bone mineral density loci are also associated with BMD in East-Asian populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnur Styrkarsdottir

    Full Text Available Most genome-wide association (GWA studies have focused on populations of European ancestry with limited assessment of the influence of the sequence variants on populations of other ethnicities. To determine whether markers that we have recently shown to associate with Bone Mineral Density (BMD in Europeans also associate with BMD in East-Asians we analysed 50 markers from 23 genomic loci in samples from Korea (n = 1,397 and two Chinese Hong Kong sample sets (n = 3,869 and n = 785. Through this effort we identified fourteen loci that associated with BMD in East-Asian samples using a false discovery rate (FDR of 0.05; 1p36 (ZBTB40, P = 4.3×10(-9, 1p31 (GPR177, P = 0.00012, 3p22 (CTNNB1, P = 0.00013, 4q22 (MEPE, P = 0.0026, 5q14 (MEF2C, P = 1.3×10(-5, 6q25 (ESR1, P = 0.0011, 7p14 (STARD3NL, P = 0.00025, 7q21 (FLJ42280, P = 0.00017, 8q24 (TNFRSF11B, P = 3.4×10(-5, 11p15 (SOX6, P = 0.00033, 11q13 (LRP5, P = 0.0033, 13q14 (TNFSF11, P = 7.5×10(-5, 16q24 (FOXL1, P = 0.0010 and 17q21 (SOST, P = 0.015. Our study marks an early effort towards the challenge of cataloguing bone density variants shared by many ethnicities by testing BMD variants that have been established in Europeans, in East-Asians.

  15. Lichens of neglected habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Motiejūnaitē

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Situation of lichens of aquatic and transient habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands is discussed basing on example of several selected species: Leptogium biatorinum, Sarcosagium campestre, Steinia geophana, Verrucaria aquatilis, V. hydrela, V. praetermissa, V. xyloxena. Both habitat types are generally very much neglected in the region and all species show large spatial gaps in recording, which makes it difficult to judge both about their true distribution limits and spreading dynamics. On the other hand, targeted search through the suitable habitats and abundance of such indicate that many of these lichens are probably not uncommon in the region.

  16. Patterns of stroke recurrence according to subtype of first stroke event: the North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study (NEMESIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Nicol, Marcus B; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Dewey, Helen M; Sturm, Jonathan W; Macdonell, Richard A L; Pearce, Dora C; Thrift, Amanda G

    2008-08-01

    Specific information about the nature of recurrent events that occur after each subtype of index stroke may be useful for refining preventive therapies. We aimed to determine whether stroke recurrence rates, the pattern of subtype recurrence, and prescription of secondary prevention agents differed according to initial stroke subtype. Multiple overlapping sources were used to recruit all first-ever stroke patients from a geographically defined region of Melbourne, Australia over a 3-year period from 1996 to 1999. Potential stroke recurrences (fatal and nonfatal) occurring within 2 years of the initial event were identified following patient interview and follow up of death records. Subjects were classified into the different Oxfordshire groups and the type of first-ever stroke was compared with recurrent stroke events. One thousand, three hundred and sixteen first-ever strokes were registered during the 3-year period (mean age 74.4 years). A total of 103 first recurrent stroke events (fatal and nonfatal) occurred among those with a first-ever ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during the 2-year follow-up period. The recurrent stroke subtype was different to the index stroke subtype in most (78%) patients. People with partial anterior circulation infarct had the greatest proportion of recurrences (13%), with a third of these being the more severe total anterior circulation infarct subgroup. The relative risk of ICH after an index lacunar infarct (LACI) compared with an index non-LACI was 4.06 (95% CI 1.10-14.97, P=0.038). Prescription of secondary prevention agents was greater at 2 years after stroke than at hospital discharge, and was similar between ischemic stroke subtypes. Approximately 9% of people with first-ever stroke suffered a recurrent event, despite many being prescribed secondary prevention agents. This has implications for the uptake of current preventive strategies and the development of new strategies. The possibility that ICH is

  17. Experimental infection of pigs with two East European variants of Type 1 PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    , 7, 10, 14, 17, 21 and 24 days post infection (dpi). The pigs infected with the “Bor59” virus developed higher body temperature and more severe clinical symptoms compared to the other three groups, although the clinical signs in general were mild. The acute phase response was measured in serum...... samples as an objective indicator of infection. Acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) showed an increase in levels in pigs infected with the Eastern European viruses with an earlier rise for Bor59 than for Ili6, both peaking at 10 dpi. In contrast, the CRP level did not increase significantly...... in neither the subtype 1 virus inoculated pigs nor the sham-inoculated controls. Acute phase protein haptoglobin showed a very early increase in Bor59 infected pigs, peaking at 3 dpi, while no increase was observed in Ili6 infected pigs. All of the virus inoculated pigs seroconverted, as measured by IPMA...

  18. Factors Influencing the Capacity of Anticorruption Law Enforcement Bodies in South East European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor ALISTAR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a regional perspective regarding the independence of judiciary system, based on the magistrates’ perception. Taking into consideration that the independence of judiciary is a concept which has to be not only guaranteed by constitutional and statutory provisions, but mostly perceived as a functional reality, the present article analyses the factors which influence the capacity to act efficiently of the judicial structures in South East European countries. The article is presenting ones of explanation for low capacity to fight corruption in this region of Europe. The analyse is built on a sociological survey conducted in nine countries from the standpoint of the hierarchical relationships and of the guarantees of operational and professional independence, legislative framework, resources as well as the relationship between justice and the society. The data used in this articles provided by the study “Integrity and resistance to corruption of the law enforcement bodies in South East European countries”. The concluding remarks are based on questionnaires sent out to judges and prosecutors and emphasis cultural, managerial and functional aspects of judicial system, exposed by magistrates themself.

  19. The Image of the East-Central European in Rose Tremain’s The Road Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harasztos Ágnes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Rose Tremain’s The Road Home, the culture clash of the British and the East-Central European is portrayed through a complex symbolism centred on images of food, consumption and waste. This literary representation may shed light on British literary auto-images, as well as hetero-images of the Eastern European immigrant. The novel’s presentation of this culture shock is defined by the cultural historical and economic circumstances of the parties. Food and material provide the symbolic sphere where the relationship between Britain and East-Central Europe is characterized in terms of capitalist worldview as opposed to a post-communist existence. William Shakespeare’s Hamlet is the most important intertext for Tremain’s novel. Hamlet is obsessed with the vulnerability of material in light of the spiritual value attached to it in the form of human soul. Stephen Greenblatt’s ideas on food, waste and the Christian belief in divine existence residing in material objects - ideas that originate in early modern times - shed light on the motif of material and food in The Road Home. Seen through the symbolism of food and the idea of differing values being attached to matter, the narrative identity of Lev, the protagonist of Tremain’s work, experiences drastic change due to his encounter with the capitalist, British ‘other’.

  20. Humic substances elemental composition of selected taiga and tundra soils from Russian European North-East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodygin Evgeny

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils of Russian European North were investigated in terms of stability and quality of organic matter as well as in terms of soils organic matter elemental composi­tion. Therefore, soil humic acids (HAs, extracted from soils of different natural zones of Russian North-East were studied to characterize the degree of soil organic matter stabilization along a zonal gradient. HAs were extracted from soil of different zonal environments of the Komi Republic: south, middle and north taiga as well as south tundra. Data on elemental composition of humic acids and fulvic acids (FAs extracted from different soil types were obtained to assess humus formation mechanisms in the soils of taiga and tundra of the European North-East of Russia. The specificity of HAs elemental composition are discussed in relation to environmental conditions. The higher moisture degree of taiga soils results in the higher H/C ratio in humic substances. This reflects the reduced microbiologic activity in Albeluvisols sods and subsequent conser­vation of carbohydrate and amino acid fragments in HAs. HAs of tundra soils, shows the H/C values decreasing within the depth of the soils, which reflects increasing of aromatic compounds in HA structure of mineral soil horizons. FAs were more oxidized and contains less carbon while compared with the HAs. Humic acids, extracted from soil of different polar and boreal environments differ in terms of elemental composition winch reflects the climatic and hydrological regimes of humification.

  1. Educational health inequalities in former Yugoslavia: evidence from the South-East European Social Survey Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Huisman, Martijn; Perlman, Francesca; Ringdal, Kristen

    2010-12-01

    An important gap in our knowledge of social inequalities in health is the former Yugoslavia, a region of culturally and historically diverse countries, with recent conflict. The aim of the present paper is to investigate relative and absolute inequalities in self-assessed health in former Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Slovenia and Serbia) by sex and education. The data source is the South-East European Social Survey Project fielded in December 2003 to Winter 2004, covering the former Yugoslavia with a total sample of 18 481 respondents. Data from Slovenia were obtained from the 2004-wave of the European Social Survey. The health outcome variables were self-reported general health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI). Both absolute and relative educational health inequalities were present throughout the former Yugoslavia to a larger or lesser extent, although odds ratios (ORs) for LLI and SRH were not significant for Montenegrin women [LLI OR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-1.37; SRH OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.96-1.40] and with respect to the reporting of LLI among Slovenian men (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.96-1.44). Overall, Montenegro held the best position. The prevalence of poor health and the degree of relative inequality in self-assessed health in the former Yugoslavian countries were similar in order to one another, and to other East European countries during the same period. Influences on subjective health require further elucidation. Further research should study a wider range of health outcomes using larger survey samples and a wider range of cultural and other predictor variables.

  2. Differential gene expression profiles according to the Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society histopathological classification in lung adenocarcinoma subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Romero, Camilo; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Ortega-Gómez, Alette; Alanis-Funes, Gerardo J; Avilés-Salas, Alejandro; Avila-Moreno, Federico; Mercado, Gabriela E; Cardona, Andrés F; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Arrieta, Oscar

    2017-08-01

    The current lung cancer classification from the Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society has considerably changed the pathologic diagnosis of lung invasive adenocarcinoma, identifying disease subtypes with substantial implications for medical practice, such as clinical, radiological, molecular, and prognostic differences. We analyzed the differences in the genetic expression of adenocarcinoma subtypes according to the new classification. Microarray gene expression analysis was performed on a cohort of 29 adenocarcinoma patients treated at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of Mexico from 2008 to 2011. All patients had an available biopsy sample and were classified into 4 different subtypes of adenocarcinoma (2015 World Health Organization classification). Lepidic-predominant adenocarcinoma was the only pattern that exhibited a marked gene expression difference compared with other predominant histologic patterns, revealing genes with significant expression (P adenocarcinoma that could be used as a gene signature. The lepidic-predominant histologic pattern has a differential gene expression profile compared with all predominant histologic patterns. Additionally, we identified a gene expression signature of 13 genes that have a unique behavior in the lepidic histologic pattern; these 13 genes are candidates for follow-up studies for their potential use as biomarkers or therapeutic targets. Results from this study highlight the importance of the new Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification and exemplify the potential clinical implications of correlating histopathology with exclusive molecular beacons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence and outcome of subtypes of ischaemic stroke: initial results from the north East melbourne stroke incidence study (NEMESIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Helen M; Sturm, Jonathan; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Macdonell, Richard A L; McNeil, John J; Thrift, Amanda G

    2003-01-01

    Information about the incidence and outcome of stroke subtypes is necessary to understand the likely impact of stroke prevention and treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and outcome of subtypes of cerebral infarction (CI). All strokes occurring in a population of 133816 in Melbourne, Australia, during a 12-month period of 1996 and 1997 were identified and cases of CI subtyped according to the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification. 276 'first-ever-in-a-lifetime' stroke cases were registered. CI accounted for 72% of cases. Annual incidence rates per 100000 persons adjusted to the 'world' population were 11 (95% CI, 4-18) for TACI, 25 (95% CI, 15-35) for PACI, 17 (95% CI, 9-25) for POCI and 18 (95% CI, 10-26) for LACI. 28-day case fatality was highest for TACI (35%; 95% CI, 19-51%) and first year recurrence rate highest for PACI (17%; 95% CI, 8-26%). TACI had the poorest functional outcome at 3 and 12 months. These findings are similar to those of two previous studies conducted in the northern hemisphere. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. A large multi-centre European study validates high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a clinical biomarker for the diagnosis of diabetes subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanabalasingham, G.; Shah, N.; Vaxillaire, M.

    2011-01-01

    An accurate molecular diagnosis of diabetes subtype confers clinical benefits; however, many individuals with monogenic diabetes remain undiagnosed. Biomarkers could help to prioritise patients for genetic investigation. We recently demonstrated that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs......CRP) levels are lower in UK patients with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A)-MODY than in other diabetes subtypes. In this large multi-centre study we aimed to assess the clinical validity of hsCRP as a diagnostic biomarker, examine the genotype-phenotype relationship and compare different hsCRP assays....... High-sensitivity CRP levels were analysed in individuals with HNF1A-MODY (n = 457), glucokinase (GCK)-MODY (n = 404), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A)-MODY (n = 54) and type 2 diabetes (n = 582) from seven European centres. Three common assays for hsCRP analysis were evaluated. We excluded 121...

  5. Exchange rate effect on stock returns in the East European emerging markets: A quantile regression approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živkov Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates relationship between returns of stock prices and exchange rate changes in four East European emerging markets (Serbia, Poland, Hungary and Czech Republic using weekly data from January 2003 to June 2013. Two theories explain the connection in the economic literature - flow-oriented and portfolio-balance models, without a finite and conclusive answer on which one is predominant. Considering our relatively large sample period which also includes world crisis outbreak, the used empirical data have been compromised by structural breaks and heterogeneous unconditional distribution. To avoid parameter bias and wrong conclusions, authors used four auto-regressive distributed lag ADL(2,2 models assessed with quantile regression method, robust to non-normality problems. The results indicate that relationship between these variables is in accordance with portfolio-balance models in three out of four analyzed countries.

  6. IMPORTANCE OF AGRI-FOOD SECTOR IN THE ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL-EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Szuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to present the importance of agri-food sector in the economies of Central-East European countries in consideration of their macroeconomic situation. The analysis was carried out on the data base from EU statistics, published by Eurostat (including the balance of inputs and outputs. The study shows that the position of agri-food sector in the national economy is dependent on the level of development of the state. In countries with better macroeconomic situation of the importance of agri-food sector in the entire economy is smaller, and the results are affected by the food industry. In countries with poor macroeconomic situation agri-food sector has a large share of the economy, despite the underperformance of production. Agriculture has the strongest impact on the situation.

  7. 18th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanovic, Mirjana; Kon-Popovska, Margita; Manolopoulos, Yannis; Palpanas, Themis; Trajcevski, Goce; Vakali, Athena

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the papers of 3 workshops and the doctoral consortium, which are organized in the framework of the 18th East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS’2014). The 3rd International Workshop on GPUs in Databases (GID’2014) is devoted to subjects related to utilization of Graphics Processing Units in database environments. The use of GPUs in databases has not yet received enough attention from the database community. The intention of the GID workshop is to provide a discussion on popularizing the GPUs and providing a forum for discussion with respect to the GID’s research ideas and their potential to achieve high speedups in many database applications. The 3rd International Workshop on Ontologies Meet Advanced Information Systems (OAIS’2014) has a twofold objective to present: new and challenging issues in the contribution of ontologies for designing high quality information systems, and new research and technological developments which use ontologie...

  8. 17th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events

    CERN Document Server

    Cerquitelli, Tania; Chiusano, Silvia; Guerrini, Giovanna; Kämpf, Mirko; Kemper, Alfons; Novikov, Boris; Palpanas, Themis; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Vakali, Athena

    2014-01-01

    This book reports on state-of-art research and applications in the field of databases and information systems. It includes both fourteen selected short contributions, presented at the East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS 2013, September 1-4, Genova, Italy), and twenty-six papers from ADBIS 2013 satellite events. The short contributions from the main conference are collected in the first part of the book, which covers a wide range of topics, like data management, similarity searches, spatio-temporal and social network data, data mining, data warehousing, and data management on novel architectures, such as graphics processing units, parallel database management systems, cloud and MapReduce environments. In contrast, the contributions from the satellite events are organized in five different parts, according to their respective ADBIS satellite event: BiDaTA 2013 - Special Session on Big Data: New Trends and Applications); GID 2013 – The Second International Workshop ...

  9. Study of seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Ella; Sanina, Irina; Ivanchenko, Galina; Nesterkina, Margarita; Konstantinovskaya, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    A measurement system for location seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform is situated within the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory of the RAS Institute of Geospheres Dynamics and consists of 12 seismic stations. One vertical station is located in the center of the group in a shaft tunnel. The other stations are located on the periphery in three concentric circles and are almost equally spaced with regard to the terrain to ensure full azimuth coverage to the maximum extent possible. The unique array identifies events with a magnitude up to 3 at the distances until 1000 km within the Central Part of East European platform. Most of the events recorded by the Mikhnevo array at a distance of 60-500 km are man-made events represented by explosions in quarries during the development of mineral deposits. Long-term seismic records of explosions in quarries have been processed for the period from 2004 to 2014 to generate a database containing standard waveforms for each quarry. Some events of unknown origin appear in the records for this period; these do not correspond to the identified seismic forms for explosions in known quarries. Epicenter coordinates for these events do not match the coordinates of the known quarries. A cosmotectonic map of the Central Part of East European Platform was compiled during the studies using the LESSA software package (Lineament Extraction and Stripe Statistical Analysis) and data on the deep crustal structure, which made it possible to define the morphostructural plan and evaluate the geodynamic conditions in the area. The deep basement structure through the sedimentary cover is expressed in the surface texture of the area under study. The region's neotectonics is closely related to the history of deep structures, in particular, aulacogens extending in different directions, which may show in the contemporary morphostructural plan, mainly as inversion and partially inherited forms. Out of events of unknown nature

  10. The European practice database (EPD): results of the study in thte North-East of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieron, A; Elseviers, M; De Vos, J Y; Favaretto, A; Geatti, S; Harrington, M

    2005-01-01

    The survey, realized in 2002-03 in the North-East of Italy, describes renal care in dialysis services. A questionnaire, structured at European level, was sent to all dialysis centres by mail. The questionnaire was returned from 21 centres (61.8%) and related satellite units. Results show nonhomogeneity in renal care. Some important results were: low use of peritoneal dialysis (18%), compared to the rest of Europe, elevated presence of older people on haemodialysis, reduced percentage of patients on transplantation waiting list, diffused use of isolation for HCV positive patients, high use of AV fistulae (84%), low employment of renal technicians, absence of renal dieticians and social workers and nurses performing prevalently direct care. Data can be used for different goals: benchmarking activities, selection of deeper research topics and development of more oriented continuous education activities.

  11. 16th East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Härder, Theo; Wrembel, Robert; Advances in Databases and Information Systems

    2013-01-01

    This volume is the second one of the 16th East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS 2012), held on September 18-21, 2012, in Poznań, Poland. The first one has been published in the LNCS series.   This volume includes 27 research contributions, selected out of 90. The contributions cover a wide spectrum of topics in the database and information systems field, including: database foundation and theory, data modeling and database design, business process modeling, query optimization in relational and object databases, materialized view selection algorithms, index data structures, distributed systems, system and data integration, semi-structured data and databases, semantic data management, information retrieval, data mining techniques, data stream processing, trust and reputation in the Internet, and social networks. Thus, the content of this volume covers the research areas from fundamentals of databases, through still hot topic research problems (e.g., data mining, XML ...

  12. Teleconnection between rainfall over South China and the East European Plain in July and August

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qin; Lu, Riyu

    2014-10-01

    In the present reported work, we identified that there is a significant negative relationship between rainfall over South China (SC) and the East European Plain (EEP) in the months of July and August, and investigated the possible reason for this negative relationship. The correlation coefficients between SC and the EEP rainfall were calculated to be -0.42 for July and -0.35 for August, both significant at the 95 % confidence level. We report that a wave-like train of circulation anomalies and a pathway of wave-activity flux stretching from Europe to East China connect the anticyclonic anomaly over Europe and the cyclonic anomaly over central and southern China, which are responsible for less EEP rainfall and more SC rainfall. We suggest that the teleconnection between SC and EEP rainfall results from the extension of stationary Rossby waves in the mid-latitudes in the upper troposphere for both July and August. This stationary Rossby wave is contributed to by summer North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and its extension features are determined by the location and intensity of the climatological upper-tropospheric westerly jet. Furthermore, we found that there was an interdecadal change around the mid-1970s in the negative SC-EEP rainfall relationship for both July and August. The negative correlation was significant and strong in the period 1976-2005, but much weaker in the period 1955-1975. The extension of stationary Rossby waves from Europe to East China was responsible for the significant negative relationship during the period 1976-2005.

  13. Age-specific differences in influenza virus type and subtype distribution in the 2012/2013 season in 12 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauté, J; Zucs, P; Korsun, N

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of seasonal influenza is influenced by age. During the influenza season, the European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN) reports weekly virological and syndromic surveillance data [mostly influenza-like illness (ILI)] based on national networks of sentinel primary-care providers...... that the overall distribution of circulating (sub)types may mask substantial differences between age groups. Thus, in cases aged 5-14 years, 75% tested positive for influenza B virus whereas all other age groups had an even distribution of influenza A and B viruses. This means that the intepretation of syndromic...

  14. Relations among Ethnic Identity, Parenting Style, and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes in European American and East Indian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, Bakhtawar

    The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…

  15. Teaching America: East European Jewish Immigrants and the Public School Curriculum in Turn-of-the-Century New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Stephan F.

    This paper describes the curriculum that immigrant children encountered when they entered the New York City public schools at the beginning of the twentieth century. Focusing on the interaction between the curriculum and one group, East European Jews, the paper examines: (1) what the schools were attempting to teach Jewish and other immigrant…

  16. Tales Out of School: Reports of East European Jewish Immigrants in New York City Schools, 1893-1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Stephan F.

    The public schools responsible for educating hundreds of thousands of East European Jewish immigrant children in New York City between 1893 and 1917 had three major goals: scholastic preparation, especially literacy in English, acculturation, and socioeconomic stratification. According to information obtained from interviews of students and…

  17. Ecological classification of European transitional waters in the North-East Atlantic eco-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Cristina; Juanes, José Antonio; Puente, Araceli

    2010-04-01

    A new methodology to classify European North-East Atlantic transitional waters into ecological types has been developed based on the most important hydrological and morphological features that are likely to determine the ecology of aquatic systems in transitional waters. Hydrological indicators help identifying if a transitional water area is dominated by fresh or sea water and/or by intertidal or subtidal areas, while morphological indicators allow an estimation of the complexity of the transitional water and the diversity of the habitats involved. Twelve transitional waters of the southern Bay of Biscay were classified using this methodology and the five hydro-morphological types obtained were validated with benthic macro-invertebrate data. Transitional waters with a complex morphology showed the highest values of species diversity, while those with a smaller tidal influence showed lower species diversity. The ' Scrobicularia' and ' Abra' assemblages, previously identified in the study area, were found to be related to different types of transitional waters. The ' Abra' assemblage only appeared in estuaries with a complex morphology and dominated by tidal influences, while the ' Scrobicularia' assemblage was detected in all the transitional waters except for a single coastal lagoon. This classification of transitional waters may therefore be useful to establish the biological reference conditions needed for European Directives.

  18. Fruits and vegetables consumption and the risk of histological subtypes of lung cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, F L; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Linseisen, J; Boshuizen, H C; Kiemeney, L A L M; Ros, M M; Overvad, K; Hansen, L; Tjonneland, A; Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Touillaud, M; Kaaks, R; Rohrmann, S; Boeing, H; Nöthlings, U; Trichopoulou, A; Zylis, D; Dilis, V; Palli, D; Sieri, S; Vineis, P; Tumino, R; Panico, S; Peeters, P H M; van Gils, C H; Lund, E; Gram, I T; Braaten, T; Martinez, C; Agudo, A; Arriola, L; Ardanaz, E; Navarro, C; Rodríguez, L; Manjer, J; Wirfält, E; Hallmans, G; Rasmuson, T; Key, T J; Roddam, A W; Bingham, S; Khaw, K-T; Slimani, N; Bofetta, P; Byrnes, G; Norat, T; Michaud, D; Riboli, E

    2010-03-01

    To examine the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of different histological subtypes of lung cancer among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze the data. A calibration study in a subsample was used to reduce dietary measurement errors. During a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 1,830 incident cases of lung cancer (574 adenocarcinoma, 286 small cell, 137 large cell, 363 squamous cell, 470 other histologies) were identified. In line with our previous conclusions, we found that after calibration a 100 g/day increase in fruit and vegetables consumption was associated with a reduced lung cancer risk (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.89-0.99). This was also seen among current smokers (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Risks of squamous cell carcinomas in current smokers were reduced for an increase of 100 g/day of fruit and vegetables combined (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.76-0.94), while no clear effects were seen for the other histological subtypes. We observed inverse associations between the consumption of vegetables and fruits and risk of lung cancer without a clear effect on specific histological subtypes of lung cancer. In current smokers, consumption of vegetables and fruits may reduce lung cancer risk, in particular the risk of squamous cell carcinomas.

  19. Characterization of a Novel Betacoronavirus Related to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in European Hedgehogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Victor Max; Kallies, René; Philipps, Heike; Göpner, Gertraude; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Eckerle, Isabella; Brünink, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Bats are known to host viruses closely related to important human coronaviruses (HCoVs), such as HCoV-229E, severe-acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). As RNA viruses may coevolve with their hosts, we sought to investigate the closest sister taxon to bats, the Eulipotyphla, and screened European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from Germany for CoV by nested reverse transcriptase PCR. A novel betacoronavirus species in a phylogenetic sister relationship to MERS-CoV and clade c bat CoVs was detected and characterized on the whole-genome level. A total of 58.9% of hedgehog fecal specimens were positive for the novel CoV (EriCoV) at 7.9 log10 mean RNA copies per ml. EriCoV RNA concentrations were higher in the intestine than in other solid organs, blood, or urine. Detailed analyses of the full hedgehog intestine showed the highest EriCoV concentrations in lower gastrointestinal tract specimens, compatible with viral replication in the lower intestine and fecal-oral transmission. Thirteen of 27 (48.2%) hedgehog sera contained non-neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV. The animal origins of this betacoronavirus clade that includes MERS-CoV may thus include both bat and nonbat hosts. PMID:24131722

  20. Incidence of spinal perineurial (Tarlov cysts among East-European patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Burdan

    Full Text Available The spinal perineurial cyst (Tarlov is a dilatation between the perineurium and endoneurium of spinal nerve roots, located at level of the spinal ganglion and filled with cerebrospinal fluid but without communication with the perineurial subarachnoid space. The aim of the study was to evaluate it incidence among East-European patients. The retrospective data collected during various magnetic resonance spinal examinations and stored on the picture archiving and communication system was analyzed for an incidence of perineurial cysts. From among 842 patients that underwent examination, 75 cases perineurial cysts were revealed. In 22 cases single anomalies were found. In remaining 53 cases, multiple uni- or less frequently bilateral changes were noted. The most common position was the sacral canal, particularly the level of S2 and S3. Occasionally, cysts were also visible on the cervical, thoracic and lumbar level. Incidence of sacral perineurial cysts was significantly higher in females than in males. Similar data was found for single and multiple changes despite of their localization. Insignificant changes were seen for patient age and cyst size. Perineurial spinal cysts were the most frequently observed on the sacral level and such changes were more common in females.

  1. Incidence of spinal perineurial (Tarlov) cysts among East-European patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, Franciszek; Mocarska, Agnieszka; Janczarek, Marzena; Klepacz, Robert; Łosicki, Marek; Patyra, Krzysztof; Brodzik, Agnieszka; Kiszka, Joanna; Chruścicka, Aneta; Żelzowska-Cieślińska, Iwonna; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    The spinal perineurial cyst (Tarlov) is a dilatation between the perineurium and endoneurium of spinal nerve roots, located at level of the spinal ganglion and filled with cerebrospinal fluid but without communication with the perineurial subarachnoid space. The aim of the study was to evaluate it incidence among East-European patients. The retrospective data collected during various magnetic resonance spinal examinations and stored on the picture archiving and communication system was analyzed for an incidence of perineurial cysts. From among 842 patients that underwent examination, 75 cases perineurial cysts were revealed. In 22 cases single anomalies were found. In remaining 53 cases, multiple uni- or less frequently bilateral changes were noted. The most common position was the sacral canal, particularly the level of S2 and S3. Occasionally, cysts were also visible on the cervical, thoracic and lumbar level. Incidence of sacral perineurial cysts was significantly higher in females than in males. Similar data was found for single and multiple changes despite of their localization. Insignificant changes were seen for patient age and cyst size. Perineurial spinal cysts were the most frequently observed on the sacral level and such changes were more common in females.

  2. Temperature, Heat Flow and Dynamics of The Lithosphere: The East European Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristoforova, N.

    The experimental study of temperature and heat flow anomalies was made on the East European platform and adjacent regions. Temperature measurements were made on 360 structures in 1230 deep boreholes which had steady-state temperature regime. Research results convince us that there is the spatial periodical pattern of terrestrial heat flow. The detailed analysis of temperature and heat flow maps and profiles shows the periodical structure of the field but not its fluctuational inhomogeneity. Maps of this sort can be used to identify the geometry of asthenosphere convection flows. The most realistic numerical experiments to date have been conducted. The experimental geothermic data assumes that there are sets of convection cells in the upper mantle. Be- sides, the peculiarities of the heat flow and temperature distribution may be explained by the existence of hexagonal convection cells in the asthenosphere. The cellular pat- tern of heat flow where large maxima of a certain form are closely connected with heat flow minima should be specially emphasized. The variation of terrestrial heat flow is closely related to recent vertical crustal movements. An adequate simplified mathe- matical model is suggested to describe this dependence, and the calculated heat flows are remarkably consistent with the experimental ones.

  3. 11th Congress of South-East European Studies. Sofia 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Korzeniewska-Wiszniewska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 11th Congress of South-East European Studies. Sofia 2015 The 11th Congress of South-East European Studies took place in Sofia, Bulgaria, between 31 August and 4 September 2015. It was organised by the International Association for Southeast European Studies (orig. in French: AIESEE – Associacion Internationale d’ Études du Sud-Est Européen. South-Eastern Europe is an area looked upon by world powers with a large amount of ambivalence. As the region’s states are not considered to be key global players, the events that occur in this part of the continent draw interest that is cyclical in nature and that is usually triggered by cyclical issues, too. Though relatively small, the area has been a point of interest for many researchers for over 100 years due to its ethnic diversity and the related inherent multi-nationality the scale of which is not encountered anywhere else in Europe. The cultural, linguistic, and religious pluralism of this region often produces specific social amalgams. With the cyclical interest aside, for a little more than a century the main European (and not only European political powers have been making efforts to exert influence in the region, understanding the significance of its geographic location, where East meets West. Regardless of the changing dynamics of interest in South-Eastern Europe, the region will certainly remain one of the most fascinating focus areas for researchers and academics across the world, who will meet again not in five, but in four years at another congress this time to be held in Romanian Constanţa to discuss issues and topics related to this corner of the world.   11. Kongres AIESEE, Sofia 2015 W dniach od 31 sierpnia do 4 września 2015 r. w Sofii (Bułgaria odbył się 11 Kongres Studiów nad Europą Południowo-Wschodnią, zorganizowany przez Międzynarodowe Stowarzyszenie Studiów nad Europą Południowo-Wschodnią (AIESEE - Associacion Internationale d’ Études du Sud-Est Europ

  4. Interconnections between economic subsystems and the IT innovation in avoiding unpredictable effects of finance reforms in East-European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The tax measures are rapidly changing in East-European countries. The permanence is a concept rarely put in practice. The changes of fiscal policy are usually important, affecting the whole finance system and the investors need to adapt to these various changes. Under such circumstances, the management of information of any kind regarding the activity of investors becomes very important, the information gathered represent a statistic proof of the effects of the economic and finance reforms.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Policies of Architectural Heritage Conservation in East Asian and European Countries (Legislation, Administration and Finance)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Architectural heritage, as an important form of the past, has been attracted increasing awareness. Nowadays there is a shared common view in the world that to protect architectural heritage reasonably and based on scientific methods is a necessity of our age. This dissertation intends to analyze and compare the policies for the protection of the architectural heritage in East Asian and European countries. Japan, China, Singapore, Italy, Britain and Germany are selected as representative count...

  6. Genetic structure of the population with rheumatoid arthritis in north east England: a genetic approach to define different subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiha, S S; Lanchbury, J S; Pal, B

    1986-11-01

    Clinically and immunologically rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is possibly a heterogeneous disorder. Despite numerous efforts clearer definition of this heterogeneity has been of limited success. Measurements of rheumatoid factor (RF) and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) by conventional methods define subpopulations of patients with RA and in a few recent studies an association of human leucocyte antigens (HLA) undoubtedly indicates the immunogenetic differences in the susceptibility of RA patients with different status of autoantibodies. The studies on a few isolated non-HLA genetic markers in RA are controversial. To understand the role of genetic factors in susceptibility 24 single gene characters other than HLA were investigated in 225 patients with RA classified by humoral status (presence or absence of RF and ANA) into three groups and in 104 healthy control individuals from the north east of England. Locus by locus comparison suggested associations of MN, Lewis, and Bf system with RF positive patients. Although the associations with MN and Lewis blood groups require further investigations, the involvement of the Bf locus is in agreement with the immunological component of the disease suggested by HLA associations and it could be due to the phenomenon of linkage disequilibrium. Measures of genetic distance applied to the subpopulations of patients with RA, divided according to the presence or absence of humoral factors, suggest that RF+ ANA+, RF- ANA-, and RF+ ANA- subgroups are distinct genetic diseases, each affecting a different subsection of the population which is genetically distinct. Such genetic heterogeneity may suggest a different pathogenetic mechanism for each of these subpopulations of rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Rapid detection and subtyping of European swine influenza viruses in porcine clinical samples by haemagglutinin- and neuraminidase-specific tetra- and triplex real-time RT-PCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henritzi, Dinah; Zhao, Na; Starick, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Background A diversifying pool of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses (IAV) with largely unknown zoonotic potential is maintained in domestic swine populations worldwide. The most recent human influenza pandemic in 2009 was caused by a virus with genes originating from IAV isolated from swine....... Swine influenza viruses (SIV) are widespread in European domestic pig populations and evolve dynamically. Knowledge regarding occurrence, spread and evolution of potentially zoonotic SIV in Europe is poorly understood. Objectives Efficient SIV surveillance programmes depend on sensitive and specific...... algorithm is proposed for the combined detection in clinical samples and subtyping of SIV strains currently circulating in Europe that is based on a generic, M-gene-specific influenza A virus RT-qPCR. In a second step, positive samples are examined by tetraplex HA- and triplex NA-specific RT...

  8. Dobreflection: An Exceptional Example of Basin Inversion In The East-european Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, U.; Stovba, S.; Maystrenko, Y.; Stephenson, R.; Tolkunov, A.; Dobreflection Working Group

    DOBREflection is a joint project of Ukrainian organisations (Ukrgeofisika and the Institute of Geophysics of the National Academy of Sciences) and an international European consortium that included acquisition of some 250 km of deep seismic re- flection data in 2000 and 2001. The aim was to study the south-eastern continuation of the Dnieper-Donets Basin (DDB) into the coal mining areas of the Donbas Foldbelt (DF), including the sedimentary fill and its deformation as well as the structure of the deeper crust. The DF is the strongly inverted and compressionally deformed part of the DDB, which is a Late Devonian rift basin located on the south-western part of the East-European Craton (EEC) between the Ukrainian Shield (UkS) to the south-west and the Voronezh Massif (VM) to the north-east. DOBREflection reveals that the base of the predominantly Devonian and Carboniferous sedimentary succession in the DF reaches a maximum of about 20-km in its axial part. However, the Donbas area has been much more seriously affected by secondary tectonic events than those parts of the DDB further north. In particular, significant shortening in response to Late Cretaceous Eo-Alpine compression is in evidence. While syn- and post-rift faults with offsets up to more than 3-km disrupt the basement horizon, the shortening (basin inversion) is displayed mainly as folding within the sedimentary succession. The fold patterns sug- gest a detachment surface most likely located within the Upper Devonian sequence, perhaps indicating the presence of salt rich layers. Shortening is also accommodated on two important crustal-scale structures. The first of these is a slightly inclined listric shear zone, or thrust, cutting the entire crust - including the UkS Moho - south of the DF, upwards through the complete sedimentary package ending in the northern part of the DF within an area of reverse faults exposed at the surface. The latter have vertical offsets up to a few kilometres whereas the

  9. On the Succession of Sarmatian Population in the East-European Steppes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balabanova Mariya A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As V.P. Alekseev wrote, the succession of population has been peculiar for individual territories for centuries. Despite the fact that the Eastern European steppe in ancient times and the Middle Ages was characterized by frequent changes of the population due to its high dependence on the environmental conditions, the Sarmatian culture preservation was observed over a period of ceremonial standards and elements of material culture. In this paper an attempt is made to show the presence of a partial succession of the three chronological periods of Sarmatian population. To do this, the author conducted a comparative characteristic of physical types of nomads of Sarmatian steppes of the Eastern Europe. The results of the study of mass craniological material combined in the cultural and chronological groups, showed that on the whole range of time and space over the steppe habitat Sarmatian cultures fixed partial similarity in physical type. In this connection, it is assumed that the partial continuity of anthropological types of different cultural, historical and local groups is linked to: 1 partial preservation of substrate Early Sarmatian population over the 4th- 3rd centuries BC – first half of 2nd-4th centuries AD; 2 the direction and character of penetration of nomadic groups who migrated from the East into steppe space; 3 design of a single system of seasonal migrations which involves the presence of winter and summer camps, and the presence of burial mounds; 4 the inclusion of a horde of nomadic pastoral population groups moved all over the steppes, from between Volga and Ural to the Lower Don; 5 the fact that male migrants married local women.

  10. Tectonics of the junction region between the East European craton and West Arctic platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluev, A. S.; Morozov, Y. A.; Terekhov, E. N.; Bayanova, T. B.; Tyupanov, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    The region of the junction and interaction between the East European Craton (EEC) and the West Arctic Craton (WAC) is regarded as a complexly built zone or assembly of both the volumetric and dividing linear tectonic elements: the Trollfjord-Rybachi-Kanin (TRK) Lineament, the pericratonic subsidence zone of the EEC, the Karpinskii Lineament, the Murmansk Block of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) Shield, and the Kolmozero-Voronya Zone, which are briefly characterized in this paper. Evidences of thrusting have been established not only in the TRK Suture Zone and on the Rybachi Peninsula, which represent a fragment of the Timanides fold-thrust belt, but also to the southwest, in the Upper Riphean and Vendian terrigenous sequences making up the Sredni Peninsula and related to the pericratonic trough of the VEC. Two phases of fold-thrust deformations with elements of left-lateral strike-slip offset pertaining to the activity and evolution of the lineament suture dividing the Sredni and Rybachi peninsulas have been recorded. The variously oriented fault-fold systems within this fault zone are evidence for multistage deformation and can be explained by an at least twostage change in the kinematics that control displacement along the fault. The disintegrated granitic massifs of the Archean crystalline basement tectonically squeezed out in the upper crust as protrusions are localized within TRK Fault Zone. Plagiogranitic bodies, which underwent superposed fault-fold deformations of both kinematic stages, are an evidence of the vigorous tectonic event that predated folding and two-stage strike-slip displacement along the TRK Fault—by thrusting of Riphean sequences from north to south toward the Archean craton. The nappe-thrust regional structure was formed at this stage; elements of it have been recognized in the Sredni, Rybachi, and Kanin peninsulas. The main stages of tectonic evolution in the junction zone between the EEC and the WAP have been revealed and substantiated.

  11. Theory of Queer Identities: Representation in Contemporary East-European Art and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Kesić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the general theory of identity, gender theory, queer theory and theory of bio/necropolitics, as theoretical platforms, in a few case studies I will analyze the Pride Parade as a form of manifestation of gender body and queer body representations in visual arts, and gender and queer body representations in mass media. My hypothesis is that the key for understanding the chosen case studies is in understanding the relation between their aesthetics, political and social interventions. This will consider political involvement, social injustice, alienation, stereotypes on which ideological manipulations are based etc., as well as the creative strategies used for moving the borders of visual art in searching for authentically-performed creative expressions and engagements. In the time we live it is necessary for the politicization of art to use queer tactics, which work as political strategies of subversion of every stable structure of power. Queer tactics, in my opinion, are weapons in disturbance of the stable social mechanisms, which every power tries to establish and perform over any ‘mass’, in order to transform it to race, gender, tribe, nation or class.   Article received: June 6, 2017; Article accepted: June 20, 2017; Published online: October 15, 2017; Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Kesić, Saša. "Theory of Queer Identities: Representation in Contemporary East-European Art and Culture." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 14 (2017: 123-131. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i14.211

  12. Comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of European subtype tick-borne encephalitis virus strains isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks, long-tailed ground squirrel (Spermophilus undulatus), and human blood in the Asian part of Russia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demina, T. V.; Tkachev, S. E.; Kozlova, I. V.; Doroshchenko, E. K.; Lisak, O. V.; Suntsova, O. V.; Verkhozina, M. M.; Dzhioev, Y. P.; Paramonov, A. I.; Tikunov, A. Y.; Tikunova, N. V.; Zlobin, V. I.; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2017), s. 547-553 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : TBEV * complete genome * European subtype * Western Siberia * Eastern Siberia * nucleotide * Amino acid sequence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  13. Soil-environmental index for assessment of forest-steppe soils on the territory of East European Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Iuliia; Bulgakov, Dmitriy; Kozlov, Daniil

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive quantitative assessment of the lands based on their agricultural efficiency is required for successful cultivation of crops and effective land management. In order to assessment and ranking of soils, various indexes taking into account edaphic and climatic conditions are applied. One of these indicators is soil-environmental index (SEI) assessing agroecological potential of lands. Forest-steppe soils of the East European Plain are characterized by high fertility and are used for the cultivation of winter wheat, sunflower, sugar beet, etc. However, agricultural ranking of these areas has still not been carried out. The aim of this study was to determine soil-environmental index values for the East European Plain soils within the administrative subjects of Russian Federation, and to test its applicability in agriculture. The study was carried out for the forest-steppe area of East European Plain within the boundaries of Central Russian natural and agricultural province (18 administrative subjects of Russian Federation). SEI of lands was calculated using Karmanov's equation. This equation takes into account three constituent elements: climatic conditions (the sum of temperatures above 10 ⁰C, humidity and continentality coefficients), agrophysical (particle size distribution, soil density) and agrochemical (total organic carbon, mobile phosphorus and potassium content) properties of soils. Agrophysical, agrochemical and climate data from the long-term observations were used. Data visualization was performed by QGIS and SAGA software. SEI clearly reflected the changes in edaphic and climatic conditions. Moreover, SEI correlated with summer and winter wheat yields (R2 = 0.69). For the western part of province, SEI ranked by regions, ranged from 49.4 to 84.0. These significant differences can be explained by gradual increasing of averaged temperatures in southern regions compared with northern, as well as by considerable shifts in soil types distribution

  14. The political economy of energy use and pollution: the environmental effects of East-European transition to market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midttun, A.; Chander, I. [Norwegian School of Management, Sandvicka (Norway)

    1998-11-01

    The transition of Eastern Europe to Western-type liberal capitalism has been interpreted as an important step towards a more ecologically sustainable Europe. The main argument has been that the energy efficiency of the West-European economy will be imported to Eastern Europe and lead to lower energy consumption and lower pollution. This line of argumentation seems sound as far as the industrial sector is concerned. However, it does not take into consideration the energy and pollution bill of the lavish lifestyle of modern consumer-oriented societies. A shift away from the moderate private consumption of East-European Communism, towards the Western consumerist lifestyle may diminish or even abolish the positive ecological effects of the East-European transition to a competitive market economy. The article explores energy consumption and pollution patterns of Eastern and Western Europe both as far as industrial and domestic end-user consumption is concerned. The article argues that these patterns are related to basic characteristics of the communist and capitalist systems and that pollution and energy use are fundamentally conditioned by the overall political economy. 18 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab., 1 app.

  15. Subtypes of fruit and vegetables, variety in consumption and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Max; Siersema, Peter D; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bastide, Nadia; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Peeters, Petra H M; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ohlsson, Bodil; Jirström, Karin; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Romieu, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Inge; Cross, Amanda J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2015-12-01

    Previously, a lower risk of colorectal cancer was observed with fruit and vegetable consumption in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition within a follow-up period of 9 years which was not fully supported by a recent meta-analysis. Therefore, we were interested in the relation with extended follow-up, also focusing on single subtypes and a variety of intake of fruit and vegetables. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed at baseline. After an average of 13 years of follow-up, 3,370 participants were diagnosed with colon or rectal cancer. Diet diversity scores were constructed to quantify variety in fruit and vegetable consumption. A lower risk of colon cancer was observed with higher self-reported consumption of fruit and vegetable combined (HR Q4 vs. Q1 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-1.01, p for trend 0.02), but no consistent association was observed for separate consumption of fruits and vegetables. No associations with risk of rectal cancer were observed. The few observed associations for some fruit and vegetable subtypes with colon cancer risk may have been due to chance. Variety in consumption of fruits and vegetables was not associated with a lower risk of colon or rectal cancer. Although a lower risk of colon cancer is suggested with high consumption of fruit and vegetables, this study does not support a clear inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption and colon or rectal cancer beyond a follow-up of more than 10 years. Attenuation of the risk estimates from dietary changes over time cannot be excluded, but appears unlikely. © 2015 UICC.

  16. Provenance of zircon of the lowermost sedimentary cover, Estonia, East-European Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konsa, M.

    1999-12-01

    Cambrian sequence, zircons resembling those of local basement sources are very rare or absent. Obviously, basal Vendian/Cambrian sedimentary rocks sealed off the basement as a source of zircon. Therefore a distant source, probably outside the Svecofennian Domain, could be supposed for the bulk clastic minerals and zircons of the upperpart of the Vendian and the lower part of the Cambrian. Probably, studies of isotopic ages of different typological varieties of zircons, both of obviously local and distant origin, could provide new information on respective source rock ages and areas, and on the general palaeogeographic pattern of the Vendian and Cambrian epicratonic sedimentary basins of the East-European Craton.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Brazilian subtype B variant showed an increasing avidity of the anti-V3 antibodies over time compared to the subtype B US/European strain in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casseb Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian variant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 subtype B, (serotype B"-GWGR, has a tryptophan replacing the proline in position 328 the HIV-1 envelope. A longer median time period from infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS for serotype B (B"-GWGR infected subjects compared to the B-GPGR US/European strain was reported. In a cohort study, in São Paulo city, 10 B"-GWGR patients had a statistically significant increased avidity of the anti-V3 antibodies, from 79% ± 33% to 85% ± 75%, versus from 48% ± 59% to 32% ± 17% for the 10 B-GPGR subjects (p = 0.02. The T CD4+ cells showed a mean increase of + 0.45 cells/month for the B-GPGR subjects and for B"-GWGR the slope was + 1.24 cells/month (p = 0.06, for 62 and 55 months of follow up, respectively. RNA plasma viral load decreased from 3.98 ± 1.75 to 2.16 ± 1.54 log10 in the B"-GWGR group while B-GPGR patients showed one log10 reduction in viral load from 4.09 ± 0.38 to 3.17 ± 1.47 log10 over time (p = 0.23, with a decreasing slope of 0.0042 ± log10,/month and 0.0080 ± log10/month, for B-GPGR and B"-GWGR patients, respectively (p = 0.53. Neither group presented any AIDS defining events during the study, according to Center for Diseases Control criteria. Although the sample size is small, these results may indicate that differences in the pathogenicity of the 2 HIV-1 B serotypes which co-circulate in Brazil may be correlated to the avidity of anti-V3 antibodies.

  18. Short communication: East-West European farm investment behaviour - The role of financial constraints and public support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Fertő

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated farm investment behaviour among East (Hungarian and Slovenian and West (French European Union farms using individual farm accountancy panel data for the 2003-2008 period. Despite differences in farm structures, except for the presence of capital market imperfections evidenced in the East, farms’ investment behaviour was not substantially different. Farm gross investment was positively associated with real sales’ growth. In addition, it was positively associated with public investment subsidies which can mitigate capital market imperfections in the short-term. On the long run, the farm’s ability to successfully compete in the output market by selling produce and securing a sufficient cash flow for investment is crucial.

  19. Socio-economic segregation in European capital cities: East meets West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    Growing inequalities in Europe are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. While the levels of socio-economic segregation in European cities are still modest compared to some parts of the world, the poor are increasingly

  20. MIGRATION PROCESSES "EAST-WEST" IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article refl ects the infl uence of the migration processes to the economic security of European Union. The article underlines most common economical risks in case if there is an increase of the volume of migration and describes the ways how to reduce those risks.The main conclusions obtained from the results of the study, can be structured as follows: trends and consequences of the migration crisis in the European Union are defi ned by the set of reasons that are due on the one hand the policy of transparency being implemented by individual countries, making the whole European Union is the center of attraction of immigrants (primarily from the MENA countries and other hand, the intense and growing fl ow of migrants creates regional threats, including the European Union's economic security; the problem of ensuring the economic security of the European Union in the context of the impact of the migration crisis is most actual issue at the moment and the main reason is that the accumulation of the fl ow of migrants to the strongest European economy – Germany. In this case, not only Germany, but also France (and until recently UK had to improve the economic and social consequences of migration and also to implement measures aimed to recover from fi nancial crisis of the last few years, the consequences of which to date are shown in the many social and economic areas of the European Union; addressing the problem with migration crisis in the European Union seems to use a special system of measures, in which on the one hand realized containment of migration fl ows and on the other hand held solutions aimed at the assimilation of migrants in multicultural environment with full adoption of the latest socio-economic, democratic and moral values specifi c to European societies.

  1. Ancient DNA from South-East Europe Reveals Different Events during Early and Middle Neolithic Influencing the European Genetic Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervella, Montserrat; Rotea, Mihai; Izagirre, Neskuts; Constantinescu, Mihai; Alonso, Santos; Ioana, Mihai; Lazăr, Cătălin; Ridiche, Florin; Soficaru, Andrei Dorian; Netea, Mihai G.; de-la-Rua, Concepcion

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the process of Neolithization for the genetic make-up of European populations has been hotly debated, with shifting hypotheses from a demic diffusion (DD) to a cultural diffusion (CD) model. In this regard, ancient DNA data from the Balkan Peninsula, which is an important source of information to assess the process of Neolithization in Europe, is however missing. In the present study we show genetic information on ancient populations of the South-East of Europe. We assessed mtDNA from ten sites from the current territory of Romania, spanning a time-period from the Early Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. mtDNA data from Early Neolithic farmers of the Starčevo Criş culture in Romania (Cârcea, Gura Baciului and Negrileşti sites), confirm their genetic relationship with those of the LBK culture (Linienbandkeramik Kultur) in Central Europe, and they show little genetic continuity with modern European populations. On the other hand, populations of the Middle-Late Neolithic (Boian, Zau and Gumelniţa cultures), supposedly a second wave of Neolithic migration from Anatolia, had a much stronger effect on the genetic heritage of the European populations. In contrast, we find a smaller contribution of Late Bronze Age migrations to the genetic composition of Europeans. Based on these findings, we propose that permeation of mtDNA lineages from a second wave of Middle-Late Neolithic migration from North-West Anatolia into the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe represent an important contribution to the genetic shift between Early and Late Neolithic populations in Europe, and consequently to the genetic make-up of modern European populations. PMID:26053041

  2. Credit risk determinants in Sub-Saharan banking systems: Evidence from five countries and lessons learnt from Central East and South East European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftychia Nikolaidou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have grown notably over the past decades due to benign macroeconomic, regulatory and financial trends. Nonetheless, downside risks remain elevated by structural issues, commodity price fluctuations, reversal of capital flows and spill-over effects from external shocks in a manner similar to the Central East and South East European (CESEE countries. In the light of the 2008–2009 Global Financial Crisis, great attention has been given to understanding the causes of banking instability with most of the research focusing on advanced economies and, to a lesser extent, large emerging markets while little attention has been paid to the bank-based financial sectors of Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, there is scarcity of studies aiming at knowledge-sharing among different emerging economies. This paper aims to identify the determinants of bank credit risk by focusing on five SSA countries: Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Uganda. Using the ARDL approach to cointegration, findings indicate that increased money supply conditions have a decreasing effect on NPLs in all counties, banking industry-specific variables play a significant role in the case of South Africa and Uganda while NPLs are driven by country-specific variables in the case of Kenya, South Africa and Zambia. The effect of the Global Financial Crisis is evidenced indirectly. Drawing on evidence from CESEE countries with long experience in banking crises, reforms and financial deepening process, the paper provides lessons for SSA countries and offers policy recommendations in the direction of strengthening banks’ balance sheets to ensure financial stability.

  3. GRAFT COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN EUROPEAN PEAR CULTIVARS AND EAST MALLING “C” ROOTSTOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO DALAZEN MACHADO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Graft incompatibility is one of the main factors limiting european pear production in Brazil. At present, there is no clear indication of the best combination(s of european pear cultivars and quince rootstocks for graft compatibility. The study evaluated the graft compatibility for combinations of european Abbè Fetel, Rocha and Williams pear cultivars grafted onto the EMC quince rootstock. The experiment was performed in a commercial european pear orchard in the Urupema municipality, in State of Santa Catarina, during the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 growing seasons. The plant growth variables comprised the section increment (mm in the trunk diameter in the graft union region of cultivars and rootstocks; difference in the diameter of the graft for cultivars and rootstocks; “translocated” incompatibility; “located” incompatibility and the vascular connection in the graft union region, which was assessed by immersing the bases of the plants in a 0.08% succinic acid solution. There were “located” and “translocated” incompatibility between the european Williams pear cultivar and the EMC rootstock based on the vascular discontinuity in the graft union region, which prevented the translocation of succinic acid stain. Thus, the Williams/EMC combination is considered incompatible and it is not recommended for use in commercial orchards. The Rocha/EMC and Abbè Fetel/EMC are considered partially incompatible combinations and showed good development eight years after planting.

  4. Trophic ecology of European sardine Sardina pilchardus and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic) inferred from delta C-13 and delta N-15 values of fish and identified mesozooplanktonic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Chappuis, A.; Bustamante, Paco; Lefebvre, Sebastien; Mornet, Francoise; Guillou, G.; Violamer, L.; Dupuy, Christine

    2014-01-01

    European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) are two species of economical and ecological significance in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic). However, the trophic ecology of both species is still poorly known in the area, and more generally, few studies have considered the potential trophic overlap between sardines and anchovies worldwide. This study aims to highlight the trophic links between the mesozooplankton and adults of these two pelagic fish...

  5. Guest editorial: Heteropolitanization: social and spatial change in Central and East European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentile, M.; Tammaru, T.; Kempen, R. van

    2012-01-01

    With more than 20 years of European post-socialist transition behind us, research on the cities of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has yet to be situated in contemporary urban theory. Placed within a context of growing research interest on CEE cities, this theme issue on Heteropolitanization:

  6. THE PREVALENCE OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFIENCY VIRUS-1 (HIV-1 SUBTYPES AND TRANSMISSION METHOD AMONG HIV/AIDS INFECTION PATIENT IN TULUNGAGUNG, EAST JAVA INDONESIA

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    Achmad Ardianto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid epidemic growth of HIV is continuing in Indonesia. There are some factors which have influenced the spreading of this epidemic in Indonesia, such as the poor awareness to avoid unsafe free sex attitude and the sharing of needles and syringes among intravenous drug users (IDUs. The sexual transmission of HIV has also apparently increased in Tulungagung. Commercial sex workers play a significant role in the spread of HIV in Tulungagung. People in Tulungagung have worked at other countries as Indonesian migrants. This condition can cause the increase number of HIV-1 case and the possibility of genetic variation (subtype HIV-1 in Tulungagung. This research is aimed to analyze the subtype and to determine estimation of transmission mode on infected patient of HIV-1 and AIDS who came to Seruni clinic Dr. Iskak hospital in Tulungagung. 40 HIV?AIDSpatients were interviewed to determine the subtype and the transmission mode. The results showed that 14 of 40 plasma samples (35% were successfully to amplified and sequenced. OverallCRF01-AE wereidentified as predominant subtype among HIV/AIDS patients in Tulungagung. Based on individual information, 31 of 40 subjects (77% were heterosexual transmission.

  7. The importance of entrepreneurial learning on the example of the South East European Center for entrepreneurial learning in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Maleković

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the experience in development of entrepreneurial learning (EL policy in South and East Europe (SEE, as a result of activities implemented by the South East European Center for Entrepreneurial Learning (SEECEL in Croatia. It aims to explore whether the EL concept, as promoted and developed by SEECEL, can also contribute to development of an entrepreneurial mindset and behaviour, creative thinking, as well as enhancing the development of individual’s entrepreneurial characteristics regardless of their ambition to start/conduct some business. The authors also seek to explore the relevance of the exchange of experience, effective partnership and cooperation of all involved education and other institutions and actors engaged in policy support for further development of the EL approach in SEE. The authors address different perspectives and understandings of the EL concept, point out to the existence of different schools of thought on EL, and consider the interaction between learning and entrepreneurship, which asks for novel and rigorous theorizing.

  8. European Workshop on Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop is a part of the E.C. Thermie B project `Dissemination of Promising Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-Eastern Europe`. The presentations held in the workshop are collected in this publication. The subjects are: TEKES (Technology Development Centre) Boost Technology; Renewable Energy in Latvia; Rural Renewable energy (Prospects) in Estonia; Renewable energy from Rural Electrification; Techno-Economic Analysis published as a summary; Practical Experiences of Small-Scale Heat Generation from Fuelwood in Finland; Solar systems for Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Biomass for Energy: Small-Scale Technologies; Photovoltaic Applications for Rural Areas in the North-East Europe

  9. Organizing for Coalition Warfare: The Role of East European Warsaw Pact Forces in Soviet Military Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Central Army Group (NATO) CFM Committee of Foreign Ministers (WTO) C-in-C Commander-in-Chief CP Communist Party CPSU Communist Party of the Soviet Union CWC...8217 4,100 832 2 Navies Major and minor warships 300W Few’ < 1 SOURCES: D. . Ustinov, Marshal of the Soviet Union , Chairman of the Main Editorial Commission...of Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG) disions with Northern Tier East Europea divisions Soviet armored division, Category 1 1.00 Soviet MD

  10. THE SIXTH UKRAINIAN-POLISH AND SECOND EAST-EUROPEAN MEETING ON FERROELECTRICS PHYSICS (SEPTEMBER 6-10, 2002, UZHGOROD-SYNJAK, UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue contains Proceedings of the Sixth Ukrainian-Polish and Second East-European Meeting on Ferroelectrics Physics held in Synjak on September 6-10, 2002. Such joint international conferences devoted to the problems of phase transitions and ferroelectricity have been carried out by Ukrainian and Polish scientists during the last decade.

  11. Trauma pattern in a level I east-European trauma center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Stoica

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Our trauma pattern profile is similar to the one found in west-European countries, with a predominance of traffic-related injuries and falls. The severity and anatomical puzzle for trauma lesions were more complex secondary to motorcycle or bicycle-to-auto vehicles collisions. A trauma registry, with prospective enrollment of patients, is a very effective tool for constant improvements in trauma care.

  12. CSR Strategies in Greater China: Global, East Asian, American, European Style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiduk Guenter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility emerged in the United States and spread to Europe and Asia while being adapted to national/local characteristics. Since borders between markets and societies are blurring and globalization is promoting MNCs which find themselves acting in hybrid societies, international institutions put efforts into the development and moral acceptance of global CSR standards. The scientific interest in CSR focused on the conflicts between company returns and benefits for society. The resulting concepts of performance-oriented, awareness-oriented and welfare-oriented CSR should facilitate the evaluation of CSR strategies implemented by MNCs. In research on the cultural dimensions of economies, it might be possible to allocate geographically the three concepts. Regarding the newly emerging Chinese MNCs, the paper aims to shed light on which concept they follow. On the one hand, CSR concepts of American and/or European MNCs that are present in China might serve as a role model; on the other hand, by learning from Taiwanese/ Hong Kong MNCs, a “greater China CSR approach” might emerge. Empirical studies and own field research suggest that compared to American and European companies, CSR is less deeply rooted in Chinese companies. Furthermore, significant differences between Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwanese companies indicate that a Greater Chinese CSR approach does not yet exist. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that American and European CSR concepts will experience a Chinese influence in the near future.

  13. Risk group characteristics and viral transmission clusters in South-East Asian patients infected with HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE and subtype B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyomopito, Rebecca A; Chen, Yen-Ju; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Kantor, Rami; Merati, Tuti; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Sirisanthana, Thira; Li, Patrick CK; Kantipong, Pacharee; Phanuphak, Praphan; Lee, Chris KC; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Ditangco, Rossana; Huang, Szu-Wei; Sohn, Annette H; Law, Matthew; Chen, Yi Ming A

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 epidemics in Asian countries are driven by varying exposures. The epidemiology of the regional pandemic has been changing with the spread of HIV-1 to lower-risk populations through sexual transmission. Common HIV-1 genotypes include subtype B and circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE. Our objective was to use HIV-1 genotypic data to better quantify local epidemics. TASER-M is a multi-centre prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Associations between HIV-exposure, patient gender, country of sample origin and HIV-1 genotype were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods were used on genotypic data to investigate transmission relationships. A total of 1086 patients from Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and the Philippines were included in analyses. Proportions of males within countries varied (Thailand: 55.6%, Hong Kong: 86.1%, Malaysia: 81.4%, Philippines: 93.8%; p <0.001) as did HIV exposures (Heterosexual contact: Thailand: 85.7%, Hong Kong, 46.2%, Malaysia: 47.8%, Philippines: 25.0%; p <0.001). After adjustment, we found increased subtype B infection among men-who-have-sex with-men, relative to heterosexual-reported exposures (OR = 2.4, p <0.001). We further describe four transmission clusters of 8–15 treatment naive, predominantly symptomatic patients (two each for subtype B and CRF01_AE). Risk-group sub-populations differed with respect to the infecting HIV-1 genotype. Homosexual exposure patients had a higher odds of being infected with subtype B. Where HIV-1 genotypes circulate within countries or patient risk-groups, local monitoring of genotype-specific transmissions may play a role in focussing public health prevention strategies. Phylogenetic evaluations provide complementary information for surveillance and monitoring of viruses with high mutation rates such as HIV-1 and Ebola. PMID:26362956

  14. Go East: Differences between Poland and Western European countries in the motivational structures underlying seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    Central Europe is an emerging market for seafood products, with rapidly developing opportunities for foreign direct investment and export. Although Poland in particular is widely regarded as a land of opportunity in the seafood business, surprisingly little effort has been made until now to gain...... a deeper understanding of the preferences, motives and usage patterns of Polish seafood consumers. The aim of the study was to fill this gap. Representative consumer samples from Poland (N = 1000) and four Western European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain; total N = 3800) were surveyed...... and compared in terms of the motivational structures underlying seafood consumption. In Poland, intentions to consume seafood in the near future were mainly determined by the perceived difficulty of preparing fish dishes (problems with bone handling and smells) and the degree to which consumers believed...

  15. ALTER-GLOBALISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN MIGRATION CONDITIONS. THE CASE OF AN EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HALLER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is a process that brings advantages and disadvantages to all states, regardless of their stage of development. The relative deprivation, especially the financial one, of the developing countries is a reason of frustration, which motivates the emigration decision; hence our orientation to alter-globalism. In this paper, I intend to highlight by means of analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, and statistic data, the causes and types of migration in Romania’s case, one of the main European countries where the immigrants originate from. We will see how globalisation manifests itself in a twofold manner in the economy and the society of a developing country, just like migration. We will show why a poor country is avoided by immigrants and deserted, as a result of immigration, by its own population, while, just like the developed states, it is likely to face the same demographic, economic and social problems, considering that the process of demographic transition is already manifested.

  16. Genetic structure of Europeans: a view from the North-East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Nelis

    Full Text Available Using principal component (PC analysis, we studied the genetic constitution of 3,112 individuals from Europe as portrayed by more than 270,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped with the Illumina Infinium platform. In cohorts where the sample size was >100, one hundred randomly chosen samples were used for analysis to minimize the sample size effect, resulting in a total of 1,564 samples. This analysis revealed that the genetic structure of the European population correlates closely with geography. The first two PCs highlight the genetic diversity corresponding to the northwest to southeast gradient and position the populations according to their approximate geographic origin. The resulting genetic map forms a triangular structure with a Finland, b the Baltic region, Poland and Western Russia, and c Italy as its vertexes, and with d Central- and Western Europe in its centre. Inter- and intra- population genetic differences were quantified by the inflation factor lambda (lambda (ranging from 1.00 to 4.21, fixation index (F(st (ranging from 0.000 to 0.023, and by the number of markers exhibiting significant allele frequency differences in pair-wise population comparisons. The estimated lambda was used to assess the real diminishing impact to association statistics when two distinct populations are merged directly in an analysis. When the PC analysis was confined to the 1,019 Estonian individuals (0.1% of the Estonian population, a fine structure emerged that correlated with the geography of individual counties. With at least two cohorts available from several countries, genetic substructures were investigated in Czech, Finnish, German, Estonian and Italian populations. Together with previously published data, our results allow the creation of a comprehensive European genetic map that will greatly facilitate inter-population genetic studies including genome wide association studies (GWAS.

  17. Central and East European migrant men who have sex with men in London: a comparison of recruitment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Christopher J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the expansion of the European Union, there has been a large influx of Central and East European (CEE migrants to the UK. CEE men who have sex with men (MSM represent a small minority within this population that are none-the-less important to capture in sexual health research among the CEE migrant community. This paper examines the feasibility of recruiting CEE MSM for a survey of sexual behaviour in London using respondent driven sampling (RDS, via gay websites and in GUM clinics. Methods We sought CEE MSM to start RDS chain referral among GUM clinic attendees, our personal contacts and at gay events and venues in central London. We recruited CEE MSM (n = 485 via two popular websites for gay men in Britain (March-May 2009 and at two central London GUM clinics (n = 51 (July 2008-March 2009. Results We found seventeen men who knew other CEE MSM in London and agreed to recruit contacts into the study. These men recruited only three men into the study, none of whom recruited any further respondents, and RDS was abandoned after 7 months (July 2008-January 2009. Half of the men that we approached to participate in RDS did not know any other CEE MSM in London. Men who agreed to recruit contacts for RDS were rather more likely to have been in the UK for more than one year (94.1% vs 70.0%, p = 0.052. Men recruited through gay websites and from GUM clinics were similar. Conclusions The Internet was the most successful method for collecting data on sexual risk behaviour among CEE MSM in London. CEE MSM in London were not well networked. RDS may also have failed because they did not fully understand the procedure and/or the financial incentive was not sufficient motivation to take part.

  18. Health and human services for persons who stutter and education of logopedists in East-European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, Steen; Peters, Herman F M; Euler, Harald A; Neumann, Katrin

    2008-03-01

    The International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics (IALP) assessed the therapy status of fluency disorders, service opportunities, and education of logopedists (speech-language pathologists) with a mail survey in Eastern Europe. Information was collected on the following aspects: incidence, prevalence, availability of information, non-therapeutic support for persons who stutter (PWS), providers of diagnostics and therapy, cooperating professionals, therapy approaches, forms, goals, financing, early detection and prevention, training of professionals, specialization in stuttering therapy, needs for improving the situation of PWS, and problems which hinder better care. Stuttering therapy for children is available in many countries and is frequently provided by the educational system. Therapy for adults is provided best by the health services but is not satisfactorily available everywhere. Modern therapeutic approaches coexist with obsolete ones. Lack of resources, awareness, entitlement, and assessment of therapy effectiveness are pervasive problems. Readers will be able to describe and evaluate: (1) the therapy status of fluency disorders and service opportunities in various East-European countries; (2) the training of logopedists (speech-language pathologists); (3) specialization in stuttering therapy; and (4) the organizational services for PWS within the health and human service systems.

  19. Evidence for geographic substructuring of mtDNA variation in the East European Hermit beetle (Osmoderma barnabita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Landvik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Osmoderma is a flagship taxon of invertebrate conservation in Europe and encompasses a complex of four accepted species. While species limits amongst Osmoderma have been intensively studied, patterns of intraspecific variation are poorly known. In this paper, the authors focus on clarifying the phylogeographic structure of the East European Osmoderma barnabita using samples from Croatia to Finland. Samples of hind legs were collected from populations in Latvia and Finland (n=186 and combined with previously-published sequences from GenBank and museum specimens (n=10. In a partial sequence of the mitochondrial COI gene (759 bp, 26 closely related haplotypes were found. Beetle samples from different parts of Europe were distinct and showed no overlap in haplotype composition. The solitary population of Finland proved to be monomorphic and all 97 individuals sampled here belonged to a single haplotype unique to this region. The results suggest the Northern parts of Eastern Europe to be dominated by a single COI haplotype to which most of the other haplotypes are linked by one or two mutations. The pattern seems to reflect a founder effect or a strong bottleneck event. While O. barnabita is widely distributed over Eastern Europe, current patterns of mitochondrial genetic diversity appear influenced by population history and little homogenisation by ongoing gene flow. From a conservation perspective, the patterns suggest that regional populations might need to be managed as subunits and that the population of Finland may be affected by low genetic diversity.

  20. Multilingual Maps of the Terrestrial Planets and their Moons: the East and Central European Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.; Berczi, Sz.

    A series of Multilingual planetary maps has been published by the Cosmic Materials Space Research Group of the Eötvös Loránd University (Budapest, Hungary) with consultations by Russian and German colleagues. The maps are a result of a cooperation of MIIGAiK (which offered the base maps), ELTE, the Copernicus Observatory and Planetarium in Brno, the Zagreb Astronomical Observatory, the Jagellonian University Observatory, the Tectonics and Geological Cartography Section of the Faculty of Geology at Warsaw University and the University of Architecture, Civil Engeneering and Geodesy in Sofia. The series has been initiated by the International Cartographic Association (ICA), Commission on Planetary Cartography (Shingareva et al. 2006). The now complete series has been published from 2001 to 2006: Mars (2001), Venus (2003), Moon (2003), Mercury (2004) and Phobos and Deimos (2006). (Hargitai et al 2001-2006) These maps are more than outreach posters but less than maps for scientific purposes. These give a good overview of the topography and geology of the planets in a global to regional scale. They contain multilingual information concerning planetary science results and specific characteristics of the planetary body relief, placed on the lower margins of the front sides of the maps and the whole back side (geography, geology, stratigraphy, history of discovery and full index of names). These texts appear in Czech, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Croatian, Polish and English. In some cases it was the first time that a particular term (and its definition) was translated into one of these Central European languages. After compiling the first four maps it can be concluded that such work can effectively draw the attention of earth scientists to the specific features - and the mere existence - of other planetary bodies by simply discussing the translation of their terminology. Apart from circulating the maps in classrooms, this might be the most important scientific result of this

  1. Clues to the chronology of Old Germanic loans in Romanian and in other South-East European languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Poruciuc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Clues to the chronology of Old Germanic loans in Romanian and in other South-East European languages The present article is directly based on the handout of the talk this author gave at the International Conference on Balkan Linguistics (6-7 May, 2013, Toruń, Nicolaus Copernicus University; therefore the subchapters and paragraphs observe the arrangement of the materials included in that handout. The first part contains a chronological table that reflects mainstream archaeological-historical information regarding the history of military-political actions and achievements of the Old Germanic populations in south-east Europe between the 3rd century BC and the 6th century of our era. Then concrete textual proofs follow, which are chronologically arranged and briefly commented upon. Finally, the author proposes interdisciplinary approaches based mainly on reference of linguistic features to historical stages and evolutions.   Źródła danych do ustalenia chronologii pożyczek starogermańskich w języku rumuńskim i w innych językach Europy południowo-wschodniej Artykuł przygotowano w oparciu o dane zamieszczone w materiałach do referatu na konferencję „International Conference on Balkan Linguistics” (6-7 maja 2013, Toruń, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika; porządek poszczególnych podsekcji i paragrafów artykułu jest zatem zgodny ze strukturą tej prezentacji. Część pierwsza zawiera chronologiczne przedstawienie istotnych materiałów archeologiczno-historycznych na temat działań o charakterze militarno-politycznym oraz zdobyczy ludów starogermańskich w Europie południowo-wschodniej w okresie od III w. p.n.e. do VI w. n.e. W dalszej części przytoczono i krótko skomentowano uporządkowane chronologicznie konkretne dowody językowe. Na końcu znajduje się propozycja interdyscyplinarnego podejścia do tematu, oparta głównie na odniesieniu cech językowych do odpowiednich etapów historii i ewolucji językowej.

  2. Iris pigmentation as a quantitative trait: variation in populations of European, East Asian and South Asian ancestry and association with candidate gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Cha, David; Krithika, S; Johnson, Monique; Cook, Gillian; Parra, Esteban J

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present a new quantitative method to measure iris colour based on high-resolution photographs. We applied this method to analyse iris colour variation in a sample of individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We show that measuring iris colour using the coordinates of the CIELAB colour space uncovers a significant amount of variation that is not captured using conventional categorical classifications, such as 'brown', 'blue' or 'green'. We tested the association of a selected panel of polymorphisms with iris colour in each population group. Six markers showed significant associations with iris colour in the European sample, three in the South Asian sample and two in the East Asian sample. We also observed that the marker HERC2 rs12913832, which is the main determinant of 'blue' versus 'brown' iris colour in European populations, is also significantly associated with central heterochromia in the European sample. © 2015 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. East European Ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Ergonomics Analysis" (Hungarian) Ergonomia , 1976, 9/3, 121-126 Positions defined on some essential conceptual and dmethodological questions relating to...Bartha "The Scientific-Technical Revolution and Ergonomics" (Hungarian) Ergonomia , 1978, 11/4, 217-221. Review of theoretical and practical problems of...Quantification of Means of Production" (Hungarian) Ergonomia , 1976 9/4 221-223. Actions taken in the course of Comecon ergonomic cooperation, difficulties in a

  4. HIV-1 A1 Subtype Epidemic in Italy Originated from Africa and Eastern Europe and Shows a High Frequency of Transmission Chains Involving Intravenous Drug Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alessia; Bozzi, Giorgio; Franzetti, Marco; Binda, Francesca; Simonetti, Francesco R; De Luca, Andrea; Micheli, Valeria; Meraviglia, Paola; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Di Biagio, Antonio; Monno, Laura; Saladini, Francesco; Zazzi, Maurizio; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Balotta, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Subtype A accounts for only 12% of HIV-1 infections worldwide but predominates in Russia and Former Soviet Union countries of Eastern Europe. After an early propagation via heterosexual contacts, this variant spread explosively among intravenous drug users. A distinct A1 variant predominates in Greece and Albania, which penetrated directly from Africa. Clade A1 accounts for 12.5% of non-B subtypes in Italy, being the most frequent after F1 subtype. Aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of A1 subtype in Italy and trace its origin and diffusion through phylogenetic and phylodynamic approaches. The phylogenetic analysis of 113 A1 pol sequences included in the Italian ARCA database, indicated that 71 patients (62.8%) clustered within 5 clades. A higher probability to be detected in clusters was found for patients from Eastern Europe and Italy (88.9% and 60.4%, respectively) compared to those from Africa (20%) (p Italy through three introduction events: directly from East Africa, from Albania and Greece, and from the area encompassing Moldavia and Ukraine. As in previously documented A1 epidemics of East European countries, HIV-1 A1 subtype spread in Italy in part through intravenous drug users. However, Eastern European women contributed to the penetration of such variant, probably through sex work.

  5. HIV-1 A1 Subtype Epidemic in Italy Originated from Africa and Eastern Europe and Shows a High Frequency of Transmission Chains Involving Intravenous Drug Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Lai

    Full Text Available Subtype A accounts for only 12% of HIV-1 infections worldwide but predominates in Russia and Former Soviet Union countries of Eastern Europe. After an early propagation via heterosexual contacts, this variant spread explosively among intravenous drug users. A distinct A1 variant predominates in Greece and Albania, which penetrated directly from Africa. Clade A1 accounts for 12.5% of non-B subtypes in Italy, being the most frequent after F1 subtype.Aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of A1 subtype in Italy and trace its origin and diffusion through phylogenetic and phylodynamic approaches.The phylogenetic analysis of 113 A1 pol sequences included in the Italian ARCA database, indicated that 71 patients (62.8% clustered within 5 clades. A higher probability to be detected in clusters was found for patients from Eastern Europe and Italy (88.9% and 60.4%, respectively compared to those from Africa (20% (p < .001. Higher proportions of clustering sequences were found in intravenous drug users with respect to heterosexuals (85.7% vs. 59.3%, p = .056 and in women with respect to men (81.4% vs. 53.2%, p < .006. Subtype A1 dated phylogeny indicated an East African origin around 1961. Phylogeographical reconstruction highlighted 3 significant groups. One involved East European and some Italian variants, the second encompassed some Italian and African strains, the latter included the majority of viruses carried by African and Italian subjects and all viral sequences from Albania and Greece.Subtype A1 originated in Central Africa and spread among East European countries in 1982. It entered Italy through three introduction events: directly from East Africa, from Albania and Greece, and from the area encompassing Moldavia and Ukraine. As in previously documented A1 epidemics of East European countries, HIV-1 A1 subtype spread in Italy in part through intravenous drug users. However, Eastern European women contributed to the penetration of

  6. Correlation of EGFR mutation status with predominant histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma according to the new lung adenocarcinoma classification of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Celina; Cagle, Philip T; Johnson, Melissa; Patel, Jyoti D; Yeldandi, Anjana V; Raj, Rishi; DeCamp, Malcolm M; Raparia, Kirtee

    2014-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations have been identified as predictors of response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer. To investigate the relationship of EGFR mutation status to the histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma according to the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) classification. We screened EGFR mutation in 200 consecutive lung adenocarcinoma resection specimens diagnosed between 2008 and 2011. Among 200 lung adenocarcinomas, EGFR mutations were identified in 41 tumors (20.5%). The mean age in the EGFR-mutant group was 64.8 years and this group consisted of 78% females and 22% males. Most patients with EGFR-positive lung cancers were never-smokers (51%) as compared to 8% with EGFR-negative cancers (P adenocarcinoma was lepidic (44%) in EGFR-mutant lung cancers as compared to 69% with acinar pattern in EGFR wild-type lung cancers (P adenocarcinomas, 8 (36%) had EGFR mutations, accounting for 20% of adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations (P adenocarcinoma was lepidic (44%) in EGFR-mutant lung cancers (P lung adenocarcinomas of other subtypes.

  7. The evolution of the southern margin of the East European Craton based on seismic and potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuchenko, S. L.; Morozov, A. F.; Stephenson, R. A.; Solodilov, L. N.; Vedrentsev, A. G.; Popolitov, K. E.; Aleshina, A. F.; Vishnevskaya, V. S.; Yegorova, T. P.

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents an integrated geophysical study of the southern margin of the East European Craton (EEC) in the Karpinksy Swell-North Caucasus area. It presents new interpretations of deep refraction and wide-angle reflection "deep seismic sounding" (DSS) data as well as conventional seismic and CDP profiling and new analyses of potential field data, including three-dimensional gravity and magnetic modelling. An integrated model of the physical properties and structure of the Earth's crust and, partially, upper mantle displays distinct features that are related to tectonic history of the study area. The Voronezh Massif (VM), the Ukrainian Shield and Rostov Dome (RD) of the EEC as well as the Donbas Foldbelt (DF), Karpinsky Swell (KS), Scythian Plate (SP) and Precaspian Basin (PCB) constitute the geodynamic ensemble that developed on the southern margin of the continent Baltica. There proposed evolutionary model comprises a stage of rifting during the middle to late Devonian, post-rift extension and subsidence during Carboniferous-early Permian times (synchronous with and related to the southward displacement of the Rostov Dome and extension in a palaeo-Scythian back-arc basin), and subsequent Mesozoic and younger evolution. A pre-Ordovician, possibly Riphean (?), mafic magmatic complex is inferred on a near vertical reflection seismic cross-section through the western portion of the Astrakhan Dome in the southwest part of the Precaspian Basin. This complex combined with evidence of a subducting slab in the upper mantle imply the presence of pre-Ordovician (Riphean?) island arc, with synchronous extension in a Precaspian back-arc basin is suggested. A middle Palaeozoic back-arc basin ensemble in what is now the western Karpinsky Swell was more than 100 km to the south from its present location. The Stavropol High migrated northwards, dislocating and moving fragments of this back-arc basin sometime thereafter. Linear positive magnetic anomalies reflect the

  8. Subtypes of fruit and vegetables, variety in consumption and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, Max; Siersema, Peter D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110603826; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Bastide, Nadia; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Peeters, Petra H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirõs, J. Ramõn; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ohlsson, Bodil; Jirström, Karin; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Romieu, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Inge; Cross, Amanda J.; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X

    2015-01-01

    Previously, a lower risk of colorectal cancer was observed with fruit and vegetable consumption in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition within a follow-up period of 9 years which was not fully supported by a recent meta-analysis. Therefore, we were interested in the

  9. Impact of the Middle East War of 1967 on European Perceptions of U.S. and Soviet Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    declaration of neutrality In the Mid-East War of June 1967, where the United States had a clear co~ rinitment to Israel, the~refore, caused much concern in...Lewin who had ,.rked with small groups where a single participant was the "gatekeeper." His interest was the housewife controlling food purchasing

  10. Impact of tree cutting on water-soluble organic compounds in podzolic soils of the European North-East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapteva, Elena; Bondarenko, Natalia; Shamrikova, Elena; Kubik, Olesya; Punegov, Vasili

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WOCs) and their single components, i.e. low-molecular organic acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates, attain a great deal of attention among soil scientists. WOCs are an important component of soil organic matter (SOM) and form as a results of different biological and chemical processes in soils. These processes are mainly responsible for formation and development of soils in aboveground ecosystems. The purpose of the work was identifying qualitative and quantitative composition of low-molecular organic substances which form in podzolic loamy soils against natural reforestation after spruce forest cutting. The studies were conducted on the territory of the European North-East of Russia, in the middle taiga subzone (Komi Republic, Ust-Kulom region). The study materials were soil of undisturbed bilberry spruce forest (Sample Plot 1 (SP1)) and soils of different-aged tree stands where cutting activities took place in winter 2001/2002 (SP2) and 1969/1970 (SP3). Description of soils and vegetation cover on the plots is given in [1]. Low-molecular organic compounds in soil water extracts were identified by the method of gas chromatography mass-spectrometry [2, 3]. Finally, reforestationafterspruceforestcutting was found to be accompanied by different changes in soil chemical composition. In contrast with soils under undisturbed spruce forest, organic soil horizons under different-aged cuts decreased in organic carbon reserves and production of low-molecular organic compounds, changed in soil acidity. Within the soil series of SP1→SP2→SP3, the highest content of WOCs was identified for undisturbed spruce forest (738 mg kg-1 soil). In soils of coniferous-deciduous forests on SP1 and SP3, WOC content was 294 and 441 mg kg-1 soil, correspondingly. Soils at cuts decreased in concentration of any water-soluble low-molecular SOM components as low-molecular acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates. Structure of low-molecular WOCs in the study podzolic

  11. Cook Island artifact geochemistry demonstrates spatial and temporal extent of pre-European interarchipelago voyaging in East Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisler, Marshall I.; Bolhar, Robert; Ma, Jinlong; St Pierre, Emma; Sheppard, Peter; Walter, Richard K.; Feng, Yuexing; Zhao, Jian-xin; Kirch, Patrick V.

    2016-01-01

    The Cook Islands are considered the “gateway” for human colonization of East Polynesia, the final chapter of Oceanic settlement and the last major region occupied on Earth. Indeed, East Polynesia witnessed the culmination of the greatest maritime migration in human history. Perennial debates have critiqued whether Oceanic settlement was purposeful or accidental, the timing and pathways of colonization, and the nature and extent of postcolonization voyaging—essential for small founding groups securing a lifeline between parent and daughter communities. Centering on the well-dated Tangatatau rockshelter, Mangaia, Southern Cook Islands, we charted the temporal duration and geographic spread of exotic stone adze materials—essential woodworking tools found throughout Polynesia— imported for more than 300 y beginning in the early AD 1300s. Using a technique requiring only 200 mg of sample for the geochemical analysis of trace elements and isotopes of fine-grained basalt adzes, we assigned all artifacts to an island or archipelago of origin. Adze material was identified from the chiefly complex on the Austral Islands, from the major adze quarry complex on Tutuila (Samoa), and from the Marquesas Islands more than 2,400 km distant. This interaction is the only dated example of down-the-line exchange in central East Polynesia where intermediate groups transferred commodities attesting to the interconnectedness and complexity of social relations fostered during postsettlement voyaging. For the Cook Islands, this exchange may have lasted into the 1600s, at least a century later than other East Polynesian archipelagos, suggesting that interarchipelago interaction contributed to the later development of social hierarchies. PMID:27382159

  12. Impact of The Future Embankment of The Railway Line East-european Tgv About The Frost Spring In The Champagne Vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrando, G.; Bridier, S.; Quenol, H.; Madelin, M.

    The layout of LGV-East European necessitates the establishment of an embankment in the North-East of the SMontagne de ReimsT (France), in the lower part of the vineyard of the SFonds de SilleryT. In this area, during radiative conditions (wind < 3 m/s, clear sky), the cold air drainage are trapped against the embankment. The Scold air lakeT thus created constitutes a cooling prejudicial to the vines in proximity. The obstacle was simulated by a canvas cover (L=700m; H=1 to 3m). The actinothermic temperature (at 50 cm) of the air and the direction of the breezes were observed on 19 points near the obstacle and in the neighbouring vines for night with canvas cover and without. The whole of measurements was integrated in a GIS with a DEM and a cartography of the vineyard to estimate the risk of freezing caused by the extension of the " cold air lake ". For the wine sector, the analysis of the data shows that the embankment (simulated by the canvas cover) did not have of significant incidence on the intensity and the frequency of spring freezing. The air drainage are blocked by the embankment but the " cold air lake " does not affect the vineyard, even when the weather situation are favourable to an extension in the lower part of the slope.

  13. Periodicity of Climatic, Hydrological and Lacustrine Sedimentation Processes in the South of the East-European Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisetskii, F.N.; Stolba, Vladimir; Pichura, V.I.

    2013-01-01

    for simulation has been defined, which most accurately reflects the impact of natural climatic factors on the riverine discharge. The regression model for the conditions when the water discharge is over 1686 m3/s can be used for prognosis (and retrognosis) of extreme hydrological events in the south of the East...... make it possible to define the contribution of annual sums of precipitation and air temperature to the riverine discharge, the study has established the climatic dependence of the hydrological processes. It has also demonstrated that an essential increase in the annual precipitation sums since the 1940...

  14. Phylogeography of amphi-boreal fish: tracing the history of the Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in North-East European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between North Atlantic and North Pacific faunas through times have been controlled by the variation of hydrographic circumstances in the intervening Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait. We address the history of trans-Arctic connections in a clade of amphi-boreal pelagic fishes using genealogical information from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The Pacific and Atlantic herrings (Clupea pallasii and C. harengus) have basically vicarious distributions in the two oceans since pre-Pleistocene times. However, remote populations of C. pallasii are also present in the border waters of the North-East Atlantic in Europe. These populations show considerable regional and life history differentiation and have been recognized in subspecies classification. The chronology of the inter-oceanic invasions and genetic basis of the phenotypic structuring however remain unclear. Results The Atlantic and Pacific herrings both feature high mtDNA diversities (large long-term population sizes) in their native basins, but an ocean-wide homogeneity of C. harengus is contrasted by deep east-west Pacific subdivision within Pacific C. pallasii. The outpost populations of C. pallasii in NE Europe are identified as members of the western Pacific C. pallasii clade, with some retained inter-oceanic haplotype sharing. They have lost diversity in colonization bottlenecks, but have also thereafter accumulated abundant new variation. The data delineate three phylogeographic groups within the European C. pallasii: herring from the inner White Sea; herring from the Mezen and Chesha Bays; and a strongly bottlenecked peripheral population in Balsfjord of the Norwegian Sea. Conclusions The NE European outposts of C. pallasii are judged to be early post-glacial colonists from the NW Pacific. A strong regional substructure has evolved since that time, in contrast to the apparent broad-scale uniformity maintained by herrings in their native basins. The structure only partly matches the

  15. NEW PALEOMAGNETIC DATA ON THE SILURIAN AND DEVONIAN SEDIMENTARY ROCKS FROM PODOLIA, SW UKRAINE, AND KINEMATICS OF THE EAST EUROPEAN PLATFORM IN THE MIDDLE PALEOZOIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bakhmutov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetic data are the priority source of information for global paleotectonic reconstructions representing horizontal movements of the crustal blocks. Upon receipt of new paleomagnetic data, kinematic models of the East European platform in the Paleozoic are regularly revised and improved. The article presents results of the paleomagnetic study of sedimentary gray-colored and red beds of the Silurian and Lower Devonian sequences located in the Dniester river basin, Podolia region, SW Ukraine. The study covered 17 outcrops that are stratigraphically correlated with the Wenlock, Ludlow, Pridoli states of the Sillurian and the Lochkovian stage of the Devon. Over 400 samples of grey limestone, argillite, dolomite, red limestone and sandstone were analyzed, and two components of natural remnant magnetization (NRM were revealed. The first component with SSW declination and negative inclination is revealed in the majority of the samples during AF- and T-magnetic cleaning. Its pole positions, that are calculated separately for each series, are trending to the Permian segment of the apparent polar wander path (APWP published by Torsvik et al. [2012] for Baltica / Stable Europe. Considering its chemical origin, this NRM component is related to formation of authigenic minerals due to rock remagnetization. The second component is revealed only in some samples taken from the red beds (during thermal demagnetization in the range of unblocking temperatures from 590 to 690 °С and in few samples of grey limestone (in AF fields from 30 to 70 mT or in the range of unblocking temperatures from 300 to 460 °С. This component has SW declination and positive inclination, goes to the origin of coordinates of the diagrams, and has all the indicators of primary magnetization of sediments. Calculated positions of the poles (0 ºS and 329 ºE for grey limestone of the Tiverskaya series, 2.3 °S and 338.4 °E for red beds of the Dniestrovskaya series, etc. are well

  16. NEW PALEOMAGNETIC DATA ON THE SILURIAN AND DEVONIAN SEDIMENTARY ROCKS FROM PODOLIA, SW UKRAINE, AND KINEMATICS OF THE EAST EUROPEAN PLATFORM IN THE MIDDLE PALEOZOIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bakhmutov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetic data are the priority source of information for global paleotectonic reconstructions representing horizontal movements of the crustal blocks. Upon receipt of new paleomagnetic data, kinematic models of the East European platform in the Paleozoic are regularly revised and improved. The article presents results of the paleomagnetic study of sedimentary gray-colored and red beds of the Silurian and Lower Devonian sequences located in the Dniester river basin, Podolia region, SW Ukraine. The study covered 17 outcrops that are stratigraphically correlated with the Wenlock, Ludlow, Pridoli states of the Sillurian and the Lochkovian stage of the Devon. Over 400 samples of grey limestone, argillite, dolomite, red limestone and sandstone were analyzed, and two components of natural remnant magnetization (NRM were revealed. The first component with SSW declination and negative inclination is revealed in the majority of the samples during AF- and T-magnetic cleaning. Its pole positions, that are calculated separately for each series, are trending to the Permian segment of the apparent polar wander path (APWP published by Torsvik et al. [2012] for Baltica / Stable Europe. Considering its chemical origin, this NRM component is related to formation of authigenic minerals due to rock remagnetization. The second component is revealed only in some samples taken from the red beds (during thermal demagnetization in the range of unblocking temperatures from 590 to 690 °С and in few samples of grey limestone (in AF fields from 30 to 70 mT or in the range of unblocking temperatures from 300 to 460 °С. This component has SW declination and positive inclination, goes to the origin of coordinates of the diagrams, and has all the indicators of primary magnetization of sediments. Calculated positions of the poles (0 ºS and 329 ºE for grey limestone of the Tiverskaya series, 2.3 °S and 338.4 °E for red beds of the Dniestrovskaya series, etc. are well

  17. Airborne Laser Scanning - the Status and Perspectives for the Application in the South-East European Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Balenović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Over the last twenty years airborne laser scanning (ALS technology, also referred to as LiDAR, has been established in a many disciplines as a fully automated and highly efficient method of collecting spatial data. In Croatia, as well as in most countries of the South-East Europe (SEE with the exception of Slovenia, the research on the application of ALS in forestry has not yet been conducted. Also, regional scientific and professional literature dealing with ALS application is scarce. Therefore, the main goal of this review paper is to present the ALS technology to the forestry community of SEE and to provide an overview of its potential application in forest inventory. The primary focus is given to discrete return ALS systems. Conclusions and Future Research Streams: Results presented in this paper show that the ALS technology has a significant potential for application in forest inventory. Moreover, the two-phase forest inventory based on the combination of ALS and field measurements has become a quite common operational method. Due to the expected advancement of the ALS technology, it may be presumed that ALS will have an even more important role in forestry in the future. Therefore, researches on application of ALS technology in SEE forestry are needed, primarily focusing to question of “if” and “to what extent” the ALS technology can improve the existing terrestrial method of forest inventory. Besides the application in the classical forest inventory, the option to apply it for estimation of the biomass, carbon stock, combustible matter, etc, should also be further investigated.

  18. Genome characterisation of the newly discovered avian influenza A H5N7 virus subtype combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, K.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, in 2003, a previously unknown subtype combination of avian influenza A virus, H5N7 (A/Mallard/Denmark/64650/03), was isolated from a flock of 12,000 mallards. The H5N7 subtype combination might be a reassortant between recent European avian influenza A H5, H7, and a third subtype, pos...

  19. EFFECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION ON GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS: REVIEWS IN RELATION WITH EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND THE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HILAL YILDIRIR KESER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigate the effects of higher education on global competitiveness One of the most widely accepted definition of global competitiveness is in the form of " efficiency level encompassing all of the institutions that will ensure sustainable growth in a country, policies and factors of production". Therefore the competitiveness of a country depends on the factors such as; The level of development of R & D activities and productivity, performance of various sectors, the country's trade surplus, producing goods hosting high-tech in their nature, availability of expert and skilled labor force. But one of the main points in the realization of these factors is the quality of the higher education. Higher education has an important role in the formation of qualified labour. And the qualified labour carries the competitiveness firstly of the sector and then of the country up to higher ranks by increasing the performance and productivity of the companies. The study will be discussed in the following way: firstly the context of the global competitiveness will be mentioned, secondly, the role and importance of higher education will be put forth by explaining the basic determinants of competitivenes particularly within the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index. Finally, assessments will be made in relation with the situation of higher education in global competitiveness in European countries and Middle Eastern countries.

  20. Trophic ecology of European sardine Sardina pilchardus and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic) inferred from δ13C and δ15N values of fish and identified mesozooplanktonic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvelon, T.; Chappuis, A.; Bustamante, P.; Lefebvre, S.; Mornet, F.; Guillou, G.; Violamer, L.; Dupuy, C.

    2014-01-01

    European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) are two species of economical and ecological significance in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic). However, the trophic ecology of both species is still poorly known in the area, and more generally, few studies have considered the potential trophic overlap between sardines and anchovies worldwide. This study aims to highlight the trophic links between the mesozooplankton and adults of these two pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay, through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis (SIA). Mesozooplankton and individuals of sardines and anchovies were collected during one season (spring 2010), over spatially contrasted stations within the study area. First, the potential effect of preservation (ethanol vs. freezing) and of delipidation (by cyclohexane) on mesozooplankton δ13C and δ15N values was assessed. Results demonstrated the necessity to correct for the preservation effect and for lipid contents in mesozooplankton for further analyses of sardines' and anchovies' diet through SIA. Next, this study highlighted the interest of working on identified mesozooplanktonic organisms instead of undetermined assemblages when unravelling food sources of planktivorous fish using stable isotopes. The inter-specific variability of isotope values within a planktonic assemblage was effectively high, probably depending on the various feeding behaviours that can occur among mesozooplankton species. Intra-specific variability was also significant and related to the spatial variations of baseline signatures in the area. To investigate the foraging areas and potential diet overlap of S. pilchardus and E. encrasicolus, mixing models (SIAR) were applied. Both fish species appeared to feed mainly in the neritic waters of the Bay of Biscay in spring and to select mainly small- to medium-sized copepods (e.g. Acartia sp., Temora sp.). However, E. encrasicolus showed a greater trophic plasticity by

  1. Structure and genetic mechanisms of the Precambrian rifts of the East-European Platform in Russia by integrated study of seismic, gravity, and magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuchenko, S. L.; Egorkin, A. V.; Solodilov, L. N.

    1999-11-01

    Integrated models of the deep structure and origin of rifts located within the Russian portion of the East-European Platform have been developed from recent DSS results, new gravity and magnetic modelling, and geological and older geophysical data acquired over the last 50 years. The Mezen rift province, the Middle-Russian rift, the Valday rift, the Pachelma rift, and the rifts within the Pre-Caspian depression were studied. All of these rifts were affected by extension and filled with syn-rift sediments at different times through the Riphean (1650-650 Ma). Post-rift sedimentary basins developed from the end of the Neoproterozoic until the Cenozoic. The models indicate that the crustal structure and genesis of the individual rifts are different. The Mezen rift province was formed under a condition of limited extension of the continental crust. The McKenzie pure strain mechanism is acceptable for lithosphere extension in the Middle-Russian rift. The Wernicke model best expresses the Valday and Pachelma rifts. The rift process in the Pre-Caspian area is explained in terms of large-scale sliding apart of lithospheric plates, and approached the stage of development of oceanic crust.

  2. Sustainability Organic Agriculture and Livestock Production with Respect to European Union in Eastern Anatolia and East Black Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecihi Aksakal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of farm households in Turkey and especially the Eastern Anatolia are still based on low-input semi subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Despite a slow decline in recent years, agriculture and livestock production remains a major employer in Turkey and it is a significant contributor to the country’s gross domestic product, GDP. Whist Turkey is one of the EU candidate countries, is self sufficient in food production and Turkish agriculture is poorly structured inefficient, with farming in the Eastern Anatolia being mainly subsistence farming. Yet, these traditional rural structures combined with poor access to low level of education and low level of off-farm unemployment problem makes the situation more complicated and unsustainable. The best way to promote sustainability, better and higher production of Eastern Anatolian and rural Turkey is to invest in the local people, villages through improved, continuing and effective agricultural and livestock programs in particular. Investment in human capital especially in the rural areas leads to more employment opportunities through entrepreneurship and innovation in organic agriculture and livestock production. A holistic approach to developing and improving supply chains could unlock the potential for sophisticated, state-of-the-art organic agriculture and livestock producers and businesses in the region to become EU and global players. Eastern Anatolian livestock producers and the farmers have the ambitions to take part in future progress because the region is naturally organic not by design but default. It is for sure that present potential of the region has not been fully determined and utilized. EU has greatly benefited from previous enlargements economically, politically and socially. When European Union (EU and Turkish Government relations considered and accession of Turkey to EU would be the logical consequence of the previous accessions. The screening on chapter 11

  3. HIV Type 1 Disease Progression to AIDS and Death in a Rural Ugandan Cohort Is Primarily Dependent on Viral Load Despite Variable Subtype and T-Cell Immune Activation Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Michael A; Opollo, Marc S; Liu, Michelle; Redd, Andrew D; Eller, Leigh Anne; Kityo, Cissy; Kayiwa, Joshua; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Wawer, Maria J; Milazzo, Mark; Kiwanuka, Noah; Gray, Ronald H; Serwadda, David; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Quinn, Thomas C; Michael, Nelson L; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Sandberg, Johan K; Robb, Merlin L

    2015-05-15

    Untreated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection is associated with persistent immune activation, which is an independent driver of disease progression in European and United States cohorts. In Uganda, HIV-1 subtypes A and D and recombinant AD viruses predominate and exhibit differential rates of disease progression. HIV-1 seroconverters (n = 156) from rural Uganda were evaluated to assess the effects of T-cell activation, viral load, and viral subtype on disease progression during clinical follow-up. The frequency of activated T cells was increased in HIV-1-infected Ugandans, compared with community matched uninfected individuals, but did not differ significantly between viral subtypes. Higher HIV-1 load, subtype D, older age, and high T-cell activation levels were associated with faster disease progression to AIDS or death. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, HIV-1 load was the strongest predictor of progression, with subtype also contributing. T-cell activation did not emerge an independent predictor of disease progression from this particular cohort. These findings suggest that the independent contribution of T-cell activation on morbidity and mortality observed in European and North American cohorts may not be directly translated to the HIV epidemic in East Africa. In this setting, HIV-1 load appears to be the primary determinant of disease progression. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Risk group characteristics and viral transmission clusters in South-East Asian patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF 01_AE and subtype B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Oyomopito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 epidemics in Asian countries are driven by varying exposures. The epidemiology of the regional pandemic has been changing with the spread of HIV-1 to lower-risk populations through sexual transmission. Common HIV-1 genotypes include subtype B and circulating recombinant form (CRF 01_AE. Our objective was to use HIV-1 genotypic data to better quantify local epidemics. TASER-M is a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Associations between HIV exposure, patient sex, country of sample origin and HIV-1 genotype were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods were used on genotypic data to investigate transmission relationships. A total of 1086 patients from Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and the Philippines were included in analyses. Proportions of male patients within countries varied (Thailand: 55.6%, Hong Kong: 86.1%, Malaysia: 81.4%, Philippines: 93.8%; p < 0.001 as did HIV exposures (heterosexual contact: Thailand: 85.7%, Hong Kong, 46.2%, Malaysia: 47.8%, Philippines: 25.0%; p < 0.001. After adjustment, we found increased subtype B infection among men who have sex with men, relative to heterosexual-reported exposures (odds ratio = 2.4, p < 0.001. We further describe four transmission clusters of eight to 15 treatment naïve, predominantly symptomatic patients (two each for subtype B and CRF01_AE. Risk-group subpopulations differed with respect to the infecting HIV-1 genotype. Homosexual exposure patients had higher odds of being infected with subtype B. Where HIV-1 genotypes circulate within countries or patient risk-groups, local monitoring of genotype-specific transmissions may play a role in focusing public health prevention strategies. Phylogenetic evaluations provide complementary information for surveillance and monitoring of viruses with high mutation rates such as HIV-1 and Ebola.

  5. Quantitative investigation of reproduction of gonosomal condensed chromatin during trophoblast cell polyploidization and endoreduplication in the east-european field vole Microtus rossiaemeridionalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanova Margarita S

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous determinations of DNA content in cell nuclei and condensed chromatin bodies formed by heterochromatized regions of sex chromosomes (gonosomal chromatin bodies, GCB have been performed in two trophoblast cell populations of the East-European field vole Microtus rossiaemeridionalis: in the proliferative population of trophoblast cells of the junctional zone of placenta and in the secondary giant trophoblast cells. One or two GCBs have been observed in trophoblast cell nuclei of all embryos studied (perhaps both male and female. In the proliferative trophoblast cell population characterized by low ploidy levels (2–16c and in the highly polyploid population of secondary giant trophoblast cells (32–256c the total DNA content in GCB increased proportionally to the ploidy level. In individual GCBs the DNA content also rose proportionally to the ploidy level in nuclei both with one and with two GCBs in both trophoblast cell populations. Some increase in percentage of nuclei with 2–3 GCBs was shown in nuclei of the placenta junctional zone; this may be accounted for by genome multiplication via uncompleted mitoses. In nuclei of the secondary giant trophoblast cells (16–256c the number of GCBs did not exceed 2, and the fraction of nuclei with two GCBs did not increase, which suggests the polytene nature of sex chromosomes in these cells. In all classes of ploidy the DNA content in trophoblast cell nuclei with the single GCB was lower than in nuclei with two and more GCBs. This can indicate that the single GCB in many cases does not derive from fusion of two GCBs. The measurements in individual GCBs suggest that different heterochromatized regions of the X- and Y-chromosome may contribute in GCB formation.

  6. New paleomagnetic data from Bornholm granitoids testing whether the East-European Craton rotated during the 1.50-1.45 Ga Danopolonian orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubnina, N.; Bogdanova, S.; Cecys, A.

    2009-04-01

    According to the palaeogeographic reconstructions, the East-European Craton (EEC) was part of the Palaeo- to Mesoproterozoic supercontinent Nuna / Columbia (Hoffman, 1997; Rogers and Santosh, 2002). Particularly important was the period between 1.5 and 1.3 Ga, when incipient break-up of this supercontinent occurred (Condie, 2002) but the EEC ("Baltica") still remained in close connection with other continental blocks. During the entire Mesoproterozoic, however, the EEC featured different geodynamic regimes in its presently western and eastern parts. In the west, these were convergent, while rifting prevailed in the east (Bogdanova et al., 2008). Previously, paleomagnetic studies of the Mesoproterozoic Ladoga Lake mafic rocks in NE Russia and the Dalarna mafic dykes in Sweden have disclosed a regular trend from the older Dalarna dykes to the younger dolerites of Lake Ladoga, suggesting an anticlockwise rotation of about 20 degrees. That rotation could either have affected the entire EEC as a result of the Danopolonian orogeny at ca. 1.50-1.45 Ga or have been associated with local block-displacement events in the Pasha-Ladoga graben (Lubnina et al., 2005, 2007). In the present study, we have tested these alternative possibilities by carrying out new paleomagnetic studies of Mesoproterozoic granitoids from the Danish island of Bornholm in the South Baltic Sea, which is a key area of the Danopolonian orogeny. On SW Bornholm, the 1.46 Ga Ronne granodiorites, which are cut by NNW trending thin dolerite dykes have been sampled in the Klippelokke quarry. Remanence measurements were performed using a 2G cryogenic magnetometer at the Palaeomagnetic Laboratory of the Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden. Conventional progressive thermal or alternating field (AF) demagnetizations were applied to all specimens. During the stepwise thermal and AF demagnetization experiments, two components of NRM were isolated in the majority of the granitoid specimens. The low

  7. SELECTING THE DIRECTION FOR TECHNICAL RE-EQUIPMENT OF THE TPP OIL-GAS BLOCKS OF 300 MW CAPACITY IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE EAST-EUROPEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Neuimin

    2015-01-01

    -equipment of the TPPs in the countries of the East-European region in the medium term is going to follow the way of reconstruction/modernization of the 300 MW-capacity power-block equipment and prolongation of the specified operation life.

  8. Geological and Geochemical Aspects of the Deep Origin of the Oil Fields of Volga-Ural Region in East-European Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina

    2010-05-01

    The study area for research is territory of Tatarstan and the South Tatarstan Arch located in the Volgo-Ural Region, which is an enigmatic crustal segment that occupies the eastern third of the East European Craton. The tectonic structure and history of geological development of this region are mainly defined by the fact that Tatarstan is a junction between several first-order tectonic elements. The present-day structure of the crystalline basement is a result of the evolution of the faults and blocks originally formed in Late Proterozoic times and those that partly originated from the older dislocations. The South Tatarstan arch contains Tatarstani largest oil fields - Romashkino, Novo-Elkhovo and Bavli. The analysis of areal and sectional distribution of the oil fields has allowed the tracing of the close link between the oil bearing capacity of the sedimentary cover and the block structure of the basement. All the oil fields above the South Tatarstan arch are controlled by the faults crosscutting the crystalline basement and the sedimentary cover. Oil accumulations in the lower productive strata of the sedimentary cover are confined to the basement zones with the maximum degree of tectonic fracturing and to the fault-intersection nodes. Genetic identity of oils and bitumens of the sedimentary cover, and the confinement of oil pools to tectonic faults confirm the role of the vertical migration it plays in the formation of commercial oil and bitumen accumulations in the Palaeozoic sedimentary sequences. The report contains data of analyse the distribution of oil in the sedimentary cover of Tatarstan in general and the location of the Romashkino oil field in particular from a new viewpoint, in their relation to the following factors: the composition and tectonomagmatic evolution of the crystalline basement in the pre-platform stage of its development; the fluid dynamic evolution in Phanerozoic times; and neotectonic processes. Cumulative oil production in Tatarstan

  9. Indicative properties on snow cover based on the results of experimental studies in the winter 2011/12 in the central part of the East European Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kitaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and regional differences in the snow formation were studied in different landscapes of the central part of the East European Plain – within reserves in the Moscow and Tver’ regions (south-north direction; the study period is the winter 2011/12. The observed increase of snow storage in 1.3–1.5 times in the direction south-north is connected, apparently. The difference in the five-day appearance of snow cover maximum is related to differences in regional winter air temperature. Throughout the snow depth and snow storage in spruce are smaller than in deciduous forest – in the ratio of 0.81 in south area and 0.93 in north area; in spruce the large part of solid precipitation is intercepted by the crowns pine trees. Snow stratigraphy at south areas has four layers, six layers at the north area are more variable in snow density and snow storage. Perhaps, gravitational conversion is more noticeable due to larger snow depth. Snow density and snow storage at the open areas are more heterogeneous than in the forest. This is due to sharp fluctuations in air temperature, wind transport and compaction of snow, evaporation from the snow surface. The stratigraphy of snow also reflects the history of winter changes of air temperature and snow accumulation. Common feature for reserves at south and north is the availability of layers with maximum snow storage in the middle of the snow thickness, which were formed during the air temperature drops to the lowest seasonal values in period with increase of snow depth to maximum. Formation of depth hoar in snow thickness are touched everywhere the bottom and middle layers, respectively, it was formed both before and during the period with minimal air temperature. Thus, the results of experimental studies confirm the significance of the differences of individual components of the landscape setting. Analytical conclusions are largely qualitative in nature due to the lack to date of initial information, and

  10. Modeling dust emission response to North Atlantic millennial-scale climate variations from the perspective of East European MIS 3 loess deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available European loess sequences of the Marine Isotope Stage 3 (~60–25 kyr BP show periods of strong dust accumulation alternating with episodes of reduced sedimentation, favoring soil development. In the western part of the loess belt centered around 50° N, these variations appear to have been related to the North Atlantic rapid climate changes: the Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO and Heinrich (H events. It has been recently suggested that the North Atlantic climate signal can be detected further east, in loess deposits from Stayky (50°05.65' N, 30°53.92' E, Ukraine. Here we use climate and dust emission modeling to investigate this data interpretation. We focus on the areas north and northeast of the Carpathians, where loess deposits can be found, and the corresponding main dust sources must have been located as well. The simulations were performed with the LMDZ atmospheric general circulation model and the ORCHIDEE land surface model. They represent a reference "Greenland stadial" state and two perturbations, seen as sensitivity tests with respect to changes in the North Atlantic surface conditions between 30° and 63° N: a "Greenland interstadial" and an "H event". The main source for the loess deposits in the studied area is identified as a dust deflation band, with two very active spots located west-northwest from our reference site. Emissions only occur between February and June. Differences from one deflation spot to another, and from one climate state to another, are explained by analyzing the relevant meteorological and surface variables. Over most of the source region, the annual emission fluxes in the "interstadial" experiment are 30 to 50% lower than the "stadial" values; they would only be about 20% lower if the inhibition of dust uplift by the vegetation were not taken into account. Assuming that lower emissions result in reduced dust deposition leads us to the conclusion that the loess–paleosol stratigraphic succession in the Stayky

  11. IL28B and IL10R-1087 polymorphisms are protective for chronic genotype 1 HCV infection and predictors of response to interferon-based therapy in an East-Central European cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Pár, Alajos; Pár, Gabriella; Tornai, István; Szalay, Ferenc; Várszegi, Dalma; Fráter, Edit; Papp, Mária; Lengyel, Gabriella; Fehér, János; Varga, Márta; Gervain, Judit; Schuller, János; Nemes, Zsuzsanna; Péterfi, Zoltán; Tusnádi, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in IL28B and IL10R are associated with sustained virological response (SVR) in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with pegilated interferon plus ribavirin (P/R). The present study extends our earlier investigations on a large East-Central European cohort. The allele frequencies of IL28B and IL10R in genotype 1 HCV infection were compared with that of healthy controls for the purpose of examining the relationsh...

  12. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 strains in the south-east and east of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Çelen

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: HIV molecular epidemiology studies are necessary to determine transmission patterns and spread. Subtype B and CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG are the most prevalent strains in the south-east of Turkey. However, subtype C, sub-subtypes A1 and F1 are of low prevalence but persist in the south-east of Turkey. In the near future, changing of HIV epidemiology will be possible in Turkey due to migration movement in border lines and resistance testing will play an important role in HIV management.

  13. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  14. Subtypes of cocaine abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R D; Mirin, S M

    1986-09-01

    We have characterized five subtypes of cocaine abusers on the basis of clinical presentation, family history data, and response to specific treatment interventions. These include depressed patients who value the euphorigenic effects of the drug, patients with bipolar or cyclothymic disorder who use cocaine to augment manic or hypomanic symptoms or to alleviate depression, adults with ADD, residual type, who find that cocaine has a paradoxical effect of increasing attention span and decreasing motor restlessness, patients with narcissistic and borderline personality disorders who use cocaine for its social prestige and because it bolsters self-esteem, and patients with antisocial personality disorder who use cocaine as part of an overall pattern of antisocial behavior. Although not all cocaine abusers fit neatly into these categories, careful psychiatric evaluation and subtyping is essential in designing a specific treatment program for these patients. As the prevalence rate of cocaine abuse increases, studies that examine the efficacy of various treatment approaches for specific subtypes of cocaine abusers will be essential. It is hoped that our work will be a step in that direction.

  15. Detection of avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype in organs of chicken affected by higly pathogenic avian infuenza in East and West Java by using immunohistochemical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Damayanti

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to detect antigen H5N1 of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI virus in various farms in East and West Java. The immunohistochemical technique was applied due to Hematoxilin-eosin (H&E staining was impossible to visualize the antigen in tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was applied for some visceral organs collected from the areas where the outbreaks occurred in September-October 2003. The specimens were processed as histopathological paraffin blocks using standard method. The blocks that were suspected to have antigen H5N1 were cut and rabbit antisera to H5N1 produced from the local isolate was applied as the primary antibody. Biotinylated secondary antibody and avidin biotin peroxidase from a commercial kit were administered. The antigen present in the tissues were visualized by adding a substrate called Amino Ethyl Carbazole (AEC resulting in reddish brown colour. This immunostaining proved to be accurate and reliably quick method to detect H5N1 antigen present in the avian tissues. In conclusion, the outbreak of bird flu was caused by H5N1 strain and the antigen could be found in wattles, combs, brain, trachea, lungs, heart, proventriculus, liver, spleen, kidney and ovary.

  16. Incidence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratiglioni, L; Launer, L J; Andersen, K

    2000-01-01

    The authors examined the association of incident dementia and subtypes with age, sex, and geographic area in Europe. Incidence data from eight population-based studies carried out in seven European countries were compared and pooled. The pooled data included 835 mild to severe dementia cases and ...

  17. Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barco, Lisa; Barrucci, Federica; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2013-01-01

    source attribution models have been implemented by using serotyping and phage-typing data. Molecular-based methods may prove to be similarly valuable in the future, as already demonstrated for other food-borne pathogens like Campylobacter. This review assesses the state of the art concerning Salmonella...... source attribution through microbial subtyping approach. It summarizes the available microbial subtyping attribution models and discusses the use of conventional phenotypic typing methods, as well as of the most commonly applied molecular typing methods in the European Union (EU) laboratories...

  18. Psychopathy subtypes and psychopathic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Koshkina Ekaterina Nikolaevna

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses two main subtypes of psychopathy and its characteristic traits that allow to differ them from each other. Following that, the existence of more specific subtypes of psychopathy and sociopathy is argued on the basis of the recent researches. Also, the inclination of psychopaths and sociopaths to various kinds of violence is examined.

  19. The global spread of HIV-1 subtype B epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Angelis, Konstantinos; Mamais, Ioannis; Katzourakis, Aris; Hatzakis, Angelos; Albert, Jan; Lawyer, Glenn; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Gomes, Perpétua; Camacho, Ricardo J; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Anders; Kostrikis, Leondios G; Lepej, Snjezana J; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elizabeth; Schmit, Jean Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Stylianou, Dora C; Boucher, Charles A B; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Vasylyeva, Tetyana; Friedman, Samuel R; van de Vijver, David; Angarano, Gioacchino; Chaix, Marie-Laure; de Luca, Andrea; Korn, Klaus; Loveday, Clive; Soriano, Vincent; Yerly, Sabine; Zazzi, Mauricio; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2016-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was discovered in the early 1980s when the virus had already established a pandemic. For at least three decades the epidemic in the Western World has been dominated by subtype B infections, as part of a sub-epidemic that traveled from Africa through Haiti to United States. However, the pattern of the subsequent spread still remains poorly understood. Here we analyze a large dataset of globally representative HIV-1 subtype B strains to map their spread around the world over the last 50years and describe significant spread patterns. We show that subtype B travelled from North America to Western Europe in different occasions, while Central/Eastern Europe remained isolated for the most part of the early epidemic. Looking with more detail in European countries we see that the United Kingdom, France and Switzerland exchanged viral isolates with non-European countries than with European ones. The observed pattern is likely to mirror geopolitical landmarks in the post-World War II era, namely the rise and the fall of the Iron Curtain and the European colonialism. In conclusion, HIV-1 spread through specific migration routes which are consistent with geopolitical factors that affected human activities during the last 50years, such as migration, tourism and trade. Our findings support the argument that epidemic control policies should be global and incorporate political and socioeconomic factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reconsidering the classification of tick-borne encephalitis virus within the Siberian subtype gives new insights into its evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, S Y; Mukhacheva, T A

    2017-11-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis is widespread in Eurasia and transmitted by Ixodes ticks. Classification of its causative agent, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), includes three subtypes, namely Far-Eastern, European, and Siberian (TBEV-Sib), as well as a group of 886-84-like strains with uncertain taxonomic status. TBEV-Sib is subdivided into three phylogenetic lineages: Baltic, Asian, and South-Siberian. A reason to reconsider TBEV-Sib classification was the analysis of 186 nucleotide sequences of an E gene fragment submitted to GenBank during the last two years. Within the South-Siberian lineage, we have identified a distinct group with prototype strains Aina and Vasilchenko as an individual lineage named East-Siberian. The analysis of reclassified lineages has promoted a new model of the evolutionary history of TBEV-Sib lineages and TBEV-Sib as a whole. Moreover, we present arguments supporting separation of 886-84-like strains into an individual TBEV subtype, which we propose to name Baikalian (TBEV-Bkl). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. HIV-1 genetic variants in the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazennova, Elena; Laga, Vita; Lapovok, Ilya; Glushchenko, Nataliya; Neshumaev, Dmitry; Vasilyev, Alexander; Bobkova, Marina

    2014-08-01

    A molecular analysis of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants circulating in cities in the Russian Far East was performed. The study included samples from 201 outpatients from Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, and Blagoveshchensk. In most parts of Russia, patients are infected with HIV-1 subtype A, known as the IDU-A variant. Subtype B, including the IDU-B variant, is rare in Russia but widespread in the Ukraine, and the CRF02_AG is prevalent in Central Asian countries and Siberia, Russia. One of the challenges of this study in the Far East was to determine whether the molecular landscape of HIV infection in this region is influenced by the bordering countries, including China and Japan, where a distinct set of HIV subtypes is circulating, such as B', C, and CRF01_AE. The distribution of HIV-1 genetic variants in the cities studied was as follows: subtype A (IDU-A), 55.7%; subtype B, 25.3% (IDU-B variant-24.3%); subtype C, 10.0%; CRF02_AG, 1.5%; and CRF63_02A1, 7.5%. A phylogenetic analysis confirmed the relationship of subtype A viruses with the IDU-A variant predominating in Ukraine, Russia and other former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, of subtype B viruses with IDU-B in the Ukraine and of CRF02_AG variants with variants in Uzbekistan, Russia, and other former USSR countries. Subtype C sequences were not uniform, and most clustered between each other and HIV-1 sequences originating from Africa; there was only one sample possibly related to Chinese variants. Thus, despite close cultural and commercial relationships among Russia, China, and Japan, the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in the Russian Far East is still primarily influenced by contacts with the countries of the former USSR.

  2. A welcoming policy in post-socialist East Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Steigemann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apparently, East European countries are less willing to accept refugees than other European countries. Their experience of ethnic and cultural diversity is weak and a genuine welcome has still to be developed.

  3. Tracing the Origin and Northward Dissemination Dynamics of HIV-1 Subtype C in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Couto-Fernandez, José C.; Guimarães, Monick Lindenmayer; Vaz Cardoso, Ludimila Paula; de Alcantara, Keila Correia; Martins de Araújo Stefani, Mariane; Romero, Hector; Freire, Caio C. M.; Iamarino, Atila; de A Zanotto, Paolo M.; Morgado, Mariza G.; Bello, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in southern Brazil was initiated by the introduction of a single founder strain probably originating from east Africa. However, the exact country of origin of such a founder strain as well as the origin of the subtype C viruses detected outside the Brazilian southern region remains unknown. HIV-1 subtype C pol sequences isolated in the southern, southeastern and central-western Brazilian regions (n = 209) were compared with a large number (n ~ 2,000) of subtype C pol sequences of African origin. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed that most HIV-1 subtype C Brazilian sequences branched in a single monophyletic clade (CBR-I), nested within a larger monophyletic lineage characteristic of east Africa. Bayesian analyses indicate that the CBR-I clade most probably originated in Burundi and was introduced into the Paraná state (southern region) around the middle 1970s, after which it rapidly disseminated to neighboring regions. The states of Paraná and Santa Catarina have been the most important hubs of subtype C dissemination, and routine travel and spatial accessibility seems to have been the major driving forces of this process. Five additional introductions of HIV-1 subtype C strains probably originated in eastern (n = 2), southern (n = 2) and central (n = 1) African countries were detected in the Rio de Janeiro state (southeastern region). These results indicate a continuous influx of HIV-1 subtype C strains of African origin into Brazil and also unveil the existence of unrecognized transmission networks linking this country to east Africa. PMID:24069269

  4. The Kyoto mechanisms. The situation after Marrakech - opportunities for infrastructure investment in central and east Europe - the integration in the European and international climate protection strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafhausen, F. [Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Berlin (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    The issue of the greenhouse effect, its causes and the possibilities of countermeasures against it have been discussed in scientific circles, the business world, politics and society for 15 years now. Certainly, the intensity of the debate varies greatly from one world region to another. Whereas the small island nations, particularly in the Pacific (Alliance of Small Island States - AOSIS), that are the first to be affected by the climate change already underway are in the front line together with the European Union, the subject is virtually taboo in the USA. Nevertheless, an important step forward was taken in Marrakech with regard to an internationally agreed climate protection policy. Marrakech has created the preconditions to enable the Kyoto Protocol to come into force within a few months. As a result, the socalled Kyoto Mechanisms - Joint Implementation, Clean Development Mechanism and Emissions Trading - are also becoming more important. All three mechanisms are based on the intention to use he cost differences between various emitters of greenhouse gases to achieve global climate protection in an economically efficient way. Especially suited to that is the combating of the greenhouse effect, in which it is not a question of where on our planet emissions harmful to the climate are avoided, but that they are reduced. The aim of my following remarks is to portray the current situation, to ellaborate on the opportunities for investors and host countries offered by the Kyoto Mechanisms and to point out the prospects. (orig.)(orig.)

  5. Seismic velocity model of the crust and upper mantle along profile PANCAKE across the Carpathians between the Pannonian Basin and the East European Craton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostenko, V.; Janik, T.; Kolomiyets, K.

    2013-01-01

    the Transcarpathian Depression and the Carpathian Foredeep; and the south-western part of the EEC, including the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ). Seismic data support a robust model of the Vp velocity structure of the crust. In the PB, the 22-23km thick crust consists of a 2-5km thick sedimentary layer (Vp=2.......4-3.7km/s), 17-20km thick upper crystalline crust (5.9-6.3km/s) and an up to 3km thick lower crustal layer (Vp=6.4km/s). In the central part of the Carpathians, a 10-24km thick uppermost part of the crust with Vp≤6.0km/s may correspond to sedimentary rocks of different ages; several high velocity bodies...... (Vp=5.35, 5.95 and 6.05km/s) within the sedimentary flysch sequences may represent volcanic sequences. The Moho depth changes from 25km to 45km over ca. 100km distance beneath the Carpathians, west of TESZ. The cratonic crust has a typical three layer structure with a pronounced thickening...

  6. The most widespread glazed imports of Crimean production and some issues relating to East European trade in the 14th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei G. Bocharov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine morphological and technological features and distribution of the four most massive types of glazed closed vessels produced in towns of south-eastern Crimea (Solkhat, Kaffa, Sudak. Starting from the late 13th – early 14th centuries, the Crimean producers of glazed ceramics had reached a far better development compared to other ceramic centers of the Golden Horde. For almost 50–70 years the Crimean glazed ceramics had dominated the whole territory of Eastern Europe. The most common finds are pharmaceutical amphorae, albarello and two types of jars – the stamped jars and the wine jars with a narrow long body. The authors illustrated informational capacities of the analysis of massive finds, which is a good tool to obtain some new historical information, particularly, to study European trade in the best years of the Golden Horde towns. They showed how studying archaeological stuff can substantially complement the written accounts about the trade crisis after the events in Azak (Tana in September 1343.

  7. The first report on natural Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. infections in wild East-European House Mice (Mus musculus musculus) and West-European House Mice (M. m. domesticus) in a hybrid zone across the Czech Republic-Germany border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Bohumil; Kváč, Martin; Květoňová, Dana; Albrecht, Tomáš; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2011-06-10

    To determine the occurrence of potentially human pathogenic microsporidia (Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp.) in wild mice, we examined 289 East-European House Mice (Mus musculus musculus) and West-European House Mice (M. m. domesticus) trapped at 74 localities in an area across the Czech-German border. Microsporidia were detected at 33 localities, in 34% of M. m. musculus and 33% of M. m. domesticus examined specimens. Single-species infection was detected in 23 mice for E. hellem, 42 mice for E. cuniculi and 25 mice for E. bieneusi. No Encephalitozoon intestinalis positive animals were identified. Moreover, co-infections were detected in 6 animals; E. bieneusi co-existed with E. cuniculi or E. hellem in 3 mice. The natural infection of E. hellem has never been recorded in mice before. No differences were found by a statistical analysis of microsporidia occurrence between the House Mouse subspecies. Although the gender-dependent infestation of microsporidia was statistically supported in M. m. musculus, no significant differences were observed when the occurrence of microsporidia was estimated for all males and females irrespective of the House Mouse subspecies. The results of this report document the low host specificity of detected microsporidia species and imply the importance of synanthropic rodents as a potential source of human microsporidial infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Siberian subtype tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus in a newly emerged focus, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Anu; Tonteri, Elina; Pieninkeroinen, Ilkka; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Kuusi, Markku; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-02-01

    The first tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) cases in Kotka, Finland appeared in 2010. Altogether ten human cases have been diagnosed by 2014. Four had long-lasting sequelae. We collected 195 Ixodes ricinus ticks, nine rodents, and eleven shrews from the archipelago of Kotka in 2011. Three Siberian subtype TBE virus (TBEV) strains were isolated from the ticks and three mammals were positive for TBEV antibodies. The archipelago of Kotka is a newly emerged TBE focus of Siberian subtype TBEV circulating notably in I. ricinus. The patients had on average longer hospitalization than reported for the European subtype infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Dyscalculia and Attention Deficit Subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1999-01-01

    The association of specific academic deficits with attention deficit disorder (ADD) subtypes was determined in 20 students (ages 8-12) with ADD with hyperactivity (ADD/H) compared to 20 with ADD without hyperactivity (ADD/noH), at the Department of Educational Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, TX.

  10. Improved darunavir genotypic mutation score predicting treatment response for patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B and non-subtype B receiving a salvage regimen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Luca, Andrea; Flandre, Philippe; Dunn, David; Zazzi, Maurizio; Wensing, Annemarie; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Wittkop, Linda; Kordossis, Theodoros; Garcia, Federico; Castagna, Antonella; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Churchill, Duncan; de Wit, Stéphane; Brockmeyer, Norbert H.; Imaz, Arkaitz; Mussini, Cristina; Obel, Niels; Perno, Carlo Federico; Roca, Bernardino; Reiss, Peter; Schülter, Eugen; Torti, Carlo; van Sighem, Ard; Zangerle, Robert; Descamps, Diane; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Günthard, Huldrych; Touloumi, Giota; Warszawski, Josiane; Meyer, Laurence; Dabis, François; Krause, Murielle Mary; Ghosn, Jade; Leport, Catherine; Wit, Ferdinand; Prins, Maria; Bucher, Heiner; Gibb, Diana; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; del Amo, Julia; Thorne, Claire; Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole; Stephan, Christoph; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Hamouda, Osamah; Bartmeyer, Barbara; Chkhartishvili, Nikoloz; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Antinori, Andrea; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Prieto, Luis; Conejo, Pablo Rojo; Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Battegay, Manuel; Kouyos, Roger; Tookey, Pat; Casabona, Jordi; Miró, Jose M.; Konopnick, Deborah; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Sönnerborg, Anders; Sabin, Caroline; Teira, Ramon; Garrido, Myriam; Haerry, David; Costagliola, Dominique; D'Arminio-Monforte, Antonella; Raben, Dorthe; Chêne, Geneviève; Judd, Ali; Barger, Diana; Schwimmer, Christine; Termote, Monique; Campbell, Maria; Frederiksen, Casper M.; Friis-Møller, Nina; Kjaer, Jesper; Brandt, Rikke Salbøl; Berenguer, Juan; Bohlius, Julia; Bouteloup, Vincent; Davies, Mary-Anne; Dorrucci, Maria; Egger, Matthias; Furrer, Hansjakob; Guiguet, Marguerite; Grabar, Sophie; Lambotte, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Lodi, Sara; Matheron, Sophie; Monge, Susana; Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Paredes, Roger; Phillips, Andrew; Puoti, Massimo; Schomaker, Michael; Smit, Colette; Sterne, Jonathan; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; van der Valk, Marc; Wyss, Natasha; Aubert, V.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H. C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Dollenmaier, G.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Furrer, H.; Fux, C. A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Haerry, D.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H. H.; Hoffmann, M.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kouyos, R.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; de Tejada, B. Martinez; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Nicca, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schmid, P.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the prediction of the impact of HIV-1 protease mutations in different viral subtypes on virological response to darunavir. Darunavir-containing treatment change episodes (TCEs) in patients previously failing PIs were selected from large European databases.

  11. Sleep quality subtypes and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Christopher A; Reddy, Prasuna; Robinson, Laura; McGregor, Alisha

    2016-12-01

    Poor sleep quality could be a risk factor for obesity. This article utilized a person-centered approach to investigate whether distinct sleep quality subtypes were associated with obesity directly, and indirectly via physical activity. The sample included 8,932 Australian employees who participated in the Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey. Structured interviews and self-report questionnaires collected information on sleep quality, obesity, and relevant demographic, health, and work-related variables. Latent class analysis identified distinct subtypes of sleep quality. General linear modeling examined the associations of sleep quality subtypes with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Multicategorical mediation models examined indirect paths linking sleep quality classes with obesity via physical activity. Five distinct sleep quality subtypes were identified: Poor Sleepers (20.0%), Frequent Sleep Disturbances (19.2%), Minor Sleep Disturbances (24.5%), Long Sleepers (9.6%), and Good Sleepers (26.7%). BMI, waist circumference, and physical activity differed among the sleep quality subtypes, with similar results observed for males and females. For example, Poor Sleepers had the highest BMIs, followed by Frequent Sleep Disturbances and Minor Sleep Disturbances; Long Sleepers and Good Sleepers had the lowest BMIs. Mediation analyses indicated that low levels of physical activity linked the Poor Sleep, Frequent Sleep Disturbance, and Long Sleep classes with higher BMI. These results provide new insights into the nature of sleep quality in employees. In particular, distinct sleep quality patterns had differing associations with measures of obesity, suggesting the need for tailored workplace interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Pathogenesis of European subtype3 and subtype 1 PRRSV strains in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weesendorp, E.; Stockhofe, N.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) results often in limited protection. Understanding host immune responses and pathogenesis elicited by different PRRSV strains could help to develop more efficacious vaccines. Differences in host response between the

  13. East European Security After the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Czechoslovak government to sell Skoda to Volkswagen rather than Renault is a notable example of this tendency). Hence, France has a smaller economic stake in...comption scandals involving scores of high-level Italian politicians and business leaders, has also reduced Italy’s ability to play the type of leading...become a "German colony." 4 German firms, such as Volkswagen , Siemens, and Mercedes, have been attracted by the relatively high educational level and

  14. Subtypes of paranoia in a nonclinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Dennis R; Penn, David L; Chadwick, Paul; Trower, Peter; Michael, Christopher O; Basso, Michael R

    2007-11-01

    Previous research has proposed that there may be subtypes of paranoia with different patterns of performance on symptom and clinical measures. However, there has been little empirical examination of whether distinct subtypes actually exist. Recent research has suggested that paranoia can be found in normal individuals and exists on a continuum. Thus, it is possible that evidence for subtypes of paranoia can be derived from nonclinical samples. From a total of 723 participants, we identified 114 college students who showed elevated levels of paranoia as determined by two measures of paranoid ideation. The remaining sample of 609 persons served as the nonparanoid control group. All participants completed measures of depression, self-esteem, and social anxiety. Scores from the high subclinical group was subjected to cluster analysis to derive homogeneous subtypes. Participants also completed a measure of attributional style, the IPSAQ, which was used to validate the subtypes and was not used in the cluster analysis. Based on the cluster analysis, three subtypes were derived. Each subtype showed a different pattern of scores on measures of depression, self-esteem, and anxiety. There were also additional differences on the externalising and personalising bias scores from the IPSAQ between the subtypes. We conclude that there is preliminary evidence for the presence of subtypes among nonclinical samples and discuss the patterns of performance in relation to previous research on subtypes of paranoia. The implications of these subtypes for the study of paranoia are discussed.

  15. Ultrasound as predictor of histologic subtypes linked to recurrence in basal cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortsman, X; Vergara, P; Castro, A; Saavedra, D; Bobadilla, F; Sazunic, I; Zemelman, V; Wortsman, J

    2015-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) recurrences, especially in the facial region, represent a complex cosmetic problem. To date the possibility of predicting recurrence is supported solely by the histologic subtype. To evaluate the relationship between BCC histologic subtypes linked to high and low risk of recurrence and the presence of hyperechoic spots on sonography. Retrospective analysis of the pre-surgical ultrasound examinations of primary BCC tumours with visualization and counting of intra-tumoural hyperechoic spots. The data were then correlated with the corresponding histologic subtype. Thirty one patients with histologically proven BCC were included in the study. Hyperechoic spots were detected in all cases and there was a positive, statistically significant association between hyperechoic spots count and high recurrence risk histologic subtypes. Higher hyperechoic spots count was found in the recurrence-prone micronodular, sclerosing variant and morpheiform BCC subtypes. Low risk and high risk of recurrence showed a significant difference on the mean hyperechoic spots count of 5.5 (range: 3-25) and 8 (4-81). A cut-off point ≥7 hyperechoic spots presented a sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 53% for predicting the high risk of recurrence subtypes. The presence and count of hyperechoic spots within BCC lesions may help predicting the high risk of recurrence histologic subtypes. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. Mortality of treated HIV-1 positive individuals according to viral subtype in Europe and Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Niels

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate prognosis by viral subtype in HIV-1-infected individuals from start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and after viral failure. DESIGN: Collaborative analysis of data from eight European and three Canadian cohorts. METHODS: Adults (N>20 000) who started triple ART between 199...

  17. Frontotemporal dementia and its subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Hernandez, Dena G; Nalls, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a complex disorder characterised by a broad range of clinical manifestations, differential pathological signatures, and genetic variability. Mutations in three genes-MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72-have been associated with FTD. We sought to identify novel...... from 2154 patients with FTD and 4308 controls), we did separate association analyses for each FTD subtype (behavioural variant FTD, semantic dementia, progressive non-fluent aphasia, and FTD overlapping with motor neuron disease [FTD-MND]), followed by a meta-analysis of the entire dataset. We carried...

  18. Subtype-Specific Differences in Gag-Protease-Driven Replication Capacity Are Consistent with Intersubtype Differences in HIV-1 Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguoya, Marion W; Mann, Jaclyn K; Chopera, Denis; Gounder, Kamini; Lee, Guinevere Q; Hunt, Peter W; Martin, Jeffrey N; Ball, T Blake; Kimani, Joshua; Brumme, Zabrina L; Brockman, Mark A; Ndung'u, Thumbi

    2017-07-01

    There are marked differences in the spread and prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes worldwide, and differences in clinical progression have been reported. However, the biological reasons underlying these differences are unknown. Gag-protease is essential for HIV-1 replication, and Gag-protease-driven replication capacity has previously been correlated with disease progression. We show that Gag-protease replication capacity correlates significantly with that of whole isolates (r = 0.51; P = 0.04), indicating that Gag-protease is a significant contributor to viral replication capacity. Furthermore, we investigated subtype-specific differences in Gag-protease-driven replication capacity using large well-characterized cohorts in Africa and the Americas. Patient-derived Gag-protease sequences were inserted into an HIV-1 NL4-3 backbone, and the replication capacities of the resulting recombinant viruses were measured in an HIV-1-inducible reporter T cell line by flow cytometry. Recombinant viruses expressing subtype C Gag-proteases exhibited substantially lower replication capacities than those expressing subtype B Gag-proteases (P protease sequences were engineered into an HIV-1 subtype C backbone. We identified Gag residues 483 and 484, located within the Alix-binding motif involved in virus budding, as major contributors to subtype-specific replicative differences. In East African cohorts, we observed a hierarchy of Gag-protease-driven replication capacities, i.e., subtypes A/C protease-driven replication capacity of subtypes A and C slows disease progression in individuals infected with these subtypes, which in turn leads to greater opportunity for transmission and thus increased prevalence of these subtypes.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 subtypes are unevenly distributed globally, and there are reported differences in their rates of disease progression and epidemic spread. The biological determinants underlying these differences have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that HIV-1

  19. Genetic Alterations in the Molecular Subtypes of Bladder Cancer: Illustration in the Cancer Genome Atlas Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woonyoung; Ochoa, Andrea; McConkey, David J; Aine, Mattias; Höglund, Mattias; Kim, William Y; Real, Francisco X; Kiltie, Anne E; Milsom, Ian; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Lerner, Seth P

    2017-09-01

    Recent whole genome mRNA expression profiling studies revealed that bladder cancers can be grouped into molecular subtypes, some of which share clinical properties and gene expression patterns with the intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer and the molecular subtypes found in other solid tumors. The molecular subtypes in other solid tumors are enriched with specific mutations and copy number aberrations that are thought to underlie their distinct progression patterns, and biological and clinical properties. The availability of comprehensive genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and other large projects made it possible to correlate the presence of DNA alterations with tumor molecular subtype membership. Our overall goal was to determine whether specific DNA mutations and/or copy number variations are enriched in specific molecular subtypes. We used the complete TCGA RNA-seq dataset and three different published classifiers developed by our groups to assign TCGA's bladder cancers to molecular subtypes, and examined the prevalence of the most common DNA alterations within them. We interpreted the results against the background of what was known from the published literature about the prevalence of these alterations in nonmuscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancers. The results confirmed that alterations involving RB1 and NFE2L2 were enriched in basal cancers, whereas alterations involving FGFR3 and KDM6A were enriched in luminal tumors. The results further reinforce the conclusion that the molecular subtypes of bladder cancer are distinct disease entities with specific genetic alterations. Our observation showed that some of subtype-enriched mutations and copy number aberrations are clinically actionable, which has direct implications for the clinical management of patients with bladder cancer. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome-wide association study of subtype-specific epithelial ovarian cancer risk alleles using pooled DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Earp, Madalene A; Linda E. Kelemen; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Swenerton, Kenneth D.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Lu, Yi; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; VERGOTE, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Doherty, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous cancer with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Variants influencing the risk of developing the less-common EOC subtypes have not been fully investigated. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EOC according to subtype by pooling genomic DNA from 545 cases and 398 controls of European descent, and testing for allelic associations. We evaluated for replication 188 variants from the GWAS (56 variants for mucinous, 55 fo...

  1. Genome-wide Association Study of Subtype-Specific Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk Alleles Using Pooled DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Earp, Madalene A; Linda E. Kelemen; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Swenerton, Kenneth D.; Chenevix–Trench, Georgia; Lu, Yi; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; VERGOTE, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Doherty, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous cancer with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Variants influencing the risk of developing the less-common EOC subtypes have not been fully investigated. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EOC according to subtype by pooling genomic DNA from 545 cases and 398 controls of European descent, and testing for allelic associations. We evaluated for replication 188 variants from the GWAS (56 variants for mucinous, 55 fo...

  2. East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  4. Genetic and phylogenetic evolution of HIV-1 in a low subtype heterogeneity epidemic: the Italian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornesello Maria

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 is classified into genetic groups, subtypes and sub-subtypes which show a specific geographic distribution pattern. The HIV-1 epidemic in Italy, as in most of the Western Countries, has traditionally affected the Intra-venous drug user (IDU and Homosexual (Homo risk groups and has been sustained by the genetic B subtype. In the last years, however, the HIV-1 transmission rate among heterosexuals has dramatically increased, becoming the prevalent transmission route. In fact, while the traditional risk groups have high levels of knowledge and avoid high-risk practices, the heterosexuals do not sufficiently perceive the risk of HIV-1 infection. This misperception, linked to the growing number of immigrants from non-Western Countries, where non-B clades and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs are prevalent, is progressively introducing HIV-1 variants of non-B subtype in the Italian epidemic. This is in agreement with reports from other Western European Countries. In this context, the Italian HIV-1 epidemic is still characterized by low subtype heterogeneity and represents a paradigmatic example of the European situation. The continuous molecular evolution of the B subtype HIV-1 isolates, characteristic of a long-lasting epidemic, together with the introduction of new subtypes as well as recombinant forms may have significant implications for diagnostic, treatment, and vaccine development. The study and monitoring of the genetic evolution of the HIV-1 represent, therefore, an essential strategy for controlling the local as well as global HIV-1 epidemic and for developing efficient preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  5. Impact of Molecular Subtypes in Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer on Predicting Response and Survival after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Roland; Ashab, Hussam Al Deen; Erho, Nicholas; van Rhijn, Bas W G; Winters, Brian; Douglas, James; Van Kessel, Kim E; Fransen van de Putte, Elisabeth E; Sommerlad, Matthew; Wang, Natalie Q; Choeurng, Voleak; Gibb, Ewan A; Palmer-Aronsten, Beatrix; Lam, Lucia L; Buerki, Christine; Davicioni, Elai; Sjödahl, Gottfrid; Kardos, Jordan; Hoadley, Katherine A; Lerner, Seth P; McConkey, David J; Choi, Woonyoung; Kim, William Y; Kiss, Bernhard; Thalmann, George N; Todenhöfer, Tilman; Crabb, Simon J; North, Scott; Zwarthoff, Ellen C; Boormans, Joost L; Wright, Jonathan; Dall'Era, Marc; van der Heijden, Michiel S; Black, Peter C

    2017-10-01

    subtypes can be identified in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Although cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves patient outcomes, we identified that the benefit is highest in patients with basal tumors. Our newly discovered classifier can identify these molecular subtypes in a single patient and could be integrated into routine clinical practice after further validation. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. IL28B and IL10R -1087 polymorphisms are protective for chronic genotype 1 HCV infection and predictors of response to interferon-based therapy in an East-Central European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pár, Alajos; Pár, Gabriella; Tornai, István; Szalay, Ferenc; Várszegi, Dalma; Fráter, Edit; Papp, Mária; Lengyel, Gabriella; Fehér, János; Varga, Márta; Gervain, Judit; Schuller, János; Nemes, Zsuzsanna; Péterfi, Zoltán; Tusnádi, Anna; Hunyady, Béla; Haragh, Attila; Szinku, Zsolt; Vincze, Aron; Szereday, László; Kisfali, Péter; Melegh, Béla

    2014-01-08

    Previous studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in IL28B and IL10R are associated with sustained virological response (SVR) in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with pegilated interferon plus ribavirin (P/R). The present study extends our earlier investigations on a large East-Central European cohort. The allele frequencies of IL28B and IL10R in genotype 1 HCV infection were compared with that of healthy controls for the purpose of examining the relationship between the polymorphisms and the SVR to P/R treatment. A total of 748 chronic HCV1 infected patients (365 male, 383 female; 18-82 years) and 105 voluntary blood donors as controls were enrolled. Four hundred and twenty HCV patients were treated with P/R for 24-72 weeks, out of them 195 (46.4%) achieved SVR. The IL28 rs12979860 SNP was determined using Custom Taqman SNP Genotyping Assays. The IL10R -1087 (also known as IL10R -1082 (rs1800896) promoter region SNP was determined by RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The IL28B CC genotype occurred with lower frequency in HCV patients than in controls (26.1% vs 51.4%, p<0.001). P/R treated patients with the IL28B CC genotype achieved higher SVR rate, as compared to patients with CT (58.6% vs 40.8%, p=0.002). The prevalence of IL10R -1087 GG genotype was lower in patients than in controls (31.8 % vs 52.2%, p<0.001). Among patients achieving SVR, the IL10R -1087 GG genotype occurred with higher frequency than the AA (32.0% vs 17.4%, p=0.013). The IL28B T allele plus IL10R A allele combination was found with higher prevalence in patients than in controls (52% vs 20.7%, p<0.001). The IL28B CC plus IL10R A allele combination occurred with higher frequency among patients with SVR than in non-responders (21.3% vs 12.8%, p=0.026). Both the IL28B CC plus IL10R GG and the IL28B CC plus IL10R A allele combinations occurred with lower frequency in patients than in controls. In our HCV1 patients, both the IL28B CC and IL10R

  7. SUBTYPES OF JUVENILE SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Slarovoitova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to allot clinical forms of juvenile systemic scleroderma (JSSD. Material and methods: investigation and dynamic observation of 60 patients aged 14-54 (mean age 25.1 ±7.2 with onset of disease in child's and adolescent’s ages from 1 to 16 years old ( in average 11. 4±3.8 year old and disease duration from 1 to 39 years (in average 13.1 ±7.9. Results: 55% of patients demonstrated JSSD subtype with focal cutaneous lesion of different localization. The possibility of overlap-syndrome development in JSSD patients with onset in adolescent age typical for SSD-rheumatoid arthritis, SSD-polymvositis should be underlined. Conclusion: knowledge of different clinical forms and courses of the disease, modern diagnostics and early beginning of differential JSSD treatment will enable us to improve the prognosis and disease outcome.

  8. Transsexual subtypes : Clinical and theoretical significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, YLS; van Goozen, SHM; Kuiper, AJ; Cohen-Kettenis, PT

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether transsexuals can be validly subdivided into subtypes on the basis of sexual orientation, and whether differences between subtypes of transsexuals are similar for male-to-female (ME) and female-to-male transsexuals (FMs). Within a large

  9. Molecular Subtyping in Cholera Outbreak, Laos, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithivong, Noikaseumsy; Morita-Ishihara, Tomoko; Vongdouangchanh, Arounnapha; Phouthavane, Traykhouane; Chomlasak, Khampheng; Sisavath, Lay; Khamphaphongphane, Bouaphanh; Sengkeopraseuth, Bounthanom; Vongprachanh, Phengta; Keosavanh, Onechanh; Southalack, Kongmany; Jiyoung, Lee; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    A cholera outbreak in Laos in July 2010 involved 237 cases, including 4 deaths. Molecular subtyping indicated relatedness between the Vibrio cholerae isolates in this and in a 2007 outbreak, uncovering a clonal group of V. cholerae circulating in the Mekong basin. Our finding suggests the subtyping methods will affect this relatedness. PMID:22099098

  10. Serum proteomic profiles of depressive subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, F; Bot, M; Jansen, R; Chan, M K; Cooper, J D; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W J H

    2016-07-12

    Depression is a highly heterogeneous disorder. Accumulating evidence suggests biological and genetic differences between subtypes of depression that are homogeneous in symptom presentation. We aimed to evaluate differences in serum protein profiles between persons with atypical and melancholic depressive subtypes, and compare these profiles with serum protein levels of healthy controls. We used the baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety on 414 controls, 231 persons with a melancholic depressive subtype and 128 persons with an atypical depressive subtype for whom the proteomic data were available. Depressive subtypes were previously established using a data-driven analysis, and 171 serum proteins were measured on a multi-analyte profiling platform. Linear regression models were adjusted for several covariates and corrected for multiple testing using false discovery rate q-values. We observed differences in analytes between the atypical and melancholic subtypes (9 analytes, q<0.05) and between atypical depression and controls (23 analytes, q<0.05). Eight of the nine markers differing between the atypical and melancholic subtype overlapped with markers from the comparison between atypical subtype and controls (mesothelin, leptin, IGFBP1, IGFBP2, FABPa, insulin, C3 and B2M), and were mainly involved in cellular communication and signal transduction, and immune response. No markers differed significantly between the melancholic subtype and controls. To conclude, although some uncertainties exist in our results as a result of missing data imputation and lack of proteomic replication samples, many of the identified analytes are inflammatory or metabolic markers, which supports the notion of atypical depression as a syndrome characterized by metabolic disturbances and inflammation, and underline the importance and relevance of subtypes of depression in biological and genetic research, and potentially in the treatment of depression.

  11. Molecular subtypes of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fede, Giuseppe; Catania, Marcella; Maderna, Emanuela; Ghidoni, Roberta; Benussi, Luisa; Tonoli, Elisa; Giaccone, Giorgio; Moda, Fabio; Paterlini, Anna; Campagnani, Ilaria; Sorrentino, Stefano; Colombo, Laura; Kubis, Adriana; Bistaffa, Edoardo; Ghetti, Bernardino; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2018-02-19

    Protein misfolding and aggregation is a central feature of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which assemblies of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides accumulate in the brain in the form of parenchymal and/or vascular amyloid. A widely accepted concept is that AD is characterized by distinct clinical and neuropathological phenotypes. Recent studies revealed that Aβ assemblies might have structural differences among AD brains and that such pleomorphic assemblies can correlate with distinct disease phenotypes. We found that in both sporadic and inherited forms of AD, amyloid aggregates differ in the biochemical composition of Aβ species. These differences affect the physicochemical properties of Aβ assemblies including aggregation kinetics, resistance to degradation by proteases and seeding ability. Aβ-amyloidosis can be induced and propagated in animal models by inoculation of brain extracts containing aggregated Aβ. We found that brain homogenates from AD patients with different molecular profiles of Aβ are able to induce distinct patterns of Aβ-amyloidosis when injected into mice. Overall these data suggest that the assembly of mixtures of Aβ peptides into different Aβ seeds leads to the formation of distinct subtypes of amyloid having distinctive physicochemical and biological properties which result in the generation of distinct AD molecular subgroups.

  12. Verified Subtyping with Traits and Mixins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asankhaya Sharma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traits allow decomposing programs into smaller parts and mixins are a form of composition that resemble multiple inheritance. Unfortunately, in the presence of traits, programming languages like Scala give up on subtyping relation between objects. In this paper, we present a method to check subtyping between objects based on entailment in separation logic. We implement our method as a domain specific language in Scala and apply it on the Scala standard library. We have verified that 67% of mixins used in the Scala standard library do indeed conform to subtyping between the traits that are used to build them.

  13. 232 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL May 2002

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a prevalence of 79% in 29 Italian type II diabetics. In another European study, Gentile et al.(10) found 74% of. 164 type II diabetics as compared to 50% controls with H. pylori infection. N 0 local studies have so ... EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 233 congestive cardiac failure and onewith hepatitis were also excluded.

  14. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  15. Breaking the cycle of poverty: challenges for European early childhood education and care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leseman, Paul; Slot, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates in European countries have increased during recent decades and are particularly high in East European countries. Young children are especially vulnerable to poverty. Poverty in early childhood can have irreversible negative consequences for cognitive, social and emotional development,

  16. CaMKIIdelta Subtypes: Localization and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Burdis Burns Gray

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review we will discuss the localization and function of the known subtypes of calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ and their role in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. The CaMKII holoenzyme is comprised of multiple subunits that are encoded by four different genes called CaMKIIα, β, γ, and δ. While these four genes have a high degree of sequence homology, they are expressed in different tissues. CaMKIIα and β are expressed in neuronal tissue while γ and δ are present throughout the body, including in the heart. Both CaMKIIγ and δ are alternatively spliced in the heart to generate multiple subtypes. CaMKIIδ is the predominant cardiac isoform and is alternatively spliced in the heart to generate the CaMKIIδB subtype or the slightly less abundant δC subtype. The CaMKIIδB mRNA sequence contains a 33bp insert not present in δC that codes for an 11-amino acid nuclear localization sequence (NLS. This review will focus on the localization and function of the CaMKIIδ subtypes δB and δC and the role of these subtypes in arrhythmias, contractile dysfunction, gene transcription, and the regulation of Ca2+ handling.

  17. Hypertension Subtypes among Hypertensive Patients in Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun M. Adeoye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Certain hypertension subtypes have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and may be related to specific underlying genetic determinants. Inappropriate characterization of subtypes of hypertension makes efforts at elucidating the genetic contributions to the etiology of hypertension largely vapid. We report the hypertension subtypes among patients with hypertension from South-Western Nigeria. Methods. A total of 1858 subjects comprising 76% female, hypertensive, aged 18 and above were recruited into the study from two centers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Hypertension was identified using JNCVII definition and was further grouped into four subtypes: controlled hypertension (CH, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH, and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH. Results. Systolic-diastolic hypertension was the most prevalent. Whereas SDH (77.6% versus 73.5% and IDH (4.9% versus 4.7% were more prevalent among females, ISH (10.1% versus 6.2% was higher among males (P=0.048. Female subjects were more obese (P<0.0001 and SDH was prevalent among the obese group. Conclusion. Gender and obesity significantly influenced the distribution of the hypertension subtypes. Characterization of hypertension by subtypes in genetic association studies could lead to identification of previously unknown genetic variants involved in the etiology of hypertension. Large-scale studies among various ethnic groups may be needed to confirm these observations.

  18. Mortality of treated HIV-1 positive individuals according to viral subtype in Europe and Canada: collaborative cohort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulle, Andrew; Stephan, Christoph; Miro, Jose M.; Cavassini, Matthias; Chêne, Geneviève; Costagliola, Dominique; Dabis, François; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; del Amo, Julia; van Sighem, Ard; Vehreschild, Jörg; Gill, John; Guest, Jodie; Haerry, David Hans-Ulrich; Hogg, Robert; Justice, Amy; Mocroft, Amanda; Obel, Niels; Crane, Heidi; Smith, Colette; Reiss, Peter; Saag, Michael; Sterling, Tim; Teira, Ramon; Williams, Matthew; Zangerle, Robert; Sterne, Jonathan; May, Margaret; Ingle, Suzanne; Trickey, Adam; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Anderson, Jane; Babiker, Abdel; Chadwick, David; Delpech, Valerie; Dunn, David; Fisher, Martin; Gazzard, Brian; Gilson, Richard; Hay, Phillip; Gompels, Mark; Hill, Teresa; Johnson, Margaret; Jose, Sophie; Kegg, Stephen; Leen, Clifford; Mackie, Nicky; Nelson, Mark; Orkin, Chloe; Palfreeman, Adrian; Phillips, Andrew; Pillay, Deenan; Post, Frank; Sabin, Caroline; Sachikonye, Memory; Schwenk, Achim; Walsh, John; Thornton, Alicia; Huntington, Susie; Glabay, Adam; Garrett, Nigel; Lynch, Janet; Hand, James; de Souza, Carl; Perry, Nicky; Tilbury, Stuart; Youssef, Elaney; Churchill, Duncan; Waxman, Matthew; Asboe, David; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Munshi, Sajid; Awosika, Damilola; Korat, Hardik; Taylor, Chris; Gleisner, Zachary; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Campbell, Lucy; Baillie, Kirsty; Cope, Emma; Gibney, Marie; Gibson, Jane; Brima, Nataliya; Williams, Ian; Miller, Sheila; Wood, Chris; Youle, Mike; Lampe, Fiona; Chaloner, Clinton; Winston, Alan; Weber, Jonathan; Ramzan, Farhan; Carder, Mark; Wilson, Alan; Morris, Sheila; Allan, Sue; Moore, Anne; Fox, Lynn; Bojanowski, Josef; Lewszuk, Adam; Main, Paul; Mitchell, N. N.; Hunter, N. N.; Dhillon, Mandip; Martin, Fabiola; Douglas, Sarah; Russell-Sharp, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    To estimate prognosis by viral subtype in HIV-1-infected individuals from start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and after viral failure. Collaborative analysis of data from eight European and three Canadian cohorts. Adults (N>20 000) who started triple ART between 1996 and 2012 and had data on viral

  19. Complement factor H genetic variant and age-related macular degeneration: effect size, modifiers and relationship to disease subtype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofat, Reecha; Casas, Juan P.; Webster, Andrew R.; Bird, Alan C.; Mann, Samantha S.; Yates, John R. W.; Moore, Anthony T.; Sepp, Tiina; Cipriani, Valentina; Bunce, Catey; Khan, Jane C.; Shahid, Humma; Swaroop, Anand; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Branham, Kari E. H.; Zareparsi, Sepideh; Bergen, Arthur A.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Baas, Dominique C.; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Yuhong; Gibbs, Daniel; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Keilhauer, Claudia N.; Fritsche, Lars G.; Lotery, Andrew; Cree, Angela J.; Griffiths, Helen L.; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.; Chen, Li L.; Jenkins, Sharon A.; Peto, Tunde; Lathrop, Mark; Leveillard, Thierry; Gorin, Michael B.; Weeks, Daniel E.; Ortube, Maria Carolina; Ferrell, Robert E.; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Conley, Yvette P.; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan H.; Soubrane, Gisele; Topouzis, Fotis; Vioque, Jesus; Tomazzoli, Laura; Young, Ian; Whittaker, John; Chakravarthy, Usha; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Smeeth, Liam; Fletcher, Astrid; Hingorani, Aroon D.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in the complement factor H gene (CFH) is associated with risk of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous studies have been case-control studies in populations of European ancestry with little differentiation in AMD subtype, and insufficient power to confirm or refute effect

  20. Phylodynamic and Phylogeographic Profiles of Subtype B HIV-1 Epidemics in South Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pérez-Parra

    Full Text Available Since 1982, HIV-1 epidemics have evolved to different scenarios in terms of transmission routes, subtype distribution and characteristics of transmission clusters. We investigated the evolutionary history of HIV-1 subtype B in south Spain.We studied all newly diagnosed HIV-1 subtype B patients in East Andalusia during the 2005-2012 period. For the analysis, we used the reverse transcriptase and protease sequences from baseline resistance, and the Trugene® HIV Genotyping kit (Siemens, Barcelona, Spain. Subtyping was done with REGA v3.0. The maximum likelihood trees constructed with RAxML were used to study HIV-1 clustering. Phylogeographic and phylodynamic profiles were studied by Bayesian inference methods with BEAST v1.7.5 and SPREAD v1.0.6.Of the 493 patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B, 234 grouped into 55 clusters, most of which were small (44 clusters ≤ 5 patients, 31 with 2 patients, 13 with 3. The rest (133/234 were grouped into 11 clusters with ≥ 5 patients, and most (82%, 109/133 were men who have sex with men (MSM grouped into 8 clusters. The association with clusters was more frequent in Spanish (p = 0.02 men (p< 0.001, MSM (p<0.001 younger than 35 years (p = 0.001 and with a CD4+ T-cell count above 350 cells/ul (p<0.001. We estimated the date of HIV-1 subtype B regional epidemic diversification around 1970 (95% CI: 1965-1987, with an evolutionary rate of 2.4 (95%CI: 1.7-3.1 x 10-3 substitutions/site/year. Most clusters originated in the 1990s in MSMs. We observed exponential subtype B HIV-1 growth in 1980-1990 and 2005-2008. The most significant migration routes for subtype B went from inland cities to seaside locations.We provide the first data on the phylodynamic and phylogeographic profiles of HIV-1 subtype B in south Spain. Our findings of transmission clustering among MSMs should alert healthcare managers to enhance preventive measures in this risk group in order to prevent future outbreaks.

  1. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  2. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  3. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  4. Characteristics of a PHD Finger Subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Daniel; Lin, Tao; Poppinga, Franchesca A; Basu, Shraddha; Rahman, Shahariar; Essel, Francisca; Chakravarty, Suvobrata

    2018-01-05

    Although the plant homeodomain (PHD) finger superfamily is known for its site-specific readouts of histone tails, the origins of the mechanistic differences in histone H3 readout by different PHD subtypes remain less clear. We show that sequences containing the xCDxCDx motif in the PHD treble clef (xCDxCDx-PHD) constitute a distinct subtype, based on the following observations: (i) the amino acid composition of the binding site is strikingly different from other subtypes due to position-specific enrichment of negatively charged and bulky nonpolar residues, (ii) the binding site positions are mutually and positively correlated, and this correlation is absent in other subtypes, and (iii) there are only small structural deviations, despite low sequence similarity. The xCDxCDx-PHD constitutes ∼20% of the PHD family, and the double PHD fingers (DPFs) are 10% of the total number of xCDxCDx-PHDs. This subtype originated early in the evolution of eukaryotes but has diversified within the metazoan lineage. Despite sequence diversification, the positions of the enriched nonpolar residues, in particular, show very small structural deviations, suggesting critical contributions of nonpolar residues in the binding mechanism of this subtype. Using mutagenesis, we probed the contributions of the binding-site positions enriched in nonpolar residues in four xCDxCDx-PHD proteins and found that they contribute to the tight packing of the H3 residues. This effect may potentially be exploited, as we observed affinity enhancement upon substituting a bulky nonpolar residue at the same binding site in another histone reader. Overall, we present a detailed characterization of PHD subtypes.

  5. Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates from synanthropic and zoo animals and identification of a new subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensvold, C. R.; Alfellani, M. A.; Nørskov-Lauritsen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Blastocystis isolates from 56 Danish synanthropic and zoo animals, 62 primates primarily from United Kingdom (UK) collections and 16 UK primate handlers were subtyped by PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A new subtype (ST) from primates and artiodactyls was identified and designated...

  6. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  7. Precise subtyping for synchronous multiparty sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The notion of subtyping has gained an important role both in theoretical and applicative domains: in lambda and concurrent calculi as well as in programming languages. The soundness and the completeness, together referred to as the preciseness of subtyping, can be considered from two different points of view: operational and denotational. The former preciseness has been recently developed with respect to type safety, i.e. the safe replacement of a term of a smaller type when a term of a bigger type is expected. The latter preciseness is based on the denotation of a type which is a mathematical object that describes the meaning of the type in accordance with the denotations of other expressions from the language. The result of this paper is the operational and denotational preciseness of the subtyping for a synchronous multiparty session calculus. The novelty of this paper is the introduction of characteristic global types to prove the operational completeness.

  8. Transcortical sensory aphasia: evidence for subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coslett, H B; Roeltgen, D P; Gonzalez Rothi, L; Heilman, K M

    1987-11-01

    Impaired auditory comprehension and fluent but semantically empty speech in conjunction with preserved repetition characterize the syndrome of transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA). Repetition, however, may be mediated by at least two distinct processes--a lexical process that may involve the recognition and subsequent activation of discrete stored word representations and a nonlexical process that involves phonologic decoding and immediate phonologic encoding from immediate memory. We investigated the spontaneous speech, reading, and tendency to recognize and spontaneously correct syntactic errors in four patients with TSA: this analysis suggests there are two subtypes of TSA. We contend that in one subtype both the lexical and direct repetition (or speech production) mechanisms are preserved, but in the second subtype the lexical mechanism is disrupted and repetition is mediated by the nonlexical mechanism.

  9. Subtypes of anorgasmia via mathematical taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derogatis, L R; Schmidt, C W; Fagan, P J; Wise, T N

    1989-01-01

    Seventy-six women who presented with a principal complaint of anorgasmia were partitioned into four distinct subtypes on the basis of psychosexual and psychological symptoms using hierarchical cluster analysis, a mathematical taxonomic method. The classification was accomplished with data from the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Comparisons involving age, race, marital status, and social class demonstrated no significant differences between the four subtypes; however, statistical analyses of psychosexual, psychological symptom, and chart-review variables (including psychiatric diagnosis) revealed very significant distinctions between the four groups. From the resulting typology, anorgasmic subtypes were presumptively identified as "low desire" (n = 21), "histrionic/marital conflict" (n = 20) "psychiatric disorder" (n = 12) and "constitutional" (n = 16). Implications of the typology for etiologic and optimal treatment decisions concerning anorgasmia are discussed.

  10. Luxury consumption moves East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... novel insights to transformations in global supply chain strategy as luxury consumption is moving towards the east, which creates new challenges and demands for European manufacturers to respond, to sustaining a competitive advantage.......Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... success factors to consider when developing a business strategy to enter the Chinese luxury fashion marketplace. Practical implications – The findings could guide managers that are developing a business case for entering the Chinese luxury fashion marketplace. Originality/value – This case study provides...

  11. The oncocytic subtype is genetically distinct from other pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturk, Olca; Tan, Marcus; Bhanot, Umesh; Allen, Peter; Adsay, Volkan; Scott, Sasinya N; Shah, Ronak; Berger, Michael F; Askan, Gokce; Dikoglu, Esra; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Wrzeszczynski, Kazimierz O; Sigel, Carlie; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Klimstra, David S

    2016-09-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization reclassified the entity originally described as intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm as the 'oncocytic subtype' of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Although several key molecular alterations of other intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes have been discovered, including common mutations in KRAS, GNAS, and RNF3, those of oncocytic subtype have not been well characterized. We analyzed 11 pancreatic 'oncocytic subtype' of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. Nine pancreatic 'oncocytic subtype' of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms uniformly exhibited typical entity-defining morphology of arborizing papillae lined by layers of cells with oncocytic cytoplasm, prominent, nucleoli, and intraepithelial lumina. The remaining two were atypical. One lacked the arborizing papilla and had flat oncocytic epithelium only; the other one had focal oncocytic epithelium in a background of predominantly intestinal subtype intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Different components of this case were analyzed separately. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of all cases were microdissected and subjected to high-depth-targeted next-generation sequencing for a panel of 300 key cancer-associated genes in a platform that enabled the identification of sequence mutations, copy number alterations, and select structural rearrangements involving all targeted genes. Fresh frozen specimens of two cases were also subjected to whole-genome sequencing. For the nine typical pancreatic 'oncocytic subtype' of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, the number of mutations per case, identified by next-generation sequencing, ranged from 1 to 10 (median=4). None of these cases had KRAS or GNAS mutations and only one had both RNF43 and PIK3R1 mutations. ARHGAP26, ASXL1, EPHA8, and ERBB4 genes were somatically altered in more than one of these typical 'oncocytic subtype' of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms but not in

  12. Geographic differences in the distribution of molecular subtypes of breast cancer in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Filomena M; Bacchi, Lívia M; Pincerato, Kátia M; Van de Rijn, Matt; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2014-08-29

    To compare the distribution of the intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer based on immunohistochemical profile in the five major geographic regions of Brazil, a country of continental dimension, with a wide racial variation of people. The study was retrospective observational. We classified 5,687 invasive breast cancers by molecular subtype based on immunohistochemical expression of estrogen-receptor (ER), progesterone-receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67 proliferation index. Cases were classified as luminal A (ER and/or PR positive and HER2 negative, Ki-67  14%), triple-positive (ER and/or PR positive and HER2 positive), HER2-enriched (ER and PR negative, and HER2- positive), and triple-negative (TN) (ER negative, PR negative, and HER2- negative). Comparisons of the ages of patients and molecular subtypes between different geographic regions were performed. South and Southeast regions with a higher percentage of European ancestry and higher socioeconomic status presented with the highest proportion of luminal tumors. The North region presented with more aggressive subtypes (HER2-enriched and triple-negative), while the Central-West region predominated triple-positive carcinomas. The Northeast--a region with a high African influence--presented intermediate frequency of the different molecular subtypes. The differences persisted in subgroups of patients under and over 50 years. The geographic regions differ according to the distribution of molecular subtypes of breast cancer. However, other differences, beside those related to African ancestry, such as socioeconomic, climatic, nutritional, and geographic, have to be considered to explain our results. The knowledge of the differences in breast cancer characteristics among the geographic regions may help to organize healthcare programs in large countries like Brazil with diverse economic and race composition among different geographic regions.

  13. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  14. Subtypes of social phobia in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, S G; Albano, A M; Heimberg, R G; Tracey, S; Chorpita, B F; Barlow, D H

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-three social phobic adolescents were asked to name their ten most feared social situations. Two independent judges classified each situation reported by the participants into one of four situational domains: formal speaking/interactions, informal speaking/interactions, observation by others, and assertion. Fifteen participants (45.5%) were assigned a generalized subtype of social phobia because they endorsed at least moderate anxiety in all four situational domains. This subgroup scored higher on self-report measures of anxiety and depression than the rest of the sample. These results provide empirical support for the existence of subtypes of social phobia in adolescents.

  15. Understanding the contemporary United States and European Union foreign policy in the Middle East Entendiendo la política exterior de Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea en el Medio Oriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati Anaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available United States, as the dominant geopolitical power in the Middle East, has been struggling to stabilize the region to achieve its geopolitical objectives and interests. Especially since the Second World War, the US has rioritized, enacted and represented Middle East policies as vital to securing its "national interests" till terrorist attacks on the twin towers in New York City. As it is understood, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, markeda dramatic changenot onlyin US policy, but in USrhetoricandinternational discourses as well. Following the terror attacks, US Middle East policy shifted from being the matter of "national security," which primarily puts more emphases on "responsive securitization", to the "preventive securitization of national interests," particularly under the neo-conservative Bush Administrations. Consequently, US launched two direct military engagements in Afghanistan (2001 and Iraq (2003, and involved in unilateral regime change in those states ostensibly, to secure its national interests and provide world peace in the long run. It is important to highlight here that US cleared the full support (rhetorically, at least of the United Nations to disarm the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. This study, therefore, attempts to revisit and conceptualize the contemporary US and EU Middle East foreign policy -though they are not identical- before and after the September 11 terror attack. The argument here is that the Middle East policy objectives of the US and the EU primarily agglomerate around two main headings: security of oil and protecting the state of Israel in an Arab-dominated region. Closely related, but not equivalent, both the US and EU have a stake in establishing good relations with the Arab states and promoting democracy and liberal market economies in the Middle East. This study also reviews the President Barack Obama’s Middle Eastern foreign policy initiatives and attempts to suggest several key points

  16. Nominal and Structural Subtyping in Component-Based Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    In nominal type systems, the subtype relation is between names of types, and subtype links are explicitly declared. In structural type systems, names are irrelevant; in determining type compatibility, only the structure of types is considered, and a type name is just an abbreviation for the full ...... and delineates the frontiers of the subtyping design space. In addition, we propose a new subtyping definition in one particularly interesting corner of the design space which combines the safety of nominal subtyping with the flexibility of structural subtyping....

  17. An investigation of risk factors for renal cell carcinoma by histologic subtype in two case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Purdue, Mark P.; Moore, Lee E.; Merino, Maria J.; Boffetta, Paolo; Colt, Joanne S.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Bencko, Vladimir; Davis, Faith G.; Graubard, Barry I.; Janout, Vladimir; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer; Cote, Michele L.; Shuch, Brian; Mates, Dana

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether renal cell carcinoma (RCC) histologic subtypes possess different etiologies, we conducted analyses of established RCC risk factors by subtype (clear cell, papillary, chromophobe) in two case-control studies conducted in the United States (1,217 cases, 1,235 controls) and Europe (1,097 cases, 1,476 controls). Histology was ascertained for 706 U.S. cases (58% of total) and 917 European cases (84%) through a central slide review conducted by a single pathologist. For the r...

  18. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-22

    German Journalists Association (West), "of the conquests by the Spanish Conquista - [Text] Berliner Verlag in East Berlin, once upon a time the dors." This...subscribers should Union, East Asia, Near East & South Asia, Sub- expect a 30-day delay in receipt of the first issue. Saharan Africa, Latin America , and

  19. A Taxometric Investigation of Developmental Dyslexia Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wolf, Maryanne; Lovett, Maureen W.

    2012-01-01

    Long-standing issues with the conceptualization, identification and subtyping of developmental dyslexia persist. This study takes an alternative approach to examine the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia using taxometric classification techniques. These methods were used with a large sample of 671 children ages 6-8 who were diagnosed with…

  20. Polymorphisms in human muscarinic receptor subtype genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; Teitsma, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of polymorphisms have been reported in muscarinic receptor subtype genes, mostly in M₁ and M₂ and, to a lesser extent, M₃ receptors. Most studies linking such genetic variability to phenotype have been performed for brain functions, but a more limited amount of information is also

  1. Multidimensional Neuroanatomical Subtyping of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok-Jun; Valk, Sofie L; Di Martino, Adriana; Milham, Michael P; Bernhardt, Boris C

    2017-09-14

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with multiple biological etiologies and highly variable symptoms. Using a novel analytical framework that integrates cortex-wide MRI markers of vertical (i.e., thickness, tissue contrast) and horizontal (i.e., surface area, geodesic distance) cortical organization, we could show that a large multi-centric cohort of individuals with ASD falls into 3 distinctive anatomical subtypes (ASD-I: cortical thickening, increased surface area, tissue blurring; ASD-II: cortical thinning, decreased distance; ASD-III: increased distance). Bootstrap analysis indicated a high consistency of these biotypes across thousands of simulations, while analysis of behavioral phenotypes and resting-state fMRI showed differential symptom load (i.e., Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule; ADOS) and instrinsic connectivity anomalies in communication and social-cognition networks. Notably, subtyping improved supervised learning approaches predicting ADOS score in single subjects, with significantly increased performance compared to a subtype-blind approach. The existence of different subtypes may reconcile previous results so far not converging on a consistent pattern of anatomical anomalies in autism, and possibly relate the presence of diverging corticogenic and maturational anomalies. The high accuracy for symptom severity prediction indicates benefits of MRI biotyping for personalized diagnostics and may guide the development of targeted therapeutic strategies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Tracing the HIV-1 subtype B mobility in Europe: a phylogeographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin Luc

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and the origin of HIV-1 subtype B, the most prevalent circulating clade among the long-term residents in Europe, have been studied extensively. However the spatial diffusion of the epidemic from the perspective of the virus has not previously been traced. Results In the current study we inferred the migration history of HIV-1 subtype B by way of a phylogeography of viral sequences sampled from 16 European countries and Israel. Migration events were inferred from viral phylogenies by character reconstruction using parsimony. With regard to the spatial dispersal of the HIV subtype B sequences across viral phylogenies, in most of the countries in Europe the epidemic was introduced by multiple sources and subsequently spread within local networks. Poland provides an exception where most of the infections were the result of a single point introduction. According to the significant migratory pathways, we show that there are considerable differences across Europe. Specifically, Greece, Portugal, Serbia and Spain, provide sources shedding HIV-1; Austria, Belgium and Luxembourg, on the other hand, are migratory targets, while for Denmark, Germany, Italy, Israel, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK we inferred significant bidirectional migration. For Poland no significant migratory pathways were inferred. Conclusion Subtype B phylogeographies provide a new insight about the geographical distribution of viral lineages, as well as the significant pathways of virus dispersal across Europe, suggesting that intervention strategies should also address tourists, travellers and migrants.

  3. Tracing the HIV-1 subtype B mobility in Europe: a phylogeographic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Paraskevis, D [KATHOLIEKE UNIV; Pybus, O [UNIV OF OXFORD; Magiorkinis, G [KATHOLIEKE UNIV; Hatzakis, A [KATHOLIEKE UNIV

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and the origin of HIV-1 subtype B, the most prevalent circulating clade among the long-term residents in Europe, have been studied extensively. However the spatial diffusion of the epidemic from the perspective of the virus has not previously been traced. In the current study we inferred the migration history of HIV-1 subtype B by way of a phylogeography of viral sequences sampled from 16 European countries and Israel. Migration events were inferred from viral phylogenies by character reconstruction using parsimony. With regard to the spatial dispersal of the HIV subtype B sequences across viral phylogenies, in most of the countries in Europe the epidemic was introduced by multiple sources and subsequently spread within local networks. Poland provides an exception where most of the infections were the result of a single point introduction. According to the significant migratory pathways, we show that there are considerable differences across Europe. Specifically, Greece, Portugal, Serbia and Spain, provide sources shedding HIV-1; Austria, Belgium and Luxembourg, on the other hand, are migratory targets, while for Denmark, Germany, Italy, Israel, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK we inferred significant bidirectional migration. For Poland no significant migratory pathways were inferred. Subtype B phylogeographies provide a new insight about the geographical distribution of viral lineages, as well as the significant pathways of virus dispersal across Europe, suggesting that intervention strategies should also address tourists, travellers and migrants.

  4. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  5. Personality subtypes in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzillo, Francesco; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Peloso, Anna; Giordani, Silvia; Vesco, Serena; Zanna, Valeria; Filippucci, Ludovica; Vicari, Stefano

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this study are to (1) empirically identify the personality subtypes of adolescents with anorexic disorders and (2) investigate the personality disorders, identity disturbances, and affective features associated with the different subtypes. We assessed 102 adolescent patients with Eating Disorders (anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified) using three clinical instruments: the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure for Adolescents (SWAP-200-A) (Westen D, Shedler J, Durrett C, Glass S, Martens A. Personality diagnoses in adolescence: DSM-IV Axis II diagnoses and an empirically derived alternative. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:952-966), the Affective Regulation and Experience Questionnaire (AREQ) (Zittel Conklin C, Bradley R, Westen D. Affect regulation in borderline personality disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 2006;194:69-77), and the Identity Disorder Questionnaire (IDQ) (Wilkinson-Ryan T, Westen D. Identity disturbance in borderline personality disorder: An empirical investigation. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:528-541). We performed a Q factor analysis of the SWAP-200-A descriptions of our sample to identify personality subtypes. We correlated these personality styles with AREQ and IDQ factors and explored the personality differences among individuals with the different types of ED. The Q factor analysis identified three personality subtypes: high-functioning/perfectionist, emotionally dysregulated, and overcontrolled/constricted. Each subtype showed specific identity and affective features, comorbidities with different personality disorders, and clinical implications. These results contribute to the understanding of adolescents with ED and seem to be relevant for treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome: a comparison of subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey de Castro, Nicolas G; Miller, Vivien; Carruthers, Helen R; Whorwell, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is traditionally divided into subtypes depending on the bowel habit abnormality, but there is little clarity in the literature about whether these subtypes differ symptomatically or psychologically. Furthermore, there are conflicting reports on the relationship between symptom severity and psychological status. The aim of this study was to address these issues in a large cohort of patients defined by bowel habit. One thousand IBS patients were divided into diarrhea (IBS-D), constipation (IBS-C), and mixed (IBS-M) bowel habit subtypes and completed a series of validated questionnaires capturing symptom severity, non-colonic symptomatology (somatization), quality of life, and anxiety or depression levels. Comparisons were made using SPSS version 20. There were no significant differences between the three subtypes with respect to symptom severity, abdominal pain intensity, non-colonic symptomatology, quality of life, and anxiety or depression scores (all Ps > 0.05). In addition, there was only a small but statistically significant correlation between IBS symptom severity and both anxiety or depression, as well as quality of life (highest r = 0.34), while the relationship between somatization and disease severity was moderate (r = 0.42). This study suggests that there are no differences in the symptom profiles and anxiety or depression scores between different subtypes of IBS. In addition, anxiety and depression do not appear to be strongly associated with symptom severity, although this does not exclude the possible interplay between these and other psychological drivers of severity, such as poor coping skills. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, J M; von Bomhard, W; Wise, A G; Maes, R K; Kiupel, M

    2012-09-01

    Cutaneous lymphoma is a common skin neoplasm of pet rabbits in Europe but is rarely reported in pet rabbits in North America. These neoplasms have not been previously characterized, nor has the cause for the apparent predilection for cutaneous lymphoma in European pet rabbits compared with North American pet rabbits been investigated. In this retrospective study, the authors morphologically and immunohistochemically characterized 25 cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits according to the World Health Organization classification. Tumors were classified as diffuse large B cell lymphomas, with 14 lymphomas exhibiting a centroblastic/centrocytic subtype and 11 tumors exhibiting a T cell-rich B cell subtype. To investigate a potential viral etiology of these lymphomas, 3 diffuse large B cell and 3 T cell-rich B cell lymphomas were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction for retroviral and herpesviral genes. Neither virus was detected. In contrast to other domestic animals, cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits were highly pleomorphic and frequently contained multinucleated giant cells. Unexpectedly, the second most common subtype was T cell-rich B cell lymphoma, a subtype that is rare in species other than horses. Based on a limited number of samples, there was no support for a viral etiology that would explain the higher incidence of lymphoma in European pet rabbits compared with American pet rabbits. Further investigation into genetic and extrinsic factors associated with the development of these tumors is warranted.

  8. The HIV type 1 epidemic in Belarus: predominance of Eastern European subtype A strains and circulation of subtype B viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazouskaya, Natallia V.; Eremin, Vladimir F.; Adema, Karen W.; Gasich, Elena L.; Baan, Elly; Lukashov, Vladimir V.

    2005-01-01

    To study the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Belarus, where the rapid spread of HIV-1 has been registered since 1996, we obtained HIV-1 sequences from 30 individuals living in five cities in both the main geographic areas of the epidemic (Gomel and Minsk regions) and territories where spreading

  9. Bovine Staphylococcus aureus: Subtyping, evolution, and zoonotic transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, R; Cosandey, A; Luini, M; Artursson, K; Bardiau, M; Breitenwieser, F; Hehenberger, E; Lam, Th; Mansfeld, M; Michel, A; Mösslacher, G; Naskova, J; Nelson, S; Podpečan, O; Raemy, A; Ryan, E; Salat, O; Zangerl, P; Steiner, A; Graber, H U

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is globally one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in cattle. Previous studies using ribosomal spacer (RS)-PCR, however, demonstrated in Swiss cows that Staph. aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections are genetically heterogeneous, with Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB) and GTC being the most prominent genotypes. Furthermore, Staph. aureus GTB was found to be contagious, whereas Staph. aureus GTC and all the remaining genotypes were involved in individual cow disease. In addition to RS-PCR, other methods for subtyping Staph. aureus are known, including spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). They are based on sequencing the spa and various housekeeping genes, respectively. The aim of the present study was to compare the 3 analytic methods using 456 strains of Staph. aureus isolated from milk of bovine intramammary infections and bulk tanks obtained from 12 European countries. Furthermore, the phylogeny of animal Staph. aureus was inferred and the zoonotic transfer of Staph. aureus between cattle and humans was studied. The analyzed strains could be grouped into 6 genotypic clusters, with CLB, CLC, and CLR being the most prominent ones. Comparing the 3 subtyping methods, RS-PCR showed the highest resolution, followed by spa typing and MLST. We found associations among the methods but in many cases they were unsatisfactory except for CLB and CLC. Cluster CLB was positive for clonal complex (CC)8 in 99% of the cases and typically positive for t2953; it is the cattle-adapted form of CC8. Cluster CLC was always positive for tbl 2645 and typically positive for CC705. For CLR and the remaining subtypes, links among the 3 methods were generally poor. Bovine Staph. aureus is highly clonal and a few clones predominate. Animal Staph. aureus always evolve from human strains, such that every human strain may be the ancestor of a novel animal-adapted strain. The zoonotic transfer of IMI- and milk-associated strains

  10. Timescapes: An artistic challenge to the European Union paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraete, G.E.E.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of trans-European corridors of mobility to the east of Europe. It argues that the European Union's infrastructures are intent upon erasing the past and integrating the new places with as little tension as possible, for economic purposes only. Running counter

  11. Interpersonal subtypes in social phobia: Diagnostic and treatment implications

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, N M; Pincus, A L; Grosse Holtforth, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Interpersonal assessment may provide a clinically useful way to identify subtypes of social phobia. In this study, we examined evidence for interpersonal subtypes in a sample of 77 socially phobic outpatients. A cluster analysis based on the dimensions of dominance and love on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales (Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 1990) found 2 interpersonal subtypes of socially phobic patients. These subtypes did not differ on pretreatment global symptom severit...

  12. Colorectal Cancer Subtypes: Developmental Origin and Microenvironmental Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fessler, Evelyn; Medema, Jan Paul

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease and many cancer types do not represent a single entity, but are composed of biologically and clinically diverse subtypes. The subtype affiliation can influence prognosis and response to therapy. Recently, a multicenter colorectal cancer (CRC) subtyping consortium

  13. hisBreast cancer Molecular subtypes and their clinicopathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with varying clinical outcomes in histologically similar tumors. Micro arrays gene profiling has identified several breast cancer subtypes which include luminal A, Luminal B, Basal, and Her2 subtype. These subtypes show variable prognosis and response to therapy.

  14. Subtypes of depression in cancer patients : An empirically driven approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Ranchor, Adelita V; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Sanderman, Robbert; Schroevers, Maya J

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct subtypes of depression before the start of psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic and medical characteristics distinguished these subtypes, and (3) examine whether people with distinct subtypes

  15. Subtypes of depression in cancer patients: an empirically driven approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Ranchor, A.V.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Sanderman, Robbert; Schroevers, Maya J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct subtypes of depression before the start of psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic and medical characteristics distinguished these subtypes, and (3) examine whether people with distinct subtypes

  16. Turkish Vector of German Policy in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Dvoryadkina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the Middle East policy of modern Germany, taking Turkish vector as an example. The foreign EU policy in the Middle East, as a whole and cooperation of modern Germany with Turkey in attempt to join the European Union are examined. Attention is given to the modern crisis and difficulties that stand on the way of cooperation between the two states.

  17. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  18. THE SUBTYPES OF PANCREATIC DUCTAL ADENOCARCINOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apeksha Kakkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Being the 4th leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. and with a global increase in incidence, above 80% of pancreatic cancers are locally advanced or metastatic at the time of diagnosis. As surgical resection is the only hope for a cure, the answer is probably in early screening, proper classification and right therapy. The advancing research will likely lead to a better understanding of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC as well as enhance the techniques for screening, diagnosis, accurate subtyping and enable the use of targeted therapy. Thus, instead of clubbing together various subtypes of PDAC for trials, improving the subcategorization will ensure statistical significance for the academicians, and the clinicians would avoid administration of placebo drug to a vast number of patients.

  19. Proteomic maps of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyanova, Stefka; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kronqvist, Pauliina

    2016-01-01

    Systems-wide profiling of breast cancer has almost always entailed RNA and DNA analysis by microarray and sequencing techniques. Marked developments in proteomic technologies now enable very deep profiling of clinical samples, with high identification and quantification accuracy. We analysed 40...... oestrogen receptor positive (luminal), Her2 positive and triple negative breast tumours and reached a quantitative depth of >10,000 proteins. These proteomic profiles identified functional differences between breast cancer subtypes, related to energy metabolism, cell growth, mRNA translation and cell......-cell communication. Furthermore, we derived a signature of 19 proteins, which differ between the breast cancer subtypes, through support vector machine (SVM)-based classification and feature selection. Remarkably, only three proteins of the signature were associated with gene copy number variations and eleven were...

  20. A taxometric investigation of developmental dyslexia subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Beth A; Wolf, Maryanne; Lovett, Maureen W

    2012-02-01

    Long-standing issues with the conceptualization, identification and subtyping of developmental dyslexia persist. This study takes an alternative approach to examine the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia using taxometric classification techniques. These methods were used with a large sample of 671 children ages 6-8 who were diagnosed with severe reading disorders. Latent characteristics of the sample are assessed in regard to posited subtypes with phonological deficits and naming speed deficits, thus extending prior work by addressing whether these deficits embody separate classes of individuals. Findings support separate taxa of dyslexia with and without phonological deficits. Different latent structure for naming speed deficits was found depending on the definitional criterion used to define dyslexia. Non-phonologically based forms of dyslexia showed particular difficulty with naming speed and reading fluency. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C

    2013-01-01

    (13 548 cases and 17 913 controls). We combined study-specific adjusted odds ratios (ORs) using a random-effects model. We further examined the associations by histological subtype, menopausal status and post-menopausal hormone use. High BMI (all time-points) was associated with increased risk......Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved...... in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We evaluated the association between BMI (recent, maximum and in young adulthood) and ovarian cancer risk using original data from 15 case–control studies...

  2. Subtyping Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Neuropsychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Harris

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We administered neuropsychological measures considered sensitive to prefrontal dysfunction (both orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients and control subjects. OCD subjects exhibited performance deficits, in comparison to community controls, on three measures sensitive to orbitofrontal neocortex dysfunction. Contrary to expectation, OCD patients also exhibited performance deficits on measures sensitive to dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex dysfunction. However, distinct neurocognitive profiles emerged when we examined the impact of comorbid schizotypal personality features on neuropsychological test performance. Primary OCD patients displayed impaired performance on measures sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction; however, they did not differ from control subjects on tests of dorsolateral function. OCD subjects presenting with schizotypal personality features performed poorly not only on tests sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction, but also on tests sensitive to dorsolateral dysfunction. Findings suggest that OCD can be subdivided into clinical subtypes, and distinct prefrontal subsystems may be differentially involved in these subtypes.

  3. Epidemiology of subtypes of hypothyroidism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Laurberg, Peter; Pedersen, Inge B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Studies of hypothyroidism are often based on referred patients. and limited information is available on the incidence rates of subtypes of hypothyroidism in the general population. We therefore studied incidences of subtypes of primary. overt hypothyroidism in a Danish population cohort...... and compared incidences in two subcohorts with different levels of iodine intake. Design: A prospective population-based study, monitoring a well-defined cohort representative of the Danish population. Methods: The Danish Investigation of Iodine Intake and Thyroid Diseases registry of hyper- and hypothyroidism...... was established as part of the monitoring of the iodine fortification of salt in Denmark. A computer-based system linked to laboratory databases identified all patients diagnosed with new. biochemically overt hypothyroidism in populations living in Aalborg (moderate iodine deficiency, n = 311 102) and Copenhagen...

  4. Molecular typing of the recently expanding subtype B HIV-1 epidemic in Romania: evidence for local spread among MSMs in Bucharest area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschiv, Simona; Otelea, Dan; Batan, Ionelia; Baicus, Cristian; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2012-07-01

    HIV-1 subtype B is predominant in Europe except in some countries from Eastern Europe which are characterized by a high prevalence of non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). Romania is a particular case: the HIV-1 epidemic started with subtype F1 which is still the most prevalent. Previous studies have shown an increasing prevalence of subtype B which is the second most frequent one among the newly diagnosed individuals, followed by subtype C and several CRFs as well as unique recombinant forms (URFs). Our objective was to analyze in detail the characteristics (way of dispersal, association with transmission risk groups) of the subtype B infections in Romania by means of phylogenetic analysis. Among all the individuals sampled during 2003-2010, 71 out of 1127 patients (6.3%) have been identified to be infected with subtype B strains. The most frequent route of infection identified in HIV-1 subtype B patients in Romania was MSM transmission (39.6%), followed by the heterosexual route (35.2%). Many of the patients acquired the infection abroad, mainly in Western European countries. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the existence of a local transmission network (monophyletic clade) including 14 patients, mainly MSM living in the Bucharest area. We estimate the origin of the local transmission network that dates at the beginning of the 90s; the introduction of the F1 and C subtypes occurred earlier. The rest of the sequences were intermixed with reference strains sampled across Europe suggesting that single infection were not followed by subsequent dispersal within the local population. Although HIV-1 subtype B epidemic in Romania is recent, there is evidence for local spread among the MSMs, in addition to multiple introductions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Global DNA methylation of ischemic stroke subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Soriano-Tárraga

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke (IS, a heterogeneous multifactorial disorder, is among the leading causes of mortality and long-term disability in the western world. Epidemiological data provides evidence for a genetic component to the disease, but its epigenetic involvement is still largely unknown. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, change over time and may be associated with aging processes and with modulation of the risk of various pathologies, such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. We analyzed 2 independent cohorts of IS patients. Global DNA methylation was measured by luminometric methylation assay (LUMA of DNA blood samples. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the methylation differences between the 3 most common IS subtypes, large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA, small-artery disease (SAD, and cardio-aortic embolism (CE. A total of 485 IS patients from 2 independent hospital cohorts (n = 281 and n = 204 were included, distributed across 3 IS subtypes: LAA (78/281, 59/204, SAD (97/281, 53/204, and CE (106/281, 89/204. In univariate analyses, no statistical differences in LUMA levels were observed between the 3 etiologies in either cohort. Multivariate analysis, adjusted by age, sex, hyperlipidemia, and smoking habit, confirmed the lack of differences in methylation levels between the analyzed IS subtypes in both cohorts. Despite differences in pathogenesis, our results showed no global methylation differences between LAA, SAD, and CE subtypes of IS. Further work is required to establish whether the epigenetic mechanism of methylation might play a role in this complex disease.

  6. A predominantly neolithic origin for European paternal lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Balaresque

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269 is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men. Previous studies suggested a Paleolithic origin, but here we show that the geographical distribution of its microsatellite diversity is best explained by spread from a single source in the Near East via Anatolia during the Neolithic. Taken with evidence on the origins of other haplogroups, this indicates that most European Y chromosomes originate in the Neolithic expansion. This reinterpretation makes Europe a prime example of how technological and cultural change is linked with the expansion of a Y-chromosomal lineage, and the contrast of this pattern with that shown by maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA suggests a unique role for males in the transition.

  7. Type- and Subtype-Specific Influenza Forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Sasikiran; Yang, Wan; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2017-03-01

    Prediction of the growth and decline of infectious disease incidence has advanced considerably in recent years. As these forecasts improve, their public health utility should increase, particularly as interventions are developed that make explicit use of forecast information. It is the task of the research community to increase the content and improve the accuracy of these infectious disease predictions. Presently, operational real-time forecasts of total influenza incidence are produced at the municipal and state level in the United States. These forecasts are generated using ensemble simulations depicting local influenza transmission dynamics, which have been optimized prior to forecast with observations of influenza incidence and data assimilation methods. Here, we explore whether forecasts targeted to predict influenza by type and subtype during 2003-2015 in the United States were more or less accurate than forecasts targeted to predict total influenza incidence. We found that forecasts separated by type/subtype generally produced more accurate predictions and, when summed, produced more accurate predictions of total influenza incidence. These findings indicate that monitoring influenza by type and subtype not only provides more detailed observational content but supports more accurate forecasting. More accurate forecasting can help officials better respond to and plan for current and future influenza activity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk Factors Reveals Subtype Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Johanna; Eriksson, Louise; Ploner, Alexander; Eriksson, Mikael; Rantalainen, Mattias; Li, Jingmei; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila

    2017-07-01

    Subtype heterogeneity for breast cancer risk factors has been suspected, potentially reflecting etiologic differences and implicating risk prediction. However, reports are conflicting regarding the presence of heterogeneity for many exposures. To examine subtype heterogeneity across known breast cancer risk factors, we conducted a case-control analysis of 2,632 breast cancers and 15,945 controls in Sweden. Molecular subtype was predicted from pathology record-derived IHC markers by a classifier trained on PAM50 subtyping. Multinomial logistic regression estimated separate ORs for each subtype by the exposures parity, age at first birth, breastfeeding, menarche, hormone replacement therapy use, somatotype at age 18, benign breast disease, mammographic density, polygenic risk score, family history of breast cancer, and BRCA mutations. We found clear subtype heterogeneity for genetic factors and breastfeeding. Polygenic risk score was associated with all subtypes except for the basal-like (Pheterogeneity risk of basal-like subtype [OR 4.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.89-9.21] compared with both nulliparity (reference) and breastfeeding. Breastfeeding was not associated with risk of HER2-overexpressing type, but protective for all other subtypes. The observed heterogeneity in risk of distinct breast cancer subtypes for germline variants supports heterogeneity in etiology and has implications for their use in risk prediction. The association between basal-like subtype and breastfeeding merits more research into potential causal mechanisms and confounders. Cancer Res; 77(13); 3708-17. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Comparative biochemical analysis of recombinant reverse transcriptase enzymes of HIV-1 subtype B and subtype C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisi Daniella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 subtype C infections account for over half of global HIV infections, yet the vast focus of HIV-1 research has been on subtype B viruses which represent less than 12% of the global pandemic. Since HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT is a major target of antiviral therapy, and since differential drug resistance pathways have been observed among different HIV subtypes, it is important to study and compare the enzymatic activities of HIV-1 RT derived from each of subtypes B and C as well as to determine the susceptibilities of these enzymes to various RT inhibitors in biochemical assays. Methods Recombinant subtype B and C HIV-1 RTs in heterodimeric form were purified from Escherichia coli and enzyme activities were compared in cell-free assays. The efficiency of (- ssDNA synthesis was measured using gel-based assays with HIV-1 PBS RNA template and tRNA3Lys as primer. Processivity was assayed under single-cycle conditions using both homopolymeric and heteropolymeric RNA templates. Intrinsic RNase H activity was compared using 5'-end labeled RNA template annealed to 3'-end recessed DNA primer in a time course study in the presence and absence of a heparin trap. A mis-incorporation assay was used to assess the fidelity of the two RT enzymes. Drug susceptibility assays were performed both in cell-free assays using recombinant enzymes and in cell culture phenotyping assays. Results The comparative biochemical analyses of recombinant subtype B and subtype C HIV-1 reverse transcriptase indicate that the two enzymes are very similar biochemically in efficiency of tRNA-primed (- ssDNA synthesis, processivity, fidelity and RNase H activity, and that both enzymes show similar susceptibilities to commonly used NRTIs and NNRTIs. Cell culture phenotyping assays confirmed these results. Conclusions Overall enzyme activity and drug susceptibility of HIV-1 subtype C RT are comparable to those of subtype B RT. The use of RT inhibitors (RTIs

  10. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  11. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariya Cho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  12. Distribution of molecular breast cancer subtypes among Algerian women and correlation with clinical and tumor characteristics: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherbal, Farid; Gaceb, Hadjer; Mehemmai, Chiraz; Saiah, Insaf; Bakour, Rabah; Rouis, Abdelhalim Ould; Boualga, Kada; Benbrahim, Wassila; Mahfouf, Hassen

    2015-01-01

    the first time, we report the distribution of molecular breast cancer subtypes and their associations with some clinicopathological characteristics in a large cohort of Algerian women. In our current study, the median age of diagnosis for all breast cancer subtypes was younger than the average age in Europe and America. Luminal A was the most common sub- type in our patients followed by TNBC. The proportion of luminal A subtype was lesser than reported in white women with breast cancer in Europe and America. The proportion of TNBC subtype in Algerian women was higher compared with Caucasian women of European ancestry. This study will contribute in developing optimal clinical trial protocols and personalized management strategies for Algerian breast cancer patients.

  13. Metabolomic Identification of Subtypes of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Cristina; Fernández-Ramos, David; Varela-Rey, Marta; Martínez-Arranz, Ibon; Navasa, Nicolás; Van Liempd, Sebastiaan M; Lavín Trueba, José L; Mayo, Rebeca; Ilisso, Concetta P; de Juan, Virginia G; Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta; delaCruz-Villar, Laura; Mincholé, Itziar; Robinson, Aaron; Crespo, Javier; Martín-Duce, Antonio; Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Sann, Holger; Platon, Julian; Van Eyk, Jennifer; Aspichueta, Patricia; Noureddin, Mazen; Falcón-Pérez, Juan M; Anguita, Juan; Aransay, Ana M; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Lu, Shelly C; Mato, José M

    2017-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a consequence of defects in diverse metabolic pathways that involve hepatic accumulation of triglycerides. Features of these aberrations might determine whether NAFLD progresses to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We investigated whether the diverse defects observed in patients with NAFLD are caused by different NAFLD subtypes with specific serum metabolomic profiles, and whether these can distinguish patients with NASH from patients with simple steatosis. We collected liver and serum from methionine adenosyltransferase 1a knockout (MAT1A-KO) mice, which have chronically low levels of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and spontaneously develop steatohepatitis, as well as C57Bl/6 mice (controls); the metabolomes of all samples were determined. We also analyzed serum metabolomes of 535 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (353 with simple steatosis and 182 with NASH) and compared them with serum metabolomes of mice. MAT1A-KO mice were also given SAMe (30 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks); liver samples were collected and analyzed histologically for steatohepatitis. Livers of MAT1A-KO mice were characterized by high levels of triglycerides, diglycerides, fatty acids, ceramides, and oxidized fatty acids, as well as low levels of SAMe and downstream metabolites. There was a correlation between liver and serum metabolomes. We identified a serum metabolomic signature associated with MAT1A-KO mice that also was present in 49% of the patients; based on this signature, we identified 2 NAFLD subtypes. We identified specific panels of markers that could distinguish patients with NASH from patients with simple steatosis for each subtype of NAFLD. Administration of SAMe reduced features of steatohepatitis in MAT1A-KO mice. In an analysis of serum metabolomes of patients with NAFLD and MAT1A-KO mice with steatohepatitis, we identified 2 major subtypes of NAFLD and markers that differentiate steatosis from NASH in each subtype. These might be

  14. Molecular Subtyping of Serous Ovarian Tumors Reveals Multiple Connections to Intrinsic Breast Cancer Subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Johansson, Ida; Dominguez-Valentin, Mev

    2014-01-01

    with the well-established intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer. METHODS: Global gene expression profiling using Illumina's HT12 Bead Arrays was applied to 59 fresh-frozen serous ovarian malignant, benign and borderline tumors. Nearest centroid classification was performed applying previously published...... gene profiles for the ovarian and breast cancer subtypes. Correlations to gene expression modules representing key biological breast cancer features were also sought. Validation was performed using an independent, publicly available dataset. RESULTS: 5,944 genes were significantly differentially......OBJECTIVE: Transcriptional profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer has revealed molecular subtypes correlating to biological and clinical features. We aimed to determine gene expression differences between malignant, benign and borderline serous ovarian tumors, and investigate similarities...

  15. East African Medical journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    312 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL JulyZOO7. East African Medical journal Vol. 84 N0. 7 Iuly 2007. MANAGEMENT PATHWAY FOR CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL,. NAIROBI. M.N. Awori, MBChB, MMed (Surg), Tutorial Fellow, S.W.O. Ogendo, MBChB, MMed (Surg), Associate.

  16. The Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  17. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  18. Genetic heterogeneity and subtyping of human Hepatitis E virus isolates from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirazo, Santiago; Ramos, Natalia; Russi, José Carlos; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an important public health concern in many developing countries causing waterborne outbreaks, as well as sporadic autochthonous hepatitis. It is transmitted primarily by the fecal-oral route. However, zoonotic transmission from animal reservoirs to human has also been suggested. Genotype 3 is the most frequent genotype found in South America and the HEV epidemiology in this region seems to be very complex. However, data about the molecular characterization of HEV isolates of the region is still lacking and further investigation is needed. Our study characterized human HEV strains detected in a 1-year period in Uruguay, by extensive sequence analysis of three regions of the HEV genome. Uruguayan strains were closely related to a set of European strains and in turn, were dissimilar to Brazilian, Argentinean and Bolivian isolates. Additionally, the co-circulation of viral subtypes 3i and 3h was observed. Circulation of subtype 3i had been reported in Argentina and Bolivia whereas sequences of subtype 3h are rare and had never been reported in Latin America. In order to contribute to shedding light over the molecular epidemiology of this emergent infection in the region, we thoroughly analyzed the genetic variability of HEV strains detected in Uruguay, providing the largest dataset of sequences of HEV ever reported in a country in South America. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Engaging with Political Islamists in the Middle East | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The idea is to formulate concrete policy options for European and North American governments to engage with political Islamists in a way that strengthens moderate elements and advances political reform, respect for human ... Building bridges, not walls : engaging with political islamists in the Middle East and North Africa.

  20. survival of primary cemented total hip arthroplasties in east africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-11

    Sep 11, 2017 ... Introduction:Total Hip Arthroplasties (THA) have been carried out in East Africa for over two decades. Data from. European and American centres suggests that cemented implants have survivorship of over 80% at 25 years. There is a paucity of data concerning survivorship of implants in Africa. This study ...

  1. The black Dutchmen : African soldiers in the Netherlands East Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, van W.M.J.; Kessel, van I.

    2002-01-01

    Between 1831 and 1872 some 3,000 African recruits sailed from Elmina (Gold Coast, now Ghana) to Batavia, the capital of the Netherlands East Indies. They had been recruited to serve in the Dutch colonial army, which throughout most of the 19th century experienced a chronic shortage of European

  2. Identification of different subtypes of breast cancer using tissue microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munirah, M A; Siti-Aishah, M A; Reena, M Z; Sharifah, N A; Rohaizak, M; Norlia, A; Rafie, M K M; Asmiati, A; Hisham, A; Fuad, I; Shahrun, N S; Das, S

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer may be classified into luminal A, luminal B, HER2+/ER-, basal-like and normal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling or immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics. The main aim of the present study was to classify breast cancer into molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemistry findings and correlate the subtypes with clinicopathological factors. Two hundred and seventeen primary breast carcinomas tumor tissues were immunostained for ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR, CK8/18, p53 and Ki67 using tissue microarray technique. All subtypes were significantly associated with Malay ethnic background (p=0.035) compared to other racial origins. The most common subtypes of breast cancers were luminal A and was significantly associated with low histological grade (p<0.000) and p53 negativity (p=0.003) compared to HER2+/ER-, basal-like and normal-like subtypes with high histological grade (p<0.000) and p53 positivity (p=0.003). Luminal B subtype had the smallest mean tumor size (p=0.009) and also the highest mean number of lymph nodes positive (p=0.032) compared to other subtypes. All markers except EGFR and Ki67 were significantly associated with the subtypes. The most common histological type was infiltrating ductal carcinoma, NOS. Majority of basal-like subtype showed comedo-type necrosis (68.8%) and infiltrative margin (81.3%). Our studies suggest that IHC can be used to identify the different subtypes of breast cancer and all subtypes were significantly associated with race, mean tumor size, mean number of lymph node positive, histological grade and all immunohistochemical markers except EGFR and Ki67.

  3. Common Molecular Subtypes Among Asian Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaisaingmongkol, Jittiporn; Budhu, Anuradha; Dang, Hien

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are clinically disparate primary liver cancers with etiological and biological heterogeneity. We identified common molecular subtypes linked to similar prognosis among 199 Thai ICC and HCC patients through systems integratio...... metabolism. These molecular subtypes are found in 582 Asian, but less so in 265 Caucasian patients. Thus, Asian ICC and HCC, while clinically treated as separate entities, share common molecular subtypes with similar actionable drivers to improve precision therapy....

  4. Attention dysfunction subtypes of developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Milner, Rafał; Ganc, Małgorzata; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2014-11-12

    Previous studies indicate that many different aspects of attention are impaired in children diagnosed with developmental dyslexia (DD). The objective of the present study was to identify cognitive profiles of DD on the basis of attentional test performance. 78 children with DD (30 girls, 48 boys, mean age of 12 years ±8 months) and 32 age- and sex-matched non-dyslexic children (14 girls, 18 boys) were examined using a battery of standardized tests of reading, phonological and attentional processes (alertness, covert shift of attention, divided attention, inhibition, flexibility, vigilance, and visual search). Cluster analysis was used to identify subtypes of DD. Dyslexic children showed deficits in alertness, covert shift of attention, divided attention, flexibility, and visual search. Three different subtypes of DD were identified, each characterized by poorer performance on the reading, phonological awareness, and visual search tasks. Additionally, children in cluster no. 1 displayed deficits in flexibility and divided attention. In contrast to non-dyslexic children, cluster no. 2 performed poorer in tasks involving alertness, covert shift of attention, divided attention, and vigilance. Cluster no. 3 showed impaired covert shift of attention. These results indicate different patterns of attentional impairments in dyslexic children. Remediation programs should address the individual child's deficit profile.

  5. Cigarette smoking and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma and its subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Rostgaard, K; Glaser, S L

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) remains incompletely characterized. Studies of the association between smoking and HL have yielded ambiguous results, possibly due to differences between HL subtypes....

  6. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes: localization and structure/function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brann, M R; Ellis, J; Jørgensen, H

    1993-01-01

    Based on the sequence of the five cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1-m5), subtype selective antibody and cDNA probes have been prepared. Use of these probes has demonstrated that each of the five subtypes has a markedly distinct distribution within the brain and among peripheral tissues....... The distributions of these subtypes and their potential physiological roles are discussed. By use of molecular genetic manipulation of cloned muscarinic receptor cDNAs, the regions of muscarinic receptors that specify G-protein coupling and ligand binding have been defined in several recent studies. Overall...

  7. De l’impact du TGV sur deux quartiers de gare : Nancy Grand Coeur et Metz Amphithéâtre The impact of the East European TGV on two station areas : Nancy Grand Coeur and Metz Amphithéâtre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hecker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available L’arrivée du TGV Est-Européen au coeur de Metz et de Nancy a offert aux deux cités rivales lorraines l’opportunité de requalifier leurs entrées de ville et de réhabiliter des friches ferroviaires d’arrière-gare. En dépit de situations originelles très différentes, l’évolution des deux projets les amène à une forte convergence. Un point les distingue néanmoins : alors que l’une cherche à fondre ce nouveau quartier dans le centre-ville, l’autre tend à la réalisation d’un nouveau coeur d’agglomération, au risque de dévitaliser le centre traditionnel. A miser sur l’effet structurant du TGV, toutes deux risquent néanmoins que le surdimensionnement de leurs projets ne conduise à un semi-échec.The arrival of the East European TGV in the heart of Metz and Nancy provided the two rival cities of Lorraine with an opportunity to reshape their landscape and to requalify the railway station areas. In spite of very different situations, the evolution of both projects leads them to a strong convergence. Still, they differ on one point: while one of them tries to merge the new city quarter into the city centre, the other focuses on realizing a new heart for the agglomeration, and thus risks devitalizing the old centre. By betting on the structuring effect of the TGV, both could lead to a semi-failure due to overambitious developments.

  8. High occurrence of Blastocystis sp. subtypes 1-3 and Giardia intestinalis assemblage B among patients in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Joakim; Granlund, Margareta; Samuelsson, Linn; Koskiniemi, Satu; Edebro, Helén; Evengård, Birgitta

    2016-06-29

    Blastocystis is a common intestinal parasite with worldwide distribution but the distribution of Blastocystis and its subtypes in East Africa is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the distribution of Blastocystis subtypes in Zanzibar, Tanzania and report the prevalence of intestinal parasites using both molecular methods and microscopy. Stool samples were collected from both diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic outpatients in Zanzibar. In addition to microscopy, real-time PCR for Blastocystis, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Dientamoeba fragilis was used. Blastocystis subtypes were determined by a conventional PCR followed by partial sequencing of the SSU-rRNA gene. Genetic assemblages of Giardia were determined by PCR with assemblage specific primers. Intestinal parasites were detected in 85 % of the 174 participants, with two or more parasites present in 56 %. Blastocystis sp. and Giardia intestinalis were the most common parasites, identified by PCR in 61 and 53 % of the stool samples respectively, but no correlation between carriage of Blastocystis and Giardia was found. The Blastocystis subtype distribution was ST1 34.0 %, ST2 26.4 %, ST3 25.5 %, ST7 0.9 %, and 13.2 % were positive only by qPCR (non-typable). The Giardia genetic assemblages identified were A 6.5 %, B 85 %, A + B 4.3 %, and non-typable 4.3 %. The detection rate with microscopy was substantially lower than with PCR, 20 % for Blastocystis and 13.8 % for Giardia. The prevalence of Blastocystis increased significantly with age while Giardia was most prevalent in children two to five years old. No correlation between diarrhoea and the identification of Giardia, Blastocystis, or their respective genetic subtypes could be shown and, as a possible indication of parasite load, the mean cycle threshold values in the qPCR for Giardia were equal in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic patients. Carriage of intestinal parasites was very

  9. An investigation of risk factors for renal cell carcinoma by histologic subtype in two case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue, Mark P; Moore, Lee E; Merino, Maria J; Boffetta, Paolo; Colt, Joanne S; Schwartz, Kendra L; Bencko, Vladimir; Davis, Faith G; Graubard, Barry I; Janout, Vladimir; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer; Cote, Michele L; Shuch, Brian; Mates, Dana; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Foretova, Lenka; Rothman, Nathaniel; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Matveev, Vsevolod; Wacholder, Sholom; Zaridze, David; Linehan, W Marston; Brennan, Paul; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2013-06-01

    To investigate whether renal cell carcinoma (RCC) histologic subtypes possess different etiologies, we conducted analyses of established RCC risk factors by subtype (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe) in two case-control studies conducted in the United States (1,217 cases, 1,235 controls) and Europe (1,097 cases, 1,476 controls). Histology was ascertained for 706 U.S. cases (58% of total) and 917 European cases (84%) through a central slide review conducted by a single pathologist. For the remaining cases, histology was abstracted from the original diagnostic pathology report. Case-only analyses were performed to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) summarizing subtype differences by age, sex and race. Case-control analyses were performed to compute subtype-specific ORs for other risk factors using polytomous regression. In case-only analyses, papillary cases (N = 237) were older (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1-1.4 per 10-year increase), less likely to be female (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4-0.8) and more likely to be black (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.8-3.9) as compared to clear cell cases (N = 1,524). In case-control analyses, BMI was associated with clear cell (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1-1.3 per 5 kg/m(2) increase) and chromophobe RCC (N = 80; OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1-1.4), but not papillary RCC (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; test versus clear cell, p = 0.006). No subtype differences were observed for associations with smoking, hypertension or family history of kidney cancer. Our findings support the existence of distinct age, sex and racial distributions for RCC subtypes, and suggest that the obesity-RCC association differs by histology. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  10. Molecular subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R; Prieto, E; Aguas, M J; Manata, M J; Botas, J; Pereira, F Martins

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproducibility of a molecular method for the subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and to discriminate strains of this microorganism from strains from patients with syphilis. We studied 212 specimens from a total of 82 patients with different stages of syphilis (14 primary, 7 secondary and 61 latent syphilis). The specimens were distributed as follows: genital ulcers (n = 9), skin and mucosal lesions (n = 7), blood (n = 82), plasma (n = 82), and ear lobe scrapings (n = 32). The samples were assayed by a PCR technique to amplify a segment of the polymerase gene I (polA). Positive samples were typed on the basis of the analysis of two variable genes, tpr and arp. Sixty-two of the 90 samples positive for polA yielded typeable Treponema pallidum DNA. All skin lesions in which T. pallidum was identified (six of six [100%]) were found to contain enough DNA for typing of the organism. It was also possible to type DNA from 7/9 (77.7%) genital ulcer samples, 13/22 (59.1%) blood samples, 20/32 (62.5%) plasma samples, and 16/21 (76.2%) ear lobe scrapings. The same subtype was identified in all samples from the same patient. Five molecular subtypes (subtypes 10a, 14a, 14c, 14f, and 14g) were identified, with the most frequently found subtype being subtype 14a and the least frequently found subtype being subtype 10a. In conclusion, the subtyping technique used in this study seems to have good reproducibility. To our knowledge, subtype 10a was identified for the first time. Further studies are needed to explain the presence of this subtype in Portugal, namely, its relationship to the Treponema pallidum strains circulating in the African countries where Portuguese is spoken.

  11. Cardiovascular Disease in Central and East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kozela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD contributes greatly to inequalities in health in Europe. The CVD death rate in Ukraine (the highest is seven fold higher than in France (the lowest. There is also a striking difference in CVD mortality between European Union (EU members before the enlargement in 2004 and Central and East European (CEE countries that joined the EU in 2004 and non-EU countries. The difference in CVD mortality between West and East Europe grew during the 1970s and 1980s when rates declined in the West and either remained the same or rose in the CEE countries. Political reforms at the beginning of the 1990s, which were followed by great socio-economic changes coincided with further diversification in CVD mortality in CEE countries. Diverse trends in CVD mortality were followed by larger gaps in life expectancy between West and East Europe and within the CEE.Rapid development of high technology treatment procedures, which followed the economic recovery of the CEE countries, would have only limited influence on the overall control of CVD. Exposure to classic risk factors might largely explain the longitudinal trend in falling CVD mortality in some countries, but it is unlikely that it could explain rapid changes in the others. Still, large potential to control the disease lies in developing effective preventive policies with targets to lower exposure to the classic CVD risk factors. The recent history of CVD in CEE countries makes the “alcohol hypothesis” less convincing as an explanation for CVD mortality trends and differences between East and West Europe. The hypothesis that dynamic changes in CVD mortality in CEE countries are triggered and explained largely by psychosocial factors is attractive. However, if confirmed, transforming such knowledge into a practical health policy would be a great challenge.

  12. Subtype selective kainic acid receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl

    2009-01-01

    (S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, activating the plethora of glutamate receptors (GluRs). In broad lines, the GluRs are divided into two major classes: the ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and the metabotropic Glu receptors (m......GluRs). Within the iGluRs, five subtypes (KA1, KA2, iGluR5-7) show high affinity and express full agonist activity upon binding of the naturally occurring amino acid kainic acid (KA). Thus these receptors have been named the KA receptors. This review describes all-to our knowledge-published KA receptor agonists...

  13. MALDI profiling of human lung cancer subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Gámez-Pozo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proteomics is expected to play a key role in cancer biomarker discovery. Although it has become feasible to rapidly analyze proteins from crude cell extracts using mass spectrometry, complex sample composition hampers this type of measurement. Therefore, for effective proteome analysis, it becomes critical to enrich samples for the analytes of interest. Despite that one-third of the proteins in eukaryotic cells are thought to be phosphorylated at some point in their life cycle, only a low percentage of intracellular proteins is phosphorylated at a given time. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we have applied chromatographic phosphopeptide enrichment techniques to reduce the complexity of human clinical samples. A novel method for high-throughput peptide profiling of human tumor samples, using Parallel IMAC and MALDI-TOF MS, is described. We have applied this methodology to analyze human normal and cancer lung samples in the search for new biomarkers. Using a highly reproducible spectral processing algorithm to produce peptide mass profiles with minimal variability across the samples, lineal discriminant-based and decision tree-based classification models were generated. These models can distinguish normal from tumor samples, as well as differentiate the various non-small cell lung cancer histological subtypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A novel, optimized sample preparation method and a careful data acquisition strategy is described for high-throughput peptide profiling of small amounts of human normal lung and lung cancer samples. We show that the appropriate combination of peptide expression values is able to discriminate normal lung from non-small cell lung cancer samples and among different histological subtypes. Our study does emphasize the great potential of proteomics in the molecular characterization of cancer.

  14. European Citizenship between Past and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Union, an organization built on the ruins of the Second World War the desire to curb the war on the continent once and for all, was doomed from the beginning to end in one day political contours, so Europe is now united policy at the core of the future of Europe. This aspiration has become increasingly manifest in the adoption in 1992 of the Treaty of Maastricht, culminating today with the debate on the European Constitution. “Europe” today was forged from the beginning of the ruling political elites and not the citizens. Is it possible to continue this course today? Talking about European citizenship is part of the broader theory and political philosophy, legal and sociological. East European citizenship a recent concept (established by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1992 born of an old idea (dating approximately from the 40s that refers to a reality uncertain and inconsistent. Holders of European citizenship are nationals of Member States of the European Union. Citizenship as a concept has a content both political (the right of citizenship Fortress defining an individual's personal status and legal (on the set of subjective rights that an individual may invoke. Existential condition of citizenship is the ability to have rights (individual rights as positive theory of law and be able to implement them. As a consequence, European citizenship exists to the extent that its holders can enjoy rights derived from this status.

  15. Ischemic stroke subtype is associated with outcome in thrombolyzed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, Marie Louise; Simonsen, C Z; Svendsen, M L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The impact of ischemic stroke subtype on clinical outcome in patients treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) is sparsely examined. We studied the association between stroke subtype and clinical outcome in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-evaluated patients...

  16. The validity and utility of subtyping bulimia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeken, Daphne; Veling, Wim; Sinke, Sjoukje; Mitchell, James E.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review the evidence for the validity and utility of subtyping bulimia nervosa (BN) into a purging (BN-P) and a nonpurging subtype (BN-NP), and of distinguishing BN-NP from binge eating disorder (BED), by comparing course, complications, and treatment. Method: A literature search of

  17. ADHD subtype differences in reinforcement sensitivity and visuospatial working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovis, S.; van der Oord, S.; Wiers, R.W.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Both cognitive and motivational deficits are thought to give rise to the problems in the combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In both subtypes one of the most prominent cognitive weaknesses appears to be in visuospatial working memory

  18. Tubal ligation and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieh, Weiva; Salvador, Shannon; McGuire, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Tubal ligation is a protective factor for ovarian cancer, but it is unknown whether this protection extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumors. We undertook an international collaborative study to examine the association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer subtypes....

  19. Impulsive and rigid temperament subtypes and executive functioning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that the rigid temperament subtype reacted slower to both complex (executive functioning) and less complex tasks (attention and working memory) than the impulsive temperament subtype. ... Significant differences were maintained with analyses of intelligence and parental education as covariates.

  20. Ethnic variation of the histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest histological variant in each of the ethnic groups, irrespective of sex, was clear cell carcinoma which accounted for 79.7% of all the histological subtypes found in Chinese, for 70.5% in Malaysian and 77.4% in Indian patients. The sarcomatoid histological subtype was found in 4.3% of the studied population ...

  1. Major depressive disorder subtypes to predict long-term course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Hanna M.; Cai, Tianxi; Gruber, Michael J.; Li, Junlong; de Jonge, Peter; Petukhova, Maria; Rose, Sherri; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Wilcox, Marsha A.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bunting, Brendan; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Levinson, Daphna; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Xavier, Miguel; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    BACKGROUND: Variation in the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not strongly predicted by existing subtype distinctions. A new subtyping approach is considered here. METHODS: Two data mining techniques, ensemble recursive partitioning and Lasso generalized linear models (GLMs), followed by

  2. Is Rett Syndrome a Subtype of Pervasive Developmental Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews whether Rett syndrome is a subtype of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). The paper analyzes internal and external diagnostic validity and discusses whether Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder or a mental disorder. The paper concludes that data support the idea of classifying Rett syndrome as a subtype of PDD.…

  3. The association between physical morbidity and subtypes of severe depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Petrides, Georgios; Dinesen, Peter Thisted

    2013-01-01

    Physical illness and depression are related, but the association between specific physical diseases and diagnostic subtypes of depression remains poorly understood. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between a number of physical diseases and the nonpsychotic and psychotic subtype of sev...

  4. Osteoclastic finger arthrosis - a subtype of polyarthrosis of the hand; Osteoklastische Fingerarthrose - Subtyp der Handpolyarthrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dihlmann, W. [Radiologische Praxis, Hamburg-Barmbek (Germany); Dihlmann, A. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Unfallkrankenhaus Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    Aim: Description of a subtype of arthrosis deformans of the hand which is characterised as osteoclastic arthrosis. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis of radiographs of the hands of 150 women and 100 men with radiological findings of arthrosis deformans. Results: 5% of women and 2% of men showed at least one digital joint with subchondral osteolysis of one or both articulating bones involving at least a third of the phalanx. This subchondral osteolysis far exceeds the cysts which are situated in the epiphyseal part of the articular region. It may develop within a year. Conclusion: Osteoclastic arthrosis of the finger is a subtype of polyarthrosis of the hand. Serial observations suggest that an osteoclast stimulating substance is produced by the cysts or arises directly from the synovial fluid; this enters the subchondral part of the bone through clefts which may or may not be visible radiologically and that this produces osteoclastic activity. The most important differential diagnoses are chronic tophacious gout and a benign tumor. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Beschreibung eines Subtyps der Arthrosis deformans an der Hand, der als osteoklastische Arthrose bezeichnet wird. Patienten und Methode: Retrospektive Analyse der Handroentgenaufnahmen von 150 Frauen und 100 Maennern mit Roentgenbefunden der Arthrosis deformans. Ergebnisse: 5% der Frauen und 2% der maennlichen Patienten des durchgesehenen Krankenguts zeigten an mindestens einem Fingergelenk eine Arthrose mit subchondralen Osteolysen an einem oder beiden artikulierenden Knochen, die mindestens ein Drittel der Phalanxlaenge erfasst hatten. Diese subchondralen Osteolysen gehen ueber die Groesse und Form der arthrotischen Geroellzysten, die lediglich im knoechernen (epiphysaeren) Gelenksockel sitzen, weit hinaus. Sie koennen innerhalb eines Jahres entstehen. Schlussfolgerung: Die osteoklastische Arthrose der Finger ist ein Subtyp der Handpolyarthrose. Nach Verlaufsbeobachtungen wird vermutet, dass eine

  5. Subtyping children's reading disabilities using a comprehensive neuropsychological measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Kimberly J; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2009-01-01

    This study examined subtypes of children with reading disabilities using the NEPSY (series of Neuropsychological tests authored by Marit Korkman, Ursula Kirk and Sally Kemp). Multiple methods of cluster analysis were performed with 80 elementary school-age children identified as reading disabled. Students completed the NEPSY Language Domain and the NEPSY Memory and Learning Domain. Three clusters emerged which were interpreted as: (1) a No Language or Memory Deficit Subtype, (2) a Global Language and Memory Deficit Subtype, and (3) a Global Memory Deficit Subtype. This study suggested that memory-related processes, not exclusively phonologically related processes, might contribute to reading difficulties. This investigation supported the utility of a neuropsychological approach to subtyping children's reading disabilities.

  6. Sensory Subtypes in Preschool Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomchek, Scott D; Little, Lauren M; Myers, John; Dunn, Winnie

    2018-02-07

    Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research has investigated how sensory features elucidate subtypes that enhance our understanding of etiology and tailored treatment approaches. Previous studies, however, have not integrated core developmental behaviors with sensory features in investigations of subtypes in ASD. Therefore, we used latent profile analysis to examine subtypes in a preschool aged sample considering sensory processing patterns in combination with social-communication skill, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. Results showed four subtypes that differed by degree and quality of sensory features, age and differential presentation of developmental skills. Findings partially align with previous literature on sensory subtypes and extends our understanding of how sensory processing aligns with other developmental domains in young children with ASD.

  7. Selected Translations on East European Heavy Industry (4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-08-07

    began to treat celluloid , galalith, and later the so-called noble phenolic resins. After the Second World War, Czechoslovakia had a rather large number...34. Berlin-Weissensee Circular two-stand lathe DKZS 2500 x 1250 with taper cutting - 13 - with crowned ram ,quipmefit, Mill cutting h6bbing machine for

  8. Last days of East European tyranny / John McCain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McCain, John

    2004-01-01

    USA senaatori kõne Riias toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverentsil "Demokraatia tulevik Baltimaade piiri taga", milles ta osutas, et Valgevene president Aleksandr Lukashenko on "Euroopa viimane diktaator"

  9. Foreign Aid, FDI and Economic Growth in East European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Upadhyaya; Gyan Pradhan; Dharmendra Dhakal; Rabindra Bhandari

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of foreign aid and foreign direct investment in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. The model includes the labor force, capital stock, foreign aid and foreign direct investment, and is estimated using pooled annual time series data from 1993 to 2002. Before carrying out the estimation, the time series properties of the data are diagnosed and an error-correction model is developed and estimated using a fixed-effects estimato...

  10. Adamkus, Kirkilas take Lithuania's energy case to East European partners

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa tuumaenergia foorumil esinedes palusid Leedu peaminister Gediminas Kirkilas ja president Valdas Adamkus EL-i partneritel taas kaaluda Ignalina tuumajaama lahtiolekuaja pikendamist. Hispaania ja Tšehhi esindaja ning Jose Manuel Barroso arvamused

  11. The dynamics of personality. An East European view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, J

    1988-01-01

    As the debates on fundamental issues of the human sciences have shown, actually two significant pictures of man are opposed to each other: the scientific-biological and the historicist conceptions. The second one is supported, for instance, by the Budapest School of Philosophy (with Lukács and his followers) and the Soviet School of Psychology (Vigotsky, Luria, Leontiev and their pupils). Summing up the doctrines of these two currents of thought the author argues in favour of the historicist conception and indicates, what is implied, in different fields of application (mind-body problem, linguistic theories, neuropsychic diseases, mental disorders), by the acceptance of this point of view. Moral issues, concerning psychiatric treatment, are discussed, too, and a Kantian solution of them is defended.

  12. Soviet and East European Developments in Surface Effect Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-30

    57 UrsynowM-6 Agricultural ACV ,. 57 in C. ROMANIA 60 023E Experimental ACV 60 R-7 Experimental ACV 60 D. BULGARIA 61 Ikar-2 Amateur ACV...personnel, geologists , communications workers, and construction workers in such areas as the desert, tundra, the Arctic, etc. [89, 90, 95...BULGARIA The only evidence ol Bulgarian activity in ACV development was the 1974 showing of the Ikar-2 amateur vehicle (see Fig. 59). This ACV was

  13. European East-West migration, 1945-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassmann, H; Munz, R

    1994-01-01

    "This article's thesis is that Europe is undergoing an international but intracontinental migration such as it has not seen since the beginning of the Cold War. The authors cite several reasons for the recent outburst of migration: ethnic relocation, the search for refuge and asylum, and the need for work. They also present a country-by-country description of sending and receiving nations. The push and pull factors causing such massive migration cannot only be contained by the present methods of having each government erect legislative and other barriers--such as armed border guards--against newcomers." excerpt

  14. Skeletal estimation and identification in American and East European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerle, Erin H; Jantz, Richard L; Konigsberg, Lyle W; Baraybar, Jose Pablo

    2008-05-01

    Forensic science is a fundamental transitional justice issue as it is imperative for providing physical evidence of crimes committed and a framework for interpreting evidence and prosecuting violations to International Humanitarian Law (IHL). The evaluation of evidence presented in IHL trials and the outcomes various rulings by such courts have in regard to the accuracy or validity of methods applied in future investigations is necessary to ensure scientific quality. Accounting for biological and statistical variation in the methods applied across populations and the ways in which such evidence is used in varying judicial systems is important because of the increasing amount of international forensic casework being done globally. Population variation or the perceived effect of such variation on the accuracy and reliability of methods is important as it may alter trial outcomes, and debates about the scientific basis for human variation are now making their way into international courtrooms. Anthropological data on population size (i.e., the minimum number of individuals in a grave), demographic structure (i.e., the age and sex distribution of victims), individual methods applied for identification, and general methods of excavation and trauma analysis have provided key evidence in cases of IHL. More generally, the question of population variation and the applicability of demographic methods for estimating individual and population variables is important for American and International casework in the face of regional population variation, immigrant populations, ethnic diversity, and secular changes. The reliability of various skeletal aging methods has been questioned in trials prosecuted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Prosecutor of the Tribunal against Radislav Krstic (Case No. IT-98-33, Trial Judgment) and again in the currently ongoing trial of The Prosecutor of the Tribunal against Zdravko Tolimir, Radivolje Miletic, Milan Gvero, Vinko Pandurevic, Ljubisa Beara, Vujadin Popovic, Drago Nikolic, Milorad Trbic, Ljubomir Borovcanin (IT-05-88-PT, Second Amended Indictment). Following the trial of General Krstic, a collaborative research project was developed between the Forensic Anthropology Center at The University of Tennessee (UT) and the United Nations, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Office of the Prosecutor (ICTY). The purpose of that collaboration was to investigate methods used for the demographic analysis of forensic evidence and where appropriate to recalibrate methods for individual estimation of age, sex, and stature for specific use in the regions of the former Yugoslavia. The question of "local standards" and challenges to the reliability of current anthropological methods for biological profiling in international trials of IHL, as well as the performance of such methods to meet the evidentiary standards used by international tribunals is investigated. Anthropological methods for estimating demographic parameters are reviewed. An overview of the ICTY-UT collaboration for research aimed at addressing specific legal issues is discussed and sample reliability for Balkan aging research is tested. The methods currently used throughout the Balkans are discussed and estimated demographic parameters obtained through medico-legal death investigations are compared with identified cases. Based on this investigation, recommendations for improving international protocols for evidence collection, presentation, and research are outlined.

  15. Molecular Subtyping of Tumors from Patients with Familial Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Vanessa Y; Praska, Corinne E; Armstrong, Georgina; Kollmeyer, Thomas M; Yamada, Seiji; Decker, Paul A; Kosel, Matthew L; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Consortium, The Gliogene; Lachance, Daniel H; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Melin, Beatrice S; Bondy, Melissa L; Jenkins, Robert B

    2017-10-10

    Single-gene mutation syndromes account for some familial glioma (FG); however, they make up only a small fraction of glioma families. Gliomas can be classified into 3 major molecular subtypes based on IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. We hypothesized that the prevalence of molecular subtypes might differ in familial versus sporadic gliomas, and that tumors in the same family should have the same molecular subtype. Participants in the FG study (Gliogene) provided samples for germline DNA analysis. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor was obtained for a subset of FG cases, and DNA was extracted. We analyzed tissue from 75 families, including 10 families containing a second affected family member. Copy number variation (CNV) data was obtained using a first-generation Affymetrix molecular inversion probe (MIP) array. Samples from 62 of 75 (83%) FG cases could be classified into the 3 subtypes. The prevalence of the molecular subtypes was: 30 (48%) IDH-wild type, 21 (34%) IDH-mutant non-codeleted, and 11 (19%) IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted. This distribution of molecular subtypes was not statistically different from that of sporadic gliomas (p=0.54). Of 10 paired FG samples, molecular subtypes were concordant for 7 (κ=0.59): 3 IDH-mutant non-codeleted, 2 IDH-wild type, and 2 IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas. Our data suggest that within individual families, patients develop gliomas of the same molecular subtype. However, we did not observe differences in the prevalence of the molecular subtypes in FG compared with sporadic gliomas. These observations provide further insight about the distribution of molecular subtypes in FG.

  16. Electricity in east Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Paul

    1997-06-01

    Electricity in east Asia highlights all the current regulations and policies and brings you up to data with the latest developments in the power markets in east Asia. In particular, the report assesses utility privatisation and the role and opportunities for independent power producers. It includes: the background to east Asia and its political and economic environment; an overview of the power markets in the region; the natural resources available locally within the region; the power generation technologies being used in the region and the potential for advanced technologies and renewable energy sources; the financial situation, including what opportunities and restraints affect each country; the regulatory structures and political problems associated with private power generation; detailed case studies of the Three Gorges hydropower project in China and the development of nuclear power in east Asia. Electricity in east Asia contains detailed country profiles of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Macao, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan. It is an indispensable tool for anyone wishing to do business in this highly diverse and exciting region. (Author)

  17. euHCVdb: the European hepatitis C virus database

    OpenAIRE

    Combet, Christophe; Garnier, Nicolas; Charavay, C?line; Grando, Delphine; Crisan, Daniel; Lopez, Julien; Dehne-Garcia, Alexandre; Geourjon, Christophe; Bettler, Emmanuel; Hulo, Chantal; Mercier, Philippe Le; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Diepolder, Helmut; Moradpour, Darius; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome shows remarkable sequence variability, leading to the classification of at least six major genotypes, numerous subtypes and a myriad of quasispecies within a given host. A database allowing researchers to investigate the genetic and structural variability of all available HCV sequences is an essential tool for studies on the molecular virology and pathogenesis of hepatitis C as well as drug design and vaccine development. We describe here the European Hepati...

  18. Appreciating HIV-1 diversity: subtypic differences in ENV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanakaran, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shen, Tongye [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lynch, Rebecca M [NON LANL; Derdeyn, Cynthia A [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M is responsible for the current AIDS pandemic and exhibits exceedingly high levels of viral genetic diversity around the world, necessitating categorization of viruses into distinct lineages, or subtypes. These subtypes can differ by around 35% in the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of the virus, which are displayed on the surface of the virion and are targets for both neutralizing antibody and cell-mediated immune responses. This diversity reflects the remarkable ability of the virus to adapt to selective pressures, the bulk of which is applied by the host immune response, and represents a serious obstacle for developing an effective vaccine with broad coverage. Thus, it is important to understand the underlying biological consequences of inter-subtype diversity. Recent studies have revealed that the HIV-1 subtypes exhibit phenotypic differences that result from subtle differences in Env structure, particularly within the highly immunogenic V3 domain, which participates directly in viral entry. This review will therefore explore current research that describes subtypic differences in Env at the genetic and phenotypic level, focusing in particular on V3, and highlighting recent discoveries about the unique features of subtype C Env, which is the most prevalent subtype globally.

  19. Molecular characterization of Blastocystis species in Oregon identifies multiple subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipps, Christopher M; Boorom, Ken; Bermudez, Luiz E; Kent, Michael L

    2010-03-01

    The association of Blastocystis species infections with gastrointestinal symptoms in humans is clouded by the variable presentation of disease and multiple lineages of the parasite that can infect humans and other animals. It has long been suspected that certain subtypes of Blastocystis may be more or less pathogenic, be restricted to certain hosts, or have limits to their geographic distribution. In the state of Oregon, USA, Blastocystis spp. are the most commonly encountered parasites in fecal specimens submitted for diagnostic evaluation, yet the diversity of subtypes is unknown. In this study, fecal samples were collected from individuals experiencing symptoms associated with blastocystosis and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for presence of the parasite and DNA sequenced for subtyping. Five of 19 individuals tested positive for the parasite, all of which were also positive by previous ova and parasitology examination. DNA sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal DNA and elongation factor 1 alpha gene followed by phylogenetic subtyping identified five unique subtypes, representing Blastocystis subtypes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8. No symptoms were consistently associated with presence or absence of infection, although abdominal pain and fatigue were reported by all infected individuals. Multiple subtypes are indicative of multiple sources of infection, suggesting more extensive surveys are required to understand the transmission of this parasite.

  20. Clinical Subtypes of Premenstrual Syndrome and Responses to Sertraline Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Sammel, Mary D.; Lin, Hui; Rickels, Karl; Sondheimer, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate response of diagnosis and symptom-based subtypes to sertraline treatment. METHODS This was a secondary data analysis for women who were diagnosed with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual dysphoric disorder and treated in three National Institutes of Health-supported clinical trials (N=447). Three PMS subtypes were identified based on predominance of psychological, physical, or both symptom types. Scores for each symptom and a total premenstrual score at baseline and endpoint were calculated from daily symptom diaries. Change from baseline after three treated menstrual cycles (or endpoint if sooner) was estimated using linear regression models adjusted for baseline severity. RESULTS The PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder diagnoses improved similarly with sertraline relative to placebo, while symptom-based subtypes had differential responses to treatment. The mixed symptom subtype had the strongest response to sertraline relative to placebo (Daily Symptom Rating [DSR] difference 33.80, 95% CI: 17.16, 50.44, Ppremenstrual dysphoric disorder diagnoses have similar response to sertraline treatment, but symptom-based subtypes have significantly different responses to this treatment. Mixed and psychological symptom subtypes improved while the physical symptom subtype did not improve significantly. Identifying the patient’s predominant symptoms, and their severity is important for individualized treatment and possible response to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. PMID:22105258

  1. Oncotargets in different renal cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, Holger; Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Mischo, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell cancer is a heterogeneous group of cancers with different histologic subtypes. The majority of renal tumors in adults are clear cell renal cell carcinomas, which are characterized by von Hippel- Lindau (VHL) gene alterations. Recent advances in defining the genetic landscape of renal cancer has shown the genetic heterogeneity of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) and the presence of at least 3 additional ccRCC tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 3p. Due to inactivation of VHL, renal cancer cells produce the HIF-responsive growth factor VEGF. The PI3K--mTORC1 signaling axis also represents a target for therapy. The new systemic therapies, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and mTOR inhibitors, aim to suppress angiogenesis with vascular endothelial growth factor as a target. Various VEGF-inhibitors are approved for the treatment of ccRCC and we discuss recent advancements in the treatment of metastatic ccRCC. Other gene alterations have been identified in hereditary cancer syndromes, e.g. FLCN, TSC1, TSC2, TFE3, TFEB, MITF, FH, SDHB, SDHD, MET, and PTEN and we review their role in renal tumor carcinogenesis, prognosis, and targeted therapy. By reviewing the associations between morphologic features and molecular genetics of renal cancer we provide insight into the basis for targeted renal cancer therapy.

  2. Omnibus Report: Europe, Middle East, Africa, East Asia and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C F; Nolte, R H; Liebenow, J G; Ravenholt, A; Handelman, H

    1979-01-01

    5 papers deal respectively with economic development in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, East Asia, and Latin America. In Europe, basic problems include increasing political and military weakness; the high costs of social democracy; problems of the welfare state; the trend toward low or no-growth population rates; declining fertility combined with increasing longevity; increasing demand for social services and health care; industrial decline; continuing decline in economic indices; integration of the Left in European politics; and a pervasive trend toward neoconservatism. The paper on the Middle East focuses on Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the recent Egypt-Israel Treaty, in terms of assessment of the present situation followed by a prognosis for the future. The paper on Africa discusses 4 crises of development: 1) the crisis of national identity; 2) the crisis of poverty; 3) the crisis of colonialism and neocolonialism; and 4) the crisis of popular control over government. The paper on east Asia discusses the "economic miracles" and whether or not they are replicable elsewhere in the Pacific and Asia. Finally, the paper on Latin America focuses on the fact that despite expansion of the urban middle class through economic development and modernization, little economic improvement has resulted. The challenge of the 1980s will be to see whether Latin America can put its economies back on track while managing to channel more of the economic benefits to the "have-nots" and to allow more open, participatory systems.

  3. Identification of a genomic subgroup of BK polyomavirus spread in European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaya, Hiroshi; Saukko, Pekka J; Tertti, Risto; Metsärinne, Kaj P; Carr, Michael J; Crowley, Brendan; Sakurada, Koichi; Zheng, Huai-Ying; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Yogo, Yoshiaki

    2006-11-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKV) is highly prevalent in the human population, infecting children without obvious symptoms and persisting in the kidney in a latent state. In immunosuppressed patients, BKV is reactivated and excreted in urine. BKV isolates worldwide are classified into four serologically distinct subtypes, I-IV, with subtype I being the most frequently detected. Furthermore, subtype I is subdivided into subgroups based on genomic variations. In this study, the distribution patterns of the subtypes and subgroups of BKV were compared among four patient populations with various immunosuppressive states and of various ethnic backgrounds: (A) Finnish renal-transplant recipients; (B) Irish/English haematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients with and without haemorrhagic cystitis; (C) Japanese renal-transplant recipients; and (D) Japanese bone-marrow transplant recipients. The typing sequences (287 bp) of BKV in population A were determined in this study; those in populations B-D have been reported previously. These sequences were subjected to phylogenetic and single nucleotide polymorphism analyses. Based on the results of these analyses, the BKV isolates in the four patient populations were classified into subtypes and subgroups. The incidence of subtype IV varied significantly among patient populations. Furthermore, the incidence of subgroup Ib-2 within subtype I was high in populations A and B, whereas that of Ic was high in populations C and D (PBKV DNA sequences supported the hypothesis that there is geographical separation of European and Asian BKV strains.

  4. In vivo differentiation of common basal cell carcinoma subtypes by microvascular and structural imaging using dynamic optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themstrup, Lotte; De Carvalho, Nathalie; Nielsen, Sabrina M; Olsen, Jonas; Ciardo, Silvana; Schuh, Sandra; Nørnberg, Birgit M-H; Welzel, Julia; Ulrich, Martina; Pellacani, Giovanni; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2018-02-01

    The subtype of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) influences the choice of treatment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging tool, and a recent development of an angiographic version of OCT has extended the application of OCT to image the cutaneous microvasculature (so-called dynamic OCT, D-OCT). This study explores D-OCT's ability to differentiate the common BCC subtypes by microvascular and structural imaging. Eighty-one patients with 98 BCC lesions, consisting of three subtypes: 27 superficial BCC (sBCC), 55 nodular BCC (nBCC) and 16 infiltrative BCC (iBCC) were D-OCT scanned at three European dermatology centres. Blinded evaluations of microvascular and structural features were performed, followed by extensive statistical analysis of risk ratio (RR) and multiple correspondence analysis. nBCC lesions displayed most characteristic structural and vascular features. Serpiginous vessels, branching vessels, vessels creating a circumscribed figure and sharply demarcated hyporeflective ovoid structures in the dermis were all associated with a higher risk of the subtype being nBCC. The presence of highly present lines and dark peripheral borders at the margin of ovoid structures was negatively associated with iBCC. Lastly, the finding of hyporeflective ovoid structures protruding from epidermis correlated with sBCC. We identified various microvascular and structural D-OCT features that may aid non-invasive identification of BCC subtypes. This would allow clinicians to individualize and optimize BCC treatment as well as aid follow-up of non-surgical treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated ...

  6. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-05

    May 5, 2007 ... 242 EAST A FRICAN MEDICAL J O URNAL. This partially compromised blood supply and resulted in gangrene. After debridement, the patient lost the whole of the skin and subcutaneous layer' of the right forearm with the thumb, index and little fingers (Figure3). She had skin grafting subsequently and she ...

  7. REGION OF EAST AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana (Musa spp.) cultivar diversity in the Great Lakes region of East Africa has been on the decline for the last several decades. A number of abiotic, biotic and socio-economic factors are thought to be responsible for this decline. In spite of low variation with respect to stress resistance, a number of farmers have ...

  8. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... include hypothermia, reduced appetite, depressed overall sexual potency and clinical spermatorrhoea ..... EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. 25. Table 4. Drug consumption and semen volume. (GMH, BMS, 1992-1995). No. Drag consumed. 0-2. No. %. No. Semen volume (ml). 2-6. % No. >6. %. No.

  9. East Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-18

    above total includes one to two events a month,79 upkeep of an old-age home, of the community library and a kosher 99 butcher shop. The old-age home...the kosher butcher shop, which is open Tuesday to Thursday from 1000 to 1800 hours, includes, in addition to the about 10 East Berlin regular

  10. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 79 No. 2 February 2002. HAEMATOLÖGICAL ALTERATIONS IN LEPROSY PATIENTS TREATED WITH DAPSONE. N.K.D. Halim, MBChB, FMCPath, Senior Lecturer and Head, Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Medical Sciences,. University of Benin, Benin ...

  11. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-02

    10 Su-22/FITTER K and 15 L-29 " Delfin " (NATO desig- nation: MAYA) from CSSR production as photo-recon- naissance aircraft. The 2 transport aircraft...aircraft within the East Bloc as well: Its trainers, the older L-29 " Delfin " (NATO code name MAYA) and the modern L-39 "Albatros," are being used by the

  12. Post Crisis European Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop, Napoleon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis is still evolving, at least from the point of view of some features making the entire process of its reversing very difficult - uncertainties, confusions and lack of investors` trust. More then that, every rim of the Atlantic Ocean has its own opinion as to the timing of the exit stimulus measures. There are prevailing risks taken into consideration when we talk about the next stage of the economic growth e.g. its sustainability on a log run or inflaming the inflation. It is for sure, that according to the core economic policies practiced either in USA or Europe, in Europe what count most is the danger of the inflation, if the right time of stopping the flood of the governmental funds to the real economy is not well chosen. The economic situation in Europe, as all over the world, in spite of some signs that the economy is on the right track ( South East Asia, USA or Germany, there are a lot of doubts as to the assurance that recession is over and there is no way for an immediate return. Notabilities in economics see that governmental intervention should be continued, just because the economic growth consigned by statistics is not convincing. Convictions, if they exist, are blended with a lot of obsessions which in my opinion are making up a serious agenda of the debates in Europe: budgetary deficit in excess, danger of the inflation, new regulation of the financial sector, credibility of the euro zone. Romania has to be involved in all these debates as it is passing through all the mentioned difficulties which need solutions within the frame of European standards, as a member of the EU.

  13. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  14. CTL epitope distribution patterns in the Gag and Nef proteins of HIV-1 from subtype A infected subjects in Kenya: Use of multiple peptide sets increases the detectable breadth of the CTL response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birx Deborah L

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtype A is a major strain in the HIV-1 pandemic in eastern Europe, central Asia and in certain regions of east Africa, notably in rural Kenya. While considerable effort has been focused upon mapping and defining immunodominant CTL epitopes in HIV-1 subtype B and subtype C infections, few epitope mapping studies have focused upon subtype A. Results We have used the IFN-γ ELIspot assay and overlapping peptide pools to show that the pattern of CTL recognition of the Gag and Nef proteins in subtype A infection is similar to that seen in subtypes B and C. The p17 and p24 proteins of Gag and the central conserved region of Nef were targeted by CTL from HIV-1-infected Kenyans. Several epitope/HLA associations commonly seen in subtype B and C infection were also observed in subtype A infections. Notably, an immunodominant HLA-C restricted epitope (Gag 296–304; YL9 was observed, with 8/9 HLA-CW0304 subjects responding to this epitope. Screening the cohort with peptide sets representing subtypes A, C and D (the three most prevalent HIV-1 subtypes in east Africa, revealed that peptide sets based upon an homologous subtype (either isolate or consensus only marginally improved the capacity to detect CTL responses. While the different peptide sets detected a similar number of responses (particularly in the Gag protein, each set was capable of detecting unique responses not identified with the other peptide sets. Conclusion Hence, screening with multiple peptide sets representing different sequences, and by extension different epitope variants, can increase the detectable breadth of the HIV-1-specific CTL response. Interpreting the true extent of cross-reactivity may be hampered by the use of 15-mer peptides at a single concentration and a lack of knowledge of the sequence that primed any given CTL response. Therefore, reagent choice and knowledge of the exact sequences that prime CTL responses will be important factors in

  15. 119 Research Article Resistance to European Penetration into Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-22

    Jun 22, 2017 ... Resistance to European Penetration into Africa:The case of the North West Region of Cameroon. MATHEW .... French from their colonial territories in the East ..... men and women. They arrived at Bangante and were not received by Chief Nana and so he continued south-but was attacked by the people.

  16. New paradigms for Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Franz, Eelco; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    Microbial subtyping is the most common approach for Salmonella source attribution. Typically, attributions are computed using frequency-matching models like the Dutch and Danish models based on phenotyping data (serotyping, phage-typing, and antimicrobial resistance profiling). Herewith, we

  17. Brief report: Further evidence of sensory subtypes in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E; Dennis, Simon J; Geraghty, Maureen E

    2011-06-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the triad of sensory subtypes reported earlier. Subtypes were differentiated from each other based on degree of SP dysfunction, taste/smell sensitivity and vestibular/proprioceptive processing. Further elucidation of two of the subtypes was also achieved in this study. Children with a primary pattern of sensory-based inattention could be further described as sensory seekers or non-seekers. Children with a primary pattern of vestibular/proprioceptive dysfunction were also differentiated on movement and tactile sensitivity.

  18. Molecular Subtyping of Treponema pallidum in Paris, France

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grange, Philippe Alain; Allix-Beguec, Caroline; Chanal, Johan; Benhaddou, Nadjet; Gerhardt, Philippe; Morini, Jean-Pierre; Deleuze, Jean; Lassau, François; Janier, Michel; Dupin, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTTwo major Treponema pallidum subtypes, 14 d/g and 14 d/f, were identified in a population of 119 patients with syphilis in Paris, France, characterized by a high proportion of men who have sex with men...

  19. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  20. Risk Factors for Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Histologic Subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirk JT

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the different histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma have different risk factors. We investigated the relationships between selected epidemiologic variables (i.e., parity, family history of ovarian cancer, oral contraceptive use, a history of tubal ligation and noncontraceptive estrogen use and the major histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer in a hospital-based case-control study of adult women at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, USA. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. We observed a pattern of increased risk associated with family history and a pattern of risk reduction associated with parity, noncontraceptive estrogen use and tubal ligation across all histologic subtype groups. However, we did not observe a consistent pattern of risk associated with oral contraceptive use. These results provide some additional support for the hypothesis that the effects of various ovarian cancer risk factors may differ according to the histologic subtype.

  1. Salmonella Source Attribution in Japan by a Microbiological Subtyping Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyofuku, Hajime; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2011-01-01

    to specific sources and allows for the estimation of the differences in the ability of Salmonella subtypes and food types to result in reported salmonellosis. The number of human cases caused by different Salmonella subtypes is estimated as a function of the prevalence of these subtypes in the animal......-food sources, subtype-related factors, and source-related factors. National-surveillance serotyping data from 1998 to 2007 were applied to the model. Results suggested that the relative contribution of the sources to salmonellosis varied during the 10 year period, and that eggs are the most important source....... The proportion of cases attributed to an unknown source varied substantially between years. We conclude that this is valid approach to attribute salmonellosis in Japan, and that and improved dataset would substantially improve results. This is the first indication of the relative contribution of different foods...

  2. Interpersonal subtypes in social phobia: diagnostic and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Nicole M; Pincus, Aaron L; Grosse Holtforth, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Interpersonal assessment may provide a clinically useful way to identify subtypes of social phobia. In this study, we examined evidence for interpersonal subtypes in a sample of 77 socially phobic outpatients. A cluster analysis based on the dimensions of dominance and love on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales (Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 1990) found 2 interpersonal subtypes of socially phobic patients. These subtypes did not differ on pretreatment global symptom severity as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) or diagnostic comorbidity but did exhibit differential responses to outpatient psychotherapy. Overall, friendly-submissive social phobia patients had significantly lower scores on measures of social anxiety and significantly higher scores on measures of well-being and satisfaction at posttreatment than cold-submissive social phobia patients. We discuss the results in terms of interpersonal theory and the clinical relevance of assessment of interpersonal functioning prior to beginning psychotherapy with socially phobic patients.

  3. Subtyping aggression and predicting cognitive behavioral treatment response in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, K.C.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation describes the clinical relevance of the distinction between proactive and reactive aggression in adolescents with aggression problems. These subtypes of aggression can be clinical distinguished on the level of severity rather than typology; proactive aggression is always

  4. A differentiation-based phylogeny of cancer subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Riester

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological classification of human tumors relies in part on the degree of differentiation of the tumor sample. To date, there is no objective systematic method to categorize tumor subtypes by maturation. In this paper, we introduce a novel computational algorithm to rank tumor subtypes according to the dissimilarity of their gene expression from that of stem cells and fully differentiated tissue, and thereby construct a phylogenetic tree of cancer. We validate our methodology with expression data of leukemia, breast cancer and liposarcoma subtypes and then apply it to a broader group of sarcomas. This ranking of tumor subtypes resulting from the application of our methodology allows the identification of genes correlated with differentiation and may help to identify novel therapeutic targets. Our algorithm represents the first phylogeny-based tool to analyze the differentiation status of human tumors.

  5. Occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors and lymphoma risk in a multi-centric European study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costas, L.; Infante-Rivard, C.; Zock, J.P.; Tongeren, M. van; Boffetta, P.; Cusson, A.; Robles, C.; Casabonne, D.; Benavente, Y.; Becker, N.; Brennan, P.; Foretova, L.; Maynadié, M.; Staines, A.; Nieters, A.; Cocco, P.; Sanjose, S. de

    2015-01-01

    Background: Incidence rates of lymphoma are usually higher in men than in women, and oestrogens may protect against lymphoma. Methods: We evaluated occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) among 2457 controls and 2178 incident lymphoma cases and subtypes from the European

  6. The European Union’s Relations with Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomala Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Greenland has a special relationship with the European Union due to its link with the Kingdom of Denmark - Greenland’s mother country. As a result, Greenland shares some parts of the EU’s internal market via association agreements. Greenland, has become a meeting place of American, European and Asian interests in the Arctic. It is therefore essential that the EU doesn’t lose the North and keeps strengthening its relationship with Greenland. After having focused its attention on the East and the South, it is high time that the European Union looks further North, notably through a more ambitious Arctic Window in its Northern sphere of influence.

  7. Fluorescence amplified fragment length polymorphism compared to pulsed field gel electrophoresis for Listeria monocytogenes subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Sophie; Félix, Benjamin; Grant, Kathie; Dao, Trinh Tam; Brisabois, Anne; Amar, Corinne

    2013-01-24

    Listeriosis is a severe infection which mainly affects pregnant women, neonates and immuno-compromised adults. ANSES's Laboratory for Food safety has been the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for L. monocytogenes in the food chain since 2006. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) is routinely used in the EURL for the surveillance of L. monocytogenes isolated from foods, animals and the environment. One of the main EURL activities is to evaluate alternative molecular subtyping methods to PFGE, and integrate their use within the National Reference Laboratories (NRL) network. Since 2008, the United Kingdom (UK)-NRL for L. monocytogenes at the Health Protection Agency (HPA), London, has used fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (fAFLP) for the routine surveillance of L. monocytogenes isolated from human clinical cases, food and food processing environments in the UK. This study compares fAFLP with PFGE for subtyping L. monocytogenes. A panel of 109 L. monocytogenes isolates from either human cases of listeriosis, foods, food processing environments and animals were used for the comparative evaluation. Among these, 2 strains were tested from duplicate culture by both methods. The panel also included field isolates, isolates associated with outbreaks or sporadic cases and reference strains. The two strains tested in duplicate displayed the same fAFLP and PFGE types. Strains known to be epidemiologically associated with one another were found to have unique PFGE and fAFLP types. FAFLP and PFGE divided the strains into 76 and 82 distinct profiles, or types, respectively. The discriminatory index calculated was 0.993 and 0.996 for fAFLP and PFGE, respectively. The discriminatory ability of fAFLP was similar to that of PFGE for the subtyping of L. monocytogenes isolates. As a less labour intensive technique fAFLP may be a better method to use than PFGE in investigating outbreaks of human listeriosis and tracking the source of contamination in food

  8. Breaking the Cycle of Poverty: Challenges for European Early Childhood Education and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leseman, Paul P. M.; Slot, Pauline L.

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates in European countries have increased during recent decades and are particularly high in East European countries. Young children are especially vulnerable to poverty. Poverty in early childhood can have irreversible negative consequences for cognitive, social and emotional development, academic achievement and behavioural adjustment.…

  9. Light microscope autoradiography of peripheral dopamine receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, F

    1997-01-01

    Radioligand binding assay techniques associated with light microscope autoradiography were used for investigating the pharmacological profile and the micro anatomical localization of peripheral dopamine receptor subtypes. In systemic arteries, the predominant dopamine D1-like receptor belongs to the D5 (or D1B) subtype. It is located within smooth muscle of the tunica media. In pulmonary arteries, dopamine D1-like receptors have primarily an endothelial localization and belong to the dopamine D1 (or D1A) receptor subtype. Both systemic and pulmonary arteries express a dopamine D2-like receptor belonging to the D2 receptor subtype. It has a prejunctional localization in the majority of vascular beds investigated. In cerebral, coronary and mesenteric arteries, it has also an endothelial localization. In the heart, a dopamine D4 receptor was identified. It is expressed by atrial tissue and has a widespread distribution overall atrial musculature. The kidney expresses both dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptors. Renal dopamine D1-like receptors have a vascular and tubular localization. The majority of these sites belongs to the D5 receptor subtype. A smaller D1 receptor population has primarily a tubular localization. Renal dopamine D2-like receptors belong to the dopamine D3 subtype and in lesser amounts to the D2 and D4 receptor subtypes. Renal dopamine D3 receptor has to a greater extent a tubular localization, whereas the D4 receptor is located within glomerular arterioles. The above results suggest that radioligand binding assay and autoradiographic techniques, if performed in the presence of compounds displaying specific receptor subtype selectivity, may contribute to characterize, mainly from a quantitative point of view, peripheral dopamine receptors.

  10. Risk Factors for Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Histologic Subtype

    OpenAIRE

    Quirk JT; Natarajan N; Mettlin CJ; Moysich KB; Swede H

    2004-01-01

    It is unclear whether the different histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma have different risk factors. We investigated the relationships between selected epidemiologic variables (i.e., parity, family history of ovarian cancer, oral contraceptive use, a history of tubal ligation and noncontraceptive estrogen use) and the major histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer in a hospital-based case-control study of adult women at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, USA...

  11. Molecular subtypes of glioblastoma are relevant to lower grade glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Guan

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults with great heterogeneity in histopathology and clinical course. The intent was to evaluate the relevance of known glioblastoma (GBM expression and methylation based subtypes to grade II and III gliomas (ie. lower grade gliomas.Gene expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array and clinical data were obtained for 228 GBMs and 176 grade II/II gliomas (GII/III from the publically available Rembrandt dataset. Two additional datasets with IDH1 mutation status were utilized as validation datasets (one publicly available dataset and one newly generated dataset from MD Anderson. Unsupervised clustering was performed and compared to gene expression subtypes assigned using the Verhaak et al 840-gene classifier. The glioma-CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (G-CIMP was assigned using prediction models by Fine et al.Unsupervised clustering by gene expression aligned with the Verhaak 840-gene subtype group assignments. GII/IIIs were preferentially assigned to the proneural subtype with IDH1 mutation and G-CIMP. GBMs were evenly distributed among the four subtypes. Proneural, IDH1 mutant, G-CIMP GII/III s had significantly better survival than other molecular subtypes. Only 6% of GBMs were proneural and had either IDH1 mutation or G-CIMP but these tumors had significantly better survival than other GBMs. Copy number changes in chromosomes 1p and 19q were associated with GII/IIIs, while these changes in CDKN2A, PTEN and EGFR were more commonly associated with GBMs.GBM gene-expression and methylation based subtypes are relevant for GII/III s and associate with overall survival differences. A better understanding of the association between these subtypes and GII/IIIs could further knowledge regarding prognosis and mechanisms of glioma progression.

  12. Epigenetic Subtypes of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    CRISPR screen to investigate mechanisms of resistance to epigenetic therapies. POC: Program Administrator Sylvia C. Lin Email: Sylvia_Lin...1 AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0213 TITLE: Epigenetic Subtypes of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE Epigenetic Subtypes of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0213 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  13. Obesity and Breast Cancer: Do Age, Race and Subtype Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly M. Arnold; Flynn, Nicole J.; Sims-Mourtada, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Obesity rates within the United States are on the rise. Obesity is a known risk factor for various diseases, including cancer. Numerous studies have linked obesity to the incidence and treatment outcomes of breast cancer. However, the risk of obesity may vary between breast cancer subtypes and different racial or age groups. In this article, we review the literature regarding the impact of obesity on incidence and response for different subtypes of breast cancer within different population gr...

  14. Subtype distribution of lymphomas in South of Iran, analysis of 1085 cases based on World Health Organization classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monabati, Ahmad; Safaei, Akbar; Noori, Sadat; Mokhtari, Maral; Vahedi, Amir

    2016-03-01

    Lymphoma is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Subtype distribution is different throughout the world. Some reports from the Middle East are in record. This article is trying to report the subtype distribution of lymphoma in Iran and compare it to that of Western, Far East Asian and Middle Eastern countries. A retrospective study was done on all lymphomas diagnosed in a large referral center in the South of Iran during a time period between 2009 and 2014. All diagnoses have been made according to 2008 WHO classification. A total number of 1085 cases with diagnoses of lymphoma retrieved. Twenty-nine cases (2.6 % of all) were precursor lymphoid neoplasm, 608 cases (56 % of all) were mature B cell neoplasm, 115 cases (10.5 % of all) were mature T and NK cell neoplasm, and 333 cases (30.6 % of all) were Hodgkin lymphoma. The six most frequent subtypes of mature B cell neoplasm were diffuse large B cell lymphoma, NOS (57 %), Burkitt lymphoma (7 %), small lymphocytic lymphoma (6.9 %), mantle cell lymphoma (5.7 %), extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma (5.2 %) and follicular lymphoma (3.6 %). Among mature T and NK cell neoplasm, mycosis fungoides was the most common type (43.4 %) followed by peripheral T cell lymphoma, NOS (20 %) and angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (9.9 %). Of Hodgkin lymphoma cases, 90.6 % were classical type and 9.3 % were nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Extranodal involvement was seen in 42.2 % and GI tract was the most common site. Lymphoma frequencies were similar to that of Middle Eastern countries except for lower rate of follicular lymphoma and higher incidence of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, NOS and small lymphocytic lymphoma.

  15. Subclass mapping: identifying common subtypes in independent disease data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Hoshida

    Full Text Available Whole genome expression profiles are widely used to discover molecular subtypes of diseases. A remaining challenge is to identify the correspondence or commonality of subtypes found in multiple, independent data sets generated on various platforms. While model-based supervised learning is often used to make these connections, the models can be biased to the training data set and thus miss inherent, relevant substructure in the test data. Here we describe an unsupervised subclass mapping method (SubMap, which reveals common subtypes between independent data sets. The subtypes within a data set can be determined by unsupervised clustering or given by predetermined phenotypes before applying SubMap. We define a measure of correspondence for subtypes and evaluate its significance building on our previous work on gene set enrichment analysis. The strength of the SubMap method is that it does not impose the structure of one data set upon another, but rather uses a bi-directional approach to highlight the common substructures in both. We show how this method can reveal the correspondence between several cancer-related data sets. Notably, it identifies common subtypes of breast cancer associated with estrogen receptor status, and a subgroup of lymphoma patients who share similar survival patterns, thus improving the accuracy of a clinical outcome predictor.

  16. Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptor subtypes in cerebral blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Villalon, A.L.; Krause, D.N.; Ehlert, F.J.; Duckles, S.P. (Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine (USA))

    1991-07-01

    The identity and distribution of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes and associated signal transduction mechanisms was characterized for the cerebral circulation using correlated functional and biochemical investigations. Subtypes were distinguished by the relative affinities of a panel of muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 (11-2-((2-(diethylaminomethyl)- 1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H- pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one), hexahydrosiladifenidol, methoctramine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide, dicyclomine, para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol and atropine. Muscarinic receptors characterized by inhibition of (3H)quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in membranes of bovine pial arteries were of the M2 subtype. In contrast pharmacological analysis of (3H)-quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in bovine intracerebral microvessels suggests the presence of an M4 subtype. Receptors mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rabbit pial arteries were of the M3 subtype, whereas muscarinic receptors stimulating endothelium-independent phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine pial arteries were of the M1 subtype. These findings suggest that characteristics of muscarinic receptors in cerebral blood vessels vary depending on the type of vessel, cellular location and function mediated.

  17. Baseline motor findings and Parkinson disease prognostic subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Ali H; Rajput, Michele L; Ferguson, Leslie W; Rajput, Alex

    2017-07-11

    To identify the significance of baseline motor features to the lifelong prognostic motor subtypes in a Parkinson disease (PD) cohort. In a previous study of 166 PD cases, we observed different prognosis in tremor-dominant, akinetic-rigid, and mixed subtypes. This study includes the same cases, but we excluded 10 cases with symptoms of ≥15 years duration at baseline. Relative severity of tremor, bradykinesia/akinesia, and rigidity at baseline were evaluated as predictors of the motor subtypes, which are known to have different prognosis. The most common motor subtype was mixed, followed by akinetic-rigid and then the tremor-dominant. Seventy cases were not receiving antiparkinsonian drugs at baseline. The prognostic subtypes could be predicted at baseline in 85% of all and in 91% of the treatment-naive cases. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were strong for the mixed and the akinetic-rigid but weak for the tremor-dominant subtype. Our data show that motor profile at baseline can predict prognosis in most PD cases. These findings can be incorporated into clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates in Sebha, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Ithoi, Init; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Surin, Johari

    2013-01-01

    Blastocystis is a genetically diverse and a common intestinal parasite of humans with a controversial pathogenic potential. This study was carried out to identify the Blastocystis subtypes and their association with demographic and socioeconomic factors among outpatients living in Sebha city, Libya. Blastocystis in stool samples were cultured followed by isolation, PCR amplification of a partial SSU rDNA gene, cloning, and sequencing. The DNA sequences of isolated clones showed 98.3% to 100% identity with the reference Blastocystis isolates from the Genbank. Multiple sequence alignment showed polymorphism from one to seven base substitution and/or insertion/deletion in several groups of non-identical nucleotides clones. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three assemblage subtypes (ST) with ST1 as the most prevalent (51.1%) followed by ST2 (24.4%), ST3 (17.8%) and mixed infections of two concurrent subtypes (6.7%). ST1 infection was significantly associated with female (P = 0.009) and low educational level (P = 0.034). ST2 was also significantly associated with low educational level (P= 0.008) and ST3 with diarrhoea (P = 0.008). Phylogenetic analysis of Libyan Blastocystis isolates identified three different subtypes; with ST1 being the predominant subtype and its infection was significantly associated with female gender and low educational level. More extensive studies are needed in order to relate each Blastocystis subtype with clinical symptoms and potential transmission sources in this community.

  19. Subtype Distribution of Blastocystis Isolates in Sebha, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Ithoi, Init; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M.; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Surin, Johari

    2013-01-01

    Background Blastocystis is a genetically diverse and a common intestinal parasite of humans with a controversial pathogenic potential. This study was carried out to identify the Blastocystis subtypes and their association with demographic and socioeconomic factors among outpatients living in Sebha city, Libya. Methods/Findings Blastocystis in stool samples were cultured followed by isolation, PCR amplification of a partial SSU rDNA gene, cloning, and sequencing. The DNA sequences of isolated clones showed 98.3% to 100% identity with the reference Blastocystis isolates from the Genbank. Multiple sequence alignment showed polymorphism from one to seven base substitution and/or insertion/deletion in several groups of non-identical nucleotides clones. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three assemblage subtypes (ST) with ST1 as the most prevalent (51.1%) followed by ST2 (24.4%), ST3 (17.8%) and mixed infections of two concurrent subtypes (6.7%). Blastocystis ST1 infection was significantly associated with female (P = 0.009) and low educational level (P = 0.034). ST2 was also significantly associated with low educational level (P= 0.008) and ST3 with diarrhoea (P = 0.008). Conclusion Phylogenetic analysis of Libyan Blastocystis isolates identified three different subtypes; with ST1 being the predominant subtype and its infection was significantly associated with female gender and low educational level. More extensive studies are needed in order to relate each Blastocystis subtype with clinical symptoms and potential transmission sources in this community. PMID:24376805

  20. Variability of Delirium Motor Subtype Scale-Defined Delirium Motor Subtypes in Elderly Adults with Hip Fracture : A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Rikie M.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Adamis, Dimitrios; de Jonghe, Annemarieke; Meagher, David J.; de Rooij, Sophia E. J. A.

    OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in motor subtype profile in individuals with delirium. DESIGN: Observational, longitudinal study; substudy of a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Departments of surgery and orthopedics, Academic Medical Center and Tergooi Hospital, the Netherlands.

  1. Towards a brief definition of burnout syndrome by subtypes: development of the "Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire" (BCSQ-12)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montero-Marín, Jesús; Skapinakis, Petros; Araya, Ricardo; Gili, Margarita; García-Campayo, Javier

    2011-01-01

    ...). The "Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire" (BCSQ-12), comprising the dimensions of overload, lack of development and neglect, is proposed as a brief means of identifying the different ways this disorder is manifested...

  2. alpha 1-Antitrypsin (Pi) types and subtypes in the Tyrolean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, A; Cleve, H; Schönitzer, D; Reissigl, H; Kazda, S; Müller, W

    1983-01-01

    Since nine patients with infantile liver cirrhosis or hepatopathy associated with the Pi ZZ phenotype had been observed in recent years in the Children's Hospital of the University of Innsbruck, Tyrol, the distribution of the Pi types and the PiM subtypes was determined in the Tyrolean population. Apparently healthy blood donors (868) from different regions of Tyrol were examined. Isoelectricfocusing was used for classification of Pi types. The frequency of the allele PiZ was 0.0138, which corresponded to the range observed in other Middle European populations. The frequencies for the suballeles of PiM were PiM1 = 0.7062, PiM2 = 0.1480, and PiM3 = 0.1037. PiS had a frequency of 0.0225, the other rare alleles occurred with a combined frequency of 0.0058.

  3. Short-term stability of subtypes in the irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsbro, A L; Simren, M; Bytzer, P

    2012-01-01

    In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subtyping is used in research and clinical practice. Knowledge of subtype stability is needed for proper design of trials and treatment strategies.......In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subtyping is used in research and clinical practice. Knowledge of subtype stability is needed for proper design of trials and treatment strategies....

  4. Turkish-Iranian Relations in a Changing Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    centuries. Subsequently, Iran’s ruling Qajar dynasty, of Turkic origin, saw the Otto- man Empire as a model of European-style modernization. Reza Shah ...were ultimately less successful and facilitated the overthrow of his son, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the rise of the Islamic Republic. Iran’s 1979...pillar of stability and protector of U.S. interests in the Middle East. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi had been brought to and maintained in power through

  5. Ten Messages About Youth Employment in South East Europe

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Today, nearly half of youth in the six South East European countries (SEE6) are not in the labor market, and one quarter is inactive—not in employment, education, or training. These poor outcomes partly reflect a difficult recovery in SEE6 from the 2008 global financial crisis, which sent already high youth unemployment soaring to new heights. This paper presents 10 evidence-based messages...

  6. Dynamics of brain responses to phobic-related stimulation in specific phobia subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseras, Xavier; Mataix-Cols, David; Trasovares, Maria Victoria; López-Solà, Marina; Ortriz, Hector; Pujol, Jesus; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Torrubia, Rafael

    2010-10-01

    Very few studies have investigated to what extent different subtypes of specific phobia share the same underlying functional neuroanatomy. This study aims to investigate the potential differences in the anatomy and dynamics of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses associated with spider and blood-injection-injury phobias. We used an event-related paradigm in 14 untreated spider phobics, 15 untreated blood-injection-injury phobics and 17 controls. Phobic images successfully induced distress only in phobic participants. Both phobic groups showed a similar pattern of heart rate increase following the presentation of phobic stimuli, this being different from controls. The presentation of phobic images induced activity within the same brain network in all participants, although the intensity of brain responses was significantly higher in phobics. Only blood-injection-injury phobics showed greater activity in the ventral prefrontal cortex compared with controls. This phobia group also presented a lower activity peak in the left amygdala compared with spider phobics. Importantly, looking at the dynamics of BOLD responses, both phobia groups showed a quicker time-to-peak in the right amygdala than controls, but only spider phobics also differed from controls in this parameter within the left amygdala. Considering these and previous findings, both phobia subtypes show very similar responses regarding their immediate reaction to phobia-related images, but critical differences in their sustained responses to these stimuli. These results highlight the importance of considering complex mental processes potentially associated with coping and emotion regulation processes, rather than exclusively focusing on primary neural responses to threat, when investigating fear and phobias. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. East Europe Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-17

    34 and, at times of dispropor- tionate precipitation, slows down the absorption of water and causes areas to become waterlogged . A comprehensive soil...tific and Methodological Conference of Marxist-Leninist Basic Studies at the Humboldt University in East Berlin on 24 October 1986: "Marxism...This scientific- methodological conference will discuss details of the teaching plans and study materials, as well as the study process. This is in

  8. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region. Pol...... focusing on outcomes or causal links tend to suggest that legacies prevail, but there is (nearly) consensus that Confucianism exercises great influence in the whole region....

  9. Pathway-based classification of cancer subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Shinuk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular markers based on gene expression profiles have been used in experimental and clinical settings to distinguish cancerous tumors in stage, grade, survival time, metastasis, and drug sensitivity. However, most significant gene markers are unstable (not reproducible among data sets. We introduce a standardized method for representing cancer markers as 2-level hierarchical feature vectors, with a basic gene level as well as a second level of (more stable pathway markers, for the purpose of discriminating cancer subtypes. This extends standard gene expression arrays with new pathway-level activation features obtained directly from off-the-shelf gene set enrichment algorithms such as GSEA. Such so-called pathway-based expression arrays are significantly more reproducible across datasets. Such reproducibility will be important for clinical usefulness of genomic markers, and augment currently accepted cancer classification protocols. Results The present method produced more stable (reproducible pathway-based markers for discriminating breast cancer metastasis and ovarian cancer survival time. Between two datasets for breast cancer metastasis, the intersection of standard significant gene biomarkers totaled 7.47% of selected genes, compared to 17.65% using pathway-based markers; the corresponding percentages for ovarian cancer datasets were 20.65% and 33.33% respectively. Three pathways, consisting of Type_1_diabetes mellitus, Cytokine-cytokine_receptor_interaction and Hedgehog_signaling (all previously implicated in cancer, are enriched in both the ovarian long survival and breast non-metastasis groups. In addition, integrating pathway and gene information, we identified five (ID4, ANXA4, CXCL9, MYLK, FBXL7 and six (SQLE, E2F1, PTTG1, TSTA3, BUB1B, MAD2L1 known cancer genes significant for ovarian and breast cancer respectively. Conclusions Standardizing the analysis of genomic data in the process of cancer staging

  10. European Integration and Labour Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julda Kielyte

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies how European integration might affect the migration of workers in the enlarged EU. Unlike the reduced-form migration models, we base our empirical analysis on the theory of economic geography à la Krugman (1991, which provides an alternative modelling of migration pull and push factors. Parameters of the theoretical model are estimated econometrically using historical migration data. Our empirical findings suggest that European integration would trigger selective migration between the countries in the enlarged EU. In the Baltics, Lithuania would gain about 7.25% of the total work force. In the Visegrád Four, the share of the mobile labour force would increase the most in Hungary, 8.35%, compared to the pre-integration state. Our predictions for the East-West migration are moderate and lower than those of reduced-form models: between 5.44% (from the Baltics and 3.61% (from the Visegrád Four would emigrate to the EU North. Because migrants not only follow market potential, but also shape the region’s market potential, the long-run agglomeration forces are sufficiently weak to make a swift emergence of a core-periphery pattern in the enlarged EU very unlikely.

  11. Poland’s Trade with East Asia: An Outlier Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Shoiw-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland achieved an excellent reputation for economic transformation during the recent global recession. The European debt crisis, however, quickly forced the reorientation of Poland’s trade outside of the European Union (EU, especially toward the dynamic region of East Asia. This study analyzes time series data from 1999 to 2013 to detect outliers in order to determine the bilateral trade paths between Poland and each East Asian country during the events of Poland’s accession to the EU in 2004, the global financial crisis from 2008 to 2009, and the European debt crisis from 2010 to 2013. From the Polish standpoint, the results showed significantly clustering outliers in the above periods and in the general trade paths from dependence through distancing and improvement to the chance of approaching East Asian partners. This study also shows that not only China but also several other countries present an excellent opportunity for boosting bilateral trade, especially with regard to Poland’s exports.

  12. Educating in European Identity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enrique Banús

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, the claim for a "European identity" has been manifested sometimes as a solution for the citizens' distance to the European project, sometimes also as a precondition for a further...

  13. South East Europe Regular Economic Report, No. 9S, Fall 2016 : Ten Messages About Youth Employment in South East Europe

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Today, nearly half of youth in the six South East European countries (SEE6) are not in the labor market, and one quarter is inactive—not in employment, education, or training. These poor outcomes partly reflect a difficult recovery in SEE6 from the 2008 global financial crisis, which sent already high youth unemployment soaring to new heights. This paper presents 10 evidence-based messages...

  14. Pulmonary Emphysema Subtypes on Computed Tomography in Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin M.; Austin, John H.M.; Newell, John D.; D’Souza, Belinda M.; Rozenshtein, Anna; Hoffman, Eric A.; Ahmed, Firas; Barr, R. Graham

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary emphysema is divided into three major subtypes at autopsy: centrilobular, paraseptal and panlobular emphysema. These subtypes can be defined by visual assessment on computed tomography (CT); however, clinical characteristics of emphysema subtypes on CT are not well-defined. We developed a reliable approach to visual assessment of emphysema subtypes on CT and examined if emphysema subtypes have distinct characteristics. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50–79 years with ≥10 pack-years. Participants underwent CT following a standardized protocol. Definitions of centrilobular, paraseptal and panlobular emphysema were obtained by literature review. Six-minute walk distance and pulmonary function were performed following guidelines. Results Twenty-seven percent of 318 smokers had emphysema on CT. Inter-rater reliability of emphysema subtype was substantial (K:0.70). Compared to participants without emphysema, individuals with centrilobular or panlobular emphysema had greater dyspnea, reduced walk distance, greater hyperinflation, and lower diffusing capacity. In contrast, individuals with PSE were similar to controls, except for male predominance. Centrilobular but not panlobular or paraseptal emphysema was associated with greater smoking history (+21 pack-years Pemphysema was associated with reduced body mass index (−5 kg/m2;P=0.01). Other than for dyspnea, these findings were independent of the forced expiratory volume in one second. Seventeen percent of smokers without COPD on spirometry had emphysema, which was independently associated with reduced walk distance. Conclusions Emphysema subtypes on CT are common in smokers with and without COPD. Centrilobular and panlobular emphysema but not paraseptal emphysema have considerable symptomatic and physiological consequences. PMID:24384106

  15. Clinical Characteristics of the Respiratory Subtype in Panic Disorder Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hye-Min; Kim, Ji-Hae; Heo, Jung-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Objective Panic disorder has been suggested to be divided into the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes in terms of its clinical presentations. The present study aimed to investigate whether there are any differences in treatment response and clinical characteristics between the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes of panic disorder patients. Methods Among the 48 patients those who completed the study, 25 panic disorder patients were classified as the respiratory subtype, whereas 23 panic disorder patients were classified as the non-respiratory subtype. All patients were treated with escitalopram or paroxetine for 12 weeks. We measured clinical and psychological characteristics before and after pharmacotherapy using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), Albany Panic and Phobic Questionnaire (APPQ), Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T, STAI-S), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Results The prevalence of the agoraphobia was significantly higher in the respiratory group than the non-respiratory group although there were no differences in gender and medication between the two groups. The respiratory group showed higher scores on the fear of respiratory symptoms of the ASI-R. In addition, after pharmacotherapy, the respiratory group showed more improvement in panic symptoms than the non-respiratory group. Conclusion Panic disorder patients with the respiratory subtype showed more severe clinical presentations, but a greater treatment response to SSRIs than those with non-respiratory subtype. Thus, classification of panic disorder patients as respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes may be useful to predict clinical course and treatment response to SSRIs. PMID:25395972

  16. Pulmonary emphysema subtypes on computed tomography: the MESA COPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin M; Austin, John H M; Newell, John D; D'Souza, Belinda M; Rozenshtein, Anna; Hoffman, Eric A; Ahmed, Firas; Barr, R Graham

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is divided into 3 major subtypes at autopsy: centrilobular, paraseptal, and panlobular emphysema. These subtypes can be defined by visual assessment on computed tomography (CT); however, clinical characteristics of emphysema subtypes on CT are not well defined. We developed a reliable approach to visual assessment of emphysema subtypes on CT and examined if emphysema subtypes have distinct characteristics. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and controls ages 50-79 years with ≥ 10 pack-years. Participants underwent CT following a standardized protocol. Definitions of centrilobular, paraseptal, and panlobular emphysema were obtained by literature review. Six-minute walk distance and pulmonary function were performed following guidelines. Twenty-seven percent of 318 smokers had emphysema on CT. Interrater reliability of emphysema subtype was substantial (K: 0.70). Compared with participants without emphysema, individuals with centrilobular or panlobular emphysema had greater dyspnea, reduced walk distance, greater hyperinflation, and lower diffusing capacity. In contrast, individuals with paraseptal emphysema were similar to controls, except for male predominance. Centrilobular, but not panlobular or paraseptal, emphysema was associated with greater smoking history (+21 pack-years P emphysema, was associated with reduced body mass index (-5 kg/m(2); P = .01). Other than for dyspnea, these findings were independent of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Seventeen percent of smokers without COPD on spirometry had emphysema, which was independently associated with reduced walk distance. Emphysema subtypes on CT are common in smokers with and without COPD. Centrilobular and panlobular emphysema, but not paraseptal emphysema, have considerable symptomatic and physiological consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oceanography of East Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiasa, John

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - September 2008) in Southern and Eastern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. A total of 102 CTD stations were conducted along selected hydrographical transects and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, the first section between latitude 25o-26oS showed sea surface temperature values ranging between 25oC to 15oC upper 250m depth. As part of the south-west, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the tip south of the Island coast. In contrast of the west coast, in all transects performed along the south and the east coast, in most cases, the isotherms showed non stratified waters from the coast to offshore. The presence of the upwelling system in the south-east coast modifies drastically the patterns of all measured parameters. Fluorescence had a maximum values (0.25 µg/l) at surface near the coast in 2nd to 5th transects. Inversely, low temperature values were observed along the south and south-east with minimum values in the range of 18. 5oC-11oC at 50-250 m depth. These conditions were consistent along and between the 2nd to 5th transects, with more variation observed at transect 5. The salinity values (5 m depth) decreased from 35.7 psu in the south to 34.5 psu in the east. The horizontal distribution of oxygen showed non homogenous conditions with values between 5 ml/l (south) and 2.5 ml/l (south-east). Also starting from the coast to offshore, surface temperatures and surface salinities, surface

  18. The European Narcolepsy Network (EU-NN) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Ramin; Luca, Gianina; Baumann, Christian R; Bassetti, Claudio L; Bruni, Oliviero; Canellas, Francesca; Dauvilliers, Yves; Del Rio-Villegas, Rafael; Feketeova, Eva; Ferri, Raffaele; Geisler, Peter; Högl, Birgit; Jennum, Poul; Kornum, Birgitte R; Lecendreux, Michel; Martins-da-Silva, Antonio; Mathis, Johannes; Mayer, Geert; Paiva, Teresa; Partinen, Markku; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Plazzi, Guiseppe; Santamaria, Joan; Sonka, Karel; Riha, Renata; Tafti, Mehdi; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Young, Peter; Lammers, Gert Jan; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2016-06-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare disease with an estimated prevalence of 0.02% in European populations. Narcolepsy shares many features of rare disorders, in particular the lack of awareness of the disease with serious consequences for healthcare supply. Similar to other rare diseases, only a few European countries have registered narcolepsy cases in databases of the International Classification of Diseases or in registries of the European health authorities. A promising approach to identify disease-specific adverse health effects and needs in healthcare delivery in the field of rare diseases is to establish a distributed expert network. A first and important step is to create a database that allows collection, storage and dissemination of data on narcolepsy in a comprehensive and systematic way. Here, the first prospective web-based European narcolepsy database hosted by the European Narcolepsy Network is introduced. The database structure, standardization of data acquisition and quality control procedures are described, and an overview provided of the first 1079 patients from 18 European specialized centres. Due to its standardization this continuously increasing data pool is most promising to provide a better insight into many unsolved aspects of narcolepsy and related disorders, including clear phenotype characterization of subtypes of narcolepsy, more precise epidemiological data and knowledge on the natural history of narcolepsy, expectations about treatment effects, identification of post-marketing medication side-effects, and will contribute to improve clinical trial designs and provide facilities to further develop phase III trials. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Francisella tularensis Subtype A.II Genomic Plasticity in Comparison with Subtype A.I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilynn A Larson

    Full Text Available Although Francisella tularensis is considered a monomorphic intracellular pathogen, molecular genotyping and virulence studies have demonstrated important differences within the tularensis subspecies (type A. To evaluate genetic variation within type A strains, sequencing and assembly of a new subtype A.II genome was achieved for comparison to other completed F. tularensis type A genomes. In contrast with the F. tularensis A.I strains (SCHU S4, FSC198, NE061598, and TI0902, substantial genomic variation was observed between the newly sequenced F. tularensis A.II strain (WY-00W4114 and the only other publically available A.II strain (WY96-3418. Genome differences between WY-00W4114 and WY96-3418 included three major chromosomal translocations, 1580 indels, and 286 nucleotide substitutions of which 159 were observed in predicted open reading frames and 127 were located in intergenic regions. The majority of WY-00W4114 nucleotide deletions occurred in intergenic regions, whereas most of the insertions and substitutions occurred in predicted genes. Of the nucleotide substitutions, 48 (30% were synonymous and 111 (70% were nonsynonymous. WY-00W4114 and WY96-3418 nucleotide polymorphisms were predominantly G/C to A/T allelic mutations, with WY-00W4114 having more A+T enrichment. In addition, the A.II genomes contained a considerably higher number of intact genes and longer repetitive sequences, including transposon remnants than the A.I genomes. Together these findings support the premise that F. tularensis A.II may have a fitness advantage compared to the A.I subtype due to the higher abundance of functional genes and repeated chromosomal sequences. A better understanding of the selective forces driving F. tularensis genetic diversity and plasticity is needed.

  20. From East to West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ria Vogels; Simone de Roos; Freek Bucx

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Van oost naar west The accession of Poland to the European Union in 2004, followed by Bulgaria and Romania in 2007, has led to an increase in the number of migrants coming from those countries to the Netherlands. How are the children of these migrants faring in the Netherlands? Are

  1. HIV subtype D is associated with dementia, compared with subtype A, in immunosuppressed individuals at risk of cognitive impairment in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacktor, Ned; Nakasujja, Noeline; Skolasky, Richard L; Rezapour, Mona; Robertson, Kevin; Musisi, Seggane; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Clifford, David B; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Quinn, Thomas C

    2009-09-01

    In the United States, clade B is the predominant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subtype, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa, clades A, C, and D are the predominant subtypes. HIV subtype may have an impact on HIV disease progression. The effect of HIV subtype on the risk of dementia has, to our knowledge, not been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between HIV subtype and the severity of HIV-associated cognitive impairment among individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy in Uganda. Sixty antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals with advanced immunosuppression who were at risk of HIV-associated cognitive impairment underwent neurological, neuropsychological, and functional assessments, and gag and gp41 regions were subtyped. Subtype assignments were generated by sequence analysis using a portion of the gag and gp41 regions. Thirty-three HIV-infected individuals were infected with subtype A, 2 with subtype C, 9 with subtype D, and 16 with A/D recombinants. Eight (89%) of 9 HIV-infected individuals with subtype D had dementia, compared with 7 (24%) of 33 HIV-infected individuals with subtype A (P = .004). These results suggest that, in untreated HIV-infected individuals with advanced immunosuppression who are at risk of developing HIV-associated cognitive impairment, HIV dementia may be more common among patients infected with subtype D virus than among those infected with subtype A virus. These findings provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that HIV subtypes may have a pathogenetic factor with respect to their capacity to cause cognitive impairment. Additional studies are needed to confirm this observation and to define the mechanism by which subtype D leads to an increased risk of neuropathogenesis.

  2. 專論/從柏林國立圖書館東亞部看德國國家東亞研究資料資源/考恩 | The East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library: German National Resources for East Asian Materials / Matthias Kaun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    考恩

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available

    For more than 50 years the East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library has been hosting a special interest collection on East- and Southeast Asia. Integrated into a federal network of German libraries, supervised and in part financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG – Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, this collection has become the largest of its kind in Europe. The East Asia Department supplies German and European libraries with publications in East Asian languages through a special inter-library loan service. Since 2002 the Berlin State Library has offered access to electronic resources like databases and electronic journals from the East Asian region via the virtual library CrossAsia. Furthermore the East Asia Department has become an access point to East Asian databases for European consortia.

    頁次:9-18

  3. European bank for reconstruction and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastratović Radovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - EBRD was established in the year 1991 and commenced operations in 1991. The objective of the Bank was to instigate market oriented approach to business in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. This comprises support offered to structural reforms, privatisation, and development of entrepreneurship and legal system through financing of project conducive to the achievement of the aimed targets. The Bank approves loans both to the nation states and to the private sector. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development often appears in the role of investor. In addition, the Bank has also its consultative function. Owners of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development are the developed countries and those that participate in the distribution of the Bank's profit. The Bank invests in the countries of Central, Eastern and South-East Europe, but also in those of Central Asia and Southern Mediterranean. The importance that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has for our country is best illustrated by the fact that this Bank is our largest institutional investor, with investments exceeding 3.5 billion EUR. This work begins with presentation of general information on the work of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, its objectives, activities, background history, ownership and organisational structure. It proceeds by giving relevant data on the Bank's business operations - the manner of project financing, the Bank's funds distribution per geographic criteria and activities, and the operative and financial results of the Bank's business activities. Brief description is also offered of the cooperation that the European Bank has with other international financial institutions. Finally, data is given bearing witness on the importance that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has for Serbia.

  4. Diagnosis and subtypes of adolescent antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meredith; Westen, Drew

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the application of the Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) diagnosis to adolescents and investigated the possibility of subtypes of APD adolescents. As part of a broader study of adolescent personality in clinically-referred patients, experienced clinicians provided personality data on a randomly selected patient in their care using the SWAP-II-A personality pathology instrument. Three hundred thirteen adolescents met adult DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for APD. To characterize adolescents with the disorder, we aggregated the data to identify the items most descriptive and distinctive of APD adolescents relative to other teenagers in the sample (N = 950). Q-factor analysis identified five personality subtypes: psychopathic-like, socially withdrawn, impulsive-histrionic, emotionally dysregulated, and attentionally dysregulated. The five subtypes differed in predictable ways on a set of external criteria related to global adaptive functioning, childhood family environment, and family history of psychiatric illness. Both the APD diagnosis and the empirically derived APD subtypes provided incremental validity over and above the DSM-IV disruptive behavior disorders in predicting global adaptive functioning, number of arrests, early-onset severe externalizing pathology, and quality of peer relationships. Although preliminary, these results provide support for the use of both APD and personality-based subtyping systems in adolescents.

  5. Clinically-inspired automatic classification of ovarian carcinoma subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha BenTaieb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It has been shown that ovarian carcinoma subtypes are distinct pathologic entities with differing prognostic and therapeutic implications. Histotyping by pathologists has good reproducibility, but occasional cases are challenging and require immunohistochemistry and subspecialty consultation. Motivated by the need for more accurate and reproducible diagnoses and to facilitate pathologists′ workflow, we propose an automatic framework for ovarian carcinoma classification. Materials and Methods: Our method is inspired by pathologists′ workflow. We analyse imaged tissues at two magnification levels and extract clinically-inspired color, texture, and segmentation-based shape descriptors using image-processing methods. We propose a carefully designed machine learning technique composed of four modules: A dissimilarity matrix, dimensionality reduction, feature selection and a support vector machine classifier to separate the five ovarian carcinoma subtypes using the extracted features. Results: This paper presents the details of our implementation and its validation on a clinically derived dataset of eighty high-resolution histopathology images. The proposed system achieved a multiclass classification accuracy of 95.0% when classifying unseen tissues. Assessment of the classifier′s confusion (confusion matrix between the five different ovarian carcinoma subtypes agrees with clinician′s confusion and reflects the difficulty in diagnosing endometrioid and serous carcinomas. Conclusions: Our results from this first study highlight the difficulty of ovarian carcinoma diagnosis which originate from the intrinsic class-imbalance observed among subtypes and suggest that the automatic analysis of ovarian carcinoma subtypes could be valuable to clinician′s diagnostic procedure by providing a second opinion.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 subtypes in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Kimdar S; Anastos, Kathryn; Weiser, Barbara; Ramirez, Christina M; Shi, Qiuhu; Burger, Harold

    2013-06-01

    HIV-1 infection is characterized by genetic diversity, with multiple subtypes and recombinant variants circulating, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. During the Rwandan genocide, many women experienced multiple rapes and some became HIV-1 infected. We studied plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 30 infected women comprising two exposure groups: those with numerous contacts, raped multiple times, and women with one lifetime sexual partner and no history of rape. Population-based sequences from gag, pol, and env genes were analyzed to determine HIV-1 subtypes and intersubtype recombination. Individual plasma-derived variants from 12 women were also analyzed. Subtype A was found in 24/30 (80%), intersubtype recombination (AC and AD) in 4/30 (13%), and subtypes C and D in 1/30 each. In two subjects, the pattern of HIV-1 recombination differed between plasma and PBMC-derived sequences. Intersubtype recombination was common, although there were no significant differences in subtype or recombination rates between exposure groups.

  7. Tailoring cognitive behavioural therapy to subtypes of voice-hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eSmailes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT for voice-hearing (i.e., auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH has, at best, small-to-moderate effects. One possible reason for this limited efficacy is that current CBT approaches tend to conceptualise voice-hearing as a homogenous experience in terms of the cognitive processes involved in AVH. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of voice-hearing suggests that many different cognitive processes may be involved in the etiology of AVH. These heterogeneous voice-hearing experiences do, however, appear to cluster into a set of subtypes, opening up the possibility of tailoring treatment to the subtype of AVH that a voice-hearer reports. In this paper, we (a outline our rationale for tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing, (b describe CBT for three putative subtypes of AVH (inner speech-based AVH, memory-based AVH, and hypervigilance AVH, and (c discuss potential limitations and problems with such an approach. We conclude by arguing that tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing could prove to be a valuable therapeutic development, which may be especially effective when used in early intervention in psychosis services.

  8. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Subtypes of Voice-Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailes, David; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Dodgson, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for voice-hearing (i.e., auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH) has, at best, small to moderate effects. One possible reason for this limited efficacy is that current CBT approaches tend to conceptualize voice-hearing as a homogenous experience in terms of the cognitive processes involved in AVH. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of voice-hearing suggests that many different cognitive processes may be involved in the etiology of AVH. These heterogeneous voice-hearing experiences do, however, appear to cluster into a set of subtypes, opening up the possibility of tailoring treatment to the subtype of AVH that a voice-hearer reports. In this paper, we (a) outline our rationale for tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing, (b) describe CBT for three putative subtypes of AVH (inner speech-based AVH, memory-based AVH, and hypervigilance AVH), and (c) discuss potential limitations and problems with such an approach. We conclude by arguing that tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing could prove to be a valuable therapeutic development, which may be especially effective when used in early intervention in psychosis services.

  9. Relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome and ancestry in European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjonnes, Andrew C; Saxena, Richa; Welt, Corrine K

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether European Americans with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) exhibit genetic differences associated with PCOS status and phenotypic features. Case-control association study in European Americans. Academic center. Women with PCOS diagnosed with the use of the National Institutes of Health criteria (n = 532) and control women with regular menstrual cycles and no evidence of hyperandrogenism (n = 432). Blood was drawn for measurement of sex steroids, metabolic parameters, and genotyping. Associations among PCOS status, phenotype, and genetic background identified with the use of principal component analysis. Principal component analysis identified five principal components (PCs). PC1 captured northwest-to-southeast European genetic variation and was associated with PCOS status. Acanthosis was associated with southern European ancestry, and larger waist:hip ratio was associated with northern European ancestry. PC2 was associated with east-to-west European genetic variation and cholesterol levels. These data provide evidence for genetic influence based on European ethnicity in women with PCOS. There is also evidence for a genetic component in the phenotypic features of PCOS within a mixed European population. The data point to the need to control for population stratification in genetic studies in women of mixed European ethnicity. They also emphasize the need for better studies of PCOS prevalence and phenotype as a function of genetic background. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Technological capability of foreign and West German investors in East Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, Jutta

    2004-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) plays an important role for countries or regions in the process of economic catching-up since it is assumed – among other things – that FDI brings in new production technology and knowledge. This paper gives an overview about the development of FDI in East Germany based on official data provided by the Federal Bank of Germany. The investigation also includes a comparison of FDI in East Germany to Central East European countries. But the main focus of the paper ...

  11. Impact of Stratospheric Sudden Warming on East Asian Winter Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanliang

    2017-04-01

    Quanliang Chen, Luyang Xu, and Hongke Cai College of Atmospheric Science, Chengdu University of Information Technology and Plateau Atmospheric and Environment Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610225, China Fifty-two stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events that occurred from 1957 to 2002 were analysed based on the 40-year European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis dataset. Those that could descent to the troposphere were composited to investigate their impacts on the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). It reveals that when the SSW occurs, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) are both in the negative phase and that the tropospheric circulations quite wave-like. The Siberian high and the Aleutian low are both strengthened, leading to an increased gradient between the Asian continent and the North Pacific. Hence, strong EAWM is observed with widespread cooling over in land and coastal East Asia. After the peak of the SSW, in contrast, the tropospheric circulation is quite zonally symmetric with negative phases of AO and NPO. The mid-tropospheric East Asian trough deepens and shifts eastward. This configuration facilitates warming over the East AsianinlandandcoolingoverthecoastalEastAsiacenteredoverJapan.Theactivitiesofplanetarywavesduringthelifecycleofthe SSW were analysed. The anomalous propagation and the attendant altered amplitude of the planetary waves can well explain the observed circulation and the EAWM.

  12. Integrated Phenotypic/Genotypic Analysis of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes: Identification of Prognostic Markers, Cancer-related Pathways, and Implications for Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeb, Rola M; Plant, Pamela; Tawedrous, Eriny; Krizova, Adriana; Brimo, Fadi; Evans, Andrew J; Wala, Samantha Jane; Bartlett, John; Ding, Qiang; Boles, Dina; Rotando, Fabio; Farag, Mina; Yousef, George M

    2016-09-22

    subtype PRCC and guide clinical management. The two types of papillary renal cancer are treated similarly. We show that the two types have a different genetic makeup, and hence they should be considered two different tumors. There is a different biology underlying each tumor type that can potentially affect the way they respond to treatment. We uncovered genes that can be tested for to guide therapy in some problematic cases for which it hard to define the tumor type. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Europeanization and transnational states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per; Pedersen, Ove K.

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states....

  14. Regional opportunities in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen N. Karingi; Pesce, Ottavia; Sommer, Lily

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been made by the East African Community partner states in implementing the East African Community customs union. Trade within the East African Community is now free from import duties, and partner states have adopted a three-band common external tariff. This paper assesses how the customs union has supported intraregional trade and industrialization, in particular through the development of competitive smokestack-free industries. It concludes that regional integration...

  15. Parkinson's disease severity and motor subtype influence physical capacity components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pinto Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The severity of Parkinson's disease (PD and PD's motor subtypes influence the components of physical capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of both PD severity and motor subtype in the performance of these components. Thirty-six PD patients were assigned into four groups: Tremor (TD initial and TD mild, akinetic-rigid (AR initial, and AR mild. Patients' strength, balance, coordination, mobility and aerobic capacity were evaluated and groups were compared using a two-way ANOVA (severity and subtype as factors. AR presents a poorer performance than TD in almost all tests. Also this performance was worsened with the advance of the disease in AR, contrary to TD. We conclude that AR and TD subgroups are different about their performance on physical capacity components, moreover, this performance worsens with the advance of the disease of the AR group, but not for TD.

  16. Sensory processing subtypes in autism: association with adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E; Young, Robyn L; Baker, Amy E Z; Angley, Manya T

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes were differentiated by taste and smell sensitivity and movement-related sensory behavior. Further, sensory processing subtypes predicted communication competence and maladaptive behavior. The findings of this study lay the foundation for the generation of more specific hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of sensory processing dysfunction in autism, and support the continued use of sensory-based interventions in the remediation of communication and behavioral difficulties in autism.

  17. Psychological subtypes of anorgasmia: a marker variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derogatis, L R; Fagan, P J; Schmidt, C W; Wise, T N; Gilden, K S

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-six women who presented with a principal complaint of anorgasmia were compared with a matched cohort of sexually functional controls on the domains of the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI). Patients were case matched with controls on age, race, marital status, and social class. Initial comparisons revealed significant differences between patient and control groups on a number of psychosexual characteristics, consistent with prior research. Based on evidence of heterogeneity within the patient sample and earlier research by our group, the anorgasmic cohort was partitioned by a "marker variable" approach into two anorgasmic subtypes. The marker variable used to create the subtypes was the presence of homosexual fantasies. Subsequent contrasts, both between the two anorgasmic subgroups, and with functional controls, revealed highly significant differences, and provided strong evidence for at least two psychologically distinct subtypes of anorgasmia.

  18. Complement factor H genetic variant and age-related macular degeneration: effect size, modifiers and relationship to disease subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofat, Reecha; Casas, Juan P; Webster, Andrew R; Bird, Alan C; Mann, Samantha S; Yates, John RW; Moore, Anthony T; Sepp, Tiina; Cipriani, Valentina; Bunce, Catey; Khan, Jane C; Shahid, Humma; Swaroop, Anand; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Branham, Kari E H; Zareparsi, Sepideh; Bergen, Arthur A; Klaver, Caroline CW; Baas, Dominique C; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Yuhong; Gibbs, Daniel; Weber, Bernhard H F; Keilhauer, Claudia N; Fritsche, Lars G; Lotery, Andrew; Cree, Angela J; Griffiths, Helen L; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Chen, Li L; Jenkins, Sharon A; Peto, Tunde; Lathrop, Mark; Leveillard, Thierry; Gorin, Michael B; Weeks, Daniel E; Ortube, Maria Carolina; Ferrell, Robert E; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Conley, Yvette P; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan H; Soubrane, Gisele; Topouzis, Fotis; Vioque, Jesus; Tomazzoli, Laura; Young, Ian; Whittaker, John; Chakravarthy, Usha; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Smeeth, Liam; Fletcher, Astrid; Hingorani, Aroon D

    2012-01-01

    Background Variation in the complement factor H gene (CFH) is associated with risk of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous studies have been case–control studies in populations of European ancestry with little differentiation in AMD subtype, and insufficient power to confirm or refute effect modification by smoking. Methods To precisely quantify the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1061170, ‘Y402H’) with risk of AMD among studies with differing study designs, participant ancestry and AMD grade and to investigate effect modification by smoking, we report two unpublished genetic association studies (n = 2759) combined with data from 24 published studies (26 studies, 26 494 individuals, including 14 174 cases of AMD) of European ancestry, 10 of which provided individual-level data used to test gene–smoking interaction; and 16 published studies from non-European ancestry. Results In individuals of European ancestry, there was a significant association between Y402H and late-AMD with a per-allele odds ratio (OR) of 2.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10–2.45; P = 1.1 x 10−161]. There was no evidence of effect modification by smoking (P = 0.75). The frequency of Y402H varied by ancestral origin and the association with AMD in non-Europeans was less clear, limited by paucity of studies. Conclusion The Y402H variant confers a 2-fold higher risk of late-AMD per copy in individuals of European descent. This was stable to stratification by study design and AMD classification and not modified by smoking. The lack of association in non-Europeans requires further verification. These findings are of direct relevance for disease prediction. New research is needed to ascertain if differences in circulating levels, expression or activity of factor H protein explain the genetic association. PMID:22253316

  19. Association between endometriosis and risk of histological subtypes of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Templeman, Claire; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice; Near, Aimee M; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; Doherty, Jennifer A; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L; Wicklund, Kristine G; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R; Carney, Michael E; Goodman, Marc T; Moysich, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hogdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Larson, Melissa C; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Palmieri, Rachel T; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Vitonis, Allison F; Titus, Linda J; Ziogas, Argyrios; Brewster, Wendy; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Ramus, Susan J; Anderson, A Rebecca; Brueggmann, Doerthe; Fasching, Peter A; Gayther, Simon A; Huntsman, David G; Menon, Usha; Ness, Roberta B; Pike, Malcolm C; Risch, Harvey; Wu, Anna H; Berchuck, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    Endometriosis is a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer; however, whether this risk extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumours is not clear. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess the association between endometriosis and histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. Data from 13 ovarian cancer case-control studies, which were part of the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, were pooled and logistic regression analyses were undertaken to assess the association between self-reported endometriosis and risk of ovarian cancer. Analyses of invasive cases were done with respect to histological subtypes, grade, and stage, and analyses of borderline tumours by histological subtype. Age, ethnic origin, study site, parity, and duration of oral contraceptive use were included in all analytical models. 13 226 controls and 7911 women with invasive ovarian cancer were included in this analysis. 818 and 738, respectively, reported a history of endometriosis. 1907 women with borderline ovarian cancer were also included in the analysis, and 168 of these reported a history of endometriosis. Self-reported endometriosis was associated with a significantly increased risk of clear-cell (136 [20·2%] of 674 cases vs 818 [6·2%] of 13 226 controls, odds ratio 3·05, 95% CI 2·43-3·84, pSmith Foundation, European Community's Seventh Framework Programme, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany, Programme of Clinical Biomedical Research, German Cancer Research Centre, Eve Appeal, Oak Foundation, UK National Institute of Health Research, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Cancer Council Tasmania, Cancer Foundation of Western Australia, Mermaid 1, Danish Cancer Society, and Roswell Park Alliance Foundation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiological risk factors associated with inflammatory breast cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Rachel L; El-Zein, Randa; Valero, Vicente; Lucci, Anthony; Bevers, Therese B; Fouad, Tamer; Liao, Weiqin; Ueno, Naoto T; Woodward, Wendy A; Brewster, Abenaa M

    2016-03-01

    In this single-institution case-control study, we identified risk factors associated with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) subtypes based on staining of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and expression of human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2neu) to determine distinct etiologic pathways. We identified 224 women with IBC and 396 cancer-free women seen at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between breast cancer risk factors and the IBC tumor subtypes: luminal (ER+ and/or PR+/HER2neu-), HER2neu+ (any ER and PR, HER2neu+), and triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2neu-). In multivariable analysis, compared with women age ≥26 at first pregnancy, women age risk of triple-negative IBC (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.37-8.05). Women with a history of breast-feeding had a lower risk of triple-negative (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.15-0.62) and luminal IBC (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18-0.68). A history of smoking was associated with an increased risk of luminal IBC (OR 2.37; 95% CI 1.24-4.52). Compared with normal-weight women, those who were overweight or obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)) had a higher risk of all three tumor subtypes (p risk factor for IBC of any subtype. Modifiable risk factors, age at first pregnancy (≥26), breast-feeding, and smoking may be associated with specific IBC subtypes. These results highlight the importance of evaluating epidemiologic risk factors for IBC for the identification of subtype-specific prevention strategies.

  1. Therapeutic response to benzodiazepine in panic disorder subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: This study makes a comparison between two subtypes of panic disorder regarding the clinical efficacy of clonazepam, a benzodiazepine. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of clonazepam in a fixed dosage (2 mg/day, compared to placebo, in the treatment of panic disorder patients and to verify whether there are any differences in the responses to clonazepam between panic disorder patients with the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes. TYPE OF STUDY: Randomized study with clonazepam and placebo. SETTING: Outpatient Anxiety and Depression Unit of the Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 34 patients with a diagnosis of panic disorder with agoraphobia, between 18 and 55 years old. PROCEDURES: Administration of clonazepam or placebo for 6 weeks, in panic disorder patients, after they were classified within two subtypes of panic disorder: respiratory and non-respiratory. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Changes in the number of panic attacks in comparison with the period before the beginning of the study; Hamilton Anxiety Scale; Global Clinical Impression Scale; and Patient's Global Impression scale. RESULTS: In the group that received clonazepam, by the end of the 6th week there was a statistically significant clinical improvement, shown by the remission of panic attacks (p < 0.001 and decrease in anxiety (p = 0.024. In the group that received clonazepam there was no significant difference between the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes of panic disorder, regarding the therapeutic response to clonazepam. CONCLUSION: Clonazepam was equally effective in the treatment of the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes of panic disorder, suggesting there is no difference in the therapeutic response between the two subtypes.

  2. P2 receptor subtypes in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunapuli, S P; Daniel, J L

    1998-12-15

    Extracellular nucleotides have been implicated in a number of physiological functions. Nucleotides act on cell-surface receptors known as P2 receptors, of which several subtypes have been cloned. Both ATP and ADP are stored in platelets and are released upon platelet activation. Furthermore, nucleotides are also released from damaged or broken cells. Thus during vascular injury nucleotides play an important role in haemostasis through activation of platelets, modulation of vascular tone, recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes to the site of injury, and facilitation of adhesion of leucocytes to the endothelium. Nucleotides also moderate these functions by generating nitric oxide and prostaglandin I2 through activation of endothelial cells, and by activating different receptor subtypes on vascular smooth muscle cells. In the heart, P2 receptors regulate contractility through modulation of L-type Ca2+ channels, although the molecular mechanisms involved are still under investigation. Classical pharmacological studies have identified several P2 receptor subtypes in the cardiovascular system. Molecular pharmacological studies have clarified the nature of some of these receptors, but have complicated the picture with others. In platelets, the classical P2T receptor has now been resolved into three P2 receptor subtypes: the P2Y1, P2X1 and P2TAC receptors (the last of these, which is coupled to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase, is yet to be cloned). In peripheral blood leucocytes, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes, the effects of classical P2X, P2Y and P2U receptors have been found to be mediated by more than one P2 receptor subtype. However, the exact functions of these multiple receptor subtypes remain to be understood, as P2-receptor-selective agonists and antagonists are still under development.

  3. Identification of Blastocystis Subtype 1 Variants in the Home for Girls, Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thathaisong, Umaporn; Siripattanapipong, Suradej; Mungthin, Mathirut; Pipatsatitpong, Duangnate; Tan-ariya, Peerapan; Naaglor, Tawee; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of Blastocystis infection was conducted to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors, and subtypes of Blastocystis at the Home for Girls, Bangkok, Thailand in November 2008. Of 370 stool samples, 118 (31.9%) were infected with Blastocystis. Genotypic characterization of Blastocystis was performed by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the partial small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Subtype 1 was the most predominant (94.8%), followed by subtype 6 (3.5%) and subtype 2 (1.7%). Sequence analyses revealed nucleotide polymorphisms for Blastocystis subtype 1, which were described as subtype 1/variant 1, subtype 1/variant 2. Blastocystis subtype 1/variant 1 was the most predominant infection occurring in almost every house. The results showed that subtype analysis of Blastocystis was useful for molecular epidemiological study. PMID:23166199

  4. East Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-15

    European nations make it necessary to continue the road mapped out in Helsinki , but our task is not only to reduce and elimi- nate various dangers...and security and disarmament in Europe, by the Helsinki meeting of the foreign ministers of the countries that signed the CSCE final act, and pay the...Embarrassed by ’Their Split’ — Belgrade Sees Organized Provocations Back of the Excesses of Hajduk Fans"] [Text] Split, 25 Nov—The cathedral of Split

  5. Parent stress across molecular subtypes of children with Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miodrag, N; Peters, S

    2015-09-01

    Parenting stress has been consistently reported among parents of children with developmental disabilities. However, to date, no studies have investigated the impact of a molecular subtype of Angelman syndrome (AS) on parent stress, despite distinct phenotypic differences among subtypes. Data for 124 families of children with three subtypes of AS: class I and II deletions (n = 99), imprinting centre defects (IC defects; n = 11) and paternal uniparental disomy (UPD; n = 14) were drawn from the AS Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) database and collected from five research sites across the Unites States. The AS study at the RDCRN gathered health information to understand how the syndrome develops and how to treat it. Parents completed questionnaires on their perceived psychological stress, the severity of children's aberrant behaviour and children's sleep patterns. Children's adaptive functioning and developmental levels were clinically evaluated. Child-related stress reached clinical levels for 40% of parents of children with deletions, 100% for IC defects and 64.3% for UPD. Sleep difficulties were similar and elevated across subtypes. There were no differences between molecular subtypes for overall child and parent-related stress. However, results showed greater isolation and lack of perceived parenting skills for parents of children with UPD compared with deletions. Better overall cognition for children with deletions was significantly related to more child-related stress while their poorer adaptive functioning was associated with more child-related stress. For all three groups, the severity of children's inappropriate behaviour was positively related to different aspects of stress. How parents react to stress depends, in part, on children's AS molecular subtype. Despite falling under the larger umbrella term of AS, it is important to acknowledge the unique aspects associated with children's molecular subtype. Identifying these factors can

  6. Reproductive profiles and risk of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouckaert, Olivier; Rudolph, Anja; Laenen, Annouschka

    2017-01-01

    pooled data on tumor markers (estrogen and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)) and reproductive risk factors (parity, age at first full-time pregnancy (FFTP) and age at menarche) from 28,095 patients with invasive BC from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that reproductive factors are differentially associated with breast cancer (BC) risk by subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between reproductive factors and BC subtypes, and whether these vary by age at diagnosis. METHODS: We used...

  7. East Africa: AIDS orphans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutayuga, J B

    1995-01-01

    The number of orphans in East Africa is growing rapidly due to the combined effects of the atrocities in Rwanda and Burundi and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. To meet their needs, Ukimwi Orphans Assistance (UOA), a nonprofit nongovernmental organization (NGO), was founded by East Africans in 1990; it has built "secondary family structures" of NGOs in Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya. Needs assessment studies showed that food producing and income generating projects had highest priority, but communities have made strides in housing, education, and health. Communal food plots, repair and building of shelters, using traditional crafts to earn money for school fees, developing remedial schools, and organizing traditional medical practitioners into clinics have all been undertaken in the effort to stop disease, restore normal living, and forestall socioeconomic collapse. UOA has found that culture-based programs succeed because they offer guarantees of sustainability and cost effectiveness. African principles of kinship and extended family are used to develop resources for providing minimum assistance and to rebuild caring and supporting communities for the children. Determined community efforts should be an incentive for increased external aid.

  8. Good clinical practice in East Africa: a review | Kimanani | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good clinical practice in East Africa: a review. E. Kimanani. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal 2001 78 (10): 550-554). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i10.8967 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  9. Assessing the Differences in Public Health Impact of Salmonella Subtypes Using a Bayesian Microbial Subtyping Approach for Source Attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. To prioritize interventions and assess the effectiveness of efforts to reduce illness, it is important to attribute salmonellosis to the responsible sources. Studies have suggested that some Salmonella subtypes have a higher health...... impact than others. Likewise, some food sources appear to have a higher impact than others. Knowledge of variability in the impact of subtypes and sources may provide valuable added information for research, risk management, and public health strategies. We developed a Bayesian model that attributes...... revealed that the model can be applied to data with less discriminatory power, which is the only data available in many countries. In conclusion, the model allows for the estimation of relative differences between Salmonella subtypes and sources, providing results that will benefit future risk assessment...

  10. Bulimia nervosa-nonpurging subtype: closer to the bulimia nervosa-purging subtype or to binge eating disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Carter, Janet D; Rowe, Sarah; Taylor, Kathryn; Frampton, Christopher M A; McKenzie, Janice M; Latner, Janet; Joyce, Peter R

    2014-04-01

    DSM-5 has dropped subtyping of bulimia nervosa (BN), opting to continue inclusion of the somewhat contentious diagnosis of BN-nonpurging subtype (BN-NP) within a broad BN category. Some contend however that BN-NP is more like binge eating disorder (BED) than BN-P. This study examines clinical characteristics, eating disorder symptomatology, and Axis I comorbidity in BN-NP, BN-P, and BED groups to establish whether BN-NP more closely resembles BN-P or BED. Women with BN-P (n = 29), BN-NP (n = 29), and BED (n = 54) were assessed at baseline in an outpatient psychotherapy trial for those with binge eating. Measures included the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV, Eating Disorder Examination, and Eating Disorder Inventory-2. The BN-NP subtype had BMIs between those with BN-P and BED. Both BN subtypes had higher Restraint and Drive for Thinness scores than BED. Body Dissatisfaction was highest in BN-NP and predicted BN-NP compared to BN-P. Higher Restraint and lower BMI predicted BN-NP relative to BED. BN-NP resembled BED with higher lifetime BMIs; and weight-loss clinic than eating disorder clinic attendances relative to the BN-P subtype. Psychiatric comorbidity was comparable except for higher lifetime cannabis use disorder in the BN-NP than BN-P subtype These results suggest that BN-NP sits between BN-P and BED however the high distress driving inappropriate compensatory behaviors in BN-P requires specialist eating disorder treatment. These results support retaining the BN-NP group within the BN category. Further research is needed to determine whether there are meaningful differences in outcome over follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Investigating European genetic history through computer simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currat, Mathias; Silva, Nuno M

    2013-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Europeans has been shaped by various evolutionary forces including their demographic history. Genetic data can thus be used to draw inferences on the population history of Europe using appropriate statistical methods such as computer simulation, which constitutes a powerful tool to study complex models. Here, we focus on spatially explicit simulation, a method which takes population movements over space and time into account. We present its main principles and then describe a series of studies using this approach that we consider as particularly significant in the context of European prehistory. All simulation studies agree that ancient demographic events played a significant role in the establishment of the European gene pool; but while earlier works support a major genetic input from the Near East during the Neolithic transition, the most recent ones revalue positively the contribution of pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherers and suggest a possible impact of very ancient demographic events. This result of a substantial genetic continuity from pre-Neolithic times to the present challenges some recent studies analyzing ancient DNA. We discuss the possible reasons for this discrepancy and identify future lines of investigation in order to get a better understanding of European evolution.

  12. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  13. Islamist Extremism in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    lived in East Africa for generations. Trade and cultural exchanges between East Africa and the Arab world are centuries old. These links predate...prestigious, following the 2001 World Trade Center attacks Western countries raised immigration hurdles. At the same time, scholarship...conservative interpretations of Islam regarding dress , the role of women, and differenti- ated relationships between Muslims and non-Muslims. The

  14. 398 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    398 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. August 2004. East African Medical Journal Vol. 81 No. 8 August 2004. POTENTIAL PATHOGENS IN THE LOWER GENITAL TRACT AT MANUAL VACUUM ASPIRATION FOR INCOMPLETE ABORTION IN KORLE. BU TEACHING HOSPITAL, GHANA. A. T. Lassey, FRCOG ...

  15. Archives: East African Orthopaedic Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 18 of 18 ... Archives: East African Orthopaedic Journal. Journal Home > Archives: East African Orthopaedic Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 18 of ...

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF THE EASTERN-EUROPEAN AUTO SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian-Ovidiu CINADE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Car-building industry territorial reconfiguration in Europe is the result of several rounds of company delocations from origin countries to emergent countries. Such rounds have been limited by the gradual opening of the national countries, as well as by changes in East European ideology and politics. Hence, about the end of the 90’s, European car-building industry shows considerable disparity, East to West. In the car-building companies’ vision, East-European car-building development potential is basically sustained by both the car low penetration rate, and the low labor cost. On the long term run, gradual valorizing of the East-european trading, with increasing labor costs, may read as a wearing thin of the competitive advantage in car-building industries, as well as problem issues of novel territory attractiveness needing permanent boosting. Country-to-country comparative analysis indicates that competitive advantage of car-building has not gone down in all of the West-European States. Competitive advantage of the West-European car-building industry increases, which can be explained, in part, by adequate strategies, as both labor costs, and cars penetration rate, go up.

  17. Methods used for the detection and subtyping of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Snehal; Bhave, Mrinal; Palombo, Enzo A

    2012-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen responsible for non-invasive and invasive diseases in the elderly, pregnant women, neonates and immunocompromised populations. This bacterium has many similarities with other non-pathogenic Listeria species which makes its detection from food and environmental samples challenging. Subtyping of L. monocytogenes strains can prove to be crucial in epidemiological investigations, source tracking contamination from food processing plants and determining evolutionary relationships between different strains. In recent years there has been a shift towards the use of molecular subtyping. This has led to the development of new subtyping techniques such as multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and multi-locus sequence based typing (MLST). This review focuses on the available methods for Listeria detection including immuno-based techniques and the more recently developed molecular methods and analytical techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight based mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). It also includes a comparison and critical analysis of the available phenotypic and genotypic subtyping techniques that have been investigated for L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial Differences by Ischemic Stroke Subtype: A Comprehensive Diagnostic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have suggested that black populations have more small-vessel and fewer cardioembolic strokes. We sought to analyze racial differences in ischemic stroke subtype employing a comprehensive diagnostic workup with magnetic resonance-imaging-(MRI- based evaluation including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI. Methods. 350 acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to an urban hospital with standardized comprehensive diagnostic evaluations were retrospectively analyzed. Ischemic stroke subtype was determined by three Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST classification systems. Results. We found similar proportions of cardioembolic and lacunar strokes in the black and white cohort. The only subtype category with a significant difference by race was “stroke of other etiology,” more common in whites. Black stroke patients were more likely to have an incomplete evaluation, but this did not reach significance. Conclusions. We found similar proportions by race of cardioembolic and lacunar strokes when employing a full diagnostic evaluation including DWI MRI. The relatively high rate of cardioembolism may have been underappreciated in black stroke patients when employing a CT approach to stroke subtype diagnosis. Further research is required to better understand the racial differences in frequency of “stroke of other etiology” and explore disparities in the extent of diagnostic evaluations.

  19. Breast cancer molecular subtype classifier that incorporates MRI features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth J; Dashevsky, Brittany Z; Oh, Jung Hun; Veeraraghavan, Harini; Apte, Aditya P; Thakur, Sunitha B; Morris, Elizabeth A; Deasy, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    To use features extracted from magnetic resonance (MR) images and a machine-learning method to assist in differentiating breast cancer molecular subtypes. This retrospective Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant study received Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. We identified 178 breast cancer patients between 2006-2011 with: 1) ERPR + (n = 95, 53.4%), ERPR-/HER2 + (n = 35, 19.6%), or triple negative (TN, n = 48, 27.0%) invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and 2) preoperative breast MRI at 1.5T or 3.0T. Shape, texture, and histogram-based features were extracted from each tumor contoured on pre- and three postcontrast MR images using in-house software. Clinical and pathologic features were also collected. Machine-learning-based (support vector machines) models were used to identify significant imaging features and to build models that predict IDC subtype. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) was used to avoid model overfitting. Statistical significance was determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Each support vector machine fit in the LOOCV process generated a model with varying features. Eleven out of the top 20 ranked features were significantly different between IDC subtypes with P machine-learning-based predictive model using features extracted from MRI that can distinguish IDC subtypes with significant predictive power. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:122-129. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Longitudinal Stability of Phonological and Surface Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2014-01-01

    Limited evidence supports the external validity of the distinction between developmental phonological and surface dyslexia. We previously identified children ages 8 to 13 meeting criteria for these subtypes (Peterson, Pennington, & Olson, 2013) and now report on their reading and related skills approximately 5 years later. Longitudinal…

  1. Phonological and Surface Subtypes among University Students with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological…

  2. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  3. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  4. Psychosocial and Adaptive Deficits Associated with Learning Disability Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backenson, Erica M.; Holland, Sara C.; Kubas, Hanna A.; Fitzer, Kim R.; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Smith, Amanda D.; Macoun, Sarah J.; Harrison, Gina L.; Hale, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent…

  5. Relationship between thrombus attenuation and different stroke subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, J.M.; Schaaf, I.C. van der; Biessels, G.J.; Otterloo, A.E. van; Seeters, T. van; Horsch, A.D.; Luitse, M.J.; Graaf, Y. van der; Kappelle, L.J.; Mali, W.P.Th.; Velthuis, B.K.; Meijer, A.; Dijk, E.J. van

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: More insights in the etiopathogenesis of thrombi could be helpful in the treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between presence of a hyperdense vessel sign and thrombus density with different stroke subtypes. METHODS:

  6. Family history of stroke in stroke types and subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychronopoulos, P; Gioldasis, G; Ellul, J; Metallinos, I C; Lekka, N P; Paschalis, C; Papapetropoulos, Th

    2002-03-30

    Many studies have provided data showing that family history of stroke (FHS) is associated with an increased risk of stroke. The association of the FHS with the various stroke subtypes has not been adequately studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of the FHS with the two major stroke types (cerebral haematomas and ischaemic strokes) and the four stroke subtypes (cardioembolic, large artery disease, small artery disease, and undetermined) in a Greek population. The FHS was obtained from 421 consecutive acute stroke patients and from 239 matched control subjects. Positive FHS was observed in 49% of all stroke patients compared with 28% of the control subjects [adjusted OR=2.06 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.42-3.00)]. Haematomas, ischaemic strokes, and from the ischaemic strokes, both large and small artery disease strokes were strongly associated with positive FHS compared with the control subjects [adjusted OR=2.06 (95% CI 9-3.04), 2.07 (95% CI 1.09-3.91), 2.05 (95% CI 1.24-3.38), and 2.76 (95% CI 1.55-4.91), respectively]. There was no difference between maternal and paternal heritable contribution.In conclusion, FHS was found in this study to be an independent risk factor for all strokes combined, for each stroke type, and for the large and small-artery disease stroke subtypes, but not for the cardioembolic and undetermined stroke subtypes.

  7. Notch as master regulator of breast cancer subtype and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Notch as master regulator of breast cancer subtype and intratumoural heterogeneity. Tumour heterogeneity is a driving force for disease progression and one of the major obstacles to effective treatment. Heterogeneity is driven by mutations and other processes that generate diverse cancer cell phenotypes and functions.

  8. Cancer of the esophagus; histopathological sub-types in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cause of cancer death worldwide with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma carcinoma as the main histopathological subtypes. Esophageal cancer is known for its marked variation by geographic region, ethnicity, and gender. The histopathological ...

  9. Neurophysiological mechanisms of emotion regulation for subtypes of externalizing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieben, J.; Lewis, M.D.; Granic, I.; Zelazo, P.D.; Segalowitz, S.; Pepler, D.

    2007-01-01

    Children referred for externalizing behavior problems may not represent a homogeneous population. Our objective was to assess neural mechanisms of emotion regulation that might distinguish subtypes of externalizing children from each other and from their normal age mates. Children with pure

  10. Assessing the genetic architecture of epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Lu, Yi; Dixon, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the deadliest common cancers. The five most common types of disease are high-grade and low-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell carcinoma. Each of these subtypes present distinct molecular pathogeneses and sensitivities to treatments. Recen...

  11. Cognitive subtypes of mathematics learning difficulties in primary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelet, Dimona; Ansari, Daniel; Vaessen, Anniek; Blomert, Leo

    2014-03-01

    It has been asserted that children with mathematics learning difficulties (MLD) constitute a heterogeneous group. To date, most researchers have investigated differences between predefined MLD subtypes. Specifically MLD children are frequently categorized a priori into groups based on the presence or absence of an additional disorder, such as a reading disorder, to examine cognitive differences between MLD subtypes. In the current study 226 third to six grade children (M age=131 months) with MLD completed a selection of number specific and general cognitive measures. The data driven approach was used to identify the extent to which performance of the MLD children on these measures could be clustered into distinct groups. In particular, after conducting a factor analysis, a 200 times repeated K-means clustering approach was used to classify the children's performance. Results revealed six distinguishable clusters of MLD children, specifically (a) a weak mental number line group, (b) weak ANS group, (c) spatial difficulties group, (d) access deficit group, (e) no numerical cognitive deficit group and (f) a garden-variety group. These findings imply that different cognitive subtypes of MLD exist and that these can be derived from data-driven approaches to classification. These findings strengthen the notion that MLD is a heterogeneous disorder, which has implications for the way in which intervention may be tailored for individuals within the different subtypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Social Withdrawal Subtypes during Early Adolescence in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Raja, Radhi

    2011-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age=13.35…

  13. Preoperative subtyping of meningiomas by perfusion MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Shanghai Jiaotong University affiliated First People' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Department of Radiology, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Roediger, Lars A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Shen, Tianzhen [Fudan University Huashan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Miao, Jingtao [Shanghai Jiaotong University affiliated First People' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2008-10-15

    This paper aims to evaluate the value of perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the preoperative subtyping of meningiomas by analyzing the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) of three benign subtypes and anaplastic meningiomas separately. Thirty-seven meningiomas with peritumoral edema (15 meningothelial, ten fibrous, four angiomatous, and eight anaplastic) underwent perfusion MR imaging by using a gradient echo echo-planar sequence. The maximal rCBV (compared with contralateral normal white matter) in both tumoral parenchyma and peritumoral edema of each tumor was measured. The mean rCBVs of each two histological subtypes were compared using one-way analysis of variance and least significant difference tests. A p value less than 0.05 indicated a statistically significant difference. The mean rCBV of meningothelial, fibrous, angiomatous, and anaplastic meningiomas in tumoral parenchyma were 6.93{+-}3.75, 5.61{+-}4.03, 11.86{+-}1.93, and 5.89{+-}3.85, respectively, and in the peritumoral edema 0.87{+-}0.62, 1.38{+-}1.44, 0.87{+-}0.30, and 3.28{+-}1.39, respectively. The mean rCBV in tumoral parenchyma of angiomatous meningiomas and in the peritumoral edema of anaplastic meningiomas were statistically different (p<0.05) from the other types of meningiomas. Perfusion MR imaging can provide useful functional information on meningiomas and help in the preoperative diagnosis of some subtypes of meningiomas. (orig.)

  14. Neuropsychological Subtyping of Learning-Disabled Children: History, Methods, Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, John L.; Rourke, Byron P.

    1983-01-01

    The neuropsychological approach to studying learning disabilities (LD) has produced two extreme positions: the view of LD as (1) homogeneous and unitary and (2) as a pattern of unique and idiosyncratic characteristics. Resulting classification approaches for determining subtypes of the population have important implications for assessment and…

  15. Subtype identification of Blastocystis spp. isolated from patients in a major hospital in northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantermtor, Sarinee; Pinlaor, Porntip; Sawadpanich, Kookwan; Pinlaor, Somchai; Sangka, Arunnee; Wilailuckana, Chotechana; Wongsena, Wachanan; Yoshikawa, Hisao

    2013-04-01

    The present study is aimed to identify the prevalence of Blastocystis subtypes isolated from patients in a major hospital in northeastern Thailand. A total of 562 stool samples were examined by culture technique, and 56 Blastocystis-positive samples were analyzed further by the combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) followed by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-tagged site primers (PCR-STS). By RFLP profiles, Blastocystis genotypes were categorized into four groups: group A (12, 21.4%), group B (32, 57.1%), group C (10, 17.9%), and group D (2, 3.6%). By PCR-STS, only four subtypes were identified. All 12 (21.4%) isolates in group A were identified as subtype 1. Similarly, all 32 (57.1%) isolates in group B were subtype 3. In group C, 10 (17.9%) samples were all subtype 7, and two samples (3.6%) in group D were both subtype 6. Of 56 Blastocystis-positive patients, 31 (55.4%) were asymptomatic and 22 (39.4%) have gastrointestinal symptoms. No significant association was observed between the Blastocystis subtypes and the clinical features. Among the Blastocystis-positive patients, the most characteristic stool samples were loose (78.6%) and soft (17.9%). In conclusion, the most common Blastocystis spp. in northeastern Thailand was subtype 3 followed by subtype 1. Relatively minor subtypes, subtype 6 and subtype 7 which are considered as avian subtypes, were found for the first time in humans in Thailand.

  16. East Asian astronomical records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    Chinese, Japanese and Korean celestial observations have made major contributions to Applied Historical Astronomy, especially in the study of supernovae, comets, Earth's rotation (using eclipses) and solar variability (via sunspots and aurorae). Few original texts now survive; almost all extant records exist only in printed versions, often with the loss of much detail. The earliest Chinese astronomical observations extend back to before 1000 BC. However, fairly systematic records are only available since 200 BC - and even these have suffered losses through wars, etc. By around AD 800, many independent observations are available from Japan and Korea and these provide a valuable supplement to the Chinese data. Throughout East Asia dates were expressed in terms of a luni-solar calendar and conversion to the Julian or Gregorian calendar can be readily effected.

  17. Analysis of HIV-1 pol sequences from Panama: identification of phylogenetic clusters within subtype B and detection of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Ruiz, Sara; Flores-Figueroa, Dario; Toala-González, Iván; Thomson, Michael M

    2009-09-01

    We report the first study to examine phylogenetic relationships and drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 pol sequences from Panama. For this study, we used plasma RNA samples from 135 HIV-1-infected subjects from Panama, of which 82 (61%) had AIDS and 53 (39%) were asymptomatic drug-naïve individuals. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 133 (98%) subjects were infected with subtype B viruses and 2 AIDS patients harboured recombinant viruses, CRF02_AG/A3 and CRF12_BF/B, respectively. Using a Bayesian phylogeny inference method, 5 strongly supported clusters of > or =5 sequences, designated B-PA1 to B-PA5, were identified within subtype B, together comprising 87 (65.4%) subtype B viruses. Cluster B-PA1 (n=42) was significantly associated with East Panama and clusters B-PA2 (n=15) and B-PA4 (n=10) were associated with West Panama. A Bayesian coalescent analysis indicated that the most recent common ancestors of the four largest clusters were dated in the 1980s and that of the fifth in the early 1990s. The analysis of antiretroviral drug resistance-associated mutations revealed that 8 (9.7%) AIDS patients, all of them antiretroviral drug-experienced, harboured mutations conferring high or intermediate resistance levels to antiretroviral drugs. No drug resistance mutations were detected among the asymptomatic drug-naïve individuals. In conclusion, the phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 pol sequences from Panama reveals that a majority of subtype B viruses, which are predominant in Panama, branch within well supported intrasubtype phylogenetic clusters, most of them originating in the 1980s, and some with geographical associations, which may reflect either multiple HIV-1 subtype B introductions or the existence of local transmission networks originating in the early epidemic in Panama.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of salmonid alphavirus (SAV subtype 3 in Norway

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    Jansen Mona D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreas disease (PD is a viral fish disease which in recent years has significantly affected Norwegian salmonid aquaculture. In Norway, the aetiological agent salmonid alphavirus (SAV has been found to be represented by the subtype 3 only. SAV subtype 3 has in previous analyses been found to show a lower genetic divergence than the subtypes found to cause PD in Ireland and Scotland. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nucleotide (nt and amino acid divergence and the phylogenetic relationship of 33 recent SAV subtype 3 sequences. The samples from which the sequences were obtained originated from both PD endemic and non-endemic regions in an attempt to investigate agent origin/spread. Multiple samples throughout the seawater production phase from several salmonid populations were included to investigate genetic variation during an outbreak. The analyses were mainly based on partial sequences from the E2 gene. For some samples, additional partial 6 K and nsP3 gene sequences were available. Results The nucleotide divergence for all gene fragments ranged from total identity (0.0% divergence to 0.45% (1103 nt fragment of E2, 1.11% (451 nt fragment of E2, 0.94% (6 K and 0.28% (nsP3. This low nucleotide divergence corresponded well to previous reports on SAV 3 sequences; however the observed divergence for the short E2 fragment was higher than that previously reported. When compared to SAVH20/03 (AY604235, amino acid substitutions were detected in all assessed gene fragments however the in vivo significance of these on for example disease outbreak mortality could not be concluded on. The phylogenetic tree based on the 451 nt E2 fragment showed that the sequences divided into two clusters with low genetic divergence, representing only a single SAV subtype. Conclusions The analysed sequences represented two clusters of a single SAV subtype; however some of the observed sequence divergence was higher than that previously reported

  19. Clinical criteria for subtyping Parkinson's disease: biomarkers and longitudinal progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Zeighami, Yashar; Dagher, Alain; Postuma, Ronald B

    2017-07-01

    Parkinson's disease varies widely in clinical manifestations, course of progression and biomarker profiles from person to person. Identification of distinct Parkinson's disease subtypes is of great priority to illuminate underlying pathophysiology, predict progression and develop more efficient personalized care approaches. There is currently no clear way to define and divide subtypes in Parkinson's disease. Using data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative, we aimed to identify distinct subgroups via cluster analysis of a comprehensive dataset at baseline (i.e. cross-sectionally) consisting of clinical characteristics, neuroimaging, biospecimen and genetic information, then to develop criteria to assign patients to a Parkinson's disease subtype. Four hundred and twenty-one individuals with de novo early Parkinson's disease were included from this prospective longitudinal multicentre cohort. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using data on demographic and genetic information, motor symptoms and signs, neuropsychological testing and other non-motor manifestations. The key classifiers in cluster analysis were a motor summary score and three non-motor features (cognitive impairment, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and dysautonomia). We then defined three distinct subtypes of Parkinson's disease patients: 223 patients were classified as 'mild motor-predominant' (defined as composite motor and all three non-motor scores below the 75th percentile), 52 as 'diffuse malignant' (composite motor score plus either ≥1/3 non-motor score >75th percentile, or all three non-motor scores >75th percentile) and 146 as 'intermediate'. On biomarkers, people with diffuse malignant Parkinson's disease had the lowest level of cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β (329.0 ± 96.7 pg/ml, P = 0.006) and amyloid-β/total-tau ratio (8.2 ± 3.0, P = 0.032). Data from deformation-based magnetic resonance imaging morphometry demonstrated a Parkinson's disease

  20. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-14

    cost as much as 11,000 liters of milk thought-Polish and European-as well as everything delivered to a purchasing center; in November, it cost as...foun- liters respectively, a two-horsepower milking machine, dation of the party must remain the working man, 2,400 and 4,000 liters; a liter of fuel...combines experienced greater difficulty in fulfillingsmall, and medium enterprises, including private com- t epa s h uht e w rd m r e l uih d panies

  1. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-24

    of the long-standing Trans-European Expresses (TEE) and the French high - speed trains ( TGV ), which now travel between Paris and Lyon and Marseille...The trip from Paris to Geneva on the TGV takes 2.5 hours today. Five trains make the trip each day at a speed of 275 km/hr. In the future they will... speed of 48 km/hr. The night train to Berlin takes at least 10 hours for 571 km. You reach Leipzig 16 hours after leaving Warsaw. Moscow, which is

  2. Inequality and rising levels of socio-economic segregation: lessons from a pan-European comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcińczak, S.; Musterd, S.; van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T.; Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West project investigates changing levels of socio-economic segregation in 13 major European cities: Amsterdam, Budapest, Vienna, Stockholm, Oslo, London, Vilnius, Tallinn, Prague, Madrid, Milan, Athens and Riga. The two main

  3. Gene specific actions of thyroid hormone receptor subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Z Lin

    Full Text Available There are two homologous thyroid hormone (TH receptors (TRs α and β, which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NR family. While TRs regulate different processes in vivo and other highly related NRs regulate distinct gene sets, initial studies of TR action revealed near complete overlaps in their actions at the level of individual genes. Here, we assessed the extent that TRα and TRβ differ in target gene regulation by comparing effects of equal levels of stably expressed exogenous TRs +/- T(3 in two cell backgrounds (HepG2 and HeLa. We find that hundreds of genes respond to T(3 or to unliganded TRs in both cell types, but were not able to detect verifiable examples of completely TR subtype-specific gene regulation. TR actions are, however, far from identical and we detect TR subtype-specific effects on global T(3 response kinetics in HepG2 cells and many examples of TR subtype specificity at the level of individual genes, including effects on magnitude of response to TR +/- T(3, TR regulation patterns and T(3 dose response. Cycloheximide (CHX treatment confirms that at least some differential effects involve verifiable direct TR target genes. TR subtype/gene-specific effects emerge in the context of widespread variation in target gene response and we suggest that gene-selective effects on mechanism of TR action highlight differences in TR subtype function that emerge in the environment of specific genes. We propose that differential TR actions could influence physiologic and pharmacologic responses to THs and selective TR modulators (STRMs.

  4. Patient-specific data fusion defines prognostic cancer subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinyin Yuan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Different data types can offer complementary perspectives on the same biological phenomenon. In cancer studies, for example, data on copy number alterations indicate losses and amplifications of genomic regions in tumours, while transcriptomic data point to the impact of genomic and environmental events on the internal wiring of the cell. Fusing different data provides a more comprehensive model of the cancer cell than that offered by any single type. However, biological signals in different patients exhibit diverse degrees of concordance due to cancer heterogeneity and inherent noise in the measurements. This is a particularly important issue in cancer subtype discovery, where personalised strategies to guide therapy are of vital importance. We present a nonparametric Bayesian model for discovering prognostic cancer subtypes by integrating gene expression and copy number variation data. Our model is constructed from a hierarchy of Dirichlet Processes and addresses three key challenges in data fusion: (i To separate concordant from discordant signals, (ii to select informative features, (iii to estimate the number of disease subtypes. Concordance of signals is assessed individually for each patient, giving us an additional level of insight into the underlying disease structure. We exemplify the power of our model in prostate cancer and breast cancer and show that it outperforms competing methods. In the prostate cancer data, we identify an entirely new subtype with extremely poor survival outcome and show how other analyses fail to detect it. In the breast cancer data, we find subtypes with superior prognostic value by using the concordant results. These discoveries were crucially dependent on our model's ability to distinguish concordant and discordant signals within each patient sample, and would otherwise have been missed. We therefore demonstrate the importance of taking a patient-specific approach, using highly-flexible nonparametric

  5. Genomic structure in Europeans dating back at least 36,200 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Sikora, Martin

    2014-01-01

    European Neolithic farmers. We find that Kostenki 14 contains more Neandertal DNA that is contained in longer tracts than present Europeans. Our findings reveal the timing of divergence of western Eurasians and East Asians to be more than 36,200 years ago and that European genomic structure today dates......The origin of contemporary Europeans remains contentious. We obtained a genome sequence from Kostenki 14 in European Russia dating from 38,700 to 36,200 years ago, one of the oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans from Europe. We find that Kostenki 14 shares a close ancestry with the 24......,000-year-old Mal'ta boy from central Siberia, European Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, some contemporary western Siberians, and many Europeans, but not eastern Asians. Additionally, the Kostenki 14 genome shows evidence of shared ancestry with a population basal to all Eurasians that also relates to later...

  6. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. East Cent. East Cent. Afr. J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2011 July/ August;16 (2). 2. Gharib H, Goellner JR. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid: an appraisal. Ann Intern Med. 1993; 15: 118(4): 282-9. 3. Hamburger J, Hamburger S. Fine needle biopsy of thyroid nodules: Avoiding the.

  7. Regional economic integration in Great East Asia: determinants and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Korol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies both general trends and peculiar characteristics of processes of economic integration in the Great East Asia, which plays the role of one of the major centers of contemporary global development. The basic determinants and barriers for implementation of regional strategies by China, Japan, ASEAN that will influence the geo-economic policy of Ukraine not only in East Asian, but also European and Eurasian areas. Attention is focused on the basic principles of realized and potential future integration models in the "ASEAN+" format with variable composition of member states that correspond to different extents to strategic objectives of both specified key actors in the region and extra-regional states that have global and transnational interests. Extrapolation of dominant trends in the nature and dynamics of transformation processes of East Asian economic regionalization allowed forming a forecast for the longterm conservation of importance of free trade agreements in the absence of preconditions to create customs unions. At the same time it was stressed out that proper assurance of national interests of international economic relations will be based on contractual instruments at the international level, without creating institutional and legal superstructure similar to the European Union or the Eurasian Economic Union as supranational law and supranational bodies.

  8. Comparing two basic subtypes in OCD across three large community samples: a pure compulsive versus a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Stephanie; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Kawohl, Wolfram; Müller, Mario; Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Castelao, Enrique; Vandeleur, Caroline; Angst, Jules; Preisig, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Due to its heterogeneous phenomenology, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been subtyped. However, these subtypes are not mutually exclusive. This study presents an alternative subtyping approach by deriving non-overlapping OCD subtypes. A pure compulsive and a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype (including subjects manifesting obsessions with/without compulsions) were analyzed with respect to a broad pattern of psychosocial risk factors and comorbid syndromes/diagnoses in three representative Swiss community samples: the Zurich Study (n = 591), the ZInEP sample (n = 1500), and the PsyCoLaus sample (n = 3720). A selection of comorbidities was examined in a pooled database. Odds ratios were derived from logistic regressions and, in the analysis of pooled data, multilevel models. The pure compulsive subtype showed a lower age of onset and was characterized by few associations with psychosocial risk factors. The higher social popularity of the pure compulsive subjects and their families was remarkable. Comorbidities within the pure compulsive subtype were mainly restricted to phobias. In contrast, the mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype had a higher prevalence and was associated with various childhood adversities, more familial burden, and numerous comorbid disorders, including disorders characterized by high impulsivity. The current comparison study across three representative community surveys presented two basic, distinct OCD subtypes associated with differing psychosocial impairment. Such highly specific subtypes offer the opportunity to learn about pathophysiological mechanisms specifically involved in OCD.

  9. Prognosis of metastatic breast cancer subtypes: the hormone receptor/HER2-positive subtype is associated with the most favorable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, Dorien J A; van Kampen, Roel J W; Voogd, Adri C; Dercksen, M Wouter; van den Berkmortel, Franchette; Smilde, Tineke J; van de Wouw, Agnes J; Peters, Frank P J; van Riel, Johanna M G H; Peters, Natascha A J B; de Boer, Maaike; Borm, George F; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G

    2013-10-01

    Contrary to the situation in early breast cancer, little is known about the prognostic relevance of the hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in metastatic breast cancer. The objectives of this study were to present survival estimates and to determine the prognostic impact of breast cancer subtypes based on HR and HER2 status in a recent cohort of metastatic breast cancer patients, which is representative of current clinical practice. Patients diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer between 2007 and 2009 were included. Information regarding patient and tumor characteristics and treatment was collected. Patients were categorized in four subtypes based on the HR and HER2 status of the primary tumor: HR positive (+)/HER2 negative (-), HR+/HER2+, HR-/HER2+ and triple negative (TN). Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the prognostic impact of breast cancer subtype, adjusted for possible confounders. Median follow-up was 21.8 months for the 815 metastatic breast cancer patients included; 66 % of patients had the HR+/HER2- subtype, 8 % the HR-/HER2+ subtype, 15 % the TN subtype and 11 % the HR+/HER2+ subtype. The longest survival was observed for the HR+/HER2+ subtype (median 34.4 months), compared to 24.8 months for the HR+/HER2- subtype, 19.8 months for the HR-/HER2+ subtype and 8.8 months for the TN subtype (P < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, subtype was an independent prognostic factor, as were initial site of metastases and metastatic-free interval. The HR+/HER2+ subtype was associated with the longest survival after diagnosis of distant metastases.

  10. Obesity and Prostate Cancer: A Focused Update on Active Surveillance, Race, and Molecular Subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Adriana C; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-07-01

    In 2012, we published a detailed review on obesity and prostate cancer. Since then, new studies have brought further understanding regarding the role of obesity in selecting active surveillance candidates, and differing associations between obesity and prostate cancer as a function of race and molecular subtype of prostate cancer. To review new manuscripts on these new concepts for which there were limited data before 2012. A PubMed search from July 2012 to March 2016 was performed using the terms "prostate cancer" and "obesity". Of 450 articles, we included 15 related to these three topics. Among men on active surveillance or candidates for active surveillance, multiple studies suggest that the risk of upgrading is higher for obese men. No study has shown long-term oncologic differences, and the risk of prostate cancer mortality remains low. One study suggested that the link between obesity and prostate cancer risk is stronger among black men; however, other studies found that obesity is correlated with aggressive disease regardless of race. Two studies found that the associations between obesity and prostate cancer (ie, fewer low-grade cancers and yet more aggressive cancers) was limited to men with TMPRSS2-ERG-positive tumors. The past 4 yr has seen much new work on the obesity-prostate cancer link. If confirmed in other studies, these findings provide novel insights into not only the link between obesity and prostate cancer but also prostate cancer biology in general. While their outcomes may be slightly worse, obese men with localized prostate cancer should not be discouraged from active surveillance. Early studies suggest there may be subtypes of patients in whom obesity is more strongly linked to aggressive disease. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Established breast cancer risk factors and risk of intrinsic tumor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Mollie E; Boeke, Caroline E; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with multiple intrinsic tumor subtypes. These subtypes vary in tumor gene expression and phenotype, and are most commonly grouped into four major subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, HER2-overexpressing and triple negative (or basal-like). A growing number of studies have evaluated the relationship between established breast cancer risk factors and risk of one or more intrinsic tumor subtypes. We conducted a systematic review of 38 studies to synthesize their results and identify areas requiring more research. Taken together, published studies suggest that most established breast cancer risk factors reflect risk factors for the luminal A subtype of breast cancer, and some breast cancer risk factors may be differentially associated with other intrinsic tumor subtypes. Future breast cancer research will need to consider etiologic differences across subtypes and design studies focused on understanding the etiology and prevention of less common tumor subtypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Robust Identification of Alzheimer’s Disease subtypes based on cortical atrophy patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Yun; Na, Han Kyu; Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Hee Jin; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L.; Han, Cheol E.; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Weiner, Michael; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Morris, John; Shaw, Leslie M.; Liu, Enchi; Montine, Tom; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Gessert, Devon; Sather, Tamie; Jiminez, Gus; Harvey, Danielle; Bernstein, Matthew; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Decarli, Charles; Borowski, Bret; Gunter, Jeff; Senjem, Matt; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Jones, David; Kantarci, Kejal; Ward, Chad; Koeppe, Robert A.; Foster, Norm; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Mathis, Chet; Landau, Susan; Cairns, Nigel J.; Householder, Erin; Taylor Reinwald, Lisa; Lee, Virginia; Korecka, Magdalena; Figurski, Michal; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Shen, Li; Kelley, Faber; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Kachaturian, Zaven; Frank, Richard; Snyder, Peter J.; Molchan, Susan; Kaye, Jeffrey; Quinn, Joseph; Lind, Betty; Carter, Raina; Dolen, Sara; Schneider, Lon S.; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Beccera, Mauricio; Teodoro, Liberty; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Fleisher, Adam; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Mason, Sara S.; Albers, Colleen S.; Knopman, David; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Rountree, Susan; Dang, Mimi; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Ances, Beau; Carroll, Maria; Leon, Sue; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Oliver, Angela; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Geldmacher, David; Brockington, John; Roberson, Erik; Grossman, Hillel; Mitsis, Effie; de Toledo-Morrell, Leyla; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Greig, Maria T.; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn; Onyike, Chiadi; D'Agostino, Daniel, II; Kielb, Stephanie; Galvin, James E.; Pogorelec, Dana M.; Cerbone, Brittany; Michel, Christina A.; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J.; Glodzik, Lidia; de Santi, Susan; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Terence Z.; Arnold, Steven E.; Karlawish, Jason H.; Wolk, David; Smith, Charles D.; Jicha, Greg; Hardy, Peter; Sinha, Partha; Oates, Elizabeth; Conrad, Gary; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, Maryann; Simpson, Donna M.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Goldstein, Bonnie S.; Martin, Kim; Makino, Kelly M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc Adams Ortiz, Catherine; Womack, Kyle; Mathews, Dana; Quiceno, Mary; Diaz Arrastia, Ramon; King, Richard; Weiner, Myron; Martin Cook, Kristen; Devous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Apostolova, Liana; Tingus, Kathleen; Woo, Ellen; Silverman, Daniel H. S.; Lu, Po H.; Bartzokis, George; Graff Radford, Neill R.; Parfitt, Francine; Kendall, Tracy; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin R.; Marie Hake, Ann; Matthews, Brandy R.; Herring, Scott; Hunt, Cynthia; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Carson, Richard E.; Macavoy, Martha G.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Stefanovic, Bojana; Caldwell, Curtis; Robin Hsiung, Ging Yuek; Feldman, Howard; Mudge, Benita; Assaly, Michele; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Kerwin, Diana; Marsel Mesulam, Marek; Lipowski, Kristine; Kuo Wu, Chuang; Johnson, Nancy; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Scott Turner, Raymond; Johnson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Brigid; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Marshall, Gad; Frey, Meghan; Yesavage, Jerome; Taylor, Joy L.; Lane, Barton; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Belden, Christine M.; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Sirrel, Sherye A.; Kowall, Neil; Killiany, Ronald; Budson, Andrew E.; Norbash, Alexander; Lynn Johnson, Patricia; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Wolday, Saba; Allard, Joanne; Lerner, Alan; Ogrocki, Paula; Hudson, Leon; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Olichney, John; Kittur, Smita; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T. Y.; Bartha, Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Adeli, Anahita; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Santulli, Robert B.; Kitzmiller, Tamar J.; Schwartz, Eben S.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Garg, Pradeep; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Querfurth, Henry; Tremont, Geoffrey; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Spicer, Kenneth; Bachman, David; Finger, Elizabether; Pasternak, Stephen; Rachinsky, Irina; Rogers, John; Kertesz, Andrew; Pomara, Nunzio; Hernando, Raymundo; Sarrael, Antero; Schultz, Susan K.; Boles Ponto, Laura L.; Shim, Hyungsub; Smith, Karen Elizabeth; Relkin, Norman; Chaing, Gloria; Raudin, Lisa; Smith, Amanda; Fargher, Kristin; Raj, Balebail Ashok

    2017-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is heterogenous and can be classified into several subtypes. Here, we propose a robust subtyping method for AD based on cortical atrophy patterns and graph theory. We calculated similarities between subjects in their atrophy patterns throughout the whole brain, and clustered subjects with similar atrophy patterns using the Louvain method for modular organization extraction. We applied our method to AD patients recruited at Samsung Medical Center and externally validated our method by using the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. Our method categorized very mild AD into three clinically distinct subtypes with high reproducibility (>90%) the parietal-predominant (P), medial temporal-predominant (MT), and diffuse (D) atrophy subtype. The P subtype showed the worst clinical presentation throughout the cognitive domains, while the MT and D subtypes exhibited relatively mild presentation. The MT subtype revealed more impaired language and executive function compared to the D subtype.

  13. Construction of a High Titer Infectious HIV-1 Subtype C Proviral Clone from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Bodem

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 subtype C is currently the predominant subtype worldwide. Cell culture studies of Sub-Saharan African subtype C proviral plasmids are hampered by the low replication capacity of the resulting viruses, although viral loads in subtype C infected patients are as high as those from patients with subtype B. Here, we describe the sequencing and construction of a new HIV-1 subtype C proviral clone (pZAC, replicating more than one order of magnitude better than the previous subtype C plasmids. We identify the env-region for being the determinant for the higher viral titers and the pZAC Env to be M-tropic. This higher replication capacity does not lead to a higher cytotoxicity compared to previously described subtype C viruses. In addition, the pZAC Vpu is also shown to be able to down-regulate CD4, but fails to fully counteract CD317.

  14. Epidemiology of breast cancer subtypes in two prospective cohort studies of breast cancer survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Weltzien, Erin; Maring, Benjamin; Kutner, Susan E; Fulton, Regan S; Lee, Marion M; Ambrosone, Christine B; Caan, Bette J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe breast tumor subtypes by common breast cancer risk factors and to determine correlates of subtypes using baseline data from two pooled prospective breast cancer...

  15. Social Participation and Health among Ageing People in East-Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makai, Alexandra; Prémusz, Viktória; Füge, Kata; Figler, Mária; Lampek, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the health of the ageing population of East-Central Europe. Data derived from the 6th round of the European Social Survey. The aim of our research was to examine the most important factors that determine ageing people's health status. We paid particular attention to the social ties of our target group.

  16. A product innovation toolkit for green business in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.; Hong Long, N.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the available Sustainable Product Innovation (SPI) approaches and tools have been developed in Western Europe, based upon European experiences. However, in South-East Asian economies like Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, needs are different and more immediate. Also the characteristics of the

  17. The League of Polish Families between East and West, past and present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, S.L.; Guerra, S.

    2009-01-01

    Historical legacies play an important role in the rise of radical right parties in Central and Eastern Europe. This article conducts an in-depth study of the trajectory of a particular radical right party, the League of Polish Families, in a particular Central and East European country, Poland. The

  18. East and Central African Journal of Surgery http://www.bioline.org.br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick

    described as far back as seventeenth century by the London surgeon Everard Home4.To date, several and different forms of cutenous horns have been described mainly involving European. Caucasians and other populations in Asia, Far east and North America4-6. Cutenous horns most often occur in adults, usually elderly ...

  19. Cognitive subtypes in non-affected siblings of schizophrenia patients: characteristics and profile congruency with affected family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P. J.; Alizadeh, B. Z.; Aleman, A.; van den Heuvel, E. R.; Kahn, R. S.; Linszen, D. H.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Krabbendam, L.; Myin-Germeys, I.; Bruggeman, R.

    2014-01-01

    Although cognitive subtypes have been suggested in schizophrenia patients, similar analyses have not been carried out in their non-affected siblings. Subtype classification may provide more insight into genetically driven variation in cognitive function. We investigated cognitive subtypes in

  20. Cognitive subtypes in non-affected siblings of schizophrenia patients : characteristics and profile congruency with affected family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P. J.; Alizadeh, B. Z.; Aleman, A.; van den Heuvel, E. R.

    Background Although cognitive subtypes have been suggested in schizophrenia patients, similar analyses have not been carried out in their non-affected siblings. Subtype classification may provide more insight into genetically driven variation in cognitive function. We investigated cognitive subtypes

  1. Fluorescence amplified fragment length polymorphism compared to pulsed field gel electrophoresis for Listeria monocytogenes subtyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussel Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeriosis is a severe infection which mainly affects pregnant women, neonates and immuno-compromised adults. ANSES’s Laboratory for Food safety has been the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL for L. monocytogenes in the food chain since 2006. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE is routinely used in the EURL for the surveillance of L. monocytogenes isolated from foods, animals and the environment. One of the main EURL activities is to evaluate alternative molecular subtyping methods to PFGE, and integrate their use within the National Reference Laboratories (NRL network. Since 2008, the United Kingdom (UK-NRL for L. monocytogenes at the Health Protection Agency (HPA, London, has used fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (fAFLP for the routine surveillance of L. monocytogenes isolated from human clinical cases, food and food processing environments in the UK. This study compares fAFLP with PFGE for subtyping L. monocytogenes. Results A panel of 109 L. monocytogenes isolates from either human cases of listeriosis, foods, food processing environments and animals were used for the comparative evaluation. Among these, 2 strains were tested from duplicate culture by both methods. The panel also included field isolates, isolates associated with outbreaks or sporadic cases and reference strains. The two strains tested in duplicate displayed the same fAFLP and PFGE types. Strains known to be epidemiologically associated with one another were found to have unique PFGE and fAFLP types. FAFLP and PFGE divided the strains into 76 and 82 distinct profiles, or types, respectively. The discriminatory index calculated was 0.993 and 0.996 for fAFLP and PFGE, respectively. Conclusions The discriminatory ability of fAFLP was similar to that of PFGE for the subtyping of L. monocytogenes isolates. As a less labour intensive technique fAFLP may be a better method to use than PFGE in investigating outbreaks of human

  2. Penitentiary population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Kyrgyzstan: exceptionally high prevalence of the Beijing genotype and its Russia-specific subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrousov, Igor; Valcheva, Violeta; Sovhozova, Nurmira; Aldashev, Almaz; Rastogi, Nalin; Isakova, Jainagul

    2009-12-01

    Here, we present results of the first study of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes circulating in Kyrgyzstan. We focused on the incarcerated population known to be at high-risk for tuberculosis (TB) and with a significant impact on TB incidence in the general population. Beijing genotype was detected in 42 of 56 M. tuberculosis sputum-extracted DNA samples from newly-diagnosed adult pulmonary TB patients. RIF and INH resistance was genotypically detected in 28% and 55% samples; 13 of 15 MDR strains belonged to Beijing genotype. 12-locus MIRU-VNTR typing showed 8 of 56 samples to be mixed cases; 7 of them contained a Beijing strain. MIRU analysis demonstrated a high homogeneity of the studied collection (HGI=0.66) while 28 of 56 strains had a profile 223325153533 corresponding to Beijing/M2 subtype highly prevalent in different Russian settings. Three hypervariable loci, QUB-3232, VNTR-3820 and VNTR-4120, permitted to further subdivide 28 Beijing/M2 strains into 11 subtypes shared by 1 to 9 strains. To conclude, all markers taken together, the penitentiary population of M. tuberculosis in Kyrgyzstan exhibited a strong genetic affinity to Russia and a weak relatedness to East Asia.

  3. THE EUROPEAN BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of European Monetary Union has raised several questions about the existence of a common business cycle, a European one. The lack of cyclical synchronization would complicate the monetary and fiscal policies in the Union, being a negative

  4. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  5. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  6. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  7. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  8. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  9. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  10. Europeanization : A Poststructuralist Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman-Stanivukovic, Senka

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation begins from the hypothesis that the direction and extent of Europeanization depends on domestic perception of the European Union and its norms. Accordingly, it was my empirical ambition to study how competing articulations of the EU and its norms constructed debates in EU member

  11. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  12. How Subtyping Shapes Perception : Predictable Exceptions to the Rule Reduce Attention to Stereotype-Associated Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Deutsch, Roland; Fazio, Russell H.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relation between stereotype disconfirmation and attentional processes. Using an instrumental learning-paradigm, we successfully simulated stereotype acquisition and the subsequent subtyping of disconfirming exemplars. While replicating established markers of subtyping, the present research demonstrates a hitherto neglected cognitive consequence of subtyping: Predictable stereotype disconfirmation increased attention to features that facilitated discriminating betw...

  13. Empirically Derived Learning Disability Subtypes: A Replication Attempt and Longitudinal Patterns over 15 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreen, Otfried; Haaf, Robert G.

    1986-01-01

    Test scores of two groups of learning disabled children (N=63 and N=96) were submitted to cluster analysis in an attempt to replicate previously described subtypes. All three subtypes (visuo-perceptual, linguistic, and articulo-graphomotor types) were identified along with minimally and severely impaired subtypes. Similar clusters in the same…

  14. Histopathological Analysis of 226 Patients With Rosacea According to Rosacea Subtype and Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Jin; Jung, Joon Min; Lee, Ye Jin; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Lee, Mi Woo

    2016-05-01

    The histopathological features of rosacea have not been described in detail. To evaluate the histopathological features of rosacea according to clinical characteristics such as subtype and severity. We retrospectively analyzed histopathological findings in 226 patients with rosacea, which included 52 patients with the erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR) and 174 patients with the papulopustular rosacea (PPR) subtype. The frequency of each histopathological finding was compared between subtypes. Histopathological features were also compared according to the severity, through subgroup analysis within each subtype group. Perivascular and perifollicular lymphohistiocytic infiltration were common dermal findings in both subtype groups, but the intensity of dermal inflammatory infiltration was higher in PPR than in ETR. Follicular spongiosis and exocytosis of inflammatory cells into hair follicles were noted in both subtypes; but these findings were significantly more common in the PPR subtype. Vascular changes (telangiectasia and proliferation) and solar elastosis were common histopathological findings in both subtypes, with no difference in frequency between subtype groups. Demodex mites were identified in about 40% of patients, and the frequency of demodex mites did not differ between subtype groups. The intensity of perifollicular inflammation and the presence of follicular inflammatory reactions were dependent on the severity of rosacea in both subtype groups. The intensity of inflammatory reactions, especially perifollicular infiltration, was higher in PPR patients than in ETR patients. Rosacea has a spectrum of histopathological features that are related to clinical progression between rosacea subtypes.

  15. Deciphering genomic alterations in colorectal cancer through transcriptional subtype-based network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhu

    Full Text Available Both transcriptional subtype and signaling network analyses have proved useful in cancer genomics research. However, these two approaches are usually applied in isolation in existing studies. We reason that deciphering genomic alterations based on cancer transcriptional subtypes may help reveal subtype-specific driver networks and provide insights for the development of personalized therapeutic strategies. In this study, we defined transcriptional subtypes for colorectal cancer (CRC and identified driver networks/pathways for each subtype. Applying consensus clustering to a patient cohort with 1173 samples identified three transcriptional subtypes, which were validated in an independent cohort with 485 samples. The three subtypes were characterized by different transcriptional programs related to normal adult colon, early colon embryonic development, and epithelial mesenchymal transition, respectively. They also showed statistically different clinical outcomes. For each subtype, we mapped somatic mutation and copy number variation data onto an integrated signaling network and identified subtype-specific driver networks using a random walk-based strategy. We found that genomic alterations in the Wnt signaling pathway were common among all three subtypes; however, unique combinations of pathway alterations including Wnt, VEGF and Notch drove distinct molecular and clinical phenotypes in different CRC subtypes. Our results provide a coherent and integrated picture of human CRC that links genomic alterations to molecular and clinical consequences, and which provides insights for the development of personalized therapeutic strategies for different CRC subtypes.

  16. Trophoblast subtype-specific EGFR/ERBB4 expression correlates with cell cycle progression and hyperplasia in complete hydatidiform moles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Valerie; Plessl, Kerstin; Fuchs, Roman; Dekan, Sabine; Milla, Stephanie K; Haider, Sandra; Fiala, Christian; Knöfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    -regulated kinase 1/2 in EGFR(+) primary trophoblasts; however, they do not show an effect on HLA-G(+) EVTs. Both ligands strongly induce cell cycle progression in primary trophoblasts (P trophoblast subtypes within the human placenta. Manipulation of EGFR signalling might thus offer a promising therapeutic avenue for the treatment of molar pregnancies associated with trophoblast hyperplasia. This study was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (grant P-25187-B13 to J.P.). There are no competing interests to declare. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Why Was It Europeans Who Conquered the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Philip T. Hoffman

    2011-01-01

    By the eighteenth century, Europeans dominated the military technology of gunpowder weapons, which had enormous advantages for fighting war at a distance and conquering other parts of the world. Their dominance, however, was surprising, because the technology had originated in China and been used with expertise in Asia and the Middle East. To account for their prowess with gunpowder weapons, historians have often invoked competition, but it cannot explain why they pushed this technology furth...

  18. Difference of achalasia subtypes based on clinical symptoms, radiographic findings, and stasis scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillier, A; Midani, D; Caroline, D; Saadi, M; Parkman, H; Schey, R

    Three subtypes of achalasia have been defined through high-resolution esophageal manometry: subtype i shows no pressurization with swallows, subtype ii has increased isobaric panesophageal pressure, and subtype iii has distal esophageal spastic non-isobaric contractions. Studies describing the subtypes based on radiographic findings, clinical symptoms, and stasis scores are limited. To determine the differences in clinical symptoms, radiographic findings, and stasis scores for the 3 achalasia subtypes. Patients undergoing high-resolution esophageal manometry received a questionnaire about current symptoms and previous treatments. The questions included the presence of symptoms and their severity. Barium swallow tests were performed before the high-resolution esophageal manometry study to evaluate the maximum esophageal diameter. Stasis scores were calculated using the transit patterns on high-resolution esophageal manometry. One hundred and eight patients with high-resolution esophageal manometry diagnosis of achalasia (n=8, subtype i; n=84, subtype ii; n=16, subtype iii) within the time frame of 1/2012-6/2015 were included in the study. Sex distribution was similar between the subtypes. Patient age was younger for subtype i (38±16 years), compared with subtypes ii (55±17 years) and iii (63±17 years) (P=.03). Esophageal symptoms did not differ between subtypes regarding the severity of nausea, chest pain, coughing, and heartburn, except for increased vomiting severity in subtype i (2.8±1.4 vs. 1.4±1.4 vs. 1.2±1.2, P<.01). A significant radiographic difference in esophageal dilation was seen between subtypes ii and iii (35.1±14.4 vs. 24.0±7.2mm, P=.023). Stasis scores did not significantly differ between the subtypes. Achalasia subtypes had similar clinical symptoms, except for increased vomiting severity in subtype i. The maximum esophageal diameter in subtype ii was significantly greater than in subtype iii. Esophageal stasis scores were similar. Thus

  19. Marketing approaches at European level – The case of Southern-European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca TESCAŞIU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The specialization of Marketing refers not only on specific focus on some domains, but, also, to its adaptation on regional issues. During the globalization process, marketers adapted their activity to new trends, such as: standardization, integrated distribution, production transfer, comparative advantage, etc. The common aspects of some regional markets determined the marketers to approach differently some homogeneous regions in the World economy. In this sense, the article intends to establish the main differences and the common aspects of a very important area in the European economy – The South East of Europe.

  20. [Family forms in East Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysi, J

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews family characteristics in East Germany. Although the nuclear family remains the norm, increases in second marriages, divorces, and consensual unions are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  1. East India Company Logbooks - Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of images of 1,235 ship logbooks created during British East India Company voyages. Period of record 1786-1834, peaking in 1804. The...

  2. 90 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 78 No. 2 February 2001. TRANSMISSION BIJOCKING VACCINE STUDIES IN LEISHMANIASIS: II. EFFECT OF IMMUNISATION USING LEISHMANIA MAJOR DERIVED 63. KILODALTON GLYCOPROTEIN, LIPOPHOSPHOGLYCAN AND WHOLE PARASITE ANTIGENS ON THE COURSE ...

  3. East of Eden / M. A.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Palmses toimub sel nädalal rahvusvahelise stsenaariumikoolituse East of Eden seminar. Koolituse koordinatsioonikeskus tegutseb alates 2005.aastast Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse juures, Eesti--poolseks koordinaatoriks Anu Ernits

  4. Relating Church-Style and Curry-Style Subtyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Compagnoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Type theories with higher-order subtyping or singleton types are examples of systems where computation rules for variables are affected by type information in the context. A complication for these systems is that bounds declared in the context do not interact well with the logical relation proof of completeness or termination. This paper proposes a natural modification to the type syntax for F-Omega-Sub, adding variable's bound to the variable type constructor, thereby separating the computational behavior of the variable from the context. The algorithm for subtyping in F-Omega-Sub can then be given on types without context or kind information. As a consequence, the metatheory follows the general approach for type systems without computational information in the context, including a simple logical relation definition without Kripke-style indexing by context. This new presentation of the system is shown to be equivalent to the traditional presentation without bounds on the variable type constructor.

  5. Apoptosis in Blastocystis spp. is related to subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurga, D B; Suresh, K G; Tan, T C; Chandramathi, S

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that apoptosis-like features are observed in Blastocystis spp., an intestinal protozoan parasite, when exposed to the cytotoxic drug metronidazole (MTZ). This study reports that among the four subtypes of Blastocystis spp. investigated for rate of apoptosis when treated with MTZ, subtype 3 showed the highest significant increase after 72h of in vitro culture when treated with MTZ at 0.1mg/ml (79%; pBlastocystis spp. that actually regulates the apoptotic process to produce higher number of viable cells when treated. Apoptosis may not just be programmed cell death but instead a mechanism to increase the number of viable cells to ensure survival during stressed conditions. The findings of the present study have an important contribution to influence chemotherapeutic approaches when developing drugs against the emerging Blastocystis spp. infections. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Unique Migraine Subtypes, Rare Headache Disorders, and Other Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goadsby, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    The medical aphorism that common things happen commonly makes unique (and less common) migraine subtypes especially appropriate to review for the general neurologist. This article also identifies some rare headache disorders and other disturbances, and offers strategies to manage them. This article discusses migraine with brainstem aura, which is troublesome clinically and has had a change in terminology in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition, beta version (ICHD-3 beta), and hemiplegic migraine, which is also troublesome in practice. The rare headache disorder hypnic headache and the exploding head syndrome are also discussed. When hypnic headache is recognized, it is eminently treatable, while exploding head syndrome is a benign condition with no reported consequences. Unique migraine subtypes, rare headache disorders, and other disturbances present to neurologists. When recognized, they can often be managed very well, which offers significant benefits to patients and practice satisfaction to neurologists.

  7. Beyond classical benzodiazepines: Novel therapeutic potential of GABAA receptor subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Uwe; Knoflach, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    GABAA receptors are a family of ligand-gated ion channels which are essential for the regulation of central nervous system function. Benzodiazepines – which target GABAA receptors containing the α1, α2, α3, or α5 subunits non-selectively – have been in clinical use for decades and are still among the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety disorders. However, their use is limited by side effects and the risk of drug dependence. In the past decade, the identification of separable key functions of GABAA receptor subtypes suggests that receptor subtype-selective compounds could overcome the limitations of classical benzodiazepines and, furthermore, might be valuable for novel indications, such as analgesia, depression, schizophrenia, cognitive enhancement and stroke. PMID:21799515

  8. Myeloperoxidase index and subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eivazi-Ziaei, Jamal

    2009-06-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) should be classified into subtypes according to the French-American-British (FAB) or, preferably, the newer World Health Organization (WHO) classification schemes. FAB is purely a morphological classification. It does not determine treatment (except M3) or prognosis for the patient which requires cytogenetics. Haematological analyzer had been used for classification of leukaemia in several studies. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase activity (MPXI) can be performed by Technicon H1 (Bayer) automated cell counter. The aim of this study was the statement of myeloperoxidase index and subgroups of AML. In the study of medical records of 72 patients with AML from 2006-7, we found that MPXI was negative in M4 and M5 while 75% of M3 cases had high MPXI values. MPXI level may help to differentiate subtypes of AML.

  9. Groin hernia subtypes are associated in patients with bilateral hernias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Jakob; Andresen, Kristoffer; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the relation between groin hernia subtypes in patients operated for bilateral hernias. METHODS: With data from the Danish Hernia Database, we identified all patients operated for primary groin hernias from 1998 to 2012. Within this cohort all patients that were...... bilaterally operated were analyzed. Risk factors for bilateral groin hernia operation as well as the relationship between groin hernia subtypes bilaterally, were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis and Kappa statistics. RESULTS: A total of 108, 775 persons with primary groin hernia...... repair (89.9% males) were registered, and of those were 12,041 persons operated bilaterally (94.9% males). Females and males operated for a unilaterally direct inguinal hernia (DIH) had increased Hazard Ratios (HR) of 3.85 (CI 95% 2.14-6.19) and 4.46 (CI 95% 2.57-7.88) of being contralaterally operated...

  10. Problems And Prospects Of The European Regional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Dymova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last few decades, the system of international relations continues to change. One of the key components of the emerging international order is the European regional order, which currently goes through deep transformations associated with changes of the international system and structural reconstruction of the European communities. The formation of the European regional system is a complex international political process, which is based on various political, social, economic, cultural, historical and other factors. Since the end of the World war II the European Union constitutes a political and institutional basis of relations both between member states and with the rest of the world. However, today the European Union runs through a systemic crisis embodied by ongoing economic and financial downturn as well as a crisis of socio-political structures and models of governance that now threaten the existence of the Union itself. Institutional problems are aggravated against the background of crises in highly sensitive areas such as economy and security, as well as uncertainties in the external international environment. All these factors undermine the ability of the EU to play a decisive role in building a European regional order. The emphasis is shifting towards particular countries, with the greater potential in shaping the international agenda and giving an effective response to modern challenges and threats. Building a stable architecture of the European security system is one of the essential conditions of the European regional order, however contradicting approaches of the parties acknowledge that political and ideological barriers between the East and the West continue to exist. In the context of increasing security threats transatlantic partnership does not lose the relevance though the tough course of the US and its desire to reinforce its leadership in Europe often meets the extreme disapproval on the part of the Europeans. Russian

  11. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    , the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  12. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  13. Bilateral vestibular hypofunction: Insights in etiologies, clinical subtypes and diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    F. eLucieer; P. eVonk; N. eGuinand; R. eStokroos; H. eKingma; R. evan de Berg

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the different etiologies and clinical subtypes of bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) and the value of diagnostic tools in the diagnostic process of BVH.Materials and methods: A retrospective case review was performed on 154 patients diagnosed with BVH in a tertiary referral center, between 2013 and 2015. Inclusion criteria comprised 1) imbalance and/or oscillopsia during locomotion, and 2) summated slow phase velocity of nystagmus of less than 20 degrees per second ...

  14. Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction: Insights in Etiologies, Clinical Subtypes, and Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Lucieer, F.; Vonk, P.; Guinand, N; Stokroos, R.; Kingma, H.; van de Berg, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the different etiologies and clinical subtypes of bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) and the value of diagnostic tools in the diagnostic process of BVH. Materials and methods A retrospective case review was performed on 154 patients diagnosed with BVH in a tertiary referral center, between 2013 and 2015. Inclusion criteria comprised (1) imbalance and/or oscillopsia during locomotion and (2) summated slow phase velocity of nystagmus of less than 20°/s duri...

  15. Can Diabetes Change the Intrinsic Subtype Specificity of Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    whether Luminal type A breast cancer cell line MCF-7 implanted into nude mice with experimentally induced type I diabetes (no Insulin but hyperglycemia ...or type II diabetes (elevated serum Insulin and hyperglycemia ) progress to become Luminal type B or any other intrinsic subtype. Progress on in...GATA-3. As the expression of some of the above factors are controlled by insulin , the objective of this study was to investigate the ability of insulin

  16. Anatomic mapping of molecular subtypes in diffuse glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Lian, Yuxi; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Liang

    2017-09-15

    Tumor location served as an important prognostic factor in glioma patients was considered to postulate molecular features according to cell origin theory. However, anatomic distribution of unique molecular subtypes was not widely investigated. The relationship between molecular phenotype and histological subgroup were also vague based on tumor location. Our group focuses on the study of glioma anatomic location of distinctive molecular subgroups and histology subtypes, and explores the possibility of their consistency based on clinical background. We retrospectively reviewed 143 cases with both molecular information (IDH1/TERT/1p19q) and MRI images diagnosed as cerebral diffuse gliomas. The anatomic distribution was analyzed between distinctive molecular subgroups and its relationship with histological subtypes. The influence of tumor location, molecular stratification and histology diagnosis on survival outcome was investigated as well. Anatomic locations of cerebral diffuse glioma indicate varied clinical outcome. Based on that, it can be stratified into five principal molecular subgroups according to IDH1/TERT/1p19q status. Triple-positive (IDH1 and TERT mutation with 1p19q codeletion) glioma tended to be oligodendroglioma present with much better clinical outcome compared to TERT mutation only group who is glioblastoma inclined (median overall survival 39 months VS 18 months). Five molecular subgroups were demonstrated with distinctive locational distribution. This kind of anatomic feature is consistent with its corresponding histological subtypes. Each molecular subgroup in glioma has unique anatomic location which indicates distinctive clinical outcome. Molecular diagnosis can be served as perfect complementary tool for the precise diagnosis. Integration of histomolecular diagnosis will be much more helpful in routine clinical practice in the future.

  17. Maltreatment and psychopathy subtypes in high-risk adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Coupland, Ruth Louise

    2011-01-01

    Psychopathy is often viewed as a unitary construct, however, research with adults and adolescent males has revealed two heterogeneous subtypes. Primary psychopathy is presumed to have biological underpinnings and is associated with low levels of anxiety and psychological distress. In contrast, secondary psychopathy is believed to result from exposure to adversity, including childhood maltreatment, and is associated with emotional reactivity, impulsivity, and comorbid psychological problems. T...

  18. Refining developmental coordination disorder subtyping with multivariate statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalanne Christophe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a large number of potentially relevant clinical indicators penalization and ensemble learning methods are thought to provide better predictive performance than usual linear predictors. However, little is known about how they perform in clinical studies where few cases are available. We used Random Forests and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis to select the most salient impairments in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD and assess patients similarity. Methods We considered a wide-range testing battery for various neuropsychological and visuo-motor impairments which aimed at characterizing subtypes of DCD in a sample of 63 children. Classifiers were optimized on a training sample, and they were used subsequently to rank the 49 items according to a permuted measure of variable importance. In addition, subtyping consistency was assessed with cluster analysis on the training sample. Clustering fitness and predictive accuracy were evaluated on the validation sample. Results Both classifiers yielded a relevant subset of items impairments that altogether accounted for a sharp discrimination between three DCD subtypes: ideomotor, visual-spatial and constructional, and mixt dyspraxia. The main impairments that were found to characterize the three subtypes were: digital perception, imitations of gestures, digital praxia, lego blocks, visual spatial structuration, visual motor integration, coordination between upper and lower limbs. Classification accuracy was above 90% for all classifiers, and clustering fitness was found to be satisfactory. Conclusions Random Forests and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis are useful tools to extract salient features from a large pool of correlated binary predictors, but also provide a way to assess individuals proximities in a reduced factor space. Less than 15 neuro-visual, neuro-psychomotor and neuro-psychological tests might be required to provide a sensitive and

  19. Major depressive disorder subtypes to predict long-term course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loo, Hanna M; Cai, Tianxi; Gruber, Michael J; Li, Junlong; de Jonge, Peter; Petukhova, Maria; Rose, Sherri; Sampson, Nancy A; Schoevers, Robert A; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Wilcox, Marsha A; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bunting, Brendan; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia E; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Levinson, Daphna; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M; Xavier, Miguel; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-09-01

    Variation in the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not strongly predicted by existing subtype distinctions. A new subtyping approach is considered here. Two data mining techniques, ensemble recursive partitioning and Lasso generalized linear models (GLMs), followed by k-means cluster analysis are used to search for subtypes based on index episode symptoms predicting subsequent MDD course in the World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. The WMH surveys are community surveys in 16 countries. Lifetime DSM-IV MDD was reported by 8,261 respondents. Retrospectively reported outcomes included measures of persistence (number of years with an episode, number of years with an episode lasting most of the year) and severity (hospitalization for MDD, disability due to MDD). Recursive partitioning found significant clusters defined by the conjunctions of early onset, suicidality, and anxiety (irritability, panic, nervousness-worry-anxiety) during the index episode. GLMs found additional associations involving a number of individual symptoms. Predicted values of the four outcomes were strongly correlated. Cluster analysis of these predicted values found three clusters having consistently high, intermediate, or low predicted scores across all outcomes. The high-risk cluster (30.0% of respondents) accounted for 52.9-69.7% of high persistence and severity, and it was most strongly predicted by index episode severe dysphoria, suicidality, anxiety, and early onset. A total symptom count, in comparison, was not a significant predictor. Despite being based on retrospective reports, results suggest that useful MDD subtyping distinctions can be made using data mining methods. Further studies are needed to test and expand these results with prospective data. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Association of Blastocystis subtypes with diarrhea in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfa, F.; Sari, I. P.; Kurniawan, A.

    2017-08-01

    Blastocystis hominis is an intestinal zoonotic protozoa that epidemiological surveys have shown, is highly prevalent among children and may cause chronic diarrhea. This study aimed to identify Blastocystis subtypes among children and associate those subtypes to pathology. The study’s population was children aged 6-12 years old divided into asymptomatic and symptomatic (diarrhea) groups. The asymptomatic samples were obtained from primary school students in the Bukit Duri area of South Jakarta, while the symptomatic samples were obtained from patients who visited nearby primary health centers (Puskesmas). Symptomatic stool samples were examined inParasitology Laboratory FKUI. Microscopic examination of the stool samples was performed to screen for single Blastocystic infection, followed by culture, PCR of 18S rRNA, and sequencing. In the study, 53.2% of children (n = 156) harbored intestinal parasites, Blastocysts sp. A single infection of Blastocystis sp. was present in 69 (44.23%) samples, comprised of 36 symptomatic and 33 asymptomatic participants. The Blastocystis subtypes (STs) identified in this study were STs 1-4 ST3 was the most dominant and was observed with statistically significant higher frequency in the symptomatic group. ST4 was only found in one sample in the symptomatic group. While ST1 and ST2 were found more frequently in the asymptomatic group, no statistical association was observed. ST3 is more likely to be associated with clinical symptoms than ST1 and ST2.

  1. Effect of Blood Cell Subtypes Lysis on Routine Biochemical Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünlü Burcu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to establish the contribution of blood cells subtypes on hemolysis. Methods: Separated blood cell subtype suspensions prepared with blood from 10 volunteers were serially diluted to obtain different concentrations of cell suspensions. The cells were fully lysed and cell hemolysates were added (1:20 to aliquots of serum pool. Thus, seven serum pools with different concentrations of interferent were obtained for each blood cell subtype. Biochemical parameters and serum indices were measured by an autoanalyzer. As cell lysis markers, free hemoglobin was measured by spectrophotometry while myeloperoxidase and b-thromboglobulin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The percent changes in analyte levels of the serum pools were evaulated by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and compared with clinical thresholds defined for each test. Results: The clinical thresholds were exceeded in lactate dehydrogenase, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, magnesium, total protein, total cholesterol, inorganic phosphate, glucose for red blood cells (RBC; lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, inorganic phosphate and glucose for platelets (PLT. Free hemoglobin was significantly correlated with RBC (r=0.999; p=0.001, while myeloperoxidase and b thromboglobulin showed no significant correlation to white blood cells (WBC and PLT, respectively. Conclusion: The effect of RBC hemolysis in serum on the routine biochemical tests are clearly established, yet, additional studies are required in order to verify this kind of effects of PLT and WBC hemolysis.

  2. Cognitive style in bipolar disorder sub-types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kathryn; Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya

    2013-04-30

    Clearer understanding of psychological processes and mechanisms such as cognitive style inform more targeted psychological treatments for mood disorders. Studies to date have focused on bipolar I disorder or combined bipolar sub-types, precluding identification of any distinctive cognitive style profiles. We examined cognitive style separately in the bipolar sub-types, contrasted with unipolar and non-clinical controls. A total of 417 participants (94 bipolar I, 114 bipolar II, 109 unipolar, 100 healthy controls) completed cognitive style measures including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, Inferential Styles Questionnaire, Stress Appraisal Measure and the Behavioural Inhibition System/Behavioural Activation System Scale. Overall, cognitive styles were similar in unipolar and bipolar participants, but with styles relevant to the Behavioral Activation System differentiating bipolar I disorder in particular. State anxiety influenced negative inferential style in unipolar participants and appraisal of stress in bipolar II participants. Analyses restricted to bipolar I vs. II comparisons revealed subtle differences in terms of dispositional stress appraisal, with higher scores on two stress appraisal sub-scales in the bipolar I group. Further exploration of cognitive style in bipolar sub-types is indicated in order to determine whether there are specific psychological vulnerabilities that would benefit from more targeted psychological interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Breast cancer subtypes predispose the site of distant metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Abha; Ren, Zhiyong; Hameed, Omar; Chanda, Diptiman; Morgan, Charity J; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2015-04-01

    The distant organs to which breast cancer preferentially metastasizes are of significant clinical importance. We explored the relationship between the clinicopathologic factors and the common sites of distant metastasis in 531 consecutive patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer subtype as a variable was significantly associated with all five common sites of relapse by multivariate analysis. The luminal tumors were remarkable for their significant bone-seeking phenotype and were less frequently observed in lung, brain, and pleural metastases and less likely to be associated with multiorgan relapse. The HER2 subtype demonstrated a significant liver-homing characteristic. African Americans were significantly less likely to have brain-only metastasis in patients with brain relapse. These findings further articulate that breast cancer subtypes differ not only in tumor characteristics but also in their metastatic behavior, thus raising the possibility that this knowledge could potentially be used in determining the appropriate strategy for follow-up of patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  4. DNA methylation profiling distinguishes histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy A.; Alokail, Majed; Gentle, Dean; Yao, Masahiro; Kovacs, Gyula; Maher, Eamonn R.

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for around 3% of cancers in the UK, and both incidence and mortality are increasing with the aging population. RCC can be divided into several subtypes: conventional RCC (the most common, comprising 75% of all cases), papillary RCC (15%) and chromophobe RCC (5%). Renal oncocytoma is a benign tumor and accounts for 5% of RCC. Cancer and epigenetics are closely associated, with DNA hypermethylation being widely accepted as a feature of many cancers. In this study the DNA methylation profiles of chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytomas were investigated by utilizing the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Cancer-specific hypermethylation was identified in 9.4% and 5.2% of loci in chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytoma samples, respectively, while the majority of the genome was hypomethylated. Thirty (hypermethylated) and 41 (hypomethylated) genes were identified as differentially methylated between chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytomas (p renal oncocytoma in relation to the other histological subtypes, providing insight into the pathology of RCC subtypes and classification of renal tumors. PMID:23428843

  5. The validity and utility of subtyping bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeken, Daphne; Veling, Wim; Sinke, Sjoukje; Mitchell, James E; Hoek, Hans W

    2009-11-01

    To review the evidence for the validity and utility of subtyping bulimia nervosa (BN) into a purging (BN-P) and a nonpurging subtype (BN-NP), and of distinguishing BN-NP from binge eating disorder (BED), by comparing course, complications, and treatment. A literature search of psychiatry databases for studies published in peer-reviewed journals that used the DSM-definitions of BN and BED, and included both individuals with BN-NP and individuals with BN-P and/or BED. Twenty-three studies compared individuals with BN-NP (N = 671) to individuals with BN-P (N = 1795) and/or individuals with BED (N = 1921), two of which reported on course, 12 on comorbidity and none on treatment response-the indicators for validity and clinical utility. The differences found were mainly quantitative rather than qualitative, suggesting a gradual difference in severity from BN-P (most severe) through BN-NP to BED (least severe). None of the comparisons provided convincing evidence for the validity or utility of the BN-NP diagnosis. Three options for the position of BN-NP in DSM-V were suggested: (1) maintaining the BN-NP subtype, (2) dropping nonpurging compensatory behavior as a criterion for BN, so that individuals currently designated as having BN-NP would be designated as having BED, and (3) including BN-NP in a broad BN category.

  6. Metabolic Footprints and Molecular Subtypes in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Cappelletti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer treatment options are increasing. However, even among the same tumor histotype, interpatient tumor heterogeneity should be considered for best therapeutic result. Metabolomics represents the last addition to promising “omic” sciences such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. Biochemical transformation processes underlying energy production and biosynthetic processes have been recognized as a hallmark of the cancer cell and hold a promise to build a bridge between genotype and phenotype. Since breast tumors represent a collection of different diseases, understanding metabolic differences between molecular subtypes offers a way to identify new subtype-specific treatment strategies, especially if metabolite changes are evaluated in the broader context of the network of enzymatic reactions and pathways. Here, after a brief overview of the literature, original metabolomics data in a series of 92 primary breast cancer patients undergoing surgery at the Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori of Milano are reported highlighting a series of metabolic differences across various molecular subtypes. In particular, the difficult-to-treat luminal B subgroup represents a tumor type which preferentially relies on fatty acids for energy, whereas HER2 and basal-like ones show prevalently alterations in glucose/glutamine metabolism.

  7. Somatoform disorders and the subtypes: do differences exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric diagnoses, especially somatoform disorders, are based on phenomenology, i.e. the subjective experience of the symptoms by the patient. The concept of “medically unexplained symptoms” (MUS is now getting away with much focus on the symptoms per se rather than its explanation by some medical illness. Aim of the study: To study the symptom profile of somatoform disorders and to see its variability in relation to different subtypes of the disorder. Materials and methods: Hundred consecutive patients of somatoform disorders, diagnosed clinically based on the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10 criteria, were chosen after applying various inclusion and exclusion criteria.The Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGI Health Questionnaire N-2 was used to evaluate symptoms of the patients. Data was analysed with chi-square test. Result: Patients of somatization disorder (SD have significantly higher prevalence of symptoms related to eyes (p=.0412 and higher complaints of hot sensation in the body (p=.0007as compared to undifferentiated somatoform (UD disorder and other somatoform disorders. Hypochondriacal ideas are significantly less in UD and SD. Conclusion: Although traditionally, subtypes of somatoform disorders are supposed to have differences in the phenomenology, there is considerable overlap between them in clinical practice. It may mean that all somatoform disorders are virtually same and there may be no need to have many subtypes.

  8. Stroke subtype classification by geometrical descriptors of lesion shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bastian; Knaack, Christian; Forkert, Nils Daniel; Schnabel, Renate; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2017-01-01

    Inference of etiology from lesion pattern in acute magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for management and prognosis of acute stroke patients. This study aims to assess the value of three-dimensional geometrical lesion-shape descriptors for stroke-subtype classification, specifically regarding stroke of cardioembolic origin. Stroke Etiology was classified according to ASCOD in retrospectively selected patients with acute stroke. Lesions were segmented on diffusion-weighed datasets, and descriptors of lesion shape quantified: surface area, sphericity, bounding box volume, and ratio between bounding box and lesion volume. Morphological measures were compared between stroke subtypes classified by ASCOD and between patients with embolic stroke of cardiac and non-cardiac source. 150 patients (mean age 77 years; 95% CI, 65-80 years; median NIHSS 6, range 0-22) were included. Group comparison of lesion shape measures demonstrated that lesions caused by small-vessel disease were smaller and more spherical compared to other stroke subtypes. No significant differences of morphological measures were detected between patients with cardioembolic and non-cardioembolic stroke. Stroke lesions caused by small vessel disease can be distinguished from other stroke lesions based on distinctive morphological properties. However, within the group of embolic strokes, etiology could not be inferred from the morphology measures studied in our analysis.

  9. Stroke subtype classification by geometrical descriptors of lesion shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Cheng

    Full Text Available Inference of etiology from lesion pattern in acute magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for management and prognosis of acute stroke patients. This study aims to assess the value of three-dimensional geometrical lesion-shape descriptors for stroke-subtype classification, specifically regarding stroke of cardioembolic origin.Stroke Etiology was classified according to ASCOD in retrospectively selected patients with acute stroke. Lesions were segmented on diffusion-weighed datasets, and descriptors of lesion shape quantified: surface area, sphericity, bounding box volume, and ratio between bounding box and lesion volume. Morphological measures were compared between stroke subtypes classified by ASCOD and between patients with embolic stroke of cardiac and non-cardiac source.150 patients (mean age 77 years; 95% CI, 65-80 years; median NIHSS 6, range 0-22 were included. Group comparison of lesion shape measures demonstrated that lesions caused by small-vessel disease were smaller and more spherical compared to other stroke subtypes. No significant differences of morphological measures were detected between patients with cardioembolic and non-cardioembolic stroke.Stroke lesions caused by small vessel disease can be distinguished from other stroke lesions based on distinctive morphological properties. However, within the group of embolic strokes, etiology could not be inferred from the morphology measures studied in our analysis.

  10. Psychosocial and Adaptive Deficits Associated With Learning Disability Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backenson, Erica M; Holland, Sara C; Kubas, Hanna A; Fitzer, Kim R; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A; Fraccaro, Rebecca L; Smith, Amanda D; Macoun, Sarah J; Harrison, Gina L; Hale, James B

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent comprehensive evaluations for learning and/or behavior problems in two Pacific Northwest school districts. Using concordance-discordance model (C-DM) processing strengths and weaknesses SLD identification criteria, results revealed working memory SLD (n = 20), processing speed SLD (n = 30), executive SLD (n = 32), and no disability groups (n = 41). Of the SLD subtypes, repeated measures MANOVA results revealed the processing speed SLD subtype exhibited the greatest psychosocial and adaptive impairment according to teacher behavior ratings. Findings suggest processing speed deficits may be behind the cognitive and psychosocial disturbances found in what has been termed "nonverbal" SLD. Limitations, implications, and future research needs are addressed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  11. HIV-1 subtype B: Traces of a pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos

    2016-08-01

    Human migration is a major process that shaped the origin and dissemination of HIV. Within HIV-1, subtype B (HIV-1B) is the most disseminated variant and it is assumed to be the causative agent in approximately 11% of all cases of HIV worldwide. Phylogenetic studies have revealed that HIV-1B emerged in Kinshasa (Africa) and was introduced into the Caribbean region via Haiti in or around 1966 by human migration. After localized dispersion, the virus was brought to the United States of America via homosexual/bisexual contact around 1969. Inside USA, the incidence of HIV-1B infection increased exponentially and it became established in the population, affecting not only homosexual individuals but also heterosexual individuals and injecting drug users. Soon after, the virus was disseminated and became established in other regions, including Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Australia. Recent studies suggest that, in addition to this pandemic clade, several lineages have emerged from Haiti and reached other Caribbean and Latin American countries via short-distance dissemination. Different subtype B genetic variants have also been detected in these epidemics. Four genetic variants have been described to date: subtype B', which mainly circulates in Thailand and other Asian countries; a specific variant mainly found in Trinidad and Tobago; the GPGS variant, which is primarily detected in Korea; and the GWGR variant, which is mainly detected in Brazil. This paper reviews the evolution of HIV-1B and its impact on the human population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  13. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  14. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  15. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize the Euro...

  16. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  17. Molecular subtyping of feline immunodeficiency virus from domestic cats in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, R K C; Kyaw-Tanner, M T; Seddon, J M; Lehrbach, P R; Zwijnenberg, R J G; Meers, J

    2006-04-01

    To determine the prevalent subtypes of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) present in the domestic cat population of Australia. Blood samples were collected from 41 FIV antibody positive cats from four cities across Australia. Following DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the variable V3-V5 region of the envelope (env) gene. Genotypes were assessed by direct sequencing of PCR products and comparison with previously reported FIV sequences. Phylogenetic analysis allowed classification of the Australian sequences into the appropriate subtype. Of the 41 FIV samples, 40 were found to cluster with previously reported subtype A isolates, whilst the remaining sample grouped within subtype B. Subtype A was found to be the predominant FIV subtype present in Australia, although subtype B was also found. These results broaden our knowledge of the genetic diversity of FIV and the associated implications for preventative, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  18. Strategies for subtyping influenza viruses circulating in the Danish pig population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2010-01-01

    Influenza viruses are endemic in the Danish pig population and the dominant circulating subtypes are H1N1, a Danish H1N2 reassortant, and H3N2. Here we present our current and future strategies for influenza virus subtyping. For diagnostic and surveillance of influenza subtypes circulating...... in the Danish pig population functional and rapid subtyping assays are required. The conventional RT-PCR influenza subtyping assays developed by Chiapponi et al. (2003) have been implemented and used for typing of influenza viruses found positive in a pan influenza A real time RT-PCR assay. The H1 and N1 assays...... assays based on RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing were implemented for the four subtypes H1, H3, N1, and N2. The assays were based on primer sets published by the WHO, but slightly modified for improved detection of Danish subtype variants. Sequencing of circulating influenza viruses is beneficial since...

  19. European Capitals of Culture: A “soft power” resource for the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Sianos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Using English-language newspaper articles retrieved from digital repositories, this paper examines the cultural asymmetrical encounter between Western and Eastern Europe after 1989. It argues that due to the rise of the Iron Curtain after 1948 and the post-war progress of the Western European integration project after 1950, the idea of “Europe” was confined to the West until 1989. After 1989, however, the Eastern European nations were free to “return to Europe”, and in order to do so they followed the “reference model” of the West. The paper takes the institution of the European Capital of Culture (ECOC as a case study and demonstrates how both Western and Eastern European cities used the ECOC title as a gateway to modernity, why it acquired an extra functionality in the East as a stage where they could showcase their “European” credentials, and how it gradually developed into one of the E.U.’s “soft power” resources.

  20. Average level of satisfaction in 10 European countries: explanation of differences

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    1996-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT Surveys in 10 European nations assessed satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and satisfaction with three life-domains (finances, housing, social contacts). Average satisfaction differs markedly across countries. Both satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and satisfaction with life-domains are highest in North-Western Europe, medium in Southern Europe and lowest in the East-European nations. Cultural measurement bias is unlikely to be involved. The country differences in average ...

  1. European Cyber Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiek, Annegret

    2012-01-01

    The gradually developing European cyber security policy tries to establish minimum standards in all EU member states with regard to prevention, resilience and international cooperation. It aims to foster national security without compromising democratic principles or unduly limiting individual liberties. However, it is hard to find a balance between these goals, and the EU’s measures thus inevitably raise questions about the democratic implications of European cyber security policy. Are the i...

  2. Timetabling on European Corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Lischke, Andreas; Führer, B. (Bernhard); Garavagno, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Path Allocation Re-engineering of Timetable Networks for European Railways (PARTNER) project aims to demonstrate a new way of train path allocation and assembly along international corridors towards a faster and more coordinated railway infrastructure capacity management. PARTNER will assist two neighbour infrastructure managers to develop a common understanding of the effects of international train paths. The results of a survey of European infrastructure managers and railway underta...

  3. European Physical Society awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The winners of the 2004 Accelerator Prizes, awarded by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Accelerators (EPS-IGA), have been announced. Vladmir Shiltsev (Fermilab) and Igor Meshkov (JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna) will be presented with their awards during the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'04, on 8 July 2004 in Lucerne. Both physicists will also give a talk about their work. More details on: http://epac.web.cern.ch/

  4. European Banking Union

    OpenAIRE

    Breuss, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing Euro crisis and the worse economic development in Europe than in the USA are grounded, not the least in the delayed implementation of reforms of the banking sector. Whereas the leaks in economic governance of EMU have been fixed the banking sector is still not stabilised, even five years after Lehman Brothers. From the grand solution of a "European Banking Union" (EBU) only the first pillar, the European Bank Supervision with the single supervisory mechanism (SSM) will come into e...

  5. European DHC Research Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltshire, Robin; Williams, Jonathan (Building Research Establishment, BRE, Bucknalls Lane, Watford (United Kingdom)); Werner, Sven (Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Euroheat and Power is now working towards a European Technology Platform for District Heating and Cooling. In response to this important European DHC research initiative, a preliminary detailed list of research issues within 18 dimensions was elaborated and communicated to more than 100 people in February 2008. After additions and comments received, an updated list of research issues was again distributed in July 2008. This paper contains the current list of suggested research issues

  6. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, L.K.H. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Kashima, S.; Amarante, M.F.C.; Haddad, R.; Rodrigues, E.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, K.L.T.; Lima, T.A.; Castro, D.B.; Brito, F.C.; Almeida, E.G. [Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Malheiro, A. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2012-01-20

    Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years). Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF-BF) of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible “homogenous” subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country. Key words: HIV-1; Subtypes; Phylogenetic analysis; Blood donors; Molecular and epidemiological characterization.

  7. Subtypes of Patients Experiencing Exacerbations of COPD and Associations with Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arostegui, Inmaculada; Esteban, Cristobal; García-Gutierrez, Susana; Bare, Marisa; Fernández-de-Larrea, Nerea; Briones, Eduardo; Quintana, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and heterogeneous condition characterized by occasional exacerbations. Identifying clinical subtypes among patients experiencing COPD exacerbations (ECOPD) could help better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in exacerbations, establish different strategies of treatment, and improve the process of care and patient prognosis. The objective of this study was to identify subtypes of ECOPD patients attending emergency departments using clinical variables and to validate the results using several outcomes. We evaluated data collected as part of the IRYSS-COPD prospective cohort study conducted in 16 hospitals in Spain. Variables collected from ECOPD patients attending one of the emergency departments included arterial blood gases, presence of comorbidities, previous COPD treatment, baseline severity of COPD, and previous hospitalizations for ECOPD. Patient subtypes were identified by combining results from multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis. Results were validated using key outcomes of ECOPD evolution. Four ECOPD subtypes were identified based on the severity of the current exacerbation and general health status (largely a function of comorbidities): subtype A (n = 934), neither high comorbidity nor severe exacerbation; subtype B (n = 682), moderate comorbidities; subtype C (n = 562), severe comorbidities related to mortality; and subtype D (n = 309), very severe process of exacerbation, significantly related to mortality and admission to an intensive care unit. Subtype D experienced the highest rate of mortality, admission to an intensive care unit and need for noninvasive mechanical ventilation, followed by subtype C. Subtypes A and B were primarily related to other serious complications. Hospitalization rate was more than 50% for all the subtypes, although significantly higher for subtypes C and D than for subtypes A and B. These results could help identify

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtypes in adolescents with comorbid substance-use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Leanne; Adinoff, Bryon; Nakonezny, Paul A; Winhusen, Theresa; Riggs, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes and substance-use disorder (SUD). As there is literature suggesting different subtype phenotypes, there may be subtype differences in regard to the risk for developing SUD and substance treatment response. To characterize the sample in a Clinical Trials Network (CTN) study according to ADHD subtypes and baseline psychosocial and substance-use characteristics and to compare subtypes on response to treatment. Secondary analyses on data collected from adolescents (n = 276) diagnosed with ADHD and SUD (non-nicotine) and treated with stimulant medication or placebo and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use. Participants were characterized as inattentive or combined ADHD subtype and compared on baseline characteristics and treatment outcome. The combined subtype presented with more severe SUDs and higher rates of conduct disorder. There were a greater proportion of boys with inattentive subtype. The inattentive subtype appeared less ready for treatment (greater University of Rhode Island Change Assessment precontemplation scores) with poorer coping skills (poorer problem-solving and abstinence focused coping) at baseline. However, the two subtypes responded equally to treatment even after controlling for baseline differences. Findings from this large community sample indicate that there were no subtype differences in treatment response, although there were differences in terms of substance use, antisocial behavior, readiness for treatment, and gender prior to treatment. This study is the first to report on subtype differences for treatment response for non-nicotine SUD in a comorbid ADHD-SUD population. Despite some baseline differences, both subtypes responded equally to treatment, suggesting limited relevance for subtype designation on treatment planning.

  9. Genetic and biological characterisation of an avian-like H1N2 swine influenza virus generated by reassortment of circulating avian-like H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Bragstad, Karoline; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are the most prevalent subtypes in swine. In 2003, a reassorted H1N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype appeared and became prevalent in Denmark. In the present study, the reassortant H1N2 subtype was characterised genetically...... and the infection dynamics compared to an “avian-like” H1N1 virus by an experimental infection study. METHODS: Sequence analyses were performed of the H1N2 virus. Two groups of pigs were inoculated with the reassortant H1N2 virus and an “avian-like” H1N1 virus, respectively, followed by inoculation...... with the opposite subtype four weeks later. Measurements of HI antibodies and acute phase proteins were performed. Nasal virus excretion and virus load in lungs were determined by real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the reassorted H1N2 virus contained a European “avian-like” H1-gene...

  10. The Region of Difference Four is a Robust Genetic Marker for Subtyping Mycobacterium caprae Isolates and is Linked to Spatial Distribution of Three Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettinger, A; Broeckl, S; Fink, M; Prodinger, W M; Blum, H; Krebs, S; Domogalla, J; Just, F; Gellert, S; Straubinger, R K; Büttner, M

    2017-06-01

    Alpine Mycobacterium caprae isolates found in cattle and red deer display at least three genetic variations in the region of difference four (RD4) that can be used for further differentiation of the isolates into the subtypes 'Allgäu', 'Karwendel' and 'Lechtal'. Each genomic subtype is thereby characterized by a specific nucleotide deletion pattern in the 12.7-kb RD4 region. Even though M. caprae infections are frequently documented in cattle and red deer, little is known about the transmission routes. Hence, robust markers for M. caprae subtyping are needed to gain insight into the molecular epidemiology. For this reason, a rapid and robust multiplex PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of three M. caprae RD4 subtypes and was used to subtype a total number of 241 M. caprae isolates from animals (145 cattle, 95 red deer and one fox) from Bavaria and Austria. All three subtypes occur spatially distributed and are found in cattle and in red deer suggesting transmission between the two species. As subtypes are genetically stable in both species it is hypothesized that the described genetic variations developed within the host due to 'within-host replication'. The results of this study recommend the genomic RD4 region as a reliable diagnostic marker for M. caprae subtype differentiation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. DNA microarray-based solid-phase RT-PCR for rapid detection and identification of influenza virus type A and subtypes H5 and H7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sun; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bang, Dang Duong

    2011-01-01

    Endemic of avian influenza virus (AIV) in Asia and epizootics in some European regions have caused considerable public concern on a possible pandemic of AIV. A rapid method for virus detection and effective surveillance in wild avian, poultry production as well as in humans is required....... In this article, a DNA microarray-based solid-phase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach has been developed for rapid detection of influenza virus type A and for simultaneous identification of pathogenic virus subtypes H5 and H7. This solid-phase RT-PCR method combined reverse-transcription amplification...

  12. Age- and Tumor Subtype-Specific Breast Cancer Risk Estimates for CHEK2*1100delC Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marjanka K; Hogervorst, Frans; van Hien, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: CHEK2*1100delC is a well-established breast cancer risk variant that is most prevalent in European populations; however, there are limited data on risk of breast cancer by age and tumor subtype, which limits its usefulness in breast cancer risk prediction. We aimed to generate tumor subt...... of the United Kingdom. CONCLUSION: These CHEK2*1100delC breast cancer risk estimates provide a basis for incorporating CHEK2*1100delC into breast cancer risk prediction models and into guidelines for intensified screening and follow-up....

  13. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  14. HIV-1 subtype C primary isolates exhibit high sensitivity to an anti-gp120 RNA aptamer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mufhandu, Hazel T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, HIV-1 subtype C is the most prevalent subtype, yet most antiretroviral drugs are developed against subtype B. UCLA1 RNA aptamer, which we previously showed neutralizes HIV-1 subtype C Env-pseudotyped viruses was examined for neutralization...

  15. Plasma Viral Loads During Early HIV-1 Infection Are Similar in Subtype C– and Non-Subtype C–Infected African Seroconverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Mary S.; Kahle, Erin M.; Celum, Connie; Lingappa, Jairam R.; Kapiga, Saidi; Mujugira, Andrew; Mugo, Nelly R.; Fife, Kenneth H.; Mullins, James I.; Baeten, Jared M.; Celum, Connie; Wald, Anna; Lingappa, Jairam; Baeten, Jared M.; Campbell, Mary S.; Corey, Lawrence; Coombs, Robert W.; Hughes, James P.; Magaret, Amalia; McElrath, M. Juliana; Morrow, Rhoda; Mullins, James I.; Coetzee, David; Fife, Kenneth; Were, Edwin; Essex, Max; Makhema, Joseph; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Allen, Susan; Kayitenkore, Kayitesi; Karita, Etienne; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Cohen, Craig; Allen, Susan; Kanweka, William; Allen, Susan; Vwalika, Bellington; Kapiga, Saidi; Manongi, Rachel; Farquhar, Carey; John-Stewart, Grace; Kiarie, James; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Farm, Orange; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Rees, Helen; de Bruyn, Guy; Gray, Glenda; McIntyre, James; Mugo, Nelly Rwamba

    2013-01-01

    Recent data suggest that infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C results in prolonged high-level viremia (>5 log10 copies/mL) during early infection. We examined the relationship between HIV-1 subtype and plasma viremia among 153 African seroconverters. Mean setpoint viral loads were similar for C and non-C subtypes: 4.36 vs 4.42 log10 copies/mL (P = .61). The proportion of subtype C–infected participants with viral loads >5 log10 copies/mL was not greater than the proportion for those with non-C infection. Our data do not support the hypothesis that higher early viral load accounts for the rapid spread of HIV-1 subtype C in southern Africa. PMID:23315322

  16. Interdecadal variations of East Asian summer monsoon northward propagation and influences on summer precipitation over East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; Yang, S.; He, J.; Li, J.; Liang, J.

    2008-08-01

    The interdecadal variation of northward propagation of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) and summer precipitation in East China have been investigated using daily surface rainfall from a dense rain gauge network in China for 1957 2001, National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis, European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis, and Global Mean Sea Level Pressure Dataset (GMSLP2) from Climatic Research Unit (CRU). Results in general show a consistent agreement on the interdecadal variability of EASM northward propagations. However, it appears that the interdecadal variation is stronger in NCEP than in ECMWF and CRU datasets. A newly defined normalized precipitation index (NPI), a 5-day running mean rainfall normalized with its standard deviation, clearly depicts the characteristics of summer rainbelt activities in East China in terms of jumps and durations during its northward propagations. The EASM northward propagation shows a prominent interdecadal variation. EASM before late 1970s had a rapid northward advance and a northern edge beyond its normal position. As a result, more summer rainfall occurred for the North China rainy season, Huaihe-River Mei-Yu, and South China Mei-Yu. In contrast, EASM after late 1970s had a slow northward movement and a northern edge located south of its normal position. Less summer precipitation occurred in East China except in Yangtze River basin. The EASM northernmost position (ENP), northernmost intensity (ENI), and EASM have a complex and good relationship at interdecadal timescales. They have significant influences on interdecadal variation of the large-scale precipitation anomalies in East China.

  17. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. East Cent. East Cent. Afr. J.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    The ACS ATLS classification of shock (Table 1) is reproduced from the European guideline, for open access. The European guideline explicitly states that the haematocrit is not to be used as an indication of resuscitation level. A normal haematocrit can be drawn from a rapidly bleeding patient in extremis. It is only once the ...

  18. Skill Content of Intra-European Trade Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeddies, Goetz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the international division of labor has expanded rapidly in the wake of European integration. In this context, especially Western European high-wage countries should have specialized on (human-capital intensively manufactured goods and should have increasingly sourced labor-intensively manufactured goods, especially parts and components, from Eastern European low wage countries. Since this should be beneficial for the high-skilled and harmful to the lower-qualified workforce in high-wage countries, the opening up of Eastern Europe is often considered as a vital reason for increasing unemployment of the lower-qualified in Western Europe. This paper addresses this issue by analyzing the skill content of Western European countries’ bilateral trade using input-output techniques in order to evaluate possible effects of international trade on labor demand. Thereby, differences in factor inputs and production technologies have been considered, allowing for vertical product differentiation. In this case, skill content of bilateral exports and imports partially differs substantially, especially in bilateral trade between Western and Eastern European countries. According to the results, East-West trade should be harmful particularly to the medium-skilled in Western European countries.

  19. New loci and coding variants confer risk for age-related macular degeneration in East Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Yamashiro, Kenji; Chen, Li Jia; Ahn, Jeeyun; Huang, Lulin; Huang, Lvzhen; Cheung, Chui Ming G; Miyake, Masahiro; Cackett, Peter D; Yeo, Ian Y; Laude, Augustinus; Mathur, Ranjana; Pang, Junxiong; Sim, Kar Seng; Koh, Adrian H; Chen, Peng; Lee, Shu Yen; Wong, Doric; Chan, Choi Mun; Loh, Boon Kwang; Sun, Yaoyao; Davila, Sonia; Nakata, Isao; Nakanishi, Hideo; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Gotoh, Norimoto; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Mori, Keisuke; Yoneya, Shin; Sakurada, Yoichi; Iijima, Hiroyuki; Iida, Tomohiro; Honda, Shigeru; Lai, Timothy Yuk Yau; Tam, Pancy Oi Sin; Chen, Haoyu; Tang, Shibo; Ding, Xiaoyan; Wen, Feng; Lu, Fang; Zhang, Xiongze; Shi, Yi; Zhao, Peiquan; Zhao, Bowen; Sang, Jinghong; Gong, Bo; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; van Dam, Rob M; Friedlander, Yechiel; Lin, Ying; Hibberd, Martin L; Foo, Jia Nee; Wang, Ningli; Wong, Chang Hua; Tan, Gavin S; Park, Sang Jun; Bhargava, Mayuri; Gopal, Lingam; Naing, Thet; Liao, Jiemin; Ong, Peng Guan; Mitchell, Paul; Zhou, Peng; Xie, Xuefeng; Liang, Jinlong; Mei, Junpu; Jin, Xin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Ozaki, Mineo; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Kurimoto, Yasuo; Woo, Se Joon; Chung, Hum; Yu, Hyeong-Gon; Shin, Joo Young; Park, Dong Ho; Kim, In Taek; Chang, Woohyok; Sagong, Min; Lee, Sang-Joon; Kim, Hyun Woong; Lee, Ji Eun; Li, Yi; Liu, Jianjun; Teo, Yik Ying; Heng, Chew Kiat; Lim, Tock Han; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Song, Kyuyoung; Vithana, Eranga N; Aung, Tin; Bei, Jin Xin; Zeng, Yi Xin; Tai, E Shyong; Li, Xiao Xin; Yang, Zhenglin; Park, Kyu-Hyung; Pang, Chi Pui; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Wong, Tien Yin; Khor, Chiea Chuen

    2015-01-28

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness, but presents differently in Europeans and Asians. Here, we perform a genome-wide and exome-wide association study on 2,119 patients with exudative AMD and 5,691 controls, with independent replication in 4,226 patients and 10,289 controls, all of East Asian descent, as part of The Genetics of AMD in Asians (GAMA) Consortium. We find a strong association between CETP Asp442Gly (rs2303790), an East Asian-specific mutation, and increased risk of AMD (odds ratio (OR)=1.70, P=5.60 × 10(-22)). The AMD risk allele (442Gly), known to protect from coronary heart disease, increases HDL cholesterol levels by 0.17 mmol l(-1) (P=5.82 × 10(-21)) in East Asians (n=7,102). We also identify three novel AMD loci: C6orf223 Ala231Ala (OR=0.78, P=6.19 × 10(-18)), SLC44A4 Asp47Val (OR=1.27, P=1.08 × 10(-11)) and FGD6 Gln257Arg (OR=0.87, P=2.85 × 10(-8)). Our findings suggest that some of the genetic loci conferring AMD susceptibility in East Asians are shared with Europeans, yet AMD in East Asians may also have a distinct genetic signature.

  20. The Genetic Diversity and Evolution of HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemic in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pablo; Rivera-Amill, Vanessa; Rodríguez, Nayra; Vargas, Freddie; Yamamura, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-23

    HIV-1 epidemics in Caribbean countries, including Puerto Rico, have been reported to be almost exclusively associated with the subtype B virus (HIV-1B). However, while HIV infections associated with other clades have been only sporadically reported, no organized data exist to accurately assess the prevalence of non-subtype B HIV-1 infection. We analyzed the nucleotide sequence data of the HIV pol gene associated with HIV isolates from Puerto Rican patients. The sequences (n = 945) were obtained from our "HIV Genotyping" test file, which has been generated over a period of 14 years (2001-2014). REGA subtyping tool found the following subtypes: B (90%), B-like (3%), B/D recombinant (6%), and D/B recombinant (0.6%). Though there were fewer cases, the following subtypes were also found (in the given proportions): A1B (0.3%), BF1 (0.2%), subtype A (01-AE) (0.1%), subtype A (A2) (0.1%), subtype F (12BF) (0.1%), CRF-39 BF-like (0.1%), and others (0.1%). Some of the recombinants were identified as early as 2001. Although the HIV epidemic in Puerto Rico is primarily associated with HIV-1B virus, our analysis uncovered the presence of other subtypes. There was no indication of subtype C, which has been predominantly associated with heterosexual transmission in other parts of the world.